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ELECTRONIC MUSICAL PROJECTS

P.IL SOOD

Business Promotion Bureau

3]6. Lajpat Rai HuUt

DELHI-IJOOO6

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ELECTRONIC MUSlCALPROJBCTS JUI."7'.l

@ RlISINESS PRmfOTIO;-.{ BUREAU

Preface

The history of electronic music is pobably as old as the mod(r~ popular music. One ofihe earliest pioneers in the field was Dr. Han$ Olson of RCA Laboratories who probably developed the eadi(SA: laboratory prototype Qf the present day elecrromusic wizard. "Ibe Sound Synthesizer'. s.u.ch effects like tremolo or vibrato were prc$.(flt: even before the coming of present myriads of efeetrenjc dcviG:«.. tater on they were substituted with their mere feliabl~ electronic counterparts. Other effects like fuzz, waa-waa pila~tut reverberation etc. came into wide practice with the populoray \If guitars, which the-teenagers could 'play with little practice. El((;:trQ,~ music suddenly caught up in the sixties with its introduction b~ tM then current rebel groups like 'The Beetles' and 'The RoH~~ SI,~~I\~-$;· .. Others just followed the way,

This book is not intended to be a formaL course iif\ elt'(:tr-onkmusic but is just intended to introduce you, a casual e:x_perimente~' • . audiophile. musician 0: whatever your status be, to \\le fas,cina,t-in& world of electronic music, So far any mention ef .this word "electronic music" would draw only little response from amat\f.e_-f musicians scattered throughout our country, for it would conjure up in their minds an idea of a necessarily complex and expensive Sa~ gerry, probably supported by the wonder of the late seventies 'Tb~ Microprocessor'. Obviously most of the musicians being emptypocketed as they are, did not go fur beyond taking up demonstrations only of little variety of such commercial equipment available here.

This book should be a welcome relief to all such interested people.

This book shows how you can construct many types of devices with common components that are presently available in India. The book progresses logically through different projects and assumes a priorknowledge of electronic components and contraction techniques. Readers feedback is invited on this book as -it is a relatively new topic for most of you. All recommendations for improvements shoukl be sent to the author through "the publishers and would be gratefully

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accepted, F91: these who enjoy constructing many varied projectsdescribed in thisbeck and would like. to go' in for- more advanced projepts, it would. be:. intereeting tokeep.jn mind that T have pl.aiine~: a second part of this book that shall Include such 'sophistic r. ted projects likt:i"·a- -mlcro .synrheslzer, an integrated _ circuit full-scale s~'ntJl~sizer, U1itomilticrl!}r,thm,.~erieratorl, automatic melody generator using I,C's, Ring modulator .erc .. Most- of the work. described .on these 'pages has been .carrled cut in our independent laboratory.

LastlYi I ,,';puld; ,~~ ,~aii;ng in my duty not ,t.o" acknowledge ,tbe encouragement giv~n to rne-byMr. G;C. Jain' of MIs; Business fromolion Bureau, for takingup t!l!S new venture. $0 wishing you ,<}n prospective 'readers, ~l1c~~sful project vma king. -I eagerly- await -gourcomments.

Praveen-~-;s"o

........ U" 'SWitch turDs· on 'as Q. lOts mio conduction. CUtte'M" Uttt\ COftdtiCted through C. t()tbe base of Q3 which abo tum 00, switebIDs Q. on; which ito- m. series with the ~br ~ a loud tliek. When the . dtatte tln C1 increases., the eD:l:lUet af'Q: becomes more positive; turns 0« the regenerative swncb tQH\pl'l'Sing of Ql and Q~ and siops the flow of current to Q~ .. Wild - this occurs C2 must discharge through R~ "and the wmbinatfuR 'Of RD wtrh - (b. As tbc charge on C1 lessens, thet:t\\ittei' ~ Q~ becomes Tess positive, the regeaeradve switch is tt1.gseted tfifo conduction and Q3· receives anothtrpulse which is beard in the loudspeaker through the switching action of Q,.

Pbi:enti'Ofncl:er R3 controls the discharging rate of capacitor C1 lhd hence the number of beats per minute. It should be calibrated using astor watch, if desired. ~ince the circuit draws 25 rnA earrent t;tpiGaity, no special power supply is required; any 9 volts. scuo-e would do.

PROJECT 2

Drum Beat Simulator Metronome

AlthollJ:h the simple metronome described in pro~ct one would wffittiftmOSI cases. it might be neceesary"Jn some cases-for a biGrt ,t.llife-like beat like that of a bass drum to be essential. The circuit given here achieves just that but needs an additional .~plifier to_ make its signal useful.

The complete diagram is given in figure 2. Unijunctlon transistor Ql has'<been wired as a conventional relaxation oscillator. This particular UJT is not critical and any un may be used so' far asdie connections for the particular un. used should be cheeked. Potentiometer R3 is a pre-set control for controllio. the m8:ximum aM minimum beat rates of the Panel control a.. TbCle resistors. e~ong with R$ control the charging rate of capacitor C1 and hence the pulse repetutcn rate at the emitter of un.

Pulses produced at E are passed through a pulse shaping attwo.rk Rt• CI, c, and R, to achieve the desired transient

chf.ncteri!.tics IIf a t!,pieal bast drum_ The sbap:<! pu[se j, applied tbrou.&b ~ to a Iw.s drum !imuwilll cireuh buUl UOuM Q. wired Ii a Twin-t "scilla!or. The output is. taken Yi" C, 10 au audio amplifier.

The seltilll procedw-c Icr thi, ,. wry simple. Wilh power applied tD lhe circuit adjust R" u~til un ,-,,,;illation ,tan.";( appearing at theJmpli~er outpul. Th~n back up the ?resct till the tho: oscifjatlon jus! ccuoe~ to oscilla!e on il,elf. Prosd R~ should be ld,Plkd DeAl It achieve the minimum dcsrred beat rale with pountiolll~r Jl" fully open {so that it aiv~ irs maximum rCjj,qnceJ. An opIiontli foot.witcll may b.. adlkd by brtakiRllbe eomiettion bn_ point E 01 urr and th~ junlllioa or R" R. and C, Tbe eitcu.h win ()~n,k ool~ wheo these two pOints "r~ oonnecl~

PROJECT J

Audio Visual Ie Metronome

that hu either BD LED with current limit illS reslnor as a load Or

LED wichloud.p.takor. .

Tim"periodbet_thesei$dependolltolllheV3(u·""ofR,.R ..

R,.. R. lind C,. ThiJ lime iJ adjuslable bet~ecn 21& miJIi.econ(" and U leQOD(b (Corresponding to 210.10 40 bealS per minute). Relli.tQr R. eceuen tbe muiinum !lumber of ~atl per min.ute· Bnd is IdjUlledon~stto compensate for variations in the \'alneofC,. The purpose of R, in parallel with R, ·i~ to reduce II,u ",.islullce of R, in parallel .from 250 ki(o.ohm~ 10 a nClminoi US kilo-ohms to obtoinlh"LXlrre<:tran@e. Resistor R,isinciudcd to prevent a latch upofIClnthedischarged srere when the power iltlrst applied to to the circuit

Ahi8him~cbnce loud.pcakerilUledagain$lllstandnrd8ohm,cj kJud'pcaker keeping ill mind the 1imit~d cW"renl capahilityofthc output !ransist[),. rfa higlopow.r silicoo translstor i~ available witb th~ hobbyist. he may ~ a standard impedanc.: Jou<.lsp.akcr. Olherwise 0 35 obms 108 [}bms matching transtormer may be used. The current Jimiliog rC'9istorin...,ries v;ilhJigbt emlttiag dtcdejlmhs the diode current 10 about 20 mA taking into account the' saturation voltage drop

Theintegruted airculr must be c3rcfullysollkreJontonsnilablc: circuil V~l"f)bl"1!li. Pnr thn.,e who aI. not vct)" much fumitiar with Ib9~ J~vices. uti! ot"goot! q",olily Ie suchl" i, strongly recommended, Make doubly ,ute thnt there is a proper contact between C[}ITrsPOD_ jog Dlnl of Ie and iLi s9~et. The cathode side o~ liSht cmiiting. dioolf'usa nOlchon lII:rnd it may be rested On a. sicndard voltohm·",dcr ",he. it -.in glow 0'1 Ih~ low.st rc,istuoCl: mellurillf egeeh [}r your menctcr wilh tbe positive red probe of the multimeter (whicll.il *tua]!), infcrnalJy ccneected to tbe ncgatiyeor tbe baU·.r!)cO'lIloCu.dto lbe nolch Or CAlbooe side.

PROJECT 4

Accented Beat Metronome

The simple metr0110mes desc,ib~d so faf o~ly provide ~ ,'ariHbl~ rare """'t a,\d u~ Such ar~ u""ful fur onl~ simple nlUs;nll 1",oWl. Mo's! (If the musi~ is composed 011 SO 'many beats per bar scale. Audibly one out of a number of beau. selected by tbe operator sounds louder than the ouiers to put ~mph.a;i5 On Ihl particular beat. Theco,"pletecir~u;tdi"gram that us",,[Jvelransisto(snndlwo diOdes is giy.n in Figure 4.

Unijunctil)n transi.t-or UJT Ql is wind as a convenliuna' RC Relaxation Osclliatcr whose basic repetition rate is dete![lli"~<J by th" L"olllpOD~"t.-,--Rl' R. und C,_ Every lime C1di.dlOlrge, thwugb the boise <'milter junction ,of Q,. u pooiliv( going pulse is produ~~d by R. in the base Bl of Q., These baii~ beat! are coupled through C, 10 the

direllt ~oupled amplifier eonsil.t;ng of Q.. Q. aDd 0.. In additiol! to providin, wic pulsel tbeposilive goillgscetioDoftbepul5eavllilabic althebueB,of Q,,1I110 chllrges eepeeltcr Co tbrou,h diode D1• DiodeD,'lhortsanyn=galivegoilliportionoftberu[sc·

Capucilor C. therefore acccmvlates "cbarle oyer II numbu of cycle:! and eventually readlO~ tile firing vcltale of Q.. whereupon a r<:inforcing put"~ is produced. Tbc cbarge required to lireQ. depc:ndsonlhevoltu!,'Calwhichthc bias across the junction gees for. WIU,:! which L, controlled by r-::ducinH the pote"ti~lon B,. so fbat the junction potential must al~o <Irup. R, wa, cbosen so Ihal in tbe proroeype ar maxtmum N:sistnnceil lowered the junction polenlial <n fur that the unit Il'igg.red on ~vcry;nputpu\sel'lhHc 3lminimum. ThepresetR,timite<lI'ccentuationlonohigberthnn "'te ill six. Tbi! range would eru:ompKig any mu~ica.l &<:ale in 1I"~ 100luy. Thc.e a<;;(;o:nlualion r~I'es are fed to tbe base of firsl audio amplifier IC.~~i"'O( Q, wb~re it is mi~e<l wilh th~ main pulses com.;n, through

PROJECT 5

Guitar Practice Accompaniment Drummer

A. cl(JSe lookal Ihi, circuit would show its app~..,nt similarity with Ibe laS! p".j~cl. In ncr it is a miT;lure of the p,,~je~1 number tour anil throe, It !lIould be a welcome relief I" an Ibo.c amarucr guitarists who have so ra" been '11 the mercy of their drummer for lhdr practice. '1'[,;, ['l""·~,,.l device does many tricks tM! its .~I"'nsi.e higbro,her a~foma!ic drummer does. It pro,luces 3 ha,. drum SOllnd Oil filly every beat-and-can provide 3 woodblock !",,,,,l <'n "ny of me two different beals in a bar, TI,~se 0..,[, may be ndju,lcd to be simuiBneou5 or separated ""I",mling upon the postucns of pcteutlomt«:rIR,. R.and R •.

The ,:irClIit d;~gram i; given in figure So Here tran~;s!a' Q, provi,joslhc basiclimins plll>eswhicb arc couplerllhmogh R""nd C, 10 Ibe,ba~e of a 111:0 transistor Twin-T Oscillator "hcs~ rec~back: cQmpoototsare so chosen as 10 ~ive Ihe ,oUGd ora ba,s drum . ..yhcn: sbockl:d inlo oscillations. Tbe pulse on R, ;~also utiJj,ed as io JaS!

diR'cr:nt rates to produ<:el' ""ide "arietyof5yncopat~dmrthnu.

Th~ two T",jo·T oscillators are almost id~ntiC.lr in operation cDn~i,ting of one comrncm emilie, and on. emitter follower clreoits. Presets R" and It .. are >0 adjust~d II,at wilh nn pulse appli~,1 In 111"" .. Ir.lnlistoTS there is no conunucus oscillation. A !l18-~t shuck li~e that given from a pube should be 3ulfieient l<. causcitloseillationwr.ich .houlo then decay naturally. By nrying tl,~ values of I;omp(lneni' in Twin-T oscillator, shown helow each tramisl", pair other instruments Jll"Y be imitalw. '''he oo,~"cc polcntiom~l~r adju;;ts Ihc balance betw""n the WI'nd! "I' th" b~,s drum and the woodblock. The output should be fed into the auxiliary inpm Uf3 good quality amplifier.

I'KOJECT ~

Bass Booster For Electric Guitar

Electric guitar has been a veT}" popular in~trumenl wilil modern teenage,,_ tis usefulness and variety of sound is ~rcatl~ enhanced with UI~ of electrcnl c effect units. The simplest and mo~t economical in the lisl of such dc\'ices are thc various units 11u,t alter the tonal '1ua1hy of sound emanated from the guitar. Ththass booster dcscribed here. w!tea u.<ed ill conj""ctinn with a good quality medium imp:da"cc pick "p an,1 ",,,,Ii,,m ~ri~.._r ,uitarwullld produce the bas.r soul\d often found 00 hu", bass 1\I;tn.

The circuit diagram given in Figure .. shoIV5 that il i.; .l siraight forward direet c()upl~d amplifier with fee,thack "pplicd from ecneetor to base of tach troosi,tor. Thi~ felll.ihack "pp[ied !lu(l,,~h capacitors C, and C, i, freq"enC)' selective b)' nat"T~ The imiledance of tbe cepacltora dccrea,"~ with inere,\!ing rr~quer.,y Which mean. that a higher feedback is 3\'ailablc at high Irequcncv More r .. <ihack mean~ len amplifier gain. As a result j,isll,:r freqUfllcies--aR--aU~n~ated more in this amplili.T ns , (Omp3red t ... lo~ fuquencies. The .ul.~. of <npacitoJ5 C, M,d C; Cali he ""Y Ihillt:.bclw«n .001 MCd·to.05 Mfd \>~lbothoflh(s.:sho ... !d1.ot:of [he &.am: value, UsinH a Igrg...- (apa<it.or for these: wOIIM g,""

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AI:r~W!fJ ~]~~c~'3~ ~~: ~~::f~2;6v

R~: I It. ~- IK Cl:'~OIMfd

~I: ou, or .a"Y A,".r~1 IlJI"PO" (4,5' 00' to OSMfd

A.~mani.Jm diOdt C-6: 50Mfd .av

mOre or ball \:10011. If deslred, dill'erent cap:tcitors may be 'Wilcbcdinfor varYinS degrcc5 of DalIfi boost RfSi,to, RI i. p limplclevd coniToI.

PRJETCT 7

Treble Boost Preamplifier

This circuit does exactly oppmitc of tile: preY,iOIlS ODe. A, llIchiliiIll(),S usefulfor rhythm or lead guitarist!! 10 empbasixe melody in music. The pri~dpie employed ber~ may also be employed to get ,,~trn treble homl fl'Dm a~ cxi&tinS gllitu. ~mplifier because JTlQS! "rille mo..lern day siJioon solid state guitar amplillers will have an input circuitry identical to the circuit liven here. Howner, such an alteration ,hould (July be uttempted by the technically pilule person w~o is familiar witb the ioteriorsof hisall',piifier.

Typical passil'<' treble cOQtrols"often found on Rome guitar Qnen provide a. little 11$ 6db. of gain 313KHz. asoomparooto its gain at 300Hz. This figure transformed into numbers would mean thaI wilh full treble boost a dOllbling oftbe volta,c\\,ould only eesun, However, duc to OIlr can log;Ir!!hmic reepouse to

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increased stimuli, a IOd!). i:bange is neccs!:!.r)' to make a sound twicelouder, The circuit giYes 20 db, of boost at 3 KHz,w.r.l. 300 Hz and as lUCia s~bje.::ti".ely sound- four times louder al 3KHz wilh rulllKbleboosl

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, TREBI_c BomIPR!i:_ AMPLlfIE~

The amount of treble OOOil necessary can be adjusl~ witt. poteetiomeecr R~ which is in Ih~ emitter of Q,. At low frequencies. this potcntiOllleterin_!TOduce, n brae degenerativ~ feedb""k aDd the ltage volta,e iain is only sliShlly gr":l.!er than unity. Howc\"M:, asthefre'luenc,'increascsrbe R-lirnp",lllm~ iiprogressivcly sbunted by me senes combination ofC" aatl R, .. 1(1 D pcinlal about 3 KHz where the' gain i., 20db .. ,,,,llirniledoni,'b,'thc5I1Ooilrn resister Output from the guitu pi~kup sllould be COllh.clod totheullits illputwlUle ils OUlputlo the aerual inpatof ch .. amplifiers (main).

PROJECTS

Presence Boost For Musical instrument

This circuit is id.CDtlcallothe I:3.rliesl cir~lIil t:JIceplthat dneto the ]arsel' val~c$employe4forjnputandoutpulcoupJingcapac.itorssljgbf. Iy more g~;tlj. available i~ the mid-frC'J.ucn~ region or guitar sound spectrum. Also due tD th~ ubsellc~ of R, in tbi~ circuit another iidb.

12

of gain in aJ<lilion to e,is(ing 20 dh_ is ~.'"iI~ble from ll:ti~ circuit. However, this udditio"uj gain ,;,o.y cause ,"om~ probloms of RF brcakthrcugb in region; ofh;r,htwmmiUersignal. In such c~sesa 46Cpf, to 1000 pro condenser connected at the input of the unit wouH cure the problem,

PROJECT 9

Connecting Pickups To Guitar

Jt IS useless to proceed further without understanding the workins ej the electrlo guilar pickup tbestartins_pointforlhemusical signal. Htbissign,,1 isai"po{}fqualityt~ennoamoutofel<'1;ltroniep,,,,,c.singcanr"nd~r it musically acceptahle., There are many type. of guitatpichp;coTDmerci~nyav~ilnbjeari<l it is advisable to \:my a ccmmercls: pickup. Tbere nrebnsicu]ly two lyp.~ of pidwps: tb. cnnla,llI: mi<rophone type and the ckctromagQalie type. The former

pioks up : sound from the hollow sounding bonrd ofa hawaiian

gnitar w the latter depend. upon an illdtICcddcctromagnttic

curt(ntli'. III thi: vibration ofpJuckcd,teel strings. Thlt latter type worksbeitwitb-'olid boJyguilarsand islh. most popular

An "Icclromag.mjc picntp couisu nsentially of a. perma~Dt mag""t nround ""hieb arc wound a Dumoo or toils. Iii ·rh" economy model less sensitive piCkups thcreis oDlya·sio·gte 0011 ofamoderatc nomber of "...,mum guagc: CDamePed ooppcrwirc. wou"'! 11'0000.1 aD array of (:(Im:ctlyafigned magnets. lbe medillrU moo~1 pickaps employ II ,cparatc coil for """II magu~t plru;:ed bclcw cech 5lTinl.Thc win: USM is;encr.tlly hair Ibin and lllar!:" number of turns are GiV~D 10 incr~ase sensitivity. All roils .are Iben conn""t<!d ill '~ries io pro!"r pilate. The mO,! cxpenstve btlmbuckililli pickups u!lcil by professional~ wirer" there is ril;k of hum being introduced throullb fllllg ~·on",ctins: wires, use a ,et of <-....,ils fno e;'~h ~tr;ng "hid, ~I,e ,,·ound re~trse with reSl"'ct II> eacb UIller. It i, e,~~mial t~'l l;i~ pickup impql~nce be mulched to UGH ofpiaybncl<urnpl,fier lur optimum results.

Tbc plae,m~nr of me pid;"ps with respect to guitar brioJ~e. Is a.sc impo,mn:. A ri,kup polJ.l:td do", to a bridge pf(d~~~l a thin !>.1Td tune ",hik tht.me n~are.u 10 fret i;,o~ld a d«j)¢1 3noJ more rn.'lIo",. IL1 hZlw~~n ,h~..., 'WU pcsuions we a,r '1a'1,;~,!lt' r:lillll~S of

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diifcrent tooal enuacl;eJ'. A lyp;1:lI1 >lnansemenl of ~olume and tbe <:0111,01:1 for a sinsle pickup guilar i~ shown in Figuf( 10 C. Swilcli S, is connected to gi"B a fixed artennuatjon !h.,~hy rcdl,eing theoutputalJ[omllically for ,bylhmor chord playing. All these conltol~a", generally orcvidcd QJI the guitar ""dy. Two diffe!l'llt arrangernems are given for oonoeeting Iwo pil:ltuilS 10 achieve wide .If..::!. from these. Rdati"t senin,s of two level ~(mtrols do:ter. min, the outpul lnoel a~d tonnl quality. W~ik Ih~ ei~ctlit in Figure 10 i\ U5es a special rapped potenhomcler for rever~mg tile phase of one r~mo!~ pick up, tbe circuit io figure 10 BUies a more ccneenttcnuf-poiennornerer w;lb a phase r"versins switch.

Physi""lappt"Qreroccofa raodern tll,.e pickup electric Juila!"

I,ivcn in Figure 9 while typical circuitry oonnecting allthese is given in1rigure /u n. Tile derted lines ,bow ",heR' ""ield.d wires arc to be used and tlu:~e must ~ grounded at <:IlIe ~nd only 1<:1 IllioimiulM pOllibilityoflmm pi4in~, Finally the circuit grouruJ munbcconnttteo!toamcullicpluicolltheguitll.rbody.

Simple Preamplifier for Electric Guitar

,,,,,o~b,""

r ~':lr;.ll~~;

~c,.:; ~-%Uf-L:t:~CI,2lMrd

R~: 10K 04, %OE ,1.: 64MfdS·41

~5:22Q'. C.·47~.r.J R€. 22K b. w Ie " ... ;tc~ Q': ec ,.9'·

.~djulte<J for minimum distorlj'l~ However! tile ~mp1i6tr c,'~ld be ov~r driven for, Iuzzy eltect.

PROJECT II

Multi Control Tone for Guitarists

MoS! of the guitar umpliliers h.we o~ly two -lone cconcts Therefore it i, very difficult fcor a mlt,It-;ElLl If) acl,ie", a proper 1OII~1 1l.llalloe, All ;u':'11 armni:e",eat could be tv nave a ~onlrul roc e;)el ~tring. The circuit 8iven in fig"r~!1 ,1cllie\-e, Ihis with a mjnimum

of ~o"'I"lncnt' The un;1 ~!I(lUld be inserted h'tW"~l[ Ihe g~itar IWBtnp\ilier SHch M d<:scrib~d ill ","vio"" proj~CI and main I''',''N amplilicr such JS given in proj.ct :0-<0. 13. ,On ils ow~ it pro\':M;. little · .. clt"~e gain ~I the fir>! IT3~"!lor ;s wlt,d '" 3 'Hnple enuuer follower Willi a stage gain lillie Ilil;I'er then u)lil~. Thi~ " l!>en PlSSW on to n n~mbcr of wi~n·n~t"orks 11. •• C" C,. R •.

I C7• R.J ere. conne~!~0.1 be'''e<:n f.('ints A ~mj B. Differ.,,! valuethese ccmponen,s w,>\,ld nlace tile centre m<I"~n"i~< >11 ditrctcnt

poiats e.g. with

C4.C5 = 390. C6,C7 = IOn O'i,C7=2SOOpf C6,C7= l8Opf. C6, C7 = l3Opf. C6,C7 = 16Opf".

fcrt. =40H: fcer. = 155HL fceI:.~625Hz. fcet.= 2.5 KHz fc~t. = 5KHz. fcet.~ 10KHz.

Wl!o:re feetuand. for centre frequency;

Any intermediate ".lll<! fot desired fr eq uenoy IIIaybe inlerpo'ated keepin. in mind lhal with ali resistor values coesrant the capacilorvalu..s should bchalvcd fore""r)' d"ublingoftb.lcelltrai fo:queGcieli. Any number of Qelircd COIItrol! ma~' be used by inserting the pro"". notwork between A and n. Wien·network. is. a pa"i.eJill'!"rand allenualesthe signal by about thr~ limes. To o.eroomelhislo5i the tranS~llt pairofQ. andQ.,is used which hasaaainoftnr(c.

PR01ECT 12

Complete Guitar Preamplifier

Here is a modern drouit for" complete guitar prellmplifier whicnwould accommodate any guitar pickup and has tbree tone ~onl[IJI' for versatility. Tt uses a modern [ow noise fairchild operational ~mplifier Ie bul ~I'Y ufh~r operational amp. may b~ used if [ow nC>J'~ is netof paramount Impurtance a~d proper ~ar~ is taken about·llae varicus inputs, "utpuIs, frNI· ~"mpensati'-'n and !upplypiruat' Ie. Instead ofncootinllousiY',ariablc Iel'el control it t as Ii switched leveIconlrol giviog-IO db, ()db and + 10 db. go II, a, tbe pickup used Is Iike[>' to have a level control with . -1Odl! position ;,tohe u~ed ..... ithhighscnsitivityhig" output pickups givlng an attenuation "f JI6 lime', Udb p,-,silionislo be used on medium price pickup. and does not gi~'~ any appreciable gain. A gai" of .,,6 limes is available on the 10 db. pOliition,

~;I;~;'::f:~d ~~~bl:'~'o~~te ';:fcec~~~J t~ci'~~~:~u~:i~~';~;:

circuit and standard practice used In ~udi() nmplillcri mast be

,.

aAemI to. HOIftVeI'. it is imponaD.l that itF'-byp:!Ss and $Ilpply dewopli,.. ca.,.non ~ aDd C .. unuld be jllStalled as ~ar as pcmibk,to ICsupply pins. The complete tircuit-diagram i~ given in ~13.

PR.cuEcr 13

Guitar Practice Power Amplifier

No book On the cledI'ODic music ,",uld be complet~ wilhou! a mu~icu]1y sounding powcr amplifitr. TlIi. circuit which cOmpkm~lIt. the previous project aad il computible w;lh most guitar pre_amplifiers pvcs 20 wads of -nnuous sin .. ""ave power alless than 5% distordon i •• speal;u told of 8 olun!. The same figure when quoted in lermsoflDlPicII JHl"fttpdpeak musil: power would be 10 andliO

wall5r;:sp:Cliv:!y. Tlte cite\l;t itil I~aillit forward qUaii-complemesuery P!' .. ~r 3mplifier. Tr.usinor Q, acts as a pr~·amplifier for Ih: pre.driv~, truos;slor Q •• Q, nets a, a qllila~'" currenl srablliscr against tempera lure 1(1 provide glanding cun~nl for output transistor. Tbe prc)Ct R,. in tb~ base of R, should J,.e Q.jjus1ed to gi"" 11 no load current or 4(1 !!IA with a mlliammeree connected in series with supply positiVe and COU~"N of 0.. Transistors Q. and Q, Ibould be mount<":dona h~atsil1k

!'ROlf.'CT 14

Guitar Envelope Control

I~.lrum.nl ~"vdop~;~ l very irnponal1t factor in 'be character]eric $Quod emilted by a p;Lf~icul.]f in!itruIT!~ot_ h relates 10 the way a I'IlUlicalllo!~ ri,e, 10 it" peak a'n.plitlld~ with reap ec ' to rimt and rhcr. retair.. its value. The Ocginoing peri"" ;;C31i(U31lackand thel!ilterperiodiscalloo susrain, When !tIe ,,,um! P'(w'ioICi,lg ,timula is removed the sound dcc~ys ([I its minimum ir. D fmil" Ijr"~ ~"ll«1 decny tim •. n;ff"r~nl instruments haw their cbarllclerislic attack, decay and ""oJ"in tiru~s. fli' :llt~rillg the enverope of mU5icul wovefcrrns it is easy to ;milUte tJilT~r~nt inserumenrs. Wbile ~rill on thetcpic orsoand processcrs, ler us UUllllile " t}'pical<ir~l1itgivina:$~ch control Rofe"ing (0 6guIl: N". ISB F_E_T. Q3 ;s u;ed as II vol!~8"

cor.trolledam~i6erwhosegaid is;r.versefyptop«tiollalto ill bias volfagl'. Tlli, bi.n\'Oltagei! clcpendcn~ an 1~cll&'iII.pptie<l r"capa

2J

ence C" To some reader! capacitor C. would' ~ppeal to'be connected the .... rongWirout.Butth;'ha'h""nder;~nlMy(lorIeDndises,e!l'tia1 for tile fUDctioning of the c;",uil. A ""palut. n.!l"ti~e ,·.,!tage has bcensuPf'lied to chargee,. Th" manuql tr;&.~r for the ~IIVe!OJIC gCllefulor is buill nTound transistor Q, while UJT Q, wired 31 a ccmv~nlion~l retaaanon oleilla!or is used in the automatic mode. _ With' switch S, in manual mode and r"OI switch FS momentarily pressedcapacitor C, in the base of Irlnsistor Q,l.chargedtoa A";~;itiv¢volt"ge. This charge curs offQ. pulling the «lay Oft. Initinlly

, c~padtor f:, is hpt cl,a'Sed to a nc,alive ~oltaGe with respecL IO cir"uitgrnundthroughnormallyconnectcdcontact!;ofrela~RL. As

a Icsult '''')' .i~mol "pplie<.l 1o ,the sat" of Q:( lbro~gh C, would not pass through, When I"" l"ul.wiLch fS isrnomcntarily depressed CapacilOrC"isshortedthroushre'is(orR.thr<lughth:nrmnallyopen ccntacn of rei a)' due 10 circuit action described ahm'e, As" result the negl,(ive bi". v"lt"g~ ot Le.!. gate b~gin. to dimini$h progre;<;siYd~ adowir.atbegra<imll build up ui' inp91 .igoal. Thilresi,totR,tbcrefore ccntrcls rhe ~ltBc" lLone

Af'ter the foots"jtcb has cccn re)uled. capacitor C, won!d hold it. charge for" very short period, depending, upon th~ selting or pOlentiometer II,. H~nc~ Ihi, potentiometer d~ermin(:s the scstatnrtme cf theuni: llnd lilis would \)Clypically between Iu tc 20 seconds. Once the chargc is Iose on C~. the relay would be Ideal~<t and capaCitor C, would once again ~.t charged to tI,~ ncgati"'~ \'olt",,~ through RIO' This pctentloroetee therefore, determines the decay time. ~e the capeilor is fully ~hurged. no sianal would p~s~ through.

I~ tho uulo mod~. I~" '!rigger produces pubel p~riodical1y O,'er a wide range cffrelJ"cocie" These pulses close and open relay RL a~ pctiodi~lI)" as apuJse ecCUTS, Pulst rate is determined with PQteo· tio_ter R" For "ery Iov. speed,un additionalcapacitorC, In&~bc "",itcbed In addition to C~ in the un rellxation oscillator.

PROJECT 15

Guitar Fuzz Box

PROJECT 16

Simple Waa-WaaUnit

Wua·Waa units thal produce 1M famoul cryin~ and w~epil)8 .,...ooall·Woan ioulld from lllusic-al inslruments are very pupa]". ,\ct· -ually the unit is Bn net j"cbandpassfilrer wbose pass band r"quellcy ranle is v3ried up artd down tlw audio spectrum by means of a potenliometer coupled 10 the foot pedal. The complete circuit is ,given in Figllrc 17 and il could b~ fed dircct!y from a biBh "nliti¥j~y pickup. However, \\"h;l~ IIS;ng low sensitivity pickups, it must be 'preceded with a s;ngie slageprcamplilier.

ComponenlS R,R •. C • .and C" C,. R. f(Or u Twin-T nel work arc incorpomkdina phase .lIift o-;ciUalorbuill around Ql. Negative feedback U oblained by j"eedillg part of the aignal hack lolhebws" vinC.. The waa·waa "ffect is ach;cv.rl as Ceria;!) frequencies are amplified more 11)3n olJu,u. The vatees of C •. C. nnd C, arc ch<nen

~hi:1 ;i~:~~~~l:::;~~:n~~C~:~2~eal~';:~~n ~:Oli~).:t~~~~~

tbe e.f1trimcnt'cr to achieve the de.im! effect.

For setnag up the unit initially R. is turned to its minimum value. R, is DO'" IUijwncd to a~d fro tilt a point is found at .whicb 811 Budlblcwhistlcpppcars indicatinsosc;llation. R,il thcnadjuste4 tilllbeoscjIJationjuSldiSBppeafS . .R.iSlurnedllvcrits whole range and if at ~Dy point oscillation Ol'C\lrs again R,il again advanced till is C~=. II shllold he ~ossibk \0 5,1 R. 10 In}' value onr iu rani"ofadjUItP1efll witho~t any csclllarlon be;ns apparent. This ~hould also be nchie'ied with tbe minimum pos~ible value of RVI.

raoracr 11

Electromecbanical Ecbo and Reverberation

Echo anc! reverberation nr~ two dilJ.inct effects. Reverberation i~theefftctlh3.tiJlIChiel..:dc!uetQm"ltiple ~Re!ltions caused in a dOSl:'d Jpa<:e hkethat of an auditorium. The "u<libl~ cIT..;t is that of the sound de~ying sjowly in a finite time dependillg upon Ihe chllracte,i~!i~ revcrh"tatioo time of tbe cnvironmeol. An eohois produced when ,the Same >aund nachos a recoil'.r aft~r nn interval of time from different dir~ctia-ns travcrsin~ different path ltngtlu:. Professioeal echo prod.uci!lgg~dgel'r is quite complex and' empio},1a s[>fCial tape· recorder which )w! n numb~r nf [llayhack h~dsplac"d;ntl'er"thoftlpe head at certuin regular u"","""'" All the s-igoals ard then.<umme(! up .

• Thom: arc mU"y im~orted ..,.-erberation units available Ihat lI.e eiectromagnctic spring dri,'"r.;. Dueto Ihe limited availabilit) and exp~nse ofs~ch asacmbltcs, uscts mad" here rlf an inc:'<pe~tive home brew crystal pick-up driver asseml>lj'.

The delay unil consists of two crystal pick up Emits ",;lhlY seriel oflDclal sprl~gs bdw~.n them. Ifan uudio ,ignal is r.d Into one crysal uuit Ibc crystal ;tself vibrates and tbis ~il>ration is C()ul'i..:! to the spring. Th~ 'pring bcgiM to ~ibratc in .ym["'thy and du~ to its mechanical lncrua, Ib~ vibration lakes a short tim" to reich the-far end wher.,befig!l,[isr"",on"crtediMoan electrical wave form by Ih~ ",hu cI)'st.l1 unil. Thus II>~ ,ig~.l1 enlcring IhC" first or driver erysral and Ihe ,igm.! tuken from second pick. up .r}'~tal bave a tim~ <lelny between nee: the le!lgth of the lime delay drpe1lding entirely OD the cbaracuriuin of tbe ipring_ If theselwo,isIUlI$Br.rt:d simllh.nccu.ly to all, amplifier thl: .n.C! heard would be similar to the on ..... berelln instrument I. played in a tnrJj~ hall adding to ill rl:"lerl!(ratwl'l. Ir Ihi. dcll}'e.15i8n~1 is interrupted a' I prc·<io:r.:rlnined rate, an eff.d simillr 10 the echo

wovld be ohla;ned RCIi:rrina to Fig 18A Ih~ rat. of IcpNiti\'. eeho is determined vylhesett;nllofpotemiornelerVr,l

T~r~. valve, ofrh. twin tr;uJe I)'p~. ECC SJ ure used in the circuit. \'alv~' are us~d because of rdaliv. ""()millexit~, of ll~ unit. ,h addition ma~)I sYitari.us 1."lIln f;";,I1'" II,. liS. of "~h. type guitar ~mplifi~r;. ,The unit mayo. incorporatod in the c\i;ling amplifier if~:!50\',H.T. 3nd 6.3\'. lA heater supplies ~re ~vailJblc in the m"in ampl;iier cir,uil. Otherwise a simple ~upply such as .hewn in Fig. ISC may be buill.

Th: twin input jacks are matched for either high impedance mic!opholl~; or guillr pickup. Fir.t valve V, is ""ed M a esscade R·CampIJiicr. At its fir!t gf;d 1),. sig~ltl is ,pi;t by 1I,'voltige diyjder ~~I·work ron,i'ting or r"~;<lor H, H,. A proportion or",il is fcd ,MO V, (.1), Ih" rom"inder 10 Ilic grid cfV, b (the dir~"t signal ampli6.,j. T"~ two 'l3g'-"s "I' V, tri~g the ligna! U"IO a ~i~l, Ic;·.1 wben: il is fed (0 th: drtcc crystal M tb. del~y unil. The multing m~cllln;cal vibration is recovered in dcdricnl ;mp~I;Ct by !he pick Upcrysiliand roo inlothe pick upamp!iiier V" The output of this

~if: ~~:k~~nd:~:;~~~~;,c:~~r ::I~~~lk :;:~;:~i~fd~;o :el:~~ e:~8::

presentInthe final OUtput. Th. ",Iwllrk i,to remove I'"y low frc· quency component pr"'.,,1 when the echo repetition oscillator is in use ; further, the OU,PUI of the n:twork tcn(!s 10 ri... wilh frcqurncyand sa removes any low fr~q~ency noi .. duo -tc external vibrntion cf th~ d<Ja;.· unit. Capacitor C acros~ this nelwok 3nd chassis i! a 10J.c compensuling d"vjc~ ~nd may be or an)" value \xtll"~nOOS Mfd and .OS .\1J"d depending Upoiliheoutpultone requi"d

Section v, (b) is a camode follo'~'~r used to ll10dulue the CJ,Ih'ode cu,'uit Ollbis amplifier with the Olltl'ut ,~f Ihe low frequency phase shift oscillator built 3.nlund V,] (a). If ,i",ited lh~ unil may b~ byl'a$$ed for only dir.,cI ,ig ..... 1 by ,honing 1hc fool Iwiuh S •. The lep"tition ,)ocilhlOl ""'put i~ coupled to tile :P<I of I', ,)J. A ~ Mfd",p,,,·ilorhasbccr.U!'d~s3. dec;Juplil1'll'EiopII<:ilOr fM lhe two .... thodes 0" V, tied together. This has a lOll" illll>c,j31lce at the si~nal tr-r-ency bur allo". ;ufticient 1m>.' frcq""!lCJ componeut to ~PP~aJ" AI. C!lhode. fro.ln W o~illutOr. A, thi, 'will~1 lbe cathOde

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z

volla~lhcgajnoflh~ p!ek up amplifoerj,varicd in sympathy:",lh 1heosc:illatorgi~inga rCNtitj;·cefkcltalh.,i'JlII.SwitchS,enabl., uraia:hlo( ~pc:titiw: ccho 10 be obtained al will by jntem.l~ling lh. os.:illato.' (""oJ 10 V.b. Pctemlomcter Yr. Zdtlnmincs the overall proportion oftlireci \JJ:nal pre,eat at Output,

The complete cvu'trUCli(tIl of the delay 'mit is shown in Fig. 18B. First of alltwo amnll ,;quares or aluminium ere cut which arc iU1t lar,e' than ,the area of pick lip covers. Each pick uP, is attached ID the metal base by cornu)!;n, iu metal base Ie the alummium plate 'With IT8kiite. The pickups used should b. of the Ronnel1c Iype, Wbce lilQroughlyd'1' Iwopim:s of lIs in, thick foam ptastie the same Iize u 1M &llIminium plales .r. cemented li,lul), 10 I~ under side of cub CAPS. Then the enli", pick "P unil i, c.m£nlOd 10 the thr(e ply

base so Iballh~y resr on the foam plastic support} Allow approxtmatd)' I ~n, clearance between tbe end orlhe pl~~vod bait and each pickupunil.

TM lieight hetween tho wood and the top of the ""yl~1 couplers ofleach pick: up should be noted and two aluminium brackets mace for the springs, each wilb two 1,'16 in. holes drilled in lhem at'the hdghl where the spring leaves the stylus coupler andattadlc5 to the bracket. Before mounting rbe brackets to the base remove _Ih~ ~lylu5 [In ~acl, pid(up by gently pulling the needle towar<!.\ The r""r of Ih. pickupswilh a pair of 1''''1\ n"sed pliers »r t ..... elO1.crs. The.lwo smal! bracket' nre made in u simil~r method to the end ones .'C:CPl they are half the height oflhe fnrrrrcr type and they mnuntapproxi_ maid)' in the ""ntre oflht ",,,nrl bil<e,one"eartac~ edge '" sholn, in Fig_ISS,' Ctmn.c\ IW(J lengliLs of thin ,ingl. core ,cH""n~d caGle to the pick up tags as in Fig_ 18Band clip this cable 10 the wood base by means ofa smallmeta! Uel;p or staple, ),:avinll some slack between this and.the tags. -The sprinss CIO" no\\' be fitted

To make the main springlirll uuwind abour t in. of on~ end 01 the spring and rmll it ,;traighl. Make ~ small hook On this stmighl pteee and ca,efully in .. rt throll.~h the holes in the bral'ket al the pick up crystal end. Pull the','rin~gemlystr"ightcwerthe pick u~ (without stretching it too much) and nOI~ where ~h~ sprinH meets the rear of the pic~ up, Leaving about-: in. or =oiled spring bolweo" the cracket and th~ real of Ihe pick up ~n"'ind sufftcient wire sO ihatH.traighllength "ppen","'ertheiengtho!'!h" pickup over lh~ stylus coupler. Allow enough 10 clear the pick up at each end by about t inch

Now hold Ib~ spriiig-(sli!l ~ta,hoo 10 the bracket) over the dr-ive C11'5talandasainnotelheposilion on it about 1 in. from the edge of Ibe dri.'e "ry,taL From this PO,iliol1 to pasl Ihe other bfac;~et. Slmigbten outthe coil snlh"la"nlher,1r"igi>t l.nIllh Qfwireappears overlhi,pickupand,;lyl-,>coupler.lnsertlhL>:maillhicndin!o Ih. bra,k,t holes and «ncr pulling JUSt enough 10 keep Ihe spring rrl>m sag_~ing r"o "wc], in it, c~ntr~, m~ke fail On t~e bradel

The two small springs· ore T!l"d. i~ " 'imil", w"y.l~u"i"~ eno"gh straight \\"ir~ where they join the main ,prin~ '0 Tbat the smeu springs do no: !Ouch the Jnin C'Ll< along t~eir length. The tension nil I~es" ,r,;ng,' should be "~;y low. in fa';,1 ju,t enQo:gh to book,

' ..

.bem over Ih~ main one ,olhilllbeydon"pulloDlilesmal!l in. coil at liIepick upcry, •• 1 end nndcaust it to foul the end ofthispici; u'p, Makio, sure the main sprin,lies in ~."b .tyllli couplet; a small dab of dear cc:rnem will hold them in place. Another dab of cement k~pslhesmaJI5pring!inplaceonthemainolie. T<lreduce hum it isudvj<edlilalone'pringhrackctandtbepIatcufIOJcrtho:pictup cryslalhereturnootocha55islliascreeni!lgonthepickuplead. S,nal1 ,nld'cr tags are bolted (ifth.".., and eoeneetlcne made with tbin nex will suffice. Type of spri", material IIKd an be oblained from. heater clemenl, The Ii.illw gauge of wire Ihal i, a ... ilablefortbis should be used. The mOre highly tcmpcred tile spriol the bc!!er wilibeitscb!lmcteri>\i~l"rrangernent.

PROJECT IS

Guitar Tremolo U nil

When sub-audible low frequency amplitude mod~I"tion is applied I() musical waveform, the resulting wavef(lrm I'rOO"""U i"siu IU bave undergone IrctnolcJ. The a~d;ble eff~ct i, 111,,1 or instantaneous amplitude wavering hil(h'md [ow.o( tile ,,,b·:;e>nic frequency, It i, important t~al to pr~wnt damage to tbe speakers, Illc low frequency 5igna[ itself should not appeal at the output. rnitiall~ people li .. d a I:unp "·h,,,. inlousily \V,,~ mO<lu13~d by the low frcq"~,,c¥ signal \0 ctllltrol Ih" T~s;.lan«of a lighl dependent l"eSiSlor. This sy&lem

"

was not pcpula .... due to Ih~ hi;b (lirrent CO!lSllmptioll or the Gial I:'mp.

1III.[Ie present (;reLIit figure 19, a' UJT is wired ~$ ~ relaxsnon ost'il1QWr with Irequenclcs variable (ro'll I (0 12 HZ. Tht gen~rator

drives a!\ NPN Iran"i~tor .... ilh one LED i.~ iTS .mi1!~r. Th,,; LED i' coupled 10 a liaht dependent re~j'lor in a light proof small ho"sin~ paint<d !>I,,~k 0 .. (~" in.id~_ AI~crnativtl~ rea,";.' built nptn'CQul'ien ho,·ing n LED :'Ild pbotocelfor I.DR tI1a} 1:>-, purchnscd. The li~ht inlenS;I) of ti,e LED vari., in ~YJ!1I'''lhy with the modulating ~igl\al which ~ff.ct~ the LDR reii.ta~cc which is opli~all)' coupled I" it, Sin"" 'he LDR i, in,ertcd in s:riC! wilh !h~ sigrt.ll p.1111.;t ",ndllla!e, the signal 10 create the tremolo err.ct. Tremolo mte i. ~ovemed with potentiometer 1(, and ir M,jred the <:fred m~y k by·p;lIS~d 1>1' cioling the rll()I~""tdl 5, whereby the LED 0, is permanently iltumin3t~d

PROJECT 19

Simple Sustain for Guitar

Thc imp~na!lce of musical cn,-el<>;><: control h.a .. been higl .. ligh.red In project fourteen wh.:r~ a. '\lit"-hr~ circuit fur controlling In: ;rn~ru.nl -j)ar.i.m'ter> of cnl'e!o,," was givCD. However, many inter~~ling ,,,unds ""I, b~ produced from an electric I:~ilar .imply hy ~()nlwrling it, ,mt1lin tim:. The circuit Given jn f'g. 20 achleves just rhat and a variable sustain time i, .uvllilablcu!inS l'otcnliom~teT R6. Tile cirecn em lM "i"~~(I)' fed from a guitar pickup while Its output should go I() a suitable ampliliu Tran.istors Tr. I a.nd Tr. 2 f()rm " Illg~ gain lelf·'b.biri<in~ P<lir.

NnT~.L~

~I~~r~r-i~r ~.~o~!~~~

"55" '-;,urw,th""tc'l C'-!'J,.1fd'6v ~ LD~· L""ht ·jIP.l;:n: ~.,.,t·,,·,

v"~,~ or ,.,.1", ~'t'Il;. ~CI..st

Ul,n OA~I ~ oed r.;~~ ;~:.",i!y I.d

The outp~tis.reclifid by Db D,. s;n'loth,d by C, und applied (0 TR. which c<>n!r<)ls I~~ bri)l.h.:n.s< of Ihc LED D •. Th~ light

~;:~,~~:"L;,~ ~I~:~r,,~:gli~~ ~:~:i1d~~t t~:'~~'~'~, ~:~~!:f ~;

vol(age oJiYider actioD vii R •. The LED ljs.d ~ho"ld b; cf thc high Intensity type an~ it sllould be tightly coupled 10 the LDR

inuJi,lhl prO(lf bousinj. AII'rnativ.'y apta i,olaton ~mp\..,yinga .l.EDand~oto«llcouldb.lIsed.

PROJECT 20

A Single Tansistor Phaser

The use of pllas.." in electron;': music in India is ~lalivdy flew. The effecc of a plla~r on " musi"",1 signal il thai it lias ma~ crests and trougl,s in ill fre"Qen~ responlc curve. So lite ecund passing Il!rough h is .e1ectively boosted at certain rrt'l"cnei~s while sirnullaneou~ly ~ing aUenuole<l at different im'll'encies. We all know thai in ~ common emitter .tag~

ampliHcr, the otatpul III collector is 180'oul of phase with respect 10 Ih~ input sign", at has". Th" "igna] "I the emi(lcr, however, i~ i(lphose .... ithtbe input. By mixing Ihe propor1ion "fthe .igaals .,tbecollectorand~mitter of Q, it should be [lOuiblc togtta sijIllIIMli$delaycd .... i!bu.iptcltotheinputinlumsofphase

PROJECT 21

A Professional MiDi Phaser

The .{nale stage phase! described ill the previ"us project j, limited in appficanons as its tore! pbase sbift range "r O·~ 10 18Q" i,s not enough fur all ~pplicatiQns, However severat of these stagn maybeoascackd to achieve a lar~eI phase shift range. A profer siooalrninipbaJcrth31givesO'to360'ofcontrolispre,crjbediu 6g., 22. It can be drivc:n direc!ly from a guilarpick up

Transistor QL i. used us a ~mple pr~mpli!ier. Since the pbWIC shiftin_g ':ircuitry d(}e' 1I11t provide any gain. aU of it is supplied by Q" R, nell as a gain control and if Ihis contrct is adva!l<:edlhcn depending cn tbe signal-1m. clipping nlay occur Thi. incroales the harmonic ron!'''t of the iTlput 'igus] and enhaDc., the pfw,ing ~1T"c1. which Can be <le:'>irnbk On the occaskm.

AI the output rrorn Ql the,~ignal ;" <plit. A portion is fed

dir.,.:llu R, ~nd a p~rti<>n 10 R" lhrouill the phaSl' shi~r. Ttu. ph~i~ shill:' compris~! tw,) phase splitters Q, :lml Q", Thos~ ha~c equ3.I,cnlillcr and collector , •• ilto .. " '0 II,.! II,. ~il:,nal, nppcarin, at th;cmLtt<rs and c<>II<'C'.or~ huve th, same lllTlplLt~de but are in"cited with "_'Il<'ct 10 one "ncllh~r_ T~'; phase orthe signal at , tile J,inclinn uf C)R" und C7!R,~, may be varied by adju,j,"g

'(he tandem pOlcn!iOrT.;!er R,,'R"j. Each stag. call i!llr(Nluc~" phase shil! from a few dq~r~e. 10 180' or J('()' in all.

TwnsislorQ,is conneC1ed a. an emillcr follo"H, providing a ~:r~ lIigh input imp,dance 10 I;ou!f~r t~c output of !h~ """oml ph.as~ shiu n.two'~ and ~ "cry lew O~lpul impe, ence. 1-hc outp~\ sig,,"1 i.i f.d',rrom tile ,~mi"~r "I' 1,1,' ~iu C.I<> one end Of, R,. fit" oJif<~t In<>n·ph"," ,1"r,eJ) s,gn~1 IS reJ to tile ether e~d_' Rj, aCI; as a balance ccrurol het"ecn Ihese 1,,-0 ii~Il"I~ Il;,d varying R" allcl'5 I~e rmpotlinn or ,Iirect 1<> ;>has", shirtr~g signaL I! may t.. ndjmn<l "" (hat wll.n I~O phase s~irt occurs the dir(d and ph~><: ,I"ned sign~\ ca~ccl o:<Ich otner. Tn practic~ porenrlometer R .. RIO is coupled to a Iocr p><l31 and the rrequenc~ ral~-e oY;r whicll tile phller acts ii 'w~pt up and down .~s d"""e{)

PROJECT 22

Four Piece Electronic Boligo

So r~r Ive ha"~ pril11arily ,Ic~,lj will! circuits tliati!lU:ralll' relied "~W,, "'>~le ~xle"'al ,UllH'C ui' I(me gen';rato~, From there onl\'""I, IV_ march r~"-\'ard t<> clcctr<>r.i.: circuil! that generate sound wh,,,h nrc imitali<>n. of m~sic:iI inMrun1,ms, D~""ribed in fr~. ~.l i, U~~

~~~;'< ci;,~,~:: ~~::esg~,n~,L:~,I~c~nl~~X~~ i"t~u~~~~ rhUc~e 1;~'?dfO~:~'~ i~n;

O'cill~t<>rs hu;n ;lfUunJ Imnsi'IOrg Qt--tOQi and a mi.~n ~ta::;t 0, All <>SciJ:3ICf" a-e id~ntic31 except for tile "~luet of t",n-T filt",

"

c:ompoil~ts. Using biglle, val~l of ~apKito" r~IU[Ui in a thicker sou~d. The instrument s~sl~in can bo;, ccntroljed willi one of porcutiom'!e". Vr. I to Vr.4. Yr. 5 Sl>t. the on. ,,11 ,"olume. To set up the bongo all p«:sets Vr. I to VI. 4 ar~ tUI'!\erl r(lr l1luimum resistance. Each of these IS then I[OWIII turned back tcwurds ih minimum resistance till a point is reached where continuous oscillations start .0 appear. The control i. Ihelljun becked up sothat when any e.ternllistimulusOf]lUl,.i!appliedlotbetouchplaleaS6ociat.d with Ibal 05Cj][ntor, a hongo typc.,ound is ilcurd.

Since the human body accumulates" dennilcrJect.ric char&"tnc olcillnlorsarc triggered b~ merely touchill!;the touch plate,wilh )'our fingers. Tn case any difficult)' is e:<perienccd in gelling the ;oltrumenl work in this Fashion as miMIlt happen inccrta;nenviwn m~nt~, a 15k resistol' should he connected to the banery pcsuive at one end and to.your Ihurnb cr ""jst at th({)th.rend. Capacitor_ella mBd~ by paralleling one .1122 Mrli. and one.QJ3 Mfd. capacitor. TI>c output of the ~njr is fed into Ihcau><ilimy jn~ut of an audio

8Dlplili~r. -

PROJECT »

Electronic Percussion Box

An do:ctronic·~rcussion b(lx is 0111' of thcUlost !\Oug!ltafter items. ~rou • .,;i(ln ipstrulll"nts are tllollC which nave a relatively limallattacktime compared to thcsusrain cr d(cay,imc5. Somoeor the instruments that fall in the this category are bass drums,bon80&,

:r;;'c~I~UI\ct~;m~~~~ :~,/So;t~O~~~~I;iD;le;!~On~~: ~~i~~:I~l!ndl~ i

(2) low, b(lngo (JJ hi'gb hlllg.o {J) ,1I01t cymbul (5) long cymbal and l6) MarCC<lss.. Push button PBI givc! the sound of, Mnr~ss when pressed wllile PBi_PB3, PD4, PB5, P1l6, sive the sounds of short cymbal, long cymbal, l.:.w bon·g~', ·hiSh benge and bass drum rcspectively.

The circuit operation for the short cymbal, long eymhal IlI\d marcass'9undis identical as alltheseinstruments use filtered white noiSll at the output. They only differ in Iheir attack, decay and su<tain timol" whic!l ar~ dependent upon RC networks connected ill)mediatelyaftertherespccti\'cr~;h buttons. Traosi'[orQ,is used asa;:encr diode in the avalanche mode and as stlchg.:neratcs white noise whose amplitude is controlled by preselVr_lto give a men llatul'al imitalion of tra,l;r;oll"limlrlJwe"t"_ fI'outp~ti.,fed-viaC. to tt.e base or (rami,tor Q; This transistor is ~,.d as n .witcl1 whose oniolrtime is controll~d by the RC network associated with various push bultons. Supposir.!! PH2 (short cymbal) is pressed This charg~; up capacitor C, through R, and the ;'oitage acrcss the cap~cil"r lurns Q, on allowiAg tl,e ..... bite no;'" ,ign"1 from Q,I" pass through. The collector load forQ, containsaninducwTwho,e imp~d8nce increases Wilh increasing Irequeney. As ~ r~sult Ibe am p Ji~er gain of Q. IncreaseS wilh rising frequency usa result of whi,1I more of high frequency,ignnl of lile white noise i&pau<d

"

'When the flush button is rejeased thchMgeon capaejfordecays exponentially, The long cymbal operul~" it> more or less the same mannerp'IIC,i,largertbanC",;;othedccayandturu ofl'isrc:lat;vely slower

The amplitude tIf tbe Mar.1Cc.1s, sound builds up ftrati~l~ slowly a-nd then decays. The reason for this Is thl1! C, is churged up fairly slo" .. ly "in U, Jnd R.. When the push butl[)n is rel~3!ed C, dis.cbnrgegtnro,"gh 11. inla the base of Q, and Q,gmduallytuJ'tlsoJf as [j;~ VOJr3gC on C, lid[,

The circuits for [ow bon1"o, high 1>0"1:0 and bass drum have be"" discussed previously. All ofthe.e urd~;",ple Twin·T feed b<lck Wmponenl.l, The"e are larger for low rrequeney instruments and vicc·verst': "II of th.sc outputs arc ~onuected v;u I)r~"'ts and isolating cepacjrcrs to an oulpu( buss line Ihat goes to the input of a '''ansislorbuff~rmi);cramplifier

Porenncmerer vr. 6 is used t!l .. , lh~ overall volume in conjunc· tiouwi'hnn ex'ernaiampli!ier,lndi\';dual presetsVr,310 Vr,5 .bvuld

~:SI:u~~n:~' i;"~~:~i~o~:iJl~:~!~ediS S~~~~lt::~~:y ~~~~~~nSi:;'[~I~;

wc vr. 2 !IeI'lhe [nei or white noiseinSlrumcnn,

PROJECT 24

Electronic Steam Whistle

Before prnc""ding with any electronic cjrctl;try we muo;! under· stand or aM[yz.then~!"reOr sound 10 !)e imitated, Tbe ramiliar electronic steam whistle I,rn,["ce,a tont when driven by the escapinl', steam; Thc.tcctronic,qui.alcnt\'!Ould be a to;'le producing <lscil13· lor wltll a proportion of while noise "dd~d whkh w"ndli like btu. Since the brut~ force exc;tJtion of th~ original team whistle g;ves rise to Ilr(ms ovutones, thc oscjllatcr will huve tn l)I!5<lmokindcf mullivibrutor pro!lucinE ~ fairly ~harp edged waveform. Kd.,'ringlo to Fi8, 25, 7J} o~, '\mr> is sl[ected as a square wave oocillator, Th~ noise.generator is a r~"~r~e biased base-emitter junction of un NPN tr2nsistor

'<

~,t I' cit -~~ R$

CJ t~~3 ~R6 1 C~

r TC4 ~f _ ~'--1~1

~'~'~'

RI,~.~5 :?20K ~~'IKB ,~:~n _~_;-r" .. ~_-':6aK R~.2:'~" __ .;), I~C"I~~ C"'~)JMfj :2: .>;,,11

~~~'lt;~:~t'\.I~~J ~L470"1 ~,fl:'iO;:~~~p.IE.t~

At' the ,uP~lY ""II"go of 15V this junction opernte,'in rbe br~ak_ down regiol\ (:Miler) p..:>oJudna plenty of noise. R"..is[(', R, ]jnlits Ibe ~uIT.:n1 to prolecl Q,_ s'inc~ the noise ;5 rlir~L1ly iDje,led in(O t~e cscntetcr feedback path, it causes ~" irreg~l"r jimring of Ibc wave. form causing the output to ~()ul1d piel~ip.~[y .hrill very ,,,uch like the stearn whisrle.

TI,epilclJofthtD~""~!nbcchansrd by alk,ing the 1'lllues of capecuors The Influence of' noise g:enerator is largely dete(IJ1incd by R, and varyi~g it acjusu lh~ Ibrilln.ss lOr lhe not;.

PROJECT 25

Marine Diesel Sound Simulator

Radio control hobbylsrs who arc hoving model ships ~!In add more 'r~a1ism to their ~/tiri' b~ adding this ~hip siren. The ~ircl1il is wry m",* ,,]ike tbe previous (Inc. Io an "c1wal ship Ih~ nohe-' prudLtccd by\a dit~el driven ship is made hy the thump or 1I1e engine nnd the regular ~uffing ofe5capjngsa"",~ i, imitated bya ,mall noi'e generator. The thump effect is- achj.~td b~ using an Te ill B trape,

:ziumgeneratorcircuit, witblhc noise added on Ibe leadia.gand !rail· ;nged"". The complete circuitis given.in Fia. 26.

Thc noise generatcd byQ,is fed into thenon.invem·ng input of the cp. amp. The r",,<lbnck network, formed by R" R .. R, and C. then determines Ihe form of the trapezium voltage. As 101lj: as the Ie ~u not reached sururaticn, tho output produces a vo]tag~ ramp with superimposed noise. The noise i, ,uppre~s.1l us "000 as the Ie ,eaches saturation, A conventions! che.'per op. ump. 741 may b~ used by deleting Ih6 frequency compensatioD components and ukingcareofpmconnectioos.

IF il is deslred IS' e:ll"'rirnent with Iho mll!~' of dill"trr.nl com~n.nts tc obtain varying.ound¥th.n C1 w,lLJ]dalf.ct Ihenai,~,CJ' R •. R" determine the repetulon-ratc. O~[pul or this ul1il 80cndd be connected to the input or a iuitabl~ ampiifier jb{Qugh un j,o]ating resistor and cap.(itor ill ease the amplifier input d~snlll nave one

PROJECT 26

Rain Effects Syntbesiser

HoI\' would yULI like to havethe !oothi"glound or rain i" your room without rhe nssoctated water? ]l,I~ny people Seem 10 relax better whell ill the b.lckgroun~ the louEd (,r rain pouring is pl;'j'ing. Sume people even improve lhdrco .. centnuion because the pi[lkooise ~lIIitted by tliis circuir shicl,lI them From ,~rrollndio8 disturbancc!. It CIIllaliObeu5edrorasug"-raj,,~lfeclsby guhansts etc.

The C()lllple(e circuit Is given in Fig. 27. The inter~al noise proJll""J by diode D, ii "mp\i~oo t>."/ tbc si~le '>!age trenaistor amplifier built around Q,. The pusstvc filter cornposi"g of vr. 1 and C, acts as a IOn~ filter whlell may be a.Jj~~led t, Ob1Ui~ .h~ effcel of Alight rain to a heavy storm.

PROJECT 27

Wind Sound Generator

Tile circuit in flanre 2tI generates" life like imitation of wind sound Transi,tor Ql is connected a> a zcner diode and &upplks Q.

wilh a noil~ !igual Tlli! li.nal amplified by Q. is fed 10 H st'kcti~c amp\ilkr bU~1 around a 741 op. amp. The 1,l~ali~e r~nltlack circuit of 741 con~'tn' a douhle- T filt.r. The cellt'lirleq,,~n~1' of rhil filter n"J IllllS l~~ wind limbre is ,Illjllskd Witl. tile three sectlcn poteniomCI~r Vr2. Vr.3 and ~·rA_ potcnnometcr Vr. 1 is for the wi~d fOil;, adjllslment. Porentionmeter Vr 2 '0 VrA are in fact Ihr.~ vertlcal pre$~ts of Ih. philips type which are nrrangffi parullel 10 each other 50U.3t<i rod passing Ihrotich!h~")ol illon~ pr=1 does so through the hole~ of all tbe Ihree pI:~s. If desire>! 'llher ~allle$ may i>e ''''Il:~i!''ed rtl! Ih<.' twin T ccmponeuts aOC!k4lng Itl Ih. ftlilowinj

10r;U'j]ac:

': 2~RC- "iIi! 1",. 2-=Vd=2 VrA C, -C"~C,

F>ROJECT 2S

Novel Sounds Gencmtor

aoppI,_nil ... lUcb is. dc:1ibuateJy not 4a:oopld lind tile iDcl~"n of tbereStsc_orRl<inthe 'inec"ahlt. tbe .£.u1ti"i\>nIlOIS to be COllplw 10J«1ln", A Iranoi,lo. oootpul transformer and speaker are coupled in Ih ((J11~ctor circ~il of Q. nd it is from Ihis point thar Ib~ s«und~ a,. h""rd. If an amplifier is available then 3 1<:>uder and mere VCISIllilcsignal may beH'"neratcd by r.plao;Il£,th. r,imaryofT, w;lb a2K2reS;storandalcvdolltPul;sth.,"lohnfrQtrI the collector of Q, via a lmfd. i.()lali"g~"poc;II;"

lu all tire multi~i\>ratO!"l. arc ,",orki.,g losether at Ibe !.ame lime they Ciln all have their frequtncy of operali()n ~il.rw em, .. a ' wide 'lD~ by the 5el1in·~ of VR,·\'a.., Q. und Q, arc produ,ina a hish rreqtLr,~y ; Q, and Q •. a v e ..,. low rrequeney w~ich dOQ not repeat ror~ ... vcra[ ,<:cond$wbilc Q, and Q. are pr(l,tu~i"g Hn imnmnli_.ato:" (rhjuen"y.

What Inay at tim appenr to huppen is Illal d~e !() l~cl(ofdecQ~pJ. ing Ihe combined r'~'lucncie5 would appear at the lou~Jpn~r al a ,ale~ppro~imatcJy~ualIQI,", rate of tbe third lllUl[iyibra[or. In factlhere""II'arellluch more intN",hu8- Wh.1 actually baPJXM is·thi!t lhes~g.es eacll haV( an eif.-cl on 1M others and they syndlronisct;1cbolhcriniloulru·ordinary,vay_ Due 10 the three coarrcls analmoltinfinit: V3ri"l~oriK>Unds can be produced.

Resistor Ra should be ~clect<:d for, maximum effect, il' valut .. ·ill depend on the"hil.ractcr;",;C~ and ¥lIlucs oilhe C(lmjJ(lne~ts";d and SO it is nol possible to give a single trulvnllleb~t47. __ is e gucd ooe to stcrr with. The suppiy Jines UTe nil joined 10 one pO-inl and the addition of(m[hcrro:siswrsherew;lIalsoaff(ctth~output. Her: again Ih~ir Y;t!ues. will dC~Dd fery mud, on the ~"{l",poncnt usedamLon~""agaillavaluellr470hms ;,:1 goodune 10 stan with. There is 110 Deed 10 lim;1 the [ot.~1 number of mulli~jbrator! 10 Ibeee, fO~r wouldii~(Slil1 more varted range.

PROJECT 29

Wailing Siren Circuit

Mo~1 or'tho: electronic siren! of tile autamatic type lise two:> 'trnijun<:tiontrauisto", Here it a cireuit(FiB,JO) whi<b_'-"otS staDliard discrel? trall$iJlorl and Bcncrates a higb level output" which can.be .. sed to drive a 15 obm~ loods~Bkcr, The liten pt04l1a;1 &I), luiliofl:equeacywhichrisnandfaUlin pitchal a lilted tatc __ Sirms vury in their nelual ~ound but the circuit bas plenty ofroD"m for cxper;menting-Io enable the cOllSlructor"s own interpretation-to:be prodllc:4. Hdesiredtheoulputcanbeco"pledlbrOUBhaniso!3tiog capacitor after rcplncingtilcfolldsp"',ke,,,,,ithu 220hinslixed rotSistor,IOachie\"C8rtaleruulpUr.

Tbe elrrui! makes lise of two oscillators. The Ii~sl. comprising Q., and Q, ""orkin.ltl very low frequ~D.cy produce! .e voltail" aerolStile load raillOr R,. Thil O!ciiJalonCntmk the ,atl al wbld! lilt siren '''PN'' ihelf wliicll is bttwe.en. one Ind 11"0 ICconds TlR. Idju$tmelll e>f Vr. I ,i"n milch ,,·id .. coiluol Ih&ll l!iil. II fhl. n let at two xCooo, Ibm al that interval ror qwle a Ihort rime Q" ia.

PROJECT 30

Build This Opto Electronic Organ With Tremolo

As p",,,,,h!y lite !a<l pwj,'<:t in thi, book, tho in,,:,-ti'H~jll / descnbed here i, uni(j~c ~nd now!' Before the advent <',r :no.krn electronic music 'Yl)lhciizor. and organs, th" "Iuil widely usc d elHironic m~,ic producing cquipmcnl with \l;lgc pcrformists \\'J; "Ih~r.min, Thi! g~JS~t could alt~.- th~ f""I~"'I<!)' und amplitude of ,weet lo~e~ ~mitted by it by II'~ mere m",""mom of hands to aOld fro'"hout 1\'0 simply placed "'dalJic mUI, Whal bnf1;~d people i~iti. !lily "'os that Ih~ f'c,fnIJ,wr. d,1l olJl need to touch ~~)" pans of Ih. instru!D~nt yet he had nlllh; coarrol o~erlhe musical JY.Ira .. "',<rs defined and ~nown then. S;icnc: fiction. moy;" no:l:':~r' would-co~" m(ml}' introduce such music i~ thir ~r""tiOrl or space fa~ia,)" aft!! Ihe ",,,<i~ w~, nic'(I""Ol~d '11", 'P~~: ,"""0',"1'11, und~rlyi~a; principle l>,t,i"d lhe g~dlld 11,,'(1 ~"cnm~ o'y;ul~t~ with (he d.:;1'el'Jpmem [)f synthcalzer w~, thaI lh~ m(>vem~nt of hand; uftll~d ",eral rod, allcr~d the cH'c-ctjo'c capaclcance of an Ie tuned ci,.cuil 10 which Iho .meear rod WJS c()nn:c(cd. The [)scillator w""td then b;; all()w.'d to b:il:l£ainstan ().cil1atoroffi".-r fr"'lu"mry,H,e rC3"ltanl frcqrrency dilT~rc'lC~ imenti<mal!~ ~~I'1 in lhe audio rauge would then he f.d to nil omplir.~,

lim.piethercmi,} Inm:u trretles ch3ngelnres:l:anceofalilli,( failing'''' which i,controll",1 lJy and exp6Sing il 10 a low power lamp with m(lm,rolLl i)f hr\ds co;'!" 'rolling the-qaautum cf liSl! ;nciM~t D" .1. Hy 11m ynrd!lick, i, !'lay b:: C-1UMan O~tomj.,_ R.II it ,I,,,", murd 1,~Dn "his n! i! ~llo",s O"~'m D4d l~rmDlo ~1T~~t utsu wllil~ it< fr ,:ucr.cy is cor.trollcd.1n> 'Il" mcvomc!I(ol'band,,_,

TkCir<;uitOlalVlm

For ""oJeniandingindelllHlheopemtion ortbilljnltfumc~t refer to r"ure 31. Tran.islorl T .. T" T., T. as well as Irall.iMO!l T .. T ... T •. i.lldT.forrnlllo vollait cont,ulleoJ olciUalorl ... ruth arc~imilal in operation e~ecpt for the purposes 10 which they have been used. Tr.III~i,tDri T,; "".I T. form an emilter coupled (l<cillutOl ..... hh the os.:il1aliolO [r~'lu~nc~ dependent on the cm .... nt ~o,,·ing through each loW'<'!" p:tiT of transistors. Thi, curre"t i. f"ntrolled bY,.·the ~olf;ale tippliedlolhe·junction u[ base. ofT,andT,. The old1.laTor huilt around T,. To. T, u,,,J T, il used as a tremolo o~iilatoT·llnJ ~nlll~ of

C, ii ch(ls~n ru I!\C{ the desired clf~ct aod milge for t mwo SO~Qd

On th~ inpu[ side resistors RIO. potentiometers Vr ffine termolc

s"""d) Vr. S(conrsclermolo"peed)anoJ LDR forI!) a voltll!le divider. Th~ voltage across LDR i. f.,1 lu tnc centro! Input of the vee throua;h a low·pas~ filtne(!mpul~d of R". I~, 16 and C,. C. 10 CIO wllidl reject. the SO Hz. hum frcqu~Qcies when th.instrument i. used in lIu~relcml light illumj~3tcd alJdilmium'. V..rying Ihe LPR reusion .,It." 1"~ volu.gc across it which ill lurn cb"ngei the oschtator !tcqucncy tr.m,-,Io speed in Ihis e"sc. Tremolo ceprh may eilhcr be ~ptaG<:oJt»a(lllllclpotcntiomeu:r

The operancu of main toneprmJucing osciUalor is jdenliClilto tlietermolOOlcillatorexceptlhlltil basa~er)·widc audio frequency range. In addition it has one ~dditionallran5iltor T, thlltcontrols thcvo!tago:f.dtothc bascs"fT. andT,. By IPpl)·inglhe tremolo oscillator o~tput 10 the base i"PUI of T,·wbich a~ts a. Qn emiller follo .... ~r. Ii", ~oltase applied to me bases ofT, and T, varies 311M input vnll~&1'. Pr.~.1 potentiometer Vr. l ~ontrol> Ibe ratio of Iremolo ')SCiJl~:o"<l"'plft voltage to the ;oput co"lrolvollug;:acroIiLDR., oIc. 1 is 1.h~ tuning and Vr. 2 is Ih" m"'rs~ t~njnll control for the ;n;;trvment30und

CoulnlClion

Thc.iml'lieitY<Jflbe cjrcuit make; it j,je[l]for<CQnstruclion On.1 -uroboanl. However •. tc Get the mavlrnum benefit··ortbe sc.h.",~ dcviso:d. the arraniem~nt nr light mUfce and LOR'il critical. Tb~ ·~;,il' mown in·fi~. 32 IU"~l be f~llowcd in Ibis rrspect. The LOR

j~ m<>unted in a ,~ih,blc sized opaque lube, sealed so rhJ.I lighl.:an ('InJy-"nter from the QP~n lOP end. Tbi. i~ mou!)lffi in ~ lr.1"'pan'"t plastk support and po;ilioned in lI'e ~~"Ir~ ur " pHml[el b~"m When" hlnd is placed a\"'¥e tI,e LDR, light i~ renecree back duwn into it

- The amount of .ighl reaching lhe LDR is dtpcll<lcnl on tbe PO$ili~.ning:.of the hand. More lighl i, r.·fln;lcd :IS the haud is. towered unena Jioint is reached whe;e t"~ h~nd slarts to .hield Ihe LDR.

In lerms of the rc::<i~lnoce of Ih~ LUR, this m~n. Ifml wllm Ih" h""ci is we<! ahov .. thcLLlK. the r?~i<l~lICc i. quile high, The actuat ~alu~ "'ill depend on ambieilllighr. Al the ~and is Io"ucd, the resistance decreases, till the """,I ;, ' ... ~ch~d ar which ma~i;Ttum I~bt is being rd'ecl".! lulu lit" I"be. Tb~ ",,1\111' millim"'" r .. iSI~nce .. ill d~r~r"l on a ''''mbt:r of hct:OTS, incilldu:g thcrcJln:ti,ilyotlhet ... n<.l ... dthcillkmityortipt

Afler lhe completion "r wiring, cbcd die proper runctioniog fl( all th~ oscillators. In eas: you cannol tP an~ __ 0.1 Ihrn cll.c~ your wiri~&. Ir;1 is ",or~in;:: Ihm ",tjw.1 Ih. ""uin!': "r I!." poremlomerers 1_O ~hic,"c the sound you des;",. With lilde pra~!i.c, you should be cble to cO<nt"'''''' yom u ... nmusic.