INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR: Unlocking Opportunity

Unlocking Opportunity
Australian Government
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Economic Analytical Unit

©Commonwealth of Australia 2007 This work is copyright. Apart from any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth available through the Attorney-General’s Department. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Copyright Law Branch, Attorney-General’s Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Canberra ACT 2600 or by email to

Australia. Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Economic Analytical Unit. India’s services sector: unlocking opportunity. Bibliography. ISBN 9781921244056. 1. Service industries - India. 2. India - Commerce. 3. India - Economic conditions. 4. India - Economic policy. I. Title. 338.470954 Editing by Peter Judge. Typesetting by Lyn Lalor. Production by Jean Penny, Pirion Print and Design. Cover photo by Adrian Westwood, Firefly Creative.

and the shape of the international trading system. at around eight per cent. new developments in technology. initiated by the then Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh in 1991. but this was largely a reflection of the liberalisation and deregulation measures under Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi as well as expansionary policies that ended in the economic crisis of June 1991. Manmohan Singh…decided that India had to open its economy.Executive Summary executive summaryi ‘In 1991. provided the momentum for a major reduction of the role of the public sector in the economy. by 2050 India could be the third-largest economy in the world (in market exchange rate terms) by a significant margin. Too much is dependent on factors which cannot be plausibly predicted. The World is Flat) Optimism abounds in India. most recently. Between 1991 and 2005 the economy expanded at an annual average of around six per cent. It was the more systematic and deeper reforms commencing in 1991 that helped sustain India’s economic growth. Well it might. a degree of deregulation. “Our Berlin Wall fell…and it was like unleashing a caged tiger… We went from quiet self-confidence to outrageous ambition in a decade” [Tarun Das. Any such attempt would be futile.5 per cent to a much faster growth trajectory. the Republic of Korea. India’s entrepreneurial spirit was unleashed. Growth was strong over 1988–89 to 1990–91. Chief Mentor. China.2 per cent in the third quarter of 2006. If so. with India running out of hard currency. such as the ongoing willingness and ability of Indian governments to sustain a reform program over long periods. Growth for 2006–07 may be even higher. Keynote reforms. Panagariya (2005) points out that growth was patchy.’ (Thomas Friedman. Such developments would profoundly shift the world’s economic centre of gravity. The result has been a shift from India’s traditional annual GDP growth rates of around 3. studies by a number of prominent analytical organisations have projected that India could even outperform these dynamic economies over the next fifty years. Instead we ask: How might it happen? Is there a plausible path from today’s India to the projected giant economy of 2050? What opportunities might successful pursuit of that path generate for Australian services providers? And finally. behind only China and the United States. P A G E iii . the high-growth ASEAN economies and. and greater integration of India’s economy into international markets. In the past three years growth has been higher still. with the economy expanding at an annualised rate of 9. the health of the international economy. Extrapolating from macro factors – such as demographics and potential for technological ‘catch-up’ – and assuming an ongoing reform effort. these studies claim. Taiwan. This study does not seek either to substantiate or to disprove these rosy projections. what factors need to be taken into account along the way as Australian companies consider whether they should be seeking to participate directly in India’s growth? 1 1 While some contend that growth picked up in the 1980s. These figures call to mind the performance of the economic success stories of East Asia – Japan. Confederation of Indian Industries].

and their sheer size within the economy means they will continue to have a critical role.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Why services? This report focuses specifically on the services sector because of the central importance of services to India’s current economic expansion. In general. there is a plausible route by which services-led growth could lead to broader-based development. which might be expected to provide the bulk of the required jobs over time. there are signs of an acceleration in the growth of India’s manufacturing sector. for example. Whereas the East Asian economies’ success has largely been built on the development of export-oriented manufacturing. in the minds of many participants in the Indian economy. while that of agriculture – still far and away the largest employer – has dwindled. Though somewhat speculative. the reverse has occurred. But the main driver of growth in the economy since 1991 has been a knowledge-intensive sector. Productivity growth in India. The key imperative for Indian policy-makers is to improve the situation of a huge and growing. particularly manufacturing. knowledge-intensive services exports. hoW can the services boom lead to sustainable groWth? For the reformist approach that has led to India’s recent growth to be politically sustainable in the medium to long term. and the income that growth brings to the country. this would involve growth of dynamic services export sectors such as Information Technology–Information Technology Enabled Services (IT–ITES). which is never likely to become a mass employer of low-skilled labour. construction. based on the WTO definition of services which includes construction. and consequently to job creation on the necessary scale. manufacturing and retail. This is not to say that developments in other sectors are unimportant. when the reform effort was kicked off in earnest. In India’s case. rural working class. it must demonstrate benefits to all strata of society. nor that the profile of India’s economy will remain static over time. development of the services sector occurs after developments in agriculture and manufacturing. Manufacturing. it has been services that have led the way. has maintained a stubbornly static share in the economy at around 20 per cent. This means creating vast numbers of appropriate jobs. It is the consequent growth in these other sectors. by contrast. Already. Put simply. providing a major stimulus to domestic demand and hence catalysing reform and growth in other sectors – including infrastructure development. which is elaborated in Chapter 1. How to resolve the two? Fieldwork in the course of this study suggested that. Yet the services-dependent profile of its economy is much closer to that which has typically been associated with middle-income developing countries. P A G E iv . this idea. Services have consistently grown at a faster pace than the economy as a whole since 1991. But to date. They now occupy some 60 per cent of India’s GDP. but relatively low skilled. unlike virtually all other regions of the world. has been strongest in services (IMF 2006). In terms of per capita income India remains a poor country. This is an unusual growth path. is of interest because it provides a plausible road map by which current developments might lead to the long-term projections. India’s recent growth has been led by the dynamism of its services sector – particularly high-end.

Knowledge-based industries have been prominent among the fastest growing services. India’s world-class knowledge-based services are also increasingly assuming importance for the inputs they provide for other sectors of the Indian domestic economy – such as manufacturing. financial services. The rapid expansion of the export-oriented IT–ITES sector is much lauded.Executive Summary It also provides a framework for examination of India’s services sector as a whole which highlights the differing roles that different sub-sectors might play as the economy develops – and hence the differing types and timeframes for opportunities that are likely to arise for Australian services providers. technological advances and widespread English-language capabilities. the better performing services sub-sectors either have not been subject to significant amounts of regulation (notably IT–ITES) or have been deregulated and opened up to competition (most prominently. A modern economy demands both an efficient telecommunications infrastructure to facilitate rapid information exchange and communication between economic units. and biotechnology services. Increased inward investment flows stemming from a relaxation of restrictions on foreign investment and particular inducements such as Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have helped underpin the performance of some of the faster growing services sectors. consulting services. as well as burgeoning inflows of foreign direct investment. different services sub-sectors clearly have different roles to play. and has resulted in a significant increase in export earnings. private healthcare. High-end services such as IT–ITES have an important role to play in India’s overall development on two levels. These are examined in Chapter 2. and logistics – thereby improving productivity in those sectors and further enhancing growth prospects. This success has led. Their expansion has in large part been based on external demand. other services sectors also have a crucial role to play. but several other key services are also growing strongly. which should in turn fuel increased domestic demand. Broadly speaking. with most of the multinational ‘majors’ now represented in India. PAGE v . As growth continues. as employment grows. creating requirements for new buildings and infrastructure. to expansion of the IT sector. retail. and in education and training to ensure that there is sufficient skilled labour to allow the economy to modernise. The relative lack of regulation and modest capital requirements in these industries have enabled them to capitalise on the advantages of a low-cost. as well as the growth of an increasingly sophisticated and affluent consumer class. and a financial sector which is able to provide sophisticated intermediation between capital providers and capital users so that resources are allocated efficiently within the economy. including telecommunications. the roles of different sub-sectors Within an overall framework of services-led growth. It also requires increasing sophistication in areas such as transport and power infrastructure to prevent disruptions to production and enable goods to be moved efficiently around the country. and will continue to lead. educated workforce. telecommunications and domestic air travel).

And its major IT companies. As India’s exports of business services have exploded. Where they might do so is examined in Chapter 3. including modern distribution systems and integrated supply chains. as does the retail sector. As reform and growth continues in other areas. P A G E vi . In relation to IT–ITES. less regulated by comparison with manufacturing. Within another sector crucial to the health of the economy – transport infrastructure – the picture is mixed. Specialised activities are taking place in diverse locations. Significant changes have occurred in the financial sector. but it has been fraught with delays and is struggling to keep pace with the major expansion in air travel that is taking place in India. Wipro. resulting in a rapid increase in services trade. including through the introduction of mechanisms designed to promote private and international investment in the sector. but while reform has begun in respect of railways. The first hypermarkets and department stores are starting to emerge – again bringing with them requirements for skills and approaches which to date have been little required in India. economic activity in this area is mirroring familiar developments in the manufacturing sector. as well as focusing on the obvious growth areas of IT–ITES. The most commonly highlighted aspect of this phenomenon has been the trend towards business process outsourcing and ‘offshoring’ of services to India. Satyam and Tata Consulting Services (to name but a few). Some business services important to facilitating growth – such as legal and accountancy services – remain largely protected from foreign competition. and remain. Modernisation of airports is under way. although most services have been. roads. these sectors can also be expected to come under further pressure to deregulate and modernise. opportunities for australian services providers The range and extent of changes that are foreseeable in the Indian economy as it continues to develop suggest that. But it is very much a two-way process. Ports have been considerably opened up to competition. pressure for change can only be expected to increase as Indians increasingly travel overseas and experience international standards of service in these areas. and to a greater extent. so have its imports. India’s role in creating and leading a ‘tradability revolution’ in services merits strong attention from Australian business. While complete liberalisation of foreign investment rules in these areas is fraught with political difficulty and likely to be some way off. reflecting a fundamental change in the way services are produced and delivered worldwide. Essentially.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Reform measures within these ‘enabling’ sub-sectors vary considerably. Already shopping malls are springing up all over India in the face of seemingly insatiable demand. Australian services providers should be looking to a number of other sectors in considering how they might participate in India’s ongoing growth. providing jobs for locals in host markets – including Australia. although foreign investment in banking and insurance remains heavily constrained. Production is becoming more fragmented. are increasingly expanding overseas. substantial investment is required in these sectors to bring them to an acceptable standard. such as Infosys. Australia has very real strengths in this area and is well placed to participate in emerging services production networks – particularly in high-end services such as Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-enabled research and analysis. Power shortages also remain a major constraint on growth – albeit one which the government is now seeking to address.

principally at tertiary level. expanding bilateral economic ties The base of bilateral commercial activity on which Australian companies can build has grown rapidly. Australia and India concluded a Trade and Economic Framework (TEF) in March 2006. While Australian direct investment in India’s services sector is presently at modest levels. including through the establishment of operations offshore and distance learning programs. Perhaps the most striking example. and legal and accountancy services. however. At the official level. Indian companies have made substantial investments in Australia’s services sector. Total trade surpassed A$10 billion for the first time in 2005–06. most notably in IT. with more than 38 700 Indian student enrolments in Australian educational institutions for the 11 months to November 2006. particularly in IT–ITES. biotechnology. cooperation and collaboration between Australian and Indian firms to service third markets could expand to the benefit of both countries. retail and logistics. information technology. Chapter 4 examines this activity. tourism and travel-related services. is that of education and training. a number of these companies are also using their Australian subsidiaries to secure or help take advantage of global market opportunities – leading to high-quality employment opportunities for Australians. Given the skills India’s development is likely to demand. particularly in the context of New Delhi’s hosting of the 2010 Commonwealth Games.Executive Summary While a key focus of the dozens of Indian IT companies operating in Australia is the provision of IT solutions to local companies. financial services. As the trend to deliver services through international networks develops. healthcare services. sports and related infrastructure. which provides a clear structure for the further development of commercial relations. mining services. Despite high levels of publicity for the relocation of corporate functions to India by some major companies. India ranks twelfth overall as a trading partner of Australia. in large part reflecting the strength of education exports – a direct spin-off from India’s rapid growth. Relevant areas include infrastructure development and related consultancy services. It will be important for Australian companies to understand the export opportunities created by complementarities between Indian and Australian services providers in this area. film and television. there is ample scope for this relationship to continue to grow in the medium term – particularly as institutions take the opportunity to diversify their approaches to provision of education and training. it is set to increase with some recent investment decisions and conclusion of contracts. A major relationship already exists in this field. While India is home to a number of world class companies. This number is still growing rapidly. P A G E vii . Numerous visits to India by senior Australian Ministers – highlighted by that of Prime Minister Howard in March 2006 – underpin what is now a major trading relationship. the balance of bilateral services trade is firmly in Australia’s favour. India has been Australia’s second-fastest growing services export market over the past five years. telecommunications. The bilateral commercial relationship has developed rapidly into one of vitality and energy. Australian companies also have significant expertise that could augment India’s capabilities or meet India’s needs. with strong support from governments.

Much can be. only one of which leads unequivocally to strong growth and broad-based development – and one of which leads equally unequivocally in the opposite direction (WEF 2005). But the devil. The success of reform in generating growth to date appears to have engendered a critical mass of political opinion that is in favour. in principle. and barriers and burdens that exist both formally in the regulatory framework and informally in the way it is administered. Europe and China. reduction in bureaucratic discretion over licences and permits. whether through trade or investment. It is clear that many other less optimistic scenarios are also possible. but feedback from businesses active in the Indian market continues to suggest that issues remain. through migration and education. is in the detail. administrative measures. it also poses significant challenges. whose capacity to engender fellow-feeling should not be underestimated. Success demands significant investment of time and effort in understanding the business environment. and has been. Work by the World Economic Forum in collaboration with the Confederation of Indian Industry. There are also significant people-to-people links. relatively reasonably priced and friendly destination for their children’s education. as always. Australian companies enjoy a degree of benefit from favourable Indian perceptions of their country. achieved through low-profile. seeks to identify relevant considerations for Australian companies considering a deeper involvement in India as a market for services exports. achieving major necessary reforms remains difficult. Chapter 5. careful selection of a business partner or customer. and the ability to take a long-term view of the market. Prerequisites for building a successful business in the Indian market include thorough research and preparation. though these should not be overstated. So is cricket. and foreign participation. P A G E viii . produced three possible scenarios for the future of the Indian economy. Key challenges include power and transport infrastructure shortcomings. The key question will be the ability of successive governments to sustain the momentum of reform. However. especially for smaller Australian companies. English is widely spoken. it is important that the benefits of economic growth are seen to be widely distributed. That said. of ongoing reform.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY india’s business environment A credible story can be told that would see the pattern of knowledge-intensive service-driven development which has been embarked upon by India feeding into the robust growth trajectory projected by Goldman Sachs and others. privatisation. Recent efforts to broaden the base of the business relationships by federal and state government-led business missions to India have helped raise Australia’s profile and improve Indian awareness of Australian capabilities and expertise in a number of areas. There are some similarities in the legal systems of the two countries. Indians perceive Australia as a safe. If the necessary political support is to be achieved. the final chapter of this report. Increasing automation of transactions. the jury will remain out for some time on whether the benign scenario of ongoing growth – and particularly increased employment and welfare across the Indian economy – will come to pass. and the tenacity and resilience to overcome setbacks or delays. particularly in flagship areas such as labour policy. which represent a potential asset when it comes to exploiting trade and investment opportunities. and the activities of a free. despite facing fierce competition for India’s attention from larger players such as the United States. for example. vocal and critical media have improved transparency for business. While India presents as a potentially attractive market for many Australian businesses.

Table of Contents table of contentsi ExECUTIVE SUmmARY TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 SERVICES AND INDIA’S RISE Key points Introduction: an emerging giant The importance of services Drivers of services sector growth The way forward Implications CHAPTER 2 THE ROLE OF SERVICES IN DEVELOPmENT Key points The drivers The contributors The slower reformers Sectors vital to broad-based development Interrelationship of services with manufacturing. construction management and consulting services Education and training services Tourism and travel-related services Film and television Sports and related infrastructure Healthcare services Research Mining services Retail Logistics Professional services CHAPTER 4 THE BILATERAL ECONOmIC RELATIONSHIP Key points Overview of the relationship Trade in services Services investment A platform for future growth iii ix 1 1 2 4 7 12 14 15 15 17 28 35 40 45 49 49 51 52 53 54 56 59 61 62 62 63 64 64 65 65 67 67 68 70 77 84 P A G E ix . agriculture and mining CHAPTER 3 OPPORTUNITIES FOR AUSTRALIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS IN INDIA Key points Information technology Telecommunications Financial services Infrastructure.

INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY CHAPTER 5 INDIA’S BUSINESS ENVIRONmENT: ImPLICATIONS FOR AUSTRALIAN COmPANIES Key points An improving business environment Advantages for Australian companies Remaining hurdles Strategies for success 87 87 89 100 101 107 109 125 125 127 131 REFERENCES AUTHORS ECONOmIC ANALYTICAL UNIT ACKNOwLEDGmENTS ALSO BY THE ECONOmIC ANALYTICAL UNIT PAGE x .

• If accompanied by further economic reforms. increased demand for goods and services in the Indian economy resulting from the success of high-end services has the potential to drive robust growth in the medium term. PAGE 1 . • Services have been a major contributor to India’s strong recent GDP growth. – Implementation of the reforms required to bring this growth about could engender changes in key services sectors that would open opportunities for participation by foreign companies. – Services have helped underpin India’s economic vibrancy through their linkages with other sectors of the economy. and – changes in patterns of services production worldwide. which could be the third-largest in the world by a significant margin in 2050. in which India’s high-end services providers are playing a major role. – the unusually large role services play in the economy overall by comparison with other countries at similar stages of development. – Rapidly increasing two-way trade in information technology and information technology enabled services (IT–ITES) and other high-end services sub-sectors has been a critical factor in India’s improved economic performance. given – the rapidly increasing importance of India’s economy.Chapter 1 services and india’s risei Key points • Developments in India’s services sector potentially have worldwide significance. measured at market exchange rates.

The Economist Intelligence Unit projects annual average growth in India’s real GDP of 5. IMF 2006. outstripping even China and other emerging market economies.2 per cent per annum in India through to 2050. In purchasing power parity terms. as emerging economies. GDP grew at 9.9 per cent through to 2030 (The Economist 2005b). If realised. resulting in reduced public sector participation in the economy. ongoing reform. India is doing something right.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY ‘[Information Technology (IT) and IT Enabled Services] can do for India what automotives did for Japan and oil for Saudi Arabia.5 per cent in the near term (see for example. If much of the international commentary is to be believed. India’s economic growth has averaged around six per cent. Goldman Sachs projects that by 2050 the Indian and Chinese economies will respectively be around 80 and 125 per cent of the size of the US economy. PAGE 2 . and no major adverse shocks. and most commentators estimate that India should be able to sustain growth rates of between 7. and over the past three years growth has been of the order of 7. Employing similar assumptions. These projections build on an impressive growth record since the then Finance Minister (and now Prime Minister) Manmohan Singh initiated key economic reforms in June 1991.8 per cent in Indonesia (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2006). Assuming the maintenance of growth-supportive policy settings. Brazil and Mexico. A chorus of recent long-term projections. the analyses of Goldman Sachs et al would point to a significant re-alignment of the global economic order.5 to 8.0 and 8. led by China and India. citing India’s growing workforce and the scope for it to increase productivity dramatically through technological ‘catch-up’ with the West.2 per cent during the third quarter of 2006. greater openness to international competition. Measured at market exchange rates. far ahead of its previous sluggish performance. India is already the world’s fourth-largest economy and will become the third-largest much sooner.9 per cent in China. and 4. The Economist 2006a and ADB 2006). tapering off slightly after that (Goldman Sachs 2003). and significant deregulation. Clearly. Goldman Sachs predicts annual real GDP growth of around six per cent through to 2040. They suggest India’s economy could rival – at market exchange rates – the size of the largest European countries by 2020 and outstrip Japan by 2032 to become the world’s third-largest economy after the United States and China (Goldman Sachs 2003). Since those reforms. suggest India could be the world’s fastest growing major economy over the next 50 years.5 per cent. PricewaterhouseCoopers forecast real average GDP growth of 5.’ (Noshir Kaka. the optimism seems well-founded. come to account for a much larger share of global economic output. compared to 3. McKinsey & Company) introduction: an emerging giant The first-time visitor to one of India’s major cities cannot but be struck by the energy. entrepreneurialism and optimism that abounds there. Principal.

but also for the world economy. would create demand for new skills and capabilities within the Indian economy. but the tasks – both practical and political – which confront it in maintaining the momentum of reform remain huge. That is. either through direct service provision or through education and training. India has profited significantly from the reformist approach of its recent governments. By contrast. The report concludes that successful pursuit of India’s current growth path could open a wide range of opportunities for Australian services providers. as numerous studies make clear. and the reform and change within India which would need to accompany it. This report examines the contribution of India’s services sector to the unfolding story of India’s economic development.Servces and India’s Rise In one important respect. The current leadership is likewise reformist in orientation. and in particular whether it can adequately address India’s need to provide jobs for huge numbers of its unemployed and underemployed rural citizens. The extent to which India’s growth path can be sustained. It is equally important that Australian companies remain aware of the caveats that surround this optimistic scenario. But. PAGE 3 . Australian enterprises would be well placed to provide many of these capabilities. It describes the role that headline growth sectors such as IT–ITES and telecommunications would play in catalysing reform and growth in other areas of the services sector and the Indian economy more broadly if this path to development is successfully pursued. rapid growth in an export-oriented sector has been a key stimulus for growth in the economy as a whole. whether growth generated in what remains one relatively small sector of the economy will translate into reform and growth in other sectors. It is important that Australian companies are aware of the potential for these opportunities to arise. will have important implications not just for India itself. Both sustained growth. this is by no means the only possibility. India’s growth path to date resembles those of other key developing economies in Asia. This report has deliberately focused on the implications of India pursuing its current growth trajectory successfully. Australian companies need also to be fully cognisant of the hurdles that remain to be overcome. In considering the potential for opportunities to arise in India. services – led by exports of business services from India’s burgeoning information technology and information technology enabled services (IT–ITES) sectors – have been the chief source of India’s recent economic success. But China and the ASEAN countries rose to prominence through the rapid expansion of their export-oriented manufacturing. fuelled by significant foreign investment. so that they are able to respond strategically when they do.

Pre 1999–2000 services to GDP data for India are 1993–94 price data. Sources: United Nations Statistics Division 2006 for services to GDP data. environmental services. This is consistent with the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY the importance of services The strength and importance of India’s services sector distinguish it from Asia’s other developing countries (Figure 1. agriculture’s share in national output contracts and a parallel expansion of industry takes place.1 India’s ‘X’ factor: a dominant and growing services sector Services as a proportion of GDP (five year averages) and 2004 per capita GDP in selected Asian economies India’s services sector is larger and growing faster than that of economies with higher per capita GDP 70 60 Per cent of GDP 50 40 1985–89 1990–94 1995–99 2000–04 2004 per capita GDP 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 Current USD 30 6000 20 10 0 Vietnam India Indonesia China Thailand Malaysia Republic of Korea 4000 2000 0 Notes: Services to GDP data are at constant 1990 prices in US dollars.1). As the economy moves to upper-middle income levels. services’ share tends to grow more rapidly. financial services. as development proceeds. service industries develop on a large scale after agriculture and manufacturing have reached a certain stage of development. The share of both industry and services in GDP tends to increase as per capita incomes rise and the economy progresses from low to lower-middle income status. PAGE 4 . distribution services. Indian CSO 2006 for 1999–2000 to 2004–05 services to GDP data on India. 1 Figure 1. communication services. IMF World Economic Outlook Database 2006 for 2004 per capita GDP data. 1 In this report construction is included as part of the services sector. while industry’s share plateaus or declines. Generally. RBI 2005b. Table 3 for pre-1999–2000 services to GDP data on India. health related and social services. recreational. transport services and other services not included elsewhere. educational services. Typically. initially centred on labour-intensive production. cultural and sporting services. which includes construction and related engineering services as one of 12 major services sectors. tourism and travel related services. which have been melded to available 1999–2000 price data. The other major sectors are business services. 2004 services to GDP data for Thailand and Malaysia are not available.

services’ share of GDP had risen to 60. 6. it was 48 per cent.6 per cent for agriculture. RBI 2005b. Indian fiscal year data are for the April – March fiscal year.7 per cent (Figure 1.Servces and India’s Rise India’s manufacturing sector is biased towards capital-intensive production. Indian CSO 2006 for 1999–2000 to 2004–05 data.2). It contributed 70 per cent of overall GDP growth over the period. Sources: PIB 2006 for 2005–06 data.1 per cent for industry and 6.1 per cent for the economy overall. in per cent. which have been melded to available 1999–2000 price data. In this respect. Between 1980–2004.9 per cent. In 1970–71. By 2005–06. the services sector grew at a trend rate of 7. has not thus far benefited appreciably from strong growth in exports due to the trend to integrated international production systems (see Chapter 2). Table 3 for pre-1999–2000 data. it stood at just 39 per cent. while its growth is accelerating. By 1990–91. 2 Figure 1. It has remained largely static at around 20 per cent of the economy and. The upward trend in services’ share of Indian GDP has accelerated since the major economic reforms initiated in 1991. productivity grew most rapidly in services. in contrast to the general pattern observed in other countries where productivity growth was stronger in manufacturing and agriculture (IMF 2006). 1990–91 to 2005–06 100 80 Per cent of GDP 60 40 20 0 1990–91 2000–01 1993–94 1997–98 1999–00 1991–92 1992–93 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1998–99 2001–02 2003–04 2004–05 2002–03 2005–06 PAGE 5 Services Notes: Industry Agriculture Pre 1999–2000 data are 1993–94 price data. 2 Throughout the report. Over the period 1991–92 to 2005–06. . compared with just 2.2 Services sector gaining ground Sector shares in GDP (at factor cost and 1999–2000 prices). India appears more typical of a middle-income developing economy than a low-income economy.

such as financial services. Weightings used to calculate 1999–2000 price estimates may not reflect activity weightings that would be more appropriate today. IT–ITES have in recent years been the key catalyst of growth. Deregulation and foreign investment in such facilitating services drive improved performance within those sectors and bring significant competitiveness benefits to the wider economy given their importance as inputs to other sectors. While reform is proceeding in these areas.6 per cent based on the earlier 1993–94 price data. Growth and improved efficiencies in other key areas. transportation and transport infrastructure. And other sectors which potentially have a critical role to play in improving overall productivity have lagged far behind growth in the economy as a whole.6) of manufacturing and services. This could in turn help ensure that development is more broadly based across both regions and socio-economic groups – and therefore sustainable. IT–ITES and other fast-growing high-end services such as telecommunications have now reached a size where they are significant contributors to GDP growth. The sector recorded a robust 9. box 1. PAGE 6 .0 per cent. Their success has come largely through rapid expansion of exports tapping into burgeoning world-wide demand. Certain services stand out in terms of their role in driving economic growth. as investment and rapid advancements in telecommunications infrastructure and information technology enable an increasing array of activities to be performed remotely. however.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Growth in services likewise exceeded overall growth in the economy over 2002–03 to 2005–06. are compiled through indirect methods.7 per cent of GDP in 2004–05 according to GDP data at 1999–2000 prices – compared with 57. uniform across India’s services sector.1: measurement of services in the national accounts Services contributed 59.1 per cent average growth. Building on India’s large pool of engineering talent and its rapidly expanding telecommunications sector. much remains to be done. Growth is not. as well as for some segments of private organised services sectors.1). GDP estimates for the ‘unorganised’ segments (as defined in Box 2. Moreover the official data do not capture all economic activity equally well. given the fast-changing nature of some services sectors. Services may be even more important and growing somewhat faster than the official data would suggest (Box 1. somewhat short of the eight per cent target set in the Plan. are vital to facilitating expansion of other sectors of the economy. Faced with relatively low levels of regulation. Under-reporting of incomes may also take place in some sectors. while total GDP grew at 7. using indicators to extrapolate benchmark GDP estimates in a base year (Indian CSO 2006). the first four years of the tenth Five Year Plan (2002–07).

Technological developments have been the key enabler of the explosion in commercial services trade.6 billion.Servces and India’s Rise drivers of services sector groWth ‘The aphorism “In a desert one should find camels not hippopotamuses” is a good guide to analyzing the pattern of economic growth. relatively low cost. These factors are examined further below. increased industry outsourcing. A large. In an economic environment where. Compared with the manufacturing sector. which contains more English-speakers than the United States and Britain combined (Chapter 5). total services imports more than doubled to US$38. say. liberalisation of foreign investment and greater private sector participation since 1991. investment and rapid technological advancements in telecommunications and information technology are driving reductions to the cost of digitising. However some other important influences should be noted. If rain is scarce.’ (World Bank 2006a) Strong growth in foreign demand. Services tend to be less dependent on large-scale investments. has enabled India to capitalise on burgeoning export opportunities in high-end services. Between 2003–04 and 2005–06. gross product in services sectors (outside of community. and well-educated workforce. Imports of commercial services excluding transportation and travel accounted for some 60 per cent of the total growth in services imports in 2005–06 (RBI 2006a). In 2005–06 they were valued at US$60. social and personal services) is more concentrated in the largely unregulated ‘unorganised’ sector (as defined in Box 2. Specifically. consistent with the comment from the World Bank cited above. particularly for IT–ITES. Booming services trade India’s services trade has grown at a phenomenal rate in recent times reflecting strong growth in foreign demand. and so less subject to investment-related regulatory hurdles (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). deregulation. The IT–ITES sector in particular has benefited from a supportive policy approach. one should find “infrastructure camels” – those industries and firms that are thriving should be less than usually reliant on infrastructure. Exports grew at a trend annual growth rate of 20 per cent over the ten years to 2004–05. transmitting and processing information. thereby enabling an ever increasing number of services to be undertaken remotely by specialist PAGE 7 . reflecting the two-way nature of trade opportunities generated by growth in the commercial services sector. Transport infrastructure shortcomings also tend to have a lesser bearing on most services sectors. Around 85 per cent of the growth in services exports in 2005–06 was attributable to growth in commercial services excluding transportation and travel (RBI 2006a).3 billion (RBI 2006a). transport infrastructure is scarce. up over 40 per cent on their 2004–05 value (RBI 2006a).6). then one should find animals adapted to a scarcity of water. Services imports have demonstrated a similar pattern of strong growth. not those reliant on water. and high income elasticity of demand for services have been among the key factors driving high growth in India’s services sector (Gordon and Gupta 2004).

box 1. But companies are re-examining their approach to service delivery as advances in information technology. for example. The haircut. from which the customer can then choose. The designer produces and transmits back to the shop a range of suggested hairstyles. PAGE 8 . Sadagopan. India’s commercial services imports have experienced similar meteoric growth. 3 3 Based on discussions in May 2006 with Professor S. Bangalore. the dotcom bust of 2000. the overall outcome has been a dramatic increase in India’s exports of commercial services excluding transportation and travel. All of a sudden. with its large cohort of engineering graduates and the widespread English language skills of its population. International Institute of Information Technology. has often been regarded as the archetypal ‘non-tradable’ service.2). Director. By ‘unbundling’ the hairdressing service in this way. which requires the deliverer of the service (the hairdresser) to be physically located next to the recipient. The customer potentially has access to a top international designer and a range of possible new hairstyle choices.2: rethinKing the haircut – india and the services tradability revolution Traditionally. But it is indicative of the entrepreneurialism being applied in India to exploiting its competitive advantage in IT Enabled Services. Fundamental changes are occurring in the way service activities are undertaken and delivered worldwide.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY providers. As the graph on the left of the next page shows. which left a global network of broadband on the market from failed telecommunications companies that was subsequently snapped up for a fraction of its cost. which is transmitted to a designer in a remote location. economists have tended to think of services either as ‘tradable’ or ‘non-tradable’. The digitised images are then processed so as to produce an accurate representation of the customer’s scalp. and the hairdresser and designer can focus on their respective specialised skills. maximising the value added by each. there is a hairdressing shop where the appointment commences with the customer sitting while her head is photographed from many different angles. But as the graph on the right demonstrates. This rather elaborate approach to hairdressing may never become widespread. without hair. In Bangalore. India. has been a particular beneficiary of this services tradability revolution (Box 1. the haircut – or part of it – has become a tradable service. as the ‘tradability revolution’ results in rapidly increasing trade in services. drastically reduced the cost of broadband communications (Friedman 2005). In particular. the hairdressing shop is able both to increase its efficiency and provide a better service. and in telecommunications have enabled packages of digitised information to be moved around the globe almost instantaneously.

2006b). Not surprisingly these are sectors that either have not been subject to significant amounts of regulation or have been deregulated and opened to competition since 1991. Commercial services excluding travel and transportation Total services Sources: RBI 2006a for 1999–2000 to 2005–06 data. the telecommunications sector has also attracted significant inflows of FDI.2 (continued) Booming two-way trade in commercial services India’s services trade (US$ billion) 70 45 40 35 Exports 60 50 Imports US$ billion 40 30 20 10 0 1996–97 2000–01 1995–96 1998–99 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 1997–98 1999–00 2005–06 2004–05 US$ billion 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996–97 1995–96 1998–99 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 1997–98 1999–00 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 PAGE 9 Commercial services excluding travel and transportation Total services Note: 2005–06 data are provisional. FDI in India’s services has grown strongly. owing to the difficulties of measuring investment in the sector. 5 4 4 5 The official data may underestimate the level of foreign investment in services.4). Table 146 for pre 1999–2000 data. According to data from the Indian Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). compared with 20 per cent in other sectors (World Bank 2004).Servces and India’s Rise box 1. which can be critical for the delivery of services (UNCTAD 2004). Reflecting the strong international demand for services in which India enjoys a comparative advantage. . RBI 2005b. Foreign Investment and deregulation Liberalisation of foreign direct investment (FDI) regimes worldwide has enabled service providers to establish a commercial presence in host countries. Close to one-half of total FDI inflows between 2002–03 and 2005–06 were directed to services (RBI 2005d. Business and computer services and the finance and insurance sectors have been the main targets (Figure 1. The stock of FDI in India’s services sector grew at a compound annual rate of 36 per cent between 1992–93 and 2001–02.

The fast growing Indian services market offers considerable potential for foreign investors.76. 6 Increased private consumption of services High levels of domestic consumption are fuelling growth in both the services sector and the broader Indian economy (Das 2006).3 Growing services FDI is concentrated in a few key sectors Industry breakdown of FDI inflows in Indian services. Table 1. The trade reforms of the 1990s were a significant factor behind manufacturing industries’ greater reliance on services inputs. design and testing.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Figure 1. 2002–03 to 2005–06 900 800 700 600 US$ million 500 400 300 200 100 0 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 Computer services Finance. Table 1.71. Increased industry outsourcing of services Indian industry has increasingly sought to contract out an array of services previously produced in house (Gordon and Gupta 2004) . back-office functions and post-sales service. P A G E 10 . Japan (55 per cent) and China (42 per cent) 6 Gordon and Gupta (2004) find empirical evidence of industry’s increased resource to contract out services over the 1980s and early 1990s. Private consumption expenditure accounts for 64 per cent of India’s GDP – more than in Europe (58 per cent). Industry’s increased reliance on services inputs in turn appears to be having a marked effect on increasing manufacturing output. hotels and restaurants Other services Sources: RBI 2005d. such as software development. RBI 2006b. although continuing restrictions on foreign equity holdings in some sectors and other constraints and impediments to business have a restraining effect. up from just one per cent in the 1980s (Banga and Goldar 2004). Services inputs contributed around 25 per cent of total output growth in India’s organised manufacturing sector in the 1990s. insurance. real estate and business services Construction Transport Health and medical services Trade. as firms appeared increasingly to look to services inputs to meet intensifying competition precipitated by the reforms (Banga and Goldar 2004).

India’s growing middle class Classification of households by income class (Rs ’000 pa) 250 Number of households (millions) 200 150 100 50 0 1995–96 Deprived (<90) 2001–02 Aspirers (90–200) 2005–06 * Strivers (200–1000) 2009–10 * Well-off (1000–10 000) * Projection Source: NCAER. India’s National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) estimates that in 2001–02 there were some 53 million households (comprising around 280 million people) with annual incomes of Rs90 000 (US$1900) or more. and education. P A G E 11 . Services were prominent among the segments of private consumption expenditure that grew at annual rates of above 15 per cent over the decade to 2003 (Ernst & Young 2005a).Servces and India’s Rise (The Economist 2006b). By 2009–10. Consumption expenditure on movies and theatres and vacations each increased by around 30 per cent in 2003 (KSA Technopak Consumer Outlook 2004.3) have helped power growth over more recent years. There were almost 11 million households with incomes of Rs200 000–1million (US$4200–21 000). box 1. transport.3: an increasingly affluent middle class India has a large and growing consumer class. cited in IBEF 2005c). The segments recording strong growth included hotels and restaurants. NCAER estimates the number of households with annual incomes of Rs90 000 or more will have increased to 108 million – double the number in 2001–02 and treble that in 1995–96 – while the number of households with incomes of Rs200 000–500 000 could exceed 28 million. Growing affluence and a rapidly increasing middle class (Box 1. medical care and health services. communication. Services’ share in private final consumption expenditure almost tripled to 29 per cent over the 50 years to 2000–01 (Hansda 2001). Bearing in mind the relatively low cost of many goods and services in developing countries and rising per capita incomes. the number of households able to afford an increasing range and quality of services is clearly growing rapidly.

Perhaps most importantly in the context of India’s services-driven development model. and therefore higher returns. First. and. This specialisation. educated elite. Brazil’s or Russia’s). while rising consumer demand is likely to drive growth in retail trade. and its capacity to increase productivity dramatically through technological ‘catch-up with the West from a lower base level than China and other large developing economies (Goldman Sachs 2003. PricewaterhouseCoopers 2006). and not just a relatively small. Pressure for expanded output in those sectors would intensify further if India’s relatively capital-intensive manufacturing sector – which has begun to record growth rates in the vicinity of ten per cent – continues to perform strongly. financial services. and more traditional services such as transport and construction. such as telecommunications. The rising incomes and expectations of those working in the boom industries helps fuel consumer demand.4). oil and other resources. Second. can provide greater opportunities for economies of scale. by increasing the supply potential of the economy. raises India’s capacity to import. P A G E 12 . But the key question for India is whether the services-led growth that has. Exporting is an efficient means of introducing new technologies and gaining exposure to leading-edge production and marketing techniques. both to India’s services exporters and to the broader economy (ADB 2005). to date. hotels and restaurants and other tourism-related services.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY the Way forWard Bullish forecasts for long-term economic growth in India vis-à-vis all other major economies are principally premised on projections of its labour force growing beyond 2050 (unlike China’s. there are income multiplier effects. India’s increasingly outward orientation is facilitating a more efficient allocation of resources according to the country’s comparative advantage in the production of knowledge-intensive services. mainly been driven by very rapid expansion of what remains a relatively small part of the economy – particularly in employment terms – can feed into broader economic development. If sustained. export-led growth facilitates an expansion of aggregate demand (ADB 2005). The income generated by India’s knowledge-intensive services feeds into increased domestic demand in two ways (conceptualised in Figure 1. generates the foreign exchange needed to procure capital goods. education services. to serve a global market. sufficient to raise the living standards of all Indians. as well as manufacturing and agriculture. Growth in services exports encourages savings and capital accumulation. It is arguable that rapid expansion in knowledge-intensive services exports could continue to be a catalyst for India’s economic growth. the growth of these high-end services should create pressure for expanded output from the industries required to facilitate ongoing expansion at the next level. particularly given that manufacturing is widely considered to have a substantial multiplier effect on job creation in services. the companies generating international revenue drive a rapid expansion of demand for production inputs and facilities (including physical infrastructure and services such as education and training).

If reform and modernisation do occur. Over time this should make growth in the Indian economy less dependent on external demand. in turn. financial services and telecommunication services are already vital inputs to the manufacturing sector. the National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) – is an active and empowered advocate for ongoing reform in the Indian economy. Fast-growing services are also providing increasing business for other sectors. and therefore less vulnerable to slowdown in industrial country markets. implementing modern logistics systems or computerised manufacturing systems or outsourcing basic business processes. agriculture. infrastructure. a further feedback to the IT–ITES sector could well develop as reforming sectors draw on India’s expertise in IT–ITES to make their own operations more productive – for example. human resource development Pressure on retail. At that point reform. manufacturing.Servces and India’s Rise Pressure for expanded output and rising consumer demand. Knowledge-intensive services support innovation. investment and modernisation could occur. Manufacturing’s competitiveness is being enhanced by the increasing tendency to contract out a range of services (see Chapter 2). Some of these processes are already evident. it is apparent that the IT–ITES sector – and in particular its principal representative organisation. Moreover. and human resources Increased domestic demand for IT–ITES and other high-end services Higher personal consumption Productivity-enhancing reforms Pressure to improve delivery of infrastructure.4 How services could lead to broad-based development International demand for IT–ITES and other high-end services New products Export growth Investment in increased capacity Increased revenue Higher salaries in IT sector Demand for construction. or constraints on the ongoing expansion of the fast-growing sectors might emerge. productivity growth and technological improvements in other sectors. could create pressure for increased capabilities and productivity growth in the sectors outlined above. Recent scenario work by the World Economic Forum and the Confederation of Indian Industry (WEF 2005) emphasises the risks for broader growth in the medium to longer term if reforms do not proceed. etc to increase output P A G E 13 . Figure 1. IT.

P A G E 14 . • Australian companies could benefit from maintaining a strategic understanding of these developments when considering whether to venture into the Indian market. longer-term economic growth prospects could be placed at risk. – A significant ongoing commitment to regulatory reform and market opening in these sectors – including reform of foreign investment regulations – will in turn be required to ensure that constraints on growth do not emerge. grounds to expect opportunities to arise for foreign services providers. with economic growth continuing to generate pressure for productivity improvements. – This will necessitate expansion in sectors (such as construction. telecommunications.6 per cent per annum was in some senses reminiscent of China’s experience in manufacturing over the 1984–93 period. so that change in some of these is likely to be rapid. – Such change will give rise to large-scale requirements for skills and capabilities that may not currently be available in sufficient quantities in India.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY The services tradability revolution. and strong and growing inter-sectoral linkages. a fact of which Indian policy-makers are fully cognisant. The robustness of productivity growth in India’s services sector through the 1990s of around 5. At the same time it is clear that manufacturing also has an important role to play in broadening the base of growth and absorbing India’s labour force (see Chapter 2). relative to overall productivity growth in the respective economies (UNCTAD 2005b). 7 Productivity in the services sector is difficult to measure. 7 implications The above characterisation of the broad role services might play in the development of the Indian economy would give rise to a number of implications: • For India’s current development path to be sustainable. it will be important for other sectors to provide an environment in which the ongoing growth of high-end services can be maintained. the increasing sophistication. However the dynamics of the system mean there are likely to be strong positive pressures in favour of reform. financial services. • Reform to date in different services sub-sectors has been variable. – If the reform effort falters. – There are. technology-driven nature and scale of a growing range of Indian services. point to the possibility of India’s services-led development being a viable alternative to the path followed by other rapidly developing Asian economies. professional services and education and training) that supply inputs for IT–ITES and other leading-edge services. transport and power infrastructure. therefore.

Chapter 2 the role of services in developmenti Key points • While high-end services are a key driver of economic growth. • Growth in high-end services like IT–ITES has the potential to generate significant spin-offs. • Broadly speaking. particularly in rural areas. logistics. • Services sector developments are facilitating modernisation in India’s relatively capital-intensive manufacturing industries and in agriculture. and the emergence of a large consumer base with the discretionary spending power to spur demand and employment growth in key labour-intensive sectors. including retail. • The services sector has a major role to play in absorbing India’s rapidly growing labour force. and services inputs should enable India to derive maximum benefit from mineral exploitation once an investment-friendly platform is established for the mining sector. telecommunications). • Financial services and transport infrastructure can be expected to face further pressure to expand capabilities and improve productivity through reform if these sectors are to play their critical role in facilitating economic expansion. technological improvements in manufacturing. the services driving economic growth in India have either not been subject to significant amounts of regulation (notably IT–ITES) or have been deregulated and opened to competition (most prominently. – Retail and wholesale trade and housing and construction in particular have the potential to employ large numbers of less skilled workers. P A G E 15 . and prevent modernisation and inhibit productivity growth in a number of sectors. • Improvements in the delivery of education and healthcare services. are vital for sustainable growth. and legal and accountancy services. other services have a critical role to play. including productivity growth in other services and in agriculture. • Restrictive labour laws and a raft of other regulations provide a strong disincentive to small Indian companies growing above a certain size.

’ (Peter Drucker. hotels and restaurants. IT–ITES and other high-end services are already having a significant positive impact on growth in the broader Indian economy. in which heavy regulation discourages small companies from growing above a certain size. While economic liberalisation can lead to adjustment costs. Improvements in the delivery of public healthcare and education services. Deregulation and improved efficiencies in financial services. Innovation and Entrepreneurship) The description of the possible role of services in driving India’s economic growth in Chapter 1 highlights that services sub-sectors at different stages of deregulation and reform are likely to have differing roles to play in generating economic growth.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY ‘Of the 40 million-plus jobs created since 1965 in the [US] economy. in a dynamic and growing economy where entrepreneurialism is flourishing. It also has the potential to spur reform and productivity improvements in other key services sectors. In general. possibly leapfrogging similar industries in key competitor countries. Demand for manufactured products is also likely to increase. Services sectors with high employment potential – including retail and wholesale trade. These relatively labour-intensive services are likely to have a crucial role to play if India is to absorb its rapidly growing labour force. the sectors which have been subject to the greatest liberalisation have tended to experience higher employment growth than those which have only been P A G E 16 . But as the above quote by Drucker highlights. For these sectors to meet the increased demand there is likely to be a need for reforms directed at easing the impact of the dual economy. particularly in rural areas. transportation and transport infrastructure are driving improved performance within these sectors and also facilitating expansion in other areas of the economy. and housing and construction – will need to expand significantly in response to increased demand stemming from growing consumer affluence. significant numbers of jobs can emerge. as they increasingly draw on high-end services as inputs. Such reforms could significantly improve productivity in the economy. Moreover high-end services can provide the technology to enable Indian manufacturing to move rapidly up the value chain. Growth in these services has the potential to drive higher incomes among the growing middle class of consumers. across regions and socio-economic groups. will be critical to promoting more even – and politically sustainable – economic development. Other services sectors are critical to the health of the Indian economy. high technology did not contribute more than 5 or 6 million. often in unexpected areas of the economy. Developments in these key sectors can help ensure that development is more broadly based. This in turn would generate demand that could be a catalyst for growth in other more labour-intensive areas of the economy. As noted in Chapter 1. Growth rates are also strongly and positively correlated with levels of FDI in services sub-sectors (World Bank 2004). High tech thus contributed no more than ‘smokestack’ lost… Where did all the jobs come from? Everywhere and nowhere. India’s more liberalised services have grown faster.

Despite facing some challenges. IT–ITES looks set to remain a key driver of economic development in India. such as legal and accountancy services. and through its linkages with other sectors. Continued liberalisation therefore appears to be both critical to future growth and potentially welfare-enhancing. • ’contributors’ such as financial services and transport infrastructure. the Government is arguably in a good position to be taking some of the harder reform decisions. the drivers ‘The advent of the internet proved to be the most important turning point. creating significant numbers of high-quality jobs. where reform has been happening but more remains to be done. New technology meant that at last India could reap the benefits of its long-term investments in education. and • ’sectors vital to broad-based development’ – education and healthcare. • the ’slower reformers’ such as retail and legal and accounting services. P A G E 17 .Role of Services in Development partially liberalised or remain closed. noting some of the key areas where reform has already taken place. The efficient functioning of some sectors nonetheless demands oversight from an independent and effective regulator. and where further reform is planned. Making Globalization Work IT–ITES – the star performer The rapid expansion of Information Technology–Information Technology Enabled Services (IT–ITES) has had a significant impact on the broader Indian economy. This chapter examines the role of the services sectors critical to the Indian economy’s ongoing expansion. especially where service providers utilise and/or rely on public infrastructure – as is usually the case in telecommunications. With the economy currently growing strongly. and inadequacies in infrastructure were less of a hindrance. and modernisation and job creation in manufacturing. These sectors are categorised as follows: • the ‘drivers’ – high-end services such as IT–ITES and telecommunications. and precipitating productivity-enhancing technology diffusion to other industries and the public sector. agriculture and mining. both as a high-growth and employment-generating sector in its own right. The final section of the chapter considers the interrelationship between services sector developments. where policy makers need not be so concerned over the risk of displacement of large numbers of relatively poor and low-skilled workers (World Bank 2004). particularly in those sectors which primarily employ skilled professionals. and whose growth has already had a significant impact on the economy’s strong performance. by generating substantial export earnings and tax revenue. which remain relatively closed. which are relatively lightly regulated or significantly deregulated.’ Joseph Stiglitz.

The ITES-BPO segment was initially dominated by call centres and the undertaking of ‘back-office’ functions. The government’s light-handed approach to regulation in the sector. India is a major exporter of IT services and software. tutorial services using Voice over Internet Protocol. its widespread use of English.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY The dramatic growth in IT–ITES has been driven principally by fast-growing international demand for Indian IT services and software and by burgeoning business process outsourcing to India. India is emerging as a prominent player in a number of these segments. as companies offshore service functions to affiliated Indian businesses (‘captive’ units) – which continue to dominate the segment – or outsource services to independent/third party BPO vendors (NASSCOM 2005a). market research. transmitting and processing information (Friedman 2005). IT–ITES’ expansion has been underpinned by a number of strengths. In addition to being far and away the largest exporter of ITES-business process outsourcing (ITES-BPO) services. diagnostic services. combined with a supportive policy environment (Box 2. its rapidly increasing stable of world-class companies. India is fast gaining strength in legal services (for example. and data analytics (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2005b).1). curriculum design). education and training (for example. and is at the same time helping to re-define which services components are tradable. legal research. IT services and software exports accounted for nearly two-thirds of total IT–ITES exports in 2004–05. India’s IT industry took off in the late 1990s.2) and have been growing rapidly. including India’s large pool of qualified professionals. administration services and general accounting functions. engineering R&D. P A G E 18 . drafting contracts). More recently there has been a shift towards the provision of higher value knowledge and analytic-based processes as capabilities have improved. when the global IT industry was unable to meet the exponential growth in demand for IT services precipitated by Y2K compliance concerns. medical services (for example. ITES-BPO exports accounted for nearly 30 per cent of the total in that year (Box 2. software product development. has played a particularly important role in facilitating its growth. and cost advantage over other locations. The Indian operations of multinational enterprises continue to dominate the ITES-BPO segment (NASSCOM 2005a). It has since benefited from rapid reductions in the cost of digitising. 1 1 Primarily data entry and processing. telemedicine).

notably through enabling 24/7 working arrangements. * see Saxenian (2000) for more detail on a number of these measures. • In 1986. P A G E 19 . import of software in any form was permitted and the sector was opened to foreign investment.Role of Services in Development box 2. • A National Task Force. Import duties on software and personal computers were also lowered. The most famous STPs are located in Bangalore and Hyderabad. there were 40 parks set up under the scheme (WTO 2005). The government accepted the plan’s recommendations. Firms became eligible for concessional import duties on computers if they exported software. making it eligible for an investment allowance and other incentives. akin to Export Processing Zones. the software sector was included amongst the list of ‘priority sectors’ to which the banks are subject to directed lending. • In 1998–99. For example. and the regulatory impediments faced by the sector. • In 1997. They have prospered and become a highlight of the ICT landscape in India. But policy measures introduced by the central government to bolster the position of the software sector arguably contributed significantly to India’s ability to exploit this opportunity. STPs are special zones. Firms in STPs benefit from tax holidays up to 2010 and duty free equipment imports. provisioned with appropriate communication and physical infrastructure and designated for export-oriented activities. • The Software Technology Parks (STP) scheme was introduced in the early 1990s. State governments have also played a role in promoting the sector. developed an Information Technology Action Plan containing a large number of recommendations aimed at addressing the inadequacy of telecommunications and other infrastructure. By July 2004. all import duties on software were eliminated and software firms were permitted to invest overseas. These included*: • A 1984 Computer Policy recognised software as an ‘industry’. Some states have also been more willing to modify labour laws as they apply to the IT sector. FDI with 100 per cent foreign equity is permitted.1: the role of policy in promoting the softWare sector The Indian software industry took off largely in response to Y2K-driven demand for IT services. established in 1998. Andhra Pradesh’s efforts to attract technology investment and promote the use of IT in government agencies in the second half of the 1990s triggered competition from other states. modelled after Silicon Valley in USA.

5 4 3 2 3 4 5 Includes revenues derived by overseas subsidiaries of Indian IT companies.2: the success of india’s it sector By any standard.5 billion and are expected to reach US$36–38 billion in 2006–07.1 per cent. While IT services and software revenues have been contributing more to growth in total IT–ITES revenues. NASSCOM’s calculation seems inflated. as a share of GDP. ‘Software services’ (predominantly IT–ITES) exports have grown at a compound annual rate of around 35 per cent over the past six years.4 billion. not just conventional cross-border supply (Mode 1). Almost 50 per cent were derived from the supply of services by the overseas subsidiaries of Indian companies (Mode 3). while individuals temporarily abroad to supply a service (Mode 4) accounted for 13 per cent. or 0. the sector’s share of GDP grew from just 1. According to the Indian CSO.4 per cent of GDP for that year. most notably for the United States (see US Government Accountability Office 2005. 2 IT services and software is the largest segment (US$16.3 per cent in 2004–05. Large companies dominate the export profile. which bases its figures for the organised sector on NASSCOM revenue data and a value added ratio estimated from an analysis of annual reports of a few software companies. Revenues of the sector grew more than five-fold in the space of six years to reach an expected US$28. Total IT–ITES revenues (i.5 billion). which is equivalent to 1. Conventional cross-border supply (Mode 1) accounted for almost 40 per cent of the US$6. which would place it ahead of the communications sector.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 2. and an estimated 2.96 per cent of GDP. as it would appear to be based on sector revenues.7 billion of gross value added in the unorganised sector (Indian CSO 2006). and WTO 2005). This would appear to reflect the fact that the Indian data include revenues derived from all four modes of supply as identified by the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services. This compares with organised IT–ITES sector (excluding hardware) revenues of Rs251 billion (US$5. The discrepancy is apparent from a comprehensive survey of computer services companies for the year 2002–03 conducted by the RBI (RBI 2005c). According to NASSCOM.2 per cent to 4. ITES-BPO revenues increased ten-fold over the five years to 2004–05.e. as compared with the communication sector’s 1. IT–ITES’ share of GDP is projected to increase to 4. P A G E 20 .5 billion in hardware. Computer services exports differ from total IT–ITES exports in that they exclude exports of companies engaged exclusively in business process outsourcing activities.6 per cent share of GDP.8 billion).7 billion) and hardware (US$6 billion). This includes an estimated Rs25. followed by ITES-BPO (US$5.4 billion in IT–ITES.8 per cent in 2005–06 (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006). and US$0. In 2005–06.8 per cent in 2006–07 (NASSCOM 2006b.0 billion). India’s share in global IT software and services (including ITES-BPO) spending was 2. India’s IT sector has enjoyed remarkable success.2 billion in 2004–05 (NASSCOM 2005a). excluding the hardware segment) increased by a further 30 per cent in 2005–06 to US$29. which tend to suggest a far higher level of exports than do counterpart import data. 2006c). comprising US$23. There has been some contention as to the accuracy of Indian data.9 billion. not value added. the Computer and related activities sector’s gross value added in 1999–2000 was Rs172 billion (US$4. with the top ten companies accounting for 60 per cent of total computer services exports in 2002–03 (RBI 2005c). they were valued at US$23.






box 2.2 (continued)

The IT export boom IT–ITES export revenues
25 IT services and software exports 20 US$ billion ITES-BPO exports Hardware exports 15



0 1999–00
Note: Source:







The 2005–06 figure for IT services and software exports includes ITES-BPO (split of exports between IT services and software, and ITES-BPO was not available for 2005–06). NASSCOM 2005a and 2006b.

Despite being heavily export-oriented, the Indian IT sector is having a significant and growing impact on the local economy. Revenues from domestic business grew at a 19 per cent compound annual rate over the five years to 2004–05, with IT services and software accounting for roughly 40 per cent of revenues and hardware for 50 per cent. While most small Indian businesses cannot at this point afford IT services, IT is beginning to be used in a major way in manufacturing and in the automotive, banking and telecommunication sectors, enhancing the competitiveness of these industries. High-end services can also provide solutions to issues in other key services sectors, the development of which will be essential to ongoing economic growth. IT and online information provision and service delivery has been adopted rapidly by both the central and state governments. This is leading to streamlined and more efficient government service delivery and approvals processes, and also adding transparency to procedures and decision making. The growth in IT–ITES has also had a significant impact on the domestic economy as a result of technology diffusion. Relatively speaking, IT–ITES is not a major direct employer within the economy as a whole. In 2004–05, total direct employment was estimated at just over one million, comprising 697 000 professionals in the software segment – half of whom are involved in software exports with most of the remainder being in-house staff – and a further 348 000 in the ITES-BPO segment. Most direct employment is of skilled workers in larger cities such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Delhi.

P A G E 21



The numbers directly employed are nonetheless increasing rapidly. ITES-BPO employment numbers almost doubled between 2002–03 and 2004–05. Total direct employment in IT–ITES is projected to increase to 1.3 million in 2005–06 – over a million more in the six years since 1999–2000 (NASSCOM 2006a, 2006b). TCS, Wipro and Infosys collectively are expected to hire some 50 000 engineering graduates in 2006–07 and the rest of the IT sector another 30 000. The ITES-BPO sector will probably increase by 120 000–130 000.

The IT industry also generates significant numbers of jobs in other industries through inter-sectoral linkages, especially in construction, but also in transport and retail. By one estimate, an additional 2½–3 million mainly low-skilled workers are employed indirectly by the IT industry.

Opportunities are emerging for IT sector employment in smaller cities and towns as the supply of skilled workers in the major IT centres comes under pressure. Furthermore, a number of IT–ITES activities do not require high skill levels and many can be undertaken remotely. For example, call centre and accounting-related services can be performed by people with at least some level of education from their homes or small shops/businesses as a source or supplementary source of income. The information technology and telecommunications revolution is showing some promise in assisting India’s rural development, in areas such as distance learning using the Internet; the use of IT to help agriculture at the grass-roots level; and telemedicine (see section on ‘Services and agriculture’ below). A number of the larger IT companies have established trusts and foundations or otherwise lent their support to community initiatives, including in rural areas. For example, Infosys gives one per cent of its profits to the ‘Infosys Foundation’, which is focused on helping the socially deprived in education and healthcare. In healthcare, for example, the Foundation helps government hospitals, while in education it assists libraries in villages and provides computers to government schools. The broader economy also benefits from growth in IT–ITES as a result of the tax revenues derived from the sector. The outlook for India’s IT–ITES sector remains buoyant. Almost all observers anticipate a continuing trend over coming years to increased trade in ITES-BPO services, whether by outsourcing to third parties or by captive units (UNCTAD 2004). To take one example, business process outsourcing of healthcare services to India has the potential to generate US$4.5 billion in revenues by 2008 (IBEF 2004). Nearly 80 per cent of executives from the world’s largest companies plan to locate corporate functions overseas over the coming three years (A.T. Kearney 2005). Global IT spending is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 7.9 per cent over the period 2004–08, with the ITES-BPO segment growing at over 11 per cent (NASSCOM 2005a). India’s IT–ITES exports are projected to grow at an annual average rate of over 25 per cent through to 2010, to reach US$60 billion (NASSCOM-McKinsey 2005). IT services and software exports are projected to grow

6 7

Based on discussions in May 2006 with Professor S. Sadagopan, Director, International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore. Discussions in May 2006 with: Kiran Karnik, President, NASSCOM.

P A G E 22






at 25 per cent a year to reach US$35 billion, while ITES-BPO exports are projected to grow even more strongly – at 37 per cent – which would take their value to US$60 billion. IT–ITES could be contributing seven per cent of India’s GDP by then, and creating additional direct employment of 1.6 million over the five years to 2010. NASSCOM-McKinsey (2005) estimate it has the potential to provide over 6.5 million indirect jobs. Buoyant predictions for IT–ITES in India are conditional on the industry addressing some critical issues, notably the potential shortage of IT professionals. While the graduate talent pool for offshore IT and BPO is estimated at 1.8 million (or 28 per cent of the global total), on current trends there could be a shortfall of towards half a million suitably qualified workers by 2010 (NASSCOM-McKinsey 2005). India’s pool of young university graduates is estimated at 14 million, 1.5 times the size of China’s and almost twice that of the United States. 2.5 million graduates are added to the pool every year. However, despite the very high quality of the top Indian tertiary education institutions, only a relatively small percentage of graduates are considered suitable for employment in customer contact positions in multinationals, in large part because many have poor English or strong local accents (McKinsey 2005a). In response to impending labour shortages in some states, some IT companies are setting up or expanding their operations elsewhere. In particular, many are beginning to experience wage pressures and high turnover of engineering professionals. Demand for middle managers is particularly strong but there is a limited supply of people suitably qualified for these positions. McKinsey forecast that demand for young engineers could exceed supply as early as 2008, and even earlier in some regional centres. On the other hand, India has no looming shortage of people suitably qualified in areas outside of IT such as finance and accounting, call centres, and back-office administration (McKinsey 2005a). NASSCOM and a number of commentators (for example, Das 2006) highlight the need for action in the education system (and corporate training) to ensure that India produces enough quality English-speaking graduates. Reflecting these pressures, the major Indian providers are heavy investors in education and training. The increasingly acute shortage of suitably qualified workers for IT–ITES also affects other industries. India’s IT majors are recruiting engineers at the expense of manufacturing and infrastructure firms. Skills shortages are driving up wages for highly-skilled workers, and in turn beginning to erode the cost advantage that has been critical to the success of India’s IT–ITES. While labour costs remain a fraction of those in developed economies like the United States, wage increases are narrowing India’s cost advantage over other emerging economies (Accenture 2006).

Telecommunications – a dynamic enabler
Efficient telecommunications infrastructure generates significant spill-over effects in other sectors of an economy. Modern telecommunications networks facilitate efficient information exchange among economic units and rapid two-way communication, thereby lowering search and transaction costs, aiding the coordination of economic activity on a global scale, and enabling the optimal utilisation of available labour, technology, products and services around the world (Nandi 2002). India’s emergence

P A G E 23

private sector operators had secured 79 per cent of the mobiles market. in large part driven by technological developments and the requirements of the IT sector. while in the fixed-line market they had captured 15 per cent (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006). Despite the recent rapid growth. The communications sector grew at an average annual rate of 24 per cent over the five years to 2004–05. there were 48 million fixed-line subscribers and 71 million mobile subscribers (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). the mobile subscriber base posted 85 per cent growth per annum. Increased mobile and Internet access could make a strong contribution to addressing regional inequalities and ensuring more broadly based economic development if it reduces the telecommunications infrastructure divide between urban and rural areas. they are more likely to increase productivity and boost their livelihoods (see Box 2. However the take-up of broadband has been relatively slow. Telecommunications networks also act as an electronic highway. The mobile phone market has grown at extraordinary rates from an initially low base. By November 2005. Access to telecommunications and information technology in rural areas can facilitate the provision of basic services such as medical care. there were about 750 000 broadband subscribers (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006).8). enable better access to financial services and create opportunities for distance learning.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY and ongoing competitive advantage as a global provider of IT–ITES was (and will continue to be) dependent on the availability of efficient telecommunications infrastructure for electronically transferring and assessing information (Banerjee and Jha 2004). reducing asymmetries of access to market information and allowing rural businesses and citizens to participate directly in national and global economies. Penetration in rural areas is significantly lower still. As at November 2005. increasing its share of GDP from 1.5 per cent. Indian farmers can access modern telecommunications and IT to obtain more information about agricultural prices.9 per cent to 3. The Broadband Policy announced in October 2004 had set a target of three million broadband subscribers by December 2005 and 20 million by 2010 (Indian Ministry of Finance 2005). By December 2005. a penetration rate of 4. India’s telecommunications have undergone extensive deregulation and liberalisation (Box 2.6 million in 2005. However. Over the past five years. Private companies achieved annual growth rates in their subscriber base of closer to 200 per cent (Indian Investment Commission 2006a).3). If for example. P A G E 24 . Internet usage has increased nearly tenfold since 2000 to reach 50. Deregulation has helped spur rapid growth and enabled private telecommunications providers to play an increasingly important role. which is being spurred by the availability of cheap handsets and a wide array of tariff plans. other markets and economic opportunities. a number of mobile operators have plans to tap into the rapid growth expected in rural areas. tele-density is still relatively low at around 11 phones per 100 people.5 per cent.

• In October 2000. the Department of Telecommunications’ operational network was corporatised through the creation of a public company. foreign carriers are not permitted to use overseas networks to link Indian cities nor to situate control centres outside of India. the New Telecom Policy was announced. Concurrently. • In 2002 a Universal Service Obligation (USO) Fund mechanism. information technology and media industries. including in the area of licence fees (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India 1999). This introduced a number of reforms aimed at creating a more enabling environment. involving a levy on all telecom operators. which was previously undertaken by the incumbent Department of Telecommunications. • The National Telecom Policy 1994 set a number of telecommunications penetration targets and opened basic telephone services to the private sector with the objective of bringing about world class telecommunication services and improving the competitiveness of the Indian economy. a range of value added services. the government sold a strategic stake in VSNL – which at the time was the sole operator in the international long distance market – in favour of the Tata group. NTP 1999 also foreshadowed the opening of the national long distance segment from January 2000. • In 2005 the foreign equity limit in telecommunications was raised from 49 to 74 per cent subject to numerous restrictions. BSNL. including cellular phone services and paging services. • In 1997. international long distance services and Internet telephony were opened to competition. was established to mobilise funding for services in remote and rural areas. was opened to private sector competition. Owing in large part to the Indian Government’s concerns over security. an independent telecommunications regulatory authority was established. Certain conditions apply to ensure the management of service providers remains in Indian hands.3: groWth-facilitating deregulation of the telecommunications sector There have been a number of significant milestones in the deregulatory process: • In 1992. P A G E 25 .Role of Services in Development box 2. Its role included setting conditions attached to the licensing of private sector operators. • In 1999 against the backdrop of revenues falling short of industry expectations and the convergence of the telecom. • In April 2002.

In 2005–06 exports of these services increased by 64 per cent to US$22. and look set to make an increasingly strong contribution to economic growth. Between 2000–01 and 2004–05 exports of other commercial services (excluding software services) almost quadrupled in value to US$13.1 Miscellaneous other commercial services – a strong growth area Breakdown of exports of ‘Other commercial services’ (i.2b Source: RBI 2006a. Exports of other commercial services have also grown rapidly.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Other commercial services The dynamism in India’s IT–ITES and telecommunications sectors is widely recognised.8 billion. excluding transportation and travel) Insurance services 3% Communication services 11% Construction services 5% Software services 64% Financial services 3% Other 37% Management services 3% Other services 11% 2000–01 — US$10. which comprises approximately 20 professional and other services (Figure 2.64 billion.1b Insurance services 2% Software services 51% Communication services 5% Construction services 2% Financial services 4% Management services 8% Other 49% 2005–06 — US$46. to almost rival software services exports (RBI 2006a).1) Figure 2. Other services 28% P A G E 26 .e. Much of the growth in these exports stems from the ‘miscellaneous other commercial services’ sub-sector.

with numbers increasing by 15 per cent a year. 56 per cent of which derived from exports (IBEF 2005a). a 52 per cent increase. have been drawing in increasing numbers of patients from Western countries for a range of treatments and operations that can be carried out by highly skilled medical personnel far more cheaply than in their home countries and/or without the delays often experienced under their home country national health systems. • Maintenance of offices abroad exports. • News agency services exports: US$339 million in 2005–06. engineering and other technical services exports. So-called ‘medical tourism’ has also been a growth sector. most visibly the Apollo Group. a 169 percent increase. a 98 per cent increase. a 145 per cent increase). is growing at annual rates in the order of 40 per cent. • Trade related services exports: US$880 million in 2005–06. • Legal services exports: US$390 million in 2005–06. Significant numbers of qualified non-resident Indians are now returning to India to take advantage of emerging opportunities.Role of Services in Development Prominent exports within the miscellaneous other commercial services sub-sector (as detailed in RBI 2006a) include: • Architectural. an 81 per cent increase. which grew by 106 per cent to US$1. Medical tourism export revenues are projected to reach US$2. which reached US$4. Biotechnology is assuming greater significance in the Indian economy. India is the largest producer of films in the world. • Merchanting services exports: US$504 million in 2005–06. aided by a well-qualified and low cost workforce. Film exports have been rising as Indian films gain popularity overseas. Revenues in 2003–04 were around US$700 million. a 227 per cent increase on the previous year. a 393 per cent increase) and operational leasing services exports (US$393 million in 2005–06. Some 150 000 foreigners went to India for treatment in 2004. a 107 per cent increase on 2004–05. P A G E 27 .49 billion in 2005–06. • Research and development services exports: $US519 million in 2005–06.3 billion by 2012 (Confederation of Indian Industry and McKinsey in Medical Tourism India 2006).64 billion in 2005–06. Other smaller but rapidly expanding growth areas include accounting and auditing services exports (US$138 million in 2005–06. A number of technically advanced private Indian hospitals. comprising services and biopharmaceuticals. • Advertising / trade fair exports: US$435 million in 2005–06. Medical tourism is a key area that has been targeted for expansion by the Indian Government. a 135 per cent increase. Film studios in Hollywood and elsewhere have also outsourced considerable work to India. The sector.

ports and air services – but there is scope for more.4) but foreign investment remains severely constrained. while the Bombay Stock Exchange moved into fifth place in 2003 (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006). Rathindran and Subramanian 2001). which is a major determinant of economic growth. Private sector mutual funds were also permitted from 1993. which would. it was characterised by poorlyperforming public sector banks employing outdated practices and technology. it is clear further reform would have significant dividends. Traditionally. Yet much remains to be done. While such estimates are necessarily speculative to a degree. Banking and transport infrastructure services – which are critical to the health of the broader economy – will need to modernise further and become more productive if the growth currently being exhibited in higher-end services is to be replicated throughout the economy. Indian borrowers pay more for capital and depositors receive a lower return than they do in comparable economies. Francois and Schuknecht 1999 and Mattoo. Lund and Puri 2006). Finance – work in progress The financial sector has a very important role to play in the modernisation of India’s economy. the National Stock Exchange is the third-largest stock exchange in the world after the NASDAQ and the NYSE. India’s banking and insurance sectors have been significantly opened to private sector competition since 1993 and 2000 respectively.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY the contributors While leading-edge services have been in the vanguard of India’s economic rejuvenation. increase per capita income by 2014 to more than US$1200 or 30 per cent higher than it would otherwise be (ibid). they remain a relatively small. Several reforms have been introduced in the financial sector. There is strong empirical evidence of a positive relationship between liberalisation and growth in financial sectors (see for example. Beginning in the early 1990s. It serves as a vehicle for channelling savings to individuals and businesses seeking to borrow funds. and in roads. P A G E 28 . According to one recent estimate published by McKinsey. Financial sector reforms and deregulation have triggered strong growth in the sector as financial intermediation has become increasingly important in the economy. due to the sector’s shortcomings in mobilising savings and allocating capital (Farrell. in turn. Banking The Indian banking system is changing rapidly. Their direct contribution to employment is also comparatively low. albeit growing. The sector therefore plays a vital role in the investment process. part of the overall economy. Measured in terms of the number of transactions. addressing these shortcomings through an integrated reform program could raise India’s growth rate by close to three percentage points. Indian stock markets have also come to greater prominence. the sector has been gradually liberalised (Box 2.

Their gross non-performing assets as a percentage of gross advances declined from 17. the sector – together with tightened prudential requirements – has led to improved efficiencies in the banking system. others continue to perform poorly.4 per cent in 1998 to 7. although there remains considerable scope for improvement in the use of technology.3 per cent at the end of 2002–03. Bad loans account for less than two per cent of all loans. P A G E 29 .6 per cent share (RBI 2005a). • Interest rates were deregulated in stages beginning in the early 1990s. performing on a par with private and foreign banks.8 per cent in 1996–97 to 7. • Legislative amendments in 1994 enabled public sector banks to raise capital through public share issues. bringing the total number of foreign bank branches to 217 (USTR 2005).9 per cent in 1996–97 to 2. By September 2004. New guidelines issued in February 2005 (Box 2. Significantly.2 per cent in 2003–04.Role of Services in Development box 2. including a tightening of prudential requirements. Some of the public sector banks have responded well to the new environment. Private sector banks had increased their share of total assets of all scheduled commercial banks to 24. the lending competences of the public sector banks are getting better. • Banks have been permitted to invest a greater percentage of their assets outside of cash and government securities and given more freedom in their lending policies. New guidelines issued in February 2005 provide greater managerial autonomy and operational flexibility to public sector banks. the scope of lending deemed as meeting these requirements has been widened (Singh 2005). • The greater freedoms afforded to the banks have been accompanied by an improvement in the overall regulatory framework. India committed to permitting 12 new foreign bank branches a year. while the percentage of gross non-performing assets to gross advances fell from 14. 8 Under the WTO Financial Services Agreement concluded in December 1997.7 per cent by March 2005.2 per cent in 2004 (Reddy 2005). including 31 foreign banks.4) may bring about some further improvements.8 per cent in 2003–04 (Chanda 2005). While directed lending requirements have remained in place. As a group. The Reserve Bank of India issued guidelines under which new private sector banks could be established. Foreign banks were also permitted more liberal entry and have been able to take modest equity positions in existing private sector banks. 8 The liberalisation of. the public sector banks reduced their operating expenses as a share of total assets from 2. The return on assets of the banks rose from 0. and resulting greater competition within. However. with foreign banks having a 6.4: gradual liberalisation of the banKing sector • In January 1993. compared to 20 per cent in China (Das 2006). the Reserve Bank had granted operating approval to 25 new foreign banks or bank branches since issuing its 1993 guidelines. The liberalisation process resulted in the number of private sector scheduled commercial banks increasing to 61 in March 2005.4 per cent in 1991–92 to 1.

21 per cent having access to credit from a formal source and only one percent relying on a loan from a financial intermediary (IndiaMART 2006). foreign banks are allowed to establish a whollyowned subsidiary or convert their existing branches to wholly-owned subsidiaries. through to March 2009. Subject to a review. with public and domestic private banks required to extend 40 per cent of their credit to priority sectors. The penetration of financial services products in rural India is particularly low. foreign investment in any private sector bank will. Some mergers have been attempted but have not materialised because of union concerns over retrenchments and branch closures. and the individual shareholding limit removed. notably agriculture and small-scale industries. RBI guidelines of July 2004 remain in effect. Foreign banks were also directed not to acquire any fresh stakes in a private sector bank if such acquisition would take their holdings above five per cent. The current United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government released a ‘roadmap’ for the entry of foreign banks in February 2005 (RBI 2005e). If progress on consolidation is not achieved. In the first phase.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY The efficiency of financial intermediation continues to be adversely affected by directed lending. The previous National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government was moving in early 2004 to automatically allow foreign equity in private banks from all sources of up to 74 per cent. P A G E 30 . These limit the shareholding and control by a single entity or group of related entities in any private sector bank to ten per cent. Foreign investment from all sources of up to 74 per cent will be considered in these banks. in the second phase beginning in April 2009. But only limited amalgamations and consolidations have taken place to date. Investment of up to 20 per cent is permitted in public sector banks. 9 Foreign investment policy remains a severe constraint. but the election intervened. with the exception of banks that have been identified for restructuring. the scheduled opening up of the sector to foreign competition could well be delayed or even stalled. The Indian Government believes that some consolidation of the public sector banks needs to take place before opening up the sector to foreign competition. Improved access to banking products would greatly benefit rural businesses and households. 9 Foreign banks face a lesser directed lending obligation of 32 per cent. with only 42 per cent of rural households having bank accounts. India’s Reserve Bank has urged banks to adopt ‘no frills’ accounts with a view to encouraging greater availability and uptake of financial services by the rural sector and other parts of the population that have largely been excluded from the formal financial system. be permitted up to a 74 per cent limit. and help to raise living standards across the rural sector as a whole. Banks have been advised to allow limited overdraft facilities in these accounts and provide a General purpose Credit Card (GCC) facility at their rural and semi-urban branches to allow holders to draw cash from their local branches (Thorat 2006).

5). Some of the larger Indian banks with extensive rural branch networks such as ICICI Bank are well positioned to service the rural sector as they are able to defray their technology costs across a large customer 2006a). these initiatives remain modest given the magnitude of the rural service gap in banking. ICICI Bank has introduced ATMs with integrated power management systems suitable for use in rural areas. even though insurers continue to be subject to product price controls and prescriptive guidelines for funds investment (Mulford 2005). which stem from typically low transaction sizes along with poor roads. The recent experience of ICICI and other Indian banks in partnering with community-based micro-finance institutions as intermediaries for micro lending has been encouraging (Thorat 2006. As increasingly significant institutional investors in India. has an important role to play in enhancing financial intermediation. enabling firms to expand and take on the risks associated with pursuing new business opportunities. Insurance India’s insurance sector. Rediff. P A G E 31 . While arguably a step in the right direction. The bank has also been involved in the establishment of Internet kiosks in rural India. having operated as a state monopoly up until 1999 (Box 2. like its banking system. India’s insurance sector has changed significantly over the past few years. creating liquidity and mobilising savings in the economy. power and telecommunications connectivity. insurers are playing a more prominent role in channelling financial resources to investment opportunities and facilitating companies’ access to capital. For example.Role of Services in Development Some banks are now beginning to introduce innovative technology products that take account of the higher costs of delivering financial services to rural India. Its Kisan Loan Card enables farmers to withdraw cash and take out cash or crop loans (ICICI Bank 2004). A well developed insurance market also promotes economic growth by fostering entrepreneurialism and innovation. Insurance business transacted by Indian private insurance companies has increased rapidly. which can complement the ATMs to provide a powerful medium for farmers to enhance their business interests.

India has made some progress in recent years in upgrading and modernising its transport infrastructure. The Finance Minister proposed in his July 2004 Budget Speech that the foreign equity limit be increased from 26 to 49 per cent. 52 per cent up on that for the corresponding period in 2004–05. The rate of infrastructure development is likely to lag behind demand and constrain economic growth for some years to come.5: reforms in the insurance sector • The passing of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 2. and the life sector under the Life Insurance Corporation.6 per cent over the corresponding period of 2005–06. • In August 2000. 1999 enabled competition from the private sector for the first time. total new business income grew by over 50 per cent. In the non-life insurance sector. The market share of private insurers consequently rose from 19. In the life insurance sector. Health insurance has been the fastest growing segment of the non-life sector. By comparison. According to the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA). first year (i. P A G E 32 . new business) premium income of the private insurers for the first nine months of 2005–06 was Rs231 billion (US$5.e. including through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). much remains to be done. but this change was stymied by political factors.8 billion). there are currently eight private insurers and six government-owned insurers.2 billion). subject to a 26 per cent foreign equity limit. there are currently 14 private insurers plus the government-owned Life Insurance Corporation. the newly formed Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority invited applications for registration from private life and non-life Most of the private insurers have foreign equity partners.irdaindia. Premium income of the private insurers for the first nine months of 2005–06 was Rs169 billion (US$3. private insurers have secured a 27. But despite the Government’s recognition of deficiencies. 10 By comparison. Previously the sector had operated as a state monopoly – the non-life sector under the General Insurance Corporation and its four subsidiaries plus the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. Infrastructure shortcomings are frequently cited as among the chief causes for the failure of India’s manufacturing sector to make greater headway as tariff barriers have come down. total industry premium income grew by 16 per cent.8 per cent share in new business. 10 See www. • • Foreign investment was also permitted. In the space of just six years. 95 per cent up on that for the corresponding period of the previous year.6 per cent over the first nine months of 2004–05 to 26. Transport infrastructure – vital for growth A modern economy depends upon an efficiently functioning transportation network. the General Insurance Corporation became the national re-insurer and its subsidiaries were formally de-linked in March 2002. In November 2000.

5 billion (2005 prices). Chennai and Kolkata. involving the upgrading and 4-laning of 10 000 km of selected high-density corridors of National Highways. Indian Railways has derived efficiency gains through better utilisation of its existing pool of resources. in recognition of limited government finances and the constraints the generally poor state of infrastructure has imposed on economic growth. for projects in transport infrastructure and power. In Indian Railways’ 2006–07 budget for have fostered cautious optimism that India will be able to grapple with the task of rectifying massive under-investment in railways and modernising its ailing network. the government has moved in recent years to open the sector to partnerships with private players. Roads The private sector has been permitted to participate in national highway projects since 1995. as well as port connectivity (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). The Project was launched in 1999 at an estimated cost of US$12. The Project involves the four/six-laning of 14 000 km of the existing road network. Against the backdrop of PPPs falling short of its own expectations. Mumbai. with budgetary provisions for this purpose to be made on a year-to-year basis (Indian Department of Economic Affairs 2005). 12 11 Railways Recent improvements in service provision and financial performance on the part of Indian Railways after what the Government has characterised as years of financial trouble and neglect (Singh 2006). However. including foreign investors. The top priority for the current Five Year Plan period is the completion of the National Highway Development Project (Phase I and II). Complex passenger and freight pricing policies have also been simplified. first-served basis. projects should provide a service against payment of a predetermined tariff or user 2006b). when the National Highways Act was amended. and the North-South and East-West corridors. NHDP (Phase III). Many projects are arranged on a build-operate-transfer (BOT) basis. The load capacity (axle load) permitted for previously under-loaded rolling stock has been raised on select routes and wagon turnaround times have been improved across the network (Indian Institute of Management in Rediff. as well as other physical infrastructure in urban areas such as water supply and sewerage. freight rates for petroleum products were cut by eight per cent and the number of commodity groups reduced from 80 to 28 (having been lowered from 4000 to 80 in the previous budget) (The Hindu Business Line 2006a). www. The government is still aiming to meet its original target of 2007 for the completion of the North-South and East-West corridors. was launched in 2005 at an estimated cost of US$12. This ‘Viability Gap Funding’ is available on a first-come.3 billion. P A G E 33 .Role of Services in Development Infrastructure has traditionally been the preserve of the public sector. To be eligible for funding. Since the current UPA Government came to power. The Golden Quadrilateral is running two years behind schedule. but was nearing completion at the time of publication. 11 12 1999 prices See National Highways Authority of India. comprising the so-called ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ connecting Delhi. the government launched a scheme in July 2005 to fund up to 20 per cent of infrastructure projects.nhai.

Airports and air services Recognising that private sector involvement is required in order to ensure adequate funding for the modernisation of India’s major airports. with a view to upgrading them to international standards. Ports Major reforms have been introduced to the ports over recent years. Significant investment has also been directed to ‘minor ports’ (a state responsibility) in some states. As of 2005. In addition. which handle some 75 per cent of the country’s port traffic (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). in large part because of cross-subsidisation of suburban and lower-class passenger fares (The Hindu Business Line 2006a). Notwithstanding these developments. Domestic air services were liberalised in 1994. work commenced on the Western corridor linking the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust and other ports in western India to industries in northern and central India (Singh 2006). However progress has been slow. several new low-cost airlines have commenced operations in India since August 2003 to capitalise on increased demand for air travel from the P A G E 34 . In response to calls for PPPs to bridge the infrastructure and technology gaps. with private sector participation. Chennai.4 million tons per annum – or over ten per cent of existing cargo throughput at major ports – and involving an investment of Rs26 billion (US$600 million) had been completed (Indian Department of Shipping 2005). participation in port development has increased markedly. with the winners forming joint ventures with the Airports Authority of India. 13 private-sector port projects with a capacity addition of around 47. Such infrastructure development should go some way to enabling India’s rail network to cope with anticipated growth in freight. despite some pricing reforms. Emulating the emergence of ‘no-frills’ carriers in the United States and Europe. Private-sector. including foreigninvestor. Arrangements for new international airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad are also proceeding. Indian Railways have reportedly asked for clarification from the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion on foreign company involvement in the rail sector (Asia Times Online 2006). the Government decided to lease India’s four principal airports – in Delhi. an enormous amount of investment will be required to modernise India’s rail network. although railway container licences were privatised in April 2006. Plans are afoot to corporatise India’s 12 major ports. The government has also moved to allow joint ventures between major ports and foreign ports and between major ports and minor ports (Ernst & Young 2005a). Rail has largely been the preserve of the public sector to date. Foreign companies were invited to form consortiums to bid for the restructuring and operating of the Delhi and Mumbai airports. and Kolkata – to private sector operators. subject to the fulfilment of certain criteria. rail freight continues to be hampered by excessive charges. Private carriers have since been permitted to operate scheduled services in India. Mumbai.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Construction of a dedicated high axle-load freight corridor with computerised control on the western and eastern routes was proposed in the 2006–07 budget. Several state-owned ports have leased out terminals to private operators. In October 2006. particularly for container handling.

social and personal services. The services sector’s share of employment is significantly less than its share in economy-wide GDP. The privatisation of Indian Airlines and Air India was initiated a few years ago.9). the vast majority of workers in these industries are in the relatively labour-intensive ‘unorganised’ sector. they are discouraged from growing above a certain size by the heavy regulation. remain highly protected. Given its dominant contribution to domestic output. Yet these sectors. which mainly comprises family businesses and other small employers (Box 2. particularly in relation to labour. Today several private airlines compete to provide regular domestic air services. Logistics also remains subject to significant hindrances. to which they would become subject. 13 Excluding community. although the Government decided not to allow direct or indirect participation of foreign airlines. The number of domestic passengers is expected to grow from around 20 million a year in 2005 to 50 million a year in five years (The Economist 2006d). Currently. There are grounds to believe it is well-placed to do so. Prominent amongst the services sectors with high employment potential are retail and wholesale trade. Table 10.6). The marked difference in the labour intensity of production between the unorganised and ‘organised’ sectors underscores the dualistic nature of the Indian economy. However growth in these sectors and high-end services alone will not generate the 200 million new jobs needed to absorb existing unemployed and under-employed workers and the 160–170 million new workforce entrants expected by 2020 (Indian Planning Commission 2002b). logistics. the sector will have to play a major role in absorbing large numbers of low-skilled workers. inhibits productivity growth and impedes job creation in retail and wholesale trade. Moreover. Some analysts question the capacity of services to absorb labour in a major way (for example. but both sales fell through due to the withdrawal of the qualified bidders late during the final stages of the process. The current UPA government still plans to divest equity in the airlines. Sahara and Air Deccan. and housing and construction. Services have been the main source of employment growth in the economy since the 1991 reforms. There is a high income elasticity of demand for services. and therefore tend to be less competitive compared to those that have been liberalised. P A G E 35 . The Government has also allowed private airlines to fly on some international routes. The limit on FDI in domestic airlines has been raised to 49 per cent. along with legal and accountancy services. alongside the government-owned Indian Airlines. approximately 30 per cent of India’s 337 million-strong workforce was employed in services. This dual economy prevents modernisation. While small Indian companies in the unorganised sector benefit from being subject to minimal regulation. In 1999–2000.Role of Services in Development rapidly-expanding middle class. Demand for services inputs by the manufacturing sector is also growing (see section on ‘Services and manufacturing’ below). Economy-wide employment growth over the six years to 1999–2000 was virtually entirely due to job creation in the services sector 13 (Indian Ministry of Finance 2003. the sloWer reformers Reforms in finance and transport infrastructure are building a platform for job creation and productivity improvements in the broader economy. legal and accountancy services and housing and construction. the biggest private airlines are Jet Airways. Jha 2005).

They accounted for just 11 per cent of employment in the private organised sector and 29 per cent of employment in the public sector in March 2003 (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006. as well as enterprises run by co-operative societies and trusts. services’ net domestic product in the organised sector exceeded that in the unorganised sector.6: employment and output in the ‘organised’ and ‘unorganised’ sectors India’s National Accounts Statistics divide the economy into ‘organised’ and ‘unorganised’ sectors.1–3. While accounting for just 1. but are a significant contributor to overall GDP. The organised sector consists of the public sector. Appendix Tables 3. Services (excluding community. Over one-half of this employment was in trade. representing 19 per cent of aggregate economy-wide employment (Indian Ministry of Finance 2003 and 2006). However it contributed 41 per cent of aggregate net domestic product in the same year. It includes private and limited companies and unincorporated enterprises. In 1999–2000. hotels & restaurants.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 2. these services contributed over 16 per cent of aggregate economy-wide net domestic product. 14 14 Manufacturing establishments employing 10 or more workers on a regular basis using power plus those not using power and employing 20 or more workers.3). The unorganised sector comprises units whose activity is not regulated by law. social and personal services are added in. The organised sector employed 28 million – or a mere eight per cent – of India’s 337 million-strong workforce in 1999–2000. and/or those which do not maintain regular accounts. services employed 64 million workers. social & personal services) are not a major employer within the organised sector. P A G E 36 . manufacturing units registered under the Factories Act 1948 and other private corporate sector entities. When community. Services are far more prominent as employers in the unorganised sector. The organised sector is a major force in the Indian economy.9 per cent of aggregate economy-wide employment in 1999–2000. yet is not a major source of employment.

Community. and is dominated by small.Role of Services in Development box 2. insurance. India has the highest density of retail outlets in the world – more than 15 million compared to 900 000 in the United States (Mukherjee and Patel 2006). Organised retailing accounts for only 2–3 per cent of the total and is concentrated in large cities. 1999–2000. accounting for six to seven per cent of employment and approximately ten per cent of GDP (The Economist 2006b). In any event. In 2003. The organised retail sector is growing at 18–20 per cent a year (The Economist 2006b). hotels Transport. The retail industry is the largest provider of jobs after agriculture.6 (continued) The organised sector is a major force in services Share of organised and unorganised gross product for selected services. In most states. family-owned shops often surviving on unpaid labour. Retail trade Retail trade occurs almost exclusively in the unorganised sector. social real estate and and personal services business services Source: Indian Planning Commission 2002c. with an estimated 86 per cent occurring in the six biggest cities. Some retail chains are now appearing on the scene and large shopping centres are springing up. the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Act prevents farmers from selling produce directly to retailers (The Economist 2006b). a new shop needed on average 15 licences from 11 government bodies. storage and communications and restaurants Unorganised sector Organised sector Finance. Some 40 shopping malls had been opened in India by the end of 2005 – up from fewer than half a dozen a year earlier – with 300 expected by 2007 (IMAGES-KSA Technopak 2005). for example. Table 24. current prices 90 Share in gross product (per cent) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Construction Retail trade. Large-scale organised retailing has been held back by poor transport infrastructure. difficulties faced in acquiring tracts of land and rules and regulations at all levels of government. change is coming to the retail sector. Securing the licences took six months on average and cost up to 500 000 rupees (2003 study quoted in The Economist 2006b). and is beginning to employ significant numbers of low-skilled P A G E 37 .

allowing foreign investment would bring greater competition. Both legal and accountancy services are subject to significant domestic regulation. The Government moved to open up the sector in a very limited way in early 2006 by permitting FDI of up to 51 per cent in retail trade of ‘single brand’ products. limited opening hours on interstate borders and numerous toll booths. ‘Multi-product’ single brands – such as supermarkets’ own branded goods – also appear to be allowed to invest under this regime (The Economist 2006b). The journey takes around 8 days at an average speed of 11 km per hour with around 32 hours spent waiting at toll booths and checkpoints. Transport delays and inadequate cold storage mean that between 35 and 40 per cent of fruit and vegetables grown in India rots where it is harvested or in transit (The Economist 2006b). More recently. Poor transportation infrastructure and the regulatory disincentives to small operators growing above a certain size have been key contributory factors to this situation. A number of global retailers are positioning themselves for an anticipated relaxation of foreign investment policy. play a vital role in supporting and facilitating business and encouraging foreign investment. and toll booths and interstate check-point procedures have also hindered the smooth flow of interstate traffic. for freight carriers. Going on the experience of other developing countries. reported to be investing US$2. who must negotiate restrictions on travel times for heavy vehicles. P A G E 38 . Infiniti Retail Limited. petrochemicals and textiles giant. notably limitations on size of firm. and increased opportunities for export of Indian products through foreign retailer outlets. Logistics Modern retailing is underpinned by efficient distribution systems and integrated supply chains. selling over 6000 consumer electronics and durables products (Tata Group 2006). traffic jams. Handicaps faced by logistics providers have retarded the development of an efficient distribution system in India. and contributed to major losses of perishable goods during transportation. The Economist (2006a) details a typical 2150 km journey between India’s two most populous cities. Food processing in India adds just seven per cent to the value of agricultural output compared to more than 40 per cent in China and 60 per cent in Thailand (Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry cited in The Economist 2006b).INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY workers. for example. organised retailing can benefit agricultural producers and manufacturers by reducing the need for intermediaries and introducing improved practices and technologies throughout the value chain. as well as barriers to foreign entry. Legal and accountancy services Professional services. best international practice. Apart from benefiting the consumer through lower prices and improvements in the quality of perishable products. which will provide employment for some 400 000 – 500 000 people (The Economist 2006b). subject to prior approval. Kolkata and Mumbai. Reliance Industries is. with 100 stores to be established by March 2010. Foreign investment would also be likely to spur growth and create employment in labour-intensive industries such as food processing.2 billion in 1500–1800 supermarkets and hypermarkets and 60 supply centres over the next two years. particularly legal and accounting services. Tata Group announced the launch of a retail venture. Oil.

in part due to the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act. Dwelling construction The construction services sector is highly fragmented. Only graduates of an Indian university can qualify as accountants in India. Foreign lawyers and law firms have no avenues to establish any commercial presence in India. which precludes international law firms from establishing offices. foreign accountants may not be equity partners in an Indian accounting firm. and no more than 20 professionals are permitted in any one firm (under the Partnership Act). There are fewer than 400 firms with 5 or more partners. the sector has the potential to create employment opportunities for significant numbers of low-skilled workers. which is constituted under the Advocates Act 1961. P A G E 39 . unless they are comprised of the names of proprietors or partners or the name is already used in India. nor to provide advisory services on foreign law. India’s accountancy services sector is highly fragmented because firms are only allowed to operate as partnerships or as sole proprietorships (under self regulation). The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India regulates the profession. in turn driving up transaction costs for other sectors. If reforms precipitate large-scale construction. These barriers to foreign entry preclude exposure to competition from best-practice legal and accounting firms.Role of Services in Development India has the world’s second-largest legal profession. Internationally-based accounting firms are only permitted to operate as consultants. which would permit legal practice in India by citizens of a country where Indian legal qualifications are recognised. To date it has not recognised any foreign qualifications. FDI is not permitted in the sector. Multi-jurisdictional legal advice is part of the essential infrastructure required to provide a sound base to encourage and increase foreign direct investment and international trade. in reality India’s legal services market remains closed and foreign lawyers are not permitted to practice. Its more than 900 000 lawyers are regulated by the Bar Council of India. However. Similarly. While the Advocates Act contains a reciprocity provision. Indian advocates are only permitted to enter into profit sharing arrangements with other Indian advocates. which effectively prevents people from buying up large tracts of land to construct houses (World Bank 2004). Foreign accounting firms can practice in India if their home country provides reciprocity to Indian firms. Internationally recognised names may not be used.

particularly in rural areas. declined significantly. combined with supporting evidence from national accounts estimates of consumption. Addressing deficiencies in the delivery of education and public healthcare services could also be important in ensuring India’s growth model remains politically sustainable. Thirlwell (2006) points out that the figures. however.7) has constrained the provision of education and healthcare services and inhibited infrastructure development. and improve the quality of governance so as to ensure better delivery of education. The poor state of public finances (Box 2. either between the rural and urban areas or between states. Improvements in the delivery of education and public healthcare services. do suggest that India has experienced a continued fall in poverty since the 1991 reform push. Official poverty estimates for India are based on regular surveys of consumer expenditure carried out by the National Sample Survey (NSS) Organisation. led to equal distribution of growth. The official poverty line is set with reference to minimum daily calorie requirements. Das 2006). are critical if more broadly based development is to ensue. The official numbers have been the subject of intense debate. healthcare and other public services (World Bank 2003 2006b. with the fruits of reform flowing through to all sections of society. 15 16 28.6 of the population was living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 if the data set is adjusted to ensure comparability with the 1993–94 estimates (World Bank 2003). Moreover. In the case of the services sector. Despite the continuing controversy. from 36 per cent in 1993–94 to 26 per cent in 1999–2000 to 22 per cent in 2004–2005. adopt a more investor-friendly approach. If the states and the centre succeed in moving towards the elimination of their revenue deficits by 2009–10 – including through better expenditure management – this should place them in a better position to devote more resources to education and health. according to official estimates. and other surveys. At the same time. The Government recognises that the growth dividend of reform can provide it with more resources to address social issues and ensure at least a minimum level of services for all sections of the community. both for excluding broader measures of nutrition and due to methodological changes over time. particularly in rural areas. data on wage rates. The proportion of people living below the poverty line has.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY sectors vital to broad-based development The growth which has resulted from the economic reforms of the 1990s appears to have contributed to improvements in living standards. commentators suggest that many states need to consider reforms to simplify the business environment. growth has mainly been in urban areas – in particular in the larger cities – and has occurred in some states more than others. P A G E 40 . 15 16 Economic reforms have not. expanded education and healthcare services will create high-quality employment opportunities. Changes to the NSS methodology in the 1999–2000 survey in particular called into question its comparability with previous estimates. Coefficients of variation in poverty rates across the states have increased since the mid-1990s and the regional variation in economic growth rates has remained high despite the reforms (Jha 2005).

Interest payments consume over one quarter of total central government expenditures. The state of Indian government finances reflects a high debt servicing burden. and deficiencies in the tax system and public expenditure management. To ensure that the states get their finances in order. . Conversely.Role of Services in Development box 2. amounting to an estimated 8. State government tax receipts have been relatively healthy.99 per cent of GDP in 2005–06. The Government has sought to address the country’s public finances through the enactment of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in August 2003. under which the central government’s revenue deficit was targeted for elimination by March 2008. but remains vulnerable should rates pick-up again. Central government tax receipts were expected to amount to just 10. education.48 per cent of GDP in 2005–06.5 per cent. The debt service burden has eased in recent years as interest rates have come down. power and transport infrastructure. Revenue and fiscal deficits of the centre and states 9 8 7 Per cent of GDP 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1994–95 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 1986–87 2005–06 2006–07 P A G E 41 gross fiscal deficit – centre gross fiscal deficit – states revenue deficit – centre revenue deficit – states Source: RBI 2005b and 2006–07 Budget estimates. Capital expenditures have fallen from seven per cent of GDP in 1986–87 to an estimated two per cent for 2005–06. the ‘revenue deficits’ (current revenues – current expenditures gap) of the states only became a significant problem from the late 1980s. The date for the achievement of these targets has since slipped to 2009–10. but at the expense of a sharp contraction in capital outlays.7: the state of india’s public finances Large revenue deficits at the centre and in the states over the years have resulted in underinvestment by India’s public sector in health. the Government has made debt relief conditional on their enacting similar fiscal responsibility legislation (Indian Ministry of Finance 2005). The central government has gradually wound back its overall fiscal deficit from its 1986–87 peak of 8.

The Government’s strategy to meet the fiscal targets focuses on increasing revenues by broadening the tax base and removing distortions in the tax regime. the statistics do not take into account high drop-out rates (Khan and Roy 2003). from 3. 1. The strong economy is also assisting in improving the tax take.2 million. but lower than the average across Asia and significantly lower than in OECD countries (Kapu and Mehta 2004). The Tenth Five Year Plan also set the objective of all children completing five years of schooling by 2007 and eight years by 2010.1 million in September 2004 – although the target of achieving universality of elementary education by 2003 has not been met. there were 229 state/central universities and 95 ‘deemed universities’. engineering. an enrolment rate of ten per cent is targeted for 2007. This will also experience some slippage. which is considerably higher than the average across developing countries. with the Government projecting in its 2006 Budget that the centre’s revenue deficit and fiscal deficit will fall in 2006–07 to 2. The two per cent ‘Education Cess’ levied on taxes since 2004 is greatly assisting the financing of much higher levels of basic education (Indian Planning Commission 2005).1 per cent and 3. the sector is growing mathematics and computing) (UNCTAD 2005a). Further fiscal consolidation is under way.ugc. However. Deemed universities are largely free of government regulations and more entrepreneurial than government-run universities. 17 In 2000–01.8 per cent of GDP respectively.3 million in 1983–84 to 9.45 per cent of GDP. together with complementary measures to improve expenditure outcomes. The gross enrolment rate in higher education (18–23 year age group) is around seven per enrolments grew at around five per cent annually over the two decades to 2002–03. The UPA Government is also committed to ensuring the educational needs of disadvantaged groups are better addressed. Source: RBI 2006c Education services While India has expanded its education system over recent years. P A G E 42 . Under the Plan. Improvements in enrolment rates are leading to major improvements in literacy rates – 65 per cent in 2001 and an anticipated 75 per cent by 2007. many shortcomings still need to be addressed to lessen the constraints it imposes on the growth potential of the Indian economy. up from just 18 per cent in 1951. available at www. Notably also. The combined fiscal deficit (excluding losses of financial public sector enterprises) in 2005–06 amounted to 7.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 2. 18 up 17 18 University Grants Commission data. In the higher education sector. By 2004–05.7 (continued) The revenue deficits and overall fiscal deficits of both the centre and the states have been tracking downwards in recent years.9 million students were enrolled in tertiary-level technical subjects (science. The number of out-of-school children in the 6–14 year age group fell from 42 million at the beginning of the Tenth Five Year Plan period to 8.

the education system still has many weaknesses. For example. This compares with a ten per cent acceptance rate by Harvard. medicine and business schools. Otherwise. those unable to get into the prestigious institutions will often look to overseas study if it is within their means. P A G E 43 . Such is the importance accorded to education. Around one out of four teachers in government primary schools were absent during three spot checks.iitbombay. While there have been significant increases in elementary school teacher numbers during the current Plan period. much anecdotal evidence suggests parents. Concerned over the quality of schooling. the government does not exercise control over it. Another model is provided by the International Institute of Information Technology in Bangalore. regulation currently limits the scope for private providers. have increasingly been taking their children out of government schools and placing them into private schools. industry and government.Role of Services in Development from 133 and 27 respectively in March 2002. Hammer. and on the whole the quality of university education has fallen (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). Although funded by government and the information technology industry. ‘What’s New. especially engineering. primary school teacher-pupil ratios in 2002 were 1:42. At one end of the spectrum. many colleges and universities do not deliver education to rigorous quality standards and many of India’s approximately 500 engineering colleges need to be upgraded (Indian Planning Commission 2002b). In addition. The freedoms of these private colleges have however been curtailed as they are subject to the same raft of regulations as state colleges. Moreover. Despite some improvements. 19 The Indian government acknowledges the need for private sector investment in higher education. The number of colleges increased by almost one-third to 16 000 over the same period (Indian Planning Commission 2005). Kremer. even in slums and villages. in 2005 only two per cent of those taking the rigorous admission tests were accepted into the IITs. Its revenues derive from student The number of colleges providing professional education with private management structures has grown rapidly since the early 1990s. While the private sector is playing an increasing role in the university sector. the seven campuses of the Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and the six campuses of the Indian Institute of Management (IIMs) are well resourced and internationally renowned. 16 per cent of Indian children from small villages are now enrolled in private primary schools. On the other end. only a small fraction of the college-age population is able to be accommodated. which typically charge US$1–3 a month (Das 2006). India’s universities and technical colleges are also of variable quality. compared with around 1:20 for the upper-middle income reference level that India aspires to (Indian Planning Commission 2002b). A number of private universities have been set up by large industrialists and others. while students may be enrolled in publicly-funded colleges and 19 www. Muralidharan and Rogers 2005). Getting into the best institutions is exceedingly difficult. September 2005. while one out of two teachers present were not actually teaching (Chaudhury. The extremely capable students who are not accepted into the IITs and IIMs will often look for an education outside India (The Economist 2005a). including from reputable foreign universities (Indian Planning Commission 2002b).

The 2002 National Health Policy put forward the objective of increasing public expenditure on healthcare to 2. However. There are for example just 1. the majority of the population has to make do with a public health infrastructure that is under-equipped. The number of private schools has also grown rapidly in recent years. With the encouragement of government. Public spending on healthcare is increasingly constrained by public finances. Public expenditure on healthcare presently amounts to just 1.75 per cent of GDP (Indian Planning Commission 2005).5 hospital beds per 1000 people. To P A G E 44 . They will also have to go through a two-phase approval process. Foreign providers need to have an Indian partner and obtain approval to operate from the All-India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). However the rapidity of growth in knowledge-based industries such as information technology.1 per cent of total state government expenditures and 0. which will regulate foreign university involvement in the sector (The Economic Times Online 2006). FDI in the education sector with up to 100 per cent equity is permitted under the ‘automatic route’. there is also a need to define curricula that better reflect the needs of the labour market. they are increasingly turning to private sector providers of vocational training (Kapu and Mehta 2004). The government is reportedly in the process of finalising legislation. and in 2003–04 were just 4. Improvements measured in terms of public health indicators have been uneven both between urban and rural areas and among states. which compares poorly with countries such as China. Private healthcare now provides the bulk of the country’s healthcare services. primarily through independent practitioners and increasingly through well-equipped private hospitals. with their ability to set up ongoing operations dependent upon their performance in an initial trial period. Brazil and Thailand which have an average of 4. State allocations to health have been declining over the past decade. While the betteroff in India can afford private care. in addition to the strong commitment to training being demonstrated by the IT–ITES majors. means it will need to turn out increasing numbers of high quality graduates in these disciplines.3 beds per 1000 people (The Hindu Business Line 2005). that is without requiring government approval. based on the recommendations of the CNR Rao committee report. a number of private hospitals are now also exporting their services – in the form of a range of treatments and operations – to foreigners. Industry will need in parallel to invest considerably more in research and development.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY universities. A range of controls also apply in technical education. which is very low compared with many other developing countries. qualifications issued by these institutions are not recognised by the Indian Government.0 per cent of GDP. consulting services and biotechnology. Healthcare services A clear duality has arisen in India’s healthcare systems. Apart from efforts to ensure that all its institutions are up to an acceptable standard. India’s pool of qualified scientists and engineers is large by international standards.0 per cent of GDP by 2010 (Indian Ministry of Health & Family Welfare 2002). under-financed and suffers from a shortage of doctors and nurses. Constraints foreign providers will face include the need to adopt fee structures laid down by the University Grants Commission.

Role of Services in Development achieve this. it envisaged state sector health spending increasing to eight per cent of state budgets by 2010 with the share of central grants to constitute at least 25 per cent of total health spending. The sector’s competitiveness is being enhanced by the tendency to contract out an increasing array of service functions. It is targeted at the rural unemployed and guarantees 100 days of work on infrastructure projects each year to one member from each of India’s 60 million rural households. Meeting these targets will require a major mobilisation of financial and manpower resources. which itself can bring economic development to remote and underdeveloped regions. back-office tasks and post-sales service – are now being outsourced to world-leading Indian service 20 See Ministry of Health & Family Welfare website. mining services and technology should enable India to derive maximum benefits from exploration.nic. The National Rural Guarantee Scheme. could play a key role in absorbing India’s growing labour force. design and testing. Moreover. It forms an important part of the Government’s strategy to raise public spending on health from 0. The first phase of the program will be focused on the country’s poorest and least developed districts.9 per cent to 2–3 per cent of GDP. The National Rural Health Mission (2005–12) aims to tackle the poor health infrastructure in rural areas. The Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020 also pointed to the need to lift public expenditure on healthcare dramatically. it has recently posted growth rates in the order of ten per cent. which has been made possible by the services tradability revolution. and recommended that it be increased to the upper-middle income country reference level of 3. The current UPA Government sees an urgent need to put substantially more resources into the public healthcare system and. agriculture and mining Services sector developments are facilitating modernisation in India’s relatively capital-intensive manufacturing sector and in agriculture. Job creation in manufacturing. is an ambitious program aimed at reducing rural poverty. in its National Common Minimum Programme. lifting millions of rural Indians out of poverty.4 per cent of GDP by 2020 (Indian Planning Commission 2002b). particularly in labour-intensive industries such as textiles. Functions previously undertaken ‘in-house’ by manufacturers – such as software development. The National Rural Guarantee Scheme and National Rural Health Mission are aimed at raising living standards and health standards in rural areas. has undertaken to raise expenditure to at least 2–3 per cent of GDP over the five years to 2009 and introduce a national scheme for health insurance for poor families (National Advisory Council 2004).in/ P A G E 45 . launched by the Government in 2005. http://mohfw. 20 interrelationship of services With manufacturing. Services and manufacturing While the share of manufacturing in India’s GDP remained largely static throughout the 1990s at around 20 per cent. once an investment-friendly policy platform is established for the minerals sector.

Das 2006) have pointed to manufacturing’s low share of India’s GDP compared to that of other developing countries in Asia and the need for it to expand more rapidly to absorb a fast-growing labour force. India’s strengths in software and its engineering capabilities place it in a prime position to exploit this shift. The global trend towards a ‘service approach’ to manufacturing production. In contrast India remains relatively unrepresented in many labour-intensive manufacturing sectors. The success of these facilities depends upon a variety of professional service inputs. Rajan.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY providers. A stronger manufacturing sector can in turn generate employment opportunities in services.80 in China (Thirlwell 2006). is making India more attractive to international investors. Companies such as ABB and Sigma Electric are already exploiting these capabilities (Financial Times 2006). increased services sector incomes provide a stimulus to consumer demand for manufactures. for example. Many commentators (e. An industrial transformation towards advanced manufactures is now under way in India. forecasts that the textiles industry could increase its exports from the current level of US$17 billion to US$40 billion by 2010 and provide 12 million additional jobs. improve the business environment (including complex labour regulations) (Kochhar. at least in the formal sector. Goswami 2005.g. despite boasting healthy productivity growth and much lower wages than its competitors. India may be able to exploit its competitive advantage in labour costs to significantly expand labour-intensive manufacturing but to do so would need to be able to address transport infrastructure bottlenecks. The take-off of labour-intensive manufacturing in India is also impeded by a limited supply of skilled and managerial labour.80 per month. Nokia and Motorola have recently established advanced plants. high-skill manufacturing may not generate large numbers of jobs (see for example. and could provide a means for rural Indians to move out of subsistence agriculture. tends to be biased towards capital-intensive production and predominantly requires skilled labour. Indian manufacturing. for example. while chemicals (including pharmaceuticals) account for an additional 14 per cent (Thirlwell 2006). Technology-intensive engineering goods. In 2002 Indian workers in the manufacturing sector earned about US$23. Industries such as textiles have much potential. compared to US$110. account for 21 per cent of India’s merchandise exports. Das 2006). it would create employment opportunities for large numbers of low-skilled workers. Additionally. In this way knowledge-intensive Indian services are supporting innovation in India’s manufacturing sector. A recent Confederation of Indian Industry–Boston Consulting Group report highlights the fact that the manufacturing sector provides a conduit for agricultural labour looking to enter more value-added industries and also has P A G E 46 . The Confederation of Indian Textile Industry. Concerns have been raised that India’s emerging strengths in high-tech. Kumar. with an increasing emphasis on design and customisation. Nonetheless. PC. Subramanian and Tokatlidis 2006) and improve basic education in rural areas to equip potential workers with elementary literacy and other necessary skills. as does the experience in a service-based approach to customers gained from its prominence as a business process outsourcing destination. and can therefore be expected to stimulate demand and employment growth in niche service sectors. whitegoods and telecommunications manufacturers such as Dell. which is in high demand in export-oriented services sectors and therefore increasingly costly (Kochkar et al 2006).

The sector accounted for 57 per cent of employment in 1999–2000 but contributed only 25. Farmers are able to gain ready access to information in their local language on such things as the weather.9 per cent. e-Choupal services reach out to more than 3. iron ore and coal and. They are also able to make more informed decisions on the purchase of farm inputs and on the sale of their produce.3 per cent of total output. Source: ITC website. market prices and modern farm practices. The initiative aims to raise the competitiveness of India’s fragmented agricultural sector by empowering Indian farmers through the uptake of the Internet at the village level.8).5 million farmers growing a range of crops in over 36 000 villages through nearly 6000 village ‘Internet kiosks’ across nine states. and thereby increase that sector’s productivity. zinc and diamonds (Federation of Indian Mineral Industries 2006). 1991–92 to 2005–06. hotels and restaurants. forestry and fishing sector remains labour-intensive.6 per cent.8: the ‘e-choupal’ initiative – facilitating rural development The ‘e-Choupal’ initiative was launched in 2000 by ITC. and housing and construction – as well as in labour-intensive manufacturing – could absorb surplus labour from agriculture. Yet only a small fraction of the area conducive to mineral deposits has been explored. one of India’s largest companies with a diversified presence in many products and sectors and a large exporter of agricultural products. box 2. lead. given its geology. Services and mining India has large known reserves of bauxite.itcportal. The development means that farmers can look to collective purchases of inputs and sell their produce without the need to go through intermediaries and multiple handling. Services and agriculture Production in the agriculture. may also possess large deposits of other minerals such as gold. E-Choupal is aimed at a more efficient supply chain. Over the post-reform period. copper. Several global studies have estimated that every job created in manufacturing can lead to the creation of 2–3 jobs in services (IBEF 2006a). While progressive reforms beginning with the enactment P A G E 47 . Growth in organised retailing could also benefit farmers by reducing the need for intermediaries while the modernisation of logistics could reduce losses stemming from the spoiling of agricultural produce during transportation (see ‘The slower reformers’ above). high-end service provision.Role of Services in Development a substantial multiplier effect in creating jobs in the services is being directed towards raising the competitiveness of India’s fragmented agricultural sector (Box 2. Meanwhile. agriculture. The creation of large numbers of low-skilled jobs in services sectors like retail and wholesale trade. Today. Its share of GDP has since declined steadily to 19. www. notably in relation to IT and telecommunications. forestry and fishing grew at a trend rate of just 2. owing in part to prevailing policies.

P A G E 48 . A high-level committee under the chairmanship of former Deputy Director General of the WTO. The Hoda Committee’s findings. large scale private (including foreign) investment in the mining sector is likely to take place. Leading-edge expertise in mining services and technology is readily available from companies in countries such as Australia. often leading to small--scale operations and sub--optimal development of resources. investment-friendly and internationally competitive policy regime with clearer and more transparent regulation. and the removal of all qualitative and quantitative restrictions on iron ore exports. and cement producers access to coal and iron ore at extraction cost rather than market value (The Times of India 2006). If India’s central and mineral-rich state governments can agree on a liberal. As mineral deposits generally occur in remote areas with poor infrastructure (Indian Ministry of Mines 1993). software and systems. 100 sq km ‘Large Area Prospecting Licenses’ within this area. The application of advanced mining services and technology for exploration. In addition. The Committee’s key recommendations include the establishment of a maximum 5000 square-kilometre area in which prospecting can take place. iron. captive mining policies grant power. environmental management. safety. communications and training should enable India to derive maximum benefits from mineral exploration.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY of the 1993 National Mineral Policy have paved the way for private and foreign investor participation (Federation of Indian Mineral Industries 2006). Establishing a mining project in India requires multiple approvals from different layers of government (The Hindu Business Line 2006b). investment in exploration and mine development has been inhibited by a number of factors. steel. Professor Anwarul Hoda was established in September 2005 to recommend policy changes to attract more foreign and domestic investment in mineral exploration. There is currently no guarantee that exploration leases will be converted to mining leases. in addition to contributing to its overall prosperity. are anticipated to form the basis of a new mining policy. the introduction of 3-year. exploration and mining can be harnessed to contribute to economic development in India’s more remote and underdeveloped regions. published in June 2006. the institution of an ‘open skies’ policy under which reconnaissance permits would be granted to more than one applicant for the same area.

include: – – – – – – – – – – – – – – information technology telecommunication services financial services infrastructure. P A G E 49 . and professional services. construction management and consulting services education and training tourism and travel-related services film and television sports and related infrastructure healthcare services research. including biotechnology mining services retail logistics. in which Australian companies have significant expertise. • Key areas of current and emerging demand in India.Chapter 3 opportunities for australian service providers in indiai Key points • India’s services-driven development model is creating substantial openings for business. – Additional opportunities are likely to emerge over time as the momentum for reform fosters liberalisation and deregulation in protected sectors.

the size of this task is enormous. as are professional services. Whether in finding these capabilities or in building indigenous capacity. As the previous chapters highlight. highlighting the opportunities that could be expected to arise if India continues along its current growth trajectory. This chapter examines some of those areas. suggests that it is prudent for Australian services providers to look beyond the immediately obvious for longer-term possibilities. on a huge scale. this is starting to occur. and mining. and this can only be expected to increase (see Chapter 4). broad-based economic development in India implies the ongoing reform and modernisation of a number of crucial facilitating sectors – including telecommunications. While this implies a certain degree of competition. Australia is itself an attractive international business process outsourcing destination (Greene 2006. agricultural production and distribution.T. and to differentiate between the different types of market opportunities that will arise depending on the current state of reform initiatives and growth in each sector. logistics. including in selling services to third country markets. English-speaking and educated workforce and stable business environment (A. the potential for major expansion in bilateral services trade is arguably in the sectors which are only now starting to take off in India. Kearney 2005). bilateral activity can be expected to intensify. to the benefit of both countries. To a significant extent. P A G E 50 . India’s economy is currently in a phase of significant growth. But the pattern of growth posited in Chapter 1. But Australia also has significant expertise in many other areas where India will be seeking to augment its capabilities. There is no doubt that India’s current boom sectors offer opportunities for Australian participation. As disaggregation of services provision occurs through the development of international production networks. infrastructure.T. finance. Kearney 2005) because of its experienced. While these are important trends. Given the scale – and particularly the potential scale – of India’s economy. as well as the application of services to manufacturing. retail. largely induced by the expansion of the IT and other leadingedge services sectors. India will face a strong need to enlist the participation of external providers.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY ‘No big international company can be without an India strategy’ (The Economist 2006c) Opportunity knocks where change occurs. construction and transport. Australian service providers are well positioned to capitalise on emerging market opportunities in India. Education is already a major services export for Australia. for capabilities and skills which to date may not have been extensively required or available in India. As noted in Chapters 1 and 2. A. it also suggests scope for collaboration taking into account each country’s particular strengths. wherein the rapid development of one sector of the economy catalyses reform and expansion of others. Reform and modernisation imply the need.

Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India information technology India’s information technology (IT) sector is attracting increasing attention from foreign investors. Infosys and Birlasoft. more and more opportunities for collaboration between Australian and Indian firms to take up joint development work and service third markets are likely to emerge. business management and consulting. Indian IT companies are world class. Many of the major global information technology manufacturers and service providers – including Microsoft. Satyam. In a similar vein. Indian IT companies are becoming formidable multinationals in their own right. has said that planned foreign investment in telecommunications and information technology is expected to double to US$22 billion in 2006 (The Economic Times Online 2005). The Australian operations of TCS. in turn generating high-quality employment for Australians in engineering. enabling each partner to specialise in its strengths and augment its capabilities in other areas. 26 first and second tier Indian IT companies had established a presence in Australia. IT–ITES exports are projected to grow at 25 per cent a year to reach US$60 billion by 2010 (NASSCOM-McKinsey 2005). They are building up global networks of facilities to service clients better in-country and thereby compete more effectively with the IBMs and Accentures of the world (NASSCOM 2005b). While ‘offshoring’ to affiliated Indian businesses (‘captive’ units) has been growing strongly. the country’s IT and business process outsourcing industry would account for seven per cent of India’s GDP by 2010. As of October 2006. In addition to providing IT solutions to local businesses. Minister Maran has said this projection may be too conservative (The Economic Times Online 2005). have generated significant employment and collaborative research opportunities in software engineering and telecommunications. and where Australia has established strengths. these companies are using their Australian subsidiaries to secure or help take advantage of global market opportunities. This is of particular relevance to the financial services P A G E 51 . India’s Minister of Communications and Information Technology. for example. The Information technology-information technology enabled services (IT–ITES) industry is projected to grow at an annual rate of over 25 per cent to US$148 billion by 2012 (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). and about 17 per cent of GDP growth and 44 per cent of export growth over five years to 2010. implying that opportunities for Australian companies will come in the form of cooperation and collaboration. Dayanidhi Maran. while an R&D and distribution agreement between the CSIRO and Infosys has paved the way for the commercialisation and export of leading-edge Australian intellectual property. One prospective area for such collaboration is knowledge process analytics – an area into which Indian companies are increasingly seeking to move. stimulating collaboration in research and development. many multinationals are setting up development centres in India and also targeting the fast-growing domestic IT services market. Intel Corporation and Cisco Systems – along with smaller Australian companies (see Chapter 4) are stepping up their presence in India. a NASSCOM-McKinsey report in 2005 predicted that on the back of the strong growth in offshoring. and creating export opportunities (see Chapter 4). As the trend to deliver services through international networks intensifies. In many respects.

media and banking – areas where Australian companies have evident strengths. is expected to continue to grow at break-neck speed in coming years. a leader in networking for the Internet. Singtel and investment house Warburg Pincus were already partners with Bharti. Total FDI approvals in the sector up to September 2005 amounted to Rs416 billion (US$9. consultancy and other services for India’s burgeoning ITES sector. The market. forcing them to invest in communications and other technology (The Mercury 2005). resulted in a memorandum of understanding (MOU) being signed to promote further cooperation in developing information and communications technology industries and strengthening business linkages (Coonan 2005b). which at the time was the largest ever single foreign investment in India (Bharti Enterprises 2005b). e-governance. Vodafone secured a ten per cent stake in Bharti Tele-Ventures Ltd for approximately Rs67 billion (US$1. Senator Helen Coonan. India is now the fifth-largest telecommunications services market in the world. which can complement Indian technical expertise. P A G E 52 . Indian companies can look to developing the requisite capabilities themselves but often it will make sense for them to adapt offerings from overseas. insurance. transportation. India also has application solutions gaps in mining. Austrade has identified a range of opportunities for Australian companies in IT. Hutchison Essar is a joint venture between the Essar Group and Hong Kong-based Hutchison Whampoa. The telephone subscriber base is projected to grow at 30–40 per cent a year to reach 250 million by 2009–10 (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). principally the mobile phone market. tele-health and remote monitoring. is also reported to be ramping up its involvement in India. sophisticated financial markets. network and Internet security consultancy and products. A visit in October 2005 by a high-level industry delegation to India led by the Australian Minister for Communications.6 billion) (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006).8 billion in 2004–05. Two other mobile phone operators also have foreign partners. and in particular the mobile market.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY sector. including software products for industries such as health. Information Technology and the Arts. With revenues of US$17. there is scope for Australian business to become involved in education and health initiatives which can help raise living standards in India’s rural sector. Invest Australia 2006). Cisco Systems.5 billion). finance and entertainment. and joint research and development projects for emerging technologies and solutions around established technologies (Austrade 2006b). In October 2005. and cost advantages over competing destinations. There may also be opportunities for Australian businesses to win market share in overseas markets by partnering with Indian outsourcing companies (ACS 2005. Australian IT people are also recognised for their business orientation and problem solving strengths. Australia can avail itself of its highly-skilled financial services workforce. Given Australian capabilities in distance education. telecommunications Foreign investors are taking an increasing interest in India’s fast-growing telecommunications sector. AT&T is a joint venture partner in IDEA Cellular. in part on the back of an assessment that deregulation is exposing local businesses to increased competition.

A number of guidelines that impede the provision of international voice and data telecommunications services were introduced in 2005 when the foreign equity limit in telecommunications was raised from 49 to 74 per cent (see Box 2. is extremely competitive. Further dramatic falls are expected in the near term.7 cents) and Rs2. aided by stiff competition in the marketplace. particularly in relation to mobile phones. for example bank accounts. financial services Banking The banking sector is expected to grow strongly in coming years. Rising incomes and cheaper services are one side of the equation. Domestic long distance rates presently vary between Rs1. a joint venture 74 per cent-owned by AT&T. India’s largest foreign bank. which is expected in early 2007. AT&T Global Network Services India. the opportunities that arise in the rural sector in particular may be difficult for foreign companies to access. while mobile rates are around US2–3 cents a minute. Other international carriers remain interested in applying for NLD/ILD licences. credit cards.4 (US5. the opening of the sector since the early 1990s has enabled the generally more efficient foreign and privately-owned banks to secure an increasing share of the market – currently around 25 per cent. mobile carriers are now expanding their networks into untapped rural areas where more than two-thirds of the population lives (The Economic Times Online 2005). involving. Peak telecom tariffs have fallen dramatically over the past decade. At the same time. While public sector banks still dominate Indian banking. HSBC.3). is currently quite low by comparison with that in other developing countries.2 (US2. Three foreign banks – Standard Chartered Bank. IBEF 2005b). whose activities in India are focused on outsourcing operations. the potential for large numbers of very small transactions. pending the outcome of an Indian Government review of the guidelines. One projection is for total banking assets to double by 2010 to US$915 billion. An ILD enables foreign carriers to provide international connectivity to network facilities which they operate in other countries. especially in long distance call rates (Indian Ministry of Finance 2006. became the first foreign telecom operator in India to secure national long distance and international long distance (NLD/ILD) licences. Citibank and HSBC – accounted for 64 per cent of the assets of all foreign banks in March 2005 (RBI 2005a).Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India While growing rapidly. All three are expanding their presence in India (Sify 2005). and mortgages. invested US$150 million in India through the first 11 months of 2005. the Indian telecommunications market. following keen interest from numerous foreign carriers (Digital Media Asia 2006). The market potential in rural India is particularly significant (see Chapter 2).5 cents) a minute. P A G E 53 . as they do. reflecting buoyant conditions and the increasingly important role played by banking intermediation in a liberalising economy. The penetration of financial products. On the other side of the equation. representing a compound annual growth rate of 15 per cent (Indian Investment Commission 2006a).

Financial Insights projects India’s life insurance sector will continue to expand at around 20 per cent a year over the medium term (Financial Insights 2005).and non-life sectors is widely expected in coming years. Insurance The opening of the life and non-life insurance sectors to foreign investment in 2000 spurred considerable activity by foreign investors. Independent research and advisory firm. Aside from supplementing scarce government finances. The bank reportedly plans to continue expanding its operations by opening 10–12 branches every year and focusing on the fast-growing retail segment (Sify 2005). India’s imports of insurance services doubled to US722 million in 2004–05. ports. slated for March 2009. P A G E 54 . In transport as well as water. AXA Asia Pacific and Aon have each established joint ventures in the insurance sector (see Chapter 4). Deutsche Bank is also restarting its retail banking operations in India. continued strong growth in the life. the government is enlisting private sector involvement in a major way through Public Private Partnerships. construction management and consulting services India is according the highest priority to bringing its transport infrastructure to a standard which will support the rapid growth of the Indian economy. and aviation – are in need of massive upgrades and modernisation. invested around US$120 million over the same period. and QBE Insurance is reported to be eyeing opportunities in India (Canberra Times 2005). All sectors – road.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Standard Chartered. demand for such services can only be expected to increase as India continues to grow. which has been operating in the Indian market for 150 years. is currently expanding its research and equity businesses. All major Australian banks are represented in India and are actively appraising market opportunities (see Chapter 4). including some Australian banks. 1 Most private insurance companies are joint ventures between Indian and foreign partners. whose activities are focused on retail and corporate banking. Foreign banks have been prevented from holding a stake of more than five per cent in domestic private sector banks but a number of them. ICICI Prudential and Birla Sun Life have each generated more premiums on new business in India than in any other markets in Asia (IBEF 2006c). which is low compared with more mature markets. Citigroup. Given the importance of insurance availability to encouraging risk-taking business ventures. increasing discretionary incomes and a growing awareness of insurance products. foreign investment is bringing management. are positioning themselves for the opening of the sector to greater foreign ownership. engineering and design skills. sewerage and tourism projects.6 per cent of GDP in 2003–04. With India’s large population. Prime Minister Singh indicated in October 2006 that the country needed investment in infrastructure to the tune of US$320 billion over the coming 5–10 years. 1 infrastructure. rail. Life insurance premium income (first year plus renewal income) was running at around 2.

P A G E 55 . Private sector investment is being sought. 100 per cent tax exemption in any consecutive ten years out of 20 after project commissioning. in addition to leasing out India’s four major international airports at Delhi. under build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangements. Airservices Australia has already had some success (see Chapter 4). training.1). and the right to retain tolls (Indian Department of Road Transport and Highways 2006). 2 See www. Melbourne consultancy. Chennai and Kolkata to private operators and building new international airports in Bangalore and Hyderabad with private sector participation (see Chapter 2). participation. Aviation Compliance Solutions. Altogether.7 billion) on ports sector projects through to 2011–12.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India Roads At least US$50–60 billion investment is required over the coming five years to improve road infrastructure (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). managing and operating berths and terminals is expected to account for two-thirds of overall investment in the Programme (Indian Press Information Bureau 2005a). such as international standards compliance. compliance documentation. and a number of other Australian companies are also interested in securing business in the air transport sector. to assist with the implementation of the National Highways Development Project. air traffic control. has already begun assisting India’s aviation industry in this regard (see Chapter 4). aviation security. Australia’s capabilities are recognised as world class in many of these areas. who are streamlining cost structures. subsidies of up to 40 per cent of project cost to make projects viable. announced in December 2005. low-cost airlines have commenced operations in the past few years in response to rapidly growing demand from India’s burgeoning middle class (see Chapter 2). manual design and management. ground handling and safety systems development. Ports The National Maritime Development Programme. Private sector investment in constructing. have already secured contracts associated with the construction and upgrading of sections of the national highways network. including foreign investor. including SMEC (Box 4. Several Yet India has limited skilled resources in a number of aviation services required by these and established airlines. envisages investment of Rs558 billion (US$12. These include up to 100 per cent foreign equity.nhai. 2 Airports and air services The government is considering private investment in a further 25 city airports. These projects are likely to generate flow-on opportunities in aviation transport services such as baggage handling. The aviation industry is consequently seeking outside assistance for a range of services. fire services and navigational technologies. Mumbai. over US$15 billion is expected to be invested in airport development over the coming five years (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). A number of foreign players. Several incentives are available to encourage private sector.

in many cases establishing their own learning institutions. box 3.skmconsulting.1). Sourced from www. As noted in Chapter 2. Since the 1990s. and project management for the development of a large temple in the state of West Bengal.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Many multinationals and domestic players have been involved in new port development. and foreign investment and joint ventures with foreign partners have been increasing (Sawhney and Chanda 2004. municipalities have encouraged private participation in infrastructure environmental services. was the managing contractor for the Bangalore Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Master Plan Project. Nhava Sheva. Despite this. Environmental infrastructure and services India also recognises the need to improve its environmental infrastructure. Sinclair Knight Merz.1: sinclair Knight merz Australian engineering consulting firm. and the relatively large number of graduates produced. for example. Up to 100 per cent foreign equity under the automatic route is permitted in projects involving construction and maintenance of ports and harbours. the best of India’s educational institutions have incredibly competitive entry requirements and excellent tuition by world standards. structural. in areas such as waste treatment and water purification. at all levels. Private sector participation has generally been in the form of a build-operate-transfer (BOT) model. there is enough potential to keep both domestic and foreign providers busy for a very long time. skills shortages in the IT–ITES sector are still looming. the new deep water container port at Mundra. India’s major IT companies are investing very significantly in their own training efforts. Development of other sectors will necessitate still further development of the indigenous skills base. Assuming development proceeds according to plan. P&O Ports. Sinclair Knight Merz has also been engaged to carry out the civil. It is also yet to develop comprehensive R&D. they have also taken over and are operating existing port but has only limited funding and management capacity. with assets reverting to the port after the concession period. and the Chennai Container Terminal. Ten-year tax holidays also apply. accessed May 2006 education and training services Human resource development. operates Mumbai’s new port. is arguably the largest challenge that confronts India on its path to development. P A G E 56 . sewerage and environmental sanitation services to Bangalore. design and technology capabilities in environmental services. The project aimed to improve local capacity for the delivery of water supply. mechanical and electrical engineering. Box 3. Particular emphasis was placed on assisting the urban poor and other vulnerable groups.

wiuindia. Modi Group. given the trend toward international student and the Kellogg School of Management. destination for Indian tertiary students. It seems increasingly likely that the major training opportunities will require foreign tertiary education and training providers to look at delivering their services on the ground in India.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India Australia has been a popular. Overseas study Middle class interest in study abroad is growing. predominantly in the vocational area. A handful of foreign institutions have been involved in establishing non-university higher education campuses in India. including the University of Southern Queensland and the University of South Australia. A number of foreign universities. particularly those wishing to undertake postgraduate engineering and business management degrees. While most attention has been paid to the higher education sector. with China and India generating over half the global demand (Böhm.isb. One forecast is for the demand for international higher education (encompassing overseas study. Australia’s share of global demand is forecast to increase from three per cent in 2000 to eight per cent (one million students) in 2006). notably business and hotel management programs. 56 per cent of which is expected to be for onshore 3 See www. But potential exists for this pattern to change. The number of Indians studying in Australia has consequently grown rapidly in recent years (see Chapter 4).com and www.2 million by 2025. the number of collaborative arrangements in school education has been increasing.K. offshore campuses and distance education) to grow from 1. No foreign universities have established campuses in India as yet. and as demand grows for labour in other sectors where potential salaries do not provide the incentive to justify the expense of travelling overseas to undertake a degree. The majority of collaborations have involved ‘twinning’ arrangements. although a number are positioning for entry. www. With foreign degrees offered in India (in-country delivery) not recognised in India. There are estimated to be more than 200 schools in which foreign schools and Indian partners collaborate on program delivery (oneworld. They include the UK-based Wigan & Leigh which has set up a number of business-oriented campuses across India. Study abroad is becoming more accessible with the increasing availability of credit. both as competition heats up among Indian companies to recruit and provide in-house training to graduate engineers. the Western International University of the United Growth prospects are particularly strong. 2002).wiganindia. the demand for such courses would appear to reflect the enthusiasm among Indian students for foreign degrees (Boston College 2005). et al. whereby part of the program is undertaken in each country. 3 A recent study found that at least 131 Indian higher education institutions have collaborative arrangements with foreign institutions. also provide distance education courses (see Chapter 4). which established the Modi Apollo International Institute in collaboration with the K. and rapidly growing. The Wharton School and the London Business School which have an association with the Indian School of Business. P A G E 57 .8 million students in 2000 to 7.

Australian universities are exploring opportunities for twinning with Indian universities as well as the establishment of a direct market presence (Downer 2005). The increasing numbers of international students enrolled in Australian institutions is helping to facilitate the recognition of Australian qualifications overseas. there is a relative lack of formal training and skills are typically passed from father to son. Australian educational institutions have been actively appraising the Indian market. now recognises undergraduate law degrees from a number of Australian universities. white goods. The agreement has not yet translated into commercial contracts. Compared with university education. many nurses have aspirations to work overseas. By 2025 offshore campuses and distance education programs are forecast to account for 44 per cent of the total global demand for Australian higher education (Böhm et al 2002). for example. TAFE Global. IDP Education Australia’s India country director. Australia and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) concluded a deed of understanding in 2004 for the introduction of a skills training strategy aimed at the Tata group. but TAFE Global has concluded memoranda of understanding with two other Indian parties for the provision of vocational training services. In the case of nursing. the broader Indian workforce and internationally. Commercial links Building on the many and varied educational linkages between Australia and India (see Chapter 4). and English language in the workplace. the number of Indian VTE students studying in Australia – principally hospitality and business courses – has increased by some 140 per cent over the past year. Some 800 000 students from India are projected to seek overseas study by 2025.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY higher education in Australia. ‘there is certainly room for another Monash in India or a Curtin in India’ (IDP Education Australia 2005b). There may therefore be opportunities for Australian educational institutions to get involved in joint ventures delivering education programs to Australian and international standards. The parties agreed to explore delivering four projects to transfer the know-how and training quality standards. The Bar Council of India. VTE courses can be provided more readily in India. Australian educational institutions need to have something unique to offer before contemplating the establishment of campuses in India. In the trades. While growing from a relatively small base. while India has a large number of nursing colleges. Accreditation standards are also lacking in many fields. healthcare. Henry Ledlie. Cooperation is envisaged in automotive. with 80 000 wanting to study in Australia (IDP Education Australia 2005a). products and services of TAFE Global to the Indian training environment through TCS (TCS 2004). Australian education providers have also shown considerable interest in pursuing partnerships in vocational and technical education (VTE). P A G E 58 . There will be potential opportunities for Australian institutions to be involved in the establishment of campuses in India – once there is clarity in the regulatory approach governing the presence of foreign higher education providers. However. has noted that while Australian institutions may not be able to take 80 000 Indian students [as projected by Böhm et al].

aspiring segments of the population. Currently the share is a little over one per cent (Department of Industry. A limit of US$100 000 applies for persons travelling abroad for employment or emigration purposes.5 per cent compound annual growth over 2001) (RBI 2002). These growth rates compare with World Tourism Organization forecasts of 4. An increasing number of agents are starting to promote Australia as a destination (Tourism Australia 2005). while foreign tourism boards and international airlines have also been actively undertaking promotional activities.5 per cent compound annual growth). to an estimated 6. foreign players consider it worthwhile to invest in the Indian market given its anticipated future growth. Competition is tough however. Looking ahead to 2025. an estimated 25 million people.2 per cent.6 per cent through to 2015. The World Tourism Organization forecast in 2002 that the number of outbound Indian travellers will reach 50 million by 2020 (Asia Times Online 2002). Travel agencies and tour operators have proactively promoted foreign travel. particularly among the younger. credit cards and personal loans are increasingly popular.2 million in 2004 (10. in large part reflecting a poorly developed tourism infrastructure. visitor numbers from India are predicted to grow to around 550 000. Tourism Australia (2006) expects Australian providers to gain further market share in Indian outbound tourism over the coming decade.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India tourism and travel-related services Indian outbound tourism is expected to grow very strongly in the coming years. Tourism and Resources 2005).2 million in 1992 to 4.44 per cent in 2004 – although tourist numbers have recently been increasing quite rapidly (Indian Press Information Bureau 2005b).1 per cent growth in worldwide international tourist arrival numbers through to 2020. In addition. the 11th fastest of all countries. with average annual growth in arrivals from India of 15. other factors have been facilitating the recent strong growth in Indian outbound tourism. India’s share in world tourist arrivals is low – just 0. Under the Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA).5 per cent of the Indian population could afford international travel (Department of Industry. India is one of the fastest growing sources of tourists in the world.6 million in 2001 (8. This represents an annual compound growth rate of over 12 per cent on the 4. Its travel and tourism economy gross product is expected to grow at an average annual inflation-adjusted rate of 6. have also stimulated interest in travel abroad. Clearly. In 2001. when visitor numbers are expected to top 290 000. While margins may be tight. P A G E 59 . especially among the larger travel agencies. International departures have grown from 2. and in fact the number of outbound tourists has been growing at rates not too far short of this over recent years. Tourism and Resources 2005). Apart from India’s growing middle class. people travelling abroad as tourists or as students are entitled to obtain foreign exchange from authorised dealers up to a limit of US$10 000 per person in any one calendar year (double the previous limit). Changing mindsets. The Indian domestic tourism sector is performing well below its potential. which has helped accommodate growth in the tourism market. The deregulation of the aviation market has led to a plethora of new airlines and air services. notably the relaxation of foreign exchange transactions.6 million tourist numbers recorded in 2001. which would make India Australia’s seventh-largest source of visitors with a share of 4.9 per cent over the ten years to 2015. or 2.

and availability of high standard hotel accommodation. In a bid to build a strong and viable presence in the market. which serve multiple cities in India and are able to offer connections with their Australian services at their hubs. Chennai and Ahmedabad. Hyderabad.0 per cent. Sources: Anderson 2004. discussions with David Hawes. and Australian and Indian carriers had gained access to two additional ports in India and Australia respectively. is projected to grow at 9.2: qantas re-enters the indian marKet After a two-and-a-half year hiatus. Qantas entered into a codeshare arrangement with Jet Airways in August 2006 to significantly increase the frequency of flights between multiple points in Australia and Mumbai and New Delhi via Singapore. Although traffic is growing strongly. The signing of an MOU in 2004 and a new Air Services Agreement in 2006 significantly increased the access of the two countries’ airlines to each other’s market. Kolkata and Chennai. and offers connections from New Delhi. An estimated 100 000 hotel rooms will need to be added over the coming five years (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). Bangalore. The new services coincided with the signing of an MOU and a new Air Services Agreement.qantas. In addition to the opportunities the growth of Indian tourism brings for Australian travel agencies and tour operators. Qantas India website ( planning and management services. box 3. More liberal code-sharing arrangements were agreed which will provide airlines greater flexibility in serving the market. In 2004. Melbourne. A number of foreign providers have entered the Indian travel-related services sector in recent years.2). including air seat capacity. access for the airlines of both countries increased from 2100 seats each way each week to 4500 seats between Australia’s four main gateway ports of Sydney. both to service the Indian tourist market as well as to capture some of the growing business in Indian outbound tourism. Qantas. the 6th highest across all countries (World Travel & Tourism Council 2005). Brisbane and Perth and four major ports in India: New Delhi. Qantas resumed air services to India in September 2004 with three services a week to Mumbai. accessed December 2006) P A G E 60 .INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Expenditure by international visitors on goods and services. so providing a platform for expansion of two-way trade and investment in the tourism sector (Box 3. Open freight arrangements with unlimited capacity and open routes were also agreed. India is continuing to prove a difficult market for Qantas in the face of strong competition from hub carriers such as Singapore Airlines and Malaysian Airlines. airport and other transport infrastructure. Mumbai. India will need to address a number of issues if such growth is to be realised. FDI in travel-related services with up to 100 per cent equity is permitted automatically. Australian service providers have developed substantial expertise in the provision of tourism-related advice. adjusted for The introduction of multiple designation (‘open skies’) has allowed an unlimited number of airlines to operate between the two countries. Capacity had increased to 6500 seats per week by October 2006. Group General Manager Government and International Relations. Qantas currently offers three non-stop flights per week from Mumbai to Sydney.

4 billion) in 2004 (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2005a). Australia remains a popular destination for Indian productions and awareness of Australia among Indian filmmakers is only likely to increase now that Australia Network.4 billion) and Rs427 billion (US$9. 1961. television and radio sectors are all open to foreign investment and a number of foreign investors have entered the market (IBEF 2006b). Modern multiplex and digital cinemas are also springing up everywhere. advancements in and better use of technology. These developments and liberalisation are spurring foreign investment (Austrade 2006c). as is the interest of Indian film-goers in foreign films and influences.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India film and television The audio-visual and related services sector has been reformed considerably. is available in India (see Chapter 4).6 billion) in 2010. It was largely under public ownership prior to the 1990s. Indian film producers are focusing more on state-of-the-art technologies in cinematographic equipment. owning and operating multiplex cinemas constructed between April 2002 and March 2005. up from just 35 million in 2002. making India one of the largest cable markets in the world (Zee Television 2003). The international audience for Indian films is growing. up from Rs201 billion (US$4. The film. and reductions in entertainment tax in some states from their previous high levels (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2005a. 4 4 See Income Tax Act. evolving efficiencies in distribution. broadcasters are investing in the latest technology and additional services. The number of cable and satellite households is expected to reach 94 million by 2010. The film and television sectors are expected to grow at 18 and 24 per cent a year respectively.taxmann. television serials and billion). in the television and cable industry. distribution and exhibition. partly spurred by the five year tax exemption on 50 per cent of profits from building. Australia’s television service in the Asia Pacific region. and exhibition. Section 80-IB (available at www. P A G E 61 . to reach Rs153 billion (US$3. This is encouraging producers to co-produce with overseas filmmakers and to include exotic locales in their films. The government’s monopoly on the import of foreign films was removed in 1992 and a range of qualitative restrictions on film imports were removed in 2002 (Mukherjee 2002). India’s entertainment industry is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 21 per cent to reach Rs617 billion (US$13. Demand for Australian film post-production services is also likely to grow. with the exception of film production. industry corporatisation and consolidation. Ernst & Young 2004). Likewise. Factors leading to buoyant growth include increasing numbers of pay TV homes and multiplexes. The cable industry forecasts the number of households with television to rise from 79 million in 2002 to 134 million in 2010. Entertainment taxes varied between 14 and 167 per cent in 2002 (Mukherjee 2002). post-production.

P A G E 62 . The Delhi Games will be India’s largest sporting event since the 1982 Asian Games. with the Delhi Games being a major focus. Moreover. as well as games operations and management and related services. Many Australian companies have. environmental management. increasing disposable incomes and changing lifestyles are driving the burgeoning demand for healthcare. Changing demographics. particularly in the increasingly prominent private sector. Indian consumers are increasingly seeking out preventive healthcare services.5 to 5.3 per cent over the 1993–04 to 2001–02 period. India will be seeking collaboration from countries with experience in hosting major games events. pointing to significant opportunities for foreign investors (IBEF 2004). The Victorian Government has since led a building. infrastructure and related services mission to India. on the back of their involvement in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY sports and related infrastructure A number of Australian companies are positioning themselves to win business in connection with the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. representing growth of 15 per cent a year (Indian Investment Commission 2006a). the incidence of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases is increasing. the public healthcare system will be able to meet just one tenth of the demand for additional hospital beds over the coming three or four years. Increasing per capita incomes and a larger number of two-income families are spurring demand for health services among the middle. The percentage of the working age population will also grow over the coming years. architecture. with 18 Australian companies participating. An Australia–India Council-sponsored sports. With a greater awareness of health issues and greater financial means. engineering. India has also signalled its wish to host the 2016 Olympic Games. Health insurance cover is beginning to take off (IBEF 2004).and higher-income groups. The share of health in private final consumption expenditure increased from 3. By one estimate. Healthcare sector revenues are projected to increase from around US$30 billion in 2004–05 to US$60 billion by 2010. Australian companies have competencies in design. built up particular strengths in contracting in the context of complex major sporting events. As more and more Indians adopt Western lifestyles. the Indian Healthcare Federation estimates that domestic investors will be in a position to meet only about one-half of the required investment in the sector over the next 8–10 years. The percentage of the population 55 and above will increase to 12 per cent by 2010. The Victorian and New South Wales governments in 2006 jointly established an Australian International Sporting Events Secretariat to promote the expertise developed by both states from hosting the Sydney Olympics and Melbourne Commonwealth Games (Brumby 2006). healthcare services The healthcare services sector appears poised for buoyant growth.and related-infrastructure forum took place in India in November 2005.

The new MOU will complement existing agreements between Australia and India in science and technology and education and training signed in 2003. P A G E 63 . A number of hospitals and other healthcare operators have formed alliances with foreign companies with a view to tapping their capabilities and expertise in the provision of healthcare services. India had the 11th largest biotechnology sector in the world in 2005. notably in biotechnology but also in areas such as nanotechnology and bioinformatics. Clinical development services revenues could exceed US$1.5 billion.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India The number of private sector companies owning and managing hospitals has grown rapidly in recent years. India has made some significant investments in biotechnology. and agricultural and industrial biotechnology could account for US$500 million. Australian companies have capabilities in a range of healthcare service areas where India has a need for expertise. has a large skills base and offers development and market potential across several biotechnology sectors. Nanotechnology and bioinformatics are two areas at the interface of biotechnology and information technology where both countries have strengths. AusBiotech signed an MOU with India’s peak biotechnology industry body. Australian industry has a track record in innovation. For its part. Capabilities that are in particular demand include health insurance. new hospital and diagnostic centre projects. further enhancing scope for multi-disciplinary research and technology cooperation between the two countries. the Indian Association of Biotechnology Led Enterprises (ABLE). Australia was ranked 5th. Measured in terms of numbers of biotechnology companies. as well as training and consulting services. There has also been a proposal to establish an Australia-India Nanotechnology Centre at the University of New South Wales (UNSW 2005). in October 2004 (AusBiotech 2004). as demonstrated by Aus Health International and AWS Clinical Waste’s successes in the Indian market (see Chapter 4). up from US$700 million in 2003–04. An Indo–Australian Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology was held in Bangalore in March 2006. bio-services or outsourced research services could reach US$1 billion. AusBiotech notes the complementarities that exist. India turns out nearly half a million graduates with degrees and diplomas in biotechnology. bio-informatics and the biological sciences (Indian Department of Biotechnology 2005). Prime Minister Howard announced a new A$25 million bilateral research and fellowships program and a new MOU on biotechnology was signed during his visit to India in March 2006. The MOU aims to strengthen ties and develop further biotechnology partnering and collaborative opportunities. research There is strong scope for partnering and collaboration in numerous research fields. Anticipating the Indian biotechnology market to reach half the size of the US biotechnology market within the space of 20 years. India’s biotechnology industry has the potential to generate US$5 billion in goods and services revenues by 2010. Each year. Australian biotechnology industry body. with around 100 companies (Ernst & Young 2005b).

When the restraints on FDI are removed. software and systems. retail Retail consultancy Technopak predicts that India’s retail sector will increase in size from US$300 billion in 2006 to US$427 billion by 2010 and US$637 billion by 2015. At least 2. the detail will reportedly be revisited if the Indian Government loosens restrictions on FDI in the retail sector (The Hindu Business Line 2006c). with additional investment of US$8–10 billion required in retail fit-outs and related equipment. Australian mining service companies can be expected to follow the miners in a major way. safety. Over 60 per cent of the world’s mining software is written in Australia (Minerals Council 2005). regulatory regimes are largely precluding foreign mining company investment in mine development in India.5 million additional jobs are likely to be created in retail by 2010. An estimated US$10–15 billion will be needed to make good this shortfall. Based on current projections of mall construction there will be a shortfall of 400–500 million square feet. Mincorp and JK Tech already operating successfully in India (see Chapter 4). Australian retailers have developed significant expertise in the modern retailing systems and practices that will be required by Indian companies scrambling to establish organised retailing ventures. environmental management.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY mining services Australian exports of mining technology services globally were expected to reach A$1. P A G E 64 . communications and training. For the present. Ludowici. Woolworths concluded a deal to provide Tata Group’s recently announced Infiniti retail venture with technical support and strategic sourcing facilities from its global network. and optimisation of smelting and refining operations and by-product recoveries (Austrade 2006d). The Indian mining industry is becoming more aware of Australian capabilities in mining technology and other services areas. While Woolworths has no equity stake in Infiniti. Technopak (2006) estimates an additional 600–700 million square feet of retail space will be required by 2011.24 billion in 2004–05. architectural firms and engineering consultancies – many of whom are already involved in India – are well placed to participate in the planning. with Xstrata. Opportunities exist to supply mining technology and services for exploration. Australian project developers. cost reduction. which can improve productivity through good planning and design of mines. Organised retailing in India is growing particularly strongly and is projected to reach US$60–75 billion by 2011–12. India is looking for state-of-the-art technological and management expertise. but mining policy is currently under review. The growth in the organised retail sector could provide additional opportunities for Australian retailers if foreign investment laws are further relaxed. The retail supply chain alone is expected to benefit from investments amounting to around US$22 billion (Technopak 2006). design and construction of this additional retail space.

In WTO services trade negotiations. with its transportation and warehousing network stretching across 15 countries including India. There is also demand in India for internationally qualified lawyers and accountants to support Indian companies acquiring assets abroad. Its recent acquisition of a 60 per cent shareholding in Singapore’s SembCorp Logistics. which would enable Australian lawyers to enter into voluntary forms of commercial association with Indian lawyers and law firms. P A G E 65 . there is growing acceptance within the Indian Government of the benefits of greater foreign participation. and employ or be employed by Indian lawyers. and expose Indian legal and accounting firms to international best practice. including legal and accountancy services. Australia is seeking a commitment from India on legal services covering advisory services in foreign law. is a key element of its strategy (Toll Holdings 2006). goods and services. especially in the resource and information technology sectors. India’s fragmented logistics sector offers opportunities for more efficient Australian operators with sophisticated capabilities in supply chain management. Gradual opening of these professional services markets in this way would encourage foreign investment. Linfox recently commenced operations in India and is working with potential customers to solve their supply chain issues (Linfox 2006). professional services The Australian Government is working with Australian business to open opportunities in professional services in India. Australia is also pushing for commitments on commercial presence to enable Australian accountants to establish offices in India and provide a full range of accountancy services. better enable Indian companies to take advantage of international business opportunities. The growth of the Indian economy has fostered demand for qualified and suitably experienced international lawyers and accountants to service the needs of foreign investors in India and Indian multinationals and Indian exporters of capital. Any liberalisation is likely to be gradual. refrigerated containers and cold storage to enter the market. Toll Holdings aims to become the pre-eminent integrated logistics provider in the Asian region.Opportunities for Australian Services Providers in India logistics The rapid growth in organised retailing is rapidly changing the logistics landscape. While India’s legal and accounting professions are resistant to reform and market opening.

P A G E 66 .

• While presently at modest levels. notably the Australia India Business Council (AIBC). – A number of state governments have also identified India as a strategic market. infrastructure design. • Dozens of Indian information technology companies have a significant and growing presence in Australia. – India is now the second-largest source country for international student enrolments. particularly in education. which is generating employment. Australian companies are also taking advantage of emerging export opportunities in engineering. • India has been Australia’s second-fastest growing services export market over the past five years. healthcare and mining services. – Business associations and chambers of commerce. – • Visitor numbers from India have grown rapidly over recent years. collaborative initiatives and export opportunities for Australian companies. P A G E 67 .Chapter 4 the bilateral economic relationshipi Key points • Australian business is beginning to capitalise on India’s economic emergence. • The Trade and Economic Framework Agreement signed in march 2006 provides an important basis for the facilitation and future development of the bilateral trade and economic relationship. the level of Australian direct investment in India is set to increase with some recent investment decisions and conclusion of contracts. – Australia currently runs a significant surplus in services trade with India. play an important role in showcasing business opportunities in India. – Growth in India’s services sector has fuelled a growth in demand by India for Australian services.

In 2005–06 India was Australia’s 11th largest overall trading partner – up from 18th in 2000–01. Imports of services from India were valued at A$348 million in 2005–06. diversification of the bilateral commercial relationship can be expected.4 billion in 2005–06. with SMEC International (Box 4. Changes in Indian regulations governing gold imports have precipitated strong demand for Australian non-monetary gold.2 per cent trend growth rate over the past five years. Total trade was worth A$10. As India’s economy adjusts to greater openness to trade in both industrial products and services. is growing rapidly.1).8 billion.4 billion. Australia’s services exports to India were valued at A$1. While estimates of Australian investment in India vary substantially depending on the methodology applied.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY ‘Australian companies have undoubtedly discovered India. According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. 1 1 Data from the ABS and Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion statistics on foreign direct investment are not directly comparable. pushing India up into ninth place as a services export market for Australia. But it is highly likely that the growth is only just beginning’ (AFR 2006a) overvieW of the relationship Australian services providers looking to capitalise on the opportunities highlighted in Chapter 3 have an increasingly solid base of commercial activity upon which to build. Total Australian exports to India exceeded A$8. Bilateral services trade. The level of investment is set to increase. making India Australia’s seventh-largest export market with 4. Cumulative foreign direct investment inflows is a very rough proxy for the stock of investment. it is clear that Australian companies have been actively pursuing investment opportunities. India has been Australia’s fastest-growing services export market after China. for example. P A G E 68 . Increased coal sales have reflected increased demand for resources to fuel India’s fast-growing economy. ANZ Bank (technology operations in Bangalore) and Orica (explosives business) among the highest profile investors. Merchandise exports were valued at A$7. India is Australia’s fastest-growing major merchandise export market. Exports increased by 36 per cent in 2005–06. According to Australian statistics.9 per cent of total exports. India’s importance to Australia as a trade and economic partner has grown enormously over recent years. Estimates based on foreign investment approvals are substantially higher still. making India Australia’s 21st largest source of services imports. though somewhat smaller. with exports growing at a trend rate of over 31 per cent over the past five years. Australia is India’s eighth-largest overseas investor with over $1 billion approved for around 140 joint ventures. with a number of investments in the services sector as well as manufacturing sector investments being undertaken by Bluescope Steel and Mayne Pharma. excluding re-invested earnings. as it does not take into account market valuation and exchange rate movements. In 2005–06. driven by increased jewellery production in India. of US$160 million from Australia between August 1991 and April 2006 (Indian Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion 2006). With a 23.4 billion. The Indian data shows cumulative FDI inflows . the stock of Australian FDI in India across all sectors was A$47 million at the end of 2005 (ABS 2005b). Together coal and gold accounted for 83 per cent of the total growth in exports over the 2000–01 to 2005–06 period and 72 per cent of total merchandise exports in 2005–06.

au and discussions with Pankaj Patel. policy and capability reforms to enable the Department to deal with emerging water sector management challenges in India’s most populous state and one of its poorest. Over the past 15 years. groundwater. it has undertaken a number of major infrastructure projects in India involving highways. • a A$3 million World Bank-funded consulting contract to prepare an institutional strengthening and reform roadmap for the massive Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department (UPID) with close to 100 000 staff. The project involves the application of software to map and model water allocation generally. and • an MOU with the Power Trading Corporation of India Limited. • a contract with the Public Works Department of the state government of Karnataka for the provision of project management and construction supervision services in connection with a major upgrading program for 1000 km of state highways. SMEC. SMEC also places emphasis on capacity building by involving client personnel in their development work. local technical skills and the social and political aimed at achieving sustainable improvement in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport infrastructure management in Kerala. Rajasthan. crops. SMEC is also drawing increasingly on its staff in India for projects elsewhere in Asia. wetlands and socio-economic indicators. P A G E 69 . The project aims to achieve structural. the Indian government agency responsible for the co-ordination of the electricity market and the purchase of energy from private suppliers.1: smec international The Australian consulting firm SMEC International has particular strengths in the application of IT to natural resource management. This opens the way for the sale of electricity from the West Seti hydropower plant that SMEC International is proposing to develop in the Far Western Region of Nepal. SMEC has also been actively involved as a supervising consultant for stretches of road being constructed and upgraded as part of the National Highways Development Project. irrigation and water resource management. With many years experience in India and the countries of the region.smec. Jharkhand. SMEC India.and Asian Development Bank-funded stretches of road in Bihar.The Bilateral Economic Relationship box4. • a contract with the Public Works Department of the state government of Kerala for capacitybuilding and modernisation initiatives. Source: www. SMEC’s recent and current projects include: • a A$5 million contract for preparation of a Decision Support System to guide future water allocation and investment decisions across the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh. It has ten project offices in India and over 600 staff in country under its 100 per cent owned local subsidiary. including the World Bank. General Manager Environment & Planning. taking account of the situation on the ground. SMEC has built an appreciation of local needs and what would be an ‘appropriate solution’. Orissa and Haryana. including the irrigation system.

Figure 4. 2 Total Indian investment in Australia at the end of 2005. 71 Other commercial services. which would make Australia the ninth-most important destination for Indian FDI. 110 Source: ABS 2006a. 2 trade in services Australia’s services exports to India Australia’s A$1.1 Education the lion’s share of services exports Breakdown of exports of services to India. Invest Australia estimates Indian investment in Australia to be worth around A$1 billion. P A G E 70 .4 billion-plus services exports to India are dominated by education (described in the statistics as ‘education-related travel services’) which accounted for 70 per cent of total services exports in 2005–06. 985 Transportation.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Separate statistical data on the level of Indian direct investment in Australia are not available. was estimated by the ABS to be A$258 million (ABS 2005b). It is concentrated in the IT (see sub-section on ‘Indian direct investment in Australia’ below) and resource sectors (construction of an ammonia plant by the Oswal Group for approximately A$630 million and copper mines acquired by Birla and Serlite in Queensland.1). 56 Travel. 1166 Personal – other. 4 Business. 189 Personal – education-related. including portfolio and other investment. 2005–06 (A$ million) Government services. Other personal and business travel amounted to A$181 million in 2005–06 while the remaining commercial services exports were valued at A$249 million (Figure 4. Western Australia and Tasmania).

China and the Republic of Korea have been the major sources of growth in the higher education sector as well as in the vocational and technical education sector. Australia is the second-most popular destination for Indians enrolled in higher education institutions overseas. 3 Enrolments (’000s) The student fees component was estimated at A$230 million in 2004. after the United States. 3 Figure 4.2). India. and growth on previous year 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Hong Kong Malaysia Republic of Korea 40 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 United States Singapore Indonesia Thailand Japan China Other India Growth on 2004 (per cent) Enrolments 2005 calendar year Growth on previous year 35 Source: AEI 2006b. Note: Overseas students undertaking short English language courses not requiring a student visa are excluded from the statistics. Between 2003 and 2005. India became the second-largest market (after China) for the export of education services in 2005 (Figure 4. For the 11 months to November 2006. up from eighth position in 2002. ranking India third behind China and Malaysia. Indian student enrolments almost doubled to around 28 000.The Bilateral Economic Relationship Education services Education exports in 2005–06 were valued at A$985 million.2 India: a large and growing source of students Australia’s top ten markets for international student enrolments for the 2005 calendar year. more than double their value in 2003–04 . there were more than 38 700 Indian student enrolments in Australian educational institutions. P A G E 71 . far outpacing the growth of other major markets.

Melbourne-based franchise company Kangaroo Kids recently opened seven new high schools in Mumbai in addition to its 35 pre-schools already operating in 12 cities across India (Austrade 2005). The majority of the remaining Indian students undertaking studies in Australian educational institutions are enrolled in vocational and technical education (VTE). Indian students accounted for almost 14 per cent of all international student enrolments in Australian higher education in 2005. and art and design are becoming increasingly popular. but just 8. The University of South Australia similarly offers an online master’s degree in Information Technology (Techbizindia. India is the top-ranked source of overseas postgraduate students in Australia. which offers students the opportunity to obtain the Western Australian Certificate of Education. Rapid growth in education exports has been facilitated by the forging of institutional links between Australian education providers and their Indian counterparts. to provide strategic direction for a partnership in the area of information technology services (The Hindu Business Line 2004). The number of Indian students undertaking English language courses in Australia has also grown strongly. a leading Indian information technology company. The Australian School. A growing number of universities in the two countries have since been establishing their own agreements or memoranda of understanding in particular fields (Box 4. The University of Wollongong has an MOU with Wipro. P A G E 72 . Several Australian universities also provide courses online via distance education over the Internet. mainly in hospitality. as well as the largest source of computing. with student enrolments increasing from less than 100 in 2002 to around 1300 in 2005. science and engineering 2005). A number of foreign institutions have established credit transfer / ‘twinning’ arrangements with Indian counterparts.0 per cent of international student enrolments at all levels of education. information technology and engineering. Biotechnology. VTE student enrolments have increased rapidly. services and transport. also recently opened in New Delhi (123India. up from around 1400 in 2003 to around 3900 in 2005. A visit to India in February 2006 by Australia’s ‘Group of Eight’ universities was aimed at raising the profile of Australian education and research and building linkages. 80 per cent of all Indians studying in Australia were enrolled in higher education institutions (AEI 2006a).com 2004). An agreement was concluded in 1999 between the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee and the Association of Indian Universities to cooperate in a number of areas. Linkages are also being forged outside the higher education sector. communication studies. The University of Southern Queensland offers online MBA studies to students in India. Popular fields of higher education include business administration and management.2).INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY In 2005.

designed to establish and encourage research links with leading Indian researchers (University of Sydney 2004). The University of melbourne has developed a variety of linkages with leading Indian academic institutions. 4 4 Based on correspondence in December 2006 with Professor Frank P Larkins.The Bilateral Economic Relationship box 4. Manufacturing and Medical Engineering also has an MOU with the Vellore Institute of Technology in the state of Tamil Nadu (Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004). to deliver the first part of its Master of Information Technology course in Hyderabad (La Trobe University 2002). The University of New South wales (UNSW) has entered a partnership with IIT Mumbai to develop collaborative research programs in computer science (Howard 2006a). In 2004. UNSW has MOUs with Jawaharlal Nehru University and the University of Pune. Indian economic policy. P A G E 73 . It also negotiated a PhD student exchange program with Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2003 (University of Queensland 2004). focused on collaboration in research. the University of Melbourne. The University of Queensland concluded a research collaboration agreement with Manipal Academy of Higher Education. An agreement between Southbank Institute of TAFE and the Institute of Hotel Management Bangalore. including through an MOU with the Indian Institute of Science. and prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Bangalore focused on biotechnology and through research collaboration on topics such as grid technology research. The Queensland University of Technology also signed an MOU with the Madras Institute of Technology during Prime Minister Howard’s March 2006 visit to India (Howard 2006b).2: examples of australian university linKages With indian counterparts In 2001. one of India’s top medical schools. is establishing a joint institution for scientific research with the Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai (IIT Mumbai). in 2004. It has established offices in New Delhi and Mumbai. the Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering at La Trobe University signed a twinning agreement with CMTES Informatics. in collaboration with BHP Billiton. the University of Sydney established five Visiting Research Fellowships. Queensland University of Technology’s School of Mechanical. and another between the Queensland University of Technology and the Indian Institute of Information Technology in Bangalore. The University plans to open a liaison office in Bangalore in early 2007. a private provider of computer training courses in India. Deputy Vice Chancellor (International). were signed during Premier Beattie’s 2004 visit to India (Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004). monash University. student and staff exchanges and education projects (DFAT 2005).

0 per cent. The average annual growth in visitor numbers over the decade to December 2005 was 13. the sharing of expertise and the holding of a Tourism Business 5 5 Measured in terms of Total Inbound Economic Value (TIEV). at 46 nights. Annual growth in shortterm visitor arrivals from India outstripped the overall average from all countries over the decade and rebounded particularly strongly since the worldwide decline in tourism precipitated by September 11 (Figure 4. Visiting friends and relatives. including those studying in Australia. During a September 2005 visit to India by the Australian Minister for Small Business and Tourism. Despite gaining market share in Indian outbound tourism over recent years.3). at a little over 1. out of 68 000 total visitors). Strong growth in Indian visitor numbers looks set to continue. an increase of 54 per cent on the previous year . a 25 per cent increase on the 53 000 that visited in the corresponding period of 2005 (ABS 2006b). with 79 000 short-term visitor arrivals. Australia and India agreed on an Action Plan to assist in fast-tracking tourism growth between the two countries. India World 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Short-term visitors from India contributed A$280 million to the Australian economy in 2005. P A G E 74 . Key elements of the Plan included research and training cooperation in ecotourism. up 33 per cent on the 59 000 recorded in 2004–05 (ABS 2006b). During the ten months to October 2006 around 69 000 short-term visitors from India arrived in Australia.3 Rapid growth in visitor numbers from India Annual growth in short-term visitor arrivals from India and from all countries 30 25 20 Per cent 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Source: ABS 2005a.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Tourism India was Australia’s 14th-largest inbound tourist market in 2005–06. Fran Bailey. Figure 4.2 per cent. would also be a motivating factor for many of those stating they came to Australia for a holiday (27 000) (Tourism Australia 2006). reflects the fact that many Indians come to Australia to visit friends and relatives (13 000 in 2005. The long average stay. Australia’s share remains low.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) (Invest Australia 2005b). Australian design and software capabilities are also being recognised in India. and have more than trebled since 2002–03 (ABS 2006a). Aviation Compliance Solutions reportedly secured contracts. Airservices Australia is providing safety management systems and air traffic management training at Delhi and Mumbai international airports for the Airports Authority of India (Airservices Australia 2005). Other commercial services exports from Australia to India (including transportation) grew by 46 per cent between 2004–05 and 2005–06 from A$171 million to A$249 million.The Bilateral Economic Relationship Forum during the Melbourne Commonwealth Games in March 2006 (Bailey 2005). This allows ‘Aussie Specialist’ agents in India to submit an electronic visa application (via the internet) for their clients. food tourism. Ambika Soni.3 contains examples). thus reducing application delivery and processing times. Ford Australia designed and engineered a new Fiesta specifically for the Indian market. The Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs introduced an electronic visa application facility for short stay visitor visas to the India market on 21 August 2006. which forecasts the number of annual visitors from India to reach 550 000 by 2025. outside of the education and tourism sectors. The increasing importance accorded to infrastructure development by the central and state governments alike is generating flow-on opportunities for Australian service providers. (Department of Industry. Tourism and Resources 2005). P A G E 75 . Securities Markets Automated Research Training and Surveillance (SMARTS). and the economic value of Indian inbound tourism to increase by 890 per cent to A$2 billion by 2025. In the air transport sector for example. During the forum. enhancement of heritage sites and investment in infrastructure (Bailey 2006). Australian software company. supplied its stock market monitoring solution to the Indian national securities regulator. including with Air India. Minister Bailey and India’s Minister for Tourism and Culture. agreed to pursue opportunities in ecotourism. Other Commercial Services Australian companies are beginning to take advantage of emerging services export opportunities in India. which was launched in the fourth quarter of 2005 (Ford 2005). to provide aviation compliance and safety services to the fast-growing Indian market (AFR 2006b). The Australian Government has also moved to adopt a strategic approach to the sustainable growth of the Indian tourism market with the launching of an ‘Emerging Markets’ strategy. Numerous Australian engineering consultancies and infrastructure design companies are involved in the upgrading and modernisation of India’s transport infrastructure (Box 4.

INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 4.ahi. exports medical products to India that are used to treat sleep-disordered breathing and other respiratory disorders (ResMed 2006). is undertaking the construction work. Union Switch and Signal Asia Pacific has market responsibility in the Asia Pacific Region for the Ansaldo Signal NV group. AWS Clinical Waste recently won a World Bank contract for the design and installation of clinical waste treatment plants in 22 district hospitals in West Bengal (Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004). Burchill Partners of the Gold Coast. • Civil. From the State of Queensland over 40 Indian films have been shot in 6 6 See www. Aus Health International secured a project focused on improving the institutional framework for policy development in the state health system. The company was also involved in planning aspects for a 300-bed speciality hospital with corporate governance and contemporary management practice. Australian companies have been involved in projects aimed at strengthening India’s health system. which installed state-of-the-art safety control systems for India’s Southern Railway and South Eastern Railway. It has also designed port terminal facilities at Chennai. a residential project near Mumbai being constructed by Sahara India. performance improvement and technical supervision. ResMed. Simplex Concrete Piles. who have been responsible for the planning and infrastructure design of the city at Amby Valley. as well as strengthening management and implementation capacity.3: examples of australian company involvement in india’s infrastructure sector Australian companies are actively participating in the modernisation of India’s infrastructure. companies that have won infrastructure-related business include: • Engineering consultancy Cullen Grummitt and Roe. Kandla. Source: Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004. In the past four years Australia has gained in popularity amongst Indian filmmakers as a film location. which secured a number of projects in India associated with port sector It is doing the design work for the extension of a wharf in Mundra Port. Tuticorin and the Nhava Sheva Port and Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai. reflecting both the growing international audience for Indian films and a growing interest among Indian film-goers in foreign films and influences. Since 1998. which supplied design and safety systems for the Delhi metro system. The 2006 Australian Exporter of the Year. structural and environmental engineers and planners. CGR established an office in Mumbai in 2005. • Union Switch and Signal Asia Pacific. P A G E 76 . valued at several million dollars. • Infrastructure design company Maunsell (part of the AECOM Group). Western India while its Indian partner.

RBI data on computer services exports incorporate Mode 3 transactions (trade by foreign affiliates). Several Australian companies have established an on-the-ground presence in India to capitalise on emerging market opportunities. they have grown more rapidly in recent years – at a robust average of 37 per cent over the three years to 2005–06 (ABS 2006b.4 below). 7 services investment Australian direct investment in India The level of Australian investment in India’s services sector is set to increase with some recent investment decisions and conclusion of contracts. 2004b). Australian film post-production services have also been in demand. banking and insurance. While short-term departures to India have not grown as fast as the number of visitors from India over the past decade. Australian mining software and technology services are much sought after by Indian industry. mining services. construction. which are not recognised as exports under BPM5. telecommunications. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) estimates imports of computer and information services and other business services from India to be worth A$75 million in 2005–06 (A$35 million in 2002–03). perhaps owing to the fact that it includes revenues derived by the Australian subsidiaries of Indian companies (see Section on ‘Indian direct investment in Australia’ below). have also established a foothold in areas such as mining software and mining systems development. released in September 2005. notably from Western Australia and Queensland. infrastructure. which is now operational. It was the highest-grossing Indian film overseas in 2005 and did well in the Indian urban market. Salaam Namaste. India’s services exports to Australia According to official statistics. personal non-education-related travel to India is by far Australia’s most significant services import from India (A$195 million in 2005–06). was the first Indian movie entirely shot in Australia (The Australian 2005a).48 billion (A$164 million) for the 12 months to March 2003 (RBI 2005c). The RBI estimates computer services exports to Australia at Rs4. 2005a. For example.The Bilateral Economic Relationship Australia (Austrade 2006c). 7 ABS data on exports are collected to standards set out in the fifth edition of the IMF Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5) which incorporates Mode 1 (conventional cross-border supply). particularly in medical services (Box 4. Xstrata’s Australian-based technology business has helped India’s Sterlite Industries to build an ISASMELT furnace. Industry links arising from strong growth in exports of mineral products to India are helping to foster an awareness of Australian capabilities in the mining industry more broadly. It has also supplied Sterlite with its IsaProcess copper refining technology. P A G E 77 . Mode 2 (consumption abroad) and Mode 4 (movement of natural persons) (excluding salaries and wages). Queensland mining services firm JK Tech has recently supplied mineral processing technologies to Hindustan Zinc (Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004). Some smaller Australian companies. The Indian data on exports to Australia of computer services (excluding exports of companies engaged exclusively in business process outsourcing activities) is higher.

Medicom Solutions.4: iba health IBA Health develops advanced information systems for clinicians and hospitals around the world. The private hospital sector is becoming increasingly important as incomes rise and as increased availability and affordability of insurance has increasingly made private healthcare more affordable. IBA Health’s main focus in the Indian market will be private hospitals. administrative and departmental systems across the whole spectrum of health services. Clough Limited announced in January 2005 the signing of a US$131 million (A$170 million) contract with BG Exploration and Production India Limited to develop three new platforms and associated pipelines in the shallow-water Panna oil field and the South Tapti gas field located north-west of Mumbai (Clough 2005). While Bangalore is beset with infrastructure difficulties. Asia. South Africa and the Middle East. IBA Health. more than 180 private and public hospitals use IBA Health solutions for administration and business support. In gaining the necessary approvals to invest in India. IBA Health chose to develop an in-house operation in India rather than outsource their IT needs because of the greater scope this afforded for managing the development work undertaken. In Australia. The scope of work includes the design. In addition. the infrastructure in Bangalore’s Electronic City is relatively good. The acquisition gave them a quick entry into the fast-growing Indian market and access to Medicom’s R&D capability. The operation requires managers from head office to be present on the ground so as to ensure their software is configurable and flexible enough for selling into other markets. an P A G E 78 . IBA Health has nonetheless installed a power back-up. IBA Health’s experience has been that Australians – both corporates and individuals – are very welcome in India. and consequently were making efforts to streamline procedures.ibatech. IBA Health has operations in South East Asia. Visa applications were also processed without delay. The company also recognises the clustering advantages of operating an IT development centre from Bangalore’s Electronic City. Source: www. not just India. Clough is also currently undertaking work for the major G1-GS15 Deepwater Development located off the East Coast of India for India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC). procurement and installation of a new onshore gas plant. Australian project development companies have begun to make significant investments in India. More broadly. Their software solutions link and discussions with Dr Brian Cohen. in late 2005. IBA Health’s intention is to consolidate all its development work in Bangalore and to develop the business there into a centre of excellence servicing its growing international business. there are free trade zone-type benefits from operating in Electronic City and more administrative transparency compared with other parts of India. Chief Technology Officer. IBA Health acquired the Bangalore-based Indian company. IBA Health found that that the Indian authorities recognised that the approvals process is an important issue for foreign investors.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 4. and most recently in India.

Thiess is reportedly planning to bid for another contract worth several billion dollars in early 2007 to supply coal to several major power stations in India. Leighton focused its attention initially on oil and gas infrastructure but also sees opportunities in transport infrastructure. Sources: The Australian 2006. Also in joint venture. box 4.5: leighton’s increasing involvement in india 8 Leighton is one of Asia’s leading contractors and project developers. Flextronics and Salcomp. Leighton won the contract to install new marine terminal facilities near Jamnagar. coal mining and industrial building It is also driving a need for improved infrastructure and at the same time is providing a greater capacity to fund infrastructure improvements. accessed April 2006. The Leighton Group is well positioned to meet growing demand for contract mining and associated mine infrastructure in India.clough. Thiess was the first foreign company to submit a major coal mining tender to work for Coal India’s subsidiary Eastern Coalfields Limited for their Rajmahal Open Cut Expansion Project in the state of Jharkhand. which is part of Reliance Group. Leighton subsidiary Thiess currently has staff on the ground in Kolkata and Delhi and has recruited Indian graduates who are being trained in Indonesia and Australia to work in this emerging market. Roaring 40s. Leighton has also looked for business opportunities with major multinationals operating in India. It has also won contracts to design and construct manufacturing centres for Motorola and . 2006a and 2006b. India for Reliance Ports & Terminals Limited. P A G E 79 . India’s strong economic growth is driving increased demand for energy. and a five-well sub-sea development involving trunklines and control system tied back to new and existing facilities . established offices in India to capitalise on consulting opportunities in the renewable energy sector (Hydro Tasmania 2006) Leighton is also investing in India with a view to ramping up its involvement in project development (Box 4. Leighton 2005a. Leighton is part of a consortium that won a contract to modernise the signalling and telecommunications systems on the rail link between Ghaziabad and Kanpur. Bilateral Economic Relationship additional shallow water wellhead platform. and discussions with Leighton. Coal India is currently responsible for around 90 per cent of India’s annual coal production. Leighton will be providing and installing communication systems along the railway line and in the locomotives using the line.5). one of India’s largest conglomerates. Although this bid was unsuccessful. which is being fuelled by strong domestic growth and accompanying requirements for power generation and steel production. and sees significant scope for future growth. Hydro Tasmania Consulting and Australian renewable energy development business. 8 www. It completed Nokia’s new mobile phone manufacturing plant near Chennai (Leighton 2005a). In 2006. It has significantly ramped up its involvement in India over the past couple of years. Indian coal mining productivity should benefit from the management and technological expertise in mine operation and coal preparation of contract miners.

it has three offices – in Bangalore. although none currently has a branch licence. but retained its investment banking arm. Telstra is also a sales agent for its Hong Kong-headquartered joint venture operation. IT Support. either directly or through third-party relationships. Surpac serviced India remotely from Australia and the United Kingdom. Initially. P A G E 80 . ANZ has had a lengthy involvement in India. In 2001. Mumbai and New Delhi – which manage supply of international telecommunications services to the Indian sites of its corporate clients. It currently operates as a merchant bank.surpac. exploration and mineral resource modelling.6: surpac minex group The Surpac Minex Group produces leading-edge software for mine planning. and today there are a number of divisions in the office including Research and Development. after successfully doing business in India for over 10 years. ANZ Capital Private Limited. ANZ disposed of its Grindlays operation to Standard Chartered in 2000 . Surpac decided to establish its own office. 10 9 9 10 The sale stemmed from ANZ’s intention.6). opened an office in Bhubaneswar. as it has done in Indonesia. as well as sales to Indian customers of Telstra services outside India. Cambodia. Mincorp. While Telstra currently does not have a carrier licence in India. All major Australian banks are now represented in India.5 and Box 4. Orissa. The ANZ’s preferred approach today is to enter partnerships with local banks. Leighton subsidiary Thiess and the Surpac Minex Group are also pursuing opportunities (Box 4. Quality assurance. See www. so as to provide a one-stop shop for all telecommunications services for its corporate clients based in India (Telstra 2006). engineering. which was established in 1988. It also has a significant information technology operation in Bangalore.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Reflecting the growing demand for mining a Queensland company providing complete solutions for coal washeries. to simplify its international business and focus it on the Asia Pacific (ANZ 2000). in Mumbai. The company was formed as a result of a merger between Perth-based Surpac Software International and Australian mining software company ECSI (Minex) in October 2002.anztradecentre. initially through its Grindlays businesses. box 4. It then moved to employ local agents. signalled in May 1999. Ludowici opened an office in Chennai in 2006 to undertake design work for mining projects. and Sales and Support. The ANZ Trade Centre in Bangalore now employs 1300 IT officers and provides a range of customised services aimed at forging and expanding trade and investment relationships between Australian and New Zealand companies and Indian businesses. which has an Internet service provider licence in India. in 2004. geology. Sourced from www. such as Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (VSNL) and Bharti. mining. the Philippines and Vietnam. which included the largest foreign bank branch network in the country. The company’s presence in India has continued to grow. Telstra has established direct supply arrangements with Indian carriers.

Macquarie Bank had teamed up with Aeroports de Paris to bid for the restructure and modernisation of the Mumbai and Delhi airports. In Asia. to Reliance Life Insurance as part of a re-orientation towards its core wealth management businesses in Australia and New Zealand. but its bids were unsuccessful. Under the relationship. 2005b). Westpac has a third-party relationship with Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) in India. It is reportedly keen to be involved in the privatisation of other airports in India (SMH 2006). In the same year. AMP decided to sell its 26 per cent stake in its joint venture business.7: macquarie banK Macquarie Bank established a securities business in Mumbai in July 2005. P A G E 81 . Macquarie Bank’s MacAir has a 28 per cent stake in Aeroporti di Roma. It acquired ING’s Asian cash equities business in July 2004 giving it a footprint in 10 Asian countries. The focus of its Indian business is on stockbroking. At the time of writing Westpac was reviewing its options for establishing a presence in India. SCB supports Westpac customers in India and Westpac supports Indian customers in Australia. which is expected to invest approximately Rs5 billion (A$150 million) over the first three to four years of operations (Bharti Enterprises 2005a). AXA Asia Pacific established a joint venture in the insurance sector (Box 4. with a presence that includes two infrastructure funds and other investments (AMP 2005a. The office will lead the Bank’s evaluation of opportunities in India (Commonwealth Bank 2005). India remains an important market for AMP Capital Investors. investment advisory services and corporate finance. equity research. it would henceforth be focused on asset management through AMP Capital Investors.8). Macquarie sees particular opportunities in India’s infrastructure sector.The Bilateral Economic Relationship The Commonwealth Bank received approval in June 2005 to establish a representative office in Bangalore. which has a 20 per cent stake in the South African company (SMH 2004). marking an expansion of Macquarie’s presence into all key Asian markets. National Australia Bank received approval to open a representative office in Mumbai in August 2006. 11 In 2005. box 4. telecommunications and media – all sectors in which it has competitive strengths. 11 Macquarie Bank has an exposure in Airports Company of South Africa. It currently employs over 850 staff in Asia and has one of the largest equities sales and research teams dedicated to Asia (Macquarie Bank 2005). AMP Sanmar. which was part of the winning bid for the Mumbai airport redevelopment. and also property.

8: axa asia pacific AXA Asia Pacific signed an agreement in August 2005 with Bharti Enterprises. ANZ. which provides software solutions and consulting services to clients in Australia. The joint venture commenced operations on 22 August 2006 with the opening of its first office in Hyderabad. Woolworths. It should enable TCS to improve services to its growing Australian client base. which specialises in strategy conversion. AXA Asia Pacific brings to the partnership its global life insurance and asset management expertise. agribusiness and infrastructure projects. Alcoa and Rio Tinto (Business Standard 2006). Tata Consultancy Services set up a Global Delivery Centre in Melbourne in 2002. New Zealand and the Asia Pacific. TCS acquired Australian consultancy firm TCS Management (formerly Total Communications Solutions) for A$1. a business conglomerate with interests in telecom. Other Australian companies are reported to be considering investment opportunities.tcs. notably in banking. have also established operations in India. reputation and presence. 12 TCS also has a SAP Centre of Excellence in Melbourne (TCS 2005b). is intended to complement TCS’s global capabilities in consulting. IT services and BPO. St George Bank. AXA Asia Pacific acquired a 26 per cent equity stake in the joint venture.7 million and performance payments of A$15 million over five years. Gloria Jeans and Cookie Man. Having initially partnered with Sydney-based Financial Network Services to deliver a banking platform to the Central Bank of India for the automation of bank branches (Financial Network Services 2005). which includes BHP. Sources: Bharti Enterprises 2006. and discussions with AXA Asia Pacific Holdings. It plans to roll out over 30 branches by the end of 2007. TCS plans to develop its Financial Network Services business into a global centre of excellence for the banking industry (TCS 2006). Indian direct investment in Australia As of October 2006. portfolio balancing and navigation services. Bharti Televentures has a retail presence in 4500 towns and over 20 million mobile customers. to establish a joint venture company to undertake life insurance business in India. AXA Group 2005. TCS launched a credit risk model banking solution for the Indian market in association with JYI Risk Management Services of Melbourne in 2002 (TCS 2002). program alignment. 26 first and second-tier Indian information technology companies had established a significant presence in Australia to provide IT solutions to local businesses and secure global market opportunities. TCS acquired the business in October 2005 for US$26 million (TCS 2005a). which the joint venture will be seeking to leverage. while Bharti brings its strong local market knowledge. The acquisition of P A G E 82 . Australian franchises. the maximum currently permitted under Indian regulations. and in minerals prospecting and exploration. In November 2006.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY box 4. 12 See www.

co-founder and Member of the Board of Infosys. The CSIRO recently signed a cooperation agreement with Infosys. in December 2005 for A$36 million (Taj Hotels 2005). Satyam will also employ up to 20 of Victoria University’s graduating software engineers each year (Satyam 2005) and provide 20 University of Melbourne software engineering students with internships annually. On successful completion of the training. Infosys is forging partnerships with Australian technology developers (Invest Australia 2005a). and serves as a major technological development and software support centre for the company’s Asia Pacific operations (Satyam 2004). the University of Melbourne. and thereby generate additional bilateral trade and investment opportunities. This will enable the CSIRO to market its Australian-developed intellectual property through Infosys’ strong global distribution network (Coonan 2005a). 15 Gartner Research’s vice-president. Accordingly. Partha Iyengar. Dinesh. the National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM). P A G E 83 . have also forged a cooperative working relationship in order to further enhance business-to-business links between Australian and Indian information and communications technology companies. has observed that Infosys’ long-term strategic intent is to use Australian resources for its global requirements (The Australian 2004). part of the CK Birla 14 Group. part of the Tata Group. The collaboration involves the investment of $A800 000 in Australian research and development over four years (Infosys 2004). See www. The partnerships are in turn stimulating export opportunities for Australia. Infosys is structured into globally integrated business units for different parts of its business. Additional Indian investment in the banking and finance sectors can be expected as trade and investment linkages develop further. The Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces. situated at The Wharf at Woolloomooloo in Sydney. Infosys entered the Australian market in 2004 with the acquisition of Melbourne company Expert Information Services for A$31 million (The Australian 2005b).birlasoft. it concluded an agreement with the Smart Internet Technology Cooperative Research Centre for joint efforts in research and development. the students will be allocated to projects in Melbourne or in one of Satyam’s other 46 locations around the world. which encompasses research and development cooperation for information Discussions with K. The State Bank of India has a branch office in Sydney.The Bilateral Economic Relationship Satyam’s Melbourne operations house its largest global development centre outside India. Satyam signed an MOU with the University of Melbourne in September 2006. Indian companies are increasingly investing in Australia outside the information and communications technology sector. The partnership will result in opportunities for Smart Internet’s growth through the leveraging of Infosys’ global network and knowledge base. as well as the commercialisation of CSIRO’s technology. For example. 13 Birlasoft. 13 14 15 Based on correspondence in December 2006 with Professor Frank P Larkins. also offers IT services worldwide from development centres in India and Australia. Satyam has entered into an alliance with Victoria University which will enable up to ten VU students to undertake a software development internship with it each year. acquired a 100-room hotel. The Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA) and its counterpart. Deputy Vice Chancellor (International).

industry bodies and research institutions in specific services sectors. sporting event infrastructure. Australia’s television service in the Asia Pacific region. trade and investment and. Chennai and Hyderabad. film and entertainment. supported by the Australia India Business Council. Bangalore. Links have also been fostered through memoranda of understanding. The Australian Government is also encouraging the development of productive. Australia Network is available in approximately five million homes in India. Overarching coordination of the Australian Government presence in India is carried out by the High Commission in New Delhi. supported by the Consulate-General in Mumbai. Australian Government representatives from Austrade and Invest Australia are on the ground in India to assist Australian exporters capitalise on business opportunities and facilitate Indian investment in Australia. information and communications technology. and Mumbai (within the Australian Consulate-General). and will encourage closer strategic cooperation in many of the key economic sectors. reciprocal trade missions. cooperative links between Australian and Indian businesses. during his March 2006 visit. education. and the number is growing rapidly. Austrade has offices in New Delhi (within the Australian High Commission). Australia Network.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY a platform for future groWth A key factor in the heightened interest of Australian business in the Indian market. Kolkata. Invest Australia has offices in New Delhi (within the Australian High Commission). has been broadcasting local Australian content into India since September 2005. technology and medicine. Customs and Biotechnology. Prime Minister Howard announced a new A$25 million bilateral research and fellowships program during his visit to India in March 2006. and the Scientific Collaboration Fund. Prime Minister Howard announced the establishment of a Consulate-General in Chennai during his March 2006 visit. has been the push from the Australian and state governments. Prime Minister Howard witnessed the signing of Memoranda of Understanding on Defence Cooperation. the promotion and facilitation of joint ventures and partnerships. The Australian Government has recently directed increasing attention to the Indian market. strengthen the overall bilateral relationships to the benefit of both nations. Mumbai (within the Australian Consulate-General). management. and highlight within India the high quality of Australian education. tourism. The stated aim of this initiative is to generate stronger links between Australian and Indian scientists and their research institutions. science and training services. generating increased awareness of Australia in the Indian market. which is being reflected in increased trade and investment linkages between the two countries. through promoting the respective strengths of the two economies. and biotechnology. P A G E 84 . The Agreement will provide an important basis for the facilitation and future development of the trade and economic relationship. more broadly. For example. a bilateral Air Services Agreement. A Trade and Economic Framework Agreement was signed between Australia and India during Prime Minister Howard’s visit to India in March 2006. For example. Specific services sectors identified for cooperation include infrastructure development and financing.

A number of Memoranda of Understanding have been signed during these visits. There have been several state-government-led business missions to India over the past two or three years. most with a strong focus on services sectors. while South Australia appointed a commercial representative in Chennai. P A G E 85 . Queensland has a Trade and Investment Office in Bangalore. The Australia India Business Council (AIBC) is a national bilateral chamber of commerce committed to building stronger business links between Australia and India for the benefit of both countries. Western Australia has a Trade Office in Mumbai.The Bilateral Economic Relationship A number of state governments have also identified India as a strategic market. It maintains close links to the federal and state governments and showcases business opportunities in India to the Australian business community through an active program of events nationally. India and the Middle East – and has appointed a Special Trade Envoy to India (Business Victoria 2004). Business associations and chambers of commerce in both Australia and India play an important role in facilitating bilateral trade and investment. For example. Victoria recently opened a Business Office in Bangalore. Victoria has launched an ‘Opening Doors to Export’ plan which focuses on the promotion of exports in three emerging markets identified as key growth markets for Victorian exporters – North Asia.

P A G E 86 .

the ability to take a long-term view and the capacity to ride out rough patches. and it will be important for Australian companies wishing to exploit business opportunities in India to be aware of these. despite significant attention over recent years to addressing regulatory barriers and burdens. – Power and transport infrastructure shortcomings are a major concern. – Corruption remains a concern for business operating in India. although such behaviour is being curtailed by increased competition. they need to invest time and effort in understanding the business environment and its challenges. once implemented they are likely to be durable given the need to build consensus among decision-makers in a democratic environment. – Many regulations remain onerous. – India’s rapidly increasing middle class and growing consumer affluence is already a draw-card for foreign investors and exporters.Chapter 5 india’s business environment: implications for australian companies Key points • India’s improved economic performance has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in its external trade and by its implementing of policies to attract foreign investment. deregulation and e-governance. improved accountability mechanisms and an increasingly activist media and NGO community. although there is scope for further liberalisation in these areas. hurdles in improving the business environment remain. – The need for economic reform is now more broadly accepted in India and while further reforms may be gradual. • while India presents as a potentially attractive market for many Australian businesses. • Australian companies can benefit from favourable perceptions of their country in India and significant people-to-people links in seeking to capitalise on business opportunities. P A G E 87 . careful selection of a business partner or customer. – Prerequisites for building a successful business in the Indian market include detailed research and targeted preparation. • Nonetheless. and a likely source of future opportunities for service providers. although these tend to act as less of a brake on services than on manufacturing.

If growth in India’s knowledge-intensive services flows through into broader sustainable economic development. 1 1 2004–05 figures at factor cost. The rosy growth scenario sketched out in preceding chapters is by no means the only one. Optimism is a fine thing – and of itself is contributing to the sense of energy and success which is currently driving India forward. Foreign exporters and investors recognise India’s emergence and want to do business with India. Recent figures showing a rapid increase in manufacturing output suggests that such developments may indeed be starting to occur. The reforms have resulted in reduced public sector participation in the economy. greater openness to international competition and significant deregulation. A study by the World Economic Forum and Confederation of Indian Industry (WEF 2005) presents three scenarios for India to 2025. But a recurring theme in the authors’ conversations with companies already operating successfully in India was the need for Australian entrants to the market to calibrate their expectations carefully. Australian companies wishing to exploit the opportunities India presents will do well to be aware of these. The most pessimistic of these scenarios. Chief among them are continuing power and transport infrastructure constraints. India’s increasingly dynamic and competitive private sector now accounts for nearly 80 per cent of GDP (RBI 2005b). P A G E 88 . The workforce is becoming increasingly skilled and the economy is being driven more and more by knowledge-based industries. While reforms to date have been impressive. and the need to adapt to challenging business practices. if they are to be successful.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY ‘India’s economy will continue to have the capacity to surprise optimists negatively. India’s government remains of a reformist mindset. Incomes per capita are increasing. But some caveats are also required. to accept that establishing a business presence will be time-consuming and possibly frustrating. would see India slipping back towards the lower growth rates of earlier decades. significant amounts of regulation in many sectors. which is premised on the government failing to instigate appropriate reforms and a difficult global environment. spurred by the reforms initiated by the then Finance Minister Manmohan Singh in 1991.’ (Financial analyst) India is successfully managing its transition to a more open economy. consumer tastes are changing and the aspirations of the younger population are rising. notably IT–ITES. are growing strongly. Both exports and imports. and to take a long-term strategic view of their prospects. to be willing to do the hard yards required to adapt. But the task it faces is enormous. Australian companies enjoy some advantages over others in capitalising on business opportunities in India. particularly of services. and to surprise pessimists positively. their eyes will be focused on India for a long time to come. Australian businesses need to invest time and effort in understanding the business environment in India and its challenges. there remain some major hurdles in India’s business environment that will need to be overcome for sustainable growth to take place in the broader Indian economy.





for Australian


an improving business environment Reform efforts and prospects
‘Because of its need to build a consensus for reform, in the longer term India’s rise may prove even more durable than that of China.’ (AFR 2005) The far-reaching economic reforms outlined in particular by the Indian Government’s July 1991 Statement on Industrial Policy aimed to foster a more vibrant economy, with far higher growth rates than those realised over the first three decades of India’s post-independence period. In addition to deregulation at the sectoral level (see Chapter 2), the reforms have included significant liberalisation of industrial policy, public sector enterprises, foreign exchange controls, interest rates, competition policy and taxation (Box 5.1), as well as tariffs and foreign investment (see section on ‘Increased openness to trade and foreign investment’ below). However commentators such as the World Bank continue to point to the need for further reforms if recent growth rates are to be sustained and the growth driven by knowledge-intensive services is to be replicated in other, more regulated areas of the economy. The need for ongoing reforms is now more broadly accepted in India. A strongly performing economy, increasing consumer affluence, a buoyant external sector and record foreign exchange holdings have given rise to confidence that policy makers will continue down the path of reform. The success enjoyed by reforming sectors has led to pressure for reforms to reap improved efficiencies in other industries they depend upon. Owing to the success of deregulation and liberalisation policies of the past decade-and-a-half, both central and state governments have come to recognise the need for a thriving private sector. For its part, the Planning Commission’s policies are now focused on facilitating private sector development. Following the devolution of many economic powers from the centre, state governments are now competing to attract foreign and domestic investment, which is in turn helping to drive improvements in policy, infrastructure and the overall business environment. Accordingly, by 2004–05, the public sector’s share of GDP was just 23.6 per cent. Further reinforcing the point, IT–ITES’s success is widely attributed to the government’s light-handed approach to regulation in that sector (see Chapter 2). The rapid growth of IT–ITES and other knowledge-based sectors shows clearly that Indian companies can thrive in the face of international competition.


Indian CSO 2006, Statement 18. Includes public services in quasi-government bodies. By comparison, the public sector share in Australia’s GDP was 22.0 per cent in the December quarter 2005.

P A G E 89



box 5.1: india’s maJor economic reforms since 1991

• Industrial policy was significantly liberalised in 1991 and reform has continued in the subsequent period. Compulsory industrial licensing for new undertakings or expansions was abolished in 1991 for all but 18 industries. The number of industries exclusively reserved for the public sector was reduced to eight. Today, six industries remain subject to compulsory licensing (mainly on account of environmental, safety and strategic grounds), while the only industries exclusively reserved for the public sector are atomic energy and railway transport. The number of manufacturing industries reserved for the small-scale sector has been reduced over time, but remains in excess of 50. • Some public sector enterprises have been partially privatised, although outcomes to date have been modest and privatisation remains controversial. Numerous public enterprises have been corporatised while others have been given greater managerial autonomy and operational flexibility. • Foreign exchange controls have been gradually relaxed since the early 1990s. A market-determined exchange rate system and full convertibility on the current account were in place by the early 1990s. Regulatory emphasis in relation to foreign exchange shifted significantly from control over use to management with the passing of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) in 1999. The rupee is today almost fully convertible on the capital account for non-residents. • An administered interest rates regime was progressively replaced by a system of marketdetermined interest rates during the 1990s. • The Competition Act 2002 replaced the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1969, which heavily circumscribed the operations of monopolies. The new Act aims to curb anti-competitive behaviour and abuse of dominant market positions; and regulates mergers and acquisitions. The Competition Commission of India, a new regulatory body with a scrutiny and enforcement role, has been established. Independent regulators have also been created in a number of sectors. • Taxation reform has focused on broadening the indirect tax base and removing distortions. A central services tax was introduced in 1994, and has been increased on two occasions to stand now at ten per cent. Additional services have been progressively brought into the tax net. Central excise duties on manufactured goods have been replaced by CENVAT, a 16 per cent tax on value added up to the manufacturing stage. A uniform state level VAT on goods, applying up to the retail stage, was introduced in April 2005, replacing state sales taxes. The standard tax rate is 12.5 per cent, although some goods attract a four or a one per cent tax. The tax replaced state-level sales taxes, entry taxes, purchase taxes and turnover taxes. The four per cent central sales tax levied on interstate sales of goods is also set to be phased out. In the 2006–07 Budget, the Finance Minister laid down a target date of April 2010 for the adoption of a national level goods and services tax, shared between the centre and the states. This will require a merging of CENVAT and state level VAT in some fashion.

P A G E 90





for Australian


Only the pace of reforms is open to question. Economic reforms since the current United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government came to power in May 2004 have been more measured than under the previous National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party. During the election campaign, the Congress Party, the main party within the governing coalition, said it would pursue economic reforms with a ‘human face’. The ‘National Common Minimum Programme’, a pact agreed between the UPA government and the Communist and other parties it relies upon to maintain a majority in India’s lower house of parliament, reflects this stance (National Advisory Council 2004). In general, reforms are more likely to be held up by political opposition when they are dependent on legislative change rather than administrative decisions and notifications. Notwithstanding the progress being made by the Government in achieving reforms on the administrative front, some progress on flagship reforms such as labour laws and privatisation will be important to convince investors that the process is retaining momentum. Reforms in democratic India tend to be take place gradually because of the need to build consensus for reform among governing coalitions. In the longer term however, India’s democratic processes should underpin the durability of the reforms, provided reformers can point to improved performance and benefits for the majority of the Indian population.

Increased openness to trade and foreign investment
India’s improved economic performance has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in its outward orientation. Trade as a proportion of GDP has increased from 16 per cent in 1990–91 to 40 per cent in 2004–05. Average applied tariffs have declined significantly from prohibitive rates since the early 1990s (Box 5.2), although they still remain higher than in many developing countries.
box 5.2: indian tariffs

Prior to the 1990s reforms, most Indian imports were subject to licensing restrictions and high tariffs. India’s average tariff on non-agricultural products was reduced from 73 per cent in 1992–93 to 36 per cent in 1997–98 to 31 per cent in 2001–02. Maximum tariffs have been subject to cuts in more recent years. The tariff on most non-agricultural goods was lowered in January 2004 from 25 to 20 per cent; and the four per cent ‘Special Additional Duty’, which had been levied on virtually all imports since the 1998–99 budget, was abolished (although it was reinstated in 2006). The peak rate of customs duty on non-agricultural imports was further reduced in the 2006–07 Budget from 15 to 12.5 per cent. Lower input costs resulting from the tariff cuts have significantly enhanced the competitiveness of Indian industry.


Sourced from successive WTO Trade Policy Reviews of India.

P A G E 91



In addition to tariff reductions, which effectively act as an incentive to export by making production for domestic consumption relatively less attractive, the Indian Government has instituted a number of trade measures to encourage exports, with particular focus on the services sector (Box 5.3).
box 5.3: policy measures to support exports

• Numerous Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for both manufacturing and service provision have been established since April 2000, while eight Export Processing Zones have been converted into SEZs. The SEZs offer superior infrastructure facilities and tax concessions with a view to stimulating foreign investment and exports. • Under the ‘Star Export Houses’ scheme, both merchandise and services exports can apply for status as Star Export Houses and consequently be eligible for a number of privileges including fast-track clearance procedures for both exports and imports. Exporters are categorised according to the value of their exports. Star Export Houses achieving rapid growth in their exports are entitled to duty credits under the newly introduced Target Plus scheme. • The ‘Served from India’ scheme, a revamped version of the earlier duty free export credit scheme for services, involves duty credit entitlements for service providers depending on their level of foreign exchange earnings. • The Export Promotion Capital Goods scheme, accessible by all exporters including exporters of services, has been made more flexible. Under the scheme, the import of capital goods at a five per cent rate of duty is allowed, subject to fulfilling an obligation to export the equivalent of eight times the duty saved over a period of eight years. • ‘Export Oriented Units’ (EOUs) – units established anywhere which export all their production – have been extended benefits additional to duty free imports, including exemption from service tax. EOUs selling some of their output within the ‘domestic tariff area’ also enjoy some concessions, subject to certain conditions. Units in free trade zones, export processing zones, electronics hardware/software technology parks, and bio-tech parks enjoy similar privileges. • Duty exemption schemes are available, enabling the duty free import of inputs required for export production.
Source: Directorate General of Foreign Trade 2004

P A G E 92





for Australian


Foreign direct investment (FDI) has an important role to play in India’s development. Both the central and state governments have assumed a more welcoming stance towards FDI, and this, as well as increasingly positive sentiment on the part of foreign investors, has resulted in healthier foreign investment inflows (Figure 5.1). The US$7.2 billion inflow in 2005–06 is in the vicinity of the US$8 billion a year inflow judged necessary to underpin the eight per cent GDP growth rate envisaged for the Tenth Five Year Plan period (Indian Planning Commission 2002d).

Figure 5.1 FDI picking up India’s direct investment inflows, 1991–92 to 2005–06 (US$ billion)
8 7 6 US$ billion 5 4 3 2 1 0 1991–92 1994–95 1996–97 1997–98 1992–93 1998–99 1999–00 2001–02 2004–05 1993–94 1995–96 2000–01 2002–03 2003–04 2005–06
P A G E 93

Total, including re-invested earnings and other capital Equity


FDI data have recently been brought into line with international statistical standards by incorporating reinvested earnings and intercompany debt transactions components. For the years prior to 2000–01, data are only available for the equity component.

Source: DIPP 2006.

In recent years, India has relaxed restrictions on FDI, with higher equity caps and investment approvals granted automatically (the ‘automatic route’) for most services sectors, although limits on foreign equity holdings continue to act as a restraint on investors’ operations (see Figure 5.2 and Table 5.1). India has also streamlined its procedures, set target timeframes and introduced greater transparency for the consideration of FDI proposals by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB), the body charged with considering FDI in activities not covered by the automatic route (DIPP 2005a). A Foreign Investment Implementation Authority was established in 1999 to facilitate quick implementation of FDI approvals required by investors to get a project up and running. The Authority is assisted by ‘Fast-track Committees’ which include state government agencies concerned with the implementation of projects.

1991–2005 2001–05 More sectors opened. except a small negative list. Indian companies – particularly in areas such as software development and biotechnology – are themselves driving reform in this area pushing for greater protection of intellectual property rights to protect their own innovations. Significant differences can exist on such measures as cost and complexity of regulations and approvals processes. P A G E 94 . pharmaceuticals. 2000 Up to 100 per cent under Automatic Route in most sectors. the investment climate in India tends to vary from state to state. Procedures simplified. state government incentives. Figure 5. although some improvements are still possible on the enforcement front.4). FDI policy liberalisation 1997 1991 Pre 1991 Source: DIPP 2005b Foreign investors and local players – most notably in areas such as information technology. 100 per cent in some sectors. and film – also benefit from India’s legislative provisions for the protection of intellectual property (Box 5. Increasingly. and the availability of trained manpower. Allowed selectively up to 40 per cent. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed under the Automatic route in 35 Priority sectors. the attitude of state government officials in facilitating business. Equity caps raised in many other sectors. Up to 74/51/50 per cent in 112 sectors under the Automatic Route.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Notwithstanding these central Government policy initiatives.2 Evolution of FDI policy in India The progressive liberalisation of FDI policy.

T. The Patents (Amendment) Act. Table 5. computer software and digital technology under copyright protection. It included a number of substantive and procedural changes bringing Indian patent law more into line with international norms. India acceded to the Paris Convention on Intellectual Property in 1998. P A G E 95 . India’s attractiveness to foreign investors is expected to increase. films and sound recordings.1 details the services sectors which are open to investment by foreign players. Kearney 2005). The Copyright (Amendment) Act 1999 effected changes to make the law fully compatible with the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. musical and artistic works. The Copyright (Amendment) Act 1994 provided protection to all original literary. up from third place in 2004. 1970.India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies box 5. beginning in January 1995. cinematography.4: intellectual property rights India has implemented a number of major improvements in its intellectual property rights regime in order to meet its obligations under the 1994 WTO Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. ranked India the secondmost attractive FDI destination in the world. logistics and regulatory barriers addressed (A. Changes introduced under the Patents (Amendment) Act 2002 included increasing the term of patents to 20 years from date of filing and extended patent protection to drugs. It also had a further five years to extend its product patent protection to areas of technology not already protected. As a developing country. provided further reforms are initiated and infrastructure. India is a party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. and also brought satellite broadcasting. dramatic. It undertook to meet its patent obligations by a January 2005 deadline. The Trademarks Act 1999 served to provide better protection of trademarks for goods and services. which is based on a survey of executives from the world’s largest companies.T. in three phases (Deloitte 2005). The outcome has been three amendments to the Patents Act. 1999 introduced a transitional facility in the fields of pharmaceuticals and agriculture chemicals and a system of exclusive marketing rights (previously only process patents were granted). While the investment environment still has shortcomings. A. foods and chemicals. it had a transition period of five years to implement the Agreement. Kearney’s 2005 FDI Confidence Index.

74%* Automatic approval up to 49% P A G E 96 . 1 Most sectors now open to FDI Current foreign direct investment guidelines for services sectors Sector Infrastructure Townships.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Ta b l e 5 . hospitals. Cash and carry wholesale trading Transport Domestic airlines 100% Automatic 49% Automatic Direct or indirect participation of foreign airlines not permitted. 74% limit relates to foreign investment from all sources. 100% FDI permitted in export sector trading and wholesale cash and carry under the automatic route. Certain conditions apply to ensure management of service providers remains in Indian hands. Trading Retail trading activity Not permitted* *51% FDI permitted in single brand product retailing and in bulk imports with bonded warehouses subject to FIPB approval. Tax holidays for development or operation and maintenance of most infrastructure projects. unified access services. FDI not permitted in housing and real estate. resorts. global mobile personal communications services and other VAS. cellular. and greenfield airport projects. infrastructure and construction projects 100% Automatic Foreign equity limits Approval mechanism Comments Includes hotels. national/international long distance. A resolution is expected in early 2007. public mobile radio trunked services. *The Indian Government has frozen the 74% level until the FDI rules are consistent with the licence guidelines. ‘Viability Gap Funding’ available for Public Private Partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects. building. Road and maritime transport services Railways Telecommunications Telecom services 100% Automatic Not permitted Includes basic. educational institutions. V-Sat. including institutional investors. FIPB approval required for more than 74% equity in airport development.

underwriting. except those identified for restructuring. While approval is automatic. Selected other sectors Computer-related services. asset management. and DIPP Press Notes. P A G E 97 . construction and related engineering services. Insurance 26% Automatic Non-bank financial companies 100% Automatic Includes merchant banking. travel-related services Note: 100% Automatic More liberal arrangements apply for non-resident Indian investments. 26% limit relates to foreign investment from all sources. stock broking. investment advisory services. advertising and films. a license is required to operate. A 10% shareholding limit in private sector banks applies in the meantime. 74%* Automatic approval up to 5% *This ‘liberalisation’ occurred just prior to the 2004 elections and implementing guidelines are yet to be issued by the RBI. health-related and social services. R&D services. portfolio management services. venture capital. including institutional investors.India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies Sector Finance and insurance Private banks Foreign equity limits Approval mechanism Comments 74% limit relates to foreign investment from all sources. leasing and finance. Source: DIPP 2005a. including institutional investors. architectural services. The incoming UPA government postponed the opening of the sector to 2009. financial consultancy. Pollution control and management services.

areas of key interest to Australia. Access conditions for the cross-border supply of services are critical for exports of IT–ITES and other business services. 2006b). India’s rapidly growing knowledge-intensive services exports have encouraged the Government to play a more active role in multilateral. regional and bilateral trade negotiations on services and services-related outward investment. India’s initial offer on services related only to sectors in which it had already made commitments under the Uruguay Round.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Recognising that a local presence is often necessary to facilitate the export of services abroad (Indian Department of Commerce 2002). including clear prescription 4 The WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services distinguishes between four modes of supply: By virtue of Mode 2: Consumption abroad. Given both the significance of services exports to its economy and its increasing prominence as an overseas investor. While Australia has acknowledged the improvements in sectoral coverage and depth of commitments in India’s revised offer. India is a key player in the current WTO Doha Round as a leading Member of the ‘G20’ (developing country agricultural exporters). India committed to allowing foreign equity participation in a limited number of sectors.7 billion. led by India’s information technology companies which are increasingly adopting a global approach to service delivery (RBI 2005d. 4 box 5. better access for foreign lawyers. limitations in insurance and banking. hospital and audio visual services sectors. India is pushing for WTO commitments to facilitate the movement of contractual services suppliers and independent professionals.5 india’s increasingly active role in trade negotiations covering services In the Uruguay Round formally concluded in 1994.5). a liberalising outcome to the WTO services negotiations would clearly be of benefit to India (Box 5. both in terms of quality and sectoral coverage. P A G E 98 . it has become much more ambitious in the services negotiations. Similarly services delivered abroad through the commercial presence of an Indian enterprise are considered exports under Mode 3: Commercial presence. Similarly. and a more open regime on telecoms. including higher education and environmental services in which it had not previously made commitments. Increased FDI outflows have followed. a number of Australia’s requests remain unmet. However its revised August 2005 offer covered just over half of the 160 sectors and subsectors in the WTO services classification list. While it has adopted a generally conservative position on agricultural market access. the Indian Government has relaxed restrictions on outward investment. India has made no commitments on mining and energy-related services. but otherwise made very limited commitments on services. energy and professional services. in order to facilitate the temporary movement of Indian professionals in computer-related. FDI abroad in non-financial services sectors over the years 2002–03 to 2005–06 amounted to more than US$1. India has submitted requests to its trading partners in a number of services sectors. services delivered in India to foreign visitors are counted as exports. including those related to FDI restrictions. aiming at more liberal commitments in respect of cross-border supply (Mode 1) and of temporary entry by business people (Mode 4).

experience and licensing requirements are to be negotiated. although only limited further relaxation has occurred to date under the current National Congress-led UPA government (Indian Planning Commission 2002d).5 (continued) of duration of stay and the removal of labour market and economic needs tests. Under this agreement. the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member states (through the Framework Agreement on the South Asia Free Trade Area) and its Bay of Bengal partners (through the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sector Technical and Economic Cooperation). which was signed in June 2005. P A G E 99 . Indian Ministry of Finance 2006). it has typically finalised negotiations on goods prior to services and investment. it appears to be in its interests to push more actively for better Mode 2 (consumption abroad) and Mode 3 (commercial presence) access from its trading partners. Despite the benefits which would accrue to India from liberalisation of services trade. as well as its existing and prospective overseas investment interests in sectors such as ICT. dental and nursing. Given the potential of India’s conventional and medical tourism industries. with Singapore making a similar commitment in respect of three Indian banks. Mutual recognition arrangements for education. The Report of the Steering Group on FDI has advocated automatic approval for up to 100 per cent foreign equity for most sectors of the economy. Both countries have undertaken to encourage close cooperation between their educational institutions and agreed to mutual recognition of degrees for university admission purposes. doctors. Thailand. the Gulf Cooperation Council. the Republic of Korea. architecture.India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies box 5. licensing and technical standards. Japan. and architectural services (Indian Department of Commerce 2002. 5 5 Indian investments in Australia are detailed in Chapter 4. India is pursuing trade agreements covering services and investment with ASEAN. hospital services. intra-corporate transferees as well as professionals from a wide range of occupations. service suppliers. India made its first substantive commitments on services and investment in a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement with Singapore. India agreed to allow three major Singapore banks to establish wholly-owned subsidiaries in its territory. the EU. Both countries agreed to ease visa restrictions governing the temporary entry of business visitors. initially in the areas of accounting and auditing. It is also a strong proponent of developing broad disciplines on the domestic regulation of services covering qualification requirements and procedures. India is particularly interested in recognition of professional qualifications in sectors such as computer-related services.

The Indian law of contract is based on the common law principles of contract. through migration and education. The Indian consumer population is characterised by dynamic change and increasing confidence. Indian consumers are now more readily able to access finance in order to purchase goods and services. That is. Recent efforts to broaden the base of business relationships by federal and state government-led business missions to India have helped raise Australia’s profile and improve Indian awareness of Australian capabilities and expertise in a number of Western despite having to compete fiercely for attention with larger players such as the United States. Australian service providers should be aware of these demographic changes and the opportunities that likely to emerge from them. there are more English speakers in India than in the United States and Britain combined. safe and reasonably-priced destination for their children’s education.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Rising consumerism and a growing middle class India’s rapidly increasing middle class and growing consumer affluence are already a draw-card for foreign investors and exporters. particularly among the younger age group which tends to have higher aspirations. including almost 160 million in their Around 47 per cent of India’s one billion plus population is under 20 years of age. tastes and brands are in growing demand. up from 27 million just one year earlier (Gopinath 2005). 6 6 See www. With greater media exposure and a population increasingly travelling abroad. the number of credit cards issued by banks and outstanding had grown to 43 million. and the importance of its capacity to engender fellow-feeling should not be underestimated. Europe and China. Indians perceive Australia as a friendly. advantages for australian companies Australian companies enjoy a degree of benefit from favourable perceptions of their country in India. P A G E 100 . Both countries have a particular affinity for cricket. although similarities in the legal systems of the two countries should not be overstated. providing a spur to consumer spending. By 2015. Double-income families are becoming increasingly common as more and more women enter the workforce.6). The entrepreneurial spirit common to both countries is also a plus. which represent a potential asset when it comes to exploiting trade and investment opportunities (Box 5. Other forms of consumer credit are also growing rapidly. English is widely spoken in business. By December 2004. the under-20 age group will grow to 55 per cent of the population (Business Standard 2005). There are also significant people-to-people links. A 1997 ‘India Today’ survey suggested that about one-third of the Indian population has the ability to carry on a conversation in English.

the continued burden of excessive regulation and bureaucracy. The passing of India’s Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2003. there were over 156 000 people of Indian ancestry (ABS 2004). as well as business incentives and taxation treatment. available at www. India is Australia’s second-largest source of skilled migration.India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies box 5. In recent years. Indian-born immigrants have among the highest levels of educational training and qualifications of any group in Australia.’ (Thirlwell 2004) India’s investment climate has improved enormously over recent years. infrastructure bottlenecks.and intra-regional inequality.6: capitalising on personal linKs – indians in australia In 2001. may also open further investment opportunities for non-resident Indians as citizens. Altogether. shortcomings in the financial and agricultural sectors. This skilled diaspora represents a potential asset for both countries when it comes to exploiting trade and investment opportunities in the fast growing and increasingly open Indian economy. including fiscal fragility. accounting for 13 per cent of visas granted in 2004–05 (DIMIA 2006). and the pressures associated with growing inter. remaining hurdles ‘Significant constraints to the country’s growth potential. Non-resident Indians have additional freedoms in some areas of FDI in India compared with other foreigners. A number of Australian companies have been engaging non-resident Indians to manage or advise on their Indian interests (JSCFADT 1998).pwc. Moreover growth prospects can be constrained by the size and resources of 7 7 Investors in India can avail themselves of a wide range of investment advisory services. for example PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Destination India: A Brief Overview of Tax and Regulatory Framework. a range of impediments to investment remain. An exceptionally high number of Indian-born immigrants hold postsecondary qualifications and many are employed in professional. a significant number of Indian students who undertook higher education in Australia in fields of study with high labour market demand have opted for permanent migration. P A G E 101 . Companies also noted differences between states in their receptiveness to foreign investment. there were around 95 000 people living in Australia who were born in India (DIMIA 2003). A number of the large consultancy and accountancy houses also publish information on the investment climate. Where FDI equity limits apply. Some companies had experiences of customers not adhering to contracts. which permits citizens of Indian origin from Australia and 15 other countries to hold dual citizenship. technical and other whitecollar occupations. it can be difficult for companies to convince their shareholders of the value of a minority investment. A survey of the Australian business community in India undertaken by the Australian High Commission in New Delhi in early 2005 revealed a number of concerns. will all need to be overcome.

starting to meet with some success. and divergence on investment policy between the central and state governments (Indian Investment Commission 2006b). which should provide scope to direct more public spending into infrastructure works. The regulatory framework in a number of industries. could be difficult to obtain. while significant attention has been devoted to addressing regulatory barriers and burdens over recent years. A recent report by the Indian Investment Commission points out that sustaining growth rates of over eight per cent a year would require a significant increase in investment levels in the economy. It contains an undertaking to enhance public investment in infrastructure and at the same time bolster private sector involvement through the Public Private Partnerships scheme. notably mining. The report identified a series of recommendations aimed at establishing a more open. find it difficult to mobilise sizeable resources for development expenditure. particularly in emerging industries. The states. Perhaps the greatest immediate impediment to business lies in power and transport infrastructure shortcomings. A key finding arising from interviews of companies conducted on behalf of KPMG International in May 2005 was that India might fail to attract more foreign investment if it does not make more rapid improvements to its infrastructure (KPMG 2005). an uneven playing field in sectors dominated by public sector undertakings. The National Common Minimum Programme attaches the highest priority to the development of physical infrastructure. constraint to growth and is cause for some consternation amongst foreign investors. These include: entry barriers in several sectors. too. Infrastructure development is happening but is not keeping pace with ever-shifting and ever-increasing requirements. the problems faced are a reflection of India’s economic success in recent years. it will be a challenge to meet existing and future demand. and advocates the promotion of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for key sectors. if not the major. the Rs15 billion (US$340 million) provision in 2005–06 for Viability Gap Funding under the scheme is very modest given the infrastructure investment expenditures required. However. bureaucratic delays and discretion.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY the Indian joint venture partner. however. P A G E 102 . stable and consistent investment regime. although more so in manufacturing than services. Business licences. and highlights a number impediments to investment. The government’s finances are already stretched. But even in the information technology sector. inflexible labour laws. Efforts to reduce the fiscal deficits at both the centre and the states are. the state of infrastructure in India is seen as a major issue by multinationals locating functions there (McKinsey 2005a). To some extent. many regulations remain onerous. In addition. Infrastructure The poor state of India’s infrastructure has acted as a major. was cumbersome and lacked transparency. Despite a significant allocation of resources to major infrastructure projects. Power shortages and transport infrastructure bottlenecks have a bearing on most economic activity.

and consequently unreliable supply and high prices for paying customers. reflecting poor scheduling and prioritisation. Projects are parked in ‘shell’ companies with all necessary clearances in place. below-cost pricing and the provision of free power to some rural areas has resulted in under-investment in the sector. many public infrastructure projects have not been completed in a timely manner. An estimated Rs9000 billion (over US$200 billion at 2002–03 prices) needs to be invested to achieve this objective. but look to significant extra capacity coming from the public sector. But continuing power shortages can be expected for some time to come. The 2005 National Electricity Policy establishes guidelines for accelerated development of the power sector and sets the objective of fully meeting the demand for power by 2012. Power sector The power sector is beset with problems. 2003. Problems are compounded by inadequate maintenance of roads. The poor and deteriorating financial position of state electricity boards. Up to 40 per cent of electricity generated is believed to be lost in transmission (Fortune 2005). barely half of the additional capacity planned was actually developed (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). While there have been major investments in port infrastructure in recent years. despite some major investments in recent years. the policy emphasises the need for Public Private Partnerships. The road network remains inadequate. These ‘shell’ companies are then auctioned through competitive bidding to Indian and foreign investors. has acted to discourage private sector investment in power generation. 2006). notably the ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ and the North-South and East-West corridors. the government’s expectations of generation capacity addition by the private sector are much reduced. Only 20 per cent of paved P A G E 103 . Electricity theft. stemming from tariffs insufficient to cover costs because of cross-subsidisation. The number of delayed public sector projects increased in 2003–04 and cost overruns were substantial (RBI 2005d. rail track and rolling stock.10).India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies Contributing to the difficulties faced. and over 60 per cent run their own generators (Accenture. Transport infrastructure Capacity shortages on the main road and rail links are a major constraint to growth. resulting in continuing energy shortages and outages during peak periods. In the current Plan period (2002–07). could lead to increased capacity down the track. but has failed to keep pace with demand. port operations are inefficient by international standards. The government’s Viability Gap Funding and the passing of the Electricity Act. The average Indian business faces 17 power outages a month. Generation capacity has grown rapidly. and inadequate management and oversight (Indian Planning Commission 2002a). Table 2. Recognising the immense funding required. In the Ninth Five Year Plan period (1997–2002). with the main criterion being the price at which power will be supplied. The Government recently adopted a model for fast tracking mega-power projects.

In 2002. but enormous levels of investment in infrastructure and technological upgrading appear to be required for the sector to meet anticipated demand for freight traffic. 8 8 http://finmin. including through bringing ship turnaround times more into line with international standards (Ministry of Finance 2005). price controls. This represents a huge challenge. Regulation India has taken major steps since 1991 in lessening regulation and economic controls. The corporatisation of major ports is a pressing priority. and administrators continue to have wide discretionary powers. quantitative restrictions on imports. P A G E 104 . including the foreign investment approvals process. It has also moved to streamline administrative procedures and commit to timelines for administrative processing and decisions in some areas. notably in industrial licensing. some through Public Private Partnerships. Nevertheless. the government aims to improve productivity.2). India ranks relatively poorly in terms of a number of indicators of the ease of doing business (Table 5. In addition. accessed February 2006. including the services sector. Complex administrative procedures remain in some areas. Significant reforms appear to be required if the sector is to take some of the load off roads. the government estimated that Rs1650 billion (US$34 billion) was required in order to address deficiencies in the national highway network (Ministry of Finance 2005). and an increasing reliance on Public Private Partnerships and foreign investment. some regulatory functions are performed at both the centre and state levels. are resulting in significant additions to capacity. Labour productivity is low and there is overcharging on freight traffic in order to subsidise passenger transport (The Hindu Business Line 2006a). it was ranked 116th by the World Bank in terms of an overall measure of ease of doing business. Increased private sector participation. leading to duplication of effort and additional expense for the businesses affected. and areas of the economy reserved for the public sector or subject to foreign investment restrictions. even with funding from multilateral development agencies. For example. The government itself recognises that ‘business still has to deal with an inefficient and sometimes still slow-moving bureaucracy’. including through FDI. in a recent World Bank survey 61 per cent of firms reported that government regulations occupied ten per cent or more of senior management time (World Bank 2005). Efficiency gains have been realised in railways in recent years. With port capacity no longer acting as a constraint.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY roads are thought to be in good condition.nic. Major investments in ports in recent years. should help raise efficiency In 2006. the economy. continues to be heavily regulated and controlled.

varying from state to state. it seems that many firms are able to find their way around this constraint. political opposition has made it extremely unlikely that it will be able to push ahead in the short term. Many large – and not so large – companies have turned more to contract labour in recent years. while larger businesses may be subject to a raft of regulations. China Thailand Vietnam Australia Procedures (number) 13 11 12 12 9 11 6 8 8 11 2 Duration (days) 48 71 151 22 30 48 6 48 33 50 2 Difficulty of hiring (index) 11 56 61 44 0 56 0 78 33 44 0 Difficulty of firing (index) 40 90 70 30 10 40 0 30 0 70 10 Procedures (number) 25 40 34 29 31 25 23 28 26 37 11 Time (days) 241 425 570 75 300 360 69 210 390 343 157 Source: World Bank 2006b. While the Industrial Disputes Act only covers the industrial sector and so has no direct bearing on services companies. While the UPA Government has signalled the need to effect reforms in this area. Labour law and regulations are very complex. P A G E 105 . 2 Doing business in India measures of the ease of doing business in selected Asian economies Starting a business Ease of doing business (ranking) 91 116 115 27 21 113 2 35 20 99 5 Hiring and firing Enforcing contracts Country China India Indonesia Korea. Small businesses in the unorganised sector tend to be less regulated. Some states have moved to rationalise and update their laws in this area. although the hiring of contract labour is also heavily regulated under the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act for establishments employing 20 or more people. Moreover. The difficulty experienced under the Industrial Disputes Act by firms with 100 workers or more in shedding labour is often cited by business as a factor inhibiting investment and was recognised as such in the Report of the Steering Group on FDI (Indian Planning Commission 2002d). Andhra Pradesh has amended its law to facilitate the employment of workers to undertake temporary and non-core activities. In practice. Firms become subject to a number of regulations depending on their size. although often at significant cost. For example.India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies Ta b l e 5 . Rep of Malaysia Philippines Singapore Taiwan. it impacts on India’s overall economic performance and foreign investor perceptions of India. interpretation of the law is unclear.

and therefore limits the scope for corrupt practices.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Business practices The Indian business environment can be challenging. The computerisation of land records in Karnataka and Maharashtra. particularly for Australian companies seeking to enter sectors still subject to significant amounts of regulation. Corruption and rent-seeking are increasingly being curtailed as regulations and controls are gradually reduced and more sectors opened to competition. as measured by perception surveys (World Bank 2006c). In 2005. The CVC has since sought to limit the scope for corruption by encouraging public sector banks to computerise operations. P A G E 106 . Progress in tackling corruption is evident in a number of areas. Previously an advisory body to the government of the day. overlapping anti-corruption agencies and lengthy legal processes have made it difficult to secure convictions. According to the World Bank (2006c). despite marginal improvement since 2001 (Transparency International 2005). Year-to-year changes in a country’s score on the CPI can also result from changing samples and methodologies (Lambsdorff 2005). publishing on its website a list of public servants who have been found guilty of corrupt practices or are facing prosecution. A lack of legitimate funding sources for election campaigns has created incentives to extract rents from administrative functions to fund campaign expenses or repay contributors (World Bank 2006c). Corruption in India remains a pervasive concern. particularly when accompanied by the political will and strong administrative leadership needed to counter resistance from officials. although there has been some progress in curbing it. marginally behind China (78) but ahead of Vietnam (107).9 in 2005. The Karnataka Lok Ayukta in particular has been successful in using its power of office and media 9 9 India’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score increased from 2. for example. banning post-tender negotiations with any party in procurement processes other than the lowest bidder and. Accountability mechanisms of central and state governments have also been enhanced. the CVC was given authority to receive complaints from whistleblowers.7 out of 10 in 2001 to 2. The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) – which is charged with tackling corruption among senior civil servants and state-owned enterprises – was given a stronger mandate in 1998 following a decision by an activist Supreme Court. In 2004. the Philippines (117) and Indonesia (137). the CVC became an independent statutory body with the power to supervise the functioning of India’s two key investigating agencies. The increased adoption of e-governance to simplify transactions and promote transparency in service delivery also appears to have curbed corruption by keeping transactions between business and decision-makers at arms’ length. and protect their identity (World Bank 2006c). State governments have deployed Lok Ayukta (ombudsmen) to address high-level political corruption. Deregulation reduces the number of areas in which officials can exercise discretion. contributed significantly to reducing corruption levels. India was ranked 88th of 159 countries. India continued to perform relatively poorly in Transparency International’s 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). yet considerable scope for improvement remains. multiple. the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Enforcement Directorate. However this may not simply reflect improved perceptions of India’s performance on corruption.

as in any overseas market. While increased competition. Companies generally need to have substantial resources at their disposal in the start-up phase as success often requires a substantial initial investment of time and capital. the southern and western parts of India are wealthier and have been growing more strongly than others. economic development and the business environment. An increasingly active media and civil society have played a critical role in exposing several high profile corruption cases and galvanising political support for reforms that minimise rent-seeking opportunities (World Bank 2006c. there can be strong advantages in placing an Indian in charge of local operations. compounded by the fact that foreign ventures cannot utilise in-house lawyers. P A G E 107 . rather than just tailoring the strategy they have adopted in other markets. joint venturers are also hamstrung to a degree by the time consuming nature of dispute resolution through the Indian legal system. and a more activist media and NGO community are likely to limit the scope for corruption and rentseeking in the future. supply chains and distribution systems to local markets. Box 13 for examples). In the event of a dispute. The prices of local competitors may mean that products that sell well in other markets will not sell in India. it may be prudent to focus on just one region or city in India as there can be substantial differences between states in per capita incomes. businesses contemplating the Indian market nonetheless need to be aware of their potential impact on their operations. improved accountability mechanisms. Of 25 major joint ventures established by foreign multinationals from 1993 to 2003. For many businesses entering the Indian market. Research by McKinsey (2005b) suggests that the most successful multinationals in India are those that have developed their strategy from the ground up. only three have remained in business (McKinsey 2005b).India’s Business Environment: Implications for Australian Companies scrutiny to pressure corrupt officials and make corruption in service delivery a potent public issue (World Bank 2006c). But approaches and ingredients for success in India are many and varied (see for example Austrade 2006a). There is considerable merit in having full control of an operation where policy allows. deregulation and e-governance. strategies for success There are some prerequisites for building a successful business in the Indian market. Consistent with the need to tailor products. Broadly speaking. there could be advantages in combining longer postings with a competent local as second in charge (McKinsey 2005b). Most foundered because the local partner was not in a position to invest sufficient resources to enlarge the business as quickly as the multinational had hoped. If the preference is to have an expatriate in the position. such as thorough research and preparation. careful selection of a business partner or customer and the ability to take a long-term view. Moreover connecting transport infrastructure is often deficient.

including the local knowledge and experience that the foreign partner can readily tap into. and uncomplicated related-party transactions (Todorchevski 2005). Rapid growth and change in India’s services sector is creating substantial openings for Australian business.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Nevertheless. Parties entering into joint ventures should have congruent goals and similar ethics and values. Franchising and licensing is another option foreign companies may wish to consider for getting their brands into India. Australian services providers are well positioned to capitalise on emerging market opportunities in India. success for the newcomer may not be immediate and will depend largely on identifying and cementing the right business relationships from the start and being prepared to stay the course. But. P A G E 108 . joint ventures can have their advantages. as with any moves into a new country with a different business culture.

available at www. —— 2006. Accenture available at accessed February 2006. —— 2005b. A. March 2005. Media Release 10 October 27 October 2004. accessed February 2006.ausbiotech. The Many Faces of Business Success in India. available at available at www. India’s School Children Taught by Kangaroo Kids. accessed October AMP 2005a.ministers. Media Release 27 April 2000. Austrade 2005. available at www.References referencesi 2004. Asia Times Online Maverick engineers Indian Railways turnaround. accessed March 2006. accessed March available at www. Kearney 2005.dotars. accessed August Asian Development Outlook 2006. available at www.adb. Indians Catch the Travel Bug. available at http://corp. News Release 7 December 2005. ANZ sells Grindlays to Standard Chartered. Airservices Australia 2005. available at www. AMP Exits Joint Venture Operation in India. Kearney Study. accessed November Beyond the call centre – Mastering India’s growth dynamics. P A G E 109 .com. Asian Development Bank (ADB) 2005. 2004. Say Global Executives in New A. accessed March 2006. accessed August 2006. Trademark. —— 2006a. 23 March 2006. available at http://www. —— 2006. accessed December 2005. Airservices Undertakes Air Traffic Safety Work in India.T. accessed March 2006. available at www. Global FDI Recovery Clouded by Savings Glut Overhang. accessed February 2006. Australian School – Now in India. gov. AMP Reviews Indian Joint Venture Life Insurance Business. 28 November 2002. Media Release by the Hon John Anderson AusBiotech Strengthens International Outreach through Indian MOU. 15 September 2004. Anderson. available at www.airservices. ANZ 2000. Media Release 2 August 2005. Asian Development Outlook 2005.austrade. accessed April Press Release.atimes.T. Significant Liberalisation for the Australia-India Airservices J.austrade. Media Release 7 June 2005.amp. available at AusBiotech 2004. accessed March 2006. accessed March 2006. available at www. media release 12 October available at

au. Australian Computer Society Policy Statement on Onshoring ICT Based International Investment Position. available at www. 2054. 2004 and 2005. available at http://minister.abs. Cat. Media Release. Cat available at www. 2005. accessed November 2006. No. Overseas Arrivals and Joint Australian Computer Society 2005. available at http://aei. 5368. Year 2005 Market Indicator Data – Table F: Overseas Student Enrolments in Australia by Country and Major Sector. Cat. Australia: Supplementary Country Statistics. accessed November 2006. International Trade In Goods and Services. Australian Education International (AEI) 2006a.0. accessed October 2006. 3401. Year 2005 Market Indicator Data – Table A: Student Enrolments in Australia from Top 10 Source Countries 2002 to 2005. available at Entertainment to India.austrade. Media accessed November 2006. Australia. 21 September 2005. available at www. November 2006 Consistent with September 2006 edition of Australia. News item 25 August 2005.0. Dec 2005. available at available at —— 2006a. Overseas Arrivals and Departures. Bailey 2005. P A G E 110 . Cat. available at http://aei. September 2006. Australian Census Analytic Program: Australians’ Ancestries. accessed February 2006. —— 2006. 2001. (The) AXA Group 2005. available at accessed November 2006. No. accessed March available at www. MP. accessed February 2006. MP. Mining to India. Cat. —— 2005b. Australian Financial Review (AFR) 2005.austrade. accessed April 2006. accessed March 2006. accessed March —— —— 2006b. —— 2006c. available at 20 October 2006. available at accessed November available at www. No. 5352.abs. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004. —— 2006b. Taking —— 2006a. 30 November 2005. —— 2006b. India is where the business is. gov.dest. 10 February 2006. An Indian Joint-Venture for AXA Asia Pacific accessed March 2006. Information Technology to’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY —— 2006b. —— 2006d. accessed November 2006. Indian tourism forum gives Australia inside 28 March 2006.0. Asia’s Other the Hon Fran Bailey. the Hon Fran Bailey.

business. Media Briefing September 2002. Muralidharan. Working Paper No. available at http://www. Bharti Enterprises 2005a. accessed March available at www. —— Boston College 2005.icrier. Journal of Economic Perspectives. available at www. Winter 2006. media release 28 October 2005. J. Telecom reforms and state level economic development in India. the Hon John Brumby. Media Release.arts. accessed January 2006. —— 2006. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. commences Goldar 2004. media release 26 August 2005. Banga. S. and Rogers. available at www. ‘Foreign universities in India: Market-Driven New Directions’. J. IDP Education Australia. 2006.. in International Higher Education. K. Bharti AXA Life Insurance Company Ltd. accessed March 2006. —— 2006. available at www. and Jha S.dpc.References Banerjee. available at www.idp. Put Your Money Where You Shop. 2005. cornell. accessed October 2006. 91– com. Business Victoria 2004. accessed January 2006.vic. ‘Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries’. Hammer. Brumby. 75 Years of Development Research – An International Colloquium at Cornell University Organized by the Program for Comparative Economic 152. accessed February 2006. BHARTI Announces Agreement with VODAFONE Marking the Entry of the World’s Largest Telecom Operator into India. R. Number 1. Bharti Enterprises and AXA Asia Pacific Holdings Limited announce partnership for a life insurance joint venture in India. New Trade in Financial Services: India’s Opportunities and Constraints. accessed November Kremer. 20 April 2005. Opening Doors to Export. Canberra Times 2005. available at http://www. Number 41. M. Contribution of Services to Output Growth and Productivity in Indian Manufacturing: Pre and Post Business Standard accessed March 2006. www. 22 October 2005. May 7–9 2004. P A G E 111 . and B. New joint State body to promote games business opportunities. pp. accessed November 2006. News item 22 August 2006. available at www.businessstandard. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. 9 November 2006. N. Böhm. MP. R. Global Student Mobility 2025: Forecasts of the Global Demand for International Higher Education. Chanda. accessed September 25 April 2005. available at www. TCS buys Aussie consultancy firm. 139..icrier. New Delhi. Chaudhury. accessed March 2006. Meares and Pearce 2002. Learning to Ride the Indian Elephant: Australia Should Look Beyond China. Working Paper No. Volume 20. Fall 2005. 2004. available at www.

Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) 2003. www.minister. Media Release. December 2004 to January 2005 – Issue 33. Senator the Hon Helen Coonan. available at http://www. Australia-India ICT Partnership publications/popflows2004_5/. —— 2005a. in Beyond Borders: Global Biotechnology Report 2005. Global Solutions’.gov. Speech by the Hon Alexander Downer MP. 6 June 2005. accessed February available at www. Press Release.deloittecountryguides. accessed March 2006. available at www. FICCI-E&Y Entertainment Report Anticipates growth Opportunities for the Indian Entertainment Industry. National Tourism Emerging Markets Strategy: China and accessed April 2006. ‘Global Challenges. 15 March 2004. in Foreign Affairs. —— MP.ey. 9 October 2006. A.clough. accessed November accessed February available at www.immi. Ernst & Young 2004. available at www. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia Receives Approval for a Rep Office License in India. India Country Guide. Das. www. available at www. Senator the Hon Helen Coonan. P A G E 112 . People of Australia: Statistics from the 2001 Census. www. available at www. Digital Media Asia 2006. Strengthening ICT Links with AT&T becomes first foreign carrier to get new telecom licences in India. to the Australia-India Chamber of accessed February 2006.ey.digitalmediaasia. DC. accessed February accessed March 2006. Media Release.dcita.dfat. accessed February 2006.immi. Australia India Council. accessed March 2006.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Clough 2005. Downer. Department of Industry. Tourism and Resources 2005. Deloitte MP. Clough Signs A$170 Million BG India Contract – Looks To Growth In Indian Energy Sector Opportunities. ‘The India Model’.au/aic/. Media Release. Australia-India Focus. Council on Foreign Relations.dcita. accessed March 2006. accessed March 2006. 2005. Commonwealth Bank 2005. 6 June www. Press Release 31 January 2005. 1 November 2005. accessed February available at www. 2005a. Population Flows: Immigration Aspects 2004–05 —— 2005b. —— 2005b. 2006. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) 24 October 2005. accessed March 2006. Washington. available at July/August 2006. Doing Business in India.

11. Growth in Services Outsourcing to India: Propellant or Drain on the U. International Trade Commission. 15 May 2006. S. Financial Network Services 2005. Gordon.References Farrell. Nos.fedmin. Reserve Bank of India at the IBA-Banking Frontiers International Conference in Mumbai on 28 May 2005. and P. O. 2001. Economy?. April 2005. Goswami. available at www. IMF Working Paper WP/04/171. and S. 25 October 2005. accessed February 2006. Press Release 7 October 2005. Vol.S.. January 2006. and Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050. 31 October 2006. Gupta 2004. accessed March 2006. C. The McKinsey Quarterly. W.S. S. Indian Mining Lund. Understanding India’s Services Revolution. Ford Motor Company 2005. P A G E 113 . 168 No. Friedman. 2005. 2 and 3. address by Deputy Governor. 2005. 2006. Vol. Financial Times 2006. available at www. ‘Sustainability of Services-led Growth: An Input Output Analysis of the Indian Economy’.gs. Not Hubris. The World Is Flat – A Brief History of the Twenty-First Media Release.financialinsights. August 2006. Monsoon and Winter 2001. available at www. available at www. Financial Insights 2005. Media Release 1 July 2005. Financial Insights Asia/Pacific Envisage Insurance Premium Expansions in Excess of 20% in China and India.rbi. Bill Ford Celebrates Debut of Ford Fiesta in India.fns. 22. U. available at http://media. accessed January 2006. in Reserve Bank of India Bulletin. BANCS Roll-out Sets New Record: Central Bank of India Chooses FNS Solution. Summer. in Far Eastern Economic Review. 2005. Will Make India Great’. Straus and Giroux. accessed November 2006. J. ‘Retail Banking – Opportunities and Challenges’. Federation of Indian Mineral Industries 2006. Trade in Financial Services: Procompetitive Effects and Growth Performance. Office of Economics Working Paper. accessed March 2006. India on the move.P. India’s Financial System: More Market less Government. December 2005. Goldman Sachs 2003. A New Manufacturing Mantra. Farrar. Greene. June 2005. 2006. in Reserve Bank of India Occasional Papers. Hansda. Gopinath. Global Economics Paper No: available at www. D. J. ‘Humility. accessed December 2006. Fortune.R Discussion Papers: 2144. accessed November 2005. 1999. available at www. L. T. Fortune 2005.

accessed December 2006. Entertainment and Media. accessed March Visit to Mumbai. P A G E 114 . accessed February 2006. Hydro Tasmania 2006. accessed March 2006. a Report by Boston Consulting Group/Confederation of Indian Industry. International Retail Report 2005. available at Media Release. 11 May 2005.ibef.imagesretail. www. Address by the Hon John Howard MP to a business lunch hosted by the Indo-Australian Chamber of Commerce in Chennai. available at www. accessed March 2006. available at http://finance.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Howard. available at available at www. —— 2006a. 6 March accessed March 2006. New Series of National Account Statistics (Base Year 1999–2000).ibef. available at www. ICICI Bank Launches Kisan Loan Card and Inaugurates Innovative Low Cost ATMs in Rural India. 7 March 2006. —— 2006b. It would be Tragic to Miss Out on India. ICICI Bank 2004. —— 2006c. com. available at www.ibef. available at www. accessed May 2006. Call to Work the Indian Market. ‘Keeping the Smile on their Faces’. 8 March 2006. in India Now Magazine. The India Manufacturing Opportunity: India’s Emerging Global Challengers.idp. Media Release. Bangalore: Retaining its Cutting Edge. IndiaMART 2006. accessed March 2006. Media Release by the Hon John Howard MP.mospi. —— 2006b. J. India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) 2004. accessed March 2006. Proxy Banking in India. Hydro Tasmania Consulting and Roaring 40s to open India —— 2005b.idp. available at www. synopsis available at www. available at www.html. —— 2005b. 12 May 2005. Issue 5. a report by Crisil for Calling One India: India’s Next Telecom —— 2005a. available at www. accessed March 2006. accessed June 2006.ibef. Indian CSO (Central Statistical Organisation) Vol. available at www. IMAGES-KSA Technopak 2005. Media accessed June 2006. accessed June 2006. IDP Education Australia 2005a. 1 September —— 2005c. a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers for IBEF. accessed June 2006. available at www. Press Consumption. accessed March 2006a. accessed February

Fact Sheet on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): From August 1991 to April 2006. in/np2002.100.investmentcommission. National Mineral Policy Annual Report 2004–05. Indian Investment Commission 2006a. Foreign Direct investment in India.245/exim/2000/. available at http://dipp. accessed February 2006. New Delhi.nic. Indian Department of Road Transport and Highways 2006.nic. —— 2006. Indian Directorate General of Foreign Trade 2004. available at http://indiabudget. Indian Ministry of Mines 1993. Economic Survey 2002–2003. Medium Term Export Strategy 2002–2007.References Indian Department of Biotechnology 2005. —— 2005. Indian Department of Commerce accessed February 2006. available at Indian Department of Shipping 2005.nic. accessed October http://mohfw. accessed February accessed February 2006. available at http:// —— 2006.nic. Investment Strategy for India: Investment Commission Report. available at http://shipping. Public Private Participation (PPP). accessed February 2006. Indian Department of Economic Affairs 2005. accessed February 2006. available at http://dipp. —— 2006b. Economic Survey 2005–2006. Ministry of Science and Technology. accessed August P A G E 115 .in. Investing in India: Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Procedures. Ministry of Commerce & Industry. accessed January 2006. accessed November available at http://morth. available at http://finmin. accessed January PowerPoint Presentation by Dr Dua. 28 November 2005. http://dipp.nic. Invest India: Opportunities in the World’s Largest Democracy. available at http://commerce. Draft National Biotechnology Development Strategy. available at http://164. Indian Ministry of Finance 2003. February 2006. National Health Policy – 2002. Economic Survey 2004– available at http://indiabudget. Indian Ministry of Health & Family Welfare 2002.nic. Foreign Trade Policy 2004– Scheme for Support to Public Private Partnerships in Infrastructure.nic. —— 2005b. accessed December 2006. www.pdf. accessed March 2006.ppt. available at http://mines. Indian Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) 2005a.

in. Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020. World Economic Outlook: Financial Systems and Economic Cycles. accessed December 2005. 2005. available at http://pibhyd. New Delhi. accessed February 2006. Press Release. Khan. gov. accessed February 2006. —— 2005b. L. Canberra.nic.unesco. Infosys Reaches out to Australia. —— 2002b. pdf.infosys. Ministry of Shipping. Australia’s Trade Relationship with India. Education for all in India: Going up the down staircase?. and Joint Standing Committee on Foreign M. 108.’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Indian Planning Commission 2002a. Smart Internet Signs Infosys for Investment in Australian R&D. Road Transport & Mehta 2004. Invest Australia case study. Infosys 2004. Press Release 30 December accessed November 2005. available at www. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India. Australia as a Hub for Analytics Offshoring. Centre for International Development at Harvard University. International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2006. accessed March 2006. Indian Press Information Bureau 2005a. available at www. Invest Australia 2005a.aph. Press Release 3 September 2005.axiss.investaustralia. —— 2002c. Indian Higher Education Reform: Half-Baked Socialism to Half-Baked Capitalism. Defence and Trade (JSCFADT) 1998. and B. Kapu. New September 2006. —— —— 2002d. Planning Commission. Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). accessed November 2006. http://planningcommission.nic. available at www. accessed November 2006. available at http:// planningcommission. available at “Atithi Devo Bhavah” is the Latest Mantra of Indian Tourism.nic. available at P A G E 116 . accessed January 2006. Report of the Special Group on targeting Ten Million Employment Opportunities Per Year over the Tenth Plan Period. Australia South Asia Research Centre. D.ap. 11 November available at http:// planningcommission. —— 2005. Securities and Exchange Board of India Gets SMARTS. accessed August 2006. National Maritime Development Programme Formulated. Mid-Term Appraisal of the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002–2007).com.nic. Report of the Steering Group on Foreign Direct Investment. accessed February 2006. —— 2006.pdf.htm. available at http://pib. available at www. available at www. accessed November 2006. CID Working Paper 10th Five Year Plan (2002–2007).imf.

leighton. U. available at www. Jamnagar Export Refinery SPM and KPMG 2005. available at www. R. available at www. July ‘Another Major Manufacturer Signs up in India’. accessed December 2006. —— 2005b. and Tokatlidis. Subramanian. Government of India. February 2005. McKinsey Quarterly.macqaurie.leighton. accessed March 2006. Macquarie Bank 2005. Medical Tourism India K. Ensuring India’s Offshoring Future. January accessed March I. accessed August available at www.. R and Subramanian. Solutions Asia Pacific. www. in Leighton Asia News. McKinsey Kochhar. accessed February 2006. A. in Leighton Asia News. McKinsey Quarterly 2005 Special Edition: Fulfilling India’s Promise. Linfox 2006. 2006. Fact Sheet – The Australia China Minerals Trade. The Methodology of the 2005 Corruption Perceptions accessed January 2006. accessed January Macquarie Bank Announces Entry into Indian Market. Transparency International and University of Passau. Leighton 2005a. Minerals Council of Australia 2005. Mattoo. 2005. accessed November 2006. FDI in Retail Sector: India. and Patel. A.minerals. ‘Sub-continent Presents Exciting Opportunities’. Media Release. —— 2006a. 2006. available at www. http://www. ‘Expanding our Horizons into Oil and Gas’.com. accessed March 2006. available at What Follows?. P A G E 117 .edu. Lambsdorff. htm. A. La Trobe Connections with India. India’s Pattern of Development: What Happened. available at www.. N. The World Bank. Mukherjee. 2001. 28 July 2005. accessed March 2006. IMF Working Paper WP/06/22. La Trobe University 2002. accessed March Kumar. J. —— 2005b. Report by ICRIER and Ministry of Consumer Affairs. available at www. Manufacturing in India.imf.. available at http://www.transparency. accessed September 2006. January 2005. in Leighton Asia News.” Policy Research Working Paper Series 2655. Measuring services trade liberalization and its impact on economic growth: an illustration. The Right Passage to India. available at www. July —— 2006b.

Issue No. Remarks by David 2006. accessed May 2006. available at www. Mulford. Y. New Delhi October 6 2005. accessed November 2005 and June accessed February 2006. accessed May 2006. —— 2006c. 2005. in Policy Analysis. Nandi. 7 November 2005. Governor. 2005. on a Visit to Japan and Role of Telecommunications in Developing Countries in the 21st century.nasscom. Foreign Direct Investment in Education accessed June 2006. available at www. ‘Banking Sector Reforms in India : An Overview’. Reddy.nasscom. available at www. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) 2005a. U.nasscom. Ambassador to India.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Mulford. June 2005.S. accessed March 2006. accessed August 2006. available at www.rbi. 2002. Global Integration through Knowledge Process Outsourcing.htm.C. DC. Indian IT Software And Services Grow By 31. National Common Minimum P A G E 118 . NASSCOM-McKinsey 2005. available at http://southasia.V. www. December 2005. Washington. Cato Institute. The Indian Entertainment and Media Industry: Unravelling the Taj Mansingh Hotel. in Reserve Bank of India Bulletin. Karachi on 18 May Reddy. —— In FY 05–06 Posting An Aggregate Revenue Of USD Billion.Fact Sheet. speech by Seoul: International Telecommunications Society (ITS) 14th Biennial Conference Paper. Looking Ahead at 2005–06. Premier and Minister for Trade.V. B. available at Extending India’s Leadership of the Global IT and BPO Industries. PricewaterhouseCoopers 2005a. NASSCOM Newsline. OneWorld South Asia. available at www. 1 June 2006. October 2005. Indian IT Industry – Fact Sheet. National Advisory Council 2004. accessed June 2006. Looking Back. http://nac. Report by Peter Beattie MP. ‘The Triumph of India’s Market Reforms: The Record of the 1980s and 1990s’. 48. Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet 2004. com/in.nasscom. available at www. Media Release. Y. Reserve Bank of India at the Institute of Bankers of Pakistan. available at www. available at accessed March 2006. 6–16 September 2004. —— —— accessed June 2006. The World in 2050: How Big will the Major Emerging Market Economies Get and How Can the OECD Compete?. Oneworld.nic. A. D. 2005. accessed February 2006.thepremier. accessed December 2005. available at www. 4 January 2006. —— accessed February On-line Resource Knowledge Professionals. at the conference on ‘Building a Vibrant Insurance Market in India’. —— 2006b.

available at www. New Delhi. and Chanda. accessed June 2006. paper presented to Conference on Indian Economic Prospects: Advancing Policy Reform. accessed February 2006.icrier. Satyam Enters into Strategic Partnership to Invest in Victoria’s Human Capital. November 2006. accessed March 2006. available at http://www.rbi.References Rediff. accessed November 2006. Stanford. ResMed named 2006 top exporter.satyam.rbi. available at www. accessed December 2006. 2004. available at www. accessed November accessed January ResMed 2006. Satyam Launches Its Largest Global Development Center Outside India at Melbourne. 18 September 2006. —— Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 2005a. Invisibles in India’s Balance of Payments. available at www. org. Press Release.rbi.rbi. Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform. —— 2005e. 4 December 2006. —— 2006b.berkeley. 28 February available at http://resmed. Headline archives. Satyam 2004. accessed January 2006. R. Sawhney. A. Saxenian. accessed November 2006. Press Release 1 June 2005. P A G E 119 .in. 18 September available at www. available at bangalore_svasia. Australia. available at www.rbi. Annual Report 2005–2006. Circular RBI/2004–05/377. 30 August 2006. Roadmap for presence of Foreign Banks in India and Ownership and Governance in Private Sector Banks. WTO Research Series No. —— 2006b. A. Why ICICI’s Rural Foray Thrived. Indian Council for Research on International Economic available at www. available at www. Annual Report 2004–2005. ‘Computer Services Exports from India: 2002–03’.rbi. in Reserve Bank of India Bulletin. Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy. 1 September 2004. in Reserve Bank of India available at —— 2006c. available at —— 2005b. Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India 2004–05. in. 13 September —— 2005. Lalu comes to IIM-A with new image. 14 October 2005. accessed November 2006. Trade in Environmental Services: Opportunities and Constraints. accessed February 2006.rbi.sims. September 2005. 14 April 2006. Handbook of Statistics on Indian 2006a. accessed February 2006. Press Release. accessed January 2006. 29 August 2005. accessed December 2005. —— 2005d. Bangalore: The Silicon Valley of Asia?. accessed January 2006. 3. May 2000. —— org.

in. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India 1999. accessed February 2006.tcs. News Release 1 January 2006. accessed March www. available at http://pmindia. The Taj Checks into Sydney – Another World Gateway City. —— 2006. available at www. Working Paper No. Media Release 18 September 2002. News Release 20 October 2005.tcs. Macquarie Keeps up with the Rush. Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) 2004. available at http://www. Tata Sons launches Infiniti retail. Telstra 2006. 29 December 2005. —— 2005a. available at www. accessed March Tata Group 2006. —— 2004. Online Education. TCS Reiterates its Commitment to State of Victoria in Meeting with Premier Steve Bracks.tcs. Business story. Speech. 2005. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) 2002. Techbizindia. —— 2005b. 2005. Media release. 13 April 2005. New Telecom Policy 1999. 2006. accessed October 2006. 14 December 2005. Presentation to Images Retail Forum. 9 September 2006.tcs.tajhotels. Prime Minister’s 5 November TCS Expands Banking Sector Product Range Launches Credit Risk Model (Riskscan™and Enterprise Wide Risk Management (EWRM). accessed March 2006. submission to Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs. News The Australian. Press Release. accessed February 2006. News Release. 12 March 2004. Impending Economic Impact of a Resurgent Indian Retail available at www.tcs. California. Macquarie Retains Big Plans for India. Foreign Banks on Expansion Spree in India. P A G E 120 .nic. Taj Hotels 2005. 2006. accessed February PM lays the foundation stone for the Western Rail Freight Corridor. October 5. accessed August 2006.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Sify 2005. TCS Acquires Sydney-based FNS for US$26m. Stanford Center for International Development. available at www. the Emerging e-wave. tata. The Australian 2004. Bollywood Adds Spice to the Mix. 3 January 2006. accessed February 2006. available at http://www. available at www. Neville Roach Appointed Chairman of TCS-FNS in Australia. —— 2005a. gov.trai. Stanford. accessed January Singh. 3 August 2004. Singh. Australia’s TAFE Global and TCS Jointly to Introduce Vocational Training available at www. Financial Sector Reforms in India. accessed March 2006. accessed October 2006. Indians use Aussie M. available at www.techbizindia. 9 November 2005. Technopak 2006. Defence and Trade inquiry into Australia’s Relationship with India as an Emerging World Power. aph. 3 October 2006. 29 November 2005. —— 2006. 241.

available at www. —— 2006c. 12 April 2006. —— 2006. available at www. A World of Opportunity. 23 October 2006. Financial inclusion and Millennium Development Goals. Thorat. 22 April 2005. Leighton puts a bet on Wynn casino job.lowyinstitute. Encouraging signals. Australia-India partnership — Natural complementarities. 13 September 2005. 4 October 2006. accessed February 2006. Thirlwell. —— 2006b. 1 November 2006. Retailing in India – Coming to Market. Doing Business in Asia: Bluescope Steel. Double Bay 2004. accessed August 2006. accessed June 2006. available at http://economictimes. accessed May 2006. 10 September 2005. 18 January 2006. 21 December 2005. Roaring tiger or lumbering elephant? Assessing the performance.References —— 2005b. Fast Passage for India from Cheap Resource to a Lucrative market. Pune on 16 January 2006. U. 17 November 15 March 2006. paper presented to The Institute of Chartered Accountants Doing Business in Global Markets conference. Todorchevski. More Foreign Investment in IT in ‘06. Deputy Governor. Economist Intelligence Unit: Country ViewsWire. 18 June 2006. available at www. prospects and problems of India’s development model. —— 2006d.indiatimes. —— 2006a. Lowy Institute. —— 2005b. India: Country outlook. accessed March 2006. The Hindu Business Line 2004. India: The Next Economic Giant. The Economic Times Online 2005. —— 2006c. India Economy: Ten-year Growth Outlook. Sydney. Survey of Higher Education. Wipro Infotech Signs Pact with Australian Varsity. Lowy Institute Paper 01. Tata retail arm ties up with Woolworths. Reserve Bank of India at the 4th Programs on Human Development and State Finances. 2004. Infosys Closing in on Big Bank Deal’. —— .indiatimes. P A G E 121 . —— 2006a. 3 June 2006.2006. Oasis for Sahara. available at http:// 2006. 20 October 2005. The Times of India —— 2006. The Mercury 2005. Foreign Varsities May Hit an Entry Wall Here. lowyinstitute. Now for the Hard Part: A Survey of Business in India. The Economist 2005a. Economist Intelligence Unit: Country ViewsWire. —— 2006b. —— 2005. Panel rules out captive mines for steel Longueville Media. 26 August 2005. Not a Healthy 17 November 2004. 2005.rbi. 24 January 2006. R. Usha Thorat. speech by Smt.19 January 2006.

University of Sydney Biotech Boosts Indian Profile.un.transparency. accessed February available at www. available from www. —— 2005. P A G E 122 . 9 July www. —— 2006.tourismaustralia. New York and Geneva. Tourism Australia 2005. —— 2005a. accessed August 2006.htm. accessed February 2006. Trade and Development Report 2005: New Features of Global Interdependence. The World Bank. Media Release 21 March 2006. Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles to Growth. New York and India. available at www. accessed November 2006. available at www. World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalization of R&D. Sustaining India’s Services Revolution: Access to Foreign accessed November 2006. National Accounts Main Aggregates UNCTAD 2004. accessed December 2005. US Trade Representative (USTR) UQ News Online. available from www. accessed January 2006. South Asia Region.uq. —— 2004.doingbusiness. Reducing Poverty. University of Queensland 2004. Domestic Reform and International Negotiations. —— 2006a. available in USTR Document Library. India: How Consumers Purchase Travel. 10 November 2004. Australia-India Nanotechnology Centre at UNSW. available at www. com.Inclusive Growth and Service delivery: Building on India’s Success. accessed February available at www. available at http://unstats.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Toll Holdings 2006. accessed February 2006.worldbank. United Nations Statistics Division 2006. Offshoring of Services: An Overview of the Issues. News Release. Transparency International 2005. available at www. Corruption Perceptions Index. The World Bank. University of New South Wales (UNSW) 2005.ustr. worldbank.items/d065pdf. Toll’s Offer for Singapore’s SembCorp Logistics Now Open. India Development Policy Review. org. United Nations. accessed August 2006. New York and Geneva. accessed September 2006. accessed February 2006.tourismaustralia. New Delhi. World Investment Report 2004: The Shift Towards Services. US Government Accountability Office 2005.usyd. available at www. United available at World Bank 2003. India: Visitor Profile. United Nations. India: Sustaining Oxford University Press. —— 2005b.available at www. accessed March 2006. News Item 12 August 2005. Research Links with 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers. gao.

Geneva. World Trade Report. India: Travel & Tourism – Sowing the Seeds of Growth.doingbusiness. World Trade Organization (WTO) 2005. zeetelevision. available at www. The 2005 Travel & Tourism Economic Research.wttc. Reforming Public Services in India: Drawing Lessons from accessed January 2006. accessed March 2006.worldbank. 35041-IN. accessed September 2006. Indian Cable and Satellite Industry: A White Paper. 2005. accessed February 2006. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit South Asia. —— Report No.pdf. accessed January 2006. available at www.weforum. accessed August 2006.htm.References —— 2006b. www. available at www. available at www. India and the World: Scenarios to 2025.wto. available at www. en/initiatives/index. Zee Television Limited 2003. World Travel & Tourism Council presented by the World Economic Forum and Confederation of Indian Industry. Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs. World Economic Forum (WEF) 2005. P A G E 123 .

P A G E 124 .

Tim Stapleton joined the Economic Analytical Unit in mid-2006. Trade and Economic Analysis Branch. He holds a Bachelor of Commerce and a Bachelor of Arts from the University of New South Executive Director Richard Andrews Directors Evanor Palac-McMiken Bruce Donald Joanne Frederiksen Christopher Lang David Morgan Deputy Directors Gita Nandan Angela Carey Research Analyst Tim Stapleton Office Manager Andrew Flowers P A G E 125 . Electronic copies of previous reports and information on how to purchase reports are on the Unit’s website. He has written a number of trade-related analytical publications. He was Counsellor at the Australian High Commission in London between 1990 and 1994.Economic Analytical Unit authorsi This report was co-authored by Robert Walters and Tim Stapleton under the guidance and direction of Richard Andrews. having previously been a policy officer in DFAT’s East Asia Branch. The Economic Analytical Unit has produced 43 major reports since its establishment in 1990. Europe Internet site: www. and North Asia Division. Executive Director of the Economic Analytical Unit in the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT).gov. He has a Master of Economics from the Australian National University and a Bachelor of Economics (Honours) from the University of Tasmania. Prior to this he worked in business development and financial management roles for a software development company and taught at the University of New South Wales. He has published on trade policy in the Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Contact details: Economic Analytical Unit Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade RG Casey Building John McEwen Crescent Barton ACT 0221 Australia Telephone: +61 2 6261 2237 Facsimile: +61 2 6261 3493 Email: economic. Robert is now with the Commonwealth Grants Commission. economic analytical uniti The Economic Analytical Unit is part of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and is responsible for publishing reports analysing major trade and economic issues of relevance to Australia. Robert Walters was a Director in the Economic Analytical Unit until mid-2006. He spent the early part of his career with the Australian Bureau of Statistics.dfat. Previously he directed sections in the DFAT’s Office of Trade Negotiations.

P A G E 126 .

Services Trade and Negotiations Section. Consular Officer. as former Executive Director of the EAU. Tourism and Resources. we thank Ajit Mangrulkar. Edward Sulikowski. Anthony Donnellan. within Treasury. In New Delhi. Kristina Hickey. Rohit Manchanda. Middle East and Africa Division. Within the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. First Secretary – Political. Agriculture Counsellor. we would like to thank: Deputy Secretary David J Ritchie. Acting Assistant P A G E 127 . Mahesh Rathod. Senior Manager. Andrew Flowers provided administrative support. In Bangalore. Luke Davies. Megan Jones. and Ranjit Singh. Business Development Manager. Asia Policy Unit. within the Department of Industry. Assistant Secretary. Senior Investment Manager. Principal Economic Advisor. was closely involved in oversighting the initial stages of preparation of the report. Trade Analysis Section. Other Australian Government agencies provided helpful information: within AusAID. Justin Brown. Government Industry and Policy Group. and Hassan Noura. Acting Director. Assistant Secretary. Trade and Economic Analysis Branch. Deborah Stokes. Market Information and Analysis Section. In Mumbai. Acting Post Manager. Ric Wells. Assistant Secretary. Economic Analysis & Trade Policy. Australian Consulate-General. Services and Intellectual Property Branch. we thank the High Commissioner. John McCarthy. International Liaison Unit. Indigenous Graduate. Austrade. South East Asia. and Jarrod Mander. Peter Howarth and Phillip Stonehouse. and Dr Chakriya Bowman. Ron Wickes. former Directors. Investment Manager – India. Sue Begley. Business Development Manager. Stephen Howes. and Dong Zhang. The Australian High Commission in New Delhi. Pat Stortz. Michael Moignard. Sandra Fox. Also within Austrade. Trade Commissioner. within Invest Australia. Legal Specialist and Roy Clogstoun. we thank. and Sabina Jain. Project Manager. Education Counsellor. and Rachel Small. Steven Yates. Second Secretary – Political/Economic and Jibby Thomas. Asia Economic Section. we thank Chaitanya Patil. David Holly. and Joyce Pereira. former Executive Officer. Frank Bingham. South and West Asia Branch. Senior Analyst. Graduate Trainee. International Economic and Finance Section. Executive Officer. South Asia & Middle East. South Asia and the Pacific. India and South Asia Section. Internet and International Broadcasting Section. Business Development Manager. International Tourism and Bridgette Hargreave. John Webb. the Austrade-managed Australian Consulate-General in Mumbai and Austrade’s office in Bangalore organised the Economic Analytical Unit visits to those cities and provided assistance in producing this report. Deputy High Commissioner. former Manager. The Unit’s Office Manager. Head China Free Trade Taskforce and Acting First Assistant Secretary. Director. South and West Asia. John Griffin.Acknowledgments acKnoWledgmentsi Nicholas Coppel. First Assistant Secretary. Tony Urbanski. Nathan Dal Bon. Director. First Assistant Secretary. Manager – Publications. Manager. Investment Manager. International Operations. Senior Trade Commissioner. Kerrie Burmeister. Manager. Director. Jeff Riethmuller. India Desk Officer. Manager – Client Services and John Weeden. and David Ingham. Trade Development Division. Nic Brown. Brendan Pearson. Tony Burchill. Trade Development Division. John Fisher. Director.

UNCTAD. NASSCOM. Head of Government and International Relations. Director. and Majundar. Senior Manager. From Victoria. Australia South Asia Research Centre. Director. and Henry Ledlie. George Di Scala. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Professor Raghbendra Jha. Senior Research Counsellor. Eric Winton. Dr Bhide. Senior Manager. we thank Gayle O’Brien. National Chairman. Special Advisor. we thank Ashish Puri. Dr Pankaj Patel. Director. Planning Commission. Australian National University. Dr Rangarajan. Department of Innovation. Department of Premier & Cabinet (now with the Queensland Government Trade and Investment Office. President. Head of Government and Regulatory Affairs and Monica Murray. Lawyer. Westpac. within the Department of Communications. State Governments in Australia also provided helpful information and suggestions. Monash Asia Institute. and Raji Bhatia. Policy Advisor. In Queensland. Ausbiotech. P. General Manager Environment & Planning. Ministry of Commerce & Industry. Bangalore). International Market Development Division. The National Centre for South Asian Studies. Office of International Business and Export. International Growth Specialists. Quentin StevensonPerks. Head of Strategy. within Australian Education International. International Tourism Team. Director – India. Lowy Institute. Dash. Trade Services. IDP Education Australia Ltd. In addition. Trade Services. In Delhi. Victoria Somlyay. International Partnerships. Market Development Branch. John Tucker. we thank Neville Roach AO. Professor Marika Vicziany. Onshore Counsellor. Bharti Tele-Ventures. S P Joshi. International Financial Services. Senior Manager. within the Attorney-General’s Department. and Devendra P A G E 128 . Department of Industry & Resources. Chairman. General Manager ICT Development Branch. ANZ. International Affairs. Information Technology and the Arts. Regulatory & Competition Legal Group. we thank Donna-Marie Griffiths. Within the NSW Department of State and Regional Development. International Economy.K. Executive General Manager – Business Development. Edward Mandla. Fiona McAlister. Confederation of Indian Industry. Trade Manager. Australia-India Business Council. Government and Regulatory Affairs. India and Europe. Prime Minister’s Advisory Council. Manager Trade Services. Deputy Vice Chancellor (International). past President. Victorian Special Trade Envoy – India and Chairman Australia-India Council. Trade Services. Manager. Dr Rashmi Banga. Telstra. Macquarie Bank. Professor Frank P Larkins. Geoff Coates. International Legal Services Advisory Council. In Western Australia. Program Director. Economist. Anna Lavelle. we thank Ellen Lintjens. Director of Business Development (South Asia). Post Olympics. Joint Secretary. Kiran Karnik. Chief Executive Officer. Srivastava. Gavin Winbanks. In South Australia. Dr Sharat Kumar. Ashok Juneja. Industry and Regional Development.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Director. Sally Williams. Director International Relations. Executive Director. Corporate Director. Australian Computer Society. David Hawes. Vince Smith. SMEC. Manager Market Development for Middle East and India. Manager Export Development – Middle East and South Asia. and Mark Lobo. Qantas. Department of Trade and Economic Development. Network Technology & Projects. Australian Information Industry Association. International Investment. University of Melbourne. Senior Manager. we thank Darren Gribble. Representative – India. Lindsay Barton. Commonwealth Bank. we thank: G. Paul Mason. Manager. Development Policy Division. Danny Kotlowitz. Australian Business Ltd. Invest Victoria. Mark Thirlwell.

Kalpana Morparia. Group Chief Economist. D. Sadagopan. Hon Director. Senior Fellow. and Dr Arpita Mukherjee. Global Markets – South Asia. Bombay Chamber of Commerce & Industry. Deputy Director. Raghvan Srinivasan. Executive Director. Bangalore. ICICI Bank. Federation of Indian Export Organisations. Fellow. Pankaj Baliga. Dr Archana Mahale. Adviser. Ashish Narain. National Council of Applied Economic Research. Ltd. Dinesh. and Radhika Choudary.. TATA Consultancy Services. Chief Technology Officer. Managing Director. World Bank. Director General. Commissioner to India. Macquarie Securities (India) Pvt. Prof S. Sarosh Irani. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. we thank: Phil Michell. Wayne Lewis. TATA Consultancy Services. Co-founder and Member of the Board. Joint Managing Director. Global Markets. and Shuchita Mehta. Sundeep Bhandari. Director. Asia. and Dr Anand Kumar. Advisor. Biocon Ltd. International Institute of Information Technology. Manfred Bertram. and Raj Rajesh Kumar.Acknowledgments Kumar Pant. Business Standard.OTSS India. Economist. Director and Country Head – India. Department of Economic Analysis & Policy. Ajay Sahai. FICCI. P A G E 129 . ANZ . R. L. Economist. Lakshmanan. ANZ Capital Private Ltd. President – Group Finance. Director. Regional Head. Association of Biotechnology Led Enterprises. and Dr Ajit Ranade. Murali Krishnan. we thank: Dr Brian Cohen. Patnaik. Rath. Director. Vice President. Consulting Editor. Reserve Bank of India. State Government of Victoria. Anjan Roy. P. Assistant Adviser. K. Research Officer. Additya Birla Management Corporation. Standard Chartered Bank. Sanjay Hansda. Assistant Adviser. Infosys. Vice President. K. In Bangalore. Pankaj Baliga. In Mumbai. IBAHealth.

P A G E 130 .

119 pages Papua New Guinea: The Road Ahead Published November 2004 (ISBN 1 920959 23 8). Uganda. 103 pages Connecting with Asia’s Tech Future: ICT Export Opportunities Published November 2002 (ISBN 0 642 50244 7). and the United Arab Emirates Published September 2005 (ISBN 1 920959 46 7). 139 pages South-South Trade: winning from Liberalisation Published June 2004 (ISBN 1-920959-07-6). 69 pages More Than Oil: Economic Developments in Bahrain. 75 pages Globalisation: Keeping the Gains Published May 2003 (ISBN 0 646 42270 7). 85 pages malaysia: An Economy Transformed Published February 2005 (ISBN 1 920959 25 4). Kuwait.EAU Publications also by the economic analytical uniti ASEAN: Building an Economic Community Published July 2006 (ISBN 1 920959 89 0). Qatar. Mozambique and Kenya Published November 2003 (ISBN 0 646 42822 5). Botswana. 42 pages Economic Aspects of Combating Terrorism in the Transport Sector Published May 2004 (ISBN 1 920959 00 9). 191 pages China Embraces the world market Published November 2002 (ISBN 0 642 50227 7). 52 pages African Renewal: Business Opportunities in South Africa. 135 pages China’s Industrial Rise: East Asia’s Challenge Published October 2003 (ISBN 0 9750627 4 3). Oman. 200 pages P A G E 131 . 113 pages Education without Borders: International Trade in Education Published September 2005 (ISBN 1 920959 51 3). 172 pages Solomon Islands: Rebuilding an Island Economy Published July 2004 (ISBN 1 920959 08 4). 103 pages Unlocking China’s Services Sector Published February 2006 (ISBN 1 920959 47 5). 95 pages Australia and the United States: Trade and the multinationals in a New Era Published June 2005 (ISBN 1 920959 36 X).

172 pages Investing in Latin American Growth: Unlocking Opportunities in Brazil. 216 pages Asia’s Financial markets: Capitalising on Reform Published November 1999 (ISBN 0 642 56561 9). Cambodia and Laos Published June 1997 (ISBN 0642 27148 8). Mexico.Vietnam. 294 pages Indonesia: Facing the Challenge Published December 2000 (ISBN 0 642 70501 1). Burma.INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY Changing Corporate Asia: what Business Needs to Know (2 parts) Published March 2002 (ISBN 0 642 48780 4/0 642 48781 2/0 642 48779 0). 250 pages The Philippines: Beyond the Crisis Published May 1998 (ISBN 0 642 30521 8). Argentina and Chile Published August 2001 (ISBN 0 642 51879 3). Old Economy Published December 2001 (ISBN 0 642 56583). 328 pages The New ASEANs . 380 pages A New Japan? Change in Asia’s megamarket Published June 1997 (ISBN 0 642 27131 3). 119 pages Iron and Steel in China and Australia Published November 1995 (ISBN 0 642 24404 9). 376 pages Korea Rebuilds: From Crisis to Opportunity Published May 1999 (ISBN 0 642 47624 1). 272 pages Asia’s Infrastructure in the Crisis: Harnessing Private Enterprise Published December 1998 (ISBN 0 642 50149 1). 110 pages P A G E 132 . 205 pages Accessing middle East Growth: Business Opportunities in the Arabian Peninsula and Iran Published September 2000 (ISBN 0 642 47659 4). 158 pages Pacific Russia: Risks and Rewards Published April 1996 (ISBN 0 642 24521 5). 448 pages Asia’s Global Powers: China-Japan Relations in the 21st Century Published April 1996 (ISBN 0 642 24525 8). 512 pages China Embraces the Market: Achievements. 87 and 230 pages India: New Economy. 160 pages Transforming Thailand: Choices for the New millennium Published June 2000 (ISBN 0 642 70469 4). Constraints and Opportunities Published April 1997 (ISBN 0 642 26952 1).

390 pages Expanding Horizons: Australia and Indonesia into the 21st Century Published June 1994 (ISBN 0 644 33514 9). 150 pages Korea to the Year 2000: Implications for Australia Published November 1992 (ISBN 0 644 27819 5).au/eau. only available online Overseas Chinese Business Networks in Asia Published August 1995 (ISBN 0 642 22960 0).dfat. 380 pages Southern China in Transition Published December 1992 (ISBN 0 644 25814 4). 150 pages Grain in China Published December 1992 (ISBN 0 644 25813 6). Hard copies of the reports can also be ordered through www. 364 pages India’s Economy at the midnight Hour: Australia’s India Strategy Published April 1994 (ISBN 0 644 33328 6). 110 pages Australia’s Business Challenge: South-East Asia in the 1990s Published December 1992 (ISBN 0 644 25852 7). 372 pages Subsistence to Supermarket: Food and Agricultural Transformation in South-East Asia Published August 1994 (ISBN 0 644 35093 8). P A G E 133 .au/eau. 318 pages The EAU’s website. full publication catalogues and details of briefing papers. 150 pages Australia and North-East Asia in the 1990s: Accelerating Change Published February 1992 (ISBN 0 644 24376 7).gov. provides access to recent reports. www.dfat. 136 260 pages ASEAN Free Trade Area: Trading Bloc or Building Block? Published April 1994 (ISBN 0 644 33325 1).EAU Publications Growth Triangles of South East Asia Published November 1995 (ISBN 0 642 23571 6). as well as executive summaries and tables of contents of earlier reports. 180 pages Changing Tack: Australian Investment in South-East Asia Published March 1994 (ISBN 0 644 33075 9).


financial services. infrastructure. By 2050. film. INDIA’S SERVICES SECTOR: Unlocking Opportunity www. it could be the third largest economy in the world by a significant DFAT . healthcare. construction management. biotechnology. knowledge-intensive services exports. Studies by a number of prominent analytical organisations are now projecting that India could outperform all of the world’s major economies over the next fifty years. And it highlights the successes of some of the Australian services providers behind Australia’s increasingly dynamic services trade relationship with led by the dynamism of its services sector – particularly high-end. Instead we ask: How might it happen? Is there a plausible path from today’s India to the projected giant economy of 2050? What opportunities might successful pursuit of that path generate for Australian services providers? And finally.Optimism abounds in India. retail. The Indian economy has shifted to a much faster growth trajectory. sports and related infrastructure. what factors need to be taken into account along the way as Australian companies consider whether they should be seeking to participate directly in India’s growth? The report looks beyond headline services such as information technology and IT enabled services to examine emerging export and investment opportunities in education. Such developments would profoundly shift the world’s centre of economic gravity. logistics and professional services. Entrepreneurial spirit was unleashed by wide-ranging liberalising reforms that commenced in 1991. telecommunications.dfat. tourism. This report does not seek either to substantiate or to disprove these rosy projections. mining.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful