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KANO, GARVIN & QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT DEPARTMENT
DR. RICK EDGEMAN, PROFESSOR & CHAIR – SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT
Six Sigma COPIS Model
How does Six Sigma Work?
The Voice of the Customer (VOC) is aggressively sought and rigorously evaluated and used to determine needed outputs and hence the optimal process configuration needed to yield those outputs and their necessary inputs for which the best suppliers are identified and allied with.
From Concept to Market: the Voice of the Customer
Kano Customer Need Model
TI M E
Degree of Execution
Kano Customer Need Model
Those needs that are EXPECTED in a product or service. These are generally not stated by customers but are assumed as given. If they are not present, the customer is dissatisfied. Needs that customers SAY THEY WANT. Fulfilling these needs creates satisfaction. New or Innovative features that customers do not expect. The presence of such unexpected features leads to high perceptions of quality.
Satisfiers Exciters / Delighters
Garvin’s Eight Dimensions Performance Features Conformance Aesthetics Reliability Durability Serviceability Perceived Quality of Product Quality .
Dimensions of Service Quality RELIABILITY: consistency. error-free dependability RESPONSIVENESS: willingness to help the customer TANGIBLES: environment for the service presented COMPETENCE: the right skills and knowledge required COURTESY: supplier’s behavior SECURITY: freedom from danger or risk ACCESS: ease of making contact COMMUNICATION: understandable to the customer EMPATHY: adopting the customer’s viewpoint .
Improve the process and remove defect causes.Define Control Define the problem and customer requirements. Improve Analyze Control process performance and ensure that defects do not recur. Analyze process data and determine the capability of the process. Six Sigma Innovation . Measure defect rates and Measure document the process in its current incarnation.
Innovation & QFD Japanese/US Engineering Change Comparison Design Changes Introduction of First Product Japanese (Using QFD) United States (Not Using QFD) Time QFD Can Reduce Both Costs and Start-Up Time in production 3 months market introduction out 20-24 months out 14-17 months out 1-3 months .
Quality Function Deployment Hin Shitsu Ki No Ten Kai "A group of courageous people working in harmony pursuing the finest detail to unlock the organization and roll out products that the multitudes in the marketplace will value." Glenn Mazur .
These requirements are the collection of customer needs. and dissatisfiers. the Voice of the Customer through each stage of the product development and production process. . that is. including all satisfiers. exciters/delighters.Quality Function Deployment Is a structured method that is intended to transmit and translate customer requirements. that is. through the product realization cycle.
A methodology that gets the right people together. A planning methodology that organizes relevant information to facilitate better decision making.Creative Definitions of QFD A systematic way of documenting and breaking down customer needs into manageable and actionable detail. early. to work efficiently and effectively to meet customers’ needs. A way of reducing the uncertainty involved in product and process design. A technique that promotes cross-functional teamwork. .
Key Thought Quality Function Deployment is a Valuable Decision Support Tool. But it is Not a Decision Maker Throughout .
CONCEPT WHAT DOES QFD DO? Better Designs in Half the Time! CUSTOMER Plan Design Redesign Manufacture “Traditional Timeline” Plan Design Redesign Manufacture Benefits QFD is a Productivity Enhancer .
PRODUCT DESIGN 100:1 PROCESS DESIGN 10:1 Why Does QFD Work? PRODUCTION IMPROVE PRODUCT LOW VISIBILITY TIME HIGH VISIBILITY LOW REWARD HIGH REWARD The Quality The Quality Lever Lever 1:1 .
or fire fighting. problem solving. .When is QFD Appropriate? Poor communications and expectations get lost in the complexity of product development. Lack of efficient and / or effective product / process development teamwork. Extended development time caused by excessive redesign. Lack of structure or logic to the allocation of product development resources.
Apartment Layout Planning Adopted By Ford and GM in 1980s Digital Equipment.Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard 1972 Developed By Toyota and Its Suppliers Expanded To Other Japanese Manufacturers Consumer Electronics. Clothing. Hewlett-Packard. Home Appliances. ITT Foundation --Belief That Products Should Be Designed Foundation Belief That Products Should Be Designed To Reflect Customer Desires and Tastes To Reflect Customer Desires and Tastes . AT&T.Brief History of QFD Origin . Integrated Circuits.
Quality Function Deployment’s House of Quality 3 Correlation 6 Matrix The House of Quality 1 2 Importance Rankings Design Attributes 5 4 Customer Needs Relationships between Customer Needs and Design Attributes Customer Perceptions 7 Establishes the Flowdown Relates WHAT'S & HOW'S Ranks The Importance Costs/Feasibility 8 Engineering Measures .
The House of Quality Key Elements Informational Elements Two Types of Elements in Each House Two Types of Elements in Each House .
Levels Of Granularity QFD Flowdown Manufacturing Manufacturing Environment Environment Customer Wants Technical Requirements Part Characteristics Manufacturing Process Production Requirements Software Software Environment Environment Customer Wants Product Functionality System Characteristics Design Alternatives Service Service Environment Environment Customer Wants Service Requirements Service Processes Process Controls Flowdown Relates The Houses To Flowdown Relates The Houses To .
3. 5. . 4.Building the House of Quality 1. Evaluate Design Attributes and Develop Targets. Identify Customer Attributes Identify Design Attributes / Requirements Relate the customer attributes to the design attributes. Conduct an Evaluation of Competing Products. 2. Determine which Design Attributes to Deploy in the Remainder of the Process. 6.
“What does the customer expect from the product?” “Why does the customer buy the product?” Salespeople and Technicians can be important sources of information – both in terms of these two questions and in terms of product failure and repair. Focus Groups. Surveys.1. Market Research. . Identify Customer Attributes These are product or service requirements IN THE CUSTOMER’S TERMS. OFTEN THESE ARE EXPANDED INTO Secondary and Tertiary Needs / Requirements.
“Whats” What Does The Customer Want Customer Needs CTQs Need 1 Ys Need 2 Need 3 ts ts Needha 4a Wh W Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 Voice of the Customer .Key Elements .
Customer Requirements How Important the What’s are TO THE CUSTOMER Customer Ranking of their Needs Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 5 r er e m e ce 3 to m n c s o an u4st rtta upo r C po C 2 m IIm 4 1 Key Elements: Voice of the .
Controlled and Compared to Objective Targets. . MANUFACTURING. and SERVICE PROCESSES. the Interrelationships between Design Attributes. symbolically. These must be MEASURABLE since the Output will be The ROOF of the HOUSE OF QUALITY shows. Identify Design Attributes.2. Design Attributes are Expressed in the Language of the Designer / Engineer and Represent the TECHNICAL Characteristics (Attributes) that must be Deployed throughout the DESIGN.
HOW 1 HOW 3 HOW 6 HOW 2 HOW 4 HOW 5 Key Elements “How’s” Hows Hows WHAT'S HOW'S Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 Satisfing Customer Needs HOW 7 How Do You Satisfy the Customer What’s Product Requirements Translation For Action X’s - .
3 lbs H L L 3 mils L M M L 40 psi M L M M 8 atm 1 mm 65 45 21 36 8 52 4 H 57 41 48 13 50 3 6 21 Conflict . Impact Of The How’s On Each Other Correlation Correlation Matrix Matrix Information – Correlation Matrix HOW 2 HOW 5 HOW 1 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 6 HOW 7 Strong Positive Positive Negative Strong Negative Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 H L H M 12 in.
LACK of a strong relationship between A customer attribute and any design attribute shows that the attribute is not adequately addressed or that the final product will have difficulty in meeting the expressed customer need. . Similarly. then it may be redundant or the designers may have missed some important customer attribute. a WEAK one. MODERATE one.Relating Customer & Design Attributes Symbolically we determine whether there is NO relationship. or STRONG relationship between each Customer Attribute and each Design Attribute. if a design attribute DOES NOT affect any customer attribute. The PURPOSE it to determine whether the final Design Attributes adequately cover Customer Attributes.3.
Strength of the Relationship Key Elements: Interrelation Between the What’s and the How’s HOW 5 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 4 HOW 6 HOW 7 Transfer Function Y = f(X) Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 H Strong 9 M Medium 3 L Weak 1 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 H L s MhiipM L ps sh s H on ttiio n a M ellL ea R R M L H L M H L M Untangling The Web .
Customer importance ratings represent the areas of greatest interest and highest expectations AS EXPRESSED BY THE CUSTOMER. This step enables designers to seek opportunities for improvement and links QFD to a company’s strategic vision and allows priorities to be set in the design process.4. Competitive evaluation helps to highlight the absolute strengths and weaknesses in competing products. . Add Market Evaluation & Key Selling Points This step includes identifying importance ratings for each customer attribute AND evaluating existing products / services for each of the attributes.
if a competing product is found to best satisfy a customer attribute. OR else the product has an image difference that is affecting customer perceptions.5. This is USUALLY accomplished through in-house testing and then translated into MEASURABLE TERMS. Evaluate Design Attributes of Competitive Products & Set Targets. then EITHER the measures used are faulty. but the evaluation of the related design attribute indicates otherwise. . The evaluations are compared with the competitive evaluation of customer attributes to determine inconsistency between customer evaluations and technical evaluations. TARGETS and DIRECTIONS for each design attribute are set. For example. On the basis of customer importance ratings and existing product strengths and weaknesses.
3 lbs H L L 3 mils L M M L 40 psi M L M M 8 atm 1 mm 65 45 21 36 8 52 4 H 57 41 48 13 50 3 How Much How Much 6 21 Consistent Comparison .Information: How Much Target Values for the HOW 3 HOW 6 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 7 How’s Note the Units Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 H L H M 12 in.
Target Direction Information : Information On The HOW'S n on cttiio ec ir e D ir ettD ge a Tarrg T More Is Better Less Is Better Specific 1 Need Amount 2 Need Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 HOW 1 HOW 3 HOW 6 HOW 2 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 7 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 H L H M H L L L M M L H L M 65 45 21 36 M M 6 21 8 52 4 57 41 48 13 50 The Best .
have poor competitive performance. .6. Those attributes not identified as critical do not need such rigorous attention. These attributes will need to be DEPLOYED or TRANSLATED into the language of each function in the design and production process so that proper actions and controls are taken to ensure that the voice of the customer is maintained. Select Design Attributes to be Deployed in the Remainder of the Process This means identifying the design attributes that: have a strong relationship to customer needs. or are strong selling points.
1. 0 Scale 1 Need Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 HOW 1 HOW 4 HOW 6 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 5 CI 45 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 45 2 5 9 9 3 15 36 12 CI *Strength) TI = Σ (column e ce n an c 1 rt a oMt or p p m IIm ll a iica n c n 57 41 ech 13 50 6 21 48h T ec T 4 36 Ranking The HOW'S HOW 7 6 .Key Elements: Technical Importance Which How’s are Key Where Should The Focus Lie “CI” = “Customer Importance” “Strength” is measured on a 9. 3.
Completeness : Key Elements Are All The How’s HOW 1 HOW 4 HOW 6 6 HOW 2 HOW 3 HOW 5 Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 3 4 2 4 1 CI H L H M HOW 7 Captured Is A What Really A How H a ri a er i t 21 iite M M L r Cr C ss es s36 n en e L ette M 8 lle 52 L omp Hmp Co 4 C L M 45 L M 65 *Strength) CC = Σ (CIrow 57 41 48 13 50 21 Have We Captured the HOW'S .
to process operations. all four are used. through design attributes. together with the first. on to component attributes. In Japan. and eventually to a quality control and improvement plans.Using the House of Quality The voice of the customer MUST be carried THROUGHOUT the production process. The tendency in the West is to use only the first one or two. Three other “houses of quality” are used to do this and. these carry the customer’s voice from its initial expression. .
1 Customer Attributes Design Attributes Design Attributes 2 Component Attributes 3 Process Operations Component Attributes Process Operations 4 Quality Control Plan The How’s at One Level The How’s at One Level Become the What’s at the Become the What’s at the Next Level Next Level .
The Cascading Voice of the Customer NOTES: “Design Attributes” are also called “Functional Requirements” “Component Attributes” are also called “Part Characteristics” “Process Operations” are also called “Manufacturing Processes” and the “Quality Control Plan” refers to “Key Process Variables. HOWS WHATS Th e Fo ur H Y ou se s Critical to Quality Characteristics (CTQs) of Q ua Key Manufacturing Processes lit y X Key Process Variables .
Common QFD Pitfalls QFD On Everything Set the “Right” Granularity Don’t Apply To Every Last Project Inadequate Priorities Lack of Teamwork Wrong Participants Lack of Team Skills Lack of Support or Commitment Too Much “Chart Focus” “Hurry up and Get Done” Failure to Integrate and Implement QFD .
3 lbs H L L 3 mils L M M L L 40 psi M 65 45 21 36 H M M 8 atm 1 mm 8 52 4 57 41 48 13 50 6 21 The “Static” QFD 3 . Review Current Status Review Current Status At Least Quarterly At Least Quarterly Monthly on 11Yr Project Monthly on Yr Project Weekly on Small Projects Weekly on Small Projects 5 6 45 21 36 8 52 4 HOW 3 HOW 1 HOW 2 HOW 4 HOW 5 HOW 6 HOW 7 Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7 5 5 3 4 2 4 1 H L H M 12 in.
If there are NO “tough spots” the first time: If there are NO “tough spots” the first time: It Probably Isn’t Being Done Right!!!! It Probably Isn’t Being Done Right!!!! Focus on the end-user customer. look obvious—after they’re written down. means for Find reasons to succeed. but requires effort. . Charts are not the objective. but requires The process may look simple. Many entries look obvious—after they’re Many entries written down.Points to Remember effort. not excuses for failure. not excuses for Find reasons to succeed. Focus on the end-user customer. Remember to follow-up afterward Remember to follow-up afterward The process may look simple. failure. the the objective. Charts are means for achieving the objective. Charts are the Charts are not achieving the objective.
CUSTOMER NEEDS: KANO. PROFESSOR & CHAIR – SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT . GARVIN & QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT End DEPARTMENT REDGEMAN@UIDAHO. RICK EDGEMAN.EDU of Session OF STATISTICS OFFICE: +1-208-885-4410 DR.
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