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Urban Transportation in Delhi A Brief Description and Salient Features
Description As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on road system goes up. This necessitates a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private modes and encourage public transport once the level of traffic along any travel corridor in one direction exceeds 20,000 persons per hour. National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD), with an area of 1486 km2 has a population of about 15 million. Buses are the sole mode of public transport in the NCTD, which are inadequate and overcrowded. For want of an efficient mass transport system, the number of motor vehicles is around 4 million. The result is extreme congestion on Delhi roads, ever slowing speeds, increase in road accidents (5 persons killed and 13 injured everyday), fuel wastage and environmental pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two thirds of the atmospheric pollution. The mixed traffic in the city has resulted in road accidents, killing 5 persons and injuring 13 persons a day on an average. The situation is expected to deteriorate further in the years to come. It was in 1970 when the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) after an exhaustive study on traffic and travel characteristics of Delhi recommended a Mass Rapid Transit Network for the city. Since then a number of studies on the subject have been carried out like the Metropolitan Transport Team (MTT) of the Indian Railways, Delhi Development Authority (DDA) and the Study Group of the Ministry of Railways. Feasibility Report on Integrated Multi Modal Mass Rapid Transport System of Delhi (IMMRTS) prepared by RITES (Rail India Technical & Economic Services) recommended the 3-component system comprising Rail Corridors, Metro Corridors and Dedicated Bus Way totaling 198.50 km to meet the projected traffic demand up to the year 2021. Implementation started when the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. under the Companies Act, 1956 was set up in May 1995. Physical work on the project started on October 1, 1998. The project is being implemented in Phases I, II. III & IV. for a sketch map of Delhi Metro Rail. Phase I, now under execution comprises of 65.11 km of route length with 13.07 km underground and 47.54 km elevated rail and 4.56 surface rail with 59 stations. It consists of 3 lines as follows. Line 1: 22.06 km Shahdara-Tri Nagar-Rithala Line with 18 stations (Partly Elevated, Partly Surface) Line 2: 10.84 km Vishwa Vidyalaya-Central Secretariat Line with 10 stations (Underground) Line 3: 22.90 km Barakhamba Road-Connaught Place-Dwaraka Line with 22 stations (Partly Underground/Partly Elevated)
The following extensions are proposed which are yet to be approved. 1.Proposed 2.Proposed 3.Proposed 4.Proposed Line Line Line Line 1 2 3 3 Extension 6 km Rithala-Barwala (Partly Elevated, Partly Surface) Extension: 4 km Vishwa Vidyalaya-New Azadpur (Elevated) Extension: 4 km Barakhamba Road-Indraprastha Estate Extension: 6.5 km Dwaraka- Dwaraka Subcity Extension
Phase II: The detailed project report is under preparation. RITES will prepare the DPR, which will take about two years time. Full-fledged work will begin by January 2005 and is expected to be completed by March 2010. Phase II is 42 km long will be essentially extensions to Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3 of Phase I either in one or both directions. It comprises the following. Vishwa Vidyalaya-Jahangirpuri (6.59 km) Central Secretariat - Qutab Minar (10.97 km) Indraprastha- NOIDA City Centre (16.2 km) There will be 7 stations between Vishwa Vidyalaya-New Azadpur to Sanjay Gandhi Transport Nagar, 18 stations in the Central Secretariat-Vasant Kunj section and 12 stations in the Barakhamba Road-Noida Phases I, II, III, and IV are part of a master plan, which includes 244.86 km of high capacity rail transit, scheduled to be completed by 2021. The final planned capacity of the system is expected to be over 3.2 million passengers a day. At peak hours, trains will run every 3 minutes. Construction Technology, Metro Rail Coach Technology, Electrical Power System Technology, Signaling & Telecommunication Technologies, Air-conditioning & Lighting Technologies are the main technologies used in the Delhi Metro Rail Project. In addition, Smart Card Tickets are being used for entry into stations and trains. The capital cost of phase I has been estimated as Rs.10, 571 crores. The II Phase is expected to cost Rs. 8, 000 crores. The project is financed as follows. 1. 15% investment by the Government of India 2. 15% investment by GNCTD 3 56% Loan from JBIC (Japan Bank for International Cooperation) 4. Remaining 8% from Interest -free Loans for land acquisition and 6% from Property Development, Metro Project gets import duty and excise tax exemption from GOI on equipment for the project and sales tax and work contract tax exemption from GNCTD - all of which amounts to about Rs. 1800 crores.
Sketch Map of Delhi Metro Rail-Phase I & II (not to scale and alignment)
Figure 2: Delhi Metro Stations - I Phase (Lines not to scale and alignment)
Delhi Metro Map The unique feature of Delhi Metro is its integration with other modes of public transport, enabling the commuters to conveniently interchange from one mode to another. The corridor will have an ultimate carrying capacity of 60,000 commuters per peak hour per direction. The interchange of commuters between the metro corridor and rail corridor will be at Kashmere Gate. Part II 5. Executive Summary The National Capital Territory of Delhi with a population of around 14 million has a vehicle population of around 4 million. Bus travel is the predominant mass transportation system in Delhi. This has resulted in increasing traffic congestion, increasing road accidents and increasing air pollution. Though a number of studies were carried out and recommendations made to solve the mass transportation problem of Delhi, it was only in 1998 that the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation was formed with equal equity participation of the Government of India and Government of the Capital Territory of Delhi to plan, execute, operate and ma intain the Delhi Metro. The Delhi Metro Rail Project is being planned and executed in four phases - Phase I, Phase II, Phase III and Phase IV.
Currently Phase I is under implementation. It consists of 3 lines - Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3. Line 1 is partly elevated rail and partly surface rail. Line 2 is underground metro. Line 3 is partly underground and partly elevated rail. Line is completed and is operational. Phase I is scheduled for completion by 2005, Phase II by 2010, Phase III by 2015 and Phase IV by 2020. The project requires the deployment of several technologies - Constructional Technology, Rail Coach Technology, Power Systems Technology, Rail Communication and Control Technology, Microprocessor Controlled Smart Card Technology. Underground tunnel construction involves considerable risks due to uncertain geological conditions. The project is executed with the help of both local and international contractors who are contracted to design and build the facility. An International Consortium of Consultants oversees the work. Japan Bank for International Cooperation is extending loan to the project to the extent of 56% project cost. Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi are each investing 15% of the project cost. The remaining is met through interest-free loans and property development. The operation and maintenance costs are essentially met by ticket sales. People of Delhi are generally satisfied with the services offered by DMRC and are proud of experiencing one of the most modern, sophisticated and world-class technological systems. Other cities in India and abroad have shown interest in having metros through DMRC's services. 6. Contributors and References Key Architects The Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi Metropolitan Transport Team (MTT) of the Indian Railways Delhi Development Authority (DDA) The Study Group of the Ministry of Railways RITES (Rail India Technical & Economic Services) Mr. E. Sreedharan, Managing Director, DMRC .Implementers/ Stakeholders The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (DMRC) Ministry of Railways and Ministry of Urban Affairs, Government of India Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) Governments of Uttar Pradesh & Haryana (At a later date) q General Consultants (A consortium of Indian and Overseas Consulting Firms) The consortium comprising ROTEM (formerly KOROS), Mitsubishi Corporation, and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation - manufacturers of Rolling Stock Bharath Earth Movers Limited (BEML), the Indian Coach Builders KSHI JV, a consortium of builders for open cut works with Maunsell, Australia engaged as the lead design consultant
IMCC, a consortium of builders for underground works with Mott MacDonald, UK as the lead design consultant The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) The citizens of Delhi (Those who pay and use the Metro and those who are indirectly benefited) Documenting Authors DMRC, the General Consultants, the Design Consultants DMRC's website has 2 sectionsone for commuters and one on corporate information. In addition, regular e-Newsletters containing project update are webcast by DMRC. The Fan Club hosts a number of e-mails from those using and are interested in Metro are also webcast (http://irfca.org/users/delhimetro/news/jul12-2003.htm). Sources/ References http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/phase1_network .html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/needfor_mrts.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/history.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/project_cost.html . http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/expected_ridership.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/present_status.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/training_school.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/projectupdate/world_class.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/about_us.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/technicalnotes/tn_signalling.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/technicalnotes/tn_telecom.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/technicalnotes/tn_electrical.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/technicalnotes/tn_civil.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/ecofriendly.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/ecofriendly/ohsas18001.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/ecofriendly/iso14001.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/ecofriendly/mrts_ecofriendly.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/vigilance/vigilance_home.html http://www.delhimetrorail.com/corporates/inthe_news.asp http://www.urbanrail.net/as/delh/delhi-planned.jpg http://www.mjconstruct.com/tunnel/archive/2002/august/delhimetro0802.pdf http://www.mjconstruct.com/tunnel/archive/2002/october/panorama1002.pdf http://irfca.org/users/delhimetro/news/aug18.pdf http://www.rites.com/projct.htm http://www.jbic.go.jp/autocontents/english/news/2002/000005/appendix.htm http://www.skanska.com/files/documents/pdf/sustain_report_02_eng.pdf http://irfca.org/faq/faq-metro.html http://www.rediff.com/money/2002/sep/07metro.htm http://www.ddadelhi.com/planning/traffic_transportation_features.htm Organization
Organization Chart A company named DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION (DMRC) was registered on 03- 05-95 under the Companies Act, 1956 to implement and operate Delhi MRTS. The government-owned DMRC has equal equity participation from GOI (Government of India) and GNCTD (Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi). DMRC, not falling within the category of a Public Sector Undertaking, is vested with greater autonomy and powers to execute this gigantic project involving many technical complexities, under difficult urban environment and within a very limited time frame. DMRC is the client for the construction works and the owner and operator of the system. The mission is to: Make the first phase of the MRTS fully operational by March 2005. Complete the project within the estimated cost (except for inflation). Make it a world class Metro promoting dignity and discipline in the city. Out of 13 directors, 5 are nominees of GOI and 5 are nominees of NCTD including its Managing Director. A Vigilance Unit handles all vigilance matters of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. A new law enforcement body, the Delhi Metro Police, has been set up especially to deal with law and order issues on the metro. Location The corporate office of the company is located at III Floor, East Tower, NBCC Place, Pragati Vihar, Bhishma Pitahmah Marg, New Delhi-110003 (E- mail: email@example.com) 7. Project Design
Key Objectives The main objective of the project is to improve Delhi's urban environment by reducing traffic congestion and pollution. The Project is expected to help reduce traffic congestion, exhaust emissions, and other types of urban pollution caused by motor vehicles, and to play a large role in improving Delhi's transit system. OutcomesOut of 271.45 ha of land required for the project, 237.062 ha has already been acquired. Line 1 Shahadra- Rithala is currently operational. A punctuality of 6 minutes is being maintained at present during peak hours. This interval would gradually be reduced to 3 minutes when adequate traffic builds up. Train-sets of four coaches in rake have been put into service. They run at intervals of 8 to 10 minutes from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. The maximum speed of the Metro is 80 km/h with an average stoppage time of 20 seconds at each station. Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System is essentially a „social sector‟ project, whose benefits will pervade over wide sections of the economy. I phase will generate the following benefits to the city. 21.82 lakhs commuter trips per day will be siphoned off the roads. This would mean: 2,600 less buses on the roads. q Increasing in average speed of buses from 10.5 km/h to 14 km/h. Metro will reduce journey time by 50 to 75 percent. Saving of 2 million man-hours per day due to reduced journey time. Saving in fuel cost worth Rs. 5 billion per year Space saving- The metro can carry traffic as 9 lanes of buses / 33 lanes of motor cars (either way) Delhi will experience a net benefit of Rs. 437.23 lacks per day. q More comfortable & safe travel for the commuters Reduction in atmospheric pollution levels by 50%. Reduction in accident rates. q Improvement in the Quality of life. 8. Methodology Construction Type:
Line 1 Shahadra- Rithala Line 2 Vishwa Vidyalaya-Central Secretariat Line 3 Barakhamba Road- Dwaraka
Partly elevated & partly surface Underground Partly underground & partly elevated
Execution Stages : Line 1 has been executed in three stages as follows.
Stage I 7.92 km Shahdara – Tis Hazari Commissioned on 24/12/2002 Stage II 4.74 km Tis Hazari – Inderlok Commissioned on 03/10/2003 4 . Stage III 9.40 km Inder Lok – Rithala Commissioned on 31/03/2004 Line 2 will be executed as follows. Vishwa Vidyalaya - ISBT (Kashmere Gate) (North-South) - 4.0 km ISBT (Kashmere Gate) - Central Secretariat (North-South) - 7.0 km Vishwa Vidyalaya - New Azadpur (North South) - 4.0 km (under consideration) Line 3 will be executed as follows. Barakhamba Road - Kirti Nagar (East-West) - 7.2 km Kirti Nagar - Dwarka (East-West) - 16 km Dwarka Subcity Extension (East-West) - 6.5 km (schedule yet to be decided) Barakhamba Road – I.P.Estate (East West) - 4.0 km (under consideration) Execution Method : The funding agreement stipulates that: The project be reviewed and supervised by an international general consultant; Line 2 contracts be open to international bidding; Construction be procured under design-build contracts to control cost and save time. To comply with the first funding requirement, the consulting engineering joint venture of Pacific Consultants International (PCI) of Japan (leader), Parsons Brinckerhoff International (US), Japan Railway Technical Services, Tonichi Engineering Consultants (Japan), and the Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) was appointed General Consultant in September 1998. Prior to that, RITES, the engineering company owned by Indian Railways, had managed development of the metro. 9. Major Contracts Local Competitive Bidding, International Competitive Bidding and Progressive Indigenization are the modes used for contracting work. 9.1.Local Competitive Bidding Design and construction of surface and elevated Lines 1 and 3 are packaged for contracting on design-bid-build basis through local competitive bidding. 9.2.International Competitive Bidding Line 2 with its more challenging underground alignment and tight construction schedule is being procured through two large internationally tendered designbuild contracts. Following a competitively contested tender that required a rebid process in efforts to lower contract price estimates, the two design-build contracts were awarded in February 2001. The 50-month contract for the 4km-long open-cut section from Vishwa Vidyalaya to the Interstate Bus Terminal (ISBT) station was awarded for a tender value of Rs. 900 crores to:
KSHI JV comprising Kumagai Gumi (Japan – leader), Skanska (Sweden), Hindustan Construction (India), and Itochu Corporation (Japan), and with Maunsell, Australia engaged as the lead design consultant The scheduled 60-month contract for the 7km-long, mainly bored tunnel section from the ISBT station to Central Secretariat, with five open-cut stations and an NATM mined station at Chawri Bazaar, was awarded for Rs. 1700 crores to: International Metro Civil Contractors (IMCC) comprising Dyckerhoff & Widmann (Germany – leader), Shimizu Corporation (Japan), Larsen & Toubro (India), Samsung (Korea), IRCON International (India) and with lead design consultant Mott MacDonald, UK. The construction methodology for the underground Corridor was finalized after taking into account the availability of open space above the alignment, ground conditions, conditions of nearby existing structures and likely settlement in the vicinity. In addition to the civil works, design for the design-build contracts also includes station m & e services, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, station finishes, landscaping, and the provisions for the fitting of platform edge doors at a later date. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has awarded a contract to Alcatel TAS the design, installation and commissioning of the full Integrated Rail Communication system for the metro. 9.3.Indigenization DMRC is procuring 240 coaches of which 60 (4 trains) are manufactured in ROTEM, Korea. BEML Bangalore will manufacture the other 180 coaches (45 trains). Starting with the local assembly and testing of a few trains, BEML will manufacture the coach shell, traction motor, converterinverter unit, battery, passenger announcement and information system, air-conditioning units and seats. This will help in acquiring capability and avoiding import of trains for the forthcoming metro projects in Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Mumbai and Hyderabad. 10. Time Frame The project report stipulated implementation of the project within 10 years from 01/04/1995 to 31/03/2005. As mo re than 3 years had elapsed by the time DMRC started functioning, the implementation period for the I phase was compressed to 7 years starting from 01/04/1998 to 31/03/2005. II Phase is scheduled to begin in 2005 & end in 2010. The time frame for Phases I & II is shown in Table 1 and for Phases III & IV is shown in Table 2. Line/ Section Time Frame 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Phase I Starting 1998 Line 1 - Stage 1 7.92 km Shahadra-Tis Hazari 12 Line 1 - Stage 2 4.74 km Tis Hazari-Inder Lok 10 Line 1 - Stage 3 9.40 km Inder Lok-Rithala 3 Line 2 - Stage 1 3.94 km Vishwavidyalaya-Kashmere Gate 12 Line 2 - Stage 1 6.89 km Kashmere Gate-Central Secretariat 6 Line 3 - Barakhamba Road - Kirti Nagar 7.20 km 6 Line 3 - 16.00 km Kirti Nagar - Dwarka 9 Phase II - Starting 2005 Line 1A-6.1 km Rithala - Barwala Line 2A-8.6 km Vishwa Vidyalaya New Azadpur - S G Transport Nagar Line 2B-18.2 km Central Secretariat - AIIMS - Vasant Kunj Line 3A-6.5 km Dwaraka Subcity Extension Line 3B-15.3 km Barakhamba Road - Mayur Vihar NOIDA Table 1: Time frame for the Delhi Metro Rail Project (Phase I & II) - 15 - Line/ Section Time Frame 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Phase III - Starting 2011 Line 1A - 5 km Barwala-Bawana Line 4 - 11.5 km Vasant Kunj-IGI Airport- Dwaraka Sector 9 Line
5 - 34 km Jahangirpuri-Raja Garden- AIIMS-Okhla Line 6 - 13.7 km Yamuna Depot-Dilshad Nagar-Nandnagri Phase IV - Starting 2016 Line 7-24 km Jahangirpuri-Peeragarhi- VikaspuriSagarpur Line 8-34 km Dwaraka-Khanjawala- Bawana-Narela Line 9-12 km Andheria Bagh-IFFCO Chowk Table 2: Time Frame for the Delhi Metro Rail Project (Phase III & IV) Part III Technology 10.1. Construction Technology Subways 2 subways near Welcome and Seelampur Metro Station have been constructed to enable people staying near the existing railway tracks, on the Shahdara- Delhi Main line, to cross the tracks safely through box tunnels. The 3 meters high, 6 meters horizontal and 30 meters long boxes were inserted below the existing Northern Railway tracks without disturbing the train movement of Northern Railway. This astonishing feat was achieved in a record number of 22 days. Yamuna Bridge The state of the art 553 meters long continuous, single pre stressed box girder, for two tracks across the river Yamuna, was completed on 2nd Feb, 2001 in a period of just 30 months by using a special technique called “Incremental Launching”. This construction technique is ideal for busy cities because it allows construction without any major disruption of traffic. Since sections advance the bridge, unlike conventionally built bridges, there are no joints and this has also ensured a smooth, bump free journey for commuters. Line 2 Underground Metro
Figure 5: Metro Stations Metro Stations would generally be located 12.85 meters below ground level except Chawri Bazaar Station which lies below 2 to 3 stories high buildings and therefore will be located at 20 meter below ground level.
Out of the 10 stations, 9 are being constructed with the ' cut-and-cover' method in areas close to surface and the tenth namely Chawri Bazaar, is being constructed by combining the ' cut-andcover' and underground tunneling. Out of the tot al 10.84 km, approximately 4 km of twin bore tunnel from Kashmere Gate to Patel Chowk is being constructed using Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM), because in most of the area the land cannot be occupied on the surface to facilitate construction by cut and cover method.
An EPBM being assembled at Patel Chowk Station The bored tunnel construction for the metro corridor involves tunneling through both, rock and soft ground, and so two types of TBMs are used - Rock TBMs for the rock and Earth Pressure Balancing Machines (EPBM) for soft soils (Figure 3). TBM- 70 to 80 meters in length, weighing 400 to 500 tonnes and 6.2 meter in radius moves at a slow pace of 10 to 15 meters per day. TBMs, which are - 17 - internally air-conditioned, take care of all the vibrations, which can create disturbances in buildings above the surface.
EPBM & TBM being assembled at Patel Chowk Station Box IMCC is using 3 Herrenknecht Tunnel Boring Machines 2 Earth-Pressure Balance (EPB) machines (Used in Bangkok and refurbished in Gwalior Workshop under Herrenknecht Supervision) A new hard-rock shielded machine built in Germany and delivered to Delhi in January 2002. The 5.7m I.D. tunnels are lined with a precast-concrete, bolted and gasketed segmental lining designed by Mott MacDonald. Each 1.2m wide x 280mm thick ring comprises five segments and a key. I MCC has established an off-site casting yard equipped with 72 moulds supplied by CBE of France to produce these segments. Mott MacDonald designed an NATM excavation for the Chawri Bazaar station. This comprises: 2 - 288m-long station caverns of up to 85 m2 section 4 cross passages 2 large access shafts accommodating elevators, escalators, ticket barriers and other concourse furnishings as well as housing ventilation and other m&e plant. Two Bauer drilling rigs with special 1000mm-diameter casings and rockcutting tools have been mobilized for the job. These rigs, a model BG 22 and a BG 14 have arrived at site. Following that the 26m-deep rectangular shaft, comprising some 50,000m3 of material, will be excavated, half through soft soil and the other half in rock. The full 4km-contract length is designed as open cut with dewatering systems and diaphragm walls or sheet piling. In hard rock, drill and blast is used with shotcrete and rockbolt support. Open-cut work is supported either by sheet piling or diaphragm walls. Sheetpiling is largely installed using vibrohammers except in areas close to residential and business addresses where a Giken silent piler unit is used. Diaphragm wall panels are excavated using either a Bauer hydraulic grab or other locally manufactured grabs. Due to limited space and crane capacity restrictions, reinforcement cages for the diaphragm walls are designed as two parts. Each part weighs about 18 tonne and the two parts are lowered into each panel excavation in a single tandem lift using two 75-tonne capacity cranes. Locally produced bentonite is being used on the contract and it is reportedly showing good rates of re-usage. Ground anchors rather than spans of struts are supporting core excavation. In the sections of open-cut running tunnels beneath temporary decking, KSHI is using the Japanese developed Hirose system of strutting. This is based on standard modular sections that are prefabricated above ground and lowered into the excavations.
A system of bored piles supports the foundation slabs where necessary, except in the top-down construction of the Civil Lines station where a barrette mini-pile foundation system has been designed and implemented. Elevated Rail Sections (Line 3) The alignment is underground from Barakhamba Road to the start of Panchkuian Road. The section will be on ramp from the start of Panchkuian Road till full rail level is gained for approx. 520m after which the entire section will be elevated. The alignment will pass through Barakhamba Road, Panchkuian Road, Link Road, Pusa Road, Patel Road & Najafgarh Road.
Tis Hazari Station All Delhi Metro underground stations are approximately 300 meters long and 20 meters wide and are designed to be at two levels i.e. platform level below and a concourse level above. Entries to these stations will be through subways provided at different locations. The section of the viaduct has been designed as segmental single U girder, which will be precast and transported to the site. Special spans of 45m and above shall - 19 - be of steel. The length of the span near the Railway tracks at Kirti Nagar will be 60m. The Road intersections at Panchkuian Road, RK Ashram and Rajendra Place will be modified to accommodate the viaduct. The modified intersection at Rajendra Place will be signalized. The first two stations i.e. Barakhamba Road and Connaught Place will be underground and the other stations will be elevated. The stations will be on both sides of the viaduct and a cross bridge shall be provided below the platform for the commuters to cross from one side of the station to the other.
A maintenance depot along with coach stabling facilities for the underground Metro corridor is coming up at the Khyber Pass Area. To ensure passenger comfort all underground stations will be air-conditioned and the tunnels will be well ventilated. All the stations will be equipped with modern facilities like synchronized clocks on platform and passenger information display will be installed at stations to provide information on real time basis about the arrival of the incoming trains. Similarly online announcement will be made on public address systems and CCTV is planned for underground stations. 10.2. Metro Rolling Stock Manufacturer - A consortium comprising ROTEM (formerly KOROS), Mitsubishi Corporation, and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. The initial train sets were built at a ROTEM facility in Korea but are now being built by BEML. Gauge - The trains run on the broad gauge (1676-mm) Coaches - 3.2 metre wide coaches with vestibules that permit passengers to move throughout the length of the train. Trains currently consist of 4 coaches - two driving coaches and two trailing coaches. The system is designed for trains with upto 8 coaches. The coaches are equipped with 3 phase AC motors, VVVF control, chevron rubber/air bag suspension system and regenerative braking system. The initial lot of 60 Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches are being supplied by Rotem of South Korea while subsequent coaches will be indigenously manufactured by Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. (BEML). Contracts have been signed for the delivery 240 coaches. BEML began delivery of locally assembled coach sets in August 2003, and fully locally manufactured units in January 2004. The coaches have stainless steel bodies and fiber-reinforced plastic interiors and weigh about 42-t each. They are rated for 80-km/h max. speed. The nominal capacity is 58 seated and 325 standing passengers each. All trains are fully airconditioned. The trains have wide glass windows and automatic doors, which can be controlled by the train operator. The system also provides intercom facilities for the passengers to speak to the driver in case of an emergency. Comfort - Trains are air-conditioned and maintain an optimal temperature of 290C inside the coaches. The underground stations will also be air-conditioned. Ticketing and passenger controls are through Automatic Fare Collection System. Entries and exits to metro stations are controlled by microprocessor-controlled flap-doors operated by 'smart-cards' and contactless tokens. For convenience of commuters, adequate number of escalators is installed at metro stations. Parking facilities are available at most Metro Stations for private vehicle owners who can park and ride on the Metro. Special feeder buses are provided for the benefit of - 20 - commuters. The entry path is lined with tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from outside the stations to the trains. The Metro Sahayaks are present at stations to provide assistance at all times.
3.2 m Wide, Stainless Body, FRP Interior, Air-conditioned, Vestibule Coaches - 60 seats + 325 standing
The 4-coach Delhi Metro Train
To make the metro stations aesthetically pleasing and to provide easy identification of stations, each station has been designed with a unique scheme. Local art college students have designed decorative murals at the Metro stations. Trains are at platform level with a small gap to allow easy entry and exit to passengers. Announcements in Hindi and English inform about the next station and also warn about closing doors. There are route maps and LCD display systems in every coach. Stations are also equipped with public announcement systems and are monitored with close circuit TV. The Delhi Metro will be one of the few metros in the world to have plainclothes Metro-marshals on trains. Besides being trained to prevent terrorist attacks, these commandos can operate the train in case of an emergency. Private security guards are also employed to enhance security within Metro premises. Emergency communication between the passengers and the driver is provided in each coach. Security is monitored from a central control location. All stations will have ATMs, food outlets, coffee shops, newspaper vendors etc. Traction - Power supply at 25 kV AC through overhead catenary-rigid OHE proposed for the underground sections while a flexible OHE for the other sections. Control system:
FEATURE Type of signaling Inter Locking
METRO Cab signaling system with CATC ( ATP / ATO / ATS) (Automatic Train Protection, Operation & Supervision) Solid State Interlocking (SSI)
RAIL Cab signaling with ATP/ATS SSI
Power Supply for Delhi Metro
To control and supervise train monitoring, passenger information dissemination, Automatic Fare Collection and the air conditioning network an Operation Control Centre (OCC) has been set up at Shastri Park Metro Station. The OCC regulates trains automatically through computerized route setting for trains being run on the system along with real time monitoring of train locations on a large wall mounted display panel for the controllers. 10.3. Power Power supply system for Delhi MRTS is being designed with adequate redundancy to ensure continuous and reliable power for running electric trains in the underground Metro Corridor and on the Surface Corridor. Total Power required for running trains with modern coaches on both the corridors is estimated to be 75 MW by the year 2005. This power will be used for running trains including auxiliary loads such as lifts, escalators, lighting, ventilation and air conditioning etc. In addition 45 MW power would be required to meet the loads for new commercial complexes planned to be built over and around MRTS stations. To ensure continuous availability of quality power for running trains on the MRTS Corridors, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, have made arrangements to get 120 MW power from NTPC Thermal Power Station at Oriya Stage II by wheeling power - 22 - through extra high transmission (400kv / 220kv / 66kv) network in Delhi Area. In the event of failure of Northern Grid, power supply to Delhi MRTS stations of Underground Metro Corridor will continue to be fed from the Indra Prastha (IP) Gas Turbine Power Station. (Refer Figure 6) Power for the underground Metro Corridor will be received at 3 receiving stations of MRTS namely ISBT, New Delhi and Patel Chowk. To ensure the highest degree of reliability and all time power availability for the underground Metro Corridor, 3 MRTS Power receiving stations are interconnected for transfer of power from one to another through Fire Retardant Low Smoke (FRLS) cable feeders. These receiving stations will be remote controlled fro m Centralized Operation Control Centre through Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition System (SCADA). In the unlikely event of total power failure, provision is made for automatic switching of emergency lighting in the tunnel and at the MRTS stations. In addition, all the trains will also have modern Ni-Cd Batteries to continue to provide lighting and air conditioning even when the train is stopped in event of complete power failure. The ventilation and air conditioning arrangements in the tunnel and the underground stations are being so designed that emergency 23 - ventilation arrangements for the stations and tunnel will continue to be maintained from the standby Generator Sets in such exigencies. For Rail Corridor it has been planned to avail power from NTPC Thermal Power Station at three MRTS receiving stations through 400 kV, 220 kV & 66 kV Extra High Voltage Transmission Network. In the event of failure of one source, power can be fed at 25 kV side throughout the section from the other two sources. However, in the event of complete collapse of NREB grid, arrangements are being planned to transfer power from ISBT receiving sub-station of Metro Corridor to Rail Corridor. Arrangements have been planned to supply power for lifts, escalators and station lighting from the stand by Generator Set provided at each station in the event of complete grid failure. Fare - Fare collection is smartcards, tourist passes and tokens. Fares depend on distance traveled and range between Rs. 6 and Rs. 14 for the part of Line 1 that is now operational. Contactless, stored-value smartcards are available for Rs. 100, 200 and 500 in value. They are available after paying a refundable deposit of Rs. 100 and can also be recharged when the value
on the card is exhausted. Each recharge gives a discount of 10% on travel fare. Apart from travel, Metro cards will be used for purchases at shops within metro stations. Tourist passes are available for unlimited travel for Rs. 50 and Rs. 150 for one and three days respectively. The tokens and cards must be used both at the entry and the exit points. Tokens are available for single journey and return tickets only. 11. Business Model DMRC is confident to cover operating and maintenance costs from day one. The DMRC expects an internal rate of return of over 2.3 per cent from the first day of operation. DMRC has been able to raise cheap loans. 56 per cent of the project cost (another 30 per cent has come in exchange for equity from the Delhi and Central governments) has come from a JBIC concessional loan at an interest of only 1.8 per cent payable in 30 years with a 10-year moratorium. In February 1997 JBIC agreed to extend 14,760 million-yen for Phase I of the Project, 6,732 million yen for Phase II in March 2001 and 28,659 million-yen for Phase III. This means there are no outgoings for the first 10 years. And the government is giving an interest free subordinate loan to cover the cost of land acquisition, which constitutes 8 per cent of the project cost. The DMRC has calculated that 90 per cent of revenue (Rs.12 lakhs per day) will come from tickets and the remaining amount is expected to come from selling advertising space in the stations as well as property development. The DMRC had hired the National Council for Advanced Economic Research to work out a tariff plan. Insiders say the NCAER concluded that only 1.6 million to 1.7 million passengers would use the metro and fixed a tariff slab that started with Rs 5 for the first 2-km. It decided that the costliest ticket would be Rs 10 at 2001 prices. At these rates, the NCAER reckoned that the project would be able to meet its operations and maintenance costs as well as meets its depreciation costs. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation is developing commercial property within and around the stations. All stations will have ATMs, food outlets, coffee shops, newspaper vendors etc. In addition, it is proposed to lease the areas around the stations for development of supermarkets, commercial establishments and office buildings that would act as a supplemental revenue source. A contract has already been signed with McDonald's and negotiations are on with Nirulas to open fast food counters.
12. Environment, Health & Safety Environmental Impact A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment has been done in 1994 to minimize the negative environmental impact of the Project during the construction stage of the Project.
For every tree cut during construction, the DMRC is planting 10 trees in advance as compensatory afforestation. Around 26000 trees have been planted at Najafgarh, Isapur and Rebla Khanpur. Through proper care 30% of trees in the alignment have been saved. Installation of storm water drains for disposal of wastewater, monitoring air and noise pollution, disposal of excavated materials are some of the measures taken during construction to minimize the damage to the environment and inconvenience to public. International Certification The Delhi Metro has been awarded OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment sequence 18001) by Registro Italiano Navale India Pvt. Ltd. (RINA), Genova. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) received the ISO 14001 certificate for establishing an environmental management system making it the First Metro in the World to receive this certification at the construction stage. 13. Capacity Building Recruitment Initially, DMRC was recruiting persons (in-service or retired) from Indian Railways on deputation. Now it recruits persons from the open market. There is a website on recruitment in the DMRC portal. Training A training school for drivers and other operating staff has been set up at Shastri Park. Under an agreement with the Hong Kong Metro Railway, 60 employees of DMRC have been trained on their system. Regular training is held for new recruits through induction program apart from refresher training for experienced employees in all categories including train operators, station controllers, maintenance staff etc
Man behind Delhi Metro 70-year-old E. Sreedharan, Managing Director of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, has literally put a dream into motion. As many as 35 studies done on the transport sector of Delhi since 1950 have suggested several ways of bringing the Metro rail in Delhi. All of them lay gathering dust until Sreedharan took over as the MD of DMRC on November 4, 1997. Within a year, work started on the project. When a tidal wave had washed away the Panbam Bridge near Rameshwaram in 1964,as an Executive Engineer in the Southern Railway, Sreedharan restored the bridge in 45 days, an achievement for which he was given the Railway Minister’s Award that year. As the Chairman and Managing Director of Konkan Railways, he set up a network of 760 kilometers in seven years comprising 93 tunnels, 149 large bridges and 1,600 small bridges with a total cost of Rs 2,500 crores. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=29748
In future an Integrated Rail Bus Transit System with exclusive train lines is proposed and will be funded by the Government of Delhi in collaboration with the neighboring states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. This system will transport commuters between Delhi and its satellite towns. The lines will be built mostly parallel to, but completely independent of the existing railway lines. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), which is executing the MRTP in Delhi, is venturing into consultancy and project preparation work for metro systems coming up in other cities. The company is selected to prepare project schemes for the two proposed metro lines in Bangalore, and is scheduled to prepare a detailed project report on an urban rail project in Mumbai. There are plans to construct metros in Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Lucknow, and Tiruvananthapuram. DMRC has expressions of interest from Dubai, Rangoon for Metros. Lessons learnt Rehabilitation of residents and shopkeepers affected by Metro deserves more serious attention though the project is meant for greater public good. Construction of metro completely underground saves considerable land needed for the expansion and development of the city. In a city short of such land, construction of elevated and surface rails eats away considerable portion of it. Certain trade-off is necessary between extending metro lines and the quantity of ridership. Property development along a metro line will certainly improve ridership. It The conditionalities, the time taken to process the loan application and fluctuations in foreign exchange market-all point out that financing metro project from internal resources/ borrowings is preferable to seeking external borrowings even if they are soft loans.
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