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Introduction: The tasks of a compiler, Analysis of the Source Program, Phases and Passes in compilers, cousins of compilers, compiler construction tools. Lexical Analysis: Review of Regular Expressions, Finite State Machines, Finite Automata based Pattern Matching. Specification and recognition of tokens, a language for specifying lexical analyzer, Design of lexical analyzer generator. Programming assignment on lex. Syntax Analysis: Review of grammars, Chomsky Hierarchy, Context Free Grammars. Ambiguity, Grammar Transformations, Top-down Parsing: Left recursive grammars, Left factoring, LL (1) Parsing, LL (1) grammars, error recovery in Top down parsers. Bottom Up Parsing: Overview of Shift reduce parsing, Operator precedence parsers, Finite automata of LR(0) items and LR (0) parsing, SLR parsing, Canonical LR Parsing, LALR Parsing. Compaction of LR parsing table, Using ambiguous grammars, Error recovery in bottom up parsers, Yacc: an LALR(1) Parser generator, Abstract Syntax trees, Optimizing a grammar, Programming assignment. Semantic Analysis: Syntax Directed Definitions and translations, Attributes and Attribute grammar, construction of syntax trees, bottom up evaluation of S attributed definition, Lattributed definition, Top down translation, Bottom up evaluation of inherited attribute, Assigning space at compiler construction time, analysis of syntax directed definitions. Type Checking: Type systems, Specification of simple type checker, equivalence of type expressions, type conversions, overloading of functions and operators, Polymorphic functions, an algorithm for unification. Run Time Environments: Storage Organization, Storage allocation strategies, access to non local names, memory allocation in block structured language, various algorithms for Garbage collection, Parameter passing. Symbol Table Organization, Symbol attributes and Symbol table entries, Local Symbol Table management, Global Symbol table structure, language facilities for dynamic storage allocation, dynamic storage allocation techniques. Symbol Table for block structured language. Code Generation: Issues in the design of a code generator, The target machine, Run-time storage management, Basic blocks and flow graphs, Next-use information, A simple code generator. Code Optimization: Early Optimizations: Constant-Expression Evaluation (Constant Folding, Algebraic Simplifications and Reassociation, Value numbering, Copy Propagation. Redundancy Elimination: Common-Subexpression Elimination, Loop-Invariant Code Motion, PartialRedundancy Elimination, Redundancy Elimination and Reassociation, Code Hoisting. Loop Optimizations: Induction-Variable Optimizations, Unnecessary Bounds – Checking Elimination. Procedure Optimizations: Tail-Call Optimization and Tail-Recursion Elimination, Procedure Integration, In-Line Expansion, Leaf-Routine Optimization and Shrink Wrapping. Books: • Aho, Sethi and Ullmann “Compilers: Principles, techniques and tools”, Pearson Education Asia • Appel, "Modern Compiler Implementation in C", Cambridge University press
Project Estimation Techniques. Automated Estimation Tools UNIT 5: Project Control and Closure.Software Project Management UNIT 1: Introduction to Project Management: Project Management Life Cycle UNIT 2: Software Project Planning. Project Management Issues with regard to New Technologies Books: • • • • • Mathur . Pressman “Principles of software Engg” TMC. . new delhi.K Aggarwal & Yogesh Singh :SOFTWARE ENGG: Pankaj Jalote.2005. 5th ED. S. Project Scheduling and Tracking Techniques UNIT 4: Project Economics: Project Costing.S Principles of Management Robbin . “ Organizational Behavior” Prof: K. .P. Project Activities and Work Breakdown Structure UNIT 3: Project Management Plan.S. “An Integrated Approach to software Engg” Narosa publishing house.
Computing location of V. color CRT Monitors. Area Subdivision Method. . A-Buffer) Method. Sutherland-Cohen Clipping Algorithm.Shading models for curve surfaces. nd • R. Mouse. Bezier Curves. DDA Algorithm. Prentice Hall 2nd Edition. Plastock and Z..Xiang. Ellipse Drawing Algorithm. 4 point and 5 point Bezier curves using Bernstein Polynomials. Input Devices: Keyboards. Curved Surfaces. Scaling. Rendering. Bresenham’s Circle Drawing Algorithm. YIQ. UNIT . UNIT . Raster scan systems. 19999. Floating Horizon Method. • Foley et. distances. Specular Reflection Model.Panel displays. UNIT – V Illumination Model and Surface Rendering: Illumination models.Computer Graphics UNIT –I Overview of Graphics Systems: Video Display Devices. Phong Model. Light pens. Shear). HSV. “Computer Graphics”. Refresh cathode ray tubes. B-Spline Curves. Back Face Detection. “Computer Graphics Principles & practice”. Computing Reflection Vector. Data Glove. RGB. al. McGraw Hill. Depth Buffer (Z-Buffer. Three Dimensional viewing devices. HLS. Polygonal Approximations. Flat. Color Models: XYZ Color Model.P. Gourard Shading. “Computer Graphics”. Effect of ambient lighting. Computing control points given end slopes for a specified curve segment. UNIT – IV Shading and Hidden Surface Removal: Shading. CMY. Track ball. Baker.III Geometric Transformation: Homogeneous Coordinate System for 2D and 3D. Rotation about an arbitrary axis (3D). Rotation about an arbitrary point (2D). Bresenham’s Line Drawing Algorithm. Half tone Pattern and Dithering Techniques.II Curves and Surfaces: Line Drawing Algorithm. Rotation. Addison Wesley. Random scan displays. 2 Edition Schaum’s Series. Depth Sorting Method. 2001. DVST. 3D Transformation matrices (Translation. Refresh scan displays. Hearn and P. BOOKS: • D. Scan Line Method. Touch Panels. Joysticks. Various 2D. 1999. Illumination Model for diffused Reflection. Hidden Surface Removal. Clipping Algorithms.
Distributed Operating system. reasons for its popularity. tightly coupled. System attributes to computers. solving linear systems. reasons for its popularity. NUMA. Cluster: definitions. Amdahl.optimal design. advantages.systolic. Mutual exclusion.speedup. Distributed deadlock detection. CPI. 2nd Edition. resource dependence. Elementary parallel algorithmsBroadcast. algorithm graphs. vector processors. Matrix transportation. algorithms. Strength and weaknesses of distributed computing. Pipeline hazards and their solution . Windows cluster. architecture of distributed applications. TMH • Kai Hwang. basic architectures. Linux cluster.throughput. DAP FORTRAN. definition. dictionary operations. Using cluster distributed computing system models: Distributed operating system. Distributed systems-Introduction. butterfly. Election algorithms. throughput rates. Sun and Ni laws. CSP. workstation server model. dataflow architecture. models. network architecture-binary tree. Deadlocks. parallel processing terminology. scheduling: array . multiprocessors. connection machine. COMA models Performance laws. Different forms of computing. cluster computer system architecture. Distributed Systems: Introduction. multiplication. exchange. Odd Even.complexity. VAL etc.decomposition. Message passing. its history.measures. toolkits. Minicomputer model. hypercube. Gustafson. MPI. “Advanced Computer Architecture” McGraw hill. pyramid. example system. Bernsteins conditions levels of parallelism in programs.reservation table. Synchronization aspects. workstation model. permutation. clocks. clliss. cube architecture. Distributed computing system definition and its evolution.C-Linda. Introduction to DCE. DSM. CCC.. parallel selection. Open MP Books: • Michael J Quinn “Parallel Computing-Theory and practices”. MIPS rate. Actus. clock rate. frameworks. hypercube. Resource sharing. SIMD algorithm for matrix multiplication. Hardware and software requirements . Bitonic Merge. wave front array. Parallel Algorithms: PRAM model of computation.Parallel and Distributed system Basic Concepts: Introduction to parallel processing. Program flow control .data flow. Parallel Processing-Structure and organization: Taxonomy of parallel processes: granularity. Modeling-Petri Nets. Introduction to UML. Processor pool model. co routines. . Parallel and Distributed programming: Parallel programming environments. prism. modulla-2. shuffle. sorting. loosely coupled systems. pipeline-both linear as well as non linear . and components.design issues. Arithmetic pipeline. prefix sums. Uma. FORTRAN. occamm. Instruction pipeline. Solaris cluster. merging. synchronous programming. data flow programming.data dependence.
learning with complex data. the Wumpus world. planning with state space search. unification & lifts forward chaining. foundation of AI and history of AI intelligent agents: Agents and Environments. uniformed search strategies – Breadth first search. first order inference.. the nature of environments. Inference in first order logic.Third Edition – Pearson Education. Evaluation functions. Forward & Backward. Chaining. E. minimax. UNIT 3: GAME PLAYING Adversial search. Backward chaining. Patrick Henry Winston. Resolution. planning with state – space search. Peter Norvig. Books: • Introduction to Artificial Intelligence – Rajendra Akerkar. . Heuristic functions. Ivan Bratka. and cutting of search. propositional logic. Giarrantana/ Riley. 2nd Edition. Thomson • PROLOG Programming for Artificial Intelligence. Heuristics for stats space search. Depth limited search.Knight (TMH). annealing search. optimal decisions in multiplayer games. First order logic. Local search Algorithms: Hill climbing. Planning search.Rich and K. simulated. UNIT 5: PLANNING Classical planning problem. structure of agents. the concept of rationality. Memory bounded heuristic search. • Artificial Intelligence. propositional Vs.comparison. Resolution. Alpha-Beta pruning. logic.Artificial Intelligence UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION AI problems. UNIT 2: SEARCHING Searching for solutions. Learning Decision Tree. learning with Hidden variables – The EM Algorithm. Backward states space search.Fourth Edn. Pearson Edition. Language of planning problems. algorithm. Induction learning. Games. Second Edition. Resolution patterns in propos ional logic. Neural Networks. PHI • Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach. Statistical learning methods. Search with partial information (Heuristic search) Greedy best first search. Forward states spare search. • Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems – Patterson PHI • Expert Systems: Principles and Programming. depth first search. local beam search. Instance Based learning. and problem formulation. Iterative-deepening depth first search bi-direction search . genetical algorithms. Constrain satisfaction problems: Backtracking search for CSPs local search for constraint satisfaction problems. partial order planning Graphs. Expressiveness and extension. Stuart Russel. A* search. UNIT 6: LEARNING Forms of learning. problem solving agents. PHI/Pearson Education. 3rd Edition. UNIT 4: KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION & REASONS LOGICAL AGENTS Knowledge – Based Agents. • Artificial Intelligence .
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