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W. G. Oldham and S. Ross

Lecture 3

Definitions: Circuits, Nodes, Branches Kirchoff¶s Voltage Law (KVL) Kirchoff¶s Current Law (KCL) Examples and generalizations RC Circuit Solution

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G. nothing coming off in between (in series) Node: place where elements are joined²entire wire . Oldham and S. Ross BRANCHES AND NODES Branch: elements connected end-to-end.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.

G. Example: a b + + + _ Va _ Vb _ ground .EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. Ross NOTATION: NODE VOLTAGES The voltage drop from node X to a reference node (ground) is called the node voltage Vx. Oldham and S.

³rise´ or ³step up´ V (negative drop) 2 + Closed loop: Path beginning and ending on the same node Our trick: to sum voltage drops on elements. Oldham and S. Path Path + V ³drop´ 1 . G. We must return to the same potential (conservation of energy).EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. look at the first sign you encounter on element when tracing path . Ross KIRCHOFF¶S VOLTAGE LAW (KVL) The sum of the voltage drops around any closed loop is zero.

G. Oldham and S.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. Ross KVL EXAMPLE Examples of three closed paths: a + v2 b v 3 2 + c + a 1 3 + vb - + c Path 1: Path 2: Path : a 2 c !0 ! c a 2 ! .

Faraday¶s Law p induced emf (voltage) Antennas are designed to ³pick up´ electromagnetic waves ³Regular circuits´ often do the same thing p not desirable! Avoid these loops! How do we deal with antennas (EECS 117A)? Include a voltage source as the circuit representation of the emf or ³noise´ pickup. G. Ross UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS OF KVL Assume no time-varying magnetic flux through the loop « If there was.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. X B( t ) + v( t ) . Oldham and S. We have a lumped model rather than a distributed (wave) model.

Oldham and S. D. G. . «. M around a closed path. Ross ALTERNATIVE STATEMENTS OF KIRCHHOFF¶S VOLTAGE LAW 1) For any node sequence A. C. v LM 2) For all pairs of nodes i and j. the voltage drop from i to j is v ij ! v i v j where the node voltages are measured with respect to the common node. B. the voltage drop from A to M is given by v AM ! v AB v BC v CD .EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.

G. KVL clockwise. Ross MAJOR IMPLICATION KVL tells us that any set of elements which are connected at both ends carry the same voltage. start at top: Vb ± Va = 0 Va = Vb . We say these elements are in parallel.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. Oldham and S.

Ross KIRCHOFF¶S CURRENT LAW Circuit with several branches connected at a node: i2 i3 i4 i1 KIRCHOFF¶s CURRENT LAW ³KCL´: (Sum of currents entering node) (Sum of currents leaving node) = 0 Charge stored in node is zero (e. entire capacitor is part of a branch) . G. Oldham and S.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.g.

EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. Oldham and S. Ross USING KCL Kirchhoff¶s Current Law (KCL) Formulation 1: Sum of currents entering node = sum of currents leaving node Use/write reference directions to determine ³entering´ and ³leaving´ currents--no concern about actual current directions . G.

Ross ALTERNATIVE KCL FORMULATIONS Formulation 2: ³Algebraic sum´ of currents entering node = 0 where ³algebraic sum´ means currents leaving are included with a minus sign Formulation 3: ³Algebraic sum´ of currents leaving node = 0 currents entering are included with a minus sign .EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. Oldham and S. G.

G.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W. We say these elements are in series. Oldham and S. Ross MAJOR IMPLICATION KCL tells us that all of the elements in a single branch carry the same current. Current entering node = Current leaving node i1 = i2 .

G. Oldham and S.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.QA QA i Currents entering the node: 24 QA Currents leaving the node: 4 QA + 10 QA + i Three formulations of KCL: 1: : : 4 ! 4 10 i 4 ( 4) 10 i ! 0 4 4 10 i ! 0 i ! 18 QA i ! 18 QA i ! 18 QA . Ross KIRCHHOFF¶S CURRENT LAW EXAMPLE QA .

The surface can enclose more than one node! . e. G. Oldham and S. could be a ³Black Box´ Note that circuit branches could be inside the surface.g. Ross GENERALIZATION OF KCL Sum of currents entering/leaving a closed surface is zero Could be a big chunk of circuit in here.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W..

Ross KIRCHOFF¶S CURRENT LAW USING SURFACES Example surface Another example 0 mA 5 QA 2 QA ! i QA entering i leaving i? i must be 0 mA 2QA i=7QA . G. Oldham and S.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.

Vx) / R Current out of X down to ground: C dVx / dt KCL: (Vin ± Vx) / R = C dVx / dt t t ! R X + _ + C Vx ground ( i t) Solution: Vx(t) = Vin + [ Vx(t=0) ± Vin ] e-t/(RC) . G. Ross KCL EXAMPLE: RC CIRCUIT KCL at node X: Current into X from the left: Vin (Vin . Oldham and S.EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 3 W.

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