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Published by: ngelectronic5226 on Aug 29, 2010
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The conventional stabilized power supply has been modeled in detail in Chapter 2.5.1 and
requires a lot of bulky components. A three-phase 10 kV 20 kVA transformer, a 20 kW


Power supply selection

Tesla Transformer for experimentation and research


variac, a 1.5 H 30 kV inductor plus a triple limiting inductor demand for a lot of space;
regulation of the primary capacitor charging voltage still cannot guarantee repeatability.

A power supply employing a high-voltage switch element demands for a particular effort
in designing and optimizing a voltage sharing strategy: ready-made solutions are not currently
available. Devices to be connected in series with blocking voltages greater than 3 kV are
available only for currents of several hundreds of amperes. They are large and expensive,
require special mounting mechanics and are definitively wasted for an application using at
most 10 A of current.

The high-frequency converter is a solution often reported in the literature for capacitor
charging. All components are readily available on the consumer market, except the
transformer that must be custom-wound. Schematics can be easily derived from existing low-
power designs, as the topology remains the same. The high-voltage secondary affects only in
a very small part the overall design and the ratings of a few components.

By choosing this solution there is no need of big current limiting inductors, variacs or
heavy and life-dangerous filtering capacitors. The primary capacitor charging voltage can be
easily regulated from a low potential point minimizing losses and without danger of electrical

One circuit topology that may be utilized is the series-loaded resonant converter [Lip91,
Nel90, Nel92]. In this circuit (Figure 13) four switching devices and the resonant components
L and C are connected to the low voltage side of the transformer; only the rectifiers on the
transformer secondary must have high voltage ratings. By closing in proper order the
switches in pairs, pulses of alternate polarity are applied to the transformer. Using a high turn
ratio, high voltage pulses are generated at the secondary, increasing the capacitor charge.







Figure 13: Series-loaded resonant converter.

The leakage inductance of the transformer may be utilized as the resonance inductor L.
The switching frequency may be held constant at a value such as one-half of the circuit
resonant frequency; alternatively the switching frequency may be started at a low value and
then increased to approximately the resonance value during the charge cycle. When the
desired capacitor voltage is reached, a command is sent to turn off all switches.

One characteristic of this circuit which makes it attractive for capacitor charging is its
ability to operate under short circuit conditions, such as that represented by the capacitor at
charging start. Operation at high switching frequencies can reduce the size and weight of the
transformer. Regulation can be improved by the utilization of control techniques like pulse-
width modulation or constant on-time control.

Power supply requirements



Marco Denicolai

Solid state devices for the switches can be selected according to the same considerations
reported in Chapter 2.5.2: in this case there is no need for series connection of several devices
as the required voltage and current ratings are widely supported. Integrated circuits are readily
available for driving the switching devices (e.g. IR2110 from International Rectifier) and also
for regulating switching frequency and duty-cycle (e.g. UC3860 from Unitrode Integrated
Circuits) [Lip91]. The input voltage Vin can be derived by rectifying and filtering the 230 V
mains or the three-phase 400 V lines for increased power demand.

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