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Software Engineering

Software Engineering

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Published by: VikashKumarShaw on Aug 29, 2010
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  • Software Characteristics -
  • Software Application :-
  • 1. System software :-
  • 2. Real Time Software :-
  • 3. Business Software :-
  • 4. Engineering and Scientific Software :-
  • 6. Personal Computer Software :-
  • 7. Web Based Software :-
  • 8. Artificial Intelligence Software :-
  • Software Engineering a Layered Approach :-
  • Process, Methods and tools :-
  • LEVEL 1
  • LEVEL 2
  • LEVEL 3
  • LEVEL 4
  • LEVEL 5
  • The Linear Sequential Model :-
  • 1. System/Information engineering and modeling :-
  • 2. Software requirement analysis :-
  • 3. Design :-
  • 4. Code Generation :-
  • 5. Testing :-
  • 5. Support :-
  • The Prototyping Model :-
  • The Incremental Model :-
  • The Spiral Model :-
  • Project Management Concepts :-
  • 1. People :-
  • a. The Players :-
  • 3. The Software Team :-
  • Product :-
  • i. Software Scope :-
  • Problem Decompogirion :-
  • The Process :-
  • i. Melding the Porduct and the process :-
  • ii. Process Decomposition :-
  • c. The project :-
  • Metrics in the process & project domain :-
  • 2. Project Metrics :-
  • 1. Size Oriented Metrics :-
  • 2. Function Oriented Metrics :-
  • External Function Point metrics :-
  • Metrics for Software Quality :-
  • 1. An overview of factor that effect quality :-
  • 2. Measuring Quality :-
  • Defect Removable Efficiency (DRE) :-
  • Intrigrity Metrics with in the software process :-
  • Software Project Planing :-
  • Project Planing Objectives :-
  • ii. Resources :-
  • a. Humen Resources :-
  • b. Reusable Software Resources :-
  • a. Off the self component :-
  • b. Full Experience Component :-
  • c. Partial Experience Components :-
  • 3. Environmental Resources :-
  • Software Project Estimation :-
  • i. Fuzzy Logic Sizing :-
  • iii. Standrad Component Sizing :-
  • iv. Cnage Sizing :-
  • b. Problem based estimated :-
  • c. An Example of LOC based estimation :-
  • Function Estimated LOC
  • d. An Example of FP based estimation :-
  • Empirical Estimation Models :-
  • Software Quality Assurance :-
  • Quality Concept :-
  • 1. Quality Movements :-
  • SQA (Software Quality Assurance) Activities :-
  • Statical Software Quality Assurance :-
  • SQA Plan :-
  • ISO 9000 Quality standard (International Standard Organization) :-
  • The ISO-9001 Standards :-
  • Analysis Concept & Principal :-
  • Requirment Analysis :-
  • Analyst Principal :-
  • 1. The informtaion Domain :-
  • 2. Modeling :-
  • 3. Partioning :-
  • Data Modeling :-
  • Data Objects Attributes & Relationship :-
  • i. Data objects :-
  • ii. Attributes :-
  • iii. Relationship :-
  • Coordinality and modelity :-
  • 1. Cordinality :-
  • 2. Modelity :-
  • Entity Relationship Diagram :-
  • Functional Modeling and Information Flow :-
  • Data Flow Diagram :-
  • The Mechanics Of structured Analysis :-
  • Creating a Data flow model (Diagram) :-
  • Control Flow Model (Diagram) :-
  • Design concept and principal :-
  • The Design Process :-
  • i. Design and Software Quality :-
  • ii. Evaluation of Design :-
  • iii. Desing Principal :-
  • Design Model :-
  • Design Concept :-
  • 1. Abstraction :-
  • 2. Refinement :-
  • 3. Modularity :-
  • 4. Software Architecture :-
  • a. Structural Properties :-
  • b. Extra Functional Properties :-
  • c. Families of Related System :-
  • 6. Strucural Partioning :-
  • 7. Information Hiding :-
  • Effective modular design :-
  • 2. Cohesion :-
  • 3. Coupling :-
  • Software Testing :-
  • A. Testing Objectives :-
  • B. Testing Principle :-
  • C. Testability :-
  • White Box Testing :-
  • Black Box Testing :-
  • 1. Condition Testing :-
  • 2. Data Flow Testing :-
  • 3. Loop Testing :-
  • i. Simple Loop :-
  • ii. Nested loop :-
  • 4. Unstructured Loop :-
  • Testing for specilized Envrionments :-
  • Software Testing Strategies :-
  • a. Varification and Validation :-
  • 2. Testing Stratagis :-
  • Unit Testing :-
  • Intrigration Testing :-
  • Validation Testing :-
  • a. Validation Test tritarea :-
  • b. Configration Review :-
  • c. Alpha & Beta Testing :-
  • System Testing :-
  • a. Recovey testing :-
  • b. Security Testing :-
  • d. Performance Testing :-
  • Debugging Process :-
  • Software Maintanance :-
  • Computer Aidded Software Engineering (CASE) :-
  • Building Blocks :-
  • A Texonomey of CASE tools :-
  • 1. Intrigrated CASE environment :-
  • 2. Intrigration Architecture :-
  • CASE Repository :-
  • 2. Features & Contents :-

Software Engineering

Software Characteristics Software ;k software engineering dks le>us ds fy;s lcls igys mlds charactristics dks le>uk vko';d gksrk gSA tks fd vyx&vyx rjhds ls human being activity dks produce djrs gS tc hardware dks rS;kj fd;k x;k rk mldh physical form rS;kj gqbZA ftldks human vklkuh ls analysis design, construct rFkk test dj ldrk gSA Hardware dk mi;ksx djds ;fn u;k computer rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS rks mlesa physical product tSls fd chips, circuit baord rFkk power supply gSA Computer System dh software ,d logical element gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk hardware dks operate fd;k tkrk gSA Software dks develop ;k engineering fd;k tkrk gSA bldh manufacturing ugh gksrh gSA tcfd software development rFkk hardware manufacturing esa Hkh dqN simultaneous gksrh gSA ;s nksuks activities different gksrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa dh high quality produce dh tk ldrh gSa ysfdu hardware dks manufacture djrs le; quality problems dk lkeu djuk iM+rk gSA ftudks vklkuh ls correct ugh fd;k tk ldrkA ;s nksuks activities user ij depend jgrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa ds fy;s construction of product dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ysfdu approach vyx&vyx mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Computer based product dh designing dks control djus ds fy;s lkW¶Vos;j eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA blds fy;s digital circuit board rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj mudh proper functioning dks check fd;k tkrk gSA izR;sd intrigrated circuit (ic and chpe) ds ikl ,d iksVZ uEcj gksrk gS tks fd standrad ingrigrated guid lines dks set djrk gSA izR;sd component dks selected djus ds ckn board ds circuit dks electrical signals ds }kjk check fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ,d D;k system design gksrk gSA ,d software component vko';drkuqlkj design rFkk environment fd;k tkrk gSA ftlls cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx programs dks include fd;k tkrk gS ;s programs permanent gksrs gSA engineering rFkk scientific application dks litraries dks ,d well defined algorithm dh lgk;rk ls effective manner ds }kjk reuse fd;k tkrk gSA Software engineering cgqr

lkjh ubZ&ubZ application create dj jgs gSA tks fd reusable form esa gksrh gSA tSls fd graphical user interface (GUI) ds lHkh components reusable gksrs gSA ftudksa vko';drkuqlkj ckj&ckj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa pull down menus, tools rFkk interactive windows include jgrh gSA

Software Application :Software vyx&vyx situation ds vk/kkj ij apply fd;k tkrk gSA blds fy;s igys ls gh procedure step specify djus dh vko';drk gksrh gS ftls ge algorithm Hkh dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx export system software or network software fd;k tkrk gSA ;gk ij information ds contents software application ds nature ds fy;s dkQh important gksrs gSA D;ksfd controls incoming rFkk outgoing information dh definition crkrs gSA tSlk fd cgqr lkjh ,slh business application gS tks structured input data (database) dks mi;ksx djds formatted reports produce djrh gSA Software automated machine dks control djrk gSA Software engineering es program analysis ds fy;s predefined order set djus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA tks fcuk fdlh :dkoV ds algorithm dks execute djsA vkSj data ds result dks report ;k graphical formet esa produce djs multi-user operating system fofHkUu izdkj ds contants ;k commands dks execute djrk gS vkSj ;s commands external condition ds vk/kkj ij gh accept gksrh gSA Software application dks meaningful design djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu blds fy;s cgqr lkjs component use fd;s tkrs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds application dks design djuk vklku cuk;k tk ldrk gSA

1. System software :System software dqN ,sls programs dk collection gksrk gS ftudk mís'; nwljs program dks service provide djuk gksrk gSA dqN system software utilities bl izdkj gSA tSls fd companies editors, file manager, drivers, tele communication, processor etc bl izdkj dh system utilities large information dh processing dks handle dj ldrh gS nwljh rjQ system software computer hardware dks Hkh control djrs gSA tks fd multiple user ds }kjk mi;ksx fd;k tk jgk gksrk gSA

2. Real Time Software :,sls software tks fd real words events dks monitor/analysis ;k control djrs gSA Real-time Software dgykrs gSA Real-time software ds element esa data gathering components include jgrs gSA tks fd vko';drkuqlkj external environment ls information dks collect djrs gS vkSj mls analysis djds ,d lgh output produce djrs gSA rFkk lHkh components real-time response (typically ranging from 1 millisecond to 1 second ) maintain djrs gSA

3. Business Software :Business information processing esa ,d large single software use fd;k tkrk gSA tks business dh cgqr lkjh fields dks cover djrk gSA ;s software bl izdkj ls gks ldrs gS & 1. Payroll Management 2. Account Receivable/Payable 3. Inventory Control System bl izdkj ds lHkh software management information system (MIS) esa involve jgrs gSA vkSj business information ds fy;s ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd large databases dks inter relate djrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa business operation ds fy;s cgqr lkjh lqfo/kk iznku dh tk ldrh gSA

4. Engineering and Scientific Software :;s software engineering and scientific calculation dks perform djus ds mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa space technology ;k weather for costing etc. dh calculation vklkuh ls dh tk ldrh gSA modern application es engineering and scientific application areas dks cover fd;k x;k gSA tks fd numerical algorithm dks vklkuh ls handle dj ldrh gS blesa computer aided design (CAD) system simulation rFkk nwljh interactive application involve jgrh gSA ;s lHkh application real time application gksrh gSA

5. Embedded Software :-

izR;sd customer ;k industrial market eas vktdy intelligent porduct use fd;s tk jgs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds business esa viuk dkQh le; cpk ysrs gSA vkSj fast calculation Hkh perform gks tkrh gS dqN ,sls software dks customer rFkk industrial market ds product control djus ds fy;s mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA Embedded software dgykrs gSA ;s software dkQh NksVs software gksrs gS vkSj read only memory esa jgrs gSA rFkk bldk dk;Z products dks control djuk vkSj le;≤ ij mudh information provide djuk gksrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr software involve jgrs gSA tSls fd & digital function in an automobiles such as fuel control, dash board displays and etc.

6. Personal Computer Software :Personal computer software dk market vkt dkQh powerful gks x;k gSA blesa manipulation, calculation rFkk business etc ds fy;s gtkjks software use fd;s tk jgs gSA tSls fd word processing, spread sheet, computer graphics, multi media, entertainment, database management, personal and business financial application external network and database access application.

7. Web Based Software :Web pages ,sls software ds }kjk retrieve fd;s tkrs gSA ftUgs browser dgk tkrk gSA tks fd instructions dks execute djus es l{ke gksrs gS web pasges dh instructions, CGI, HTML, Perl or java etc. languages esa fy[ks tkrs gSA vkSj MkVk dks fofHkUu izdkj ds hyper text rFkk visual formets esa represent fd;k tk ldrk gSA Internet dh fdlh Hkh information dks web dh lgk;rk ls access djuk vklku gks x;k gSA vkSj blds fy;s modem eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA

8. Artificial Intelligence Software :Artificial Intelligence (AI) software ,sls software gksrs gS tks non numerical algorithm dks complex problem dks vklkuh ls solve dj ldrs gSA blesa expert system, pattern reorganization (Image & Voice), Artificial neural network and games planing etc.

reports.s tkrs gSA bl technique dks le>k.k tkrk gSA blesa .d computer program create djus dh vko'. design. design.d .d business software rS. documents.d .k tkrk gSA vkSj tc quality improve gksrh gS rks development dh izfØ.kj fd. ds vuqlkj .slk system tks software development esa lgk.d computer software rS.k focus djrh gSA Software engineering dh process layer esa lHkh layers dks combine fd. forms etc software engineering methods .drkuqlkj analysis.s . software ds merits rFkk demerits. program construction and testing etc.k tkrk gSA bleas vko'. important of the software rFkk software dh basic outline provide dh tkrh gSA .kj fd.d layered technology gksrh gS ftlesa quality dks improve fd.Software Engineering a Layered Approach :Software Engineering ds fyls lSdM+sk author us fofHkUu izdkj dh defination provide dh gSA ysfdu ftl subject ds ckjs esa discussion .k vkSj next step ij perform dh tkrh gS tks fd software engineering dh further quality dks support . data.d key process area gksrk gSA tks software projects dks manage rFkk control djrk gSA bl izdkj ds technical methods work products esa apply fd.slh technique gksrh gS ftlesa software dSls rS. steps include jgrs gSA .k tkrk gSA vkSj le.s tkrs gS ogh actual esa software engineering dh defination gksrh gSA blesa software quality rFkk timally product delaviry.s tkrs gS tSls fd models. Methods and tools :Software engineering .g testing Hkh software engineering dk gh steps gksrh gSA Process. program.drk gksrh gS vkSj bls cgqr lkjh vyx&vxy e'khu ij VsLV fd.kj djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA .rk djrk gSA "Computer Aided Software Engineering" dgykrk gSA CASE esa software hardware rFkk database dk combination gksrk gSA rFkk blesa Hkh software engineering environment esa analysis. construction testing support etc steps include jgrs gSA software engineering tools bu process rFkk methods esa automation provide djrs gSA tc tools intergraded gksrs gS rks mUgs dksbZ Hkh nwljk user use dj ldrk gSA .k confrenence perform dh tkrh gS vkSj lgh principal rFkk rule regulation provide fd.

Integrated Software Management B. Technology Change Management C. Training Program C. Process Change Management B.Key pad analysis (KPA) esa process maturity ds fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gSA LEVEL 1 A. Organization Process Definition D. Software Products Engineering LEVEL 3 A. Peer Revises B. Organization Process Focus LEVEL 4 A. Quantitative Process Management LEVEL 5 A. Software Quality Assurance C. Software Project Tracking and Over right E. Software Project Planning F. Software Sub-Contract Management D. Inter Group and Coordination C. Software Configuration Management B. Requirement Management LEVEL 2 A. Software Quality Management B. Defect Prevention Software Process Models :- .

programs.s tkrs gSA tSl fd document. Problem solving bl loop dks software engineering fofHkUu izdkj dh problem dks solve djus ds fy.k software engineering paradigones dgk tkrk gSA software engineering esa process model project rFkk application dh nature ds vuqlkj gh choose fd. System/Information engineering and modeling :- .drkuqlkj software dh controlling dh tkrh gSA lHkh izdkj ds software development esa problem solving loop dks characterized fd.k dks process modes .s .k tkuk gks] technical development esa application dh lgk. coding.k dks complete djrk gSA ` Linear sequential model fuEufyf[kr activities perform djrk gSA 1. design.k tk ldrk gSA The Linear Sequential Model :bl model dks dHkh&dHkh ge clasic life cycle .k tkrk gSA vkSj solution integration es result produce fd.ksx fd.d systematic rFkk sequential approach sugest provide djrk gSA tks fd system level ds 'kq: gksrk gSA vkSj analysis.rk ls problems dks solve fd. Status quo fdlh Hkh problem ds current status dks represent djrk gSA vkSj problem definition fdlh particular problem dks identify djrk gSA ftls solve fd. technical development and solution intigration.s tkrs gSA vkSj vko'.k tkrk gSA ftlesa pkj fofHkUu izdkj dh stages dh testing gksrh gS & status.s vyx&vyx rjhds ls mi.k tkrk gSA vkSj blds ckn gh method rFkk tools use fd.d software engineering dh team xfBr dh tkrh gSA tks fd process method rFkk tools layers dk use djds iwjh problem dks specify djrh gSA blh izfØ. definition. problem. testing rFkk support dh izfØ.ksx djrs gSA rFkk bls large product esa .k software engineering esa process model . data.s mi. quo. new business function and new product etc.fdlh Hkh industry esa actual problem dks solve djus ds fy.d ls vf/kd ckj vyx&vyx izdkj dh problem ds fy.k waterfull model Hkh dgrs gSA Linear sequential model software development esa .

Design :Actually Software design .Z dks code generation step complete djrk gSA .Z djrk gSA vkSj bldk interaction nqljs element ds lkFk vo'.s irk fd. performance and interface etc.d ckj code generate dj fy. people and database.k tkrk gSA rks program testing dh process 'kq: gksrh gSA Testing process software dh logical values dks test djrh gSA vkSj ftlesa .drkuqlkj software dh lHkh requirements dks translate djrh gSA Coding start djus ls igys analysis software ds designing documents dks complete dj ysrk gSA 4.drk gksrh gSA bl dk.` D. gksuk pkfg.fn .s complete information dks igys ls le> ysrk gSA tSls fd & requirement funtions.d cM+s system .drkuqlkj dk.fn designing vko'.kj dj fy.ksfd software ges'kk gh .s analyst (software engineer) software ds fy.fn output esa fdlh izdkj dh leL. Testing :.kj djus ds fy.sA tSls fd hardware. 2. Software requirement analysis :ftl rjg dh process gksrh gSA mlh rjg ls software dks vko'. representation and procedural (Algorithmic) detail designing process vko'.drkuqlkj detailed manner esa gksxh rks code generation esa fdlh Hkh rjg dh problem ugh vkrh gSA 5.k business dk part gksrk gSA tks fd lHkh izdkj ds system element dh requirement dh vko'. behavior.drkuqlkj choose fd.k tkrk gS fd software dh lHkh statements lgh :i ls execute gks jgh gS .k ughA System es rjg&rjg ds inputs provide fd.k vkrh .d gksrk gSA blfy.s mlds nature dks le>uk vko'.kj djus ls igys gh rS.d step process gksrh gSA tks program ds attribute dks focus djrh gSA Data structure. system rFkk software dh requirement bu documentaion software dks rS.s tkrs gSA . Code Generation :Designing dks ges'kk gh readable form esa translate djus dh vko'. software architecture. interface.k tkrk gSA Program dks rS.k tkrk gSA 3.

k tkrk gSA mlds ckn customer viuk dk.fn vko'.sls le.k gSA Prototyping paradigms dh lgk.gS rks mls debug dj fy.gh function prototyping dk part gksrs gSA Prototype customer rFkk user vkSj software developr ds }kjk evaluate dh tkrh gSA vkSj rc rd . testing.s rks software testing dh process complete gks tkrh gSA 5.fn lgh :i ls functioning ugh djrk gS rks bl le.Z 'kq: dj nsrk gSA vkSj customer viuh vko'.slh situation gksrh gS tgk¡ ij prototyping prodigious development dh lgk.drkuqlkj result izkIr gks tk.drkuqlkj software .s tk ldrs gSA .s tkrs gS ftuesa prototyping approach include jgrh gSA cgqr lkjh .drk gksrh gSA ftlesa software engineer iqjkus system dks u.s overall objective define dj ldrs gS blls software tYnh fMtkbu fd.rk ls vko'.s tk ldrs gSA .drkuqlkj data input djrk gSA .k dks complete ugh djrs gSA bl leL.drkuqlkj information dks bdV~Bk fd.slh technique gS tks software requirement dks indentify djrh gSA Working prototype esa developments igys ls gh cus program dk . design coding.k operating system . ea customer dh vko'. rFkk support dh process dks reapply djrk gSA The Prototyping Model :Customer software ds fy.sls le.rk djrs gSA blfy. software support .s rjhds ls test djrk gS vkSj iqu% analysis.k tkrk gSA vkSj .s dqN steps provide fd.sA Prototyping process .s bls .k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software ds output formats design fd.k dks gy djus ds fy.s process pyrh jgrh gS tc rd fd customer satisfy u gks tk.k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer rFkk development nksuks gh vkil esa communication dj ldrs gSA vkSj software ds fy.k maintenance dh vko'. Support :Software complete gksus ds ckn customer dks handover dj fn. u.k output ds requirement dks identify ugh djrk gSA vkSj nwljs causes esa dHkh&dHkh development algorithm dh izfØ. esa software dk environment change gks tkrk gSA bl le.k peripheral devices Hkh change fd.s general objective dks define djrk gS ysfdu og input processing .d vPNh approach ekuk x.

ksx djds gh rS.d complete product produce u dj nsA The Spiral Model :Spiral Model Program ds }kjk design fd.k] blds }kjk software development esa incremental version dks vklkuh ls tksM+k tk . editing rFkk document production facilities first incremental esa editing rFkk document production ds fy.Z prototype dk mi.ksx fd.ksx dj ysrs gSA tSls fd & report generations rFkk windows managers etc.k tkrk gSA tSls fd izR.s tkrs gS vkSj .s vko'.d command provide dh tkrh gSA Third incremental esa spelling rFkk grammar checking dh lqfo/kk iznku dh tkrh gSA vkSj advance page layout capabilities forth incremental esa iznku dh tkrh gSA blls ges .sd incremental .k x.s prototyping software engineering dk effective prardigon gSA The Incremental Model :Environmental model es linear sequential model ds elements dks combine fd.s customer rFkk development nksuks esa gh .ksx djds de le.s development dks u.sd word processing software incremental paradigm dk mi.rk ls vko'.k rFkk ftlesa prototyping ds incrementative ds nature dks control fd. esa complete gks tkrk gA bl fy.mi.s tkrs gSA ftlds vuqlkj basic file management.k tkrk gsA lcls igys first increment use gksrk gSA ftls ges software dk core product Hkh dgrs gS tks fd software dh basic requirement dks provide djrk gSA vkSj fQj planning ds vuqlkj core dh lgk.s linear sequential dks produce fd.k x.s mi.k x.k tkrk gSA tc incremental model use fd.s programs generate djus dh vko'.ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj .drkuqlkj nwljs incremental model vyx&vyx lqfo/kk ds fy.g irk pyrk gS fd fdlh Hkh izdkj ds incremental eas prototyping paradigms dk mi.drk gksrh gSA Prototype first system dh rjg mi. ysfdu fdlh particular purpose ds fy.k gSA Incremental Model es software processing ds fy.d actual system dh rjg lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA Customer tc software use djrk gSA rks og prototyping dks working ds :i es eglwl djrh gSA development tc software dks implement djrs gS rks mudk dk.ksx fd.s process rc rd repeat gksrh jgrh gSA tc rd fd izR.kj fd.

s dk. Concept development projects.Takes required to build one or more representation on the application. 5. 1. Constriction and Release :.Task required to established effective communication between developr and customer 2.ksx djds incremental software vklkuh ls develop fd.Task required to define resource costively ness and other project related information. 4.ksx fd.Takes required to access both technical and management race. Product enhancement projects. 3.sd persion team work task ds fy. Customer Communication :.s tkrs gSA 1.s set fd.s mudk dk.kj fd.ldrk gSA Spiral model dk mi.d combine version rS.s tkrs gSA ftls paper model dgk tkrk gSA vkSj ckn esa bu paper model dks system esa add djds .Z vc spiral model ds }kjk dkQh spiral cgqr lkjh frame work activities esa devide fd.drkuqlkj combine fd.k x.s tkrs gSA vkSj mUgs vko'. Customer Evaluation :.gk ij yxHkx sin task resign spiral model esa mi.Task required to obtain customer required base on evaluation of the software representation create designing the engineering stages and implemental during the installation stages. 2.k tkrk gSA .k gksrk gSA ftls ge task set Hkh dgrs gSA tks fd iwjs project ds charactristics provide djrk gSA vkSj project esa work task de gksrs gSA blfy.documentation and training) 6.d .k x. Engineering :. Planning :. Risk Analysis :. (for example :.k gSA ftUgsa tast version spiral dgk tkrk gSA .Task required to construct. text install and user support. Spiral model dk izR. Product maintenance projects. New product development projects. 3. 4.k tk ldrk gSA blls igys design dsoy isij ij fMtkbZu fd.Z Je Hkh lhfer gksrk gSA tcfd cM+s projects .

k tk ldrk gSA lHkh causes esa ftruh Hkh activities gksrh gSA os lHkh .k tkrk gSA software engineers dealy to dealy activities dsk analysis djrs gSA mls design djrs gSA vkSj mlds Åij technical control provide djrs gSA bldks pkj stages esa le>uk vko'.d complete software rS.kj fd.k tkrk gSA ftles gj izdkj dh prototype dk mi. process rFkk software dks increment djus ds lHkh operation include jgrs gSA software dks rS.Software contrigration management and software quality assurance etc.d gksrk gSA 1.s tkrs gS rks management .d number of ideration set djuk gS tc .s process complete gksrh gSA rks .drkuqlkj lHkh izdkj ds inputs provide djrk gS vkSj .s bu activities ds umbralla activities Hkh dgk tkrk gSA tSls gh bldh evaluationnory process 'kq: gksrh gSA rks software engineering dh team sprial model ds vuqlkj clock wise direction esa move djrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds contrest ls gh 'kq: gksrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds igys sereit esa fdlh Hkh product ds result dks development fd.kj gksrk gS vkSj mls customer dks provide fd.ksx djds software dk complete version rS. People 2.es izR.d gksrh gSA ftlds vk/kkj ij iwjs projects dks manage fd. control of the people.s planing ds vuqlkj vko'.k products rS.) blfy.k tkrk gSA Spiral model esa izR.kj fd. Product 3.drkuqlkj ftl rjg ls planing dh tkrh gSA bldh cost feed back ds vk/kkj ij set fd.d cgqr gh vko'. .kj djus ds fy.d result izkIr djrk gSA Project Management Concepts :tc Hkh dksbZ computer based system .d activiy gksrh gSA project management esa planings.d perticular project esa apply dh tkrh gSA (Ex.k tkrk gSA vkSj customer mldh viuh vko'.sd task resion vf/kd ls vf/kd work task contain djrk gSA blfy.d vPNh understanding gksuk vko'. Project .k tkrk gSA vkSj project manager softwere dks complete djus ds fy.s mlds }kjk high level dh formetings dks izkIr fd.s . Process 4.sd resion esa vko'.

The Players :Software process es tks yksx lgk.sA v.k gS & i.Z gksrk gSA iii. Practitionens :. Customers :.k dk.Practitiones fdlh Hkh product .kh eas ck¡Vk x.Customers viuh vko'.Z dj jgs gksrs gS mudks motivate and organize djuk rFkk daVªksy djuk Hkh project managers dk gh dk.rk djrk gSA blesa tks yksx invovle gksrs gS os bl izdkj gS & a. Team leaders :- .Z gSA ii.ksfd tks Hkh software project create djrs gSA og fdlh perticular organizationd ds fy.d ckj software ds lkFk intract djrk gSA tc software (project) release gksrk gSA mlds ckn ogh end user software ij dk.kZ gksrk gSA blesa senior engineer ls ysdj NksVs ls NksVk employee Hkh prjects ds complete gksus esa lgk.d technical skills provide djrs gSA iv.Z perform gksus pkfg.s gksrk gSA vkSj bl organisation ds employees Hkh organization dsx ckjs es iwjh tkudkjh ns ldrs gSA muds communication ds fcuk ge software environment vklkuh ls complete ugh dj ldrs gSA blfy. People :fdlh Hkh software project dks lgh :i ls complete djus ds fy.k application ds fy.Project Managers iwjs project dh planning djrs gSA vkSj tks users bl projects esa dk. Project (Technical) Managers :.s crkrs gS fd bl organization esa fdl employee dk D.s software engineering process esa peoples dk rool dkQh egRoiw.1.s people communication cgqr gh important gksrk gSA D.s vko'.drkuqlkj iwjs software dh tkudkjh provide djrs gsA fd bl software es fdl izdkj ds dk.Senior Managers iwjh rjg organization dh information provide djrs gSSA vkSj . End user :.Z djrk gSA 2.rk djrs gS mUgs 5 Js. Senior Mangers :.End user de ls de .

s events produce gks] rks mudks organize djus dh rFk final product dks translate djus dh ability Hkh project leader eas gksuk vko'.d vPNs project managers dks project dk charge ysuk vko'.k dks gy djus ds fy..fn os lHkh yksx .Z djrs gSA .fn fdlh izdkj dh problem dk lkeuk djuk iM+s rks mlds fy.&le. ij analysis djus ds fy. Problem Solving :.s .Software projects dks complete djus esa .k application ds fy.fn fdlh dkj.The availability to encoverage ¼lkgl c<+kuk½ technical pepls to produce to there best activity. Organisation :. Ideas or Innovations :.d gksrh gSA iii.k vkrh gS rks mls contol .d effective software projects managers dh vko'.slh ability Hkh team leader esa gksuk vko'. Managerial Identity :. ij team ds izR.&le.ko'k dgh ij dksbZ leL.s ideas provide djuk] ftuls software project dks complete djus esa lgk.d nwljs ls vPNh rjg communication ugh dj ik jgs gS rks project dks complete djus es ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA bl leL.sd software projects esa tks yksx Hkh involve gksrs gS os lHkh viuh&viuh availability rFkk skills ds vuqlkj dk.d gksrh gSA iv.s project manager dks le.fn u.d gksrk gSA vi.Project team dh productivity dks le.fdlh Hkh proces esa . Motivation :.drk gksrh gSA tks fd technical rFkk organiszational problems dks systemetic <ax ls solve dj ldsA v.d gksrk gSA vkSj mlds ikl yskxks ds communication djus dk project. Achivement :.s project managers eq[.s yksxks dks mRlkfgr djuk] vkSj u.d gksrk gSA vkSj .s&u.fdlh Hkh perticular software product . dks lgh :i ls complete djus dk rFkk iwjh project team dks control djus dk confidence gksuk vko'.rk feysA . Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA tks fd iwjh project team dk yhMj gksrk gSA Leader ship ds dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & i.sd member ls report ysuk vko'.izR. ii.

slh .drkuqlkj organisation es mi.d .s software team technical rFkk physical nksuksa izdkj dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA .ksX.k .s .bl engineering team dks dksbZ permanent leader ugh gksrk gSA blesa izR.bl software engineering team ds ikl .drk gksrh gSA bl izdkj ds NksVs&NksVs risk project leader dks ysus gh iM+rs gS blesa fdlh dks punish ugh fd.kj djrs gS mues software rS.drkuqlkj le>rh gS vkSj mls gy djrh gS blds fy.d team design dh tkrh gSA tks fdlh Hkh orgnization structure dk vklkuh ls computerized dj ldrh gSA bldh iwjh responsibility software project manager dh gskrh gSA tks direct team ds members ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA izR.d fuf'pr le. rd coordinates appoint fd. gksuh pkfg.kj dh tk ldrh gSA 3.k tkrk gSA software team fdlh organization dh problem dks vko'.s rHkh . The Software Team :yxHkx lHkh organization esa tks software rS.d leader gksrk gS tks fdlh perticular dk.gk¡ ij rhu izdkj dh software team rS.d ls vf/kd funtional task provide fd.sd member dks vko'. Democratied Decentralized (DD) :.drk gksrh gsA og nwljs yksxks dks read dj lds] vkSj mudh problems dks le> lds] .k tkrk gSA & a..s dqN le.ksx fd.sd dk. es complete fd.kj djus ds fy.s decision rFkk approch iwjs group ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj team members ds communication horizontal provide fd.djus dh vko'.s tkrs gSA tks fd software project ds gh part gksrs gS vkSj mUgs .k tk ldrk gSA vii. Controled Decentralized (CD) :.ksX.Z dks coordinate djrk gS vkSj nwljs NksV&NksVs dk.rk projects managers esa vo'.s tkrs gSA rFkk mlds ckn mls nwljs coordinates ls replace dj fn. Influence and team building :.ksZ dh .k tkrk gSA b. gksuk pkfg.d vPNh team rS.sA vkSj mls ges'kk gh under control esa jgus dh vko'.drkuqlkj .kj dh xbZ gS ftudk vko'.d effective team manager yksxks dks understand djus esa .Z ds fy.k tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problemds ds fy.

k tkrk gSA . v.bl izdkj dh software engineering team esa top level problem solving rFkk internal team coordination team leader ds }kjk gh manage fd. The degree of socialbility (communication required for the project) Centralized Structure dk.Z provide djrk gSA .s lcls vf/kd mi.Z dks tYnh iwjk djrk gSA vkSj simple problem dks gy djus ds fy. The rigidity of the delivery date.gk¡ ij team members esa communication horizental rFkk vertical nksuks gh :i es provide dh tk ldrh gSA c. The ruquired quality and reliability of the system to be built. vi.drkuqlkj organise djrs gS ysfdu muds fy. ii.s x. Controled Centralized (CC) :.s .s .reponsibility Hkh mlh ds Åij gksrh gS fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks iwjh team solve djrh gS ysfdu ml problem dks solve djus ds fy. The time that the team will stay to gather (team life time) iv.k tkrk gSA Leader rFkk team members ds chp communication vertical gksrk gSA Software engineering teams ds structure dks create djrs le.d specific dk. The size of the resultand programs is line of code or function point. iii. 7 project factor directive fd.sd member dks .d example cukrs gS rFkk mls vko'.s vPNk solution provide djrh gSA vkSj difficult problems dks solve djus es l{ke gksrh gSA Product :Software porject management dks lcls igys fo'ys"k.ksx fd.s team leader izR. vii. The difficulty of the problem to be solved.k tkrk gSA Decntralized team indivisuals ds fy.s information solid information ugh gksrh gSA Important information dk detailed anaylsis djds gh izkIr fd. The degree to which the problem can to modularized.k djrs gS vkSj .s gSA tks bl izdkj gS & i.

s] og ell understand esa miyC/k gksuk pkfg. Information Objectives :. maximum allowable response time etc. size of mailing list.k tk.s vko'.drkuqlkj plans rFkk requirements Hkh le. dh information Hkh provide dh tkrh vko'.How does the software to be built fit in a large ssytem.sA Problem Decompogirion :PD dks lHkh portitioning a problem elatroration Hkh dgrs gS . Function & Performance :.d gksrh activity gS tks fd vko'. product or business contects & what considrate are impored as a result of a control.kj fd.) include jgrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk software dh limitation tSls fd product cost restrict memory size etc. Software project are store management and technical level ij vklku rFkk easy to understand gksuk gSA vko'. esa .drkuqlkj tks Hkh algorithm provide fd.vkSj .sA ftuds data (nmber of similertation. Software Scope :Software Project management es lcls igy activity software scope dks determine djuk gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh software porject dk scope fuEufyf[kr questions answer djds define fd.d complete product rS.d activities ds nkSjku problem dks fully . c.drk gksrh gSA rkfd dksbZ .drkuqlkj software analysit ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA .s project dk 'kq: ls gh vPNh rjg ls analysis djus dh vko'.k tkrk gSA a. Contect :. b.d gksrh gSA blds fy.g .What function does the software perform to has for input data into outputs are many special performnance charactristics to the addressed.d le. Hkh ys ldrh gSA tc project 'kq: gksrk gS rks vko'. ij cnyrh jgrh gSA blfy.What customer visible data objects are producted as output form the software whate data objects case required for input.k tk ldsA bldh dqN activities fuEu izdkj gSA i.d gksrk gSA software dh statement ftldh provide dh tkuh pkfg.&le.s analysis complete gksus es lIrkg .k eghus rd dk le.

The formal methods model. Hkkx gksrs gSA vkSj .s process model software engineering paradigoms ds varxZr vkrs gSA tSls fd & i. The component based developmetn.k tkrk gSA vkSj software functions esa software dks mldk use rFkk total arithmetic Hkh decompostition dks gh part gksrk gSA The Process :Software develpment esa lcls main step mldh processing dk gksrk gSA vkSj bldsa designing esa tks process use dh tkrh gSA mlesa defination development rFkk support eq[.wtj fdlh complex problem dks gy djrk gSA rks og blesa devide and conquer method use djrk gSA bldh lgk. iii.The concurrent development model. The linear sequential model.s tk ldrs gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks porcess module ds vk/kkj ij projcect team ds }kjk choose df. v. tc Hkh dksbZ . ii. ii.k tkrk gSA vkSj . xi. The RAD (Rapid Application Development) model. The incrimental model.decompase fd.s parts lHkh izdj das software esa apply fd. The Functionally that must be delivence. vi. The prototyping model. viii. iv.k tkrk gSA ftldks vklkuh ls manage fd. The sprial model. nks area es apply fd.s method project manning ds 'kq: es gh apply dj fn. vii.rk ls complex problem dks NksVs&NksVs programs esa devide dj fn.k tkrk gSA i. . x. The win_win sprial model.ktkrk gSA vkSj bl decompositon dks eq[. The process that will be uses delivere it.k tk ldsA . The technical generation model.

s Hkh project manager gh decide djrk gSA .Z include jgrs gSA ii. ij izR.s linear sequential apporach lcls vf/kd mi.sd designing team ls activity report check djrk jgrk gSA cM+s project esa fuEufyf[kr communication activities include jgrh gS & a.d gSA ftlesa customer dh request.d ckj process model select dj fy. engineering.k tk lds rFkk dkSu lh software team bl project ij dk.s rks mlds ckn project dh designging start gks tkrh gSA NksVs project ds fy. risk analysis.ksx dh tkrh gSA Project start gksus ds ckn project manager le. planning.Project manager . product detail.k tk. . Review the customer request b.k tkuk vko'. Plan and schedule a formel. Process Decomposition :Software team project ds fy. facilities meeting with the customer.s best suited choose djrh gS . Conduct the meeting. e. construction and release rFkk customer evaluation etc.s rks izR. Melding the Porduct and the process :Project Planning product rFkk mldh process dks understand djus ds ckn gh 'kq: dh tkrh gSA vkSj izR.sd function software team ds } kjk design fd. Conduct research to specify the prepaired solution and existing approach.s dkSu lk process model use fd. dk. Prepare a working document and an agenda for the formal meeting.d ckj process model choose dj fy.s deside djrk gS fd perticular problem ds fy.fn .fn .&le.sd team dks mlds ckn proecess decompostition dh izfØ. d.Z djsxhA .d gksrk gSA ftlesa customer communication.k tk. user work product charactristics rFkk project environment dks vklkuh ls handle fd.k tkuk vko'. c.k 'kq: gksrh gSA ftlesa complete plan required project activity rFkk brief discription include jgrh gSA Process esa fuEufyf[kr activities apply dh tkrh gS %& i.

s rFkk 10% mldh working ds fy. viii.s gS og bl izdkj gSA i. h.k tk. ii. ds fy. Charges are managed poorly. Business need change. The project team lacks peopel with appropriate & skills . Died lines are unreakustuc. Assemble scopping documents. Hkwfedk gksrh gsA ftlds fy. iv.sA rFkk . vii.kj djus ds fy. Review the scopping documents with all concered. and behaviral features fo the software. c. le>uk pkfg.sA Information system project ds fy.f.s tkrs gSA software project dks complete djus ds fy. Software people don't understand their customer needs. MOdify the scopping documents as required. g. iii.s understand djuk Hkh vko'.s manager dh eq[.s gS & . x.s x. Design the reflect data.s projectional yxHkx 90 & 100 rules discuss djrs gSA buesa ls 90% system ds affort rFkk le. j.s discuss fd. Sponsorship is lort. vi. User are resintande.s ges lcls igys bldh problem dks vo'. The project :fdlh Hkh software project dks sucessfully manage djus ds fy. xi. Managers and prectisnner avoid best practices and lessons learned. fdlh Hkh deficult software project dks rS.s x. The coosent technology changes. v. functions.s ikap part suggest fd. The product scope is poorly define. Review correcterness consistency and each steps of the problem. i.d gS fd mls lgh dSls fd.s tks steps define fd.

jgrs mlesa dksbZ improvement ugh dh tk ldrh gSA Metrics in the process & project domain :Engineering world esa measurement .kZ gks tkrs gSA rks mleas managers rFkk practioners vius&vius dke esa busy gks tkrs gSA ftlls software process es improvement gksrk gSA dqN cares ea same software metrics project rFkk process indicators dks determine djus . v. Makes smart decision.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds process dks metrics ds }kjk vklkuh ls handle fd. products rFkk milestones etc includes jgrs gS . software engineering task.k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh measurment software engineers ds }kjk dh tkrh gSA . work. Maintain momentum. Conduct a mortem analysis. Start on the foot.s tkrs gSA mUgs metrices dgk tkrk gSA software metrics dks software manager ds }kjk analysis rFkk access fd. . physical structure.k judge ugh djrs gS rks vkidk project fail gks ldrk gSA vkSj le. ii.drkuqlkj measure . tempracture voltage etc dks measure dgrs gSA .k dks ge implimention Hkh dgrs gSA fdlh Hkh problem dks gy dus ds fy.drk gksrh gSA fd fdl part dk measure fd.Z djrs gSA rks ges ml le. iv.k tkrk gSA bl izfØ.k tk ldrk gSA ftls ge process indicators dgrs gSA bleas fdlh Hkh process dsa paradigoms.k tkrk gSA vkSj mls productivity esa add dj fn. Track Progress.i.s fyLV yxHkx endless gS tc Hkh ge fdlh izkstsDV ij dk.fn vki fdlh project dks vko'.d common part gksrk gSA ftlesa ge power consumption wait.g le>us dh vko'.s tks point dicuss fd.fn lHkh izdkj ds process time ds vuqlkj laiw. Software process and Project Materials :Software process and project materials esa iwjs izkstsDV dh quantatum measurment dh tkrh gSA ftlesa project dh basic quality productvitiy rFkk data dh information collect dh tkrh gSA blds ckn bl MkVk dks analysis fd. iii.

ess mi. The over all cost of errors and defects and each catagories is computers. Plans are developd to modify the process because the class of errors and defects is most costly.k tkrk gS A blh dkj.k dks ge SSPI (Stafirtical Software Process Imporvement) dgrs gSA ftlesa software analysis dks Hkh handle fd. (for ex .drk gksrh gSA ysfdu mlls igys software dh quality rFkk organizational performence dh process dks indirectly measure dj ldrs gSA tSls fd & outcomes dks handle djrk vkSj le.fn improvement djuk gks rks mlls related gj izdkj ds attributes dks measure djus dh vko'. v.Z djrs gSA i. Process metrick & software process improvement :fdlh Hkh project es . The no. Process metrics dk mi. Design c. how in logic and non confermence to standrads) ii.s tkrs gSA 1.k ls .s x. Specification / requirement b.&le.s mi.ksx fd. Resultant data are analysis to uncover the cataogries that result in highest cost to the organization.s metrics process rFkk project domain nksuks ds fy. Oritin of errors defects a. iii.k tkrk gSA rFkk lHkh errors rFkk deffect ds ckjs esa information collect dh tkrh gS A Failure analysis bl izdkj dk. ij enduser ls report team ds }kjk design fd. Code .ksx djds laLFkk vklkuh ls MkVk collect dj ldrh gSA bl izfØ. of errors and defects in each catagories and countered and ranked in descending order.flow in specification. All errors on deffects area catagoried by origin. iv. vi. The cost coreect each other and defect is recordered.ksx dh tkrh gSA measurement project team ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls metrics ds :i esa convert dj fy.s gksrs gSA mudh confirmation ysuk etc.

Acutally .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh lHkh metrics dks project manager miners ds fy. .s model izR.s Hkh mi.s rsk mls delete dj fy.ksx fd.k tkrk gS & a.k tkrk gSA tSls gh quality improve gksrh gSA mlesa ftrus Hkh defect gksrs gSA . Environment) Required to the work) b.d schedule ds vuqlkj mldk estimate ls compose fd.k tkrk gSA fd blesa development schedule vklkuh ls design fd.s model process rFkk project nksuks ds fy.s project esa .sd project esa mi.k tk ldrk gSA Software measurment : - . Output :.d vkSj model yxHkx izR.s project metrics project managers rFkk software team ds }kjk mi.Means that indicate the effectiveness of the deliverables.s provide djrk gS rFkk iwjs project dh controlling djrk gSA blesa documentaion.s lHkh improve gksrs tkrs gS rFkk user dh vko'.drkuqlkj implimentation gskrk gSA softare project metrics dk .ksx dh tkrh gS ftl le. function point rFkk deleverd scarce line measure dh tkrh gSA blesa . Project Metrics :Software project metrics strategic purpose ds fy.s tkrs gSA .ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu software project esa tactical analysis fd. Input :.s gh mi.fn fdlh izdkj dh error vk. project astimate yxkbZ tkrh gSA .rk ls product dh quality dks improve fd. mi. c.ksx dh tkrh gSA bles project work flow rFkk technical acitivities include jgrh gSA Project metrics dh igyh application bl le.2.s mi.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh lgk.ksxh gksrh gSA tSls gh project 'kq: gksrk gS rks mldk time .k tk ldrk gSA Design fd. time review.People.Measures of the deliverables or work products during th software engineering process.sd activity esa apply fd.s estimate iwjkus project ea ls Hkh collect dh tk ldrh gS tks fd current project es dkQh mi.Measures the resources ( Ex. Results :.k tkrk gSA ftlls project dh performence vkSj c<+ tkrh gSA Project metrics dks project ds fy.s x.

ii.fDr N% eghus ds vanj design dj ldrs gSA rFkk bldh cost 1. quality.50000 $ rd gks ldrh gSA software engineering activities analysis designcode rFkk test activity include gjrh gSA 2.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk table dh list ds izR.k tk ldrk gSA Information to main values bl izdkj define dh tk ldrh gSA i.k tk ldrk gS vkSj bldh list dks . Number of users Input. rFkk cgqr lkjh acitivities include jgrh gSA 1. ii. Hkh include jgrs gSA Indirect measurement es functionalty.ksx djds software dh information dks vklkuh ls interrelate djds measure fd.k gSA & 1. memory size rFkk deffects etc. excution speed. complexlity. iv. Number of users Output. efficiencey. Number of users Inqueries.k tk ldrk gSA . Size Oriented Metrics :Size Oriented Software metrics quality rFkk productivity ls yh xbZ gSA bles software organization similler domain dks maintain djrh gSA rks Vscy dk size ls measure fd. .k tkrk gSA Sofware engineering process esa direct measurment esa cost rFkk affoord (apply) include jgrk gSA rFkk blesa line of code (LOC) produced.sd item dks vklkuh ls compile fd. Number of Files.s tkrs gSA bl stage dks ge function point Hkh dg ldrs gSA Function point dk mi. Direct Measurement 2.Measurment dks nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x.fn bl project esa word 12000 lines ds vklikl gS rks bls pkj O. reliability. Function Oriented Metrics :Function Oriented metric s apllication dh normalisation value dks measure djrh gS blesa application ds lHkh izdkj ds function measure fd. Indirect Measurement blh ds vk/kkj ij software metrics dks apply fd. maintainility.d NksVs ls program ds }kjk handle fd.

the user ? Does the system require reliable backup and recovery? Are data communication require ? Are there distributed processing function ? Is performance ctritical? Does the system require online data entry? Are the masterfile updated online ? Is the internal processing complex ? Are conversion and installation included in the design ? Is the application designed to facilities change and eare of use by viii.drk gksrh gSA bl process .s tkrs gSA mUgs system application . vii. .k tkrk gSA ftlls iwjh application ds behaviour rFkk functions dks control fd.slh satisfaction esa cgqr lkjs basic funcion points dks measure djus dh vko'.ksx fd. FP (Function Point) per person month.k business information ds fy. iv. iii.k average gS .fn . External Function Point metrics :tks Hkh Function point measure fd.k tk ldrk gSA blh dkj.k tkrk gS vkSj organization function point methods dk mi.k complex gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr questions dk answer find fd.s tkrs gS tSls fd & errors per FP (Function Point).k tkrk gS rks mldh values dks count fd. Pages of Documentation per FP (Function Point).g irk yxkrh gSA fd perticular entry simple gS .d ckj function point calculate dj fy.fn .k tkrk gS & i. $ per FP (Function Point).k bu functions points dks engineering rFkk nwljs system ess Hkh mi. Is the code designed reusable ? . ii.s apply fd.ksx djds . x. defects per FP (Function Point).v. vi. Number of external interfaces.k tkrk gSA .s tkrs gS rks mlds ckn software dh productvity. xi.d ckj data collect dj fy. quality rFkk nwljk attribute measures fd. v.

ksx fd.dks function point extenstion dgk tkrk gSA .k tk ldsA Engineers ds }kjk blds fy.drk vyx&vyx izdkj dh metrics dk mi.s technical measurment dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Metrics for Software Quality :Software engineering dk main aim high quality system application . Product Revision (Change it) iii.ksx fd. Product Translation (Modify it) to work a different envrionment.k tkrk gSA Feature points esa realtime process control. . decoding rFkk handling and inturrepts .ksx fd.&le.k problems dks gy dj ldsA rFkk gj izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls handle fd.drk gksrh gSA blesa project managers le. software application trends rFkk algorithm dks handle fd.rk ls iwjs program ds functions dks specify fd.k gSA blds } kjk 3D function points dks Hkh handle fd.s lHkh algorithm ds gh mnkgj.k tk ldrk gSA izR. source code rFkk cost condition dh quality dks improve djus dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Algorithm dh lgk.g factor rhu izdkj ls access fd.k engineering software application esa mi.s vko'.drk gksrh gSA . design models.drk requirements . ij projects process dh reports ysrk jgrk gSA vkSj project metrics dh help ls information select djrk jgrk gSA ftlds }kjk software dh quality rFkk effectiveness dks improve fd.s DRE (Defect Removable Efficiency) work activity dk mi.k product dk maintainance djuk gksrk gsA bl mís'.s analysis. dks iwjk djus ds fy.fn projects esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls lekIr djus fy.k tk ldrk gSA i. Product Operation (Using it) ii.s software process esa software engineers dks effectives methods apply djus dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA .d vPNh quality ds fy. An overview of factor that effect quality :Software quality esa quality dk lcls igyk factor gksrk gSA software esa .k tkrk gSA 1.k dHkh&dHkh ge feature point Hkh dg nsrs gSA ftUgs fdlh perticular system .sd activity ds fy.k tkrk gSA bleas coding.

s bl izdkj ds measurement dh vko'.k tkrk gSA rFkk D.s error project team ds }kjk gy dj yh tkrh gSA Intrigrity Metrics with in the software process :tSlk fd ge tkurs gSA fd software dks dHkh&dHkh vklkuh ls measure ugh fd. requirement bl izdkj gksrh gS & i. Measuring Quality :Project measurment esa software quality dks improve djus ds fy.k tkrk gS rks DRE bl izdkj define fd tk ldrh gS & DRE = E/(E+D) .kj djus ds fy.s dkQh hard work djuk iM+rk gSA D.s errors ml le.s deliver gks pqdk gksrk gSA DRE dhs value tc 1 gksrh gSA rks bldk eryc .rk ls project dks complete djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA blds fy.&le.d quality dks improve djrh gSA a. Arguments for software metrics. errors filter gskrh gS blfy.k gS .2.k gSA .s gj izdkj ds measurement dh vko'.s defective end user ds fy.s cgqr lkjs programs dk collection vko'. .ksfd software ls related fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information dks project managers ds }kjk le.g gS fd software esa dskbZ defect ugh gSA . Useability (User Friendly) Defect Removable Efficiency (DRE) :fdlh Hkh project dh lcls cM+h quality process level ij DRE gksrh gSA bls ge filtering ability . Intrigrity b. Maintainablity (PIC maintain) d.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s eq[.k x.fn 1 dh value increase gskrh gSA rks ml le.k control activity Hkh dg ldrs gSA tc iwjs project dks analysis fd.k tkrk gSA software dks rS.rk ls Project team project dh quality dks improve djus ds fy.gk ij E numbers of errors ds fy. Currentness c.s project dh delivery ds igys ls gh .k x.s define fd.drk gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls project team project dh .s define fd. count dh tkrh gSA tc software end user dks diliver fd.drk gksrh gSA ftldh lgk. numbers of defect ds fy. ij collect fd.d gksrk gSA ftudh lgk.

.ku esa j[krs gq.k tk ldrk gSA tc rd project complete ugh gks tkrk rc rd project manager bldh surity ugh nsrk gS bl project ds lkFk&lkFk . computation & evaluation.ksx djds vklkuh ls project dks handle dj ldrs gSA Project Planing Objectives :Software Project planing dk mís'.drkuqlkj resources rFkk cost dk estimate yx.ksx djds dk.kj gks tkrk gS rks mldh iwjh cost rS. software egineers rFkk software metrics ls izkIr gksrh gSA vkSj tc project rS.sls functions provide fd. Metrics collection.k tkrk gS rFkk blesa .k tkrk gS vkSj budh lgh :i ls scheduling djrk gS vkSj . Unit II Software Project Planing :Software Project Planing esa iwjs project dh activities involve jgrh gSA tSl fd How much money? How much effort? How many resources and how much time it will lake to build a software product? Software managers selected information dks mi.kj gks tkrk gS rkS software project planing esa fuEufyf[kr activities discuss dh tkrh gS & i.s create fd. Software Scope ii.s information buds ikl customers.d responsible project rS.kj fd.k tkrk gSA ftlesa project ls related gj izdkj dh information store jgrh gSA User bl mannual dk mi.s tkrs gS ftudks le.s estimate project dh 'kq:vkr ds le.d complete project cukuk gksrk gSA ftlesa managers project dh vko.Z 'kq: dj nsrs gSA . time limit dks /.s tkrs gSA blds vfrfjDr estimate esa software metrics rFkk project outcomes Hkh include jgrh gSA tc . iii.&le. Rsources .kj dh tkrh gSA rFkk resources ds lkFk customer dks lkSai fn. Stablishing a base line.d complete mannual rS.k tkrk gSA ftls project ds lkFk customer dks provide fd. ij vklkuh ls impliment fd.ii.

k tkrk gsA ftlesa hardware rFkk software tools include jgrs gSA a. Obtaining information necessory for scope.k tkrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a. databases. Decompostion Technique.s nwljk step gksrk gS tks fd software development esa dkQh egRoiw. client server) nksuks gh specify fd.d vkneh N% eghus ds vanj fdlh .drk gS .s managers dks skill dh vko'.kZ step gSA bleas development environment dks study fd. b.d ckj estimate .k tkrk gSA Software scope esa data dks describe fd. Resources :Software planing dk . performance. constraints.iii.k tkrk gSA rFkk function.k tk. interfaces rFkk reliability etc. Humen Resources :Complete development ds fy.fn . Software Scope :Software project planing esa lcls igyh activity software scope gksrh gSA ftlesa software ds functions rFkk mldh performance dks measure fd.d NksVs project dks complete dj ysrk gS vkSj og Lo.a gh project dh vko'.k tkrk gSA blfy. i.k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'.d gksrh gSA D.d information izkIr djrk gS fdlh cM+s project esa tc rd development dk estimate ugh yxk.drkuqlkj project dh scheduling dh tkrh gSA Performance esa processing rFkk responce time dh vko'.s rc rd fdrus yksxksa dh vko'. Software engineer) rFkk specility (telecommunication.s tkrs gSA NksVs projects esa .drk gksrh gSA blesa organizational possition (Manager. Feasiblity. Software Project Estimate iv. dks control fd. Senior. ii.kj djus ls igys lHkh izdkj dh detail gkfly djuk vko'.g dgk ugh tk ldrk] .ksfd mUgh ds vk/kkj ij iwjh cost dk estimate yxk.s estimate rS.drk gksrh gSA Constaints esa hardware dh limit dks identify fd.

rk djrh gSA Current software team ds members ds ikl full experince gksrk gS fd os mu components dks current project easa represent dj ldsa .s igys ls gh cuh application design rFkk mldh coding dks access dj fy.k bUgs current project ds fy.k tkrk gSA .yxk fy. Off the self component :u.k vko'.d programming block cuk. Partial Experience Components :Current project ds fy.s limited experiance gksrk gSA blfy.rk ls gh complete dh tkrh gSA blesa dqN fuEufyf[kr points gS & a.s software T.k tkrk gS b.s dkQh lgk.k tkrk gS rks person rFkk required months nksuks dk gh irk djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA b.k tkrk gSA bUgh blocks dks ge component project dks handle djus ds fy.s software degign djus ds fy.ksx dj fy.rk gSA ftrus Hkh standard application gksrh gS os ges'kk gh blocks dh lgk.k component esa partial experance dh vko'.k tkrk gSA tks fd development es dkQh lgk. code rFkk tested data dks izkIr rks dj ysrs gSA ysfdu mlesa dqN modification dh vko'.sd component ds fy.knk reliable and reusble gksrs gSA blesa izR. Full Experience Component :Current Project ds fy.s bu application esa .drk gksrh gSA d.drk gksrh gsA current software team ds members ds ikl mUgsa represent djus ds fy.s .s ge igys ls mifLFkr application design. New Component :- . Reusable Software Resources :tks software component based software gksrs gS .s dHkh&dHkh igys ls gh cus project ds component dks mi.drkuqlkj mlesa modification dj ldsA c.s third party ls [kjhn fy.

sd organization esa mi.) 2.k tkuk vko'.s fuEufyf[kr option arise gksrs gS & 1.drk Hkh gksrh gSA izR.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s . environmental rFkk political etc.k tkrk gSA rks software team dks hardware element dks access djus dh vko'.s gks ldrh gSA . Case one or more models for software cost and estimation.s software component design djus dh vko'.s dHkh exact ugh gksrk gS D.Current project dh vko'. Environmental Resources :. (We can active 100% accurate estimate ofter the project is complete.drkuqlkj software team dks u.k tk ldsA 3.k variable include jgrs gSA tSls fd humen.ksx dh tk jgs gSA Software dh cost developr ds }kjk rS.slk environment tks software project dks support djrk gks] mls ge Software Engineering Environment (SEE) dgrs gsA blesa hardware rFkk software nksuks component include jgrs gSA Hardware. Delay estimation until late in the project.drk gksrh gSA rkfd vius project dks interactive user friendly rFkk reusable cuk. 3. Case relalivialy simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and estimate. 4. Decomposition technique :- . Software ds fy.Z fd.drk dks spcify fd. technial.ksfd blesa cgqr lkjs yksx .d gksrk gSA tc .kj fd. Base estimates on similer project that have allready been completed.d gksrk gSA Software Project Estimation :Software dh cost igys dh vis{kk dkQh expensive gks xbZ gS vkt dy lHkh computer base system izR.d plateform provide djrk gSA ftlesa vko'.sd hardware software project ds vuqlkj izkIr djuk vko'.kj dh tkrh gSA blesa profit rFkk loss nksuks dh gh laHkkouk.d computer based system rS.s Hkh hardware rFkk software dh vko'. bu lHkh dh cost software esa effect djrh gSA software dh cost dks rFkk estimate dks vklkuh ls izkIr djus ds fy.drkuqlkj dk.

k gksxk vkSj bldh dher fdruh gksxhA iii.ksX.d problem solving techniqes gS vkSj cgqr lkjs cases esa problem dks solve djuk] dkQh dfBu gks tkrk gS blh dkj.sA vU.k gSA vkSj bl project dk dk.Z gksrk gSA sizing problem esa fofHkUu izdkj dh pkj approach dks suggest fd.rk ls programm application dh type dks mldh quality dks identify djds original range rS.rk ds vuqlkj gS .d le.Software project estimation .d project estimation dk eq[.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR.k ugh A rFkk mldk environment software dks support dj jgk gSA .k ugh A tc bl izdkj dh lkjh tkudkjh project programmer dks gks tkrh gSA rks og software dh sizing problem dks vklkuh ls vkSj vPNs rjhds ls decopose dj ldrk gSA vkSj .k ugh A iv. Fuzzy Logic Sizing :bl technique dh lgk.k gS & i. software Sizing :.k tk jgk gSA og user dh vko'. Function Point Sizing :- . esa fdrus vkneh dk.gh .slh process gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.drkuqlkj gS . dk.gk ij planner viuk personal experiance use djrk gSA ii.Fkk estimate xyr Hkh gks ldrk gSA a.Software project dk lgh estimate cgqr lkjh phtksa ij fuHkZj djuk gSA i. blesa .kj djrk gSA .kj fd. Porject fdl izdkj dk gS rFkk mldk lkbt D. Project paln software team dh .Z D.k x.sd set dh cost rFkk estimate create djus ls igys project planner dks software dk scope rFkk blds size ds ckjs es iwjk knowledge gkfly dj ysuk pkfg.Z djsxsA Calander time D.rk ls iwjs project dks NksVs&NksVs meaningfull sets esa devide dj fn.k ls ge problem dks decompose dj ldrs gSA decomposition .k gksxkA ii. tks project rS.d .

k ds fy. Cnage Sizing :tc fdlh project dks modify fd.s yxHkx 18 estimate reports generate djrk gSA vkSj izR.ksx djdsA LOC And FP estimation .ksx fd.s information system ds standrad components sub system.drkuqlkj mi.d perticular application dks execute djrs gSA mnkgj.k tk ldrk gSA iv. betch programs.k tkuk vko'. reports. files.k tkrk gS rks mls le. Standrad Component Sizing :Software cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx standrad component ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA tks fd . bl technique dks mi. rFkk object lable instructions etc gSA bl izdkj project planner estimate ds fy. ij viuh vko'. and deleteing corse etc.sd reports esa cobol language ds vuqlkj yxHkx 967 lines gks ldrh gSA vkSj bu lHkh reports dks feykdj project dh size value dk irk fd. igys ls gh cus gq.k tkrk gSA .k tk ldrk gSA i.sd estimate dks variable ds size ds :i esa A ii.d direct estimation technique gS bu nksuksa ds ikl cgqr lkjs common features gksrs gSA ftuds project manager le.fn . changing corse.kj dj ysrk gSA iii.ksx djrk gSA bleas . LOC(Lines Of Code).ftl izdkj dh information planner ds ikl miyC/k gksrh gS bl techinque d use djds og mlh information ds vuqlkj estimate rS. adding corse.s project dks base line ds :i esa mi.ksx fd. b.&le. Problem based estimated :fdlh Hkh project dks execute djus ls igys Lines Of Codes (LOC) and function point (FP) dks describe fd.gk¡ ij planner fofHkUu izdkj ds estimate create djrk gSA tSls fd reuse. intractive programsm. screens. models. Software ds izR.d gksrk gSA Software data dks nks rjg ls mi.

Design Analysis Module (DAM) CAD software esa . Three Dimensional Geometric Analysis (3DGA) 4.k tkrk gSA .s detailed information dh vko'.fdlh izdkj dh changing dh tkrh gSA rks bldk effect iwj project ij iM+rk gSA c.sd statement ds fy.950 2. Computer Graphics Display Facility (CGDF) 6.300 5. Database Management (DBM) 5.gk¡ ij izR.s tk ldrs gS & 1.s dqN eq[.d example ds :i easa choose fd. Two Dimensional Geometric Analysis (2DGA) 3. Pripheral Control Function (PCF) 7.drkuqlkj output produce fd.d CAD Database esa maintain fd.ksx dh tk ldrh gSA CAD software two and Three dimensional esa data accept djrk gSA vkSj engineers ml MkVk dks user information dh vko'.300 6.drk gksrh gSA blds fy. User interface and control facility (UICF) 2.100 .800 3.fn bu lHkh function ds fy.s fdlh software package dks .s rks og bl range esa gks ldrk gSA Function UICF 2DGA 3DGA DBM CGDA PCF Estimated LOC 2.k tk ldrk gSA ftlds fy. An Example of LOC based estimation :LOC and FP problem based estimation technique ds fy.s dqN system specification guide ds :i esa mi.350 4.drkuqlkj vPNs designing djrs gSA lHkh izdkj dk MkVk rFkk information .k tk. software functions bl izdkj define fd.s LOC dks estimate yxk.s tkrs gSA tks Hkh desingning gksrh gS mldk vko'.

of External 15 Count Total 20 12 16 4 2 Likely Fees 24 15 22 4 2 30 22 28 5 3 Esti.s cgqr lkjs approach use fd.sd problem dks gy djus ds fy. Coutn Weight 24 16 22 4 2 4 5 5 10 7 320 Empirical Estimation Models :. of Files 42 No.d .s values dk estimate yxk.Domation Value OPT FP Count No. of inputs 97 No.ku fn.k tkrk gSA Empirical data cgqr lkjs estimated models dks support djrk gSA blfy.400 33.s tkrs gSA 1. of Inqueries 88 No.DAM Estimated Line Of Code 8.s .s function dh vis{kk information value ij /.k tkrk gSA blesa izR.slk model gS ftldksa LOC and FP functions dh rjg computer software ds fy.s .k tkrk gSA Infor.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s model lHkh development environment esa mi.ksx fd. output. files and external interfaces CAD software ds fy.200 d.s include jgrs gS ftudk estimate bl izdkj describe fd. The Sturcture of Estimation Models :- .s mi.ksx fd. inqueries. of Outputs 78 No.k tkrk gSA ftlesa estimated input. An Example of FP based estimation :FP based Estimation ds fy.

ksx fd. Application Compostition Model :. .s lcls vf/kd mi. 2.kvksa eas mi.dksbZ Hkh estimation model fdlh iqjkus software project ds data dks collect djds .gk¡ ij A. Early Desing Stage Model :.k tk ldrk gSA fd izR.d quick estimate cuk.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA bles iwjs project dh cost dj Hkh estimate yxk.kj fd.2 & (KLOC)0.s mi.k mlds Åij analysis djds rS.drk gksrh gSA The Common Model :. B and C emprical constant gS E person month ds fy. estimation variable gS .sd components dks blh structure ij define fd.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds models dks fuEufyf[kr fØ.s fofHkUu izdkj ds result provide djrk gSA ftlls requirment clear gks tkrh gSA vkSj estimation model ges'kk gh local need ds vuqlkj create djus dh vko'.k tk ldrk gS & 1.s variable LOC or FP gks ldrk gSA fdlh project ds izR.39 + 0.k tkrk gSA bldk overall structure bl izdkj gks ldrk gSA example E = A + B * (ev)c .73 * (KLOC)1.ksx fd.5 + 0.Used ones requirments have ban stablized and basic software architecture has been established.62 * 7. stafe experiance rFkk development environment include jgrs gSA LOC oriented estimation model dqN bl izdkj gSA & E = 5.720 * 10-8 FP3 Kemere model bl model dh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA blesa problem complexity.k gS rFkk ev.16 Bailey Basily Model FP Oriented model dqN bl izdkj gS & E = -13.91 Walston Felix Model E = 5.k x.bl model dk iwjk uke Constructive cost model gS bls software estimation ds fy.Use Guring the stages of software engineering.sd model same LOC or FP dh value ds fy.rk ls .0545 FP Albrechet And Gaffney Model E = 60.

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drkuqlkj dqN guide lines bl izdkj gS & i. Work to requirment.k tkrk gSA tks fd input izkIr djrk gSA mlds vk/kkj ij manipluation djrk gSA vkSj vko'.rk ls software requirments dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA software data dks process djus ds fy.k automobile system etc. esa vklkuh ls mi.ksx fd. Use multiple viewes of requirment.k tk ldrk gSA .s fofHkUu izdkj ds domain use fd.s rks fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls solve fd. Record the origion of and the resion for every requirment. Information Context & Relationships. Develop prototypes theat enable users to understand hwo humen machine instruction ocuure.s tkrs gS ftUgsa computer program ds }kjk process fd.k vko'. Understand the problem before you begin to create the analysis model.k tk.drkuqlkj model rFkk information dks le> ldrk gSA blds fy.bu principal dks .s . Rank requirments.d .k .k tkrk gsA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i. iii.fn fdlh software esa apply fd.s .k tk ldrk gSA vkSj user viuh vko'.s vko'. Information Structure. v.kj djrk gSA bl izdkj ds software batch software dgykrs gA ftudks payroll system .s fd.d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd transmitt djus ds fy. Information flow.drkuqlkj MkVk rFkk information dk collection gksrk gsA ftls ge data processing ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gS vkSj . . vi.s vko'.drkuqlkj result (output) rS.slh term gS A ftldh lgk.gh . The informtaion Domain :lHkh software applications esa vko'. ii. iii. (The Datamodel) ii. iv.d gS fd software gj izdkj ds events dks process dj ldsA vkSj system dks control dj ldsA Information domain esa MkVk rFkk processing control ds fy.drkuqlkj result izkIr djus ds fy. 1.

d NksVk ekWMy rS.k complete gksrh gSA Information structure esa software dh items dks control fd.k tkrk gSA rkfd ml problem dks vkSj mlds information dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldsA Analysis principal ds vuqlkj information function .k tkrk gSA rFkk mUgsa vko'.s functional model create fd.k tk ldrk gSA 2. 3.Information context esa software ds vuqlkj vkSj user dh vko'. Partioning :Problems ges'kk gh cgqr cM+h gksrh gS vkSj iwjh problem dsk . Behaviour Model.kj djrs gSA ftlesa building.s tkrs gSA ftlesa input.s tkrs gSA tc entry physical gksrh gSA rks mlds fy.ksfd og gj rjg ls information dks handle djus . gksuk pkfg.k tkrk gSA rks mls dqN vyx rjg ls create fd.k .slh problem dks NksV&NksVs Hkkx esa foHkkftr dj fn. Modeling :tc Hkh bu fdlh software dks design djrs gSA rk vPNh understanding ds fy.k tk ldrk gSa ftlls dHkh Hkh fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh A 4.drkuqlkj partions esa ckaVuk vko'.s function rS.drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dh information dks collect fd.kj fd.s tkrs gS muesa dqN function rFkk behaviour fuEu izdkj gks ldrs gS & i.ksX.k tkrk gSA Information flow esa data and controlling ds fy.s . include jgrh gSA vkSj tc software ds fy.d lkFk le>uk dfBu gksrk gSA blh dkj.k tkrk gSA D. process rFkk output dh izfØ. Functional Model ii. plan and machine etc.kj fd.d software ds behaviour dks vko'.sA Operational analysis ds vuqlkj tks ekWMy rS.d gksrk gSA ftlls software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gS mls create fd.s model rS.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk lHkh parts dks overall acitivity esa include fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk mls control fd.kj fd.drkuqlkj store Hkh fd. Analysis Modeling :- .

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d external entity Hkh gks ldrh gSA ftlls customer information. department. 5.s mi.k tkrk gSA ERD dh lgk.s . What are the relationship between each objects and other object.ksx fd.s rhukasa Hkkx bl izdkj gS & i. 3. Where do the objects currently reside. bu questions dk answer nsus ds fy.Data Modeling :Data Mideling . telephone call.kj dh tk ldrh gSA ftls software engineers esa mi.k tk ldrk gSA Data Objects Attributes & Relationship :Data model three enter related piece of information ls feydj rS.d set of questions dk answer gksrk gsA tks fd fdlh Hkh data processing application ds fy.k tkrk gSA ftlls lHkh objects .k tk ldrk gSA data modeling fuEufyf[kr question include jgrs gSA 1.rk ls entity relationship diagram rS.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj data modeling dh lgk.k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk.s data modeling method dk mi.ksx fd. warehouse and life etc. 4. What is the compasition of each data objects and what attributes discribe the objects. 2. What are the realitionship between the object and the process theat transform then. report.Z dks complete djrh gSA rFkk software bls vklkuh ls le> ldrk gS bldh viuh properties rFkk attributes gksrh gS . seles person.d lh information gksrh gS tks fdlh perticular dk. accounting.ksx fd.rk ls blds lkFk&lkFk processing dks Hkh control fd.kj gksrk gSA Data objects ds chp esa attributes dks set djds relationship create fd. What are the primery data objects to be process by the system.d nwljs ls contect gks tkrs gsA Information ds . objects include jgrs gSA .rk ls fdlh Hkh system ds data dks operational analysis djds represent fd. Data objects :Data Objects esa .

s tkrs gSA dqN ifjfLFkr.gk¡ ij .s identifiers "key" ds :i esa mi.s cgqr lkjs objects and relationship create fd.sA mlds ckn gh software design fd. Make refrence to another instance in another table.ksx fd.ii.s rks blesa dsoy nks gh objects dk . c.k tk ldrk gSA iii. A book store return books.d gS fd objects and relationship pair esa gh gksuk pkfg.sls relationship gS tks Book and book store ds chp esa connection create dj jgs gS .k tkuk vko'.d nwljs ls connect fd. Name on instance of the data objects be.drk gh ugh gksrh gSA ysfdu fQj Hkh bl izdkj ds attributes dk models esa mi.s tk ldrs gSA tSls fd & a. b. d.s ges books rFkk books store role dks vo'.d nwljs ls fofHkUu izdkj ls connect fd.sA . b. Attributes :Attributes.k tkrk gSA rks .fn book rFkk book store nks objects dks relationship ns[kk tk. A book store sotcks books.drkuqlkj data. buds attributes indentifies dh rjg Hkh mi. Displays.s vko'.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy. data objects dh property gksrs gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr characteristics gks ldrs gS & a.k gSA ysfdu bu nksuksa esa fdl izdkj dk relation gSA bldk answer tkuus ds fy. Book store displays books. le>uk pkfg. objects search fd. Describe the instance.ksx fd.d gksrk gSA bu attributes dh lgk.k x. c.ksx fd. e.ksa esa indentfiers dh value unique gksrh gS A gkykfd dHkh&dHkh budh vko'. stocks sales and returns .s tk ldrs gSA tc vko'.rk ls fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls understand fd.s tk ldrs gSA . Orders. A book store orders book's. Relationship :Data objects . A books store sales books.

sls modules gksrs gS ftudh vko'.d ls vf/kd objects Hkh mi.d . One to Many (1:N) C.drk ugh gksrh gS ysfdu nksuks objects dh property dks le>uk important gksrk gS .k tk ldrk gSA vkSj fdlh problem dsk solve djus ds fy.skfd software es Hkh dqN .d object nwljs object ls interrelate djrk gsA Cordinality esa .slk relationship gS tks fd optional gksrk gS bls vko'. Many to Many (M:N) 2.drkuqlkj mi.ksx fd.k tk ldrk gS & A.gh data modeling concept coordinality dgykrk gSA 1. One to One (1:1) B.drk dHkh&dHkh gh iM+rh gSA tSls fd .k tkrk gS vkSj .s tk ldrs gsA blfy.ksx fd.s .fn problem complex gks rks .d local telephone company viuh service customer dks provide djrh gsA .Coordinality and modelity :Data modeling esa elements data objects attributes rFkk relationship gksrs gS ftudh enn lsa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA bu elements ds vk/kkj ij related information dks le>uk cgqr gh vko'.k tkrk gSA .s T.gk¡ ij one rFkk many relationship create gksrk gSA bu nksuksa relationships dks bl izdkj define fd.k tk ldsA Data model ges'kk gh object rFkk relationship ds pair esa represent fd.ksx Hkh fd.s . ojbect Y ls interrelate djrk gsA blds fy.s fd mlesa vf/kd ls vf/kd objects and relationship dks represent fd.slk gksuk pkfg.knk information provide djus ds vko'. Cordinality :Data model .gk¡ ij .s ge ges'kk dgh objects and relationship dks pairs esa represent djrs gSA tSls fd object X.fn fdlh le. Modelity :Modelity .d object dks ckj&ckj mi.k tk ldrk gS vkSj ugh HkhA D.d gksrk gSA blfy. customer dksbZ viuh problem crkrk gSA vkSj problem simple gks rks mls single repair action esa solve dj fy.

ksx fd.s tkrs gSA vkSj buds cph esa relationship connecting line ds }kjk show fd.drk gksrh gSA bldk mi.drk gksrh gSA ysfdu .k tkrk gSA Entity Relationship Diagram :Data model esa object relationship pair cgqr gh important section gksrk gS .s process .d gh module esa complete gks tkrh gSA ysfdu mls mi.k tkrk gSA rFkk output monitor screen ij . .s tkrs gSA Data Objects and relationship ds chp esa connection special symbol dk mi.s multiple repair action dh vko'.drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy.mlds fy.ksx djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA ERD dk purpose data objects rFkk muesa relationship dks represent djuk gksrk gSA ERD esa data object .s Hkh fd.k tkrk gSA blesa data objects attributes relationship rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds indicates dk mi.gk¡ ij repair aciton model dHkh&dHkh gh mi.k reports ds :i esa pages ij produce dj fn.k tk ldrk gSA Data modeling and entity relationship diagram analysis ds }kjk design dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls software applicatin ds vuqlkj n'kkZ.ksx analysis method ds vuqlkj nwljh vko'.k tkrk gSA Functional Modeling and Information Flow :Information ges'kk gh computer based system ds }kjk flow gksrh gS blesa input cgqr lkjh term esa accept fd.k tkrk gSA ge fdlh Hkh computer based system ds fy.s database design djus dh vko'.kj dj ldrs gSA .k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh data modeling dh .k tk ldrk gSA Data object car rFkk information ds chp esa relationship bl izdkj represent fd.drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dk gks ldrk gSA Input ges'kk gh signals ds :i esa gksrk gSA ftUgsa computer ds }kjk decode fd. software rFkk humen elements and produce output.ksx djds graphicaly represent fd.d rectangle esa represent fd.ksx djds Hkh creaet fd.s output Hkh vko'.ksx database system ds relation dks n'kkZus es fd.s flow model rS.k tk ldrk gSA tSls fd & hardware.s pair entity relationship diagram dk mi.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj data files ds :i esa store dj fy.s tk ldrs gS A ERD dk mi.

k tkrk gSA tks fd input.rk ls interconnect jgrs gS vkSj . output ds function dks algorithm ds :i esa represent djrh gSA .k tk ldrk gsA rFkk Software ds partitions or modules dks DFD dh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA DFD ds Hkh vyx&vyx level gksrs gSA Zero DFD Level dks functional system model . procedure vkSj sequence dh detail provide djuk Hkh vko'.d complete module dks show djrk gSA DFD esa data ds collection dks .k tk ldrk gSA blesa hardware person rFkk nwljs programm include jgrs gSA .k tkrk gSA bl LVksj dk structured analysis data dictionary dgykrk gSA fdlh Hkh bubble dh processing ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA Data flow diagram information flow and input.d sequence esa process fd.rk ls information detail lfgr describe fd.d gksrk gSA Software designing ds le.rk ls mi. output dk graphical representation gksrh gSA ftls ge data flow graph or bubble chart ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gSA bldh lgk.rk ls fdlh system .d single bubble esa input.gk¡ ij processing or logic dk .gk¡ ij .d gksrk gS .drk gksrh gSA tc fd 1 level DFD esa de ls de 5 .s process specification dk mi.drkuqlkj modify fd.ksx djds structured analysis 'kq: fd.ksx fd.ksfd izR.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk model fdl izdkj dh information izkIr dj jgk gS vkSj fdl izdkj dk output nwljs module es transfer dj jgk gSA blds flow dks Hkh vklkuh ls represent fd.g vko'.k 6 bubble gks ldrs gSA tks fd arrowes dh lgk.d organized form esa store fd.d gskrk gS fd user DFD rFkk flowchart ds chp varj Li"V djsA Data Flow Diagram :Software ds }kjk information dks computer ds fdlh Hkh part esa transmitt fd.s zero level DFD esa detailed information dh vko'.s arrows dataflow dks represent djrh gSA Level 1 dh izR.sd process iwjs model ds functions ij depend gksrh gSA D.ksx fd.k tkrk gS A rFkk mls vko'.sd bubble .Information two modeling technique dk mi.k tkuk vko'.ks contect model dgk tkrk gSA tks fd .k software ds fdlh Hkh level dks represent fd. output data dks represent djrk gSA blfy.drkuqlkj arrowes dh lgk.k tkk ldrk gSA rFkk mls vko'.

s time continous data flow represent djuk vko'.sd step esa object rFkk mlds relation dks show fd.Ward and Mellor Extenssions :. Multiple instances of the same transformations are sometimes encountered in multitasking sichuations.kj .k tkrk gSA vkSj . Information flow is gather or produce on a time continous bases. Realtime applications esa information continous gksuh vko'. 2.k tkrk gSA tSls fd& 1.d complete model represent djrk gSA bldh lgk.s model ges'kk gh pairs esa jgrs gsA tks object rS.k tkrk gSA The Mechanics Of structured Analysis :Structured analysis software dh vko'.kj fd. 4.s tk ldrs gSA Time continous data flow dk mi.Ward and Mellor dk exetensions basic structured analysis provide djrk gSA ftlesa real time system ds }kjk fuEufyf[kr demands dks iwjk fd.ksx dh tk jgh gsA ftldk izR.d gksrk gSA Diagram esa double headed arrowes time continous flow dks represent dj jgh gSA rFkk single haeded arrow data flow dks represent dj jgh gSA System engineering rFkk software engineering esa system model rS.k tk ldrk gSA Structured analysis cgqr igys ls mi. Systems have states and a mechanizem causes transition between states.kfn Hkh vko'. Control information is passed throw of the and associated control processing.s blds fy. include jgrs gSA Structured analysis ds izR.drkuqlkj create fd. 3.kj djrs le.s fd. es fd.drkuqlkj Ward and Mellor extenstion dk mi.fn analysis vPNh gksxh rks mldk software or project Hkh lgh :i ls create fd.kj djrs le.ksx lcls vf/kd automobiles.drkuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA. automatic vehical rFkk robot control system etc. processing dh performence c<+kbZ tk ldrh gSA rFkk blh ds }kjk high performence software rS.sd LVsi .s tk ldrs gSA ftlesa customers analysis program etc.ksx multiple extenstion dks control djus ds fy.d gksrh gSA . time continous data flow dk cgqr egRo gksrk gSA ftlls system model rS.rk ls ERD bR.fn information continous ugh gksxhA rks system fail gks ldrk gsA blfy.k tkrk gSA bu lHkh eaas vko'.

.k project esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh gSA blh dh lgk.s tk ldrs gSA DFD esa izR.k developrs dks .rk ls vko'. Primary input and output dks lko/kkuh ls le>us dh vko'.Z .rk ls .s rks software esa .d gksrs gSA 1.d complete module dh processing djrk gSA 5.drkuqlkj documentation rFkk security system Hkh define fd.s arrow data flow dks show djrs gSA .d gh le. lHkh izdkj dh data processing. Designing ds le. lHkh bubble dks arrowes ds lkFk fyad fd.d complete software create djus ds fy.d Complete software .s fofHkUu izdkj dh application use dh tkrh gSA .fn safe home product dh DFD create dh tk.wtj vklkuh ls le> ldrk gSA .s data model rFkk data flow diagram cgqr gh vko'.sd module dh complete analysis gksrh gS rFkk lHkh operations esa MkVk dgk¡ flow dj jgk gSA bldh outline Hkh DFD esa provide dh tkrh gSA DFD create djus ds fy. esa information domain and functional domain develop fd. lHkh bubble ds fy.d gksrh gSA tks fd developr . data object vkSj output dks vko'.k engine dk dk.k tk.slk model provide djrh gsA ftldh lgk.kZ gksrk gSA 4.s rks og bl izdkj gksxh A Control Flow Model (Diagram) :Data processing ds fy.k gSA mlds attributes ds lkFk .s fuEu step vko'.k x.s rks ml bubble dks .drkuqlkj define djuk Hkh egRoiw.k tkuk pkfg.s tk ldrs gsA Creating a Data flow model (Diagram) :Data flow diagram engine .k system dks .k tkuk vko'.k tk.fn relation Hkh lgh :I ls represent fd.drk gksrh gSA 3.s .d meaningfull name dh vko'.d gksrk gSA vkSj .sA 2.drk gksrh gSA tks fd .fd.fn buds lkFk documentation dks represent fd.d single bubble esa represent fd.

Descriibe two behaviour a system by identifing its status.ssls application gS ftuesa control flow rFkk data flow dk mi.kj fd. List all data connection.sd level esa skill dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.d gksrk gsA D.s fuEufyf[kr guide lines use dh tkrh gS & 1.kj .k tk ldrk gSA ftlls software dh performence increase gks tkrh gSA cgqr lkjs . UNIT IV Design concept and principal :Design .k tkrk gSA blesa data architecture interfaces rFkk cgqr lkjs component dk lekos'k gskrk gSA Software engines company based system design djrs gsA ysfdu vyx&vyx rjg ds dk.k tk lds besically bls customer dh vko'. identify.vklku dj nsrh gSA bldh lgk. 2.gk ij . 6.kj fd.kj fd.d quality product developr fd. How each state is reached and defined two transaction between states.d meaningfull engine representation gS ftlds }kjk dqN rS.drk gksrh gSA vkSj mlds ckn program approach dk mi. Focus on possible omssion a very common error in specifing control.k tkrk gS vkSj .drkuqlkj rS.g vko'.s tkrs gSA rFkk blds lkFk&lkFk . List all control items as possible CSPEL input and output.rk ls information dks control djds vklkuh ls process fd. List all switcheis that are operated by on operated.ksx djds effective data rFkk processor rS.Z ds fy. 7.rk ls data flow dks control fd. 4.drk gksrh gSA . List or intrrupt condition.s designing ds izR.d gksrk gSA fd tks Hkh computer software rS. List on sensor that are read by user software. 5.d gksrk gS fd designing esa fdl izdkj dh application use dh tk jgh gSA lcls igys analysis djus dh vko'.ksx djuk dkQh vko'.skfd DFD data flow dks represent djrh gSA vkSj DFD dh lgk.g vko'. 3.

gesa basic concept apply djus pkfg.s .k tk ldrk gSA Modules ds functions rFkk interfaces dks vklkuh ls represent fd.drk gksrh gSA design process ges'kk gh gj level ij perform gksrh gSA .gks og error free gksA Designing ds fy.s .&le.ksx dj jgs gSA ftlesa dk.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk blesa os lHkh concept use fd.drkuqlkj analysis model ds vuqlkj rS.sd design activity ds le.d software ij view gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls data functional rFkk project ds behaviour dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA Design process esa cgqr lkjs requirments dh vko'. ij implement fd.drkuqlkj software code rS.s tks fd customer dh lHkh vko'.d interactive process gksrh gSA tSls&tSls software design djus ds fy. Design and Software Quality :iwjh design process esa quality ij iwjk /.s rkfd vko'.k tkrk gSA Design ges'kk gh vko'.s data structure system architecture represent rFkk component dh detail vfr vko'.s tkrs gsA rks software dh quality vius vki imporve gksrh pyh tk.s tk ldrs gSA ftudh enn ls data .fn bl izdkj dh lHkh charactristics design structure esa complete fd.d gskrh gS ij izR.kj fd.s modules dh vko'.Z djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj ds modules dks vklkuh ls add.sxh rFkk software dk le.kj gksuk pkfg. modify and delete fd.drk gksrh gSA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i.k tk ldsA The Design Process :Software Design .drk dks iwjk dj jgk gSA design easy to read rfkkk easy to understand gksuk pkfg.k tk lds] designing es gh iwjs software dh complete picture fn[kkbZ nsuh pkfg.k tk ldrk gSA ii.s process software design dh continous process gksrh gS tks fd modular programs esa apply dh tkrh gSA softwaer structure esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh program of approch use dh tk ldrh gSA vktdy programmer designing esa object oriented approch dk mi. Evaluation of Design :.s rkfd high quality product rS.ku fn.kj fd.

ku jgs fd design process bruh vklku ugh gksrh gsA blds fy. The design process should not suffer form turnel vision.s tk ldrs gSA blds fy. sense rFkk commiment quality dh vko'. 2. 10. 7. .drk gksrh gSA Design Model :Design model architecture ds plan ds leku gksrk gSA ftl rjg ls architect ?kj dks rS.d sequence esa mi.architecture interfaces rFkk component level designing dk vlkuh ls handle fd. 3.ksx djds vko'.kj fd. The design should be according to the rquirment.g /.sA ftudk use software es gksrk gS mlds ckn computer software dk mi. post expriance.s plan ds lkFk chart cukrk gSA mlh rjg ls software dks rS.kj djus ds fy. The disign should be structure to data events or operating conditons.k tkrk gSA lcls igys lHkh models miyC/ku gksuk pkfg. Design is not coding . The design should be structure to accom module change. The design should minimize the distance to be the software and the problem asis exist in the realtime.s creations skill.s dqN principal bl izdkj gSA 1. 4.ksx fd.s tkrs gsA tks software dks design djus esa lgk. Desing Principal :Software design process and module nksuksa dk gh combination gksrk gSA Design process esa lHkh steps . The design should be transable to the analysis model. coding is not disign.drkuqlkj design models rS.s design medel rS.kj djus ds fy. The design should be accessed for quality as it si been created not offer the fact. 8.d gksrs gSA ysfdu . The design should be use the complete model. 5.k tk ldsA iii. 6. 9.kj fd. The design should be reduce to minimize conceptual error.

s lHkh concept fuEufyf[kr questions dks solve esa lgk.s concept engineers dks foundation step provide djrs gSA ftls vko'. 2.ksx fd. software design concept dh enn ls lgh software design djus ds fy. ds vuqlkj le>k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj finaly problem dks solutions dks direct implement fd.drkuqlkj test fd.s abstractions rc rd pyrh jgrh gS tc rd dh software dk source code rS.k tkrk gSA System engineering ds le.drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh software esa apply fd. Abstraction :tc ge fdlh leL.sd ysoy es ge procedural and data abstraction create djrs gSA Procedural abstraction esa izR.rk ls gy fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk .k tk ldrk gSA Software process dk izR. What uniform critarea define the behaviour quality of the software design.kj ugh gks tkrk gSA Abstraction ds izR.s language evnvironment dk mi.sd concept dks le. software dks cgqr lkjs modules esa convert dj fn.k ds gy dks n'kkZ. 3. abstraction dh cgqr lkjs levels introduce gksrs gSA .rk djrk gS & 1.s dqN eq[.d module choose djrs gSA rks bl le.k tkrk gsA vkSj .d sequence esa represent fd. What critarea can be used to partition software into indivisual components. software dks computer based system dk element ekuk tkrk gSA vkSj software requirment analysis ds le.s .ksx fd. step bl izdkj gS & 1.Design Concept :Software design dk concept dkQh igys design gks pqdk FkkA ftls vktdy cM+h vklkuh ls mi. How is function or data structure detail seprated from a conceptual representation of the software.sd step abstraction dh lgk.k tkrk gSA Obejct oriented technology dh enn ls leL.k tkrk gS rFkk data abstraction esa data objects dk collection gksrk gSA .sd function dh instructions dks .k tk jgk gSA izR.gk¡ ij leL.k dks gy djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA .k ds fy.

k tkrk gSA Moduarity .d .k nks ls vf/kd module vkil esa feydj .ksx fd.s nksuks gh step dkQh egRoiw. Modularity :Computer software esa modularity dk concept dkQh igys vk pqdk Fkk A ftldk mi.d complete project rS.d success full model rS.s .s details lfgr design process ds levels provide djrh gSA complete the desing model rS.s tkrs gS .gk¡ ij importent step .s procedure lgh dk.ksx viuh vko'.slk step gS ftldh lgk.g gksrk gS fd programmer problem ds critarea dks rFkk mlds solution dks lgh :i ls le>sA Abstraction and refinement nksuksa gh complementry concept gSA Abstraction dh lgk.k tkrk gSA rFkk development cost Hkh de vkrh gSA vkSj project esa .sd Hkkx vius vki ls complete rFkk addressable component gksrk gSA ftls ge module dgrs gSA .drkuqlkj software architect djrs gSA bldh lgk.rk ls software dks vyx&vyx Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tkrk gSA vkSj izR.k tkrk gSA izR.rk ls designner particular procedures rFkk data module design djrs gSA vkSj refinement designner ds fy.s tk ldrs gS & .sd refinement step esa design decision fy. Refinement :Refinement top down design approch gks tc fdlh program dks rS.k tkrk gSA vkSj .kj fd.sd LVsi gtkjksa instructions dks decompose fd.k tkrk gSA rks mls ge "door" ds uke ls tkurs gSA D.kZ gksrs gSA 3.Procedural abstraction esa tc perticuarl module dks open fd.k tkrk gSA rks mlds lHkh procedures dks details lfgr refine djus dh vko'.fn dksbZ problem vkrh gSA rks perticular module dks find djds ml problem dks solve dj fy.ksfd ckdh lHkh module blh ls tqM+s jgrs gSA 2.s process dkQh fast dh tk ldrh gSA .s Module fdlh perticualr problem dks solve djrk gS blh rjg ls nks .kj fd.drk gksrh gSA rkfd programming language statements ds lkFk vuqlkj .k tkrk gSA Prodularity esa .kj djrs gSA blesa devide & conquer method dk mi.d effective modular system define fd.rk ls fdlh Hkh cM+s project dks vklkuh ls complete fd.kj djus ds fy.Z djsA izR.

Modular continouity. capacity. gksrk gSA tc Hkh module design fd.slh fLFkfr gksrh gS tgk ij iwjs project dk overall structure design fd. Structural Properties :.d .k tk.) dks define fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj system analysis ds chp esa interface create fd.k tkrk gSa bls hirerchical structure Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blds lHkh izdkj ds component rFkk data structure dks . Control Hierarchy :- . e. Modular understandability.k tkrk gSA tSls fd requirment for performance. Extra Functional Properties :Software architecture dh bl property esa lHkh izdkj dh software qualities dks represent fd.k tkrk gSA b.d complete software dk :i fn. d. c.sA Software architecture dh fuEufyf[kr properties gksrh gS& a.slk gksuk pkfg. Software Architecture :Software architecture .a. 4.s fd mls mlls related dksbZ Hkh system use dj ldsA . relaibility. adeplarility and other system characterstics. objects.d . Modular Composibility. Modular Decomposibility.s A 5.fn blesa reuse dh ability gksuh pkfg. etc.slh representation gS ftlesa system ds lHkh component (Modules. filters.k tkrk gSA bldk dsoy . security. c.s mldk resue fd. b. Modular Protection.s .k tk. Families of Related System :Architecural design .d gh mís'.k tkrk gSA vkSj mu components dks bdV~Bk djds lHkh ds chp esa interface create fd.

:i ls 3 partition fd.s crkus dh vko'.d nwljs ls tqM+s jgrs gSA vkSj blesa changing .k tk ldrk gSA Horizental partioning esa program functions dks vyx&vyx modular hirericy esa define fd.k extenstion dh lqfo/kk vklkuh ls fcuk dh sideffect ds perform dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu horizental partition esa models ds chp esa interface djus ds fy. oder of decision or reapetation of operations vkSj u gh bldk mi.ksx architecural style esa fd. Strucural Partioning :.drkuqlkj levels gks ldrs gSA vkSj dksbZ Hkh module nwljs module dks control dj ldrk gSA ysfdu bles . Software that is fewer significients. d. Software that is easier to understands.s tkrs gSA Input data transformation (processing) and output horizental partition ds cgqr lkjs benefit gks ldrs gSA tSls fd & a. Software that is easier to test b.knk data process djus dh vko'.drk gksrh gSA Vertical partitioning esa factoring Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blessas program structure ds fy.k tkrk gSA . Major function .s tkrs gSA tSls fd sequence of processes.s T.ksx fd. Software that is easier to maintain c.Control Hierarchy dks program structure ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA tks fd system ds lHkh modules dks organize djrh gSA rFkk muds chp esa control dh facility provide djrh gSA blds }kjk procedural software represent ugh fd.k tk ldrk gsA vkSj lHkh modules esa hierarchical control provide fd.s top down approch dk mi.k tkrk gSA tks fd software dh effectiveness dks show djrs gSA blesa control ds vko'.k tkrk gS A bl representation es lHkh izdkj ds modules dks control fd.k tkrk gSA ftlesa eq[.fn system dks architectural style hierarchical gS rks program structure horzental .drk gksrh gS fd dkSu lk module fdl&fdl module dks control dj jgk gSA rHkh ge software esa lHkh modules ds chp esa relationship create dj ldrs gSA 6.k vertical structure esa devide fd.

drkuqlkj modify fd. .g /.d information dks izkIr djuk gks rks og information dsoy software functions ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA blds }kjk dksbZ Hkh module .d nwljs ls connect jgrs gSA vkSj top level dk ekWMy iwjs project ds modules dks control djrk gSA Actually bl ekWMy esa lHkh modules dh processing dks control fd.k tk ldrk gSA Effective modular design :Modular designing .ku j[kuk vko'.ksx dh tkrh gsA bldh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk system dh fofHkUu parts dh development Hkh lkFk&lkFk perform dh tk ldrh gSA 2.g gS fd lHkh modules vius vki esa complete gks] vkSj .d gksrk gSA fd cohesion dh izfØ.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.Z perform djrk gSA ftls program ds nwljs module esa Hkh tksM+k tk ldrk gSA tc modules dks design fd.k procedure detailed information lfgr define fd.k tkrk gSA rks mlesa tks Hkh errors detect gksrh gS mUgs vklkuh ls gy fd.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software module dks vklkuh ls vko'.g gS fd tc Hkh maintainance dk dk.slh approch gS tks yxHkx lHkh organizing project esa mi.rk ls project create djuk Fkk mls maintain djuk dkQh vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk Hkfo".d module dh information (procedural and data) dks nwljk module access u dj ldsA .fn fdlh function dh vko'.d gSA Information hiding dk benefit .d .k tk ldrk gSA ysfdu dsoy ogh information nwljs module ds }kjk access dh tk ldrh gSA tks vko'.fn dksbZ module add or remove djuk gks rks mldk effect blesa related lHkh modules esa reflect djrk gSA 7.jdh ds :i esa . Cohesion :Cohesion information hiding concept dk nature extension gSA software procedure esa cohesive module single dk.d gk.blesa lHkh modules .k dks le>dj modules design djuk .Z .k tkrk gSA bl structure esa .Z fd. eas esa ml project dks dHkh&dHkh fdlh Hkh le. Information Hiding :Information hiding dk rkRi. implement fd.

sd module .k tkrk gSA ysfdu .d modules ds function dks nwljs module esa vklkuh ls enterrelate dj ldrs gSA Software es tc lHkh function dks .k tkrk gSA rks ml process dks .sa vf/kd jgrh gSA rFkk .s coupling devices ds chp esa particular format vkSj communication protocol dh lgk.d .fn fdlh function esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mls debug djuk dkQh dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu cohesion dh lgk.fn data transfer ds le.d nwljs ls interface create djrk gSA ysfdu lHkh modules dk viuk vyx&vyx dk. Coupling :Software structure esa modules ds chp enter connection dks coupling ds }kjk measure fd.ksx djrs gSA rks ml le.d area dk mi.d procedural cohesion dgk tkrk gSA tc lHkh processing element data structure ds fdlh .d sequence esa execute fd.ksfd coupling modules ds chp esa interface ij gh depend djrh gSA tc fdlh module esa data entry dh tkrh gS rks data interface esa fdl izdkj ikl gks jgk gSA .rk ls izR.pkfg. fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mlds location dk vklkuh ls irk yxk.d nwljs ls close jgrk gSA rFkk .s error iwjs system esa effect djrh gS tc modules ds chp esa control pass gksrk gSA rks mls control coupling dgk tkrk gSA .Z gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh instructions dks .slh process gS ftldh lgk.k tkrk gSA rks mlesa errors dh laHkkouk.d single module esa combine dj fn.sA rHkh ge .rk ls dh tkrh gSA bl izdkj dh coupling dks external coupling dgk tkrk gSA UNIT V Software Testing :Software system dh development es cgqr lkjh activity involve jgrh gSA blesa software testing .k tkrk gSA D.s rks .g lowest coupling gksrh gSA vkSj iwjs software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA . communication cohesion represent gksrh gSA 3.rk ls software .g process coupling dgykrh gsA Software design esa lkjs modules ds chp esa simple connectivity dh tk.

nk . represent fd.g gS fd bl software dks market esa vko'.k tkrk gSA .k tk ldrk gSA .wtj dks deliver fd.gh technique software dh quality dsk rFkk performance dks increase dj nsrh gSA B.sA 3.fn bl izdkj ds lHkh objects dks .slh process gS ftlds }kjk programs dks execute djds errors dks find fd.k tkrk gSA tc testing gks tkrh gS vkSj designner ds vuqlkj blesa dksbZ error ugh jgrh gSA mlds ckn bl testing software dks .d . behaviour and performance dks increase fd.dks customer rd igqpkus ls igys mldh lHkh errors dks test dj fy. Testing Principle :- .drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh le.d success full test rHkh ekuk tkrk gSA tc blesa lHkh izdkj ls input djds internal or external test fd.k tk ldrk gSA 2.d software dk internal logic gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk programs dh dfe. .d successful test complete gksxkA vkSj mlesa dksbZ error 'ks"k ugh cpsxh A blds ckn nwljk Qk.a satisfy gks tkrs gSA mlds ckn os software dks customer rd deliver dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le.ku esa j[kk tk. Testing .k tk.drkuqlkj test fd.fn software esa dksbZ error 'ks"k u gks rks .drk gksrh gS bl izdkj gS & 1.k tkrk gSA Software engineers designing ds le.k tk ldrk gSA tc Hkh customer software dks execute djrk gSA rks mlls igys gh errors dks find djds mUgs remove djuk vko'. cgqr lkjs rules apply djus dh vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj testing ds le. Testing Objectives :Software testing ds le. .s . dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls debug dj fy.fn testing vPNh gksxh rks software dh quality Hkh high quality show djrh gSA vkSj .k tk ldrk gSA A.ksa dks iwjk djds mlds functions. cgqr lkjs tests djrs gSA ftlesa SQA activity Hkh vkrh gS ysfdu blds }kjk lHkh errors dks nwj ugh fd.fn /.d gksrk gSA test ds nkSjku internal logic and external requirment nksuksa dh vko'.s vkSj mlesa dksbZ error u vk.s rks . tc desingners testing process esa Lo.

k product dks software engineers ideas dk mi. 7. Predefine principle should be apply to software testing. 6. 3.ksx djds design djrs gSA vkSj mlds ckn mls . 4.The better it works the more efficiency it can be tested.s fd softwaer testability process lower level ls gh 'kq: dj nsuh pkfg.s testing Hkh dqN predefine principal ds vuqlkj gh gksarh gSA testing ds le. 4. To be most effective.The fewer the changes the lower interruption to test.ksfd dqN errors .The better can control the software the more testing can be automatted and optimized.s /.The less there is to test the more quickly we can tested. We can more quickly isalate problem and perform shamarker retesting. Testability :Computer programmer . all tests should be practable to customer requirments. 3. 2.s A blds ckn dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & 1. testing should be conducted an independant third party. C.slh gksrh gS ftudks modify ugh fd. 2. Observavility :.What you see is what you test.By controlling the scope of testing.ku j[kuk pkfg.The more information we have the smarter we will test.k tk ldrk gSA blfy. Stability :. . 5. Controlability :. programmer dHkh&dHkh dificulty eglwl djrs gSA D. Understandablity :. le>us pkfg. Exhaustibe testing is not possible. Testing should begin in the small and progress sto words testing in the longer. Test should be planed long before testing begin.sA testing principle dqN bl izdkj gS & 1. 6. 5. Decomposability :. Simplicity : .s designer dks ges'kk gh . Operatability :.wtj dh requirment ds vuqlkj test djrk gSA ysfdu .Software dksa test djus ls igys engineers dks software testing ds principles vo'.

s testing lHkh logic of technique ds vuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA blds lgk. djrs gSA vkSj .k tk ldrk gSA .fn .k tkrk gSA Control Structure Testing :- .k tkrk gSA Designing ds le.s white box testing dk mi.slk test care design method gS tks fd procedural design ds control structure dks test djus ds fy.White Box Testing :White Box testing dks dHkh&dHkh ge glass box testing Hkh dgrs gSA .k tkrk gSA vkSj .d ckj software dk path test dj fy.s .d ckj test vo'.rk ls lHkh loops execute fd.k tkrk gSA blds } kjk software engineer project ds lHkh modules esa ckjh&ckjh ls de ls de .k tk.k tkrk gSA Black Box Testing :Black Box Testing ds }kjk fdlh system or system ds fdlh Hkkx ds behaviour dks VsLV fd.s dqN transaction rules dk mi.s] rks mldh logical errors dks vklkuh ls handle fd.ksx fd.k tk ldrk gSA blds application dks tc fdlh software dks perform languages source code esa translate fd.s testing software ds nature ds vuqlkj gksrh gSA bl izdkj dh testing ls tc function dsk design or implement fd.ksx fd.ksx djds software ds module dk mi.s mi.k tkrk gsA rks mudh conditions rFkk controls dks gj step ij VsLV fd. logical errors dk lkeuk Hkh fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk modules fdl izdkj dh behavioural activities black box testing ds varxZr vkrh gSA bl izdkj dh activities dks lcls vf/kd object oriented system es mi. dqN typing errors Hkh vk ldrh gSA ftuesa ls cgqr lkjh errors dks mlds syntex rFkk type checking method ds }kjk recover dj fy.slh errors gksrh gS tks fd software dh testing 'kq: gksus rd Hkh detect ugh gksrh gSA vkSj bls errors logical errors gks ldrh gS bl izdkj dh errors dks nwj djus ds fy.ksx fd.d .ksx fd.s tkrs gsA vkSj internal data structure fd validity perform dh tkrh gSA nwljs test analysis dh rjg gh white box testing esa software ds defects dks slove fd.k tkrk gSA blds fy.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.k tkrk gSA ysfdu dqN .

fn fdlh program esa izR. Arithmetic Expression errors Conditions testing methods dh lgk.ksx fd. 1.rk ls program dh izR.d .rk ls program modules dh logical conditon dks VsLV fd.ksx gksus okys variables dh defination dks VsLV fd.k tkrk gS .s rks mls debug dj fy.slh testing gksrh gS ftlds }kjk software ds iwjs structure dks path lfgr test fd. Dataflow Testing. dsoy conditional errors dsk gh detect djuk ugh gS cfYd bldh lgk.d simple condition esa fdlh Hkh programming language dks mi. and Loop Testing etc.k tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj dh dksbZ error vk. Relational Operator errors e.sd condition dks ckjh&ckjh ls psd fd.k tk ldrk gSA 2. Data Flow Testing :Data Flow Testing methdo dh lgk. Boolean Variables errors c. Condition Testing :Condition testing test case design method gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.Control Structure testing .k tkrk gS .k tkrk gS .k gksrh gS ysfdu software esa high effectiveness provide djkrh gS blds }kjk white box testing dh qualities dks Hkh improve fd.k tkrk gSA tSls fd & Conditional Testing.s testing dkQh lk/kkj.rk ls program dh nwljh errors dks Hkh psd fd.rk ls program ds Åij lHkh modules vkSj mu modules esa mi. Boolean Parantaces errors d.ksx fd.s guidence provide djrh gSA Condition testing dk mís'.gka ij fofHkUu izdkj dh data flow testing perform dh tk ldrh gSA tSlk fd . Boolean Operator errors b.s fd condition testing additional programs ds test ds fy.s fd condition testing simple gskrh gS vkSj blls .k tkrk gSA bl testing esa cgqr lkjh technique dk mi.sd .k tk ldrk gS vkSj testing ds nkSjku fuEufyf[kr errors dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gS & a.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh testing ds nks ykHk gksrs gSA igyk .

Skip the loop entity. c. i. e.rk ls software testing vklkuh ls perform dh tk ldrh gSA Loop testing .k tkrk gSA iii.k tkrk gSA bu loops esa nesting level dsk increase fd. Only one pass to the loop. ii.drkuqlkj conditional checking dh tk ldrh gSA .ksx fd.s vko'.sd function vius parameters vkSj global variables dks modify ugh dj jgk gks rks mlds fy.d unique statement gks vkSj izR.sd satatement ds fy. In passes to the loop where M>N. N.d white box testing technique gksrh gS tks fd 4 Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr jgrh gSA tSls fd & Simple Loop.gk¡ ij /. b.k tk ldrk gsA . Nested loop :.s if or loops statement dk mi. M-1. Nested Loop.statements . Simple Loop :Simple loop esa simple conditions dks check fd. ckr .s tk ldrs gSA .k tkrk gSA rFkk need number fo test perform fd.s loops cgqr gh important gksrs gSA ftldh lgk. d. Concatinated loop :- .k tkrk gS ftlesa fuEufyf[kr set gks ldrk gSA a.ksx dh tk ldrh gSA 3.g gS fd lcls igys inner most loop execute gksrh gS vkSj outer most loop lcls vkf[kjh eas test fd.gka ij izR.s mi.fn ge simple loop dh approch dks extend djuk pkgrs gS rks nested loop dk mi. Two passes to the loop. Concatenated Loop and Unstructured Loop etc.s statements software ds iwjs path ds fy.ku j[kus .ksX. Loop Testing :Software es fdlh Hkh izdkj ds algorithm dks implement djus ds fy.ksx fd. N+1 passes to the loop.

Testing for real time system (task testing.s loop user dh need test fd. nested approch dk mi. Testing of Client/Server architecture.s testing FkksM+h vyx gksrh gS .drk gksrh gSA white box and black box testing methdo yxHkx lHkh environments architecture rFkk application ds fy.k tk.ksx djds lHkh loops dsk tksM+ fn. steps include jgrs .sls software esa design fd. Testing documentation and help facilities.d nwljs ls inddependent gks rks ml le.s gS ftuds fy.k tk. b.s tk ldrs gSA .drk gksrh gS dsoy ogh loop memory esa execute gksrk gSA Testing for specilized Envrionments :Computer software vktdy cgqr gh complex gks x.s] vkSj mlds ckn mls vko'.k tkrk gSA .kj gksrk gSA bl izdkj dh iwjh planning esa stratagies esa test plaining.fnmls step by step plan djds design fd.gka ij ywi dks VsLV djus dk dksbZ sequence ugh gksrh gS . Unstructured Loop :Unstructured loop dk mi.drkuqlkj VsLV fd.ksx structured programming esa fd.ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu guide lines ds .fn lHkh loops . test case design rFkk test execution vkSj data collection rFkk evaluation etc.ksx djds .s tkrs gS ftl loop dh vko'. d.ksx dh tkrh gSA muds fy.k tkrk gSA 4.s mi.k tkrk gS vkSj tc loop fHkUu ugh gks rks le.s x.s rks .s testing fuEuizdkj dh gks ldrh gS & a. software testing) Software Testing Strategies :Software designing method dk mi.d lh rFkk complete softwaer rS. c.s specilized testing dh vko'.k common application tks fd software engineering esa mi. enter task testing. Testing GUI's.Concatinated loop simple loop dks define djds mi.ksx fd.ksx fd. concatinated loops dk mi.

gka ij iwjs project dks .k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer Hkh involve jgrk gSA Software testing ds fy.d activities dk set gksrk gSA ftls advance esa plan dj fy.drkuqlkj white & black box test dh lgk. feasibility study.kj dh tkrh gSA blds }kjk iwjs project dh activity dks control fd.k vkrh gSA ftlesa software design dh lcls NksVh .k tk ldrk gSA .wfuV dks test fd. projects. rd pyrh gSA tc rd dh project complete u gks tk. and installation testing etc.k x. configration atudits.k parts esa execute fd.k tkrk gS fd rS.k ugh A vkSj validation es nwljs izdkj dh activities vkrh gS ftuls . managers.drkuqlkj dk. and testing specialist ds }kjk rS.rk ls .rk ls errors dks recover fd. documantation.d lkFk Hkh test fd.s vkSj customer dh vko'. algorithm analysis.k tkrk gSA . Qualification testing. development testing.k module dgrs gSA unit testing esa cgqr lkjs components dks . software engineers. performance.k x.ksx mUgs execute djus ds fy.k tkrk gS fd software ds functions dk lgh :i ls implement fd.kZ dj jgk gS .s testing ml le. form of techniques include jgrh gSA 2.ksx djds .gSA Designing effects dkQh important gksrs gSA vkSj stratagies dk mi. Varification and Validation :Software testing esa varification and validation dk important role gksrk gSA Varification esa cgqr lkjh activities dk mi.k tkrk gSA testing strategies ds fy.k tkrk gSA ftls ge software component .s software developr cgqr lkjs technique dk mi.ksx djrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.kj fd.s fd.k gS .s nksuska activiteis SQA activity dk part gh gksrh gSA ftlesa Quality.d systematic <ax ls mls test fd.s irk fd.k tkrk gSA Testing NksVs ls module ls 'kq: gksdj cM+s project rd perform dh tkrh gSA Program logic and fucntion dh lgk.k vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj .d lkFk . Testing Stratagis :Unit Testing :Unit testing esa varification dh og izfØ.drkuqlkj output izkIr u gksA Testing .s irk fd.k ugh A .k software customer dh vko'.s stratagies. database of reffu.k tkrk gSA Module interface testing .

d standalone software rS. Comments on Integration testing.drkuqlkj test dj fy.k tkrk gSA buds errors dks correct djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu .rk ls proper control flow rFkk effective loop testing technique dk mi.ksx fd.fn module dsk .d modular ls nwljs modular esa interface lgh create ugh gks ikrk gSA vkSj ftlds dkj.k dks solve djus ds fy.s tkrs gS & a.s integration testing technique dk mi. Regssion Integration d.k tkrk gSA rFkk module dh statements de ls de .k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration Testing :tc lHkh models ckjh&ckjh ls VsLV gks tkrs gSA vkSj indivisual dk.s process . .d gksrk gSA vkSj unit test dh lgk.s tkrs gSA .fn . Integration test documenatation.fn fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ errors vkrh gS rks mls Hkh debug dj fy.esa information ds proper flow dks test fd.d ckj execute gskuk vko'.Z djus yxrs gS rks mUgsa collect djds .k tkrk gSA Testing ds le. Top Down Integration b.d ywi ds vuqlkj fujarj pyrh jgrh gSA bl approch dks inorement djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bl interfacing process esa dkQh problem vkrh gS .s cgqr lkjs steps mi.d ckj .ksx fd.k tk ldrk gSSA vkSj .d project esa tksM+k tkrk gSA vkSj muds chp esa interface create fd. Smoke Integration e.s rks .s rks unit test procedure ds }kjk nwljs modules ls tksM+k tk ldrk gSA lHkh units dsk blh rjg ls interconnect djds . tks problem vkrh gS mUgs blh testing dh enn ls nwj fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj iwjs program dsk .s approach tc ls power full component dks advance esa gh combine dj fy. Bottom Up Integration c.k tk.d ckj vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj bu modules esa automatic error handlin path set fd.ksx fd.d gskrh gSA . f.kj fd.k tkrk gSA dksbZ Hkh nwljk test djus ls igys modules ds chp esa interface create djuk vko'.k vko'drkuqlkj output produce ugh gks ikrk gSA bl izdkj dh leL.s errors lgh dj yh tk.d lkFk test fd.

Z dj jgk gS vU.s process software life cycle dk part gksrh gSA bls dHkh&dHkh audits ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA c.slh technique gS ftlds }kjk user dh vko'. Validiation.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dsk pSd fd.kj djrs le.k tkrk gSA .k tkrk gSA blesa test plan create fd. Validation Testing :Integration testing esa complete software dks test djds rFkk assemble djds .g.s rS.s lHkh izdkj dh test rFkk documantation provide fd.k tkrk gS rks mldh vko'.ku esa j[kk tkrk gSaA bl testing esa doucmantation errors . tks Hkh errors gksrh gS mls lgh djus dh process gksrh gSA bl ds ckn validation dh testing 'kq: gksrh gSA bl process es customer dh vko'.kj dh xbZ program dks customer fdl izdkj mi.k fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem vkrh gS rks mUgsa lgh dj fy. le.s Software lgh :i ls dk.k tkrk gSA vkSj ml element ds fy.drkuqlkj accept test perform dh tkrh gSA ftlls customer dh lHkh .kj fd.kj dh tkrh gSA .s vko'. testing dk important element gksrk gS blesa software ds lHkh function ds elements dks configration fd.s tkrs gSA tc software .k tkrk gSA b. Validation Test tritarea :Software Validation .s irk djuk impossible gksrk gS fd rS. Alpha & Beta Testing :Software development dks . ij project ds behaviour ds vuqlkj test fd.k tkrk gSA bl iSdst dks rS.d customer ds fy. Configration Review :Configration review validation.d documantation rFkk details rS.s tkrs gSA vkSj bUgsa le.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dks check fd.Fkk ugh A blls tks process pSd gksrh gS mls validation testing dgk tkrk gSA rFkk validation testing esa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a.d package rS.ksx djsxkA blds fy.kj fd.d .k tkrk gSA rFkk blesa project dh performance dks Hkh /.

izdkj dh requirments dks project ds }kjk sub fd;k tkrk gSA ;s acceptance test ,d particular period ds ckn perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s le; ,d lIrkg dk ;k ,d eghus dk gsk ldrk gSA Testing ds nkSjku lHkh izdkj dh errors dks nwj dj fy;k tkrk gSA ;fn ;s software cgqr lkjs customer ds fy;s ,d program ds :i esa rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA rks izR;sd ds fy;s acceptance test perform ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;gk¡ ij end user dh problems dsk solve djus fy;s programmer tks techniques viukrs gS mls Alpha & Beta testing dgk tkrk gSA Alpha test esa Customer ds }kjk programmer site dks test fd;k tk ldrk gS fd tks software mlds fy;s rS;kj fd;k tk jgk gS mlesa look dSlk gS vkSj og particular problem dks solve dj jgk gS ;k ughA Alpha Beta ges'kk gh control environment esa perform fd;s tkrs gSA Beta test software ds enduser ds }kjk ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd customer sites esa conduct fd;s tkrs gSA Alpha testing dh rjg developr present ugh jgrs gS tc fd beta test like application software gksrk gS ftls ;gk¡ ij developr control ugh dj ldrk gSA Beta testing esa developr le; ds vuqlkj lHkh izdkj dh problems dh ,d report rS;kj djrk gSA vkSj software engineers bl problem ds vuqlkj software system dh security vfuok;Z jgrh gSA Security testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls rS;kj gS ;k ughA ,slk djus ls user ds attack ls cuk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name and password provide fd;s tkrs gSA blds ckn dksbZ Hkh ;wtj fcuk user name or password ds bl system esa enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gSA rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gS A Product dks modify djrs gS vkSj ,d u;k software product release ds fy;s rS;kj gks tkrk gSA

System Testing :Software fdlh Hkh large computer based system dk dsoy ,d element gksrk gS vkSj ;gh software nwljs system element (hardware, people, information) etc. ls communicate djrk gSA vkSj blds ckn system intrigration and validation test perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s test software process ls ckgj gksrs gSA D;skfd software designing dh process vyx gksrh gS vkSj testing Hkh vyxA ysfdu bu nksuks dk gh mi;ksx ,d

successful software rS;kj djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ftls ge large system esa mi;skx dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le; rjg&rjg ds test fd;s tkrs gSA rkfd software esa lHkh errors dks debug dj fy;k tk;sA izR;sd test dk viuk mís'; gksrk gS ftlls lHkh modules ds functions dks test djds lHkh ,d lgh output produce fd;k tkrk gSA software based system esa fuEufyf[kr system test perform fd;s tk ldrs gS &

a. Recovey testing :cgqr lkjs computer based system esa faults dks detect djus dh rFkk processing ds le; mUgsa recover djus dh lqfo/kk iznku jgrh gSA ysfdu blesa le; ij vf/kd /;ku fn;k tkrk gSA ysfdu dHkh&dHkh ;s leL;k system ds lgh functions dks sease ¼dk;Z can djuk½ dj ldrh gSA blfy;s ;fn dksbZ system problem dj jgk gS rks mls particular time ds vuqlkj lgh djuk vko';d gksrk gSA recovery testing es blh izdkj dh leL;k dk gy fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk bles automatic reinitialization, check point machanisam, data recovery etc. processes include jgrh gSA recovery user invoke jgrk gSA tks fd le;&le; ij system dks repair djrk jgrk gSA bl process dks ge Main Time To Repair (MTTR) Hkh dgrs gSA

b. Security Testing :dksbZ Hkh computer based system tsk fd sensitive information dks manage djrk gSA rks og system user dks dkQh ykHk igqpkrk gSA blfy;s bl system dh security vfuok;Z gksrh gSA Securtiy testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgh gS ;k ugh A ,slk djus ls system dks vU; unauthorized user ds attack ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name ;k password ds bl systeme es enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gS rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gSA

c. Stress Testing :-

Software testing steps ds le; white box and black box technique dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk mlds }kjk program functions and performance ds normal test fd;s tkrs gS ysfdu abnormal sotiation ds fy;s stress test dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bl test esa system ds fail gksus ls igys dh lHkh izdkj dh process dk fjdkMZ LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA Stress testing resources dh vko';drkuqlkj abnormal quantity, frequancy and volume ds vk/kkj ij perform dh tkrh gSA bl testing esa virtual operating system Hkh involve jgrk gSA ;fn dkbZ program dk;Z djuk can dj ns ;k MkVk currept gks tk;s rks mls stress testing ds vuqlkj recover fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl testing dks sensitive testing ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA

d. Performance Testing :Performance Testing esa system dh run time performance dk test fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj blesa ;s VsLV fd;k tkrk gS fd lHkh modules lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgs ;k ughA ;s testing software life cycle ds lkFk include jgrh gSA

Debugging Process :Software testing ,d ,slh process gksrh gS ftldh lgk;rk ls software preplan ds vuqlkj systematic <ax ls test fd;k tkrk gSA blesa test case design fd;s tkrs gS] stratagy define dh tkrh gSA vkSj vko';drkuqlkj result dks evaluate fd;k tkrk gSA successful testing ds fy;s debugging vko';d gksrh gSA ;fn fdlh test case esa dskbZ error vkrh gS rks debugging process dh lgk;rk ls mls remove dj fn;k tkrk gSA ;s ,d art gS ftls software engineers, software problem dsk solve djus ds fy;s mi;ksx djrs gSA ;s testing process ugh gS ysfdu ges'kk ls gh testing process esa mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj tSls gh ge fdlh izdkj dk test 'kq: djrs gS rks mlh le; debugging process 'kq: gks tkrh gSA ftlls project dh performance c<+ tkrh gSA debugging process ges'kk gh errors dks find djus ds fy;s vkSj mUgs remove djus ds fy;s mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Debugging process dificult process gSA D;skfd ;g ,d project esa cgqr lkjs modules dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj tc system esa errors vkrh gS rks ;g irk djuk eqf'dy gksrk gS fd ;s

error fdl module esa vk;h gS blds fy;s programming knowledge rFkk work experiance dh vko';drk gksrh gSa debugging ds le; ;fn dksbZ error feyrh gS rks mls vo'; Bhd djuk pkfg;sA

Software Maintanance :Software maintanance dh process cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gS blds } kjk software esa tks dfe;k¡ gksrh gS mUgsa nwj fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk ;fn software esa dqN implementation djuk gks rks mlds fy;s Hkh ;s process eq[; Hkwfedk vnk djrh gSA blds fy;s cgqr lkjs programs design fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj muds fy;s proper cooling techniques dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls operating system technology esa vko';drkuqlkj ,d u;k plateform rS;kj fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftlls user computer based system esa vko';drkuqlkj dk;Z dj ldrk gSA rFkk developrs vko';drkuqlkj ml ij control dj ldrs gSA vkSj mls modify esa cny ldrs gS A Software maintanance essa pkj izdkj dh vyx&vyx maintanance activities define dh xbZ gS & a. Charactive Maintanance b. Adoptive Maintanance c. Perfactive Maintanance d. Preventive Maintanance or reengineering bu Maintanance activity dk mi;ksx djds dsoy ge lHkh izdkj ds Maintanance work d dsoy 20% dk;Z dj ldrs gSA ckdh 80% dk;Z igys ls gh mi;ksx dh tk jgs system means external environment dks enhancement djds iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA Enhancement dh request user ds }kjk provide dh tkrh gSA rFkk ,d u;h application future use ds fy;s rS;kj dh tkrh gSA tc ;s Maintanance dh lHkh activities iwjh dj yh tkrh gSA rks attractive and effective software re-engineer gksrk gSA

Computer Aidded Software Engineering (CASE) :Software process eas CASE tools dk cgqr egRo gS A D;skfd bldh lgk;rk ls software engineers rFkk practictioners vkSj ;wtj dks lHkh izdkj dh activities provide gksrh gSA rFkk engineers ds fy;s ;s

framework vo'.k mlds iwjs environment dsk complete djus esa lgk. rS.Z 'kq: djrk gSA Environment architecture hardware plateform and system support (Networking software DBMS and object management system etc.rk ls rS.k tk ldrk gSA Building Blocks :CASE .Z dks /.k tk ldrk gSA ftlls good decisions fy.s toosl blds fy.s ground work rS. architecture lHkh yksxksa ds dk.ksx djrs gSA Software engineering .s project dks fdlh Hkh hardware plateform and operating system esa fcuk fdlh maintanance activity ds execute fd.ku esa j[kdj viuk dk.s building blocks bl izdkj rS. hardware.kj fd. coding and test work dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA Project managers rFkk software engineers nksuks gh CASE dk mi.ksx fd.s beneficial gksrs gSA bu tools dh lgk. operating systems standard rFkk nwljs componants include jgrs gSA CASE ds fy.s . people.rk djrk gSA ftlls database.tools analysis.) dks bdV~Bh djrk gSA vkSj CASE ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA .rk ls software engineering information dks u.sA blds ckn gh CASE benefit provide djrk gSA bldh lgk.s rjhssds ls produce fd.d indivisual CASE tool gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh tools ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA Partability services dh lgk.kj fd.d cgqr gh lk/kkj. natwork.sd building blocks nwljs block dh foundation gSA iwjs environment dk important software engineering tool gskrh gSA blds ckn gh software engineering ds fy.k tk ldrk gS A bl block ds vuqlkj izR.Z gS vkSj .drk gskrh gSA Portability services CASE tools ds chp esa bridge provide djrh gSA tks fd intrigration frame work and envrionmental architecture dks Hkh support djrh gSA Intrigration frame work .s x.rk ls mannual acitvities dks automatic represent fd.d Lis'ky izksxzEl dk collection gS tks fd .kj djrk gSA ysfdu CASE environment esa nwljs blocks dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Software engineering process ds le.k tk ldrk gSA CASE tools dk use djus ls igys software process.s tk ldrs gSA CASE dks process module ds lkFk mi. design.d successful environment create fd.kj dj ysuk pkfg.d dfBu dk.k rFkk single tools gS tks fd fdlh particular software engineering activity .

Web development tools.A Texonomey of CASE tools :tc Hkh ge CASE tools dks fofHkUu izdkj ls catagarise djrs gSA rks gesa cgqr lkjs risks dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA . n. p. Analysis & Design tools.s dqN egRoiw.s tk ldrs gSA CASE tools dks functions dh lgk. Project planning tools. f.kZ tools fuEuizdkj gS& a. Requirment trasing tools. b. Dlom tools. Metrics & management tools.d vPNh performanance ds fy. o. Quality assurance tools. s. q.k tk ldrk gSA .slh cgqr lkjh planning and tools gS ftudh lgk. k. m. Prototyping tools.s bl izdkj ds tools software engineering process esa mi. i. Interface & design & development tools. r. l. Static analysis tools. j. g.d effective CASE environment rS. Porgramming tools.k tk ldrk gSA bleas technical persons and software engineers Hkh include jgrs gSA rFkk environment architecture esa hardware rFkk software dks include djds iwjs system dh cost create dh tk ldrh gSA blds fy. Software configration management tools. e. . Documentation tools. Risk analysis tools. Business process engineering tools. d. Intrigration & testing tools. Project management tools.rk ls .gka ij . c.rk ls classify fd. System software tools.ksx fd. h.kj fd. Process modeling & management tools.

d lgh software rS. 1.Z combination and closure nksuks ls gh gSA ftlesa fofHkUu izdkj ds tools dks combine fd.d vPNk benefite provide dj ldrs gSA ysfdu CASE dh real power dks intrigration ds }kjk gh izkIr fd.rkuqlkj miyC/k gks tkrh gSA blesa . 2.k tk.k tkrk gS A vkSj tools ds chp esa] yksxks ds chp eas rFkk iwjh software process ds chp esa md closure communication provide fd.s vko'd.s vko'. Intrigration dk rkRi. Smoth transfer of information (Models.d gksrk gS fd software engineering dh process ds vuqlkj gh lgh toos choose fd.s] rkfd .sd tools ds fy.ksx djrh gSA intrigration dh lgk.sd activity dsk handle djrs gSA rFkk . data) from one to another and one software engineering step to the next. Documents. Client/Server testing tools. and communication.k tk ldsA 2. 3. Dynamic analysis tools. Test management tools.s software engineering information izR. Programs. A Reduction in the afferts required to perform various activity such as configration management. Intrigration Architecture :Software engineering information dks process djus ds fy. Improve Cordination among staff members who are working on a large software project.k tkrk gSA tools intrigrated gksrs gS blfy. u.s software engineering team CASE tools dk mi. v. An increase in project control that is achived better planning.kj fd. Reengineering tools. 4.t. quality assurance and document production. monitering. w. Intrigrated CASE environment :CASE tools software engineering dh izR.k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration CASE ds benefite fuEufyf[kr include jgrs gSA tSls fd 1.rk .

k tkrk gS lHkh CASE tools ds fy.s machanism rS. rS. providing support for chage control.sA tSls fd & information dks store djus ds fy.d screen layout rS.k tkrk gSA tks fd CASE repository ds lkFk feydj dk.rk ls moments names and organization . icons.rk ls common presentation protocols ds lkFk interface create djrh gSA Interface tools esa humen or computer interface management and object dh library ls related software gksrs gSA ftudk use CASE tools esa communication provide djus ds fy.s gekjs ikl igys ls gh component dk architecture vo'. the use of the keyboard and mouse rFkk lHkh izdkj ds tools dks access djuk presentation protocol dk gh .s database create gksuk] object management system rS.drkuqlkj functions ds fy. controls.Z djrk gSA OML intrigration services provide djrk gS tSls fd performing. audits and statas accounting etc.kj gksukA CASE tools dks control djus ds fy.kj gksuk pkfg.kj fd.s preventation protocol guide lines dk dk.s user interface create gksuk vko'. object names.s security provide djuk tools management services (TMS) ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA Object management layer (OML) congrigration management functions provide djrh gSA blesa framework architecture dks tools intrigration ds fy.kj gksuk vkSj environment esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh action ds fy.s bdV~Bk fd. version.k tkr gSA tools layer eas lHkh izdkj dh tools management services provide dh tkrh gS rFkk bles lHkh izdkj ds modules ds fy.s fd.rk ls .Z djrs gSA ftudh lgk.ls project ds chp esa information dks transfer djus dh lqfo/kk izznku dh tkrh gSA ysfdu blds fy.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR.d part gksrk gS mldh lgk.sd CASE tools object management layer ls attach fd.d gksrk gSA cgqr lkjs models bl izdkj dh intrigration dks component layers ds :i esa represent djrs gS A bl frame work dk simple model bl izdkj gSA User interface layer standard interface tools dh lgk.s tkrs gS A tks fd environment ds behaviour dks control djrs gSA bl multitasking dh facility Hkh iznku dh tk ldrh gSA vkSj vko'. bldk eryc .s gS fd OML lHkh izdkj ds confrigration object dks identify djrk gSA .s vyx&vyx izdkj ds CASE tools set fd.

Z djrk gSA Software engineer CASE tools dk mi.gka ij vko'.slk database gS tks software engineering esa data dks store djus dk rFkk vko'.d center point gksrk gS .s tkrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.k tkrk gSA blh fd lgk.ksfd blds ikl fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information fyf[kr :i esa ugh gksrh FkhA dHkh&dHkh og vko'. Data Intrigraty.s fofHkUu izdkj ds storage places use fd. machanism rFkk data structures dk set gksrh gSA ftlds }kjk data tools rFkk data intrigration provide fd. .s tkrs gS tks fd object management layer dks databases ds lkFk link djrs gSA Data intrigration object management rFkk shared repository layer ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA CASE Repository :Software development process esa repository .s . ysfdu storage rFkk accumitation fds fy. Requirment dictonary (a limited database) and Repository.rk ls database management system esa functions provide fd.k tkrk FkkA tks .s repository.d .drkuqlkj data dks store fd.d . The role of the repository I-CASE :I CASE environment ds fy.s .d programmer gskrk FkkA ftlds ikl software project dh lHkh information store jgrh Fkh A ysfdu .Z lgh djrk FkkA D.d information dks Hkwy tkrk FkkA ftls ckn esa recall ugh fd.slk word gS tks fd fdlh particular pht .drkuqlkj communicate djus dk dk.d person dks choose fd. Intrigrate Project Support Environment Database (IPSE).s tkrs gSA tSlk fd CASE database.k tkrk gSA Software development process esa lcls igys repository ds fy.Charged repository layer CASE databases gskrh gS rFkk blh ds } kjk access control function provide fd.k person ds Åij depend gksrk gSA .ksx djds repository ls interect djrs gSA vkSj mls complete djrs gSA Software engineering information ds fy.s bu terms ds chp es dqN difference gksrs gSA tks bl izdkj gS & 1.s person bruk vPNk dk. Project database.k tk ldrk A ysfdu vktdy repository .

d. . 2. Document Standardrization. c. Features & Contents :Repository ds features rFkk controls dks vklkuh ls le>us ds fy. f. Information about the problem domain.s dkSu&dkSu lh services provide dh tk jgh gSA Repository esa fofHkUu izdkj dh information sotre dh tk ldrh gSA ftuds fuEufyf[kr points Hkh include jgrs gS & a. The project plan. e. resources and history. Rules and instructions prataining to the software process (methodology) being followed. Information about the organization contexts. b. The problem to be solved.b. Information Sharing.s nks objectives dks le>us dh vko'drk gskrh gS fd repository esa D. Data/tool intrigration. e. d. c.k tk jgk gSA vkSj repository ds fy. The system solution asit emerges. Data/data intrigration. f.k store fd. Object Relationship.

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