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# Hydraulic Excavators (II

)

By

Er. Ashok Shrestha (DoR) IOE-BEM Construction Equipment(Elective) August 2010

Cycle time

• The sum of time required to load bucket, swing loaded, dump and swing empty. • Typical cycle element times under average conditions, for 2 to 4 cum shovels will be

– – – – Load bucket Swing with load Dump load Return swing 7-9 sec. (depend on material type) 4-6 sec (depend on machine size) 2-4 sec (depend on dumping target) 4-5 sec (depend on machine size)

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 2

**Factor affecting production
**

• Actual production of a shovel is affected by the following factors:

– Class of material – Height of cut – Angle of swing – Size of hauling units – Operator skill – Physical condition of the shovel

Production efficiency ranges from 30 to 45 min per hour

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 3

**Effect of height of cut and Angle of swing
**

• The effect of height of cut and Angle of Swing on Shovel production published by PCSA from field study can be used:

The percent of optimum height of cut, in the table, is obtained by dividing the actual height of cut by the optimum height for the given material and bucket, and then multiplying the result by 100.

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 4

**Optimum height of cut
**

• The optimum height of cut ranges from 30 to 50% of the maximum digging height.

– 30 % for a easy to load materials (i.e. load sand, gravel etc.) – 40% for common earth – 50% for poorly blasted rock, or sticky clay

• The ideal production of shovel is based on operating at a 900 swing and optimum height of cut. • The ideal production should be multiplied by the proper correction factor in order to correct the production for any given height and swing angle.

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 5

Excavator Production

• Steps for estimating production:

1. Obtain the heaped bucket load volume (lcm) from the manufacturer performance data. 2. Apply a bucket fill factor based on type material being excavated. 3. Estimate a peak cycle time:

(Load bucket+ Swing with load+ Dump load+ Return swing)

4. Obtain the factor for angle of swing and height of cut from the table (% of optimum depth vs angle of swing). 5. Apply a efficiency factor (usually 30 – 45 min per 60 min) 6. Conform the production units to desired volume or weight (lcm to bcm) (lcm= bcm*(1+swell factor)

18 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 6

Obtain heaped cubic capacity of bucket from manufacturer’s specification for given model

Select the suitable Fill factor for type of material to be excavated. Estimate the pick cycle time base on machine size, materials type and dumping condition. -Load time, for easy loading material take lower value (7sec) and higher value for difficult (9 sec) -Swing time, take lower value(4sec)for smaller m/c and for higher(6sec) value for bigger size m/c. --Dump time, for dumping in a hauling unit take higher value and lower value for free dumping. Obtain AS:D from the table. maximum depth of cut from manufacturer’s specification and multiply it by a factor within range of 0.3 – 0.5. Take lower value (0.3) for easy to load material and higher value (0.5) for very difficult material

Optimum depth of cut = 30% of maximum digging height (for easy to load material) = 50% of maximum degging height (for difficult blasted rock etc) = 40% of maximum digging height (for common averge material)

Typical cycle element times under average conditions, for 2 to 4 cum shovels Load bucket 7-9 sec. (Based on materials) Swing with load 4-6 sec (Based on size of m/c) Dump load 2-4 sec (Base on hauling unit) Return swing 4-5 sec (Based on size of m/c)

Average height of cut % of optimum depth = Optimum height of cut

× 100

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 7

**7. Compute the production rate, using following formula.
**

3600 × Q × F × ( AS : D ) E P (lcm/hr) = × t 60 3600 × Q × F × ( AS : D ) E 1 P (bcm/hr) = × × t 60 1 + S.F.

Where; P (lcm/hr) = Production in loose cubic meter (volume) per hour P (bcm/hr) = Production in bank cubic meter (volume) per hour P (ton/hr) = Production in tons (weight) per hour Q = Heaped bucket capacity (lcm) F = Bucket fill factor AS:D = Angle of swing and depth (height) of cut correction factor t = Cycle time in seconds E = Efficiency minutes per hour (take 30-45 if not given) S.F. = Swell Factor Luw = Loose unit weight (N)

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 8

Example-1

• A 3.8 cu.m. shovel having a maximum digging height of 10.4m is being used to load poorly blasted rock. The face being worked is 3.7m high and the haul units can be positioned so that the swing angle is only 600. What is the adjusted ideal production if the ideal cycle time is 21 sec. Bucket size (Q)= 3.8 m3 (Given) Bucket fill factor = 0.9 (taken from the table, for poorly blasted 85-100%) Ideal Cycle time (t) = 21 sec. (Given)

Optimum height = 0.5 x 10.4 = 5.2m (Taken highest %, for poorly blasted rock) (30–50%)

Angle of Swing = 60 Angle of Swing and depth (AS:D) =1.08 (by interpolation) (from the table 1.03+(71.15-60)*(1.12-1.03)/(80-60)

Working height) % of optimum height = Optimum height 0

3.7 × 100 = × 100 = 71 .15 % 5 .2

** 3600 × Q × F × ( AS : D ) E Assuming Efficiency factor, P (lcm/hr) = × E= 45/60 t 60 3600 × 3.8 × 0.9 × 1.08 45 P (lcm/hr) = × = 475 (lcm / hr ) 21 60
**

18 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 9

Example-2

• A 2.3 cu.m. shovel having a maximum digging height of 9.1 m, will be used on a highway project to excavate well-blasted rock. The average face height is expected to be 6.7 m. Most of the cut will require an average 1200 swing of the shovel in order to load the haul unit. Determine the estimated production in cubic meter bank measure. Take efficiency 30 min in 60 minute.

Bucket size (Q)= 2.3 m3 (Given) Bucket fill factor (F)= 1 (taken from the table, for well-blasted 100-110%) Ideal Cycle time (t) = (Load + Swing loaded + Dump + Swing empty) = 9 + 4+ 4 + 4 = 21 sec

Assuming: Load = 9 sec (Taken maximum value, as material is rock difficult to load) Swing loaded = 4 sec (Taken smaller valve, as being smaller sized m/c) Dump = 4 sec (Taken maximum value, as it is to be loaded into haul units) Swing empty = 4 sec (Taken smaller valve, as being smaller sized m/c)

Typical cycle element times under average conditions, for 2 to 4 cum shovels: Load bucket 7-9 sec. Swing with load 4-6 sec Dump load 2-4 sec Return swing 4-5 sec

**Optimum height = 0.5 x 10.4 = 4.55m (Taken highest %, for poorly blasted rock) (30–50%)
**

% of optimum height Working = Optimum height) height 6 .7 × 100 = × 100 = 147 % 4 . 55

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 10

Example-2

(/contd…)

(by interpolation)

Angle of Swing = 1200 Angle of Swing and depth (AS:D)= 0.79

(from the table 0.81- [{(0.81-0.75)/(160-140)}*(147-140)]

Efficiency Factor (E) = 30/60 (Given) % Swell = 60% (From the table for well blasted rock)

1 3600 × Q × F × ( AS : D ) E P (bcm/hr) = × × t 60 1 + swell 3600 × 2.3 × 1 × ( 0.79 ) 30 1 P (bcm/hr) = × × = 97 .3 21 60 1 + 0.6

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 11

**Hydraulic Hoe: Production Estimating
**

• The same elements that affect shovel production are applicable to hoe excavation operation. • Hoe cycle times are approximately 20% longer than similar size shovel and work. • The optimum depth of cut for hoe is usually in the range of 30 to 60%. • Standard data for “Cycle time” based on bucket size and average conditions (30-600 swing angle, hauling unit at same level etc. is available). • No standard data and factors based on angle of swing and depth of cut is available.

18 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 12

**Hydraulic Hoe: Production Estimating
**

• Step-1:

(From the manufacturer specification for the size of bucket to be used. Many different size buckets will fit the same machine. Interested in heaped capacity). (From the table for corresponding type of material. Heaped capacity is base on 1:1 material angle of repose. It must be adjusted based on the characteristics of material being handled).

[Bucket volumetric capacity (lcm) = Heaped capacity *Fill Factor]

Bucket

size

(lcm)

• Step-2:

Fill

Factor:

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 13

**Hydraulic Hoe: Production Estimating
**

• Step-3: Cycle time (sec)

(Load + Swing load + Dump + Swing empty). Typical excavation cycle times based on machine (bucket) size

The cycle times must be increased when loads are dumped into a smaller haul units. Small machine swing faster than large ones.

Depth of cut: 40 to 60% Swing angle = 30 – 600 Loading haul units on the same level

10 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 14

**Hydraulic Hoe: Production Estimating
**

• Step-4: Depth of cut

(Obtain maximum dig depth from manufacturer’s

data and check for optimum depth of cut within the range of 30% to 60%.)

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 15

**Hydraulic Hoe: Production Estimating
**

• Step-5: Efficiency Factor:

– Bunching

(In actual operation cycle time is never constant. When loading haul unit they will sometime bunch. The effect of bunching is a function of the no. of haul units.

**– Operator efficiency: (Skill of operator) – Equipment availability (Haul units availability ‘x’% of the time)
**

Machine’s working range based on size of machine (bucket) fitted with standard items (Boom, Arm etc.)

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 16

**Step-6: Compute production rate, using following formula.
**

3600 × Q × F E P (lcm/hr) = × t 60 3600 × Q × F E 1 P (bcm/hr) = × × t 60 1 + S.F.

Where; P (lcm/hr) = Production in loose cubic meter (volume) per hour P (bcm/hr) = Production in bank cubic meter (volume) per hour P (ton/hr) = Production in tons (weight) per hour Q = Heaped bucket capacity (lcm) F = Bucket fill factor t = Cycle time in seconds E = Efficiency minutes per hour (take 30-45 if not given) S.F. = Swell Factor Luw = Loose unit weight (N)

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 17

Example-3

A crawler hoe having a 2.8 cu.m bucket is being considered for use on a project to excavate dry clay from a borrow pit. The clay will be loaded in trucks having a loading height of 3m. Soil-boring information indicates that below, 2.5 m, the material changes to an unacceptable silt material. What is the estimated production of the hoe in cubic meter bank measure, if the efficiency factor is equal to a 50-min hour.?

Step-1: Size of Bucket (Q)= 2.8 cu.m Step-2: Bucket fill factor (F)= 85% (taken average of 80-90 from the table, . for hard clay) Step-3: Cycle times (t) = 22 sec (from the table, for nearest bucket size 3 cum) Step-4: Optimum depth of cut to be within 30% to 60% From the table maximum depth of cut 7 – 8.2 m Depth of cut = 2.5 m

2.5 * 100 = 35 .7 % 7

2.5 * 100 = 30 . 4 % 8.2

18 August 2010

Checking for optimum depth of cut range 30% to 60%.

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 18

Example-3 /….contd

Step-5: Efficiency factor (E)= 50 min per hour (given)

Step-6: Production rate Calculation

3600 × Q × F P (lcm/hr) = t

E × 60

** 3600 × 2.8 × 0.85 50 P (lcm/hr) = × = 324 .5 (lcm/hr) 22 60
**

Swell factor = 35% for type of materials from the table

**P (lcm/hr) 324 .5 P (bcm/hr) = = = 240 .37 1 + Swell factor 1 + 0.35
**

18 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 19

**PRODUCTIVITY OF HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR: (Quick Method)
**

The hourly production of hydraulic excavator can also be calculated as :-

** 3600 × Q × E 3600 × ( q × k ) × E P (lcm/hr) = = Ct (t × F )
**

Where; P (lcm/hr) = Production in loose cubic meter (volume) per hour Q = Production per cycle (cu.m) Bucket Factor (k) = (q*K) Material Bucket factor (K) q = bucket heaped capacity (cu.m) K = Bucket factor Moist loam or sandy clay 1.0 - 1.1 E= Job Efficiency factor Common soil 0.9 - 1.0 t = Standard Cycle time in seconds Sand and gravel 0.85 – 0.95 F = Time factor Hard tough clay 0.8 - 0.9 Ct = Cycle time in seconds =(t*F)

Rock –well blasted 0.6 - 0.75 0.4 - 0.5 Rock – poorly blasted

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 20

Standard Cycle time (t)= Actual cycle time =

excavating time + swing time loaded+ dumping time +swing time empty OR standard cycle time * time factor Cycle Time (t)

Standard cycle time based on bucket Capacity

BUCKET CAPACITY

Time Factor (F)

Dumping Conditions Digging Conditions

BELOW 40 % 40 % - 75 % OVER 75 % EASY NORMAL

(Average)

RATHER DIFFICULT

DIFFICULT

Swing Angle /Time (Sec)

40 - 90 13 -15 13 -15 14 -16 16-18 18 - 20 20 - 22

90 -180 15 -17 15 -17 16 -18 18 – 21 20 – 23 22 - 25

0.7 0.8 0.9

0.9 1.0 1.1

1.1 1.3 1.5

1.4 1.6 1.8

0.25 0.4 0.45 0.7 0.9 1.2

Digging condition= (Digging depth/ Max. depth of cut)*100 Easy = Dump onto spoil pile Normal = Large dump target Rather difficult = Small dump target Difficult = Small dump target requiring maximum reach.

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 21

Example-4

A contractor has a project to construct a large office building with an underground parking garage. He has decide to use a Hydraulic excavator to excavate for the parking garage and load the excavated material into a dump trucks. The maximum digging depth of the excavator is 6m and it is equipped with a 1.2 cum bucket size. The material to be excavated is a tough clay at average depth of cut 3m and job condition are considered to be average. Angle of swing 600 and work an average of 50 min per hour. What is the estimated productivity in bank Cum per hour if the swell of the excavated material is 35%.

Bucket size (q) = 1.2 cum Bucket factor (k) = 0.85 (taken average value of 0.8 and 0.9) Digging condition = (3/6)*100 = 50% Time Factor (F) = 1.3 (for digging and rather difficult dumping condition (dump truck)) Standard time (t) = 22 sec (1.2cum bucket size and 600 angle of swing) Job Efficiency (E) = (50/60)=0.83

** 3600 × 1.2 × 0 .85 × 0 .83 = 106 .5 P (lcm/hr) = ( 22 × 1.3)
**

106 .5 P (bcm/hr) = = 78 .9 1.35

→

(For given 35% of swell)

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 22