You are on page 1of 27


Causes of Conflict in Sri Lanka ............................................................................................. 2
Consequence of Sinhalese-Tamil conflict.............................................................................. 4
Efforts to resolve conflict ....................................................................................................... 6
Reasons for conflict in Northern Ireland ................................................................................ 7
Impact of Conflict in NI .......................................................................................................... 9
Challenges of a Multi Ethic Society ..................................................................................... 10
Managing ethnic diversity .................................................................................................... 12
Why conflicts occur ............................................................................................................. 14
Reasons for Gulf War.......................................................................................................... 16
Consequence of Gulf War ................................................................................................... 18
Impact of transnational terrorism ......................................................................................... 20
Positive impacts of Globalization ......................................................................................... 22
Negative impacts of globalization ........................................................................................ 23
Keeping environment clean ................................................................................................. 24
How Singapore overcome the challenges of globalization ................................................... 25



(causes of conflict among ethnic and religious groups)

 „Sinhala Only‟ policy

o Originally, under British rule, English-educated Tamils could enter the
government service and be promoted. They occupied some of the most
powerful jobs in the country
o 1956: Sinhala declared official language and language of administration
under the Official Language Act.
o Tamils in civil service given 3 years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed
o Also found it hard to find jobs or get promoted
o This threatened the livelihood of the Tamils as they found it difficult to
be promoted or find jobs if they left the civil service.
o The Tamils felt marginalized, this increased tension between Tamils and
Sinhalese, making a conflict easy to break out.
o Eg. Peaceful demonstration by Tamils disrupted by Sinhalese, leading
to riots and deaths

 Citizenship rights
o Ceylon citizenship act of 1948: Those who were born in Sri Lanka or those
whose forefathers were born in Sri Lanka were granted citizenship
o 1964: India agreed to help the Indian Tamils who were stateless. Allowed
certain number of Indian Tamils to return to India. Rest granted Sri Lanka
citizenship. However, agreement not carried out fully by Sri Lankan
government. As many as 100 000 Tamils remain stateless
o As a result, many Indian Tamils found themselves stateless despite
having lived in Sri Lanka for many years and contributed significantly to
the economy
o To be stateless meant that one did not have basic rights such as
housing, education, voting
o Hence, many Tamils felt discriminated against
o Increased tension between the Tamils and Sinhalese

 University Admission Criteria
o Originally, Eng educated Tamils did well (Exams set in Eng)  Proportion of
Tamils in uni was significantly greater than proportion in the population.
 18% Tamils in population, Tamil and Sinhalese students almost equal]
o 1970  New university admission criteria.
o Tamils had to score higher marks than Sinhalese to enter same course.
o Fixed number of Sinhalese students
o Eg. Physical Sciences 183 (Tamils) vs 204 (Sinhalese)
o Tamils felt discriminated against as it deprived them of future
o Those with better results/degrees/diplomas are able to find better jobs.
To be able to achieve that, one will have to enter and graduate
university. As the admission criteria was unfair, many Tamils found
themselves not eligible for university and this affected their livelihoods
as they did not have the qualifications to have a high paying job
o They felt discriminated and this increased the anger and tension
between the Tamils and Sinhalese

 Resettlement
o Landless Sinhalese peasants were transferred from the densely populated
southwestern and central areas to the Tamil areas to provide them with land
for padi cultivation to support themselves
o Furthermore, Buddhist monks and Sri Lankan Army (mostly Sinhalese) also
occupied lands
o Tamils unhappy as Buddhist monks and Sri Lankan Army also joined
the peasants to occupy the traditional Tamil areas
o This affected the livelihood of the Indian Tamils as the Indian Tamils
depended on the land for tea plantation for their livelihood
o This affected their quality of life and made them bitter towards the
Sinhalese who took over their land.
o Furthermore, they perceived this as a systematic elimination of Tamil
Rights and hence, felt discriminated and this increased the feelings of
resentment and hatred the Tamils had towards the Sinhalese.

(impact of conflict on social, political and economic development)

 Armed conflict (Political impact)

o Because the demands of the Tamil United Liberation Front (1976) for a new
separate independent state in the north and east of Sri Lanka was denied, a
militarist group called the LTTE was formed by Tamil youths
o LTTE believed in the creation of a new Tamil State of Tamil Eelam and
resorted to violence as they believe this is the only way to demand and obtain
their rights
o Attacked Sinhalese, Tamil members of police force, Tamil members and
supporters of the ruling party, Tamil politicians who did not support the
proposed separate state.
o For example, in an anti-Tamil riot in 1983 (July) 13 Sinhalese soldiers were
o Conflict which spanned 20 years cost more than 60000 lives
o Armed conflict resulted in the loss of lives of Sinhalese
o Contributed to suffering of Sinhalese. For example, when houses are
destroyed, the people are left homeless and their quality of life suffers
o Many factories were also destroyed, which caused many to become
o People lived in fear

 Economic Consequence
o Unemployment
 After conflict, 150 000 jobs lost and 90% of jobs belonged to
 1983 Anti Tamil riots: 25 000 Tamil jobs lost
o Loss of investments
 Foreign investors unwilling to invest in a politically and socially
unstable country
 1982: $70m
 1985: $20m
o Tourism
 Tourists do not want to come to an unsafe country
 1982 – 400 000 arrivals
 1986 – 200 000 arrivals
o The loss in investments and fall in tourism also resulted in many job
losses = hardship amongst people to had difficulty making a living AND
social problems such as increase in crime rates.
o All these economic detriments led to a loss of revenue for Sri Lanka
o Government had little funds to develop infrastructure and amenities (ie
transport and housing)

o Furthermore, as many people were unemployed, the quality of life
suffered as they did not possess a livelihood to make money
o The fall in tourism also affected the country heavily as much of the
countries revenue depended on tourism as Sri Lanka is a tourist

 Social consequence
o Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of homeland
 1983 riots: thousands of Tamils fled to India
 Today, 65000 Sri Lankan Tamils remain in India
o 1990: High Security Zones (HSZ) set up
o 1995: Many Tamils fled their homes when Sri Lankan army moved to Jaffna
to combat LTTE
o Today, many Tamils still living in overcrowded conditions in refugee camps
o Quality of life suffered (packed refugee camps)
o Loss of Tamil homes (Quality of life) and livelihood (unemployment
when Tamils driven from their farmlands and plantations)

 Foreign Intervention (Political impact)

o Anti Tamil riots attracted India’s attention
o India sent its foreign minister to Sri Lanka as a mediator after the July 1983
riots. No agreements could be reached.
o Tried to play mediator, but failed
o 3 June 1987: Sent 20 ships with food and petroleum to Sri Lankan Tamils but
turned back by Sri Lankan navy
o Indian Airforce dropped food and medical supplies in Jaffna following day
o In doing so, it violated Sri Lankan airspace and violated Sri Lanka‟s
o This meant that Sri Lanka faced a massive humiliation as this meant
that India felt that the Sri Lankan government could not solve the crisis
on their own.

(efforts to resolve the conflict)

 July 1987 Peace Accord

o There was to be a ceasefire between the Tamil Tigers and the Sri Lankan
o LTTE were to surrender all their arms to Indian Peacekeeping troops
o Tamil dominated northern provinces were to be merged with the eastern
o BUT: LTTE failed to fully surrender arms by October 1987, Indian Army took
Jaffna by force.
o After numerous clashes between the Tamil Tigers and Indian peacekeeping
forces, peacekeepers were withdrawn in 1990.

 2002 Peace talks

o Between the Sri Lankan government and LTTE, mediated by Norway.
o Ceasefire agreement signed in 2002.
o BUT:
o LTTE withdrew from talks in 2003, said they were marginalized
o Suicide bomb blast in Colombo in 2004, an agreement for the Tamils and
Sinhalese to share international aid for the Tsunami victims not implementd.
o 2005: Foreign Minister who was Tamil against a separate Tamil state as well
as several attackers blamed on the LTTE threatened civil war

(impact of conflict on social, political and economic development)

 Divided Loyalties
o Protestants: Saw themselves as British and wanted NI to be part of UK
o Catholics: Saw themselves as Irish and wants union with Ireland
o Catholics resented English conquest of the 12th Century
o Catholics remember massacre, harsh rule and treatment
o Celebrated events which other hated in plain view of other
o Eg. Battle of Boyne (Orange Parade) as a mark of Protestant Dominance 
Marched through Catholic residential areas
o St. Patrick’s day by Catholics
o This sense of loyalty to different countries made them intolerant of each
o Furthermore, events that made the other angry were celebrated and this
worsened the segregation between the Catholics and Protestants.
o This increased the feeling of mistrust and anger between both groups,
which leads to an increase in tension between the 2 groups, making a
conflict likely to happen

 Social Segregation
o Public Schools cater for Protestants (Mainstream Schools)
o Private schools cater for Catholics
o Protestant
 Taught British History
 Played British sports
 Very Loyal to Britain
o Catholics
 Taught Irish History
 Played British sports
 Very Loyal to Britain
o As a result, Protestants and Catholic children rarely got you meet and
know each other
o Grew up in an environment intolerant of the other
o Hence, grow up distrusted and hostile to each other
o Therefore, they were suspicious and hostile to each other, increase in
tension between the 2 groups, making a conflict likely to happen

 Unequal allocation of jobs

o Though equally qualified, they were not given opportunities
o Catholics overrepresented in low pay sectors
o Fewer Catholics in senior positions
 Eg. 1925-49: 0 Catholic as judge of Supreme countrt

 10% Catholic males unemployed compared to 5% Protestant males
o Catholics felt discriminated in terms of employment
o Employment affected the livelihood. Hence, if the livelihood is affected,
the standard of living will be affected as their may be a lack of money to
buy certain products
o The Catholics hence resented the unequal allocation of jobs  Fight for
rights  Conflict

 Unequal allocation in Housing

o Long delay in getting public housing
o Approving council comprise largely of Protestants
o 1968: 71% of local houses in Duncannon given to Protestants but 53% of the
people there were Catholics
o Protestants and Catholics lived separately
o This frustrated many Catholics
o Catholics felt marginalized
o Increased tension between Catholics and Protestants
o Furthermore, the fact that they lived separately increased social
segregation and led to a lack of social communication  intolerant of
each other.

 Voting
o Before 1969: Voting criteria based on who owned homes and businesses
o Votes for companies depended on size
o Many Protestants owned companies  Protestants get most votes
o Gerrymandering  redrawing of electoral boundaries to give advantages to
political parties practiced.
o As a result, the voting system was unfair to poorer Catholic population
o Unhappy that voting districts drawn up to include large proportion of
o Resentment  Battle for rights  Conflict
o Increased tension between both groups

(impact of conflict on social, political and economic development)

 Innocents killed
o 3600 died, 40 000 injured
o Continued conflicts and hostilities
o Prejudices towards one another
o This led to a vicious cycle of killing and hatred. When one group kills a
member of the other, the other takes revenge, leading to a vicious cycle,
“an eye for an eye”
o Caused suffering as homes were destroyed, people killed, etc.

 Worsened Segregation between Protestants and Catholics

o Grew up in environment of tension, fear, lack of understanding and bitterness
towards the other group
o Eg. Belfast ‘Peace’ Wall set up (1969). Both sides have even less
opportunities to interact.
o Both sides grew up in an atmosphere of suspicion and hatred
o Made peace by both sides impossible
o No social interaction  Mistrusts other group  Impossible for peace 
Vicious cycle of hatred  more conflict

 Economic cost
o Affected economic stability
o NI  Highest unemployment rate in UK
o Investments decreased
o Many areas suffered from poverty and social deprivation
o Immense drain on British economy. Est. daily cost of BA: S$1.5m
o Unemployment  Livelihood affected  Quality of life suffers
o Econ. Drain  Money could go to better areas

 Hastened introduction of anti-discriminative reforms

o Pressure from Civil Right marches and Bri to reform and pass anti-
discriminating laws
o Eg. 1948  govt agreed to abolish voting system
o Decrease discrimination
o Decrease tension between both groups
o Leads to peace

(explain the internal and external threats to Singapore’s harmony)

Managing perceptions of different racial groups

 Race can unite different groups of people together, but may divide the country as a
 Eg. During 1964 elections, UMNO made use of race to incite Singapore Malays to
support them and go against the PAP government (portrayed as Anti Malay). Racial
riots broke out as a result, and many lives were lost.
 As we live in a multi-ethnic society, with the existence of different races, any
lack of understanding among different racial groups can create conflict easily.
 It is difficult to manage perceptions of different racial groups as each culture
has its beliefs and traditions that may conflict with other groups.
 Lack of understanding  outbreaks of violence
 Any slight slur against another race may be perceived as an insult  internal
 As long as one race feels that they are being discriminated against, they will
fight for their rights, and may lead to social unrest (strikes, riots and

Managing perceptions of different religious groups

 In a multi ethnic society, there are people from many religious groups. If we do not
practice tolerance towards each other’s religious beliefs and practices, social
cohesion will not be achieved.
 Eg. Maria Hertogh riots. Maria Hertogh was brought up in a Muslim family with
adopted parents. By denouncing the marriage of Maria Hertogh to her teacher and
placing her in a convent the British government was not respecting the Muslims
traditions. As such, riots occurred. Many lives were lost.
 All this shows that if there is a slur against another race, or if the minority race
feels their traditions are not respected, they will naturally feel outraged about
it. If not handled properly, their outrage will turn into violence, potentially

leading to strikes and riots as they vent their anger and fight for their rights, as
can be seen from the Maria Hertogh riots.

Threats from external forces

 External forces like terrorists may make use of religion to get support, as well as to
create ill feelings among the people in a multi-ethnic society.
 Eg. Jamaah Islamiyah (JI) wanted to set up an Islamic state in Asia. They used
religion as a tool to create ill feelings among the people in a multi-ethnic society.
 Terrorists attacks threaten our economy as people will tend to not travel to
Singapore due to security reasons
 Terrorist attacks not only affect our economy, they also threaten our racial and
religious harmony.
 This is as if one terrorist organization is associated with one religion (eg. JI
with Islam), the other religions in Singapore may feel distrustful of those who
practice Islam. This causes the people who practice the religion to feel
discriminated, and angry, and this anger may translate into violence, such as

(Explain how social cohesion and racial and religious harmony may be achieved in a multi
ethnic society like Singapore)

Building a national identity

 Eg. Bilingualism – Equality among races as no race have advantage. All races have
to take English (which no race has as a native, mother tongue [equality]), and their
mother tongue. Also so that everyone can communicate through a common language
 Eg. National Education made necessary (1997)
 Eg. Common Practices
 This creates a common history, culture and identity for Singaporeans, so that
people will see themselves as part of the country, not of an ethnic group
 Singaporeans see themselves as loyal and full of national pride
 This creates a national identity as Singaporeans, such that Singaporeans put
aside ethnic differences and work towards a common goal.
 This promotes social stability as it gives the people a sense of belonging and

Safeguarding interests of minority groups

 Eg. Minority rights. The Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PCMR) to ensure that
no racial or religious group is disadvantaged when a law is passed. GRC made it
compulsory for teams participating in election to consist of at least one minority race,
so that they are represented in the parliament.
 Eg. Self help groups like CDAC and SINDA formed to help less fortunate of each
racial group so that everyone will have a chance to excel in studies and work.
 Eg. Put racist bloggers on trial to discourage posting of racial comments.
 This makes sure that the minorities are not being left out in our society and to
let them feel part of society.
 This promotes social stability as it reduces the slurs against other minority
groups, which reduces conflicts between different groups

Developing common space

 This means that Singaporeans are given time and space to interact
 Eg. Events and programmes by grassroot organizations like beach clean ups or
 Eg. Educational institutions (schools) have CCA  different racial groups in each
CCA to allow students from different races to study and participate in different
activities together, regardless of race, language or religion. Students make friends
with other ethnic groups.
 Eg. Public housing. Different races in each block interact with one another
 Eg. National Service. Boys from different backgrounds will serve in army together.
 This allows Singaporeans to interact, which fosters friendships between
people of different races.

 It allows Singaporeans to respect the different races and religions in
Singapore, hence, Singaporeans will be less likely to slur another race, which
leads to less internal unrest.

Why is it important to manage ethnic diversity in Singapore (appreciate living in a

multi ethnic society)

Security and Peace

 People feel safe in Singapore
 Not having the stress to be cautious over all areas
 This can only continue if Singapore continues to be a place where the different racial
groups can live harmoniously together.

Economic Progress
 Stability in a society encourages foreign investors and trade
 Tourism industries boom since foreigners feel safe to travel here
 Unique characteristics of a multi ethnic society attracts tourists.



(Understand why conflicts exist among nations)

 Competing territories
o 1947: Indian gain independence from Britain
o Inherited frontier drawn by British
o China protested because they had not agreed to border
o Hard to decide border because of inaccessible Himalayas
o Areas of conflict – Aksai Chin Plateau and North East Frontier Agency
o 1950: China began to contest India’s presence in several localities along
border. China unwilling to negotiate seriously and draw up definite boundaries
o 1958: China announced that it built a road on Aksai Chin plateau
o Indian government protested, argued that road violated territory rights. China
claimed that border was not fixed.
o 1959: Fighting broke out
o mid 1961: China occupied even more territories India regarded as her own
o 1962: War broke out
o Territories are an indication of the strength of a country.
o Having more territories is important to a country especially if the land is
important to its defense or national pride.
o If countries try to extend their control by taking over territories not
belonging to them, it results in tension being built up, and if diplomacy
cannot solve the problem, a conflict may arise as a result because land
means a lot to a country.

 Competition over scarce resources

o 1970s: Iceland and Britain in conflict over fishing grounds
o Iceland has few natural resources and depended on fishing industry for
o As a result, national interests (profit from fishing industry) was threatened
o Iceland tried to sought help from UN
o 1975: extended zone of control over fishing grounds from 50 nautical miles to
200 nautical miles beyond its shore.
o Britain refused to acknowledge new boundaries
o 1976 (Feb): Iceland cut diplomatic ties with Britain

o 1976 (June): Ties restored after agreement signed
o Scarce resources can mean a lot to a country, especially if a country
depends mainly on one type of resource for its survival
o If that source of revenue is threatened, and diplomatic attempts with the
other country fails, tensions may arise as a result and conflicts may
occur as their national interests are being threatened.

 Ideology differences
o Korean War
o Korea divided into 2 halves at 38th parallel after WWII. Northern part
temporarily occupied by USSR and southern part by USA.
o UN called for election in 1947 to establish a single government to reunite
o USSR refused election and installed Communist regime, known as
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
o 1948: Independent Republic of Korea formed with support of USA
o 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea
o Fearing that North Korea would spread the communist ideology to South
Korea, the USA, its allies and the UN defended South Korea.
o UN pushed North Korean and Chinese forces back to 38th parallel
o 1951: China joined the war and aided North Korea in pushing UN troops back
into South Korea
o 1953: Agreement signed to stop fighting, demilitarized zone created
o Different values and beliefs among countries may cause conflicts.
Countries pursuing different ideologies can come into conflict if they
see their ideology beliefs are threatened or to force their beliefs on
another country to prove that their beliefs were the best

(analyze causes of conflict)

 Worsening of Iraq-Kuwait Relations

o Iraq’s economic problems
 Before Iraq-Iran war: UA$35b reserves
 After war: US$80b debt, US$230b reconstruction costs
o Increased tensions between Iraq and Kuwait (Kuwait is so rich yet Iraq
is so poor)
o Problems diverted to rich neighbor (Kuwait)
o Economic differences
 Overproduction of oil by Kuwait and UAE
 Violated OPEC Quota
 Oil prices fell (US$18 – US$17 per barrel)
 Iraq lost US$1b each time oil prices fell by US$1
o Iraq blamed Kuwait for failing economy
o Increased tension between Iraq and Kuwait
o Land and resources
 Rumailo oilfield
 Divided by unclear borders
 1990: Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil by slant drilling
 Bubiyah and Warbah Islands
 Near Iraq’s port of Umm Qasr
 Can block Iraq’s access to gulf
 1960s: Iraq tried to use force to get islands
 1978: Iraq offered to lease Islands. Kuwait refused.
o Made Iraq angry at Kuwait

o Increased tensions
 Diplomacy failure to solve problem
o Iraq complained to Arab league (2.4 billion lost to Kuwait)
o Agreed to increase oil prices from US$18 – US$21
o Kuwait  Cancelled war debt
o Agreed to give US$500 million loan
o Didn’t agree to give territory
o This made Iraq angry at Kuwait insolence
o Increased tensions
o Led to war

 Saddam leadership
o Dissatisfaction
 Econ. Devastated
 Hyperinflation
 Threat of Shia uprising  Afraid Shia will overthrow him
 Threat posed by large army  Army did not respect him
o Personality
 Great leader  Though he should be respected
o If Saddam can win the war, he can prove himself
o Divert the people‟s dissatisfaction to Kuwait
o People will be angry at Kuwait instead of him  War is answer to

 Misreading of US position
o Saddam met the US ambassador
o Thought US sympathetic to Iraq plight
o Thought US will not react
o Emboldened Saddam
o Believed he could act without facing consequences

(analyze impact of conflict)

 Kuwait
o Monetary
 600/950 oilfields burnt
o Death and suffering
 1000 civilians killed
 Many tortured
o Loss of oilfields meant that drop in economy (depended a lot on oil
o Decrease in rate of rebuilding  Decrease in standard of living
o Many killed and tortured

 Others
o Environment
 Oilfields burnt
 11m barrels of oil dumped into Persian gulf
 This threatened marine life and costs millions to clean
 The money to clean could go to betters areas  Rebuilding
 Destruction of oilfields  Oil is non renewable energy source 
Decrease in oil reserves of world  Sustainable development
o Foreign workers
 2 million workers displaced
 Lost jobs; income
 Livelihood affected  standard of living decreased
 Workers displaced to refugee camps  Crowded  Standard of
living decreased

 Iraq
o Suffering of Iraqis
 Infrastructure destroyed
 Water supply contaminated  Lead to spread of diseases
 This affected the standard of living (eg. Infrastructure destroyed
 loss of convenience)
 Affected health (diseases ran rampant)  affected standards of
o Political instability
 Kurds revolted
 Unsuccessful (Coalition forces didn’t help)
 Reprisal by Saddam  Thousands massacred, 1m Kurdish refugees
 Refugees lived in crowded camps  Standards of living
 Many died

 Instability hinders progress and recovery
o Military
 1/3 forces destroyed
 Morale of troops low
 Affected defense
 Blow to national pride (Iraq prides itself for having 4th largest
army in the world at that time before Gulf War)

(Understand the impact of terrorism on world and national security)

Economic impact
 Eg. 9/11 Attacks. Airlines industries affected. Insurance payouts of US$40 billion.
Airlines and tourist trade plunged to a near standstill. Revenue lost and US
government had to provide economic help to revive the airlines industry.
 Eg. Bali bombings. Tourism fell by 50%. Economy suffered as tourism is main source
of revenue for Bali.
 All governments taking an anti terrorist stance now have to spend a lot of
money and resources on increased security
 This may result in a divergence of funds to improving or developing new
infrastructure or amnesties, which may compromise the standard of living and
convenience of the people.

Social impact
 Creates suspicion and mistrust amongst different segments of society.
 Eg. London bombings  discrimination against Muslims  Hate crimes against
Muslims  344 violent incidents in 2002
 Eg. Singapore. Misunderstanding amongst Singaporeans  Singapore Chinese
refuse to enter same lifts as Malays
 Eg. Inconvenience caused by increase in security checks. Ban on liquids  Longer
time to check in.
 Good relations built up over the years in a multi ethnic community may be
shackled by terrorist acts especially if a loved one is involved. When a
community is not prepared for a terrorist attack, it is even more vulnerable
when tensions arise after an attack.
 Feelings of distrust and suspicion will arise, and there are wrong perceptions
of being unfairly singled out
 Social bonds are put to the test.
 This is especially so if a terrorist organization is affiliated with a particular race
or religion as the other religions in Singapore may feel distrustful of those who
practice Islam. This causes the people who practice the religion to feel
discriminated, and angry, and this anger may translate into violence, such as
 Can lead to social unrest

Political impact
 Trade off between security and freedom
 Eg. UK has 4 million CCTV cameras and 400000 official requests to tap phones
 People‟s privacy and freedom (civil liberties) are eroded away.
 People will not have freedom to do as they wish because of increase security.

Ways to manage transnational terrorism (Examine measures taken to deal with
transnational terrorism)

Regional efforts
 Eg. ARF. Provides a platform to discuss how to deal with transnational terrorism
 Eg. Joint police and intelligence measures. Philippines authorities arrested JI bomb
maker Al Ghazi based on info provided by Singapore in 2002
 Eg. Convention on counter terrorism signed by ASEAN leaders (2007). 1st Legally
binding terrorism accord. Shows the steps ASEAN has made in dealing with
 Because of regional efforts, many terrorists suspects have been arrested.
 It allows for Singapore to deal with terrorists in other ASEAN countries more
 Makes it more difficult for terrorists to operate in the region.

International efforts
 Eg. Passed anti terrorism legislation. Member countries to freeze terrorist assets and
prevent terrorists from buying arms. Members cooperate to share information and
persecute terrorists
 Eg. Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) formed. Monitors countries adherence to
anti terrorism legislation. Provides help to countries to implement legislation.
 Eg. Froze more than US$200million in terrorist funds
 Eg. Over 4000 terrorists arrested by info sharing
 Makes it more difficult for terrorists to operate as their activities are monitored.
Their money is frozen and cannot buy arms, making them more difficult to
 Because countries work together, terrorist EVERYWHERE will face
 Makes it more difficult for terrorists to escape to another country.
 Furthermore, support from international organizations allows ALL countries to
be able to fight terrorism

Creating an environment non-conducive for terrorism.

 Eg. Creating strong social bonds amongst different groups to ensure our society is
united against terrorism. Eg. Community Engagement Program launched by PM Lee
in 2005 to promote social cohesion.
 Society takes a firm, unambiguous stance against terrorism (eg.
Political/religious leaders speak out against terrorism)
 Makes it more difficult for terrorists to recruit or operate as they face the entire
nation, not just the military of civil force alone.



(Explain how globalization creates opportunities and challenges for nations)

Increase in standards of living

o Increase in income levels:
o 2000: $4940
o 2004: $5400
o Because of free trade, wide range of foreign products, foreign products
become cheaper. This increases lifestyle choices, leading to higher
quality of life
o Globalizing countries  Increase in income levels when they open to
foreign investment
o Greater revenues spent on education, housing, healthcare,
infrastructure  People enjoy higher standards of living

Increase awareness of other cultures

o 1930s: Singapore ppl didn’t know of events outside Singapore
o Now: Internet + TV  Find things out easily
o Hence, Singaporeans will not be ignorant of the outside world
o Singaporeans are able to learn about history, culture and way of life of
other countries through traveling or the internet
o This would not be possible without globalization

Increase awareness of environmental management

o Increase in awareness that sustainable growth is key to future growth
o Eg. Countries are learning to sustain power supply through conservation and
alternate sources of energy
o Hence, the Earth‟s resources would not be drained past the sustainable

o This ensures that in the years to come, the resources can still be
sustained and used for future generations


Environmental impact
o High demand for Brazilian beef
 Results in the total area of forest lost in Amazon increase from 41.5
million hectares (1990) to 58.7 million hectares (2000) to make way for
cattle ranches
o Tropical rainforests disappearing in Indonesia
 Forests cleared to plant cash crops
o Impact  Environmental problems such as soil erosion
o Environmental problems such as haze  Affect tourism/health

Increasing gap between rich and poor

o Countries
 Rich country prosper as they are able to attract many TNCs to be
based there
 Able to draw investors from poor countries
 Ppl in these countries have good jobs
 Ppl from developing countries have low skilled industries which
generates little revenue
o People
 Rich and highly educated prosper because of better economic
 Poor ppl face econ. Uncertainties as they are unskilled
 Eg. Retrenchment
o As a result, a social division within the country is formed  Social
instability  Increasing resentment of poor towards rich  Conflict
o Possibly lead to increasing crime rates

Loss of local culture

o Spread of pop culture (eg MTV)
o Local beliefs, cultures and languages may be lost in the face of western
o Eg. MacDonalds, MTV
o Eg. Getai lost
o Loss of identity as people forget roots/values
o Local cultures give way to a homogenous culture created by the likes of
MacDonalds, MTV, etc.
o May result in increasing crime rates (eg. Traditional Chinese values lost)
o Once lost, very difficult to gain back

(Understand how environment management in necessary to maintain economic growth)

Managing limited land resources

o Singapore is small (680 km2)
o Need for proper planning for land use
o Land is set aside for waste disposal
 Offshore Pulau Semakau landfill built because land area on mainland
is limited
 Palau Semakau expected to last till 2030
 Incineration plants in Ulu Pandan, Tuas, Tuas South and Senoko
o Ensures that Singapore have enough land for waste disposal
o Wastes will not stack up in mainland
o Deal with local wastes

Regional and International cooperation

o Eg. Haze
 Singapore detect haze by satellites
 1997: Singapore hosted the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Haze to
discuss measures to combat problem
o Eg. Global problems
 Signing an international agreement that restricts the use of harmful
ozone depleting substances in individual countries
 Singapore banned use of CFCs
o Allows Singapore to deal with pollution from other countries which
Singapore alone may not be possible to deal

Public education
o Eg. Clean and Green Week  Educate people on environmental issues
o Activities like exhibitions, seminars and workshops, beach cleaning and
planting of trees
o Bring your own bag day program
o For Singapore efforts in environmental protection to be effective in the
long run, its people must adopt environmentally friendly ways and be
instilled with a sense of responsibility and personal interest to keep
surrounding clean
o Long tern solution where public is educated to dispose of wastes
properly  Reduce rubbish and wastes


Diversifying the economy

o Move away from economic mainstays to other industries (eg. Manuafacturing
 Life sciences)
o Other industries:
 Life sciences
 A*STAR set up
 Tourism
 Integrated resorts
 Marina Bay Sands
 Resort world at Sentosa
 Est. to create 35000 jobs, increase tourism revenue to
US$15billion in 2015
o Reduce over dependence on any single industry
o Other sources of revenue available even if one industry experiences a
o Leads to economic stability

Nurturing SMEs
o Association of Small and Medium Enterprises set up in 1986 to help SMEs
 Eg. Provide training, regular workshops and seminars organized for
SME staff
o Govt. helps to nurture SMEs through tax exemption
 1st 100 000 dollars of income tax exempt for 3 years
o Frees up more capital for these new SMEs to grow
o SMEs provides a stable source of jobs for Singaporeans whereas TNCs
can relocate into a cheaper country
o SMEs also provides raw materials/contacts for TNCs  Attract TNCs 
Economy boosted

Venturing abroad
o Suzhou industrial park
o Singtel: investments in over 20 countries
 i.e. owns optus, 2nd largest telecommunications company in Australia
o Overcomes small domestic markets (markets are currently saturated)
o Gain larger markets for local products
o Low costs of goods ensures that Singapore remains competitive in the
globalizing world

Expanding market reach through economic cooperation

o FTAs signed
 Eg. Between US and Singapore
o Singaporean products become cheaper  More competitive overseas
o Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
 Eg. India
o Through expanding Market reach by econ cooperation, Singapore can
overcome her small domestic markets as she can sell more to other
countries. Furthermore, the introduction of SEZs allow her to gain a
bigger market and overcome her saturated market
o Furthermore, through expanding market reach, Singapore‟s goods
receive less taxation  More competitive  Increase profits

Managing resources efficiently

o Developing our people
 Promote entrepreneurship
 Rewritten bankruptcy laws
o Promote continuous learning
 WDA set up in 2003
 Carry out self improvement seminars
o Ensures that our people remain competitive in the changing econ.
o Ensures that Singapore will not be out of jobs


Related Interests