Fire Fighting Systems Onboard | Carbon Dioxide | Firefighting

M/V COSCO Vancouver

Project Title:

Fire Fighting Systems onboard M/V “Cosco Vancouver”

Engine Cadet:

Chief Engineer:

Brčić Marjan

Behrens Rolf

At sea, 2007

Brčić Marjan, E/CDT

Fire Fighting Systems

CONTENTS

Introduction………. …………. ………….. ………… ……………. ……….. ……………...2 FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES… ……….. …………. ……….. …………….. …3 CO2 Fire Extinguisher System… ……………………………………………. ………… ….3 Fire – Extinguishers in the Galley…. ………. ………….. ………….. …………… ……..8 Fire Line (seawater) Distribution….. …………… …………….. …………….. …………8 Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System…….. ……….. ………… ………….. ….10 Moveable Fire Extinguishers…….. ……………… ………… ……… ……… …………..13 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT…………. …………… ………… ………….. …………14 Fireman’s Outfit…….. ……… ……… ………………….. ………………. ……………….14 Chemical Protective Clothing……… …….. …….. …… ………. …… …………………15 Breathing Apparatus……….. …………….. ……………… …………….. ……………….15 ENGINE ROOM FIRES…………. ……………… ………………. ……………… ………16 GENERAL RULES FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING (Instead of Resume)………………………… …………………………. …………………..16

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Introduction Oxidation – Combustion – Fire The chemical process by which a combustible substance combines with oxygen with release of heat to form a new substance, the oxide, is called oxidation. A rapidly-proceeding oxidation with the appearance of light is called combustion; the light, flame and heat created during combustion are called fire. Combustion Process Combustion always depends on four preconditions which must coincide: 1. There must be a combustible substance, 2. Oxygen must have unimpeded access, 3. The ignition temperature of the combustible substance must be attained or exceeded, and 4. The proportion of ingredients necessary for the compound of the combustible substance with oxygen must be attained. Classes of Fires The object of subdivision into classes of fires is the appropriate allocation of extinction methods and means to the various combustible substances.

A B C D

Fires involving solids, mainly organic materials, which normally form a glowing mass when burning; e.g. wood, paper, straw, coal, textiles, car tyres. Fires involving liquids, or substances which become liquid; e.g. petrol, oils, greases, lacquers/paints, resins, waxes, tar, ether, alcohols, plastics.

Fires involving gases; e.g. methane, propane, hydrogen, acetylene, town gas.

Fires involving metals; e.g. aluminium, magnesium, lithium, sodium, potassium and their alloys.

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Preventive Fire Protection By structural fire protection measures, the start of a fire is impeded, its spread substantially prevented and fire fighting facilitated. Structural fire protection includes design/construction measures such as the subdivision into main fire section, the arrangement and design of doors, fire flaps and other closures, escape and rescue routes, the use of non-combustible or low flamespread materials, the installation of fire alarm and extinguishing system and appliances, and of special equipment to protect for example compartments or installation in which combustible liquids, compressed gases or dangerous substances are used, transported or stored, such as fuel tanks, pump or pipelines. Operational fire protection results in timely recognition of fire risks and safe operating of fire protection equipment. Operational fire protection includes above all the organisation of operations so as to prevent fire risk arising. Focal points as regards this are proper maintenance of the fire fighting and fire protection appliances and correct behaviour in emergency. Structural and operational fire protections are complementary and are not to be separated. Extinguishing Fires Combustion is a chemical process in which a combustible substance and oxygen in the correct proportions combine as soon as the minimum combustion temperature is reached. Extinguishing means interrupting this process by altering the proportions or lowering the temperature. Extinction is achieved by smothering or cooling. A third method is based on the reaction-impending (anticatalytic) effect of some chemicals. The interruption of the supply of combustible substance is also a possibility, particularly in the case of fires of liquid or gaseous substances. FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES On the M/V “COSCO Vancouver”, there are Fixed/Stationary Systems and Portable Fire Extinguishers. This ship is provided with: CO2 Fire Extinguishing System, Fixed Local Water Mist System, R-102 Restaurant Fire Suppression System (on chemical base).

Also, onboard is Water Fire Extinguishing System which includes the components like fire pumps, hydrants, reels, hoses. CO2 Fire Extinguisher System Carbon dioxide (CO2) is standard commercial product with many other uses and it is readily available throughout the world. At normal temperatures pressures carbon dioxide is an odourless and colourless inert gas with a density of approximately 50% greater than density of air. 3 _____________________________________________________________________

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Fire which can be extinguished of controlled by CO2 total flooding methods may be divided into two categories: surface fires involving flammable liquids, gases and solids, and deep-seated fires involving solids subject to smouldering. An extinguishing agent, CO2 has some desirable features. CLEANLINESS. It is an inert gas, non-corrosive with no harmful effect on most materials. It will not contaminate foodstuff. It disperses leaving no materials trace. NON-CONDUCTIVITY. It has great dielectric strength and can be applied safety to live electrical equipment. PENETRATION. It is discharged as a gas and it will penetrate into otherwise inaccessible position. APPLICATION. It provides its own pressure for discharging though valves, pipe work and nozzles. CO2 extinguishes fire by reducing the oxygen content in the atmosphere to a point where it will not support combustion. Reducing the oxygen content from the normal 21% in air to 15% will extinguish most surface fires; for some materials, however, it must be reduced even lower. Hazard to Personnel The discharge of large amounts of CO2 to extinguish fire may create hazard to personnel such as oxygen deficiency and reduced visibility. The dilution of the oxygen in the air, by the CO2 concentration that will extinguish fire, may create atmosphere that will not sustain life. Such atmospheres will be produced in spaces protected by CO2 total flooding and may by produced by any large volume discharge drifting into adjacent low places. Persons rendered unconscious in these atmospheres can usually be revived without any permanent ill effects when promptly removed from such atmospheres. Large volume discharges or CO2 may seriously interfere with visibility during and immediately after the discharge period. Carbon dioxide is normally colourless, but when discharged from a storage cylinder pressure it resembles a cloud. Carbon Dioxide Storage The carbon dioxide is stored as a liquid, under pressure, in high pressure steel cylinders. Each cylinder is filled with liquid CO2 equal to two thirds of the internal volume of cylinder. The pressure within the cylinder varies with changes in ambient temperature; the pressure increases with rising temperature at 21°C the pressure would be 58.6 bar.

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Fig.1. Schematic Diagram of the CO2 Fire Extinguishing System

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Fire Fighting Systems

Each cylinder valve incorporates a safety disc designed to rupture and discharge the CO2 contents at a pressure safety below the cylinder test pressure. Care must be taken, therefore, to ensure that the CO2 cylinders are not installed in a position where the temperature is likely to exceed 46°C. Cylinder Valve Each cylinder is fitted with a valve can be opened pneumatically (by gas pressure from Release Control Cabinet) or mechanically and manually when the appropriate actuator is fitted to it. The valve is opened by depressing an actuator rod, the end of which is recessed into the valve body. The actuator rod is recessed into the body so that the valve cannot be accidentally operated while the cylinder is being handled during installation and maintenance. Operating Instruction The CO2 extinguishing system utilizes bank CO2 cylinders, located in the CO2 room. The number of cylinders required depends upon the volume of the protected space. Discharge of the extinguishing agent is accomplished by means of a control box which is normally situated at the exit from the protected space. A duplicate control box may be fitted in the CO2 room and fire control room. The control box contains a source of pilot CO2 and means by which it is released; the pilot CO2 is piped to pressure-operated release heads in the required number of CO2 cylinders. Where more than one space is protected by the same bank or CO2 cylinders, pressure-operated direction valves (main valve) are fitted into branch pipes leading off the main discharge manifold. The main valve is operated by the pilot cylinder and opened earlier than the CO2 valve is opened. Audio and visual alarms are normally operated via a door microswitch on the control box. Shutdown of ventilation system is achieved by opening of control box. CO2 total flooding system – steps: a) Before operating the system. Determine accurately the compartment on fire and ensure no personnel are in that compartment. To increase the effectiveness of the system thoroughly wet tarpaulins and canvas cover of hatches and seal all openings, ventilators, ports sounding piping leading to compartment afire. b) Go to valve manifold containing valve feeding space afire open that control valve. c) Discharge into compartment afire the exact number of cylinders as specified in the squares for the corresponding compartment in the above diagram. Go to the CO2 cylinder room and discharge CO2 from the number of cylinders specified, to discharge CO2 from the cylinders rotate the valve anticlockwise. d) At each following half hour interval. Discharge into the compartment the exact number of cylinders specified in the circle for the corresponding compartment in the diagram. Continue this procedure until the supply of carbon dioxide is exhausted or it is certain that the fire is extinguished.

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Fig.2. Instruction Chart for CO2 Fire Extinguishing System

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Fire Fighting Systems

e) During the above and until arrival in port keep all opening sealed, tarpaulins and hatch covers wet and control valve open f) Do not open the hatches or other openings of compartment flooded with CO2 until arrival at port. This is to permit burned cargo to cool and prevent rekindling of the fire. Figure No 2 contains all necessary information what to do in situation of fire. Regarding that it’s useless to explain this Instruction Chart. Fire – Extinguishers in the Galley Galley is provided with CO2 portable fire extinguisher, fire blankets, separate CO2 fire-extinguishing system (which can be released by opening a valve on the bottle in the galley) and R-102 Restaurant Fire Suppression System. In this chapter will be very shortly explained R-102 Restaurant Fire Suppression System, what it includes and how system can be actuated. R-102 Restaurant Fire Suppression System includes: agent 3.0 gallon 1 , gas cartridges 2 , compression seal adaptor, electrical switches, remote manual pull station, agent tank assembly, nozzles, rubber blow-up caps, pulley elbows, and regulated release assembly. The system can be actuated automatically or manually. Automatic actuation occurs when a fusible link within the detection system separates in a fire condition. Manual actuation of the system occurs when personnel pull on the remote manual pull station pull ring. Fire Line (seawater) Distribution Every ship has an approved fixed water fire-extinguishing system. This system includes: - pumps (fire pumps and emergency fire pump), - pipelines, - hydrants, - fire hoses, - nozzles, - foam applicator, - International shore connection. Should the fire pumps break down, the water fire-extinguishing system can, via the International shore connection, be pressured and made to operate from ashore, from other ships or by transportable pumps. The next schematic diagram (Figure No 3) shows seawater distribution from sea chests, via fire pumps, to hydrants.

1

ANSULEX Low ph Liquid Fire Suppressant is a potassium-based solution designed for fast knockdown and suppression of grease-related fires. The agent is shipped in plastic containers which provide one complete tank charge. 2 The R-102 system uses gas cartridges to store nitrogen or carbon dioxide expellant gases under pressure until the system is actuated, at which time the cartridge seal is punctured and released gas expels liquid agent from one or more tanks through the discharge piping and out the discharge nozzles.

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Fig 3. Bilge, Ballast, FIRE & wash deck system

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Operating Instruction for Foam Applicator In case of fire:

1. Connect fire hose with hydrant valve 2. Connect foam applicator with fire hose

3. Insert the tip of pick-up tube into foam liquid container 4. open fire hydrant valve and aim applicator at base of fire

Refill foam after complete or partial use!

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Fire Fighting Systems

Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System M/V “COSCO Vancouver” is provided with Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System, The System 913. The System 913 water based automatic or automatic/manual Local Application Fire Fighting System retains the characteristics that have been identified as being significant to the performance and reliability of conventional waterspray systems. The System 913 shall be capable of immediate operation at all times. Where the space may be unmanned, the System shall be capable of being set in operation without any human action being necessary. The System 913 shall function in conjunction with an Approved, fire detection and alarm system. The System shall be capable of receiving the signals from the fire detection and alarm system and acting to suppress a fire. The fire detection system shall be installed in the same area to be protected from fire by the water mist nozzles. The System shall be dry pipe downstream of the zone valve, but may be dry or “wet pipe” (permanently flooded) upstream of the zone valve. System 913 shall be capable of being continuously supplied with water for at least 20 minutes, in order to allow for preparation of the possible discharge of the main fixed fire extinguishing system (for the protected space), within that period of time. Any portion of the water supply system which may be subject to temperatures below 4°C, up to and including the zone valves, are to be protected from freezing. System 913 may be fed from the ship’s water-based main fire-fighting system (provided that adequate water and pressure are available to operate both systems for the required time), or from a dedicated System 913 pump. The System 913 is to be capable of continuously supplying potable water or natural seawater, for at least 20 minutes. Each zone shall include means of providing a visual and audible alarm signal, automatically, whenever a zone comes into operation. The system-indicating Switch Unit shall, or as otherwise agreed upon with the Marine Authority Having Jurisdiction, be located in the Machinery Control Room (MCR). Nozzles shall be grouped into separate sections/zones, with each zone serving one hazard area, e.g. fire hazard portions of internal combustion machinery spaces. Zone Valves, system piping as well as the water supply to System 913 shall be sized based upon the most hydraulically demanding zone or zones to be designed for operation in the event of a single fire condition. Each Zone Valve shall be capable of automatic and/or manual operation. It shall be readily accessible and its location shall be clearly and permanently indicated. Gauges indicating the System 913 main supply pressure shall be provided at appropriate locations. Nozzles shall be the 4.7 K – Factor (metric) Model AM15 upright. How to place, locate, maintain the nozzles (and the other parts of system), these information must be available for everybody onboard. Hazard areas to be protected include: The fire hazard portions of internal combustion machinery spaces used for the ship’s propulsion and power generation. Only tops of engines need to be

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Fig.4. Schematic Diagram Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System

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protected unless a combination of hot surfaces and fuel lines are installed below; Boiler fronts (oil burners) and Inert Gas Generators using combustible fluids; The fire hazard portions of incinerators (oil burners); and Purifiers for heated fuel oil.

Distinct audible and visual alarms are to be provided in the protected space and at continually manned stations. These shall be in addition to the ship’s fire detection and alarm system. Indication of System 913 operation shall be provided. For ship wit continuously manned machinery spaces the Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System shall be capable of operating in a manual mode, or in automatic and manual modes. For ship with periodically manned machinery spaces, the Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System shall be capable of operating in automatic and manual modes. In the case of automatic operation, no human action is to be necessary to set the system in operation. Manual Operation shall be provided by means of the Main Control Panel, Remote Panel activated from distinct and dedicated manual release push buttons placed at strategic locations. Automatic operation shall be provided by means of a fire detection controller with fire detectors. Detail informations about System 913 – Fixed Local Water Mist Fire Fighting must be provided in ship’s library, Instruction Manual. Operation Instruction Release of the system from the Main Control Panel Release 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open the lid of the push button marked “Operation system” for the area on fire. Press the push button. Flashing of green lamp marked “Valve opened” confirms valve opened. Flashing of lamp marked “Pump running” confirms system release. Alarm siren within the area will start warning personnel.

Operation after release 1. 2. 3. 4. Press button marked “Buzzer Mute” to stop the buzzer. Press button marked “Reset” to put the system back into normal operation. By automatic activation, the Fire Alarm panel should be reset. Check all nozzles for possible damage due to extensive heat exposure from the fire. Release from Manual Release Button Release 1. Open the lid. 2. Press the button inside for the area on fire. 3. Alarm siren within the area will start warning personnel. 13 _____________________________________________________________________

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Operation after release on the Main Control Panel 1. Press button marked “Buzzer Mute” to stop the buzzer. 2. Press button marked “Reset” to put the system back into normal operation. 3. Check all nozzles for possible damage due to extensive heat exposure from the fire. Release from Remote Panel Release 1. 2. 3. 4. Press the push button marked “Operation system” for the area on fire. Flashing of green lamp marked “Valve opened” confirms valve opened. Flashing of red lamp marked “Pump running” confirms system release. Alarm siren within the area will start warning personnel.

Operation after released on the Main Control Panel As described in section “Release from Manual Release Button”. Automatic release The system is designed for automatic release following signals from dedicated fire detectors for the object protected. The automatic release should take place based on alarm from two detectors. Emergency release from water mist pump skid Go to the pump and valve station and open the zone valve manually by a wrench. Then push the button marked “START” located in pump starter to operate water mist pump. As is mentioned before, this system can be released automatically and regarding that, everybody must be worried about that possibility. Also, according company’s rules, on each place from where is possible release Local Water Mist Fire Fighting System must be provided with Operation Instruction. Moveable Fire Extinguishers Portable Fire Extinguishers Fire extinguishers are portable (mass less than 20 kg) extinguishing appliances kept ready for use. Because of their design, amount of extinguishant and relatively short operating time they are primarily intended for use by a single person to extinguish fires in their initial phase. They can be used without any special training provided the operating instructions shown graphically on the appliance are complied with. Fire extinguishers are approved appliances. Approval covers the appliance, the extinguishant and the propellant The number of extinguishers is laid down in regulations.

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The type of the extinguisher is selected on the basis of the nature of the fire risk in the compartments to be protected. Up for consideration are ABC powder extinguishers, BC powder extinguishers, D powder extinguishers and CO2 extinguishers. Every portable extinguisher has a name plate and a test badge. Additionally there are simple operating instructions on every extinguisher. If a portable extinguisher is refilled on board after use, application of a homemade refilling certificate next to the test badge is recommended. In addition to the refilling date, this bears the warning that the extinguisher has not been tested and must be sent ashore for test at the next opportunity. The fire extinguishers are positioned to be easily visible and ready to hand. Their position in the ship can be seen from the fire control and safety plan. Mobile Fire Extinguishing Appliance Mobile Fire Extinguishing Appliances are kept ready in the engine room. They permit effective combating of liquid fires in the initial phase, as a single person can easily transport them to the seat of the fire and operate them. The large amount – 50 kg – of extinguishant and significantly longer operating time ensure a high extinctioneffectiveness in situation where it is not possible deploy several portable extinguishers. The number of mobile fire extinguishing appliances is laid down in regulations. About Moveable Fire Extinguishers, the ship is provided with: Foam Fire Extinguishers ( 9 lit, 45 lit and 135 lit ), Dry Powder ( 6 kg ), CO2 Extinguishers ( 6,8 kg ). FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fireman’s Outfit The term fireman’s outfit has two meanings attached to it. In a broad sense it is taken to refer to the personal protective equipment which protects the crew members employed on fire fighting against radian heat, burns or scalds and against damage to their health from breathing-in poisonous or suffocating gases or vapours. Fireman’s Outfit according to SOLAS In a narrower sense, according to the relevant regulations fireman’s outfit comprises: a self-contained compressed-air-operating breathing apparatus with a face mask and spare air bottles, a fireproof lifeline of adequate length and strength, a rigid helmet (equipment with additional helmets for all members of the defence unit is recommended),

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a heat protection suit (trousers, jacket, hood), a pair of safety boots of rubber or some other non-behaviouring material, an explosion-proof electric safety lamp (portable lamp) with a minimum burning time of 3 hours, a fireman’s axe with a handle insulated against high tension, a crowbar, a portable electric drill heavy enough for at least a 10 mm bit, or a cutting-off wheel; each with at least a 10 m long connecting lead. A minimum number of fireman’s outfits is laid down based on the size of the

vessel. Should additional fireman’s outfits be carried, voluntarily or because of other regulations such as those regarding the transport of dangerous goods, the safety lamp, fireman’s axe, crowbar and drill/cutting-off wheel may be omitted. A chemical protection suit may be provided instead of the heat protection suit. Chemical Protective Clothing On M/V “COSCO Vancouver” fireman is protected by Splashing MK IV Chemical Protection Suit. Developed in conjunction with the fire and rescue services, the splashing Splashing MK IV Chemical Protection Suit is particularly suitable for use when high pressure decontamination procedures are adopted. It has not been overlooked that the primary objective of the splashing is to protect the wearer from the incident and chemical process splash which demand the highest integrity of construction. The well proven ocas polymers of PVC, neoprene and bytil have been retained to ensure a wide resistance, to permeation and penetration by chemical and acids is offered together with a supple fabric to enhance the generous styling incorporated. The headpiece of the Splashing MK IV is specifically shaped to ease the wearing of protective headwear. The suit is donned and sealed through a rear gas tight zip breach, storm flap covered and firmly secured or optional horizontal zip double covered and secured. Wrist rings are fitted as standard. The arms and legs are double with elasticity to the outer. The inner leg incorporates a stirrup to retain the fabric firmly around the wearer’s ankle. The hood incorporates a shaped flexible face seal which, when worn over the edge of the facemask forms a tight seal, thus preventing liquid penetration to the wearer at this point. All seams are stitched and tape sealed using high temperatures sealants. Breathing Apparatus Breathing apparatus are intended to allow the wearer to breathe even in a nonrespirable atmosphere, e.g. where there is not enough oxygen or in the presence of poisonous gases or vapours, and to protect him from detrimental influences. Breathing apparatus must not be used as diving sets! For fire fighting on board, only compressed-air sets are used. Compressed-air breathing apparatus are bottle-supplied appliances independent of the ambient air. Normal-composition air is stored under pressure in one or two gas bottles, ready for use. 16 _____________________________________________________________________

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When breathing in, the wearer receives decompressed bottle-air via a pressure reducer, a breath-controlled dosing unit (artificial lung) and a breathing attachment (face mask). The used air breathed out escapes through the outlet valve in the face mask. On board “COSCO Vancouver” is SABRE Breathing Apparatus™. Air used to supply or charge this kind of breathing apparatus may be natural or synthetic. The composition of breathable air is given in Instruction Manual for SABRE Breathing Apparatus™, as the other details about this apparatus. ENGINE ROOM FIRES Because of the large quantities of fuel present in engine rooms there is a risk that if a fire breaks out it will very quickly spread over the whole area. Due to the height of the engine room, a thermal lift develops above the fire which promotes its growth unless the engine room ventilation is shut down and the fire flaps are closed. As a result of distant effects, engine room fires can also produce failures of operationally important systems away from the engine room. That can lead to persons being endangered even at some distance from the seat of the fire. Apart from the machinery control room, there are in general no permanent fire boundaries within the machinery area. Special regulations regarding structural fire protection apply to fuel-transporting systems. There is a fixed fire fighting installation. In part-time unmanned engine rooms there are fixed fire alarm systems. Every fire in the machinery area brings with it the risk of expansion into a large fire. It is therefore essential to order immediate closing-down of the area and interruption of the fuel supply, provided the navigational situation permits this. All valves of oil tanks and fire dampers in engine room may be shuted off from the control box for emergency shut of V/Vs of oil tanks & fire dampers in E/R. Also, there is Emergency Stop Switch Box from where is possible (and necessary in case of fire) to stop auxiliary machinery in engine room. To fight the fire, primarily the fixed fire fighting installations are used. GENERAL RULES FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING (Instead of Resume) If a fire is found on board it must be extinguished immediately with the available equipment, and the fire alarm must be given. When the alarm sounds the ship’s officers and crew should immediately follow the standing instructions laid down in the ship’s fire plan. Portable fire extinguishers are essentially first-aid units and contain only a limited quantity of fire extinguishing agent. Therefore, such extinguishers should not be used until the location of the fire is properly determined. Rescue of persons in danger must be started as quickly as possible. Quiet and controlled action – especially from the personnel in charge is necessary so as to avoid panic. The master or duty officer should check on the situation immediately and decide whether the fire should be extinguishing equipment. The master must decide if the life boats are to be launched, and if the ship is to be turned to reduce the risk if spreading the fire and to assist extinguishing. The air supply to the space on fire and all adjacent space must be shut off as quickly as possible by stopping all fans, closing vents and oil pipes, and by closing all 17 _____________________________________________________________________

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other openings. However, hatches and vents must not be closed. In case the fire involves the chlorates which contain their own oxygen, and which cannot, therefore, be extinguished by smothering. During extinguishing poisonous carbon dioxide may be released where combustion is incomplete, and which may give rise to explosion. Therefore, if air is suddenly let into a smoke-filled room, a smoke gas explosion may happen, which may cause spurts of flame and further outbreaks spreading of the fire. Care must always be taken before opening a smoke-filled room, and fire extinguishing equipment must be ready for immediate use. It is therefore essential to check during and after a fire if flammable gases have been evolved in any space. Naked flames must not be used at or near places where has been a fire, or where explosive gases might be preset, until it has been checked that the spaces are safe. Anyway, according Safety Management System, but also according natural human wish for living, it is necessary to take all measures to, at first, avoid a fire, and, in case of fire, to be ready for fire fighting! In the additional is a part of Emergency Operational Manual, regarding fire like emergency situation onboard. This project describes all Fire Fighting System onboard M/V “COSCO Vancouver”.

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