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Software Engineering

Software Engineering

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Published by: VikashKumarShaw on Aug 29, 2010
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Sections

  • Software Characteristics -
  • Software Application :-
  • 1. System software :-
  • 2. Real Time Software :-
  • 3. Business Software :-
  • 4. Engineering and Scientific Software :-
  • 6. Personal Computer Software :-
  • 7. Web Based Software :-
  • 8. Artificial Intelligence Software :-
  • Software Engineering a Layered Approach :-
  • Process, Methods and tools :-
  • LEVEL 1
  • LEVEL 2
  • LEVEL 3
  • LEVEL 4
  • LEVEL 5
  • The Linear Sequential Model :-
  • 1. System/Information engineering and modeling :-
  • 2. Software requirement analysis :-
  • 3. Design :-
  • 4. Code Generation :-
  • 5. Testing :-
  • 5. Support :-
  • The Prototyping Model :-
  • The Incremental Model :-
  • The Spiral Model :-
  • Project Management Concepts :-
  • 1. People :-
  • a. The Players :-
  • 3. The Software Team :-
  • Product :-
  • i. Software Scope :-
  • Problem Decompogirion :-
  • The Process :-
  • i. Melding the Porduct and the process :-
  • ii. Process Decomposition :-
  • c. The project :-
  • Metrics in the process & project domain :-
  • 2. Project Metrics :-
  • 1. Size Oriented Metrics :-
  • 2. Function Oriented Metrics :-
  • External Function Point metrics :-
  • Metrics for Software Quality :-
  • 1. An overview of factor that effect quality :-
  • 2. Measuring Quality :-
  • Defect Removable Efficiency (DRE) :-
  • Intrigrity Metrics with in the software process :-
  • Software Project Planing :-
  • Project Planing Objectives :-
  • ii. Resources :-
  • a. Humen Resources :-
  • b. Reusable Software Resources :-
  • a. Off the self component :-
  • b. Full Experience Component :-
  • c. Partial Experience Components :-
  • 3. Environmental Resources :-
  • Software Project Estimation :-
  • i. Fuzzy Logic Sizing :-
  • iii. Standrad Component Sizing :-
  • iv. Cnage Sizing :-
  • b. Problem based estimated :-
  • c. An Example of LOC based estimation :-
  • Function Estimated LOC
  • d. An Example of FP based estimation :-
  • Empirical Estimation Models :-
  • Software Quality Assurance :-
  • Quality Concept :-
  • 1. Quality Movements :-
  • SQA (Software Quality Assurance) Activities :-
  • Statical Software Quality Assurance :-
  • SQA Plan :-
  • ISO 9000 Quality standard (International Standard Organization) :-
  • The ISO-9001 Standards :-
  • Analysis Concept & Principal :-
  • Requirment Analysis :-
  • Analyst Principal :-
  • 1. The informtaion Domain :-
  • 2. Modeling :-
  • 3. Partioning :-
  • Data Modeling :-
  • Data Objects Attributes & Relationship :-
  • i. Data objects :-
  • ii. Attributes :-
  • iii. Relationship :-
  • Coordinality and modelity :-
  • 1. Cordinality :-
  • 2. Modelity :-
  • Entity Relationship Diagram :-
  • Functional Modeling and Information Flow :-
  • Data Flow Diagram :-
  • The Mechanics Of structured Analysis :-
  • Creating a Data flow model (Diagram) :-
  • Control Flow Model (Diagram) :-
  • Design concept and principal :-
  • The Design Process :-
  • i. Design and Software Quality :-
  • ii. Evaluation of Design :-
  • iii. Desing Principal :-
  • Design Model :-
  • Design Concept :-
  • 1. Abstraction :-
  • 2. Refinement :-
  • 3. Modularity :-
  • 4. Software Architecture :-
  • a. Structural Properties :-
  • b. Extra Functional Properties :-
  • c. Families of Related System :-
  • 6. Strucural Partioning :-
  • 7. Information Hiding :-
  • Effective modular design :-
  • 2. Cohesion :-
  • 3. Coupling :-
  • Software Testing :-
  • A. Testing Objectives :-
  • B. Testing Principle :-
  • C. Testability :-
  • White Box Testing :-
  • Black Box Testing :-
  • 1. Condition Testing :-
  • 2. Data Flow Testing :-
  • 3. Loop Testing :-
  • i. Simple Loop :-
  • ii. Nested loop :-
  • 4. Unstructured Loop :-
  • Testing for specilized Envrionments :-
  • Software Testing Strategies :-
  • a. Varification and Validation :-
  • 2. Testing Stratagis :-
  • Unit Testing :-
  • Intrigration Testing :-
  • Validation Testing :-
  • a. Validation Test tritarea :-
  • b. Configration Review :-
  • c. Alpha & Beta Testing :-
  • System Testing :-
  • a. Recovey testing :-
  • b. Security Testing :-
  • d. Performance Testing :-
  • Debugging Process :-
  • Software Maintanance :-
  • Computer Aidded Software Engineering (CASE) :-
  • Building Blocks :-
  • A Texonomey of CASE tools :-
  • 1. Intrigrated CASE environment :-
  • 2. Intrigration Architecture :-
  • CASE Repository :-
  • 2. Features & Contents :-

Software Engineering

Software Characteristics Software ;k software engineering dks le>us ds fy;s lcls igys mlds charactristics dks le>uk vko';d gksrk gSA tks fd vyx&vyx rjhds ls human being activity dks produce djrs gS tc hardware dks rS;kj fd;k x;k rk mldh physical form rS;kj gqbZA ftldks human vklkuh ls analysis design, construct rFkk test dj ldrk gSA Hardware dk mi;ksx djds ;fn u;k computer rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS rks mlesa physical product tSls fd chips, circuit baord rFkk power supply gSA Computer System dh software ,d logical element gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk hardware dks operate fd;k tkrk gSA Software dks develop ;k engineering fd;k tkrk gSA bldh manufacturing ugh gksrh gSA tcfd software development rFkk hardware manufacturing esa Hkh dqN simultaneous gksrh gSA ;s nksuks activities different gksrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa dh high quality produce dh tk ldrh gSa ysfdu hardware dks manufacture djrs le; quality problems dk lkeu djuk iM+rk gSA ftudks vklkuh ls correct ugh fd;k tk ldrkA ;s nksuks activities user ij depend jgrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa ds fy;s construction of product dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ysfdu approach vyx&vyx mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Computer based product dh designing dks control djus ds fy;s lkW¶Vos;j eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA blds fy;s digital circuit board rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj mudh proper functioning dks check fd;k tkrk gSA izR;sd intrigrated circuit (ic and chpe) ds ikl ,d iksVZ uEcj gksrk gS tks fd standrad ingrigrated guid lines dks set djrk gSA izR;sd component dks selected djus ds ckn board ds circuit dks electrical signals ds }kjk check fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ,d D;k system design gksrk gSA ,d software component vko';drkuqlkj design rFkk environment fd;k tkrk gSA ftlls cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx programs dks include fd;k tkrk gS ;s programs permanent gksrs gSA engineering rFkk scientific application dks litraries dks ,d well defined algorithm dh lgk;rk ls effective manner ds }kjk reuse fd;k tkrk gSA Software engineering cgqr

lkjh ubZ&ubZ application create dj jgs gSA tks fd reusable form esa gksrh gSA tSls fd graphical user interface (GUI) ds lHkh components reusable gksrs gSA ftudksa vko';drkuqlkj ckj&ckj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa pull down menus, tools rFkk interactive windows include jgrh gSA

Software Application :Software vyx&vyx situation ds vk/kkj ij apply fd;k tkrk gSA blds fy;s igys ls gh procedure step specify djus dh vko';drk gksrh gS ftls ge algorithm Hkh dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx export system software or network software fd;k tkrk gSA ;gk ij information ds contents software application ds nature ds fy;s dkQh important gksrs gSA D;ksfd controls incoming rFkk outgoing information dh definition crkrs gSA tSlk fd cgqr lkjh ,slh business application gS tks structured input data (database) dks mi;ksx djds formatted reports produce djrh gSA Software automated machine dks control djrk gSA Software engineering es program analysis ds fy;s predefined order set djus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA tks fcuk fdlh :dkoV ds algorithm dks execute djsA vkSj data ds result dks report ;k graphical formet esa produce djs multi-user operating system fofHkUu izdkj ds contants ;k commands dks execute djrk gS vkSj ;s commands external condition ds vk/kkj ij gh accept gksrh gSA Software application dks meaningful design djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu blds fy;s cgqr lkjs component use fd;s tkrs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds application dks design djuk vklku cuk;k tk ldrk gSA

1. System software :System software dqN ,sls programs dk collection gksrk gS ftudk mís'; nwljs program dks service provide djuk gksrk gSA dqN system software utilities bl izdkj gSA tSls fd companies editors, file manager, drivers, tele communication, processor etc bl izdkj dh system utilities large information dh processing dks handle dj ldrh gS nwljh rjQ system software computer hardware dks Hkh control djrs gSA tks fd multiple user ds }kjk mi;ksx fd;k tk jgk gksrk gSA

2. Real Time Software :,sls software tks fd real words events dks monitor/analysis ;k control djrs gSA Real-time Software dgykrs gSA Real-time software ds element esa data gathering components include jgrs gSA tks fd vko';drkuqlkj external environment ls information dks collect djrs gS vkSj mls analysis djds ,d lgh output produce djrs gSA rFkk lHkh components real-time response (typically ranging from 1 millisecond to 1 second ) maintain djrs gSA

3. Business Software :Business information processing esa ,d large single software use fd;k tkrk gSA tks business dh cgqr lkjh fields dks cover djrk gSA ;s software bl izdkj ls gks ldrs gS & 1. Payroll Management 2. Account Receivable/Payable 3. Inventory Control System bl izdkj ds lHkh software management information system (MIS) esa involve jgrs gSA vkSj business information ds fy;s ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd large databases dks inter relate djrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa business operation ds fy;s cgqr lkjh lqfo/kk iznku dh tk ldrh gSA

4. Engineering and Scientific Software :;s software engineering and scientific calculation dks perform djus ds mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa space technology ;k weather for costing etc. dh calculation vklkuh ls dh tk ldrh gSA modern application es engineering and scientific application areas dks cover fd;k x;k gSA tks fd numerical algorithm dks vklkuh ls handle dj ldrh gS blesa computer aided design (CAD) system simulation rFkk nwljh interactive application involve jgrh gSA ;s lHkh application real time application gksrh gSA

5. Embedded Software :-

izR;sd customer ;k industrial market eas vktdy intelligent porduct use fd;s tk jgs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds business esa viuk dkQh le; cpk ysrs gSA vkSj fast calculation Hkh perform gks tkrh gS dqN ,sls software dks customer rFkk industrial market ds product control djus ds fy;s mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA Embedded software dgykrs gSA ;s software dkQh NksVs software gksrs gS vkSj read only memory esa jgrs gSA rFkk bldk dk;Z products dks control djuk vkSj le;≤ ij mudh information provide djuk gksrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr software involve jgrs gSA tSls fd & digital function in an automobiles such as fuel control, dash board displays and etc.

6. Personal Computer Software :Personal computer software dk market vkt dkQh powerful gks x;k gSA blesa manipulation, calculation rFkk business etc ds fy;s gtkjks software use fd;s tk jgs gSA tSls fd word processing, spread sheet, computer graphics, multi media, entertainment, database management, personal and business financial application external network and database access application.

7. Web Based Software :Web pages ,sls software ds }kjk retrieve fd;s tkrs gSA ftUgs browser dgk tkrk gSA tks fd instructions dks execute djus es l{ke gksrs gS web pasges dh instructions, CGI, HTML, Perl or java etc. languages esa fy[ks tkrs gSA vkSj MkVk dks fofHkUu izdkj ds hyper text rFkk visual formets esa represent fd;k tk ldrk gSA Internet dh fdlh Hkh information dks web dh lgk;rk ls access djuk vklku gks x;k gSA vkSj blds fy;s modem eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA

8. Artificial Intelligence Software :Artificial Intelligence (AI) software ,sls software gksrs gS tks non numerical algorithm dks complex problem dks vklkuh ls solve dj ldrs gSA blesa expert system, pattern reorganization (Image & Voice), Artificial neural network and games planing etc.

forms etc software engineering methods .slh technique gksrh gS ftlesa software dSls rS.k tkrk gSA bleas vko'.k tkrk gSA blesa .d . software ds merits rFkk demerits.k tkrk gSA vkSj tc quality improve gksrh gS rks development dh izfØ. program.d computer program create djus dh vko'.k vkSj next step ij perform dh tkrh gS tks fd software engineering dh further quality dks support . steps include jgrs gSA .g testing Hkh software engineering dk gh steps gksrh gSA Process.s tkrs gS tSls fd models. documents.Software Engineering a Layered Approach :Software Engineering ds fyls lSdM+sk author us fofHkUu izdkj dh defination provide dh gSA ysfdu ftl subject ds ckjs esa discussion . construction testing support etc steps include jgrs gSA software engineering tools bu process rFkk methods esa automation provide djrs gSA tc tools intergraded gksrs gS rks mUgs dksbZ Hkh nwljk user use dj ldrk gSA . design. data. ds vuqlkj .s tkrs gSA bl technique dks le>k.d key process area gksrk gSA tks software projects dks manage rFkk control djrk gSA bl izdkj ds technical methods work products esa apply fd. program construction and testing etc.kj fd.k confrenence perform dh tkrh gS vkSj lgh principal rFkk rule regulation provide fd. design.k tkrk gSA .slk system tks software development esa lgk.drkuqlkj analysis.s tkrs gS ogh actual esa software engineering dh defination gksrh gSA blesa software quality rFkk timally product delaviry.drk gksrh gS vkSj bls cgqr lkjh vyx&vxy e'khu ij VsLV fd. reports. Methods and tools :Software engineering .d computer software rS.k focus djrh gSA Software engineering dh process layer esa lHkh layers dks combine fd.kj fd.d business software rS. important of the software rFkk software dh basic outline provide dh tkrh gSA .kj djus ds fy.d .d layered technology gksrh gS ftlesa quality dks improve fd.rk djrk gSA "Computer Aided Software Engineering" dgykrk gSA CASE esa software hardware rFkk database dk combination gksrk gSA rFkk blesa Hkh software engineering environment esa analysis.s .k tkrk gSA vkSj le.

Technology Change Management C. Organization Process Definition D. Software Quality Assurance C. Software Products Engineering LEVEL 3 A. Software Configuration Management B. Training Program C. Software Sub-Contract Management D. Software Project Planning F. Inter Group and Coordination C. Peer Revises B. Requirement Management LEVEL 2 A.Key pad analysis (KPA) esa process maturity ds fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gSA LEVEL 1 A. Software Quality Management B. Defect Prevention Software Process Models :- . Process Change Management B. Software Project Tracking and Over right E. Quantitative Process Management LEVEL 5 A. Integrated Software Management B. Organization Process Focus LEVEL 4 A.

definition. new business function and new product etc. problem. quo. System/Information engineering and modeling :- .k software engineering paradigones dgk tkrk gSA software engineering esa process model project rFkk application dh nature ds vuqlkj gh choose fd.k dks process modes . Status quo fdlh Hkh problem ds current status dks represent djrk gSA vkSj problem definition fdlh particular problem dks identify djrk gSA ftls solve fd.s .k tkrk gSA vkSj blds ckn gh method rFkk tools use fd.s mi.fdlh Hkh industry esa actual problem dks solve djus ds fy.k dks complete djrk gSA ` Linear sequential model fuEufyf[kr activities perform djrk gSA 1.ksx djrs gSA rFkk bls large product esa .k tkuk gks] technical development esa application dh lgk.rk ls problems dks solve fd. programs.d software engineering dh team xfBr dh tkrh gSA tks fd process method rFkk tools layers dk use djds iwjh problem dks specify djrh gSA blh izfØ.s tkrs gSA vkSj vko'.s vyx&vyx rjhds ls mi. technical development and solution intigration.d systematic rFkk sequential approach sugest provide djrk gSA tks fd system level ds 'kq: gksrk gSA vkSj analysis.k tk ldrk gSA The Linear Sequential Model :bl model dks dHkh&dHkh ge clasic life cycle . testing rFkk support dh izfØ.k tkrk gSA vkSj solution integration es result produce fd.ksx fd. design.k tkrk gSA ftlesa pkj fofHkUu izdkj dh stages dh testing gksrh gS & status. data.d ls vf/kd ckj vyx&vyx izdkj dh problem ds fy.k software engineering esa process model .k waterfull model Hkh dgrs gSA Linear sequential model software development esa .s tkrs gSA tSl fd document. Problem solving bl loop dks software engineering fofHkUu izdkj dh problem dks solve djus ds fy.drkuqlkj software dh controlling dh tkrh gSA lHkh izdkj ds software development esa problem solving loop dks characterized fd. coding.

k tkrk gS fd software dh lHkh statements lgh :i ls execute gks jgh gS . interface.d gksrk gSA blfy. Code Generation :Designing dks ges'kk gh readable form esa translate djus dh vko'.` D.kj dj fy.sA tSls fd hardware.fn designing vko'. people and database.k tkrk gSA 3.s analyst (software engineer) software ds fy. Testing :. behavior. Software requirement analysis :ftl rjg dh process gksrh gSA mlh rjg ls software dks vko'.k tkrk gSA Program dks rS.drk gksrh gSA bl dk. performance and interface etc.kj djus ds fy. representation and procedural (Algorithmic) detail designing process vko'.fn .s mlds nature dks le>uk vko'. 2.ksfd software ges'kk gh .Z djrk gSA vkSj bldk interaction nqljs element ds lkFk vo'.drkuqlkj software dh lHkh requirements dks translate djrh gSA Coding start djus ls igys analysis software ds designing documents dks complete dj ysrk gSA 4.drkuqlkj choose fd.drkuqlkj dk.k business dk part gksrk gSA tks fd lHkh izdkj ds system element dh requirement dh vko'.kj djus ls igys gh rS. Design :Actually Software design .d step process gksrh gSA tks program ds attribute dks focus djrh gSA Data structure.fn output esa fdlh izdkj dh leL.d cM+s system .Z dks code generation step complete djrk gSA .d ckj code generate dj fy.k tkrk gSA rks program testing dh process 'kq: gksrh gSA Testing process software dh logical values dks test djrh gSA vkSj ftlesa . software architecture.s irk fd.s tkrs gSA .s complete information dks igys ls le> ysrk gSA tSls fd & requirement funtions.k ughA System es rjg&rjg ds inputs provide fd. system rFkk software dh requirement bu documentaion software dks rS.k vkrh . gksuk pkfg.drkuqlkj detailed manner esa gksxh rks code generation esa fdlh Hkh rjg dh problem ugh vkrh gSA 5.

sA Prototyping process .k tkrk gSA vkSj . testing.slh technique gS tks software requirement dks indentify djrh gSA Working prototype esa developments igys ls gh cus program dk .drk gksrh gSA ftlesa software engineer iqjkus system dks u.s bls . software support .slh situation gksrh gS tgk¡ ij prototyping prodigious development dh lgk.fn vko'.fn lgh :i ls functioning ugh djrk gS rks bl le. u.sls le.s overall objective define dj ldrs gS blls software tYnh fMtkbu fd.s tkrs gS ftuesa prototyping approach include jgrh gSA cgqr lkjh . design coding.k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer rFkk development nksuks gh vkil esa communication dj ldrs gSA vkSj software ds fy.drkuqlkj software .sls le.rk djrs gSA blfy.rk ls vko'.s rks software testing dh process complete gks tkrh gSA 5.k gSA Prototyping paradigms dh lgk.k output ds requirement dks identify ugh djrk gSA vkSj nwljs causes esa dHkh&dHkh development algorithm dh izfØ.drkuqlkj result izkIr gks tk.drkuqlkj information dks bdV~Bk fd.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software ds output formats design fd. ea customer dh vko'.k dks complete ugh djrs gSA bl leL.s process pyrh jgrh gS tc rd fd customer satisfy u gks tk.Z 'kq: dj nsrk gSA vkSj customer viuh vko'.k operating system . esa software dk environment change gks tkrk gSA bl le.gh function prototyping dk part gksrs gSA Prototype customer rFkk user vkSj software developr ds }kjk evaluate dh tkrh gSA vkSj rc rd .k maintenance dh vko'.d vPNh approach ekuk x.k peripheral devices Hkh change fd. rFkk support dh process dks reapply djrk gSA The Prototyping Model :Customer software ds fy.k dks gy djus ds fy.s dqN steps provide fd.s general objective dks define djrk gS ysfdu og input processing .k tkrk gSA mlds ckn customer viuk dk.s tk ldrs gSA .s rjhds ls test djrk gS vkSj iqu% analysis.drkuqlkj data input djrk gSA .gS rks mls debug dj fy. Support :Software complete gksus ds ckn customer dks handover dj fn.s tk ldrs gSA .

s process rc rd repeat gksrh jgrh gSA tc rd fd izR.rk ls vko'.s tkrs gS vkSj .k x.ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj .k tkrk gSA tc incremental model use fd.k] blds }kjk software development esa incremental version dks vklkuh ls tksM+k tk .drkuqlkj nwljs incremental model vyx&vyx lqfo/kk ds fy.ksx fd.ksx djds gh rS.Z prototype dk mi.k x.drk gksrh gSA Prototype first system dh rjg mi.d command provide dh tkrh gSA Third incremental esa spelling rFkk grammar checking dh lqfo/kk iznku dh tkrh gSA vkSj advance page layout capabilities forth incremental esa iznku dh tkrh gSA blls ges .s development dks u.s mi.ksx fd.s tkrs gSA ftlds vuqlkj basic file management.d complete product produce u dj nsA The Spiral Model :Spiral Model Program ds }kjk design fd.kj fd.k gSA Incremental Model es software processing ds fy.k tkrk gSA tSls fd izR.ksx dj ysrs gSA tSls fd & report generations rFkk windows managers etc.s prototyping software engineering dk effective prardigon gSA The Incremental Model :Environmental model es linear sequential model ds elements dks combine fd.sd word processing software incremental paradigm dk mi.sd incremental .mi. ysfdu fdlh particular purpose ds fy.g irk pyrk gS fd fdlh Hkh izdkj ds incremental eas prototyping paradigms dk mi. editing rFkk document production facilities first incremental esa editing rFkk document production ds fy.k tkrk gsA lcls igys first increment use gksrk gSA ftls ges software dk core product Hkh dgrs gS tks fd software dh basic requirement dks provide djrk gSA vkSj fQj planning ds vuqlkj core dh lgk.s customer rFkk development nksuks esa gh .k x.s programs generate djus dh vko'. esa complete gks tkrk gA bl fy.ksx djds de le.d actual system dh rjg lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA Customer tc software use djrk gSA rks og prototyping dks working ds :i es eglwl djrh gSA development tc software dks implement djrs gS rks mudk dk.s vko'.s linear sequential dks produce fd.k rFkk ftlesa prototyping ds incrementative ds nature dks control fd.

Customer Evaluation :. 3. 4. 2.s tkrs gSA ftls paper model dgk tkrk gSA vkSj ckn esa bu paper model dks system esa add djds .drkuqlkj combine fd.ksx fd.sd persion team work task ds fy.gk ij yxHkx sin task resign spiral model esa mi. Concept development projects. New product development projects. text install and user support.Task required to construct. Product maintenance projects. Spiral model dk izR.ldrk gSA Spiral model dk mi.k gSA ftUgsa tast version spiral dgk tkrk gSA .s tkrs gSA vkSj mUgs vko'. Constriction and Release :.s mudk dk.ksx djds incremental software vklkuh ls develop fd. Risk Analysis :. Planning :. (for example :.k gksrk gSA ftls ge task set Hkh dgrs gSA tks fd iwjs project ds charactristics provide djrk gSA vkSj project esa work task de gksrs gSA blfy. 5.d .k tkrk gSA .Z vc spiral model ds }kjk dkQh spiral cgqr lkjh frame work activities esa devide fd.Takes required to build one or more representation on the application.Task required to define resource costively ness and other project related information. Product enhancement projects.Task required to obtain customer required base on evaluation of the software representation create designing the engineering stages and implemental during the installation stages.k tk ldrk gSA blls igys design dsoy isij ij fMtkbZu fd.Takes required to access both technical and management race.s tkrs gSA 1.k x.documentation and training) 6.d combine version rS. Customer Communication :. 4.k x. Engineering :.kj fd.Z Je Hkh lhfer gksrk gSA tcfd cM+s projects .s dk.Task required to established effective communication between developr and customer 2.s set fd. 3. 1.

kj djus ds fy. process rFkk software dks increment djus ds lHkh operation include jgrs gSA software dks rS. .d number of ideration set djuk gS tc .s bu activities ds umbralla activities Hkh dgk tkrk gSA tSls gh bldh evaluationnory process 'kq: gksrh gSA rks software engineering dh team sprial model ds vuqlkj clock wise direction esa move djrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds contrest ls gh 'kq: gksrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds igys sereit esa fdlh Hkh product ds result dks development fd.d perticular project esa apply dh tkrh gSA (Ex.kj gksrk gS vkSj mls customer dks provide fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj project manager softwere dks complete djus ds fy.es izR.ksx djds software dk complete version rS.d activiy gksrh gSA project management esa planings.s tkrs gS rks management .sd task resion vf/kd ls vf/kd work task contain djrk gSA blfy.s .k tkrk gSA ftles gj izdkj dh prototype dk mi. control of the people.s process complete gksrh gSA rks .kj fd.d complete software rS.k tkrk gSA Spiral model esa izR. People 2.k products rS.sd resion esa vko'.kj fd.k tkrk gSA software engineers dealy to dealy activities dsk analysis djrs gSA mls design djrs gSA vkSj mlds Åij technical control provide djrs gSA bldks pkj stages esa le>uk vko'.s planing ds vuqlkj vko'.d vPNh understanding gksuk vko'.d gksrh gSA ftlds vk/kkj ij iwjs projects dks manage fd.Software contrigration management and software quality assurance etc.drkuqlkj ftl rjg ls planing dh tkrh gSA bldh cost feed back ds vk/kkj ij set fd. Process 4.d cgqr gh vko'.s mlds }kjk high level dh formetings dks izkIr fd. Project .k tkrk gSA vkSj customer mldh viuh vko'. Product 3.) blfy.d gksrk gSA 1.drkuqlkj lHkh izdkj ds inputs provide djrk gS vkSj .d result izkIr djrk gSA Project Management Concepts :tc Hkh dksbZ computer based system .k tk ldrk gSA lHkh causes esa ftruh Hkh activities gksrh gSA os lHkh .

Z gSA ii.Z dj jgs gksrs gS mudks motivate and organize djuk rFkk daVªksy djuk Hkh project managers dk gh dk.s software engineering process esa peoples dk rool dkQh egRoiw.Project Managers iwjs project dh planning djrs gSA vkSj tks users bl projects esa dk.Z perform gksus pkfg. Project (Technical) Managers :.Z djrk gSA 2.d ckj software ds lkFk intract djrk gSA tc software (project) release gksrk gSA mlds ckn ogh end user software ij dk.ksfd tks Hkh software project create djrs gSA og fdlh perticular organizationd ds fy.kZ gksrk gSA blesa senior engineer ls ysdj NksVs ls NksVk employee Hkh prjects ds complete gksus esa lgk.Practitiones fdlh Hkh product . Practitionens :.Z gksrk gSA iii.End user de ls de . Team leaders :- .s crkrs gS fd bl organization esa fdl employee dk D.k application ds fy.s people communication cgqr gh important gksrk gSA D.Senior Managers iwjh rjg organization dh information provide djrs gSSA vkSj .kh eas ck¡Vk x.d technical skills provide djrs gSA iv.s vko'.k dk.drkuqlkj iwjs software dh tkudkjh provide djrs gsA fd bl software es fdl izdkj ds dk.k gS & i.Customers viuh vko'. End user :.sA v. Customers :.rk djrk gSA blesa tks yksx invovle gksrs gS os bl izdkj gS & a.1. People :fdlh Hkh software project dks lgh :i ls complete djus ds fy.s gksrk gSA vkSj bl organisation ds employees Hkh organization dsx ckjs es iwjh tkudkjh ns ldrs gSA muds communication ds fcuk ge software environment vklkuh ls complete ugh dj ldrs gSA blfy. The Players :Software process es tks yksx lgk.rk djrs gS mUgs 5 Js. Senior Mangers :.

d gksrk gSA vkSj mlds ikl yskxks ds communication djus dk project. ii.s events produce gks] rks mudks organize djus dh rFk final product dks translate djus dh ability Hkh project leader eas gksuk vko'. Problem Solving :. ij analysis djus ds fy.sd member ls report ysuk vko'.d gksrk gSA vkSj . Organisation :.s .s project manager dks le.d vPNs project managers dks project dk charge ysuk vko'.s ideas provide djuk] ftuls software project dks complete djus esa lgk.fn fdlh izdkj dh problem dk lkeuk djuk iM+s rks mlds fy.drk gksrh gSA tks fd technical rFkk organiszational problems dks systemetic <ax ls solve dj ldsA v..d gksrk gSA vi.The availability to encoverage ¼lkgl c<+kuk½ technical pepls to produce to there best activity.k application ds fy.slh ability Hkh team leader esa gksuk vko'.Project team dh productivity dks le.Z djrs gSA . Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA tks fd iwjh project team dk yhMj gksrk gSA Leader ship ds dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & i.rk feysA .fn fdlh dkj.fn u.fdlh Hkh proces esa .izR.fdlh Hkh perticular software product .k vkrh gS rks mls contol .&le.s yksxks dks mRlkfgr djuk] vkSj u. Managerial Identity :. ij team ds izR.fn os lHkh yksx .d gksrh gSA iv. dks lgh :i ls complete djus dk rFkk iwjh project team dks control djus dk confidence gksuk vko'.s&u.s project managers eq[.d gksrh gSA iii.sd software projects esa tks yksx Hkh involve gksrs gS os lHkh viuh&viuh availability rFkk skills ds vuqlkj dk. Ideas or Innovations :.d nwljs ls vPNh rjg communication ugh dj ik jgs gS rks project dks complete djus es ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA bl leL.ko'k dgh ij dksbZ leL.&le.k dks gy djus ds fy. Achivement :.d effective software projects managers dh vko'. Motivation :.Software projects dks complete djus esa .

sA vkSj mls ges'kk gh under control esa jgus dh vko'.d leader gksrk gS tks fdlh perticular dk.drkuqlkj le>rh gS vkSj mls gy djrh gS blds fy.. es complete fd. The Software Team :yxHkx lHkh organization esa tks software rS.d effective team manager yksxks dks understand djus esa . Democratied Decentralized (DD) :.s software team technical rFkk physical nksuksa izdkj dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA . gksuh pkfg.d team design dh tkrh gSA tks fdlh Hkh orgnization structure dk vklkuh ls computerized dj ldrh gSA bldh iwjh responsibility software project manager dh gskrh gSA tks direct team ds members ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA izR.slh .s decision rFkk approch iwjs group ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj team members ds communication horizontal provide fd.sd member dks vko'. gksuk pkfg.gk¡ ij rhu izdkj dh software team rS.d ls vf/kd funtional task provide fd.k tkrk gSA software team fdlh organization dh problem dks vko'.drk gksrh gSA bl izdkj ds NksVs&NksVs risk project leader dks ysus gh iM+rs gS blesa fdlh dks punish ugh fd.Z dks coordinate djrk gS vkSj nwljs NksV&NksVs dk.kj djus ds fy.s .drkuqlkj .k tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problemds ds fy.ksx fd.s dqN le.d .ksZ dh .d vPNh team rS.kj dh xbZ gS ftudk vko'.k .ksX. Influence and team building :.bl engineering team dks dksbZ permanent leader ugh gksrk gSA blesa izR.d fuf'pr le.rk projects managers esa vo'.k tkrk gSA & a.ksX.Z ds fy.drk gksrh gsA og nwljs yksxks dks read dj lds] vkSj mudh problems dks le> lds] .kj dh tk ldrh gSA 3.k tk ldrk gSA vii.s tkrs gSA rFkk mlds ckn mls nwljs coordinates ls replace dj fn.s rHkh .djus dh vko'. rd coordinates appoint fd.bl software engineering team ds ikl . Controled Decentralized (CD) :.drkuqlkj organisation es mi.k tkrk gSA b.s tkrs gSA tks fd software project ds gh part gksrs gS vkSj mUgs .sd dk.kj djrs gS mues software rS.

k tkrk gSA Decntralized team indivisuals ds fy.bl izdkj dh software engineering team esa top level problem solving rFkk internal team coordination team leader ds }kjk gh manage fd.k tkrk gSA Leader rFkk team members ds chp communication vertical gksrk gSA Software engineering teams ds structure dks create djrs le.Z dks tYnh iwjk djrk gSA vkSj simple problem dks gy djus ds fy. The size of the resultand programs is line of code or function point.reponsibility Hkh mlh ds Åij gksrh gS fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks iwjh team solve djrh gS ysfdu ml problem dks solve djus ds fy.drkuqlkj organise djrs gS ysfdu muds fy. The degree of socialbility (communication required for the project) Centralized Structure dk.s x. 7 project factor directive fd.d example cukrs gS rFkk mls vko'.s lcls vf/kd mi.s . The time that the team will stay to gather (team life time) iv.gk¡ ij team members esa communication horizental rFkk vertical nksuks gh :i es provide dh tk ldrh gSA c.s team leader izR.ksx fd. The degree to which the problem can to modularized. The rigidity of the delivery date.k tkrk gSA .k djrs gS vkSj . The ruquired quality and reliability of the system to be built. vi.s vPNk solution provide djrh gSA vkSj difficult problems dks solve djus es l{ke gksrh gSA Product :Software porject management dks lcls igys fo'ys"k. ii. v.Z provide djrk gSA . vii. Controled Centralized (CC) :.s gSA tks bl izdkj gS & i.sd member dks .d specific dk. iii.s .s information solid information ugh gksrh gSA Important information dk detailed anaylsis djds gh izkIr fd. The difficulty of the problem to be solved.

d gksrh activity gS tks fd vko'.&le.sA ftuds data (nmber of similertation.drkuqlkj software analysit ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA . Software project are store management and technical level ij vklku rFkk easy to understand gksuk gSA vko'. dh information Hkh provide dh tkrh vko'.drkuqlkj tks Hkh algorithm provide fd. b.k tk ldsA bldh dqN activities fuEu izdkj gSA i.s analysis complete gksus es lIrkg .kj fd.vkSj . Contect :.k tkrk gSA a. ij cnyrh jgrh gSA blfy. Information Objectives :.sA Problem Decompogirion :PD dks lHkh portitioning a problem elatroration Hkh dgrs gS .g .How does the software to be built fit in a large ssytem. esa . product or business contects & what considrate are impored as a result of a control. maximum allowable response time etc.d gksrh gSA blds fy.k tk.d le.What function does the software perform to has for input data into outputs are many special performnance charactristics to the addressed.d gksrk gSA software dh statement ftldh provide dh tkuh pkfg. size of mailing list. Function & Performance :.drkuqlkj plans rFkk requirements Hkh le.s] og ell understand esa miyC/k gksuk pkfg.) include jgrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk software dh limitation tSls fd product cost restrict memory size etc.s project dk 'kq: ls gh vPNh rjg ls analysis djus dh vko'. c.d complete product rS.What customer visible data objects are producted as output form the software whate data objects case required for input.d activities ds nkSjku problem dks fully .k eghus rd dk le. Hkh ys ldrh gSA tc project 'kq: gksrk gS rks vko'.s vko'. Software Scope :Software Project management es lcls igy activity software scope dks determine djuk gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh software porject dk scope fuEufyf[kr questions answer djds define fd.drk gksrh gSA rkfd dksbZ .

vii.s parts lHkh izdj das software esa apply fd. The formal methods model. The incrimental model. viii.k tkrk gSA vkSj . The sprial model. . xi. The win_win sprial model. The technical generation model. The linear sequential model.decompase fd. nks area es apply fd.k tkrk gSA i. iv. The process that will be uses delivere it. The Functionally that must be delivence.k tk ldsA .rk ls complex problem dks NksVs&NksVs programs esa devide dj fn. The RAD (Rapid Application Development) model. tc Hkh dksbZ .s process model software engineering paradigoms ds varxZr vkrs gSA tSls fd & i.k tkrk gSA ftldks vklkuh ls manage fd. ii.The concurrent development model. vi.s tk ldrs gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks porcess module ds vk/kkj ij projcect team ds }kjk choose df.k tkrk gSA vkSj software functions esa software dks mldk use rFkk total arithmetic Hkh decompostition dks gh part gksrk gSA The Process :Software develpment esa lcls main step mldh processing dk gksrk gSA vkSj bldsa designing esa tks process use dh tkrh gSA mlesa defination development rFkk support eq[. iii. x. Hkkx gksrs gSA vkSj . The prototyping model. ii. v.wtj fdlh complex problem dks gy djrk gSA rks og blesa devide and conquer method use djrk gSA bldh lgk. The component based developmetn.s method project manning ds 'kq: es gh apply dj fn.ktkrk gSA vkSj bl decompositon dks eq[.

ij izR.d gSA ftlesa customer dh request.d ckj process model choose dj fy. facilities meeting with the customer.s linear sequential apporach lcls vf/kd mi.k 'kq: gksrh gSA ftlesa complete plan required project activity rFkk brief discription include jgrh gSA Process esa fuEufyf[kr activities apply dh tkrh gS %& i. Process Decomposition :Software team project ds fy.s deside djrk gS fd perticular problem ds fy. dk. Review the customer request b.d gksrk gSA ftlesa customer communication.k tk lds rFkk dkSu lh software team bl project ij dk. Prepare a working document and an agenda for the formal meeting.k tkuk vko'. construction and release rFkk customer evaluation etc.sd function software team ds } kjk design fd.d ckj process model select dj fy. risk analysis. user work product charactristics rFkk project environment dks vklkuh ls handle fd.&le.sd team dks mlds ckn proecess decompostition dh izfØ.ksx dh tkrh gSA Project start gksus ds ckn project manager le. planning.k tkuk vko'.k tk. Conduct the meeting. Conduct research to specify the prepaired solution and existing approach. c.fn . Plan and schedule a formel.Z djsxhA .s rks mlds ckn project dh designging start gks tkrh gSA NksVs project ds fy. . e.s rks izR.Z include jgrs gSA ii.s best suited choose djrh gS .fn .Project manager .s dkSu lk process model use fd.k tk. product detail.sd designing team ls activity report check djrk jgrk gSA cM+s project esa fuEufyf[kr communication activities include jgrh gS & a.s Hkh project manager gh decide djrk gSA . engineering. Melding the Porduct and the process :Project Planning product rFkk mldh process dks understand djus ds ckn gh 'kq: dh tkrh gSA vkSj izR. d.

ii.k tk.s rFkk 10% mldh working ds fy. The coosent technology changes.sA Information system project ds fy. and behaviral features fo the software. v. h. functions.s x.s x.sA rFkk . Design the reflect data.d gS fd mls lgh dSls fd. Business need change.s discuss fd. iv.s tks steps define fd. Software people don't understand their customer needs. g. Charges are managed poorly. ds fy. Died lines are unreakustuc. vi. iii. Managers and prectisnner avoid best practices and lessons learned.s manager dh eq[.s gS & . j. Hkwfedk gksrh gsA ftlds fy.s understand djuk Hkh vko'.kj djus ds fy. Review correcterness consistency and each steps of the problem.s gS og bl izdkj gSA i. Sponsorship is lort. i.s tkrs gSA software project dks complete djus ds fy. Review the scopping documents with all concered.s projectional yxHkx 90 & 100 rules discuss djrs gSA buesa ls 90% system ds affort rFkk le. Assemble scopping documents. User are resintande. viii.s ikap part suggest fd. The project team lacks peopel with appropriate & skills . x. The product scope is poorly define. fdlh Hkh deficult software project dks rS. MOdify the scopping documents as required. The project :fdlh Hkh software project dks sucessfully manage djus ds fy.f. le>uk pkfg. vii.s ges lcls igys bldh problem dks vo'. xi. c.

Maintain momentum.d common part gksrk gSA ftlesa ge power consumption wait. software engineering task.k tk ldrk gSA ftls ge process indicators dgrs gSA bleas fdlh Hkh process dsa paradigoms. ii.kZ gks tkrs gSA rks mleas managers rFkk practioners vius&vius dke esa busy gks tkrs gSA ftlls software process es improvement gksrk gSA dqN cares ea same software metrics project rFkk process indicators dks determine djus .k dks ge implimention Hkh dgrs gSA fdlh Hkh problem dks gy dus ds fy. products rFkk milestones etc includes jgrs gS . v.i.k tkrk gSA bl izfØ. work.drkuqlkj measure . Software process and Project Materials :Software process and project materials esa iwjs izkstsDV dh quantatum measurment dh tkrh gSA ftlesa project dh basic quality productvitiy rFkk data dh information collect dh tkrh gSA blds ckn bl MkVk dks analysis fd. physical structure. jgrs mlesa dksbZ improvement ugh dh tk ldrh gSA Metrics in the process & project domain :Engineering world esa measurement .k tkrk gSA vkSj mls productivity esa add dj fn.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds process dks metrics ds }kjk vklkuh ls handle fd.Z djrs gSA rks ges ml le.k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh measurment software engineers ds }kjk dh tkrh gSA .fn vki fdlh project dks vko'.s tks point dicuss fd. Conduct a mortem analysis.fn lHkh izdkj ds process time ds vuqlkj laiw. iv.drk gksrh gSA fd fdl part dk measure fd. tempracture voltage etc dks measure dgrs gSA . Makes smart decision. .s fyLV yxHkx endless gS tc Hkh ge fdlh izkstsDV ij dk. iii.s tkrs gSA mUgs metrices dgk tkrk gSA software metrics dks software manager ds }kjk analysis rFkk access fd. Track Progress.k judge ugh djrs gS rks vkidk project fail gks ldrk gSA vkSj le. Start on the foot.g le>us dh vko'.

iv.k dks ge SSPI (Stafirtical Software Process Imporvement) dgrs gSA ftlesa software analysis dks Hkh handle fd.s x. Plans are developd to modify the process because the class of errors and defects is most costly.ksx djds laLFkk vklkuh ls MkVk collect dj ldrh gSA bl izfØ. Design c.drk gksrh gSA ysfdu mlls igys software dh quality rFkk organizational performence dh process dks indirectly measure dj ldrs gSA tSls fd & outcomes dks handle djrk vkSj le. Specification / requirement b.s metrics process rFkk project domain nksuks ds fy. ij enduser ls report team ds }kjk design fd.k tkrk gS A blh dkj. All errors on deffects area catagoried by origin. (for ex . vi. Resultant data are analysis to uncover the cataogries that result in highest cost to the organization. Code . The no. Oritin of errors defects a. Process metrick & software process improvement :fdlh Hkh project es .ksx fd.ess mi. Process metrics dk mi.s tkrs gSA 1. The cost coreect each other and defect is recordered.s gksrs gSA mudh confirmation ysuk etc.fn improvement djuk gks rks mlls related gj izdkj ds attributes dks measure djus dh vko'. iii. of errors and defects in each catagories and countered and ranked in descending order.k tkrk gSA rFkk lHkh errors rFkk deffect ds ckjs esa information collect dh tkrh gS A Failure analysis bl izdkj dk. how in logic and non confermence to standrads) ii.flow in specification.Z djrs gSA i.k ls . v. The over all cost of errors and defects and each catagories is computers.s mi.&le.ksx dh tkrh gSA measurement project team ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls metrics ds :i esa convert dj fy.

Measures the resources ( Ex.s project metrics project managers rFkk software team ds }kjk mi.Means that indicate the effectiveness of the deliverables.ksxh gksrh gSA tSls gh project 'kq: gksrk gS rks mldk time .s project esa .ksx fd.s x. Project Metrics :Software project metrics strategic purpose ds fy.s gh mi.ksx dh tkrh gSA bles project work flow rFkk technical acitivities include jgrh gSA Project metrics dh igyh application bl le.ksx fd.ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu software project esa tactical analysis fd. time review.s estimate iwjkus project ea ls Hkh collect dh tk ldrh gS tks fd current project es dkQh mi. Acutally . Output :.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh lHkh metrics dks project manager miners ds fy.sd activity esa apply fd.k tkrk gSA ftlls project dh performence vkSj c<+ tkrh gSA Project metrics dks project ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA Design fd.k tk ldrk gSA Software measurment : - . project astimate yxkbZ tkrh gSA .s provide djrk gS rFkk iwjs project dh controlling djrk gSA blesa documentaion.s Hkh mi.drkuqlkj implimentation gskrk gSA softare project metrics dk .fn fdlh izdkj dh error vk.s lHkh improve gksrs tkrs gS rFkk user dh vko'.People.k tkrk gSA fd blesa development schedule vklkuh ls design fd.s mi.2. .s model process rFkk project nksuks ds fy.rk ls product dh quality dks improve fd.d vkSj model yxHkx izR. function point rFkk deleverd scarce line measure dh tkrh gSA blesa . Input :.s tkrs gSA .Measures of the deliverables or work products during th software engineering process.k tkrk gSA tSls gh quality improve gksrh gSA mlesa ftrus Hkh defect gksrs gSA .k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh lgk.s model izR. c.ksx fd. Results :. mi. Environment) Required to the work) b.d schedule ds vuqlkj mldk estimate ls compose fd.sd project esa mi.k tkrk gS & a.s rsk mls delete dj fy.ksx dh tkrh gS ftl le.

maintainility. Number of users Inqueries.k tkrk gSA Sofware engineering process esa direct measurment esa cost rFkk affoord (apply) include jgrk gSA rFkk blesa line of code (LOC) produced. ii. memory size rFkk deffects etc.d NksVs ls program ds }kjk handle fd. Function Oriented Metrics :Function Oriented metric s apllication dh normalisation value dks measure djrh gS blesa application ds lHkh izdkj ds function measure fd.50000 $ rd gks ldrh gSA software engineering activities analysis designcode rFkk test activity include gjrh gSA 2. Size Oriented Metrics :Size Oriented Software metrics quality rFkk productivity ls yh xbZ gSA bles software organization similler domain dks maintain djrh gSA rks Vscy dk size ls measure fd. rFkk cgqr lkjh acitivities include jgrh gSA 1.s tkrs gSA bl stage dks ge function point Hkh dg ldrs gSA Function point dk mi.k tk ldrk gS vkSj bldh list dks .k tk ldrk gSA Information to main values bl izdkj define dh tk ldrh gSA i.fDr N% eghus ds vanj design dj ldrs gSA rFkk bldh cost 1.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk table dh list ds izR.Measurment dks nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x. quality. complexlity. Hkh include jgrs gSA Indirect measurement es functionalty.sd item dks vklkuh ls compile fd.ksx djds software dh information dks vklkuh ls interrelate djds measure fd. excution speed. iv. . Indirect Measurement blh ds vk/kkj ij software metrics dks apply fd.k tk ldrk gSA . ii. Number of users Output.k gSA & 1. Number of Files. Number of users Input. reliability. Direct Measurement 2.fn bl project esa word 12000 lines ds vklikl gS rks bls pkj O. efficiencey.

FP (Function Point) per person month.ksx djds . vi. v.g irk yxkrh gSA fd perticular entry simple gS . defects per FP (Function Point).d ckj data collect dj fy.k bu functions points dks engineering rFkk nwljs system ess Hkh mi.v.s tkrs gSA mUgs system application .drk gksrh gSA bl process .s tkrs gS rks mlds ckn software dh productvity. Is the code designed reusable ? .k tk ldrk gSA blh dkj.k tkrk gSA ftlls iwjh application ds behaviour rFkk functions dks control fd.k tkrk gS & i. xi. ii. $ per FP (Function Point). . iv. quality rFkk nwljk attribute measures fd.s apply fd. vii.k average gS .k tkrk gS vkSj organization function point methods dk mi. x.k business information ds fy.fn .fn .k tkrk gS rks mldh values dks count fd.ksx fd.s tkrs gS tSls fd & errors per FP (Function Point). Number of external interfaces.k complex gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr questions dk answer find fd.slh satisfaction esa cgqr lkjs basic funcion points dks measure djus dh vko'. External Function Point metrics :tks Hkh Function point measure fd.k tkrk gSA . iii. Pages of Documentation per FP (Function Point). the user ? Does the system require reliable backup and recovery? Are data communication require ? Are there distributed processing function ? Is performance ctritical? Does the system require online data entry? Are the masterfile updated online ? Is the internal processing complex ? Are conversion and installation included in the design ? Is the application designed to facilities change and eare of use by viii.d ckj function point calculate dj fy.

fn projects esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls lekIr djus fy.k tk ldrk gSA Metrics for Software Quality :Software engineering dk main aim high quality system application . dks iwjk djus ds fy.k tk ldsA Engineers ds }kjk blds fy.k product dk maintainance djuk gksrk gsA bl mís'.s lHkh algorithm ds gh mnkgj.k engineering software application esa mi.rk ls iwjs program ds functions dks specify fd.k problems dks gy dj ldsA rFkk gj izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls handle fd. Product Translation (Modify it) to work a different envrionment.dks function point extenstion dgk tkrk gSA .s analysis.k tkrk gSA bleas coding.g factor rhu izdkj ls access fd. .s technical measurment dh vko'.k dHkh&dHkh ge feature point Hkh dg nsrs gSA ftUgs fdlh perticular system . design models.s software process esa software engineers dks effectives methods apply djus dh vko'. source code rFkk cost condition dh quality dks improve djus dh vko'.s DRE (Defect Removable Efficiency) work activity dk mi.drk vyx&vyx izdkj dh metrics dk mi.ksx fd.ksx fd.k gSA blds } kjk 3D function points dks Hkh handle fd.&le. decoding rFkk handling and inturrepts .s vko'.k tkrk gSA Feature points esa realtime process control.k tk ldrk gSA izR. An overview of factor that effect quality :Software quality esa quality dk lcls igyk factor gksrk gSA software esa .drk requirements . Product Revision (Change it) iii.k tk ldrk gSA i.d vPNh quality ds fy.drk gksrh gSA blesa project managers le.sd activity ds fy.drk gksrh gSA .ksx fd. Product Operation (Using it) ii.k tkrk gSA 1.k tk ldrk gSA .k tk ldrk gSA Algorithm dh lgk. ij projects process dh reports ysrk jgrk gSA vkSj project metrics dh help ls information select djrk jgrk gSA ftlds }kjk software dh quality rFkk effectiveness dks improve fd. software application trends rFkk algorithm dks handle fd.

.k tkrk gSA rFkk D.s gj izdkj ds measurement dh vko'. Maintainablity (PIC maintain) d.k tkrk gSA software dks rS.s dkQh hard work djuk iM+rk gSA D. Currentness c.drk gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.drk gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls project team project dh .s project dh delivery ds igys ls gh .d quality dks improve djrh gSA a. count dh tkrh gSA tc software end user dks diliver fd. ij collect fd.s eq[.k tkrk gS rks DRE bl izdkj define fd tk ldrh gS & DRE = E/(E+D) .d gksrk gSA ftudh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s deliver gks pqdk gksrk gSA DRE dhs value tc 1 gksrh gSA rks bldk eryc .ksfd software ls related fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information dks project managers ds }kjk le. Useability (User Friendly) Defect Removable Efficiency (DRE) :fdlh Hkh project dh lcls cM+h quality process level ij DRE gksrh gSA bls ge filtering ability . errors filter gskrh gS blfy.k control activity Hkh dg ldrs gSA tc iwjs project dks analysis fd.&le.rk ls project dks complete djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA blds fy.k gS .k x.g gS fd software esa dskbZ defect ugh gSA .2. Measuring Quality :Project measurment esa software quality dks improve djus ds fy. numbers of defect ds fy.s define fd. requirement bl izdkj gksrh gS & i. Intrigrity b.fn 1 dh value increase gskrh gSA rks ml le.s error project team ds }kjk gy dj yh tkrh gSA Intrigrity Metrics with in the software process :tSlk fd ge tkurs gSA fd software dks dHkh&dHkh vklkuh ls measure ugh fd.k x.kj djus ds fy.gk ij E numbers of errors ds fy.s defective end user ds fy.k gSA .s cgqr lkjs programs dk collection vko'. Arguments for software metrics.s errors ml le.rk ls Project team project dh quality dks improve djus ds fy.s define fd.s bl izdkj ds measurement dh vko'.

&le. Stablishing a base line. iii.k tkrk gS vkSj budh lgh :i ls scheduling djrk gS vkSj .s estimate project dh 'kq:vkr ds le. ij vklkuh ls impliment fd.kj dh tkrh gSA rFkk resources ds lkFk customer dks lkSai fn.sls functions provide fd. Unit II Software Project Planing :Software Project Planing esa iwjs project dh activities involve jgrh gSA tSl fd How much money? How much effort? How many resources and how much time it will lake to build a software product? Software managers selected information dks mi.d complete mannual rS.kj gks tkrk gS rks mldh iwjh cost rS.d complete project cukuk gksrk gSA ftlesa managers project dh vko.s create fd.s information buds ikl customers.k tkrk gS rFkk blesa .ii.drkuqlkj resources rFkk cost dk estimate yx. time limit dks /.d responsible project rS. Software Scope ii.ksx djds dk. Metrics collection.k tkrk gSA ftls project ds lkFk customer dks provide fd. Rsources .kj fd. computation & evaluation.kj gks tkrk gS rkS software project planing esa fuEufyf[kr activities discuss dh tkrh gS & i.k tk ldrk gSA tc rd project complete ugh gks tkrk rc rd project manager bldh surity ugh nsrk gS bl project ds lkFk&lkFk . software egineers rFkk software metrics ls izkIr gksrh gSA vkSj tc project rS.s tkrs gS ftudks le. .Z 'kq: dj nsrs gSA .k tkrk gSA ftlesa project ls related gj izdkj dh information store jgrh gSA User bl mannual dk mi.s tkrs gSA blds vfrfjDr estimate esa software metrics rFkk project outcomes Hkh include jgrh gSA tc .ku esa j[krs gq.ksx djds vklkuh ls project dks handle dj ldrs gSA Project Planing Objectives :Software Project planing dk mís'.

Decompostion Technique.k tkrk gsA ftlesa hardware rFkk software tools include jgrs gSA a.drkuqlkj project dh scheduling dh tkrh gSA Performance esa processing rFkk responce time dh vko'. Senior.d vkneh N% eghus ds vanj fdlh .drk gksrh gSA blesa organizational possition (Manager.ksfd mUgh ds vk/kkj ij iwjh cost dk estimate yxk.s managers dks skill dh vko'.fn .d gksrh gSA D.k tkrk gSA rFkk function. Resources :Software planing dk . Obtaining information necessory for scope. databases.iii.s tkrs gSA NksVs projects esa . ii. performance.k tkrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a.kj djus ls igys lHkh izdkj dh detail gkfly djuk vko'. Humen Resources :Complete development ds fy. Software Scope :Software project planing esa lcls igyh activity software scope gksrh gSA ftlesa software ds functions rFkk mldh performance dks measure fd. interfaces rFkk reliability etc.s rc rd fdrus yksxksa dh vko'. constraints.d NksVs project dks complete dj ysrk gS vkSj og Lo. client server) nksuks gh specify fd.drk gS .drk gksrh gSA Constaints esa hardware dh limit dks identify fd.d ckj estimate . dks control fd. Software Project Estimate iv. b.s estimate rS.s nwljk step gksrk gS tks fd software development esa dkQh egRoiw.k tk.k tkrk gSA blfy. Software engineer) rFkk specility (telecommunication.d information izkIr djrk gS fdlh cM+s project esa tc rd development dk estimate ugh yxk.k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'.k tkrk gSA Software scope esa data dks describe fd. Feasiblity.kZ step gSA bleas development environment dks study fd.a gh project dh vko'. i.g dgk ugh tk ldrk] .

k tkrk gSA .s limited experiance gksrk gSA blfy. code rFkk tested data dks izkIr rks dj ysrs gSA ysfdu mlesa dqN modification dh vko'.k tkrk gSA tks fd development es dkQh lgk.d programming block cuk.k bUgs current project ds fy.s .s dkQh lgk. Full Experience Component :Current Project ds fy. Partial Experience Components :Current project ds fy.k component esa partial experance dh vko'.k tkrk gS rks person rFkk required months nksuks dk gh irk djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA b.drkuqlkj mlesa modification dj ldsA c.rk gSA ftrus Hkh standard application gksrh gS os ges'kk gh blocks dh lgk.knk reliable and reusble gksrs gSA blesa izR.rk djrh gSA Current software team ds members ds ikl full experince gksrk gS fd os mu components dks current project easa represent dj ldsa .s software degign djus ds fy.drk gksrh gSA d.sd component ds fy.k tkrk gS b.s third party ls [kjhn fy.k vko'. Reusable Software Resources :tks software component based software gksrs gS . New Component :- .k tkrk gSA bUgh blocks dks ge component project dks handle djus ds fy.drk gksrh gsA current software team ds members ds ikl mUgsa represent djus ds fy.s software T.s igys ls gh cuh application design rFkk mldh coding dks access dj fy.rk ls gh complete dh tkrh gSA blesa dqN fuEufyf[kr points gS & a.yxk fy.s ge igys ls mifLFkr application design.s bu application esa .ksx dj fy.s dHkh&dHkh igys ls gh cus project ds component dks mi. Off the self component :u.

) 2.s Hkh hardware rFkk software dh vko'. environmental rFkk political etc.drk Hkh gksrh gSA izR.k variable include jgrs gSA tSls fd humen.drkuqlkj dk.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy. technial.drkuqlkj software team dks u.s gks ldrh gSA .d gksrk gSA tc . Base estimates on similer project that have allready been completed.d computer based system rS.drk gksrh gSA rkfd vius project dks interactive user friendly rFkk reusable cuk. Software ds fy.k tkuk vko'.slk environment tks software project dks support djrk gks] mls ge Software Engineering Environment (SEE) dgrs gsA blesa hardware rFkk software nksuks component include jgrs gSA Hardware. (We can active 100% accurate estimate ofter the project is complete.drk dks spcify fd. Case one or more models for software cost and estimation. Decomposition technique :- .k tk ldsA 3. 3.ksfd blesa cgqr lkjs yksx . Delay estimation until late in the project.sd hardware software project ds vuqlkj izkIr djuk vko'.s software component design djus dh vko'.s fuEufyf[kr option arise gksrs gS & 1. Case relalivialy simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and estimate. Environmental Resources :.Current project dh vko'.kj fd.k tkrk gSA rks software team dks hardware element dks access djus dh vko'.s .s dHkh exact ugh gksrk gS D.kj dh tkrh gSA blesa profit rFkk loss nksuks dh gh laHkkouk.Z fd. bu lHkh dh cost software esa effect djrh gSA software dh cost dks rFkk estimate dks vklkuh ls izkIr djus ds fy.sd organization esa mi. 4.d plateform provide djrk gSA ftlesa vko'.ksx dh tk jgs gSA Software dh cost developr ds }kjk rS.d gksrk gSA Software Project Estimation :Software dh cost igys dh vis{kk dkQh expensive gks xbZ gS vkt dy lHkh computer base system izR.

drkuqlkj gS .d project estimation dk eq[.k ugh A rFkk mldk environment software dks support dj jgk gSA . dk.ksX.gh .slh process gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.Software project dk lgh estimate cgqr lkjh phtksa ij fuHkZj djuk gSA i.Software project estimation .k ugh A iv.k tk jgk gSA og user dh vko'.kj djrk gSA .Z djsxsA Calander time D.rk ds vuqlkj gS .k gS & i.Fkk estimate xyr Hkh gks ldrk gSA a. esa fdrus vkneh dk. blesa . Fuzzy Logic Sizing :bl technique dh lgk.d .sA vU.sd set dh cost rFkk estimate create djus ls igys project planner dks software dk scope rFkk blds size ds ckjs es iwjk knowledge gkfly dj ysuk pkfg.k gksxk vkSj bldh dher fdruh gksxhA iii. software Sizing :. Project paln software team dh .rk ls programm application dh type dks mldh quality dks identify djds original range rS. Function Point Sizing :- .rk ls iwjs project dks NksVs&NksVs meaningfull sets esa devide dj fn.k gSA vkSj bl project dk dk.d problem solving techniqes gS vkSj cgqr lkjs cases esa problem dks solve djuk] dkQh dfBu gks tkrk gS blh dkj.k gksxkA ii. tks project rS.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR.gk ij planner viuk personal experiance use djrk gSA ii.k x.Z gksrk gSA sizing problem esa fofHkUu izdkj dh pkj approach dks suggest fd.k ugh A tc bl izdkj dh lkjh tkudkjh project programmer dks gks tkrh gSA rks og software dh sizing problem dks vklkuh ls vkSj vPNs rjhds ls decopose dj ldrk gSA vkSj .k ls ge problem dks decompose dj ldrs gSA decomposition .kj fd.Z D.d le. Porject fdl izdkj dk gS rFkk mldk lkbt D.

&le. betch programs.k tkrk gS rks mls le. LOC(Lines Of Code).k tkuk vko'. bl technique dks mi.drkuqlkj mi. intractive programsm.fn . Software ds izR. Standrad Component Sizing :Software cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx standrad component ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA tks fd . screens.d gksrk gSA Software data dks nks rjg ls mi. rFkk object lable instructions etc gSA bl izdkj project planner estimate ds fy.ftl izdkj dh information planner ds ikl miyC/k gksrh gS bl techinque d use djds og mlh information ds vuqlkj estimate rS. reports.k tk ldrk gSA iv.k tkrk gSA . b. Cnage Sizing :tc fdlh project dks modify fd.kj dj ysrk gSA iii. igys ls gh cus gq. adding corse.d perticular application dks execute djrs gSA mnkgj.sd estimate dks variable ds size ds :i esa A ii. ij viuh vko'.s yxHkx 18 estimate reports generate djrk gSA vkSj izR.ksx djdsA LOC And FP estimation .sd reports esa cobol language ds vuqlkj yxHkx 967 lines gks ldrh gSA vkSj bu lHkh reports dks feykdj project dh size value dk irk fd.s information system ds standrad components sub system. Problem based estimated :fdlh Hkh project dks execute djus ls igys Lines Of Codes (LOC) and function point (FP) dks describe fd. models.k ds fy. files.ksx fd. changing corse.k tk ldrk gSA i.d direct estimation technique gS bu nksuksa ds ikl cgqr lkjs common features gksrs gSA ftuds project manager le.ksx fd. and deleteing corse etc.ksx djrk gSA bleas .s project dks base line ds :i esa mi.gk¡ ij planner fofHkUu izdkj ds estimate create djrk gSA tSls fd reuse.

800 3. An Example of LOC based estimation :LOC and FP problem based estimation technique ds fy.fdlh izdkj dh changing dh tkrh gSA rks bldk effect iwj project ij iM+rk gSA c.k tk ldrk gSA ftlds fy.k tk.s fdlh software package dks . Pripheral Control Function (PCF) 7. Computer Graphics Display Facility (CGDF) 6.sd statement ds fy.fn bu lHkh function ds fy. Two Dimensional Geometric Analysis (2DGA) 3.s tk ldrs gS & 1.s detailed information dh vko'. Database Management (DBM) 5.d example ds :i easa choose fd.300 6.drkuqlkj output produce fd.s dqN system specification guide ds :i esa mi.d CAD Database esa maintain fd.drkuqlkj vPNs designing djrs gSA lHkh izdkj dk MkVk rFkk information .drk gksrh gSA blds fy.gk¡ ij izR.350 4.300 5.s rks og bl range esa gks ldrk gSA Function UICF 2DGA 3DGA DBM CGDA PCF Estimated LOC 2.s tkrs gSA tks Hkh desingning gksrh gS mldk vko'.100 .ksx dh tk ldrh gSA CAD software two and Three dimensional esa data accept djrk gSA vkSj engineers ml MkVk dks user information dh vko'.k tkrk gSA .950 2.s LOC dks estimate yxk. User interface and control facility (UICF) 2.s dqN eq[. software functions bl izdkj define fd. Design Analysis Module (DAM) CAD software esa . Three Dimensional Geometric Analysis (3DGA) 4.

s include jgrs gS ftudk estimate bl izdkj describe fd.k tkrk gSA blesa izR. of Files 42 No. Coutn Weight 24 16 22 4 2 4 5 5 10 7 320 Empirical Estimation Models :. output.DAM Estimated Line Of Code 8.slk model gS ftldksa LOC and FP functions dh rjg computer software ds fy. of inputs 97 No.s values dk estimate yxk.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy. inqueries.sd problem dks gy djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA Infor.s cgqr lkjs approach use fd.d .ksx fd. of Outputs 78 No.s model lHkh development environment esa mi.s mi.s function dh vis{kk information value ij /.400 33.k tkrk gSA ftlesa estimated input. The Sturcture of Estimation Models :- .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Empirical data cgqr lkjs estimated models dks support djrk gSA blfy.200 d. files and external interfaces CAD software ds fy.s tkrs gSA 1. of Inqueries 88 No.Domation Value OPT FP Count No.ku fn.s .s . of External 15 Count Total 20 12 16 4 2 Likely Fees 24 15 22 4 2 30 22 28 5 3 Esti. An Example of FP based estimation :FP based Estimation ds fy.

ksx fd.0545 FP Albrechet And Gaffney Model E = 60.k tkrk gSA bldk overall structure bl izdkj gks ldrk gSA example E = A + B * (ev)c . B and C emprical constant gS E person month ds fy.dksbZ Hkh estimation model fdlh iqjkus software project ds data dks collect djds .k gS rFkk ev. Early Desing Stage Model :.k tk ldrk gSA blesa problem complexity.s fofHkUu izdkj ds result provide djrk gSA ftlls requirment clear gks tkrh gSA vkSj estimation model ges'kk gh local need ds vuqlkj create djus dh vko'.Use Guring the stages of software engineering. .k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds models dks fuEufyf[kr fØ.gk¡ ij A.s lcls vf/kd mi.bl model dk iwjk uke Constructive cost model gS bls software estimation ds fy.k tk ldrk gS & 1. estimation variable gS . stafe experiance rFkk development environment include jgrs gSA LOC oriented estimation model dqN bl izdkj gSA & E = 5.k tk ldrk gSA fd izR.5 + 0.62 * 7.k tkrk gSA bles iwjs project dh cost dj Hkh estimate yxk.sd model same LOC or FP dh value ds fy.d quick estimate cuk.kvksa eas mi.s variable LOC or FP gks ldrk gSA fdlh project ds izR.ksx fd.k mlds Åij analysis djds rS.sd components dks blh structure ij define fd.ksx fd.kj fd. Application Compostition Model :.39 + 0.Used ones requirments have ban stablized and basic software architecture has been established.2 & (KLOC)0.91 Walston Felix Model E = 5.720 * 10-8 FP3 Kemere model bl model dh lgk. 2.k x.73 * (KLOC)1.s mi.drk gksrh gSA The Common Model :.16 Bailey Basily Model FP Oriented model dqN bl izdkj gS & E = -13.rk ls .

fn vkidksa .kj gksrk gSA Project dks rS.g irk py tk. Quality Control 3.d complete software project rS.sd software engineer tc software project rS.d lgh functional project rS.Use during the construction of the software. mís'.s tkrs gSA rFkk blesa object point.kj djus es l{ke gksrh gSA Quality Concept :izR.kj djds user dks provide djrs gSA ml software dh quality eq[. Port Architecture Stages Model :.kj djrk gSA rks og mldh quality ds fy.sd software dk viuk . .Z djrk gS lHkh engineers and manufactures user dh vko'.ksx fd. Cost of Quality .drkuqlkj project dks analysis djrs gSA rFkk mlh ds vuqlkj software rS.s fd fdl izdkj dh quality gesa user dks nsuh gS rks software dh izR. Quality 2.3. . Quality Assurance 4.drk gksrh gSA . ls gksrh gSA .d unique structure gksrk gS vkSj og requirment ds vuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj ls dk.sd activites dks identify djuk gksxkA mlds ckn gh software team .kj djrs le.k tkrk gSA ftlesa rhu vyx&vyx izdkj ds model use fd. function point and lines of source code include jgrs gSA Software Quality Assurance :izR.d gksrs gSA 1.s reponsible gksrk gSA bleas software dks ckj&ckj psd djus dh vko'.fn software team software dh lHkh activities dh qualities dks successful izkIr dj ysrh gSA rks ml le.fn engineers mldh quality ugh nss ikrs gS rks cgqr lkjs project bl stage esa vkdj fail Hkh gks ldrs gSA Software quality esa software protection Hkh include jgrk gSA Customer problem ds vuqlkj fuEufyf[kr points software project esa specify djuk vko'. lHkh estimation models dh rjg capemo model Hkh mi.

k organization ds senior manager product quality dks improve djrs gSA vkSj vf/kd ls vf/kd le. quality movment dks TQM (Total Quality Movement) uke fn. Quality Movements :vktdy fdlh company .k A .s stpe user ds product dks improve djrk gSA rFkk mlesa user friendly interface rS.kj gksrk gS rFkk bls eq[.ksa esa software quality assurance dks Hkh vyx&vyx izdkj ls compose fd.k tk ldrk gSA 1980 esa quality movement iwjs world esa QSy pqdh Fkh A Project dks mi.s processing ds Åij control djrk gSA ftlesa structure quality rFkk managment bR.kj djrk gSA vkSj last stpe Business oreinted step gksrk gSA ftls Miryokateki Hinstuitsy dgykrk gSA bl step dh lgk. analysis and reporting ds .s eq[.gh step customer based system ls portable products rFkk application rS.d vPNs rFkk TQM program ds fy.ksx djus okys lcls igys quality dh gh ckr djrs gSA ml le.kfn process include jgrh gSA blesa need changing Hkh dh tk ldrh gSA rhljk step Kansei dgykrk gSA tc igys nks step complete gks tkrs gSA rks .rk ls product market place esa mi.ku j[krs gSA vkSj SQA dk iwjk group quality assurance planning oversite record keeping.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj .s quality vyx&vyx companies and organization ds fy.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA nqljs step dks Apasimace Linstitru dgk tkrk gSA . object ekurs gSA vyx&vyx izdkj dh ifjfLFkfr.s stpe Kezon ds ckn 'kq: gksrk gS rFkk .s vyx&vyx izdkj ls maintain dh xbZ gSA .k x.k tk ldrk gSA Software engineers tks fd technical dk.Z djrs gSA os bldk fo'ks"k /. Adverd ds }kjk tkiku esa test dh xbZ] mlds idea dks use djds fdlh Hkh product ds effect dks lgh fd.kj djrk gSA ftlesa software engineers dks profit gksrk gSA SQA (Software Quality Assurance) Activities :cgqr lkjs software developrs high quality software ds fy. rFkk cost nksuksa gh cpkrs gSA Quality movement ds vklikl 'kq: gksrh FkhA W.1. four step provide tk ldrs gSA igys step kds Kezon dgk¡ tkrk gSA blesa iwjs system dh processing dks implementaion fd.s rS.

ftrus Hkh deffect gksrs gS mUgsa yxHkx 80% solve fd.fn mlesa fdlh izdkj ds effect vkrs gS rks mUgs collect djuk vkSj vyx&vyx catageries esa ckaVuk rFkk muds ckjs esa information collect djuk Hkh statical software quality assurance ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA ii. .d ckj deffect dks gy dj fy. Participate in the development of the project software process decription.d gksrk gSSA iv. tks Hkh deffect create gksrs gS mUgs izR.sA SQA group ds }kjk tks activities perform dh tkrh gSA muesa fuEufyf[kr step Hkh include jgrs gSA 1. 4. Prepairs and SQA plan for a project.kj fd. 6.s igys ls gh .k x.s responssible gksrk gSA Software dh testing ds fy.fy.k gSA . 2. Ensures that software work and software products are documented. Statical Software Quality Assurance :Statical quality assurance iwjs software dh growing dks reflect djrh gSA blesa quality vkSj improve gks tkrh gSA bleas fuEufyf[kr step include jgrs gS & i. Qualities design software work prducts to varified with part of the software products. 3.s deffect dgk¡ ls vk. Records and reprots and report to senior management.k tkrk gSA rks software dh quality vklkuh ls improve dh tk ldrh gSA Software Reliability :- .fn . tks software rS.d maintain plan gksuk pkfg. Reviews software engineering activities to varify with the defined software porcess.s gSSA iii. 5.sd deffect ds ckjs es irk yxkuk ds .k tkuk vko'.

fn vius project dks safe u fd.s irk pyrk gS fd software Hkfo".s vkSj result ogh gks rks blls ges .d gS ftls mechnical and electric devices ds }kjk control fd.s reliable gS vkSj .k tk.fn dksbZ program lgh performance ugh nsrk gS rks software dh quality decrease gks tkrh gSA nwljh quality dh rjg gh software reliabiltiy dks direct measure fd.d ..d .k tk ldrk gSA .s .d read map dh rjg dk.gk¡ ij dksbZ 'kd ugh gS fd overall quality esa compter program dh reliability .fn fdlh perticular process esa ckj&ckj execution ij result vyx&vyx vkrk gSA rks iwjk project fail gks ldrk gSA Software dks mi. User Documents (Help Files) .s .slk plan gksrk gS tks software project esa SQA activity dks control dj ldrk gSA SQA plan ds fy.s tk ldrs gSA bles organization rules rFkk responsibilities bR.d software quality assurace activity gS .k tk ldrk gSA rkfd user fdlh Hkh izdkj dk data enter djs rks mlesa dsoy result gh vkuk pkfg.slh term gS tks fd software dh processing ds le.d ckj esa fdlh perticular data ds fy. check dh tkrh gSA .k tkrk gSA SQA plan ds lHkh document yxHkx lHkh application ds fy. Technical Documents (Test Plan) 4. documentation and process activities dks handle fd. ds fy.sA Softwaer fail u gks blfy.k tkrk gS vkSj .k gSA ftlesa Quality assurance dk mís'.k x.fn software . Project Documents (Project Plan) 2.k tk.s standrad IEEE ds }kjk provide fd.kfn dks define fd.k tkrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr software process include jgrh gS & 1. Models 3.d cgqr lh vko'.ksx djus ls igys mldh specify vko'.d element gksrh gSA .s gj input step esa checks yxkus dh vko'.Z djrk gSA tks fd SQA group ds }kjk rS.s lgh result nsrk gS rks pkgs mls 100 ckj process fd.s rks iwjk software fail gks ldrk gSA SQA Plan :SQA plan software quality assurance es .drk gksrh gSA Software Safety Hkh .s apply fd.kj fd.

.slh quality assurance standards gS tks fd software engineer ds fy.s tks fd products . testing. measuring.drk gksrh gSA D.g .s apply fd. Newzelend etc countries IS) standard izkIr dj ysrh gSA vkSj mldk registration ISO es gks tkrk gS rks og country government agency rFkk public ds fy. controlling.s apply fd.k tkrk gS blesa manager responsibility.k tkrk gSA ftlls software processing ds nkSjku documentation standards.k tkrk gSA The ISO-9001 Standards :ISO-9001 .d quality assurance standard provide djrh gSA ISO 9000 standard dks cgqr lkjh countries esa viuk. SQA group and customer ds }kjk conduct dh tkrh gSA ISO 9000 Quality Organization) :- standard (International Standard .bu lHkh plans dk mi. contract review.gka ij tele communication equipment and medical device gS .s product and service provide dj ldrh gSA .k service provide djrk gSA .s fd.k gSA ftlesa Europ. control product densification. Maxico. US. ISO 9000 fdlh Hkh business ds fy. reporting. and tracatrility process control inspection and testing corrective and preventive action.ksx high quality provide djus ds fy. process and qualtity assurance system fdlh organization ds product rFkk services ds standard dks maintain djrk gSA ftlls customer satisfy gksrs gSA bl izdkj ds system esa cgqr lkjh activities include jgrh gSA ftlesa fdlh product ds iwjs life cycle dh planing. and imporve quality etc. quality system.sls devices gS tks fd ISO registration company ds }kjk gh vko'.d effective quality assurace system dbZ requirments dks fulfill djus dh vko'.d fd. coding standard and guide lines vklkuh ls izkIr gks tkrh gSA D.d . procedures.d quality assurance system ds tks fd organization structure responsibilities.ksfd ISO-9001 standard engineering discription ds fy..k tkrk gsA bl standrad esa .ksfd lHkh project process and product metrics software engineering dk gh Hkkx gskrh gSA iwjs project dh outgoing software engineering team. Canada. document adoq. Australiya. design control.

techniques.d complete analysis rS.kj gksrk gSA customer dh lgk.rk ls var esa customer ds fy.&le. refinment.rk ls data function and software fdl izdkj dk behaviour pkfg.slh process gS tks discovery.s iwjh information izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA vkSj developr customer dh problem ds vuqlkj software rS.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk blds vuqlkj software designeers vklkuh ls software design dj ldrs gSA requirment analysis dks software designeers data. . Hkkx jgrk gS A rFkk mudh activities dh lgk.drkuqlkj change fd.d .kj fd. interface and component level model esa trnaslate djrs gS vkSj blh dh lgk.rk ls gh software ds function.s main object gksrk gSA bleas engineers rFkk customer nksuks dk gh eq[.d software engineering dk dk.Z djrk gSA Requirment activities dh lgk. services and staticals techniques etc.s .kj dj ysrk gS vkSj og le.control of quality record. requirment include jgrh gSA UNIT III Analysis Concept & Principal :Software requirment engineering .d quality software rS. tranning. Problem Recoganition.drkuqlkj customer ls information izkIr dj ldrk gSA Requirment Analysis :Requirment analysis .rk ls . languages. analysis documentation rFkk system dk external behaviour user dh gh vko'.kj dj fn.drkuqlkj design fd.k gSA 1. internal quality audits. control. architectures.drkuqlkj data information control flow and operational behaviour ds models rS. modeling and specification dks process djrh gSA System engineers details es le>rs gS vkSj vko'.Z gS tks fd system level requirment rFkk software design ds chp esa dk. effective.k tkrk gSA Software requirment analysis 5 Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x. ij vko'.k tkrk gSA tks fd fdlh Hkh business ds fy. data and behaviour ds vko'.kj djrs gSA vkSj blds ckn gh complete analysis model rS.k tkrk gSA bleas principals.

k tk ldsA .drk gksrh gsA rFkk blds lkFk&lkFk software dk behaviour vkSj interface Hkh design fd. data flow.kj fd. .k tkrk gSA Analyst Principal :fiNys dqN lkyksa esa fofHkUu izdkj ds analyst modeling methods rS. lcls igys analyst system specification ds study djrk gSA vkSj software project plan create djrk gS . 5.Z gksrk gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr operational. Modeling.s x.s tks fdlh problem dks vklkuh ls discribe dj ldsA rkfd .s] rFkk . Specification.kj fd.d gS fd tks plan rS.k tkuk vko'.s program recorgnition ds fy.kj djrs gSA izR.s tks functions rS.k tkrk gS mls software ds vuqlkj le>k tk.s gSA Investigation analysing problems dks identify djrs gSA vkSj muds dkjdksa dk irk yxkrs gSA vkSj blh ds vuqlkj .sA ii. information.s tkrs gSA mudksa vyx&vyx izdkj ls define fd.kj fd. software functions define djus dh vko'.drkuqlkj modify fd. Software ds fy.d gSA iii.k user dh basic problem dks le>k tkrk gSA blds ckn analyst dks data objects. Review. Software ds behaviour dks represent djuk vko'. 4.kj fd. Information . Analyst process ds vko'.sd analysing model dk md viuk dk.s gksrk gSA ftlds customer .d model rS. 3.sA blh ds ckn dk step analyst ds fy.d proper estimate rS.wtj dks mls le>us esa dksbZ problem u vk. principal use fd.s vko'.2.k tk.s A v.slh gksuh pkfg.sls model tks information fucntion rFkk behavour fdks discribe djrs gS mudh vyx&vyx catagaries detailed information ds lkFk gksuh pkfg. Evaluation & Synthesis.s tk ldrs gS & i.d gksrk gSA iv.

d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd transmitt djus ds fy. The informtaion Domain :lHkh software applications esa vko'.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj user viuh vko'. iii.s .d . Information flow.k automobile system etc. Develop prototypes theat enable users to understand hwo humen machine instruction ocuure. Understand the problem before you begin to create the analysis model.ksx fd.drkuqlkj model rFkk information dks le> ldrk gSA blds fy.k . esa vklkuh ls mi.s fofHkUu izdkj ds domain use fd.k tkrk gsA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i.rk ls software requirments dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA software data dks process djus ds fy.s .kj djrk gSA bl izdkj ds software batch software dgykrs gA ftudks payroll system . 1.s rks fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls solve fd. Record the origion of and the resion for every requirment.slh term gS A ftldh lgk.drkuqlkj dqN guide lines bl izdkj gS & i.s tkrs gS ftUgsa computer program ds }kjk process fd. Information Structure.gh . Use multiple viewes of requirment. (The Datamodel) ii.drkuqlkj MkVk rFkk information dk collection gksrk gsA ftls ge data processing ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gS vkSj . .s vko'. vi.fn fdlh software esa apply fd. iii.drkuqlkj result izkIr djus ds fy. v.s fd. Work to requirment.d gS fd software gj izdkj ds events dks process dj ldsA vkSj system dks control dj ldsA Information domain esa MkVk rFkk processing control ds fy.k tkrk gSA tks fd input izkIr djrk gSA mlds vk/kkj ij manipluation djrk gSA vkSj vko'. Information Context & Relationships. ii.k vko'.drkuqlkj result (output) rS.k tk ldrk gSA .s vko'.k tk.bu principal dks . Rank requirments. iv.

s functional model create fd.drkuqlkj store Hkh fd.k tk ldrk gSA 2.slh problem dks NksV&NksVs Hkkx esa foHkkftr dj fn.k tkrk gSA D.kj fd.k tk ldrk gSa ftlls dHkh Hkh fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh A 4.kj djrs gSA ftlesa building.k tkrk gSA rkfd ml problem dks vkSj mlds information dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldsA Analysis principal ds vuqlkj information function . Behaviour Model.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk lHkh parts dks overall acitivity esa include fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk mUgsa vko'.ksX.s tkrs gS muesa dqN function rFkk behaviour fuEu izdkj gks ldrs gS & i.kj fd.ksfd og gj rjg ls information dks handle djus .drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dh information dks collect fd. 3. process rFkk output dh izfØ.Information context esa software ds vuqlkj vkSj user dh vko'.k tkrk gSA Information flow esa data and controlling ds fy.d NksVk ekWMy rS.s function rS.d gksrk gSA ftlls software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gS mls create fd.d lkFk le>uk dfBu gksrk gSA blh dkj. Modeling :tc Hkh bu fdlh software dks design djrs gSA rk vPNh understanding ds fy.s . plan and machine etc. Analysis Modeling :- .drkuqlkj partions esa ckaVuk vko'. include jgrh gSA vkSj tc software ds fy. gksuk pkfg.s tkrs gSA tc entry physical gksrh gSA rks mlds fy.kj fd.k tkrk gSA rks mls dqN vyx rjg ls create fd.s tkrs gSA ftlesa input.k complete gksrh gSA Information structure esa software dh items dks control fd.d software ds behaviour dks vko'. Functional Model ii.k tkrk gSA rFkk mls control fd.k .s model rS. Partioning :Problems ges'kk gh cgqr cM+h gksrh gS vkSj iwjh problem dsk .sA Operational analysis ds vuqlkj tks ekWMy rS.

k tkrk gSA .s & i.k tkrk gSA State Transaction Diagram (STD) system.s Hkh fd.kA ftldh lgk.k x. symbols use fd.drk gksrh gSA Model ds vuqlkj model ds CASE esa data dictinay fLFkr gS ftlesa lHkh data objects dh information store jgrh gSA blds ckgj rhu vyx&vyx izdkj dh diagram gSA Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) data objects ds chp esa relationship create djrh gSA rFkk bldk use data dsk conduct djus ds fy. iii.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk mldk use CASE tools esa Hkh fd.k tkrk gsA DFD process specification (PSPEC) dh information ds handle fd. bu objectives dks izkIr djus ds fy. To discribe what the customer require.s tkrs gS vkSj .s structured analysis dh vko'.ksx fd.rk ls 3 primary objectives vo'. ii.s DFD ds }kjk analysis ds nkSjku editional information Hkh provide dh tkrh gSA ftls modeling functions ds fy.kj fd. To establish a bases for the creation of the software design.k tkrk gSA Data ds movement ds fy.k tkrk gSA The Element of the analysis model :.k tkrk gSA Dataflow diagrams create fd.drkuqlkj graphics.k tkrk gSA Data Flow Diagram (DFD) nks purpose ds fy.k tkrk gSA 1980 ds ckn analsis esa realtime analysis use fd.s mi.s .s analysis modeling 1960 ls 'kq: gqbZ FkhA tks fd vkt structured design ds uke ls tkuh tkrh gSA .d model structure choose djrs gSA .k tkrk gSA vf/kdre control specification (CSPEC) dh information dks handle fd.s tk ldrs gSA Diagram ds vuqlkj lHkh objects ds chp esa relationship set fd.Software Engineers fdlh Hkh problems dks vyx&vyx rjhds ls analysis djrs gSA rFkk problem ds vuqlkj .wtj dh vko'. ds behaviour dsk control fd.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk vko'.Analysis model dh lgk.s mi. To define a set of requirments that can be validated once the software is build.rk ls engineering dh problems ds Åij deep analysis fd. izkIr gksus pkfg.d graphical representation gksrh gSA ftlesa iwjs software dks analysis djds represent fd.s vkSj dataflow ds fy.ksx fd.drkuqlkj process documentation rS.

s mi.kj dh tk ldrh gSA ftls software engineers esa mi. department.kj gksrk gSA Data objects ds chp esa attributes dks set djds relationship create fd.s data modeling method dk mi. objects include jgrs gSA . warehouse and life etc.d set of questions dk answer gksrk gsA tks fd fdlh Hkh data processing application ds fy. telephone call.d external entity Hkh gks ldrh gSA ftlls customer information. What are the relationship between each objects and other object.rk ls blds lkFk&lkFk processing dks Hkh control fd.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj data modeling dh lgk.rk ls entity relationship diagram rS. 5.Data Modeling :Data Mideling .k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk.Z dks complete djrh gSA rFkk software bls vklkuh ls le> ldrk gS bldh viuh properties rFkk attributes gksrh gS .s rhukasa Hkkx bl izdkj gS & i. 4.ksx fd.rk ls fdlh Hkh system ds data dks operational analysis djds represent fd. Data objects :Data Objects esa . 2.s .ksx fd. seles person.d lh information gksrh gS tks fdlh perticular dk.k tk ldrk gSA data modeling fuEufyf[kr question include jgrs gSA 1.k tkrk gSA ERD dh lgk. report. Where do the objects currently reside.ksx fd.k tk ldrk gSA Data Objects Attributes & Relationship :Data model three enter related piece of information ls feydj rS. accounting. What are the realitionship between the object and the process theat transform then. bu questions dk answer nsus ds fy. What are the primery data objects to be process by the system. 3. What is the compasition of each data objects and what attributes discribe the objects.d nwljs ls contect gks tkrs gsA Information ds .k tkrk gSA ftlls lHkh objects .

Displays.d gksrk gSA bu attributes dh lgk.drkuqlkj data.k x. Relationship :Data objects .ksx fd. b.s cgqr lkjs objects and relationship create fd.d nwljs ls connect fd.sls relationship gS tks Book and book store ds chp esa connection create dj jgs gS . A book store sotcks books. Attributes :Attributes. e. A book store return books.ksx fd. Make refrence to another instance in another table. Describe the instance. c. Name on instance of the data objects be. stocks sales and returns . c.k tk ldrk gSA iii. le>uk pkfg. data objects dh property gksrs gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr characteristics gks ldrs gS & a.s identifiers "key" ds :i esa mi.d nwljs ls fofHkUu izdkj ls connect fd.k tkrk gSA rks .k tkuk vko'.drk gh ugh gksrh gSA ysfdu fQj Hkh bl izdkj ds attributes dk models esa mi.sA . objects search fd.fn book rFkk book store nks objects dks relationship ns[kk tk.s tk ldrs gSA tc vko'.gk¡ ij .s tk ldrs gSA tSls fd & a.d gS fd objects and relationship pair esa gh gksuk pkfg.s tkrs gSA dqN ifjfLFkr. A book store orders book's. d. Orders. buds attributes indentifies dh rjg Hkh mi.s rks blesa dsoy nks gh objects dk .sA mlds ckn gh software design fd.ksa esa indentfiers dh value unique gksrh gS A gkykfd dHkh&dHkh budh vko'.k gSA ysfdu bu nksuksa esa fdl izdkj dk relation gSA bldk answer tkuus ds fy.ksx fd.rk ls fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls understand fd.ii. A books store sales books. Book store displays books.s tk ldrs gSA .k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s ges books rFkk books store role dks vo'. b.s vko'.

ksx fd.k tk ldrk gS vkSj ugh HkhA D.gk¡ ij .gk¡ ij one rFkk many relationship create gksrk gSA bu nksuksa relationships dks bl izdkj define fd.d ls vf/kd objects Hkh mi.knk information provide djus ds vko'.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj fdlh problem dsk solve djus ds fy.fn problem complex gks rks .slk relationship gS tks fd optional gksrk gS bls vko'.drkuqlkj mi.drk ugh gksrh gS ysfdu nksuks objects dh property dks le>uk important gksrk gS .s fd mlesa vf/kd ls vf/kd objects and relationship dks represent fd.s T.k tk ldrk gS & A.d gksrk gSA blfy. Cordinality :Data model .Coordinality and modelity :Data modeling esa elements data objects attributes rFkk relationship gksrs gS ftudh enn lsa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA bu elements ds vk/kkj ij related information dks le>uk cgqr gh vko'.d local telephone company viuh service customer dks provide djrh gsA .drk dHkh&dHkh gh iM+rh gSA tSls fd .k tkrk gS vkSj .skfd software es Hkh dqN .s tk ldrs gsA blfy.slk gksuk pkfg.s . ojbect Y ls interrelate djrk gsA blds fy.sls modules gksrs gS ftudh vko'.d object dks ckj&ckj mi.ksx Hkh fd.d .s .k tk ldsA Data model ges'kk gh object rFkk relationship ds pair esa represent fd. One to One (1:1) B. One to Many (1:N) C. customer dksbZ viuh problem crkrk gSA vkSj problem simple gks rks mls single repair action esa solve dj fy.k tkrk gSA .gh data modeling concept coordinality dgykrk gSA 1.fn fdlh le. Many to Many (M:N) 2.ksx fd.s ge ges'kk dgh objects and relationship dks pairs esa represent djrs gSA tSls fd object X. Modelity :Modelity .d object nwljs object ls interrelate djrk gsA Cordinality esa .

ksx analysis method ds vuqlkj nwljh vko'.gk¡ ij repair aciton model dHkh&dHkh gh mi.k tkrk gSA Functional Modeling and Information Flow :Information ges'kk gh computer based system ds }kjk flow gksrh gS blesa input cgqr lkjh term esa accept fd.s Hkh fd.s process .k tk ldrk gSA Data object car rFkk information ds chp esa relationship bl izdkj represent fd.s tkrs gSA Data Objects and relationship ds chp esa connection special symbol dk mi. .ksx djus ds fy.kj dj ldrs gSA .d rectangle esa represent fd.d gh module esa complete gks tkrh gSA ysfdu mls mi.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Entity Relationship Diagram :Data model esa object relationship pair cgqr gh important section gksrk gS .k reports ds :i esa pages ij produce dj fn.s output Hkh vko'.k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh data modeling dh .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA ge fdlh Hkh computer based system ds fy.drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy.s tkrs gSA vkSj buds cph esa relationship connecting line ds }kjk show fd.mlds fy.drk gksrh gSA ysfdu .drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dk gks ldrk gSA Input ges'kk gh signals ds :i esa gksrk gSA ftUgsa computer ds }kjk decode fd.k tk ldrk gSA Data modeling and entity relationship diagram analysis ds }kjk design dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls software applicatin ds vuqlkj n'kkZ.drk gksrh gSA bldk mi.s pair entity relationship diagram dk mi.ksx database system ds relation dks n'kkZus es fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk output monitor screen ij .k tk ldrk gSA tSls fd & hardware.s database design djus dh vko'.ksx djds graphicaly represent fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj data files ds :i esa store dj fy.ksx djds Hkh creaet fd. software rFkk humen elements and produce output.s multiple repair action dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA ERD dk purpose data objects rFkk muesa relationship dks represent djuk gksrk gSA ERD esa data object .s flow model rS.s tk ldrs gS A ERD dk mi.k tkrk gSA blesa data objects attributes relationship rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds indicates dk mi.

k tk ldrk gSA DFD ds Hkh vyx&vyx level gksrs gSA Zero DFD Level dks functional system model .ksfd izR.drk gksrh gSA tc fd 1 level DFD esa de ls de 5 .rk ls fdlh system .gk¡ ij processing or logic dk .rk ls information detail lfgr describe fd.k tk ldrk gSA Data flow diagram information flow and input.d sequence esa process fd. output ds function dks algorithm ds :i esa represent djrh gSA .rk ls interconnect jgrs gS vkSj .ksx djds structured analysis 'kq: fd.Information two modeling technique dk mi. procedure vkSj sequence dh detail provide djuk Hkh vko'.sd bubble .k tk ldrk gsA rFkk Software ds partitions or modules dks DFD dh lgk.g vko'.d gksrk gS . output data dks represent djrk gSA blfy.k tkk ldrk gSA rFkk mls vko'. output dk graphical representation gksrh gSA ftls ge data flow graph or bubble chart ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gSA bldh lgk.k tkuk vko'.k tkrk gS A rFkk mls vko'.d gksrk gSA Software designing ds le.rk ls mi.ksx fd.ks contect model dgk tkrk gSA tks fd .gk¡ ij .s process specification dk mi.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk model fdl izdkj dh information izkIr dj jgk gS vkSj fdl izdkj dk output nwljs module es transfer dj jgk gSA blds flow dks Hkh vklkuh ls represent fd.ksx fd.drkuqlkj modify fd.k software ds fdlh Hkh level dks represent fd.k 6 bubble gks ldrs gSA tks fd arrowes dh lgk.s zero level DFD esa detailed information dh vko'.sd process iwjs model ds functions ij depend gksrh gSA D.d organized form esa store fd.k tkrk gSA tks fd input.drkuqlkj arrowes dh lgk.s arrows dataflow dks represent djrh gSA Level 1 dh izR.d complete module dks show djrk gSA DFD esa data ds collection dks .k tk ldrk gSA blesa hardware person rFkk nwljs programm include jgrs gSA .d single bubble esa input.k tkrk gSA bl LVksj dk structured analysis data dictionary dgykrk gSA fdlh Hkh bubble dh processing ds fy.d gskrk gS fd user DFD rFkk flowchart ds chp varj Li"V djsA Data Flow Diagram :Software ds }kjk information dks computer ds fdlh Hkh part esa transmitt fd.

s fd.drkuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA.d complete model represent djrk gSA bldh lgk.s time continous data flow represent djuk vko'.k tkrk gSA tSls fd& 1.kj . processing dh performence c<+kbZ tk ldrh gSA rFkk blh ds }kjk high performence software rS. Control information is passed throw of the and associated control processing.sd LVsi .fn analysis vPNh gksxh rks mldk software or project Hkh lgh :i ls create fd.kfn Hkh vko'.d gksrh gSA .d gksrk gSA Diagram esa double headed arrowes time continous flow dks represent dj jgh gSA rFkk single haeded arrow data flow dks represent dj jgh gSA System engineering rFkk software engineering esa system model rS.sd step esa object rFkk mlds relation dks show fd. 3. time continous data flow dk cgqr egRo gksrk gSA ftlls system model rS.s blds fy. Realtime applications esa information continous gksuh vko'.kj fd.fn information continous ugh gksxhA rks system fail gks ldrk gsA blfy.k tk ldrk gSA Structured analysis cgqr igys ls mi. Multiple instances of the same transformations are sometimes encountered in multitasking sichuations. automatic vehical rFkk robot control system etc.drkuqlkj Ward and Mellor extenstion dk mi.ksx multiple extenstion dks control djus ds fy.s model ges'kk gh pairs esa jgrs gsA tks object rS.k tkrk gSA vkSj .ksx lcls vf/kd automobiles.s tk ldrs gSA Time continous data flow dk mi. Systems have states and a mechanizem causes transition between states.s tk ldrs gSA ftlesa customers analysis program etc.Ward and Mellor Extenssions :.kj djrs le. Information flow is gather or produce on a time continous bases. es fd. 2. include jgrs gSA Structured analysis ds izR.drkuqlkj create fd.rk ls ERD bR.Ward and Mellor dk exetensions basic structured analysis provide djrk gSA ftlesa real time system ds }kjk fuEufyf[kr demands dks iwjk fd.k tkrk gSA bu lHkh eaas vko'. 4.ksx dh tk jgh gsA ftldk izR.k tkrk gSA The Mechanics Of structured Analysis :Structured analysis software dh vko'.kj djrs le.

s tk ldrs gsA Creating a Data flow model (Diagram) :Data flow diagram engine .s rks og bl izdkj gksxh A Control Flow Model (Diagram) :Data processing ds fy.s rks ml bubble dks .fn safe home product dh DFD create dh tk.d complete software create djus ds fy.d gksrk gSA vkSj . data object vkSj output dks vko'.wtj vklkuh ls le> ldrk gSA .d gksrh gSA tks fd developr .sd module dh complete analysis gksrh gS rFkk lHkh operations esa MkVk dgk¡ flow dj jgk gSA bldh outline Hkh DFD esa provide dh tkrh gSA DFD create djus ds fy.d meaningfull name dh vko'.d gksrs gSA 1. .k tkuk pkfg. lHkh izdkj dh data processing.drk gksrh gSA 3.k x.s rks software esa .drkuqlkj documentation rFkk security system Hkh define fd.fn relation Hkh lgh :I ls represent fd. lHkh bubble dks arrowes ds lkFk fyad fd.k tk.k project esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh gSA blh dh lgk. esa information domain and functional domain develop fd.d Complete software .kZ gksrk gSA 4.k gSA mlds attributes ds lkFk .fn buds lkFk documentation dks represent fd.s fuEu step vko'.drkuqlkj define djuk Hkh egRoiw.k system dks .fd.d single bubble esa represent fd.s fofHkUu izdkj dh application use dh tkrh gSA . Designing ds le.k developrs dks .sA 2.d complete module dh processing djrk gSA 5.drk gksrh gSA tks fd .k tkuk vko'.rk ls vko'. lHkh bubble ds fy.k tk.d gh le.rk ls .s .s data model rFkk data flow diagram cgqr gh vko'.k engine dk dk.s arrow data flow dks show djrs gSA .slk model provide djrh gsA ftldh lgk. Primary input and output dks lko/kkuh ls le>us dh vko'.s tk ldrs gSA DFD esa izR.Z .

kj .k tk lds besically bls customer dh vko'.g vko'. 6. 4. List on sensor that are read by user software. 5.k tkrk gS vkSj . identify.d quality product developr fd. How each state is reached and defined two transaction between states. Focus on possible omssion a very common error in specifing control. List all switcheis that are operated by on operated. Descriibe two behaviour a system by identifing its status. List all control items as possible CSPEL input and output.sd level esa skill dh vko'.drk gksrh gSA vkSj mlds ckn program approach dk mi.gk ij .kj fd. 2.d gksrk gS fd designing esa fdl izdkj dh application use dh tk jgh gSA lcls igys analysis djus dh vko'.d meaningfull engine representation gS ftlds }kjk dqN rS. 3.rk ls data flow dks control fd.ssls application gS ftuesa control flow rFkk data flow dk mi.d gksrk gSA fd tks Hkh computer software rS.kj fd.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s tkrs gSA rFkk blds lkFk&lkFk .skfd DFD data flow dks represent djrh gSA vkSj DFD dh lgk.Z ds fy.s designing ds izR.kj fd.ksx djuk dkQh vko'.g vko'.d gksrk gsA D.rk ls information dks control djds vklkuh ls process fd. UNIT IV Design concept and principal :Design .k tk ldrk gSA ftlls software dh performence increase gks tkrh gSA cgqr lkjs . List or intrrupt condition.drkuqlkj rS. List all data connection. 7.vklku dj nsrh gSA bldh lgk.k tkrk gSA blesa data architecture interfaces rFkk cgqr lkjs component dk lekos'k gskrk gSA Software engines company based system design djrs gsA ysfdu vyx&vyx rjg ds dk.drk gksrh gSA .s fuEufyf[kr guide lines use dh tkrh gS & 1.ksx djds effective data rFkk processor rS.

s modules dh vko'.Z djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj ds modules dks vklkuh ls add. ij implement fd.&le.s tks fd customer dh lHkh vko'. Design and Software Quality :iwjh design process esa quality ij iwjk /.s process software design dh continous process gksrh gS tks fd modular programs esa apply dh tkrh gSA softwaer structure esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh program of approch use dh tk ldrh gSA vktdy programmer designing esa object oriented approch dk mi.k tk lds] designing es gh iwjs software dh complete picture fn[kkbZ nsuh pkfg.drk dks iwjk dj jgk gSA design easy to read rfkkk easy to understand gksuk pkfg.k tk ldsA The Design Process :Software Design .s data structure system architecture represent rFkk component dh detail vfr vko'.k tk ldrk gSA ii.kj gksuk pkfg.s . modify and delete fd.d software ij view gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls data functional rFkk project ds behaviour dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA Design process esa cgqr lkjs requirments dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Modules ds functions rFkk interfaces dks vklkuh ls represent fd.kj fd.s rkfd high quality product rS.sxh rFkk software dk le.s tk ldrs gSA ftudh enn ls data .k tkrk gSA Design ges'kk gh vko'.ksx dj jgs gSA ftlesa dk.d gskrh gS ij izR.s .drkuqlkj software code rS.s tkrs gsA rks software dh quality vius vki imporve gksrh pyh tk.sd design activity ds le.drk gksrh gSA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i.kj fd. Evaluation of Design :.drkuqlkj analysis model ds vuqlkj rS.s rkfd vko'.fn bl izdkj dh lHkh charactristics design structure esa complete fd.drk gksrh gSA design process ges'kk gh gj level ij perform gksrh gSA .ku fn. gesa basic concept apply djus pkfg.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk blesa os lHkh concept use fd.gks og error free gksA Designing ds fy.d interactive process gksrh gSA tSls&tSls software design djus ds fy.

s plan ds lkFk chart cukrk gSA mlh rjg ls software dks rS.drk gksrh gSA Design Model :Design model architecture ds plan ds leku gksrk gSA ftl rjg ls architect ?kj dks rS.s tk ldrs gSA blds fy. 9.s design medel rS.drkuqlkj design models rS. The design should be use the complete model. 5. The disign should be structure to data events or operating conditons.kj djus ds fy. 8. .d gksrs gSA ysfdu . post expriance. 10.ku jgs fd design process bruh vklku ugh gksrh gsA blds fy.ksx djds vko'. The design should be according to the rquirment.architecture interfaces rFkk component level designing dk vlkuh ls handle fd. 2.s dqN principal bl izdkj gSA 1.sA ftudk use software es gksrk gS mlds ckn computer software dk mi. 7. coding is not disign. Design is not coding . The design should be structure to accom module change.kj djus ds fy. 6. 3. The design should be transable to the analysis model.s creations skill.kj fd. 4. The design should be reduce to minimize conceptual error.g /. sense rFkk commiment quality dh vko'. The design should be accessed for quality as it si been created not offer the fact. The design should minimize the distance to be the software and the problem asis exist in the realtime. The design process should not suffer form turnel vision.k tkrk gSA lcls igys lHkh models miyC/ku gksuk pkfg.kj fd.d sequence esa mi. Desing Principal :Software design process and module nksuksa dk gh combination gksrk gSA Design process esa lHkh steps .ksx fd.k tk ldsA iii.s tkrs gsA tks software dks design djus esa lgk.

s lHkh concept fuEufyf[kr questions dks solve esa lgk.s .k tk jgk gSA izR. software design concept dh enn ls lgh software design djus ds fy. 2. software dks cgqr lkjs modules esa convert dj fn.k tkrk gSA rFkk . Abstraction :tc ge fdlh leL.d sequence esa represent fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj finaly problem dks solutions dks direct implement fd.gk¡ ij leL.k dks gy djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA Obejct oriented technology dh enn ls leL.Design Concept :Software design dk concept dkQh igys design gks pqdk FkkA ftls vktdy cM+h vklkuh ls mi.k tkrk gsA vkSj .s abstractions rc rd pyrh jgrh gS tc rd dh software dk source code rS.drkuqlkj test fd.sd concept dks le.ksx fd.sd function dh instructions dks .s dqN eq[. What uniform critarea define the behaviour quality of the software design.k tkrk gSA System engineering ds le.k tk ldrk gSA Software process dk izR.ksx fd.k tk ldrk gSA . ds vuqlkj le>k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'.k tkrk gS rFkk data abstraction esa data objects dk collection gksrk gSA . What critarea can be used to partition software into indivisual components. How is function or data structure detail seprated from a conceptual representation of the software. 3.k ds fy.rk djrk gS & 1.kj ugh gks tkrk gSA Abstraction ds izR.sd step abstraction dh lgk.drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh software esa apply fd.s language evnvironment dk mi.s concept engineers dks foundation step provide djrs gSA ftls vko'.k ds gy dks n'kkZ. step bl izdkj gS & 1. abstraction dh cgqr lkjs levels introduce gksrs gSA .rk ls gy fd.d module choose djrs gSA rks bl le.sd ysoy es ge procedural and data abstraction create djrs gSA Procedural abstraction esa izR. software dks computer based system dk element ekuk tkrk gSA vkSj software requirment analysis ds le.

slk step gS ftldh lgk.d effective modular system define fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj .k tkrk gSA Moduarity .s Module fdlh perticualr problem dks solve djrk gS blh rjg ls nks .sd LVsi gtkjksa instructions dks decompose fd.d complete project rS.s .rk ls fdlh Hkh cM+s project dks vklkuh ls complete fd.rk ls software dks vyx&vyx Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tkrk gSA vkSj izR.s details lfgr design process ds levels provide djrh gSA complete the desing model rS.Procedural abstraction esa tc perticuarl module dks open fd.k nks ls vf/kd module vkil esa feydj . Modularity :Computer software esa modularity dk concept dkQh igys vk pqdk Fkk A ftldk mi.ksx viuh vko'.k tkrk gSA rks mls ge "door" ds uke ls tkurs gSA D.d success full model rS.d .k tkrk gSA Prodularity esa .drkuqlkj software architect djrs gSA bldh lgk.sd Hkkx vius vki ls complete rFkk addressable component gksrk gSA ftls ge module dgrs gSA .s tk ldrs gS & .k tkrk gSA rFkk development cost Hkh de vkrh gSA vkSj project esa .kZ gksrs gSA 3.k tkrk gSA izR.drk gksrh gSA rkfd programming language statements ds lkFk vuqlkj .kj djus ds fy.fn dksbZ problem vkrh gSA rks perticular module dks find djds ml problem dks solve dj fy.ksx fd.s process dkQh fast dh tk ldrh gSA .g gksrk gS fd programmer problem ds critarea dks rFkk mlds solution dks lgh :i ls le>sA Abstraction and refinement nksuksa gh complementry concept gSA Abstraction dh lgk.kj fd.sd refinement step esa design decision fy.s procedure lgh dk. Refinement :Refinement top down design approch gks tc fdlh program dks rS.kj fd.kj djrs gSA blesa devide & conquer method dk mi.k tkrk gSA rks mlds lHkh procedures dks details lfgr refine djus dh vko'.Z djsA izR.rk ls designner particular procedures rFkk data module design djrs gSA vkSj refinement designner ds fy.s tkrs gS .s nksuks gh step dkQh egRoiw.ksfd ckdh lHkh module blh ls tqM+s jgrs gSA 2.gk¡ ij importent step .

c.sA Software architecture dh fuEufyf[kr properties gksrh gS& a.k tk.s .d .slk gksuk pkfg. Modular Protection. c. adeplarility and other system characterstics. Structural Properties :.k tkrk gSa bls hirerchical structure Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blds lHkh izdkj ds component rFkk data structure dks . Extra Functional Properties :Software architecture dh bl property esa lHkh izdkj dh software qualities dks represent fd.k tkrk gSA bldk dsoy .s mldk resue fd.k tk. d.slh representation gS ftlesa system ds lHkh component (Modules. Software Architecture :Software architecture .d gh mís'. 4. Families of Related System :Architecural design .fn blesa reuse dh ability gksuh pkfg. Modular Decomposibility.s A 5. Modular continouity. Modular Composibility. Modular understandability.a.k tkrk gSA vkSj system analysis ds chp esa interface create fd. capacity. b.k tkrk gSA b. security.d complete software dk :i fn.k tkrk gSA tSls fd requirment for performance.s fd mls mlls related dksbZ Hkh system use dj ldsA .d . filters.k tkrk gSA vkSj mu components dks bdV~Bk djds lHkh ds chp esa interface create fd.) dks define fd. etc. Control Hierarchy :- . objects. e. relaibility.slh fLFkfr gksrh gS tgk ij iwjs project dk overall structure design fd. gksrk gSA tc Hkh module design fd.

drk gksrh gSA Vertical partitioning esa factoring Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blessas program structure ds fy.fn system dks architectural style hierarchical gS rks program structure horzental . Major function . Software that is fewer significients. oder of decision or reapetation of operations vkSj u gh bldk mi.k tkrk gSA .k tk ldrk gsA vkSj lHkh modules esa hierarchical control provide fd. Strucural Partioning :.k tkrk gSA tks fd software dh effectiveness dks show djrs gSA blesa control ds vko'.drkuqlkj levels gks ldrs gSA vkSj dksbZ Hkh module nwljs module dks control dj ldrk gSA ysfdu bles .drk gksrh gS fd dkSu lk module fdl&fdl module dks control dj jgk gSA rHkh ge software esa lHkh modules ds chp esa relationship create dj ldrs gSA 6.d nwljs ls tqM+s jgrs gSA vkSj blesa changing .s crkus dh vko'.k vertical structure esa devide fd. Software that is easier to maintain c.ksx architecural style esa fd.s tkrs gSA Input data transformation (processing) and output horizental partition ds cgqr lkjs benefit gks ldrs gSA tSls fd & a. d.s T.k tkrk gS A bl representation es lHkh izdkj ds modules dks control fd.ksx fd.s tkrs gSA tSls fd sequence of processes.s top down approch dk mi.Control Hierarchy dks program structure ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA tks fd system ds lHkh modules dks organize djrh gSA rFkk muds chp esa control dh facility provide djrh gSA blds }kjk procedural software represent ugh fd.k tkrk gSA ftlesa eq[. :i ls 3 partition fd.knk data process djus dh vko'. Software that is easier to understands. Software that is easier to test b.k extenstion dh lqfo/kk vklkuh ls fcuk dh sideffect ds perform dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu horizental partition esa models ds chp esa interface djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA Horizental partioning esa program functions dks vyx&vyx modular hirericy esa define fd.

fn dksbZ module add or remove djuk gks rks mldk effect blesa related lHkh modules esa reflect djrk gSA 7.k tkrk gSA rks mlesa tks Hkh errors detect gksrh gS mUgs vklkuh ls gy fd.g gS fd tc Hkh maintainance dk dk.d information dks izkIr djuk gks rks og information dsoy software functions ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA blds }kjk dksbZ Hkh module .jdh ds :i esa .drkuqlkj modify fd.ku j[kuk vko'.Z perform djrk gSA ftls program ds nwljs module esa Hkh tksM+k tk ldrk gSA tc modules dks design fd.k tk ldrk gSA Effective modular design :Modular designing .Z fd.g gS fd lHkh modules vius vki esa complete gks] vkSj .k procedure detailed information lfgr define fd.k tk ldrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk system dh fofHkUu parts dh development Hkh lkFk&lkFk perform dh tk ldrh gSA 2.slh approch gS tks yxHkx lHkh organizing project esa mi. .fn fdlh function dh vko'.d gSA Information hiding dk benefit . implement fd.k tkrk gSA bl structure esa . Information Hiding :Information hiding dk rkRi.d module dh information (procedural and data) dks nwljk module access u dj ldsA .g /.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software module dks vklkuh ls vko'.d .blesa lHkh modules . eas esa ml project dks dHkh&dHkh fdlh Hkh le.rk ls project create djuk Fkk mls maintain djuk dkQh vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk Hkfo".k dks le>dj modules design djuk .d gk.Z .ksx dh tkrh gsA bldh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA ysfdu dsoy ogh information nwljs module ds }kjk access dh tk ldrh gSA tks vko'. Cohesion :Cohesion information hiding concept dk nature extension gSA software procedure esa cohesive module single dk.d gksrk gSA fd cohesion dh izfØ.d nwljs ls connect jgrs gSA vkSj top level dk ekWMy iwjs project ds modules dks control djrk gSA Actually bl ekWMy esa lHkh modules dh processing dks control fd.

s error iwjs system esa effect djrh gS tc modules ds chp esa control pass gksrk gSA rks mls control coupling dgk tkrk gSA .s coupling devices ds chp esa particular format vkSj communication protocol dh lgk.g lowest coupling gksrh gSA vkSj iwjs software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA .k tkrk gSA rks ml process dks .pkfg.d modules ds function dks nwljs module esa vklkuh ls enterrelate dj ldrs gSA Software es tc lHkh function dks .k tkrk gSA ysfdu .Z gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh instructions dks .k tkrk gSA rks mlesa errors dh laHkkouk. fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mlds location dk vklkuh ls irk yxk.slh process gS ftldh lgk.d nwljs ls close jgrk gSA rFkk .g process coupling dgykrh gsA Software design esa lkjs modules ds chp esa simple connectivity dh tk.ksfd coupling modules ds chp esa interface ij gh depend djrh gSA tc fdlh module esa data entry dh tkrh gS rks data interface esa fdl izdkj ikl gks jgk gSA . Coupling :Software structure esa modules ds chp enter connection dks coupling ds }kjk measure fd.sa vf/kd jgrh gSA rFkk .d procedural cohesion dgk tkrk gSA tc lHkh processing element data structure ds fdlh .d single module esa combine dj fn.d nwljs ls interface create djrk gSA ysfdu lHkh modules dk viuk vyx&vyx dk.k tkrk gSA D.d .s rks .sA rHkh ge .sd module .rk ls dh tkrh gSA bl izdkj dh coupling dks external coupling dgk tkrk gSA UNIT V Software Testing :Software system dh development es cgqr lkjh activity involve jgrh gSA blesa software testing .rk ls software .d sequence esa execute fd.rk ls izR.ksx djrs gSA rks ml le.d area dk mi. communication cohesion represent gksrh gSA 3.fn data transfer ds le.fn fdlh function esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mls debug djuk dkQh dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu cohesion dh lgk.

drkuqlkj test fd.d success full test rHkh ekuk tkrk gSA tc blesa lHkh izdkj ls input djds internal or external test fd.k tkrk gSA .fn software esa dksbZ error 'ks"k u gks rks .fn /.gh technique software dh quality dsk rFkk performance dks increase dj nsrh gSA B. .k tkrk gSA Software engineers designing ds le.ku esa j[kk tk. behaviour and performance dks increase fd. Testing Principle :- . dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls debug dj fy.fn bl izdkj ds lHkh objects dks . .slh process gS ftlds }kjk programs dks execute djds errors dks find fd.k tkrk gSA tc testing gks tkrh gS vkSj designner ds vuqlkj blesa dksbZ error ugh jgrh gSA mlds ckn bl testing software dks .d software dk internal logic gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk programs dh dfe.k tk ldrk gSA tc Hkh customer software dks execute djrk gSA rks mlls igys gh errors dks find djds mUgs remove djuk vko'. represent fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj testing ds le.sA 3.a satisfy gks tkrs gSA mlds ckn os software dks customer rd deliver dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le.fn testing vPNh gksxh rks software dh quality Hkh high quality show djrh gSA vkSj .drk gksrh gS bl izdkj gS & 1. cgqr lkjs tests djrs gSA ftlesa SQA activity Hkh vkrh gS ysfdu blds }kjk lHkh errors dks nwj ugh fd.d gksrk gSA test ds nkSjku internal logic and external requirment nksuksa dh vko'.nk . tc desingners testing process esa Lo.s rks . Testing Objectives :Software testing ds le.k tk ldrk gSA 2.d successful test complete gksxkA vkSj mlesa dksbZ error 'ks"k ugh cpsxh A blds ckn nwljk Qk.k tk ldrk gSA .g gS fd bl software dks market esa vko'. Testing .k tk ldrk gSA A.wtj dks deliver fd.dks customer rd igqpkus ls igys mldh lHkh errors dks test dj fy.s vkSj mlesa dksbZ error u vk. cgqr lkjs rules apply djus dh vko'.drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh le.d .k tk.ksa dks iwjk djds mlds functions.s .

wtj dh requirment ds vuqlkj test djrk gSA ysfdu . 2. 6. Observavility :. 6. 5. To be most effective. testing should be conducted an independant third party. We can more quickly isalate problem and perform shamarker retesting.s A blds ckn dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & 1.ksx djds design djrs gSA vkSj mlds ckn mls .ksfd dqN errors . 3.By controlling the scope of testing.What you see is what you test.The better can control the software the more testing can be automatted and optimized. Stability :. 7.slh gksrh gS ftudks modify ugh fd. 4.s /. Test should be planed long before testing begin. Understandablity :. Exhaustibe testing is not possible.ku j[kuk pkfg.k product dks software engineers ideas dk mi.s testing Hkh dqN predefine principal ds vuqlkj gh gksarh gSA testing ds le. Operatability :.s designer dks ges'kk gh . 2. 3. C.The better it works the more efficiency it can be tested.The less there is to test the more quickly we can tested. programmer dHkh&dHkh dificulty eglwl djrs gSA D. Decomposability :. Controlability :. Simplicity : . .The more information we have the smarter we will test. all tests should be practable to customer requirments.k tk ldrk gSA blfy. 4. Testability :Computer programmer . 5.Software dksa test djus ls igys engineers dks software testing ds principles vo'. Testing should begin in the small and progress sto words testing in the longer. Predefine principle should be apply to software testing.s fd softwaer testability process lower level ls gh 'kq: dj nsuh pkfg.sA testing principle dqN bl izdkj gS & 1.The fewer the changes the lower interruption to test. le>us pkfg.

fn .d .rk ls lHkh loops execute fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj .s tkrs gsA vkSj internal data structure fd validity perform dh tkrh gSA nwljs test analysis dh rjg gh white box testing esa software ds defects dks slove fd.s mi.k tk ldrk gSA blds application dks tc fdlh software dks perform languages source code esa translate fd.k tkrk gSA blds } kjk software engineer project ds lHkh modules esa ckjh&ckjh ls de ls de .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Black Box Testing :Black Box Testing ds }kjk fdlh system or system ds fdlh Hkkx ds behaviour dks VsLV fd.s testing lHkh logic of technique ds vuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA blds lgk.slk test care design method gS tks fd procedural design ds control structure dks test djus ds fy.d ckj test vo'.k tkrk gSA ysfdu dqN .k tk.s testing software ds nature ds vuqlkj gksrh gSA bl izdkj dh testing ls tc function dsk design or implement fd.k tkrk gSA Control Structure Testing :- .k tkrk gSA blds fy.s .White Box Testing :White Box testing dks dHkh&dHkh ge glass box testing Hkh dgrs gSA .s white box testing dk mi.ksx fd.k tkrk gsA rks mudh conditions rFkk controls dks gj step ij VsLV fd.ksx djds software ds module dk mi. logical errors dk lkeuk Hkh fd.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.k tkrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk modules fdl izdkj dh behavioural activities black box testing ds varxZr vkrh gSA bl izdkj dh activities dks lcls vf/kd object oriented system es mi. dqN typing errors Hkh vk ldrh gSA ftuesa ls cgqr lkjh errors dks mlds syntex rFkk type checking method ds }kjk recover dj fy.k tk ldrk gSA .d ckj software dk path test dj fy.k tkrk gSA Designing ds le.ksx fd.s dqN transaction rules dk mi.slh errors gksrh gS tks fd software dh testing 'kq: gksus rd Hkh detect ugh gksrh gSA vkSj bls errors logical errors gks ldrh gS bl izdkj dh errors dks nwj djus ds fy.s] rks mldh logical errors dks vklkuh ls handle fd.ksx fd. djrs gSA vkSj .

d .s testing dkQh lk/kkj.k tk ldrk gS vkSj testing ds nkSjku fuEufyf[kr errors dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gS & a.rk ls program ds Åij lHkh modules vkSj mu modules esa mi.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh testing ds nks ykHk gksrs gSA igyk .k tkrk gS . Boolean Variables errors c. 1. Dataflow Testing. dsoy conditional errors dsk gh detect djuk ugh gS cfYd bldh lgk.k tkrk gS . and Loop Testing etc.sd . Arithmetic Expression errors Conditions testing methods dh lgk.rk ls program dh izR. Boolean Parantaces errors d.sd condition dks ckjh&ckjh ls psd fd.k tkrk gSA tSls fd & Conditional Testing.s rks mls debug dj fy.ksx fd. Condition Testing :Condition testing test case design method gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.d simple condition esa fdlh Hkh programming language dks mi.slh testing gksrh gS ftlds }kjk software ds iwjs structure dks path lfgr test fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj dh dksbZ error vk.k gksrh gS ysfdu software esa high effectiveness provide djkrh gS blds }kjk white box testing dh qualities dks Hkh improve fd.fn fdlh program esa izR. Boolean Operator errors b.k tkrk gS .ksx fd.rk ls program dh nwljh errors dks Hkh psd fd. Relational Operator errors e.Control Structure testing . Data Flow Testing :Data Flow Testing methdo dh lgk.s fd condition testing additional programs ds test ds fy.s fd condition testing simple gskrh gS vkSj blls .gka ij fofHkUu izdkj dh data flow testing perform dh tk ldrh gSA tSlk fd .k tkrk gSA bl testing esa cgqr lkjh technique dk mi.rk ls program modules dh logical conditon dks VsLV fd.s guidence provide djrh gSA Condition testing dk mís'.k tk ldrk gSA 2.ksx gksus okys variables dh defination dks VsLV fd.

ku j[kus .ksX. Nested Loop.g gS fd lcls igys inner most loop execute gksrh gS vkSj outer most loop lcls vkf[kjh eas test fd.k tk ldrk gsA .ksx fd. Concatinated loop :- . N+1 passes to the loop.s statements software ds iwjs path ds fy. Simple Loop :Simple loop esa simple conditions dks check fd.d unique statement gks vkSj izR.k tkrk gS ftlesa fuEufyf[kr set gks ldrk gSA a.drkuqlkj conditional checking dh tk ldrh gSA .ksx fd. ckr .s loops cgqr gh important gksrs gSA ftldh lgk. ii. e. Loop Testing :Software es fdlh Hkh izdkj ds algorithm dks implement djus ds fy. c. b. d. Two passes to the loop.sd satatement ds fy.gka ij izR.k tkrk gSA rFkk need number fo test perform fd. N.fn ge simple loop dh approch dks extend djuk pkgrs gS rks nested loop dk mi.sd function vius parameters vkSj global variables dks modify ugh dj jgk gks rks mlds fy. M-1.rk ls software testing vklkuh ls perform dh tk ldrh gSA Loop testing . Nested loop :.k tkrk gSA bu loops esa nesting level dsk increase fd. i. Only one pass to the loop. In passes to the loop where M>N.k tkrk gSA iii.s tk ldrs gSA .s if or loops statement dk mi. Skip the loop entity.s vko'.ksx dh tk ldrh gSA 3.s mi.gk¡ ij /. Concatenated Loop and Unstructured Loop etc.d white box testing technique gksrh gS tks fd 4 Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr jgrh gSA tSls fd & Simple Loop.statements .

s testing FkksM+h vyx gksrh gS .sls software esa design fd. nested approch dk mi.d lh rFkk complete softwaer rS.drkuqlkj VsLV fd. test case design rFkk test execution vkSj data collection rFkk evaluation etc. b. d.ksx fd. Testing documentation and help facilities.ksx djds lHkh loops dsk tksM+ fn.s loop user dh need test fd.fn lHkh loops .fnmls step by step plan djds design fd.s tk ldrs gSA . Unstructured Loop :Unstructured loop dk mi. software testing) Software Testing Strategies :Software designing method dk mi.kj gksrk gSA bl izdkj dh iwjh planning esa stratagies esa test plaining.drk gksrh gS dsoy ogh loop memory esa execute gksrk gSA Testing for specilized Envrionments :Computer software vktdy cgqr gh complex gks x.drk gksrh gSA white box and black box testing methdo yxHkx lHkh environments architecture rFkk application ds fy.d nwljs ls inddependent gks rks ml le.ksx structured programming esa fd. c.s specilized testing dh vko'.k tkrk gSA 4.gka ij ywi dks VsLV djus dk dksbZ sequence ugh gksrh gS .k tk.s mi.Concatinated loop simple loop dks define djds mi.s x.k common application tks fd software engineering esa mi.s tkrs gS ftl loop dh vko'.s] vkSj mlds ckn mls vko'. Testing for real time system (task testing. concatinated loops dk mi.k tkrk gSA .s gS ftuds fy. Testing of Client/Server architecture.s testing fuEuizdkj dh gks ldrh gS & a.k tk. Testing GUI's.k tkrk gS vkSj tc loop fHkUu ugh gks rks le. steps include jgrs .ksx dh tkrh gSA muds fy.ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu guide lines ds . enter task testing.ksx djds .s rks .ksx fd.

configration atudits. managers.d systematic <ax ls mls test fd. feasibility study.k tkrk gSA vkSj . development testing.k tkrk gSA testing strategies ds fy.kZ dj jgk gS .d lkFk . performance. form of techniques include jgrh gSA 2.kj dh tkrh gSA blds }kjk iwjs project dh activity dks control fd.rk ls .gSA Designing effects dkQh important gksrs gSA vkSj stratagies dk mi. software engineers.k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer Hkh involve jgrk gSA Software testing ds fy. Varification and Validation :Software testing esa varification and validation dk important role gksrk gSA Varification esa cgqr lkjh activities dk mi.ksx djrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.s software developr cgqr lkjs technique dk mi. Testing Stratagis :Unit Testing :Unit testing esa varification dh og izfØ.k gS .k tkrk gSA ftls ge software component .d activities dk set gksrk gSA ftls advance esa plan dj fy.d lkFk Hkh test fd.k ugh A .k parts esa execute fd.s fd.kj fd.wfuV dks test fd. documantation. rd pyrh gSA tc rd dh project complete u gks tk.drkuqlkj output izkIr u gksA Testing . algorithm analysis.rk ls errors dks recover fd.k vkrh gSA ftlesa software design dh lcls NksVh .k ugh A vkSj validation es nwljs izdkj dh activities vkrh gS ftuls .k tkrk gSA Testing NksVs ls module ls 'kq: gksdj cM+s project rd perform dh tkrh gSA Program logic and fucntion dh lgk.k tkrk gS fd software ds functions dk lgh :i ls implement fd.k tkrk gS fd rS.k module dgrs gSA unit testing esa cgqr lkjs components dks . Qualification testing.k tk ldrk gSA .ksx mUgs execute djus ds fy.drkuqlkj dk.k x. database of reffu.k tkrk gSA Module interface testing .k x.s irk fd.k software customer dh vko'.s irk fd.s nksuska activiteis SQA activity dk part gh gksrh gSA ftlesa Quality.k vko'.k tkrk gSA . and installation testing etc. projects.s vkSj customer dh vko'.ksx djds . and testing specialist ds }kjk rS.gka ij iwjs project dks .drkuqlkj white & black box test dh lgk.s testing ml le.s stratagies.

Z djus yxrs gS rks mUgsa collect djds . Integration test documenatation.d ywi ds vuqlkj fujarj pyrh jgrh gSA bl approch dks inorement djus ds fy.s process .s tkrs gSA .d ckj execute gskuk vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration Testing :tc lHkh models ckjh&ckjh ls VsLV gks tkrs gSA vkSj indivisual dk.k tk ldrk gSSA vkSj .d ckj vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj bu modules esa automatic error handlin path set fd.s rks unit test procedure ds }kjk nwljs modules ls tksM+k tk ldrk gSA lHkh units dsk blh rjg ls interconnect djds . Bottom Up Integration c.s rks .fn fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ errors vkrh gS rks mls Hkh debug dj fy.k dks solve djus ds fy.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Testing ds le.s integration testing technique dk mi.s tkrs gS & a.ksx fd.d project esa tksM+k tkrk gSA vkSj muds chp esa interface create fd.d ckj .k tkrk gSA vkSj iwjs program dsk .k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bl interfacing process esa dkQh problem vkrh gS .drkuqlkj test dj fy. Top Down Integration b.esa information ds proper flow dks test fd.s cgqr lkjs steps mi. Smoke Integration e.k tkrk gSA buds errors dks correct djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu . tks problem vkrh gS mUgs blh testing dh enn ls nwj fd.d modular ls nwljs modular esa interface lgh create ugh gks ikrk gSA vkSj ftlds dkj. f.d lkFk test fd. Comments on Integration testing.kj fd.rk ls proper control flow rFkk effective loop testing technique dk mi.s approach tc ls power full component dks advance esa gh combine dj fy.k tkrk gSA dksbZ Hkh nwljk test djus ls igys modules ds chp esa interface create djuk vko'. .d gksrk gSA vkSj unit test dh lgk.ksx fd.k vko'drkuqlkj output produce ugh gks ikrk gSA bl izdkj dh leL.fn module dsk .k tkrk gSA rFkk module dh statements de ls de .fn .d standalone software rS.k tk.s errors lgh dj yh tk.d gskrh gSA . Regssion Integration d.

s Software lgh :i ls dk. Validiation.k tkrk gSA b.k tkrk gSA rFkk blesa project dh performance dks Hkh /.s rS.k tkrk gSA vkSj ml element ds fy.d documantation rFkk details rS.d .s lHkh izdkj dh test rFkk documantation provide fd.k tkrk gSA blesa test plan create fd.k fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem vkrh gS rks mUgsa lgh dj fy. Validation Test tritarea :Software Validation . testing dk important element gksrk gS blesa software ds lHkh function ds elements dks configration fd.d package rS. Validation Testing :Integration testing esa complete software dks test djds rFkk assemble djds .k tkrk gS rks mldh vko'.k tkrk gSA bl iSdst dks rS.Z dj jgk gS vU.s process software life cycle dk part gksrh gSA bls dHkh&dHkh audits ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA c.d customer ds fy. Configration Review :Configration review validation. Alpha & Beta Testing :Software development dks . le.s tkrs gSA tc software .slh technique gS ftlds }kjk user dh vko'.ksx djsxkA blds fy.kj dh xbZ program dks customer fdl izdkj mi.kj djrs le.s vko'.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dks check fd. tks Hkh errors gksrh gS mls lgh djus dh process gksrh gSA bl ds ckn validation dh testing 'kq: gksrh gSA bl process es customer dh vko'.kj fd.kj dh tkrh gSA .g.k tkrk gSA .s irk djuk impossible gksrk gS fd rS.s tkrs gSA vkSj bUgsa le.kj fd.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dsk pSd fd.Fkk ugh A blls tks process pSd gksrh gS mls validation testing dgk tkrk gSA rFkk validation testing esa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a.ku esa j[kk tkrk gSaA bl testing esa doucmantation errors .drkuqlkj accept test perform dh tkrh gSA ftlls customer dh lHkh . ij project ds behaviour ds vuqlkj test fd.

izdkj dh requirments dks project ds }kjk sub fd;k tkrk gSA ;s acceptance test ,d particular period ds ckn perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s le; ,d lIrkg dk ;k ,d eghus dk gsk ldrk gSA Testing ds nkSjku lHkh izdkj dh errors dks nwj dj fy;k tkrk gSA ;fn ;s software cgqr lkjs customer ds fy;s ,d program ds :i esa rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA rks izR;sd ds fy;s acceptance test perform ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;gk¡ ij end user dh problems dsk solve djus fy;s programmer tks techniques viukrs gS mls Alpha & Beta testing dgk tkrk gSA Alpha test esa Customer ds }kjk programmer site dks test fd;k tk ldrk gS fd tks software mlds fy;s rS;kj fd;k tk jgk gS mlesa look dSlk gS vkSj og particular problem dks solve dj jgk gS ;k ughA Alpha Beta ges'kk gh control environment esa perform fd;s tkrs gSA Beta test software ds enduser ds }kjk ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd customer sites esa conduct fd;s tkrs gSA Alpha testing dh rjg developr present ugh jgrs gS tc fd beta test like application software gksrk gS ftls ;gk¡ ij developr control ugh dj ldrk gSA Beta testing esa developr le; ds vuqlkj lHkh izdkj dh problems dh ,d report rS;kj djrk gSA vkSj software engineers bl problem ds vuqlkj software system dh security vfuok;Z jgrh gSA Security testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls rS;kj gS ;k ughA ,slk djus ls user ds attack ls cuk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name and password provide fd;s tkrs gSA blds ckn dksbZ Hkh ;wtj fcuk user name or password ds bl system esa enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gSA rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gS A Product dks modify djrs gS vkSj ,d u;k software product release ds fy;s rS;kj gks tkrk gSA

System Testing :Software fdlh Hkh large computer based system dk dsoy ,d element gksrk gS vkSj ;gh software nwljs system element (hardware, people, information) etc. ls communicate djrk gSA vkSj blds ckn system intrigration and validation test perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s test software process ls ckgj gksrs gSA D;skfd software designing dh process vyx gksrh gS vkSj testing Hkh vyxA ysfdu bu nksuks dk gh mi;ksx ,d

successful software rS;kj djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ftls ge large system esa mi;skx dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le; rjg&rjg ds test fd;s tkrs gSA rkfd software esa lHkh errors dks debug dj fy;k tk;sA izR;sd test dk viuk mís'; gksrk gS ftlls lHkh modules ds functions dks test djds lHkh ,d lgh output produce fd;k tkrk gSA software based system esa fuEufyf[kr system test perform fd;s tk ldrs gS &

a. Recovey testing :cgqr lkjs computer based system esa faults dks detect djus dh rFkk processing ds le; mUgsa recover djus dh lqfo/kk iznku jgrh gSA ysfdu blesa le; ij vf/kd /;ku fn;k tkrk gSA ysfdu dHkh&dHkh ;s leL;k system ds lgh functions dks sease ¼dk;Z can djuk½ dj ldrh gSA blfy;s ;fn dksbZ system problem dj jgk gS rks mls particular time ds vuqlkj lgh djuk vko';d gksrk gSA recovery testing es blh izdkj dh leL;k dk gy fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk bles automatic reinitialization, check point machanisam, data recovery etc. processes include jgrh gSA recovery user invoke jgrk gSA tks fd le;&le; ij system dks repair djrk jgrk gSA bl process dks ge Main Time To Repair (MTTR) Hkh dgrs gSA

b. Security Testing :dksbZ Hkh computer based system tsk fd sensitive information dks manage djrk gSA rks og system user dks dkQh ykHk igqpkrk gSA blfy;s bl system dh security vfuok;Z gksrh gSA Securtiy testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgh gS ;k ugh A ,slk djus ls system dks vU; unauthorized user ds attack ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name ;k password ds bl systeme es enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gS rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gSA

c. Stress Testing :-

Software testing steps ds le; white box and black box technique dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk mlds }kjk program functions and performance ds normal test fd;s tkrs gS ysfdu abnormal sotiation ds fy;s stress test dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bl test esa system ds fail gksus ls igys dh lHkh izdkj dh process dk fjdkMZ LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA Stress testing resources dh vko';drkuqlkj abnormal quantity, frequancy and volume ds vk/kkj ij perform dh tkrh gSA bl testing esa virtual operating system Hkh involve jgrk gSA ;fn dkbZ program dk;Z djuk can dj ns ;k MkVk currept gks tk;s rks mls stress testing ds vuqlkj recover fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl testing dks sensitive testing ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA

d. Performance Testing :Performance Testing esa system dh run time performance dk test fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj blesa ;s VsLV fd;k tkrk gS fd lHkh modules lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgs ;k ughA ;s testing software life cycle ds lkFk include jgrh gSA

Debugging Process :Software testing ,d ,slh process gksrh gS ftldh lgk;rk ls software preplan ds vuqlkj systematic <ax ls test fd;k tkrk gSA blesa test case design fd;s tkrs gS] stratagy define dh tkrh gSA vkSj vko';drkuqlkj result dks evaluate fd;k tkrk gSA successful testing ds fy;s debugging vko';d gksrh gSA ;fn fdlh test case esa dskbZ error vkrh gS rks debugging process dh lgk;rk ls mls remove dj fn;k tkrk gSA ;s ,d art gS ftls software engineers, software problem dsk solve djus ds fy;s mi;ksx djrs gSA ;s testing process ugh gS ysfdu ges'kk ls gh testing process esa mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj tSls gh ge fdlh izdkj dk test 'kq: djrs gS rks mlh le; debugging process 'kq: gks tkrh gSA ftlls project dh performance c<+ tkrh gSA debugging process ges'kk gh errors dks find djus ds fy;s vkSj mUgs remove djus ds fy;s mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Debugging process dificult process gSA D;skfd ;g ,d project esa cgqr lkjs modules dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj tc system esa errors vkrh gS rks ;g irk djuk eqf'dy gksrk gS fd ;s

error fdl module esa vk;h gS blds fy;s programming knowledge rFkk work experiance dh vko';drk gksrh gSa debugging ds le; ;fn dksbZ error feyrh gS rks mls vo'; Bhd djuk pkfg;sA

Software Maintanance :Software maintanance dh process cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gS blds } kjk software esa tks dfe;k¡ gksrh gS mUgsa nwj fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk ;fn software esa dqN implementation djuk gks rks mlds fy;s Hkh ;s process eq[; Hkwfedk vnk djrh gSA blds fy;s cgqr lkjs programs design fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj muds fy;s proper cooling techniques dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls operating system technology esa vko';drkuqlkj ,d u;k plateform rS;kj fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftlls user computer based system esa vko';drkuqlkj dk;Z dj ldrk gSA rFkk developrs vko';drkuqlkj ml ij control dj ldrs gSA vkSj mls modify esa cny ldrs gS A Software maintanance essa pkj izdkj dh vyx&vyx maintanance activities define dh xbZ gS & a. Charactive Maintanance b. Adoptive Maintanance c. Perfactive Maintanance d. Preventive Maintanance or reengineering bu Maintanance activity dk mi;ksx djds dsoy ge lHkh izdkj ds Maintanance work d dsoy 20% dk;Z dj ldrs gSA ckdh 80% dk;Z igys ls gh mi;ksx dh tk jgs system means external environment dks enhancement djds iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA Enhancement dh request user ds }kjk provide dh tkrh gSA rFkk ,d u;h application future use ds fy;s rS;kj dh tkrh gSA tc ;s Maintanance dh lHkh activities iwjh dj yh tkrh gSA rks attractive and effective software re-engineer gksrk gSA

Computer Aidded Software Engineering (CASE) :Software process eas CASE tools dk cgqr egRo gS A D;skfd bldh lgk;rk ls software engineers rFkk practictioners vkSj ;wtj dks lHkh izdkj dh activities provide gksrh gSA rFkk engineers ds fy;s ;s

people.kj fd.k tk ldrk gSA .s toosl blds fy.k mlds iwjs environment dsk complete djus esa lgk.Z gS vkSj .sA blds ckn gh CASE benefit provide djrk gSA bldh lgk.ksx fd.d cgqr gh lk/kkj.s project dks fdlh Hkh hardware plateform and operating system esa fcuk fdlh maintanance activity ds execute fd.Z dks /.s x. rS.s tk ldrs gSA CASE dks process module ds lkFk mi.rk ls rS.d Lis'ky izksxzEl dk collection gS tks fd . design.rk djrk gSA ftlls database.tools analysis.s ground work rS.d dfBu dk.k tk ldrk gSA Software engineering process ds le.d successful environment create fd.k rFkk single tools gS tks fd fdlh particular software engineering activity .k tk ldrk gSA ftlls good decisions fy. framework vo'.rk ls software engineering information dks u.s beneficial gksrs gSA bu tools dh lgk.s .rk ls mannual acitvities dks automatic represent fd.k tk ldrk gSA CASE tools dk use djus ls igys software process.Z 'kq: djrk gSA Environment architecture hardware plateform and system support (Networking software DBMS and object management system etc.s rjhssds ls produce fd. coding and test work dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA Project managers rFkk software engineers nksuks gh CASE dk mi.kj dj ysuk pkfg.ku esa j[kdj viuk dk.sd building blocks nwljs block dh foundation gSA iwjs environment dk important software engineering tool gskrh gSA blds ckn gh software engineering ds fy. natwork.d indivisual CASE tool gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh tools ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA Partability services dh lgk.kj djrk gSA ysfdu CASE environment esa nwljs blocks dh vko'.) dks bdV~Bh djrk gSA vkSj CASE ds fy. operating systems standard rFkk nwljs componants include jgrs gSA CASE ds fy. architecture lHkh yksxksa ds dk.s building blocks bl izdkj rS. hardware.k tk ldrk gS A bl block ds vuqlkj izR.drk gskrh gSA Portability services CASE tools ds chp esa bridge provide djrh gSA tks fd intrigration frame work and envrionmental architecture dks Hkh support djrh gSA Intrigration frame work .kj fd.ksx djrs gSA Software engineering .k tk ldrk gSA Building Blocks :CASE .

rk ls .d effective CASE environment rS. Web development tools.kj fd. Metrics & management tools. d. Prototyping tools. Risk analysis tools. h.gka ij . Business process engineering tools. Dlom tools. Interface & design & development tools. f. p.d vPNh performanance ds fy. l. Requirment trasing tools. e.s bl izdkj ds tools software engineering process esa mi. g.s tk ldrs gSA CASE tools dks functions dh lgk. q.ksx fd. Process modeling & management tools. Documentation tools.kZ tools fuEuizdkj gS& a. System software tools.k tk ldrk gSA bleas technical persons and software engineers Hkh include jgrs gSA rFkk environment architecture esa hardware rFkk software dks include djds iwjs system dh cost create dh tk ldrh gSA blds fy. k. s.k tk ldrk gSA . Quality assurance tools. j.rk ls classify fd. n. o.s dqN egRoiw.slh cgqr lkjh planning and tools gS ftudh lgk. Intrigration & testing tools. m. Project management tools. c. Analysis & Design tools.A Texonomey of CASE tools :tc Hkh ge CASE tools dks fofHkUu izdkj ls catagarise djrs gSA rks gesa cgqr lkjs risks dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA . Project planning tools. b. Porgramming tools. . r. Software configration management tools. Static analysis tools. i.

3. Test management tools. 4. Improve Cordination among staff members who are working on a large software project.k tkrk gS A vkSj tools ds chp esa] yksxks ds chp eas rFkk iwjh software process ds chp esa md closure communication provide fd.Z combination and closure nksuks ls gh gSA ftlesa fofHkUu izdkj ds tools dks combine fd. Intrigrated CASE environment :CASE tools software engineering dh izR. A Reduction in the afferts required to perform various activity such as configration management.s vko'd.d gksrk gS fd software engineering dh process ds vuqlkj gh lgh toos choose fd. 2.s software engineering information izR. 1.k tk ldsA 2. An increase in project control that is achived better planning. Smoth transfer of information (Models. monitering. and communication.t. Dynamic analysis tools. Intrigration Architecture :Software engineering information dks process djus ds fy. Documents. w.s vko'.rkuqlkj miyC/k gks tkrh gSA blesa . quality assurance and document production. Programs.ksx djrh gSA intrigration dh lgk.kj fd.sd tools ds fy. u.sd activity dsk handle djrs gSA rFkk .d lgh software rS.d vPNk benefite provide dj ldrs gSA ysfdu CASE dh real power dks intrigration ds }kjk gh izkIr fd. Client/Server testing tools. Reengineering tools.k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration CASE ds benefite fuEufyf[kr include jgrs gSA tSls fd 1.k tkrk gSA tools intrigrated gksrs gS blfy. data) from one to another and one software engineering step to the next.k tk. Intrigration dk rkRi.rk .s] rkfd .s software engineering team CASE tools dk mi. v.

ls project ds chp esa information dks transfer djus dh lqfo/kk izznku dh tkrh gSA ysfdu blds fy.kj gksuk pkfg. controls. audits and statas accounting etc.Z djrk gSA OML intrigration services provide djrk gS tSls fd performing.s user interface create gksuk vko'. rS.kj fd. icons.k tkrk gS lHkh CASE tools ds fy.kj gksuk vkSj environment esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh action ds fy.s bdV~Bk fd.s gekjs ikl igys ls gh component dk architecture vo'.kj gksukA CASE tools dks control djus ds fy.d gksrk gSA cgqr lkjs models bl izdkj dh intrigration dks component layers ds :i esa represent djrs gS A bl frame work dk simple model bl izdkj gSA User interface layer standard interface tools dh lgk.s fd.sA tSls fd & information dks store djus ds fy.s tkrs gS A tks fd environment ds behaviour dks control djrs gSA bl multitasking dh facility Hkh iznku dh tk ldrh gSA vkSj vko'. object names.s security provide djuk tools management services (TMS) ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA Object management layer (OML) congrigration management functions provide djrh gSA blesa framework architecture dks tools intrigration ds fy.Z djrs gSA ftudh lgk.k tkr gSA tools layer eas lHkh izdkj dh tools management services provide dh tkrh gS rFkk bles lHkh izdkj ds modules ds fy.drkuqlkj functions ds fy.rk ls common presentation protocols ds lkFk interface create djrh gSA Interface tools esa humen or computer interface management and object dh library ls related software gksrs gSA ftudk use CASE tools esa communication provide djus ds fy.rk ls . the use of the keyboard and mouse rFkk lHkh izdkj ds tools dks access djuk presentation protocol dk gh .k tkrk gSA tks fd CASE repository ds lkFk feydj dk.d part gksrk gS mldh lgk.rk ls moments names and organization .s gS fd OML lHkh izdkj ds confrigration object dks identify djrk gSA .d screen layout rS.s vyx&vyx izdkj ds CASE tools set fd. bldk eryc .sd CASE tools object management layer ls attach fd. version.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR.s database create gksuk] object management system rS. providing support for chage control.s preventation protocol guide lines dk dk.s machanism rS.

d information dks Hkwy tkrk FkkA ftls ckn esa recall ugh fd.Charged repository layer CASE databases gskrh gS rFkk blh ds } kjk access control function provide fd.d person dks choose fd.d .k tkrk FkkA tks . Project database.Z djrk gSA Software engineer CASE tools dk mi.gka ij vko'. The role of the repository I-CASE :I CASE environment ds fy.s tkrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.slk word gS tks fd fdlh particular pht .s fofHkUu izdkj ds storage places use fd.d programmer gskrk FkkA ftlds ikl software project dh lHkh information store jgrh Fkh A ysfdu .ksfd blds ikl fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information fyf[kr :i esa ugh gksrh FkhA dHkh&dHkh og vko'.d .s person bruk vPNk dk. Intrigrate Project Support Environment Database (IPSE).s tkrs gSA tSlk fd CASE database.ksx djds repository ls interect djrs gSA vkSj mls complete djrs gSA Software engineering information ds fy.rk ls database management system esa functions provide fd.s tkrs gS tks fd object management layer dks databases ds lkFk link djrs gSA Data intrigration object management rFkk shared repository layer ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA CASE Repository :Software development process esa repository . machanism rFkk data structures dk set gksrh gSA ftlds }kjk data tools rFkk data intrigration provide fd.s .s repository.k person ds Åij depend gksrk gSA . ysfdu storage rFkk accumitation fds fy.d center point gksrk gS .slk database gS tks software engineering esa data dks store djus dk rFkk vko'. Data Intrigraty. Requirment dictonary (a limited database) and Repository.k tkrk gSA Software development process esa lcls igys repository ds fy.k tk ldrk A ysfdu vktdy repository .drkuqlkj data dks store fd.s bu terms ds chp es dqN difference gksrs gSA tks bl izdkj gS & 1.Z lgh djrk FkkA D.k tkrk gSA blh fd lgk.drkuqlkj communicate djus dk dk.s . .

d. Data/tool intrigration. c. f.k store fd. Information Sharing. Data/data intrigration.s dkSu&dkSu lh services provide dh tk jgh gSA Repository esa fofHkUu izdkj dh information sotre dh tk ldrh gSA ftuds fuEufyf[kr points Hkh include jgrs gS & a. Information about the problem domain. Document Standardrization. Information about the organization contexts.k tk jgk gSA vkSj repository ds fy. d. e. The system solution asit emerges. The project plan.s nks objectives dks le>us dh vko'drk gskrh gS fd repository esa D. Object Relationship. resources and history. b. The problem to be solved. f. e. . Rules and instructions prataining to the software process (methodology) being followed. Features & Contents :Repository ds features rFkk controls dks vklkuh ls le>us ds fy. c.b. 2.

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