PARTS OF THE CELL

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cell Membrane – lipoprotein complex (3 layers: lipid, protein, lipid) Nucleus – brain of the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Responsible for protein synthesis Lysosome Golgi Apparatus – packaging cener Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell Food Vacuole – responsible for endo-exocytosis Cytoplasm – cellular fluid containing water, potassium and albumin Chromosome – contains the human genome, “genes”

ENERGY PRODUCTION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Attachment – receptor + insulin + glucose Endocytosis – cell engulfs attachment Reprocessing – endoplasmic reticulum processes attachment Exocytosis – insulin is excreted to attract more glucose Repackaging- to be taken care of Golgi Apparatus Kreb’s Cycle – cell metabolism Oxygen ATP ENERGY Glucose

CAUSES OF CELL INJURY
1. Thermal

Cell Adaptation (Recurrent Injury) a) Atrophy – decrease in both size and stimulation b) Hypertrophy – increase in size and stimulation • Physiologic – weight lifting • Pathologic – e. lungs Throat. Radiation (UV rays) Chemical (Preservatives) Physical (Trauma) Biological (Microbes) RESPONSE TO INJURY 1.g. tongue. Inflammation 3.g.2. liver. Cardiomegaly c) Hyperplasia – increase in cells. Cell Death a) Necrosis  Violent death  WBC induced  Positive inflammation and pain b) Apoptosis  Cell Suicide – performed by P53 protein of cells (self-destruct button of the cell)  Peaceful Death  Negative inflammation and pain 2. increase in organ size • Physiologic – menstruation • Compensatory – e. esophagus. colon Lungs Skin Liver Stomach Respi and Skin NON-MODIFIABLE • Sex o Female – Breast o Male – Prostate • Age o Very Young/Old – increased risk due to decreased immunity • Race o Caucasian – Skin o Japanese – Stomach .g. 5. 3. Hepatomegaly • Pathologic – e. 4. Endometriosis d) Metaplasia – conversion of cell type • Physiologic – Monocyte – Alveolar Macrophage • Pathologic – Pneumocyte – Epithelial cell due to smoking e) Dysplasia – abnormal cell conversion f) Anaplasia – loss of cell identitiy g) Neoplasia – new identitiy >>CARCINOGENESIS – Dysplagia turned Neoplasia = CANCER RISK FACTORS MODIFIABLE • Lifestyle Cancer Substances Smoking (Nicotine) Alcohol (Sorbitol) Asbestos UV Rays Aflatoxin/Fungus/F ood Coloring Na Nitrates Phenols (Lysol) Part Affected Lips.

Immunity a. T cells b. Eppstein Barr – lymphoma 2. AIDS 3.Fats/ • • • Charr Stomach Stress : decreases immunity Occupation : exposure Habits : Smoking/Alcoholism CAUSES 1. Microbial a. Oncogene P53 Suppression Carcinogen Activation Mutation Deleted CANCER ACTIVATION PATHOPHYSIOLOGY EXPOSURE CANCER GROWTH . HPV – cervix b.

INITIATION CELL INJURY MUTATION P53 LOSS METAPLASIA DYSPLASIA ANAPLASIA T cell Response NEOPLASIA CANCER PROMOTION PAIN NUTRIENT ABSORPTION CELL STARVATION 1 CM ANGIOGENES INDEPENDENT BLOOD SUPPLY FASTER GROWTH **TUMOR EXPANSION COMPRESSION OF SURROUNDING CELL HYPOXIA LACTIC ACID ANOXIA KININS INFLAMMATION RECURRENT FEVER FASTER FAT WASHING LIPOLYSIS SEVERE WASHING FAT LOSS • Weight loss • Weakness • Anorexia CONTINUOUS WASTING CACHEXIA CANCER TYPES ** BRAIN SEVERE (AM) HEADACHE INCREASED ICP ** LUNGS NAGGING COUGH **CERVIX HYPERPLASIA .

LOC HEMOPTYSIS SEIZURE LETHARGY COMA ** BREAST LUMPS TAIL OF SPENCE ORANGE PEEL DIMPLING **STOMACH INDIGESTION **LYMPHATIC ADENOPATHY ULCERATION **COLON CONSTIPATION HEMOSNEZIA HEMATURIA **PROSTATE URINARY HESITANCY (DYSURIA) **BONE FRAGILE BONES BONE DEFORMITY **SKIN ABNORMAL WART or MOLE ULCERATION **BONE MARROW UNEXPLAINED ANEMIA PARACYTOPENIA HEAVY FOUL DISCHARGE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS C – hange in bowel/bladder habits A – sore that doesn’t heal U – nexplained anemia / weight loss T – hickening of lumps I .ndigestion O – bvious changes in wart / mole N – agging cough DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS Most Reliable – Biopsy • Cellular study o Characteristics and Morphology Benign Malignant .

got into the blood stream ergo metastasis For both: bizarre cell shape. 4. nucleus lost contact inhalation • Not harmful • Still in its full form TM CLASSIFICATION (Staging) TO TX TIS T1234 LEGEND: T. Terratogenic Isolation Limit visitors (within 5 minutes of stay or to be avoided if possible) Maintain 6-10 feet distance For Radiation therapy – patient needs to wear lead apron to maximize radiation absorption CHEMOTHERAPY • • DNA INHIBITORS o Alkylating Agent o Antineoplastic PROTEIN INHIBITORS o Antimetabolites . 5. Sealed – used for regional therapy by pins or ribbons 2. RADIATION THERAPY – ionizing (penetrate) beam and energy External : cobalt Internal: 1. 2.tumor N-nodal M-metastasis 1234-increasing NO NX N1234 MO MX M1234 O – no presence X-can’t be assessed IS-insitu (seeds) TREATMENT 1.• Dangerous •Aggressive •Metastatic •Not encapsulated •Part of benign has detached. 3. SURGERY – most common 2. Unsealed – used for systemic therapy via IV ISOTOPES MANAGEMENT 1.

Leukopenia • Strict asepsis . Hematuria HEMATURIA • • Stimulates antigen – antibody response Vaccine (BCG) – T cells kills antigen and tumor itself NURSING MANAGEMENT FOR CANCER 1. check vital signs Safety Epogen ( Synthetic Erythropoietin) 2. Autologous – self 4.• MITOTIC INHIBITORS o Plant vinca Alkaloids NURSING MANAGEMENT • Prior to Chemo o Vein patency o (+) backflow • After/During Chemo o Maintain vein patency • Out of Vein o Stop infusion o Inform physician o Remove line as ordered BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT • Commonly used for patients with LEUKEMIA after checking compatibility Types of Donor: 1. assistance with ADLs. Decreased Platelet • Thrombocytopenia • Increased risk for bleeding • Avoid trauma and injections • Oprelvekin – stimulates platelet production 3. Hemolytic anemia b. Allogeneic – relatives 2. • • • Anemia Rest. Check for bone marrow rejection a. Fever with Chills c. Syngeneic – identical twin 3. Match Unrelated Donor (MUD) – genetically unrelated yet compatible people What to do After: 1.

first is to kill cancer cells and second is to kill normal cells*** 1. fruits and flowers • Filgrastim – increase Neutrophil production 4. red meat . Dry Skin • Mild soap • Avoid lotion • Increase oral fluids ***Therapeutic Communication must be done to decrease depression and grieving. Stomatitis • Bland diet • No alcoholic gargle • Alkaline gargle (Oracare) • Baking soda mouthwash (1 ½ tsp baking soda in 1 glass water) • Kiddie toothpaste and toothbrush *** do take note that cancer therapy has a double effect. Nausea and Vomiting • Aspiration precaution • Cold food • Small. Hair loss (Alopecia) • Use mild soap • Large toothed comb • Satin pillow case (reduces friction) • Use a wig or cap to promote self-esteem • Remember that hair will regrow after treatmemnt 2.• Reverse isolation • Handwashing • Avoid fresh vegetable. low cholesterol • Increase fruits and vegetable • Dec. white meat • Smoking cessation • Alcohol in moderation • • • SECONDARY BSE / TSE **for both sexes ages 45 and above** FOBT (Fecal Occult Blood Test) annually Sigmoidoscopy (lower colon) . Inc. low fat.. Refer to hospital chaplain for spiritual support*** PREVENTION PRIMARY LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS: • Low salt. frequent meals • Ice chips – swallowing reverses vomiting reflex • Plasil 5.

• • • • • • Stress management Humor therapy SLEEP! Complete immunization requirements Regular exercise Regular annual check up • q5years Colonoscopy (Whole Colon) q10years .

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