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Application Ratings Definition of the alternator 3.1 Basic technical data 3.2 Enclosure 3.3 Type of cooling 3.4 Design Mechanical design 4.1 Design 4.2 Housing and stator 4.3 Rotor 4.4 End shields 4.5 Bearings 4.6 Terminal box Power reducing influences 5.1 Standard conditions 5.2 Relation between power and coolant temperature 5.3 Relation between power and installation altitude 5.4 Relation between power and power factor cos phi 5.5 Marine classification 5.6 Higher types of enclosure 5.6.1 Enclosure IP 43 5.6.2 Enclosure IPR 44 or IPR 54 5.6.3 Enclosure IP 44 or IP 54 Electrical performance 6.1 Operating principle 6.1.1 Alternator 6.1.2 Voltage regulator 6.2 Self-excitation, de-excitation 6.2.1 Self-excitation 6.2.2 De-excitation 6.3 Voltage and frequency 6.3.1 Voltage setting range 6.3.2 Static voltage response 6.3.3 Transient voltage response 6.3.4 Voltage waveform 6.4 Currents 6.4.1 Unbalanced loads 6.4.2 Overload 6.4.3 Short-circuit behaviour 6.5 Non-linear load 6.6 Emergency operation 6.6.1 Emergency manual control 6.6.2 Stand-by regulator Parallel operation 7.1 General 7.2 Parallel switching conditions 7.3 Start-up synchronisation at isolated parallel operation 7.4 Steady-state operation/load distribution 7.4.1 Voltage droop 7.4.2 Power factor regulation 7.5 Mains parallel operation 7.6 Oscillations 7.7 Neutral current Planning guidelines 8.1 Nominal capacity 8.2 Dynamic voltage variation 8.3 Non-linear load Factory testing 9.1 Standard tests 9.2 Special tests
Our product range extends from individual protection devices to complete electrical fit-outs for power plants. we are able to offer you custom-built engineering solutions as well as an extensive range of products. Our efficient customer service and advice centres throughout the world work energetically to meet your needs. an alternator or a turnkey system. We offer the quality and flexibility of a medium-sized. AvK|SEG is your competent and reliable partner. Together we set standards and so influence electricity generation technology on an international scale. independent group of companies with a good mixture of experience and innovation. AvK Germany. while SEG Kempen specialises in plant engineering and devices for protection and other functions. We offer every performance level.AvK SEG competence in electricity generation and protective relaying When it comes to electricity generation and protective relaying. Operating globally. The certification to DIN EN ISO 9001 that AvK and SEG factories have underpins our high quality aspirations. 3 . with its factory in Ingolstadt and the site in Dreieich near Frankfurt. regardless whether you require an individual device. but we also consider your satisfaction as equally important. supplies synchronous machines and converters. as we rely not only on continuity and quality in our technology solutions.
g. The DSG series was developed with particular regard to optimal operating efficiency. 8.: tionistra -Reg AQ98 ificate Cert ESN06940 19 Essen. special emphasis was laid on minimal reaction as a result of current harmonics on the voltage waveform. Emergency power supply CE DET NORSK FI RTI E CAT UMW HT UTAC ELTG E GM B H ER VERIT G the Co. e. reversing machines z diesel-electric drive for ships z special power supplies for users who place high demands on supply-line quality z frequency conversion. gas. man s gene eque Desig nchronou ors and fr ot sy until: valid ron m ate is ynch fic as 1-31 Certi This -0 2001 No. e. industrial plants. K bH & d Gm chlan Deuts AvK in t lstad Ingo 5051 D–8 hed a AS ZERTI FIZI G ERUN UND s that certifie ny compa tablis has es m ty syste quali mity with nfor in co DIN O EN IS . hospitals. electrical characteristics and control engineering properties. 40AQ N069 On-board supply D 01/98 Stand 4 . water and steam turbines as well as ship shaft generators. This applies to the mechanical design. Fr er Manag 4 / &7492 is ficate Certi This on ES ficate Certi 2-00 ginal 04/9 the ori ZQ-0 TGAn with ectio conn lid in ly va cher gs Deuts itierun Akkred Rat e rdhaus K. No uditor -A Lead 98. in power plants. 09 98-01- for: is valid ing of ficate Certi ission .g. damper cage layout and winding design. 50:60 Hz or 60:50 Hz Suitable for use in all kinds of drives: diesel engines. gas engines. and to very favourable dynamic response in the event of load surges. Furthermore. Application Application examples The AvK alternators of series type DSG are the result of an advanced development process in which efficient manufacturing methods as well as many years experience in the applications of such synchronous alternators were utilised. high-rise buildings z on-board power supply for ships z ship shaft generators. 9001 94 30M ters and er ring up to ufactu rators ncy conv n. h öhlic M.Self-regulating brushless synchronous alternators of the series type DSG 1. This VA comm -01-09 1998 Essen. for the magnetic circuit design. The following lists just some of the areas where AvK synchronous alternators from the DSG series 29-144 are used in the energy sector: z permanent power supply of stationary and maritime systems z peak load operation in parallel with the mains z emergency power supply for critical users.
5 MVA with 660 V or 690 V are possible on request.800 rpm Furthermore. rated criteria according to Section 3. 400/231 V.200. 600 and 500 rpm z at 60 Hz – 1.000. 900. 60 Hz. 1.000 kVA. 50 Hz. 750. 1. In addition. the following rotational speeds are available. depending on power and size: z at 50 Hz – 1. Ratings Standard use ranges as per VDE 0530.500 rpm or z 33 – 4. Combined heat and power station Offshore equipment 5 .2.500 kVA. 450/260 V. 720 and 600 rpm Higher ratings up to approx.1 z 30 – 4. DSG alternators are available for all standard voltages to VDE 0530 in the performance range given and also as special versions for specific voltages. degree of protection IP 23. 6.
Special frequencies on request ≤ 40°C (VDE) ≤ 1.2 see 3. 3. see Section 5. Coolant temperature: Installation altitude: Degree of protection: Type of cooling: Design: 3.3. The alternators can be produced to all international standards such as BS 4999. NEMA. the type of cooling will be adapted accordingly. IP 44 and IP54 can be provided as required.3 Type of cooling IEC 34-6.000 m above sea level (VDE) see 3.4 To ensure the alternators meet the desired requirements. Depending on size. IPR 54.8 230…1000 V 50 Hz or 60 Hz.1 Basic technical data Rated power: Rated power factor: Rated voltage: Rated frequency: According to rated output values cos phi = 0. see Section 5. VDE 0530.. IEC 34 3.2 Enclosure IEC 34-5 DIN VDE 0530-5 IP 23 provided as standard. IPR 44.3 see 3.5. etc. In the event of special protection requirements. IP 43. 6 . conditions and specifications. deviations from this data and VDE 0530 are possible on request. DIN VDE 0530-6 Provided as standard: IC01/IC0A1. NEN 3173.6. higher types of enclosure e.g. CIE 2/3. Definition of the alternator Designed in accordance with DIN-EN 60034.
3. we will perform special feet dimensions in order to meet the requirements of the gen-set base frame. B3 IMB 3 IM 1001 B 5/B 20 IMB 25 IM 2001/IM 1101 B 3/B 5 IMB 35 IM 2001 B 16 IMB 16 IM 1305 B 20 IMB 20 IM 1101 B2 IMB 2 IM 1205 B 14/B 20 IMB 24 IM 2101 V1 IMV 1 IM 3011 Design Code I DIN IEC 34 – 7 B3 IMB 3 IM 1001 B3/B14 IMB 34 IM 2101 B3/B5 IMB 35 IM 2001 B20 IMB 20 IM 1101 B14/B20 B5/B20 IMB 24 IM 2101 IMB 25 IM 2001/1101 B2 IMB 2 IM 1205 B16 IMB 16 IM 1305 B2/B5 _ _ B5/B16 _ _ V1 IMV1 IM 3011 Special design Code II DIN IEC 34 – 7 DSG 29 – 52 DSG 62 – 74 DSG 86 – 114 DSG 125 – 144 z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z 7 . IMB 20 and IMB 16. IMB 24 and B2/B5 or B5/B16. Sizes DSG 86 to DSG 144 are available as standard in designs IMB 3.4 Design IEC 34-7 DIN VDE 0530-7 Sizes DSG 29 to DSG 74 are produced as standard in the designs IMB 34. Other designs are possible. On request.
non-drive end Antifriction bearing. drive end Inner bearing cap End shield. non-drive end Antifriction bearing. drive end 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fan Stator housing Main alternator stator Main alternator rotor Exciter stator Exciter rotor 13 14 15 16 17 End shield.DSG 29 – 43 1 4 5 6 7 8 Shaft Antifriction bearing. non-drive end Cover Rectifier support Terminal box Low voltage terminals 18 8 . drive end Inner bearing cap End shield. drive end Fan Stator housing 9 10 11 12 13 14 Main alternator stator Main alternator rotor Exciter stator Exciter rotor End shield. Mechanical design DSG 52 – 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shaft Outer bearing cap Grease regulation disc Antifriction bearing. non-drive end 15 16 17 18 Cover Rectifier support Terminal box Terminal studs 4.
non-drive end Rectifier cover Rectifier support Terminal box Low voltage terminals Shaft Labyrinth seal Sleeve bearing. drive end 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fan Stator housing Main alternator stator Main alternator rotor Exciter stator Exciter rotor 13 14 15 16 17 18 End shield.DSG 114 – 144 with antifriction bearings 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shaft Outer bearing cap Grease regulation disc Antifriction bearing. non-drive end Rectifier cover Rectifier support Terminal box Low voltage terminals DSG 114 – 144 with sleeve bearings 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exciter rotor End shield. drive end Fan Stator housing Main alternator stator Main alternator rotor Exciter stator 14 15 16 17 18 19 9 . drive end Sleeve bearing shell Oil ring Machine sealing 7 8 9 10 11 12 End shield. drive end Inner bearing cap End shield. non-drive end Antifriction bearing. non-drive end Sleeve bearing.
while in the case of the larger machines in the DSG 114 – 144 series. with slot and key as per DIN 6885 Sheet 1. The unidirectional fan is located at the drive end of the rotor. The rotor windings comply with temperature class “H” of DIN EN 60034-1 VDE 0530-1. They are amply dimensioned in terms of voltage and current loads and also provided with a suppressor circuit. held by clamping rings or clamping plates. the required design modifications will be made. stable unit consisting of stator laminated core and housing cover. Other shaft designs or a second shaft end can be manufactured on request. The winding of the main rotor is made of flat copper and is amply protected by suitably sized components against deformation caused by centrifugal force. 10 . and blown out on the drive end by means of the shaft-mounted fan.1 Design The alternators consist of the main alternator as revolvingfield machine. they are integrated into the end shields. and in the case of the bigger machines.g. For higher runaway speeds. The stator as a whole forms a compact. The exciter rotor consists of dynamo sheet metal. flanged shafts or steel discs will be adapted to the respective drive motor. The voltage regulator is provided built-in as standard in the main terminal box (DSG 29 – 52). Fastening components and mechanically stable connections secure winding overhangs and connectors against the dynamic stress generated by electrodynamic force. with the three-phase winding inserted into its slots.3 Rotor The main rotor designed as salient pole execution consists of hydraulically compacted sheet metal or steel plates. e. the cooling air is drawn in on the nondrive end. and the electronic voltage regulator. or may be provided separately upon request for enclosed mounting into a switchboard. design IM 1205 (B2) or IM 1305 (B16) or at machines with flexible steel discs. At alternators with shaft flange. Circuit engineering precautions for protection of the system have to be arranged where required. e. the exciter machine as revolving armature machine. as a round welded construction. Overspeed: In accordance with VDE 0530. The shaft ends are cylindrical in types IMB 3 or IMB 20. The stator winding corresponds to temperature classification “H” as per DIN EN 60034-1 or VDE 0530-1. Cooling: At all machines. in the nondrive end shield (DSG 62 – 99) or in a separate terminal box (DSG 114 – 144). 4. The components are constructed as a compact unit.g. the alternators are designed to withstand a overspeed of 1.4. The feet of the DSG 29 – 99 models are welded to the housing. The rotating diodes in 6 pulse bridge connection are connected on the input side to the 3-phase winding of the exciter and on the output side to the field winding of the main machine.8 x nN [rated speed]).2 times the rated speed for 2 minutes. The rotor is balanced with half key in accordance with VDE 0530/IEC 34-14 as standard. The housing is constructed as an octagonal steel structure for the smaller units DSG 29 – 52. The standard built-in damper cage is connected electrically in the pole shoes and between the poles. in the case of water turbines (1.2 Housing and stator The stator laminated core consists of layers of low loss dynamo sheet metal. 4.
bearings allowing relubrication are available. it may be on top (size DSG 29 to DSG 74). a copper busbar constitutes the fourth terminal (N). 4. Appropriate precautions protect all bearings during transport. DSG alternators of singlebearing design have a floating bearing on the nondrive end. on the top of the generator housing (DSG 86 to DSG 99). for safety reasons. The generally large intake areas cause a slight pressure loss and therefore a low cooling air flow velocity. while for the larger product series. depending on alternator size. the alternator feet are integrated into the end shields. together with an enlarged terminal box. on the side if the customer prefers. From size DSG 62. The drive end shield is produced from grey cast iron up to and including size DSG 62. The heating terminals which carry current when the unit is at rest are insulated for the protection of operating personnel.000 hours operating life are built in. Depending on the operating conditions. guarantee an especially solid base. The position of the fixed bearings and floating bearings depends on the size and the design factors.5 Bearings Up to and including size 43. From size DSG 52 up. pre-lubricated antifriction bearings with at least 25. this results in long maintenance intervals. in the end shield at the non-drive end. Sizes DSG 74 to DSG 144 can be equipped upon request and at additional cost with sleeve bearings flanged to the end shields. Depending on size. an open neutral point can be incorporated if required. Main terminal box DSG 114 11 . or in a separate terminal box on the stator housing. secondary outputs of current transformers.000 hours (from size DSG 74) are installed as standard. and from DSG 74 is of a welded construction (standard in type B14). relubrication antifriction bearings with a calculated life span for steady-state basic operation of at least 40. the neutral point is connected as standard to the winding overhang and is led to a common neutral terminal or neutral busbar. Voltage regulators. we provide sleeve bearing alternators without oil filling for transport. In addition. heating and suchlike can be connected here. In terms of filter use. forced oil lubrication or water-cooling can be required here. DSG alternators of twinbearing design are equipped with a fixed bearing and a floating bearing.6 Terminal box The main terminal box is performed according to enclosure IP 54. Flange bells with motor fixing dimensions to SAE standards can be attached to it. For the series DSG 29 to DSG 36 all 6 winding ends are led to separate terminals. for example for mounting of current trans- formers for differential protection and measurements.4 End shields Sizes DSG 29 to DSG 144 are equipped with welded or cast-iron end shields. In the case of built-in current transformers from AvK/KWK.000 hours (up to size DSG 62) or 30. Auxiliary terminal box DSG 114 temperature sensors. Up to size DSG 74. while the larger series machines contain prestressed bearings depending on the application and requirements. The auxiliary and low voltage terminals are either on separate terminal strips in the main terminal box. measuring lines for the exciter current.4. the antifriction bearings are generally prestressed. 4. DSG 114 – 144: The alternators are fixed to the baseframe or foundation at the end shields. Both end shields are screwed to the stator housing and together form the complete alternator housing. DSG 29 – 99: Alternator feet attached in close proximity to the bearings and designed accordingly. As an option. or on the side or above at the non-drive end shield with the desired cable outlet.
3 As both air density and therefore heat absorptivity decrease at higher altitudes.3 Relation between power and installation altitude: Characteristic curve 5. Relation between power and coolant temperature Characteristic curve 5. are generally valid for the given rated power (SN).1 Standard conditions The unit ratings given are valid under VDE conditions. alternators of standard enclosure IP 23 and cooling type IC01.2 Relation between power and installation altitude Characteristic curve 5. while a temperature increase (coolant temperature > 40°C) leads to a decrease in performance. The characteristic values of the particular alternator selected. either the performance must be decreased or a larger generator must be chosen. 5. Installation altitude H ≤ 1000 m above sea level.2 The temperature limit of the winding is critical. for example reactances. A decrease in the coolant temperature (coolant temperature < 40°C) leads to an increase in performance.5.2 Relation between power and coolant temperature: Characteristic curve 5. 5.3 ∂ [°C] 12 . that is: Coolant temperature ≤ 40°C. Power reducing influences 5.
93 0.91 0.84 0.87 0. design and use according to temperature class “H” or “F”.90 0.8 – 0 by the permissible rotor temperature rise.4 The overexcited range is limited by: z single operation by maintaining the rated voltage using the voltage regulator operation in parallel with the mains by stability against loss of synchronism cos phi = 1 – 0.5.90 0.86 90 0.78 0. please send us a detailed inquiry.93 110 0.75 0.89 90 0.93 0.96 1201) 105 0. z underexcited overexcited Limitation by alternator Limitation by prime mover z 5.84 0.84 0.90 0.83 0.5 Marine classifications As the coolant temperatures (CT) are higher and the permissible rises in temperature are lower than the specifications for land-based applications.90 0.93 110 0.4 The underexcited range of cos phi = 0 – 1 is limited during: z Relation between power and power factor cos phi Characteristic curve 5.90 115 0.84 0.86 0.86 90 0.87 0.90 115 0.96 0.86 90 0. For higher types of enclosure than IP 23 and other requirements.90 0. or a larger generator type chosen.90 110 0.8 by the performance of the drive motor cos phi = 0.86 90 0. the performance rating should be lowered.4 Relation between power and power factor cos phi: Characteristic curve 5.89 100 “H“ VDE GL RINA LR NKK DNV BV ABS MRS “F“ VDE GL RINA LR NKK DNV BV ABS MRS 1 ) temperature rise reduced in order not to exceed VDE 13 .93 0.96 0. The table opposite shows permissible rises in temperature.86 95 0. Temperature class Classification Cooling air temperature CT °C 40 45 50 45 45 45 50 50 45 40 45 50 45 45 45 50 50 45 Temperature Derating rise factor SN/STYP δϑ for series DSG K 29…74 86…99 114…144 125 1 1 1 120 0.75 0.84 0.96 115 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.93 100 0.83 0.90 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.84 0.89 1) 0.
6. The position of the intake and outlet openings in the generator allows for the connection of supply and outlet air channels.6. Careful evaluation and appropriate case by case type determination is recommended.6 Higher types of enclosure The design and electrical parameters are determined during the project stage. 14 . Air-cooled heat exchangers: In this case.2 Enclosure IPR 44 or IPR 54 From size DSG 62. It is usually designed so that the cooling air going into the alternator is around 15 K higher than the air entering the cooler. The degree of enclosure and the rated power are indicated on the rating plate.2. The magnitude of the permissible pressure drops in the piping is to be agreed with the manufacturer.5. As an extra advantage. the necessary ventilation dissipates the heat through ducts from the installation area and also reduces the noise level. The power reduction is given in characteristic curve 5.6.1 Enclosure IP 43 Enclosure type IP 43 is possible for all sizes and requires the addition of air inlet filters. The change in performance is given in characteristic curve 5. For the alternator.3 Enclosure IP 44 or IP 54 These types of enclosure are also possible for size DSG 62 and above and require the use of heat exchangers. There is no additional power reduction caused by increased air resistance in the cooling circuit. whose higher air resistance reduces the performance by about 5% – 10% (depending on the size. 5. rotational speed and air velocity). the cooling air temperature emerging from the cooler and entering the alternator is higher than the outside temperature by the temperature gradient in the heat exchanger. a reduction in performance may be necessary because of the resulting increase in air resistance.2. air intake and outlet ducts may be provided. the cooling air temperature emerging from the cooler and into the alternator is the deciding factor. Temperature sensors in the generator which are to be connected to a control unit in the control panel warn against an unacceptable temperature rise in the winding when cleaning of the air filters is required. If the customer requires a more space-saving cooling system design. 5. 5. in addition to the higher degree of enclosure. z z Water-cooled heat exchangers: In general the heat exchangers are usually designed so that the temperature of the cooling air entering the alternator is 15 K above the water intake temperature.
c. High-quality multi-layer surface insulation materials are used to insulate the windings. From size DSG 52 up. are insulated like the windings of the main machine.1 Operating principle 6.1. is laid directly onto the insulated rotor laminated core.6. This heat-resistant insulating system is suitable for the mechanical. electrical and climatic requirements of land and ship use. The strength of the impregnated coils is further increased by mechanical packing. the well-proportioned terminal box allows for the addition of supplementary controllers or modules.1 Alternator In the smaller models. The G1 rotor winding. The G3 winding is also located in the main stator. while those of the larger models are made from flat wire as preformed windings. and its field winding. This gives an optimal copper filling factor and good mechanical strength. made of section wire. The G3 auxiliary field winding supplies the field winding of the G2 brushless three-phase a. Electrical performance 6. the G1 stator windings are made from round wire. exciter with G1 G2 G3 Main alternator Exciter machine Auxiliary winding T6 R1 Voltage droop transformer Voltage adjuster 15 . The three-phase rotor winding of the G2 stationary-field machine.
the voltage of the main alternator is regulated by altering the excitation current in the G2 winding using the transistor actuator of the voltage regulator.2 “COSIMAT LC2” The “COSIMAT LC2” is a compact voltage regulator for the regulation of threephase synchronous alternators in stand-alone and parallel operation. the voltage regulators are always to be configured so that their power circuits have cooling air flowing freely through them. Even for external assembly.2. 6. The low-pass filter required with harmonics load may be incorporated into the terminal box for all products in the range. The capacity of the regulator is geared to the requirements of bigger machines. Essential features of the “COSIMAT LC2” regulator are: z z three-phase voltage measurement internal and external alternator voltage set point adjustment PID gain control amplifier with freely adjustable P and I control parameters parallel operation by reactive current-dependent voltage droop adjustable underspeed protection with LED display resistance against environmental effects due to encapsulated electronics z regulation to a mains interface point operating range extension automatic or manual stand-by changeover volts-per-Hertz regulation z z z z z three-phase voltage measurement z 16 . the “COSIMAT N+” regulator. the “COSIMAT LC2” regulator from size DSG 74 on. An auxiliary winding in the main stator supplies the regulator with power. Apart from having those properties already described for the “COSIMAT LC2” regulator.1. For varying load. The following regulators are used as standard: z for sizes DSG 29 to 43. Essential features of the “COSIMAT LC1” regulator are: z z z z 6. The power generated in the 3-phase winding of the exciter rotor is rectified in a three-phase bridge connection consisting of silicon diodes and supplied to the rotor of the G1 alternator.2 Voltage regulator An electronic voltage regulator is used for high voltage accuracy and excellent dynamic response. is a standardised component. it is also possible to add supplementary regulators and modules to the “COSIMAT N+” regulator. The control signals for the following functions are supplied via terminals on the “COSIMAT N+”: power factor regulation/ balancing z reactive power regulation/ balancing z z z z If required.1 “COSIMAT LC1” The “COSIMAT LC1” is a compact voltage regulator for the regulation of threephase synchronous alternators in single operation.1. 6. the “COSIMAT N+” regulator can also be used for sizes DSG 29 to 62.3 “COSIMAT N+” The “COSIMAT N+” voltage regulator. used from size DSG 74 up.2.1. subjected to endurance testing for electrical functioning and temperaturerise behaviour by the manufacturer before installation in the alternators. z internal and external alternator voltage set point adjustment PID gain control amplifier with freely adjustable P and I parameters underspeed protection (overproportional voltage drop at underfrequency) with LED display resistance against environmental effects due to encapsulated electronics long operating life due to high quality components compact design z z long operating life due to high quality components compact design z z 6.2. In order to sense unequal phase voltages with unbalanced loads.power via the actuator of the voltage regulator. the “COSIMAT LC1” regulator for sizes DSG 52 to 62. When installing the “COSIMAT N+” into machines of sizes DSG 29 to 43. the alternator voltage is measured at 3 phases for all regulator models. the regulators and components are generally built in to the switchgear. The voltage regulator keeps the terminal voltage at the main machine constant via the excitation current IK1 in the winding of the G2 exciter.1. while the terminal boxes of sizes DSG 52 to 62 offer sufficient space for a “COSIMAT N+” and a maximum of 2 supplementary modules.
1 Self-excitation Self-excitation without the use of external auxiliary means is achieved through permanent magnets in the frame of the exciter. The external excitation must not be switched on when the machine is at rest. This value.8.2. excitation can be provided by an external voltage of approx. the control range is ±5% of the rated voltage in no-load operation. with the given constraints.z z z stator current limiting excitation current limiting cable compensation 6. The voltage is continuously adjustable within the range ±10% of rated voltage. and not to the “COSIMAT N+”.11)… 1 cold and warm machines speed drop of approximately 3%.2 Self-excitation.05) x UN applies. 15% of UN. This can be done by disconnecting the connections UH1 and WH1 at the “COSIMAT LC2”. Caution: The excitation field electric circuit of G2 must not be interrupted! After the deexcitation. Alternators of size DSG 52 and up are provided as standard with a 500 Ω setpoint adjuster. The thermal rating for continuous operation is at cos phi = 0. the alternator produces a further residual voltage of approx. The optical shield covering must reach at least 80…85%. In addition. the shield must be connected to earth at either end or more often. and is located in the control panel in the case of bigger units (also an option for sizes DSG 29 to DSG 74) for expediency reasons. For sizes 74 – 144. As per VDE 0530. This voltage is applied to the terminals I1 – K1 of the exciter during the run-up to rated speed.75 mm2. This is built in to the terminal box in units up to size 74. as per VDE 0530 and IEC 34.1A. Encapsulated switches are to be used. The set point potentiometer is connected to the regulator terminals s/t.8…1. The connection lines of the set point potentiometer must be laid out separately as double-core shielded wires. The usual operational range is cos phi = 0. The minimum load of the contacts must be > 5 V DC/0.2. 6. the supply to the regulator is interrupted and the current in the exciter field falls to zero. the current in the G2 exciter winding must be brought to 0. The required rated load is 220 V AC/10 A. de-excitation 6. the de-excitation switch should be connected to the designated terminals (see wiring diagram legend). by use of a de-excitation relay. The resistance of the potentiometer cables can be ignored for normal distances between assembly and control panel. it can be extended to ±10% for operational testing of control panel components and for synchronisation. For the operating range between no-load and full load. or by opening the bridge UH1-UH1´ and WH1-WH1´ on the “COSIMAT N+” voltage regulator. For correct equipotential bonding. z z 1 ) This concerns the regulation properties.95…1. 10 V DC (positive pole on the I terminal).1 Voltage setting range The voltage adjustment provided as standard for alternators of sizes DSG 29 to DSG 43 is achieved by a rheostat located on the regulator.3. the voltage range (0.3 Voltage and frequency AvK alternators are built for 50 or 60 Hz operation at the voltages given in VDE 0530 and specifications from other countries. More detailed descriptions of these devices are given separately. particularly for voltages of over 400 V. However. In this way. 17 .2 Static voltage response The voltage tolerance for all DSG alternators is ±0. Please note carefully the instructions in the appropriate wiring diagram. other voltages or frequencies are available on request. 6.3. can be above the permitted touch voltage! 6. The minimum wire size must be 0.2 De-excitation For de-excitation. 6.5% to ±1% under the following conditions/disturbances: z no-load operation to rated load cos phi 0.
cosϕ = 0. the higher value to low-speed machines of 500 rpm.1 Oscillogram 2 / load shedding Telephone Harmonic Factor “THF” The requirements of VDE 0530 are easily achieved. 400 V. 6.Oscillogram 1 / load application 6. Alternator DSG 99 L1-6. With existing base load.8 18 . 1500 rpm Application of 1500 kVA cosϕ = 0. 50 Hz. The lower value applies to machines at 1500 rpm. The amply dimensioned excitation system achieves short recovery times because the excess excitation from the power supply equipment works up until the rated voltage is achieved. The magnetic circuit and the winding are optimally designed for slight transient voltage changes.3.8. 450 V.8 seconds. the transient voltage change is slightly lower than that for a alternator operating at no load.3. during full load application with cos phi 0.5…0.3 Transient voltage response see Oscillogram 1 Application see Oscillogram 2 Shedding The voltage change for sudden load variations depends on the leakage resistance voltage drop of alternator G1. and the control system used as well as the dynamic speed decrease as an external influence determine the temporal path of the voltage.4 Voltage waveform A sinusoidal voltage waveform is produced by the geometry of the magnetic circuit and the choice of the winding factor of the stator winding. External disturbances for transient voltage change are the relative current surge as well as the power factor. 2840 kVA. 1200 rpm Removal of 2600 kVA. The usual definitions are: z Alternator DSG 86 L1-4. For example. z total harmonic distortion The harmonic content between Ph-Ph is ≤ 3% during no-load operation up to rated power and power factor cos phi = 0. The time constants of the alternator G1. this results in a slight reduction in performance. However. depending on alternator size. a special winding arrangement reduces the total harmonic distortion to less than 3% and the single harmonics part to less than 2% even for the voltage waveform between line and neutral. The recovery time is 0. 3220 kVA. the transient voltage drop is approximately 18…25%.1…1 at symmetric and linear loads. 60 Hz. If required. the exciter G2.
The amply dimensioned excitation equipment permits a short-term overload of up to about 1.6 0.2 between the 3 phases.1 times the rated current can be maintained for 1h within 6h.0 1. the current in any phase winding may not exceed the rated current and the ratio of the negative sequence system I2 to the rated current IN must remain less than 20%.2 0.955 A with connected voltage regulator 19 . the load should be distributed on the system-side as symmetrically as possible In accordance with VDE 0530.37 higher. This short-term overload capacity is available for starting currents of induction motors.3 Short-circuit behaviour z The corresponding machine parameters determine the magnitude of the asymmetric short-circuit current. mately 10 seconds without the rated voltage dropping to an unacceptable level. AvK recommends limiting I2/IN to ≤ 0.75 0.33 0.2 0. 400 V. In this way. so that the actual alternator load may be determined.8 times the rated current for approxi- Oscillogram/asymmetric short-circuit current z z Path of the short circuit current for 3 phase short circuit of an alternator DSG 125 K1-12.2 0. If the other phases were also loaded with different currents. The range IK ≥ 3 x IN is required for example in general by various classification societies. and zero phase sequence system must be analytically or graphically calculated. the ratio of the negative sequence system I2 to the rated current IN is clearly above the VDE requirements. it decreases within 0. The voltage asymmetry will be about ±1% per each 10% unbalanced load.08 in line with the relevant specifications for the protection of the entire system. with no loading on the other phases.4.5 times the rated current for a duration of 30 seconds.6 0. This (high) voltage rise may also occur during certain disturbances in the voltage control system. Depending on machine size. The associated exciter rating leads to a short-term voltage rise almost to ceiling voltage when the short-circuit is cleared.4 Currents 6. the magnitudes of the positive phase sequence system.1 Unbalanced loads The electrical layout of the alternator also permits an unbalanced load.3…0. 2740 kVA. negative sequence system.2 0. For the alternator.6 0. z current is a factor of 1.2 Overload z I2 = inverse current Consequently.33 0.6 0. The following unbalanced loads. an overload of 1. the sustained short-circuit z z 6.5 to 4 times the rated current as sustained short circuit current for 3 seconds at a 3 phase terminal short circuit. Necessary measures for the protection of consumers are provided for in the control panel.6 this corresponds to I2/IN 0. protective devices can be co-ordinated to isolate the faulted system safely and selectively.4. Therefore.6 0.3 0. are allowed: Size I/IN 29 36 43 52 62 74 86 99 114 125 144 1.2 0.6. the generators are dimensioned for 1.9 0. for example.0 0.2 0. and for a phaseto-earth fault a factor of 1. Unbalanced loads cause voltage unbalance and additional losses that are particularly noticeable when there are temperature rises in the damper cage. To adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines.6 seconds to the sustained short-circuit current.6 0. 6.85 higher.4. When a 2 phase short circuit occurs. The standard components are dimensioned so that the alternator can supply 2.325 0. nominal current Inominal = 3.
Therefore. 7.5 Non linear load Converters as consumers with non-linear currents cause harmonics in the voltage waveform. This also requires a specific magnetic circuit design.6. In order to keep the losses occurring in the alternator and the system low and to guarantee the correct functioning of the connected electrical devices.7. it is possible.2 Parallel switching conditions Alternators to be connected in parallel to each other or to the mains must fulfil the synchronisation conditions.e. manual or automatic changeover unit – must be built in to the switchgear. emergency manual control is only possible where there is almost constant load of a separate network or in the case of operation in parallel with the mains. That presupposes a small sub-transient reactance xd”.6 Emergency operation Where stricter safety requirements exist. and the permissible harmonic voltage distortion. To avoid consequential damage caused by operator error and because of the difficulty of manual operation. in the event of failure of the electronic voltage regulator. One of the ways this can be achieved is by designing the damper cage in a particular way. see also Section 6. It is advisable to consult the manufacturer in order to optimise the entire system. In addition. because the alternator can operate as before after switchover to this regulator. the alternator must be changed back to automatic voltage regulation as soon as possible. Parallel operation 6. i. be identical with regard to the following criteria: voltage frequency z phase sequence z phase position z z Permissible tolerances before connection are: z voltage difference: 5% of UN frequency difference: 2% of fN z 20 . to continue to operate the alternator using an emergency manual control or to change over to a stand-by regulator either manually or automatically. The entire regulator unit – main regulator. the harmonic oscillation content of the voltage waveform should be as small as possible. The measures to be considered for the alternator depend on the relative non linear load. 7. the operational reliability of the system increases since the other units can take over in the case of failure of one of the units after corresponding pre-setting. the current harmonics brought about by the user.6. stand-by regulator. 6. The parallel operation of the required number of units enables an optimal capacity utilisation and favourable operating efficiency. overdimensioning of the alternator may be necessary. 6.3. The smaller sizes DSG 29 to DSG 43 can be upgraded accordingly. 6.2 Stand-by regulator The disadvantages of emergency manual control do not apply when a standby regulator is installed. especially in the case of inrush currents. With very high load part due to inverters. This inevitably leads to an increase of the asymmetric short-circuit current.1 Emergency manual control The electrical power from the supply equipment is fed to the exciter winding I1 – K1 of the exciter G2 via an adjustable transformer with series-connected rectifier. Manual control of the correct exciter rating proves extremely difficult.1 General Alternators from size DSG 52 and up are equipped as standard for parallel operation.4.
for parallel operation.8 3. the active power load and reactive load distribution must be balanced.g. The alternators are connected electrically to each other while at rest. For adaptation with other manufacturer’s products.1 Voltage droop After a synchronous alternator is connected in parallel. the alternators are excited and attempt to pull themselves into synchronisation. in parallel with the regulator connections. the droop can be stepless adjusted between 0%…6% of the nominal voltage. With this current signal.4 Steady-state operation/ load distribution z load distribution requires the same droop. z The following methods of reactive load distribution can be used: 7. The voltage produced by the regulator at terminals I1– K1 then exceeds the battery voltage. 7. and requires simultaneous start-up of the diesel generator sets. Through the firing speed recognition. a reactive-current dependent set point control is achieved in the voltage regulator. as a retro-fit for smaller generators) and is used during operation in parallel 21 . After parallel connection. In accordance with Section 6. To avoid incorrect synchronisation (e. The excitation current during input of the initial excitation (12VDC) has to be limited so that the circulating currents flowing in the UVW main lines until synchronisation occurs do not exceed the rated current. Through the use of the droop. Smaller machines can be upgraded accordingly.2 “De-excitation”. As rotational speed increases. Minor variations in the mains voltage would result in considerable alternator reactive currents.2 Power factor regulation This process basically requires the use of the “COSIMAT N+” base regulator (as standard from size DSG 74 up. Mains voltage fluctuations of up to ±2% can be equalised. the terminal voltage is lowered depending on the reactive current. A supplementary current limiting regulator SR can be used for automatic limiting of the stator current. 7.8% for cos phi = 0.3 Start-up synchronisation at isolated parallel operation This function can only be used with similar types of machines. For active power load distribution.4. For reactive load distribution. a lower value is permissible. the droop is: 0. regulator supply is interrupted during acceleration and released again when the rated speed is reached. The power proportional reactive 7. it is no longer possible to carry out voltage regulation because of the fixed mains voltage. a droop transformer must be inserted in phase “V” of the alternator.3% for cos phi = 0.9 1.1. The resistance and the rated power of the series resistance depend on the battery voltage level and the no-load excitation of the alternator. Automatic synchronisation is generally recommended to avoid causing possible damage. Alternators from size DSG 52 up are fitted as standard with a current transformer for voltage droop. the voltage response of the alternators is responsible.0% for cos phi = 1 1. Therefore.0% for cos phi = 0 Experience shows that stable parallel operation can be achieved when the droop in the plant is adjusted to 3% for nominal current and cos phi 0. A blocking diode in the battery feed line prevents backflow into the battery. The exciter boosting current is usually drawn from a series resistance and isolating diodes of a battery and fed to the exciter field connections I1/K1. For operating mode with additional flywheel. The power factor dependence of the droop ensures that for parallel operation with the mains and during changes in the mains voltage. the rotational speed behaviour of the driving machine is responsible. the apparent power changes in permissible limits. which can then be disconnected. by unqualified operational personnel).4.The frequency tolerance applies to normal diesel generator sets. a synchronisation control device should be fitted which shall only release the circuit breaker in the control panel if the synchronisation conditions described are met. At the rated current. an inactive alternator may be disconnected.
For a variation in mains voltage ΔU ≥ ±2%.7 Neutral current For different voltage waveforms of the alternators running in parallel as well as the voltage waveforms of the grid. Voltage rises cause higher iron temperatures in the main machine. the droop in accordance with Section 7.1 applies. The magnitude of these currents depends on the potential difference of the ripple voltage and the reactance of the alternator. 22 . If a specific power factor is required at the mains interface point.e. there are mainly 3rd order currents superimposed on the fundamental wave in all 3 winding phases. Since exceeding the temperature permissible for the respective heat class always reduces the winding durability. Section 12. a damper cage is built into all the DSG alternators as standard.4.6 Oscillations These periodic active and reactive power fluctuations are caused by irregular torque characteristics in the reciprocating internal combustion engines. the alternator voltage will follow the system voltage automatically.with the mains where the supply voltage fluctuates greatly. Voltage drops mean increased current and therefore increased heating of the windings. For a variation in mains voltage ΔU ≤ ±2%. the alternator voltage automatically follows the mains voltage and holds the set power factor constant during voltage fluctuations as well as during different alternator loads. Voltage fluctuation is thus nearly always determined by the grid. i. There is a further possibility of influencing the reactive power supply specifically by a reactive power regulator. It limits the excitation current to the set value for the rated power for cos phi = 0. Alternatively. no neutral choke is generally necessary since the voltage waveforms are identical between Ph-Mp. an excitation current limiter is advisable. it is also possible to use a specific mains coupling regulator QPF-NK.3.e. If identical generators run in parallel in isolated operation. the specifications in VDE 0530-1. If the voltage and frequency deviate from the rated values. An additional regulator for cos phi regulation in the alternator or in the switchgear directly beside the base regulator controls the “Cosimat N+” voltage regulator of the alternator for the purpose of maintaining the set power factor. These flow back through the neutral. 7. Since the winding and the neutral conductor are loaded thermally in this manner. To dampen these variations during parallel operation. prolonged operation on the limits of range A in DIN VDE 0530-1 should be avoided. i.4. the number of units running in parallel is irrelevant. 7. which transfers to the winding.8.5 Mains parallel operation As in most cases the mains has a much higher shortcircuit power than the alternators. this current must be reduced by a neutral choke. So as not to overload the exciter circuit. the cos phi regulator effective transformer must be configured at this point. there is no noticeable effect. there will always be higher temperatures at constant rated power and therefore reduced durability of the winding and thus of the whole machine. This can be assured if the machine is dimensioned and operated in accordance with the operating data specified at the project stage. a cos phi regulator in accordance with Section 7. With regard to permissible longer voltage and frequency variations. Figures 10 and 11 apply.2 is used. by using 2/3 chorded double-layer windings (standard with some 4 pole DSG models) a transient current can largely be avoided. so that through the influence of the exciter. 7. However.
For clarification. the current harmonic distortion as well as the permissible voltage harmonic distortion are to be confirmed to the manufacturer. 23 . Please ask if required. Determination of efficiency (summation of losses) 4. testing of the components. Winding test 10. Inrush currents worthy of further investigation mainly occur while connecting induction motors. The high start-up rush of the transformers causes a load similar to a short-circuit.4 Star delta connection ΔS=(1.1 6. etc.8. Short circuit characteristic 3.1 or at short circuit 9. Vibration measurement (cardan-driven or at motor operation) 11. wiring inspection. Measuring the residual voltage 3. Depending on requirements. the magnitude of the harmonics load. Sustained short-circuit current measurement 10.7 – 2.2 Underspeed protection adjustment 7. Rotor leakage test with rotor removed (inductor) 8. identifications.2 Special tests (at extra charge) Further tests can be performed on request.0) x SN at cos phi 0. the inrush current with power factor must be known.1 Nominal capacity The nominal capacity results from the sum of all users considering the service factor. Load characteristic with cos phi = 0. bigger power steps can occur during the star to delta switchover. In this way. High voltage test 12. Noise measurement 6. Temperature-rise test 5.4 The inrush currents are small and mostly noncritical for dynamic voltage changes. Load connection and load disconnection 7. sufficient clearance is available for retaining voltage of normal contactors. Overspeed test at 120% nominal speed 11. Measurement of insulation resistances 13. Planning guidelines 9. Slip ring motors: Start-up with armature resistance ΔS=(1. All DSG alternators are subjected to a full test run according to VDE guidelines. 1. Voltage regulator 7.2 – 0. S=(5 – 6) x SN at cos phi 0.6) x SN at cos phi 0.2 – 0. The tests are logged and the test reports made available to the customer.2 – 0. Harmonics content analysis 8.2 Dynamic voltage variation A standard value used is ΔU ≤ 20%. For the determination of the dynamic voltage dip. increased losses occur in the alternator and the connected users. Range of the setpoint adjuster/voltage adjustment range 7.3 Parallel operation adjustment 8. Voltage symmetry 4. temperature sensors.3 – 1. the inrush current should be attenuated by resistors or the transformer should be magnetised with rising generator excitation. Suggested typical values are: Squirrel-cage motors: Direct on-line starting Δ Transformer connection: For transformer unit rating bigger than alternator unit rating.1 Adjustment of the voltage regulator 7. Subject to technical modifications. 8. Factory testing 8. 9. The necessary unit rating is determined after consideration of the power-reducing influences in accordance with Section 5. Final inspection: General design. Transient overload with cos phi = 0. rating plate.3 Non-linear load Caused by harmonics. Measuring the cold resistances 2. No-load characteristic 2. Phase sequence test 5. anti-condensation heating. circuit diagrams. Peak short-circuit test 9. This is generally advised in the case of unit-connected transformers.1 Standard tests 1. Deviations from this value in the various specifications or as a result of further requirements must be considered on a case by case basis. Adjustment of additional voltage regulator modules 9.4 Depending on the load torque during acceleration. consultation with the factory is required.
avkseg.85006 Ingolstadt Phone: (+49) 8 41/7 92 . KG Benzstraße 47– 49 · D .0 · Fax: (+49) 8 41/7 92 .avkseg.com Sales: AvK Deutschland GmbH & Co.AvK Deutschland GmbH & Co.0 · Fax: (+49) 61 03/50 39 .com · http:/ /www. Box 10 11 28 · D . Box 10 06 51 · D .com PB DSG 50600 E Dreieich branch .2 50 e-mail: email@example.com Dreieich Phone: (+49) 61 03/50 39 .85053 Ingolstadt P. KG Bunsenstraße 17 · D .40 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dreieich P.O.O.com · http:/ /www.