CUPRINS Alfabetul limbii engleze … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 3 Vocalele limbii engleze … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 4 Consoanele limbii engleze … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 5 Substantivul … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ... 6 Articolul … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 9 Prepozitia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 Conjunctia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 Adverbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 Adejectivul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 30 Numeralul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 Pronumele ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 Verbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47

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Alfabetului Limbii Engleze Engleza foloseste un alfabet latin cu literele cunoscute si in alte limbi straine de origine indo-europeana dar cunoaste grupuri de litere care se pronunta diferit. De exemplu, "th" este grupul cel mai cunoscut. Ceea ce este mai interesant in alfabetul englez este ca adesea "y" si "w" devin vocale si astfel intervin schimbarile necesare (articolul nehotarat "a" se transforma in "an" daca cuvintele incep cu una dintre aceste litere). Engleza este o limba tonala in care intonatia este importanta. De aceea, adesea, vocea ajuta sa transmita ironia sau surpriza, afirmatia sau interogatia. Spre exemplu, intrebarea poate fi formata cu ajutorul inversiunii subiectului cu auxiliarul verbului dar exista si posibilitatea mentinerii afirmatiei si a schimbarii intonatiei. Diacriticele apar destul de rar in limba engleza, in special in cuvintele imprmutate (appliqué, attaché, crêpe, élite) si pronuntia lor este identica cu cea din limba din care provin, in mare parte din franceza. Litera a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Transcriere fonetica [ei] [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [ef] [dji:] [eitch] [ai] [gei] [kei] [el] [em] [en] [ou] [pi:] [kju:] [a:] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] ['dablju:] [eks] [wai] [zed]

Vocalele Limbii Engleze (the voewls) Limba engleza are 12 vocale, lungi (mai lungi decat in limba romana, pe care le indicam in transcrierea fonemica prin doua puncte [:]), si scurte (mai scurte decat in limba romana): a scurt, intre "a" anterior si "o", ex.: nut [nat] nuca a: mai lunga decat vocala romaneasca, urmata de obicei de "r" (care nu se pronunta, doar daca urmatorul cuvant incape cu o vocala!), ex.: arm [a:m] brat, car [ca:] masina

[a] a cu barcuta deasupra, e scurt, si intalnit in silabe neaccentuate, ex.: a pen [ a pen] un stilou, at home [at haum] acasa, after [a:fta] dupa, England [ingland] Anglia

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intre "i" si "e" it [it] el.[a: ] a cu barcuta deasupra.: men [men] barbati. ex: be [bi:] a fi. animale si notiuni abstracte). has [haez] (el. see [si:] a vedea o intermediara intre o si a. ex: all [o:l] toti. not [not] nu (adverb) o: lung. do [du:] a face 4 . intr-un zambet larg. ea (pentru substantive ce denumesc obiecte. intre "u" si "o". ex: big [big] mare i: vocala lunga.: girl [ga:l] fata. ex. voi. multe i scurt. pronuntat cu gura foarte mult deschisa. ex: you [iu:] tu.: Ann [aen] Ana. intalnita in exclamatiile din limba romana!. ea) are e similar cu vocala romaneasca. ex: good [gud] bun u: lung. many [meni] multi. door [do:] usa u scurt. intre "u" si "o". ex. toate. prelungit si pronuntat printre dinti. ex. learn [la:n] a invata [ae] este un sunet intermediar intre "e" si "a". ex: dog [dog] caine.

alveolare. "l" velar. nu se citeste!) his [hiz] al lui h. decat daca urmatorul cuvant incepe cu o vocala Henry g. cand sunt folosite la inceputul cuvintelor k come [cham] a veni (de regula. apare inainte de vocale tell [tel] a povesti like [laic] a place e. "sh" are ca echivalent "sh"-ul romanesc: shogun English [inglish] englez i. "r" fricativ. de un "h" usor. pozitie finala / "l" clar. "e"-ul din pozitie finala nu se citeste!) p pen [phen] stilou t ten [then] zece b. interdentale.Consoanele Lmbii Egleze Unele consoane englezesti sunt deosebite de cele din limba romana: a. varful limbii se sprijina pe alveolele incisivilor superiori d did [did] facut t ten [ten] zece n not [not] nu c. "n" velar / "n" clar sun [san] soare English [inglish] englez f. dupa consoana. nu se pronunta in pozitie finala. urmate de aspiratie. sau uneori cel aflat la sfarsitul cuvantului se pronunta "z" please [pli:z] va rog (adu-ti aminte ca "e" final. "s"-ul dintre doua vocale. tine varful limbii intre dinti si rosteste "s" (consoana surda) sau "z" (consoana sonora) ["s"] thank ["s"aenc] multumesc ["z"] then ["z"en] atunci d. "ts" indentic cu "ts"-ul romanesc nuts [nats] nuci 5 .

uncle .photos  Unele substantive terminate în f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea în ves.wives.: aircraft. wolf – wolves Exceptii: roof . bush+es=bushes.lives. bush+es=bushes.men. Ex. cat. teacher (profesor.aunt. species. joy  substantive colective: crowd. cook (bucatar. lion. mouse.  Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog.companies.factories. self . series. bull .: woman. copila). animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they): Ex.handkerchiefs.: leaf . son .mother.babies  Unele substantive terminate în o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s. love. storm  Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular: Ex. girl. man . sh. fish 6 . courage. king . Mary  substantive abstracte: beauty.wife. world. sheep. girl.teeth  Pluralul substantivului child este children. half .pianos. brother . father .girl. Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex. Ex.selves. giraffe Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile. gulf .: boy . group. wife. wife .: cat+s=cats. house. box+es=boxes Pluralul neregulat  Substantive terminate în consoana+y fac pluralul în ies: Ex. în majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin. Ex. tooth .sopranos. factory . world+s=worlds  Pluralul substantivelor teminate în ch. day+s=days.queen Numarul Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.: church+es=churches.wharfs/ wharves  Câteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne Ex. s.: soprano . baby Exceptii: tarile.: foot .: child (copil. team Genul Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: Ex.Substantivul (the noun) Felul substantivelor Substantivele în limba engleza se pot împarti în patru categorii:  substantive comune: cat. dog Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex. London. Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. dog .: world.gulfs. husband . plantele.roofs. girl. photo . wharf .cow. bucatareasa). navele.halves.  Unele substantive ramân identice la plural Ex. x se formeaza adaugând es la singular. boy. lamp  substantive proprii: England.: man. potato+es=potatoes. o. profesoara). Substantivele care intra în aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex. life .: company . peace.sister. class+es=classes.leaves. baby . Mr Smith. deer. piano .bitch.daughter.feet. fear. handkerchief .

substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. break-ins. pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some. bit. Ex. knowledge. the people's choice. glass. Sens Unic / Sens Comun Her hair is black. piece of. the PM's speech  Forma posesiva se foloseste în general când vorbim de oameni. friendship. women teachers.: sisters-in-law. horror. cloth. The weather was dreadful. help. Yeats's / Yeats' poems  În cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvânt va primi 's Ex. wood  Abstractiuni: earth. men servants  În cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv. paper. Ex.  Nume de substante: bread. women's clothes  Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina în s. fie 's Ex. tari.: a child's voice.: men drivers. luggage. runners-up  Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex. beauty. Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara. Nu sunt precedate de a/an. astfel devenind substantive comune si comportându-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular. (Am mers la picnic în padure.: MPs (Members of Parliament). nature. Ex.) Their house was made of wood.) 1. I need some information. (Casa lor este din lemn. gold. animale. a little. Ex. death. notiuni abstracte. (Parul ei este negru. no. obiecte puternic individualizate.Pluralul substantivelor compuse  În cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvânt va trece la plural. pot avea plural). (A gasit un fir de par în lapte. literature  Alte substantive: baggage. news. passers-by. Se foloseste de asemenea în urmatoarele cazuri:  În expresii temporale 7 .5. the Johnsons' residence  Numele proprii terminate în s vor primi fie doar apostrof (').: My father-in-law's guitar.: boy-friends. theory. a horse's mouth. weather Substantivele unice sunt întotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular: Ex.: I do not want any help. oil. stone. advice. the present. Henry the Eighth's wives  's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.: This coffee is cold. Ex.) She found a hair in the milk. VIPs (very important persons) Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns) Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate. Ex. travel agents  Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente. slice of. lookers-on. Forma posesiva  Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina în s: Ex. hangers-on. reading. The piece of advice you gave me helped.: The CEO's assistant. coffee. information. This slice of bread is hard. experience. damage.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car.: a boys' school. men-of-war. shopping. etc.) We picnicked in the woods. paradise. any. parking.

the water's edge. este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci când sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine. The kids went to Bobby's (house).  8 .: for heaven's sake. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata. ten minutes' break În expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth Ex. Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). the roof of the church. the keys of the house I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.: yesterday's newspaper. the plane's wings. the train's departure  În cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv.: the walls of the town. a winter's day. a shilling's worth of stamps  În alte expresii uzuale: Ex. casa. locuinta). Ex.  Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. birouri.: ten dollars' worth of bananas. Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). in five years' time.Ex. oficii.

the Ivory Coast 9 . inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice. The people I work with are very friendly. cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut: The sun rises in the East and sets in the West. adica nu se schimba în functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat. (= proprii tai copii) Can you pass me the butter. 3. Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. The customer is always right. The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal. in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni. 5.Articolul (the article) Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete înteles într-o propozitie oarecare. 7. acesta trebuie sa fie însotit de un determinant substantival. nume de mari si rauri. inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie: He wanted to go to the bank to change some money. in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. Henry Ford invented the automobile.a / an  Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolele sunt forme invariabile. The weather at the North Pole is very cold. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:  Articolul hotarât . grupuri de insule. 6. Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor. the North of England. In acest caz NU este nevoie de substantiv: Only the strong survive. pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume: The American economy is suffering at the moment. (= publicul care o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea) 4. in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri: I don’t feel well. lanturi muntoase. I don’t like the president of that company. The President of the United States visited the Pope last May. Articolul hotarât (the) se foloseste: 1. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. (= oamenii puternici in general) The question of the unemployed came up again. You can still see the scar.the  Articolul nehotarât . please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa) Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina) Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. animale sau obiecte: The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant. Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together? 2. nume la plural de tari si deserturi: the Middle East. but all the banks were on strike. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal) The kids aren’t at home.

inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data: I’ve received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US. Jenny doesn’t eat meat. Lake Superior. the Falklands the United States of America. Aici se foloseste un verb la plural: The Swiss have decided not to join the EU. I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home. then on to Brooklyn. the Mediterranean Sea. 3. the Mojave Desert NOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati. The Germans were upset about losing the WW II. the River Thames. Articolul nehotarât (a / an). pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva. inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale: Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. i. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative. she’s a vegetarian. That was a kind thing to say. the Philippines the Arizona Desert. 9. He studied law at University and became a judge. Laura is the most beautiful in my class. There is a man at the door who says he is a detective. NOTA: In anumite cazuri. u). The Spanish are doing very well in this year’s Olympics. the Netherlands.the Atlantic. 10. NOTA: Uneori numeralele oridinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele. inclusiv slujbe sau profesii: My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect. Lake Victoria. The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship. Lake Ontario 8. o. John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the ‘Times’ yesterday. cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionala sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva: I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterday’s paper. Brendan came first ad Colin second at 100 meters. Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland. Se foloseste a înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o consoana si an înaintea substantivelor care încep cu o vocala (a. e. the Carpathians the Hawaiian Islands. 2. THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri. the English Channel. We went to Manhattan first. se pot folosi numai substantive la plural. the Straits of Gibraltar the Himalayas. in fata unor adjective – nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. 10 . The guitar has always been my favourite instrument. in fata numelor de instruente muzicale: Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old. Articolul nehotarât se foloseste: 1. After months of searching. the Alps. my brother found a job. Jack’s son is a talented artist. The Jacksons live in a bungalow. That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.

DAR: What a beauty! 3. market etc. cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca un tot: He works for Microsoft. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand “unu” sau su expresii ale pretului. intelligence etc. A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood. You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better. There was a great deal of noise coming form the house next door. (proverb) Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now. cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat: Knowledge comes to us through our senses. Dar a/an si one nu înseamna întotdeauna acelasi lucru: Ex. church. hospital. exclamatii sau cand ne exprimam dorinte: A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms. greutatea. One box is no good. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular: Ex.: A box is no good. Articolul a / an si one 1. raportului si cantitatii: A hundred guests were invited.50 a litre in England. happiness. (We need a crate not a box).. in fata substantivelor proprii. prison. in fata numelor de echipe etc: He loves football and supports Manchester Utd. we need two boxes. fear. inaintea cuvintelor home. atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. Pollution in big cities is very worrying. 5. There is some luggage to be taken upstairs. Dogs make good companions. knowledge. Articolul zero. university. a lot of etc. Nu se foloseste articol în urmatoarele cazuri: 1. 5. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. nume de persoane si numele unei companii. pentru a vorbi despre sporturi. in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty. 4. hope. inaintea meselor zilei: Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner? 6. any. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight. He’s crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.: a / one pound. Atunci când numeri sau masori timpul. etc. a / one million pounds You can take an/ one hour for lunch. I’d like a nice cool glass of beer. Is there any bread in the kitchen? 2. a face afirmatii generale. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of English. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv: 11 .): Water quenches thirst on a hot day. 2. vitezei.4. a piece of. Petrol costs £ 1. in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala (adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some. distanta. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii.

(aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se afla Al Capone) My mother goes to church every Sunday. (acea biserica anume). (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare. (biserica in sensul de institutie. (institutia universitatii) Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. ci la institutie) His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (la o universitate anume. serviciu religios) She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace.Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. Our University is 150 years old. in cladirea ei) 12 .

 Into – in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house. beside  apropiere: near. la. (este cea mai de jos carte)  Pozitia pe orizontala:  in front of – in fata  behind – in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia) Ex: The tree is in front of the house. Prepozitia de miscare .se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare  to – la.  in – in. pentru a indica ordinea) Ex: I’m before you at the queue.se pune “on”daca sta)The cat is running onto the floor. close to. fara un tel precis)  around – in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) Ex: I dance around the fire.Prepozitia 1.  at – in. la.  off – pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: The plane takes off.  between – intre 2  among – printre (mai mult de 2) 2.  up-and-down – in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs.  across – traversare (nu si patrundere) Ex: I run across the street.  about – prin (arata o miscare nedefinita) Ex: I walk about town (prin oras. below the water level  underneath – punctul cel mai de jos  on top of – punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath.  towards – la.  – impotriva Ex: We are against them.  along – de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: I’m walking along the beech. pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls. catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office.  within – in cadrul.  against – rezemat Ex: The man is against the wall. catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school. pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest. pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia.  after – dupa  before – inainte (pentru oameni.  Pentru apropiere:  imediata: next to. 13 .  Onto – pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala. by  Pozitia pe verticala:  over – deasupra  under – dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix)  above – deasupra  below – dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero.  through – prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park. Prepozitia de loc . etc.  out of – pp iesirea dintr-un volum Ex: Get out of my house.  on – pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table. near by.se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand.

past – langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!. dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years. pt ca sunt in miscare) 3. at midday. at dusk). Ex: Let’s talk about sex. cu weekend (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas)  on – cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday). in the afternoon. in the evening)  at – pentru ora (at 10 o’clock).  over across pp traversarea peste un obstacol traversare pe jos Ex: I’m over the ocean.  from – de la. perioade ale vietii (in my childhood). de pe.  during – in timpul  over – in timpul. folosit academic despre Ex: Give me a book on Economics. pozitie pentru comparatie Ex: I work as a teacher. (I am a teacher) (I am an engineer)  on about in legatura cu. functie. Diferentiere intre prepozitii  in time on time cu ceva timp inainte la fix  in the end at the end finally.  throughout / althrough – de-a lungul. Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left. din Ex: Take it from my bag.) dupa urmeaza genitiv Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. (cu barca)  despite in spite of dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub. in cele din urma la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv)  in with pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat pentru o trasatura fizica Ex: A woman in trousers. in the evening  at – at dawn. in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon. Prepozitia de timp  in – pentru ani. at midnight 14 . A woman with long hair. 4. dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end.  as like pentru rol.  due to owing to datorita (doar dupa “to be”) datorita (restul inafara de “to be”) Ex: My success is due to her.  made of – recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold  made from – deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa  made with – recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza)  in – in the morning. at midnight. mesele zilei (at lunch time). data (on the 15th of June) si sarbatorile (on Christmas day – cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun. pentru varsta (at the age of 15). Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded. cu raportare la un punct fix  by – nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten. anotimpuri. nu de toata perioada)  before si after – inainte si dupa.  in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning. lunile anului. in the afternoon. (cu avionul) Ex: I’m across the ocean. Ex: I talk like a teacher.

cauze(motive) Around-împrejur A trip around the contry-o călătorie prin ţară To sit around the table-a şedea în jurul mesei I will come around ten-o să vin pe la zece (în jur de ora zece) At –la At noon-la prânz At day break-la revărsatul zorilor At sunset-la apusul soarelui.la asfinţit At rondom-la intâmplare At work-la lucru At the door-la uşă At the beginning-la început At the end-la sfârşit At the same time-în acelaşi timp At the age of-la vârsta de At first-la început 15 . daca sunt determinate Ex: in my father’s car.zi după zi Time after time-deseori. Expresii cu Prepoziţii Prepozitia About (despre) Expresii About the town-prin oraş About six o‘clock-în jurul orei şase A journey about the world-o călătorie prin lume About my head-deasupra capului meu About all-mai presus de orice.contra Against the laws-împotriva legilor A race against time-o cursă contra cronometru To lean against a wall-a se sprijini de un perete Along-de-a lungul Along a valley-de.în primul rând Across (de-a curmezişul sau de-a To walk across the street-a traversa strada latul) Across the road-peste drum After (după) After dark-după lăsarea întunericului After breakfast-după micul dejun After five o‘clock-după ora cinci Day after day-zi de zi.foarte adesea After theat-după aceea The day after tomorrow-poimâine Against-împotrivă.a lungul unei văi Along the sea shore-de-a lungul ţărmului Among-între Among us-între noi(când este vorba de 3 sau mai multe persoane) Among his friends-printre(între) prietenii lui Among the most important reasons-printre cele m. on the tube/subway/underground 6. on – pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut Ex: In the morning dar On a fine day At night dar On a starry night 5. by bus. daca nu este determinat Ex: by car. in the car that you bought me  on – pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate Ex: on my father’s plane. Pentru mijloace de locomotie  by – cu orice mijloc de transport. by plane (dar on foot!)  in – pentru autovehicule.imp.

At last-la sfârşit.pentru un timp To go for a walk-a merge la plimbare To read for pleasure-a citi de plăcere What is this good for?-la ce este bun ăsta? For all the world-pentru nimic în lume To have a taste for art-a avea gust artistic For this reason-pentru(din) acest motiv For the sake of peace-în numele păcii Enough(inagh) for the present-suficient deocamdată 16 .în cele din urmă At full speed-la viteză maximă.prin To open by force-a deschide cu forţa To travel by train-a călători cu trenul To go by car-a merge cu maşina Day by day-zi de zi Step by step-pas cu pas Drop by drop-strop cu strop Piece by piece-bucată cu bucată One by one-unul câte unul Two by two-doi câte doi To learn by heart-a învăţa pe de rost To go by the post-office-a trece pe lângă poştă By force of circunstances-prin forţa împrejurărilor To sleep side by side-a dormi unul lângă altul For-pentru Good for food-comestibil To leave for school-a pleca la şcoală To look for help-a căuta ajutor To cry for help-a striga după ajutor For a time-un timp. se foloseşte când este Between the two world wars-între cele două războaie mondiale vorba de două elemente sau două An understanding between us-o înţelegere între noi persoane Beyond-dincolo de Beyond doubt(deaut)-fără îndoială Beyond the sea-dincolo de mare Beyond limits-peste limită By-de.de către.mai jos de Beneath one‘s dignity-sub demnitatea cuiva Besides-în afară de He has two cars besides this-el are două maşini în afară de aceasta Between-între.cu toată viteza At first sight-la prima vedere At what time?-la ce oră? At once-imediat At least-cel puţin At my disposal-la dispoziţia mea Byfore-înainte Byfore my eyes-înaintea ochilor mei Byfore one a‘clock-înainte de ora unu To sail byfore the wind-a naviga cu vântul în spate Behind(bihaind)-în spate Behind the clouds-în spatele norilor To hide behind the door-a se ascunde în spatele uşii Below(bilou)-sub To strike below the belt-a lovi sub centură Below sea level-sub nivelul mării Below the ground-sub pământ Below the average-sub nivelul mediu Beneath-sub.

From-din.de la In-în Into-în.la B To tell one thing from another-a deosebi un lucru de celălalt In the morning-dimineaţa In the shade(şeid)-la umbră In the end-la final In the garden-în grădină In heaven-în cer In spring-primăvara In summer-vara In fall-toamna In winter-iarna To be in danger(deinger)-a fi în pericol To lie(lai) in bed-a sta întins în pat To live in the country-a sta la ţară In our centuri(auăr senturi)In all seasons-în toate anotimpurile In my youth-în tinereţea mea In his memory-în memoria lui Early in the morning-dimineaţa devreme In the past-în trecut In the future(fiuciăr)-în viitor In come just in time-a veni la timp To keep(kip)in mind(maind)-a ţine minte Done in haste-făcut în grabă To put in mind-a-şi pune în gând To put in order-a pune în ordine In general-în general To work in vain-a munci în zadar To be in pain-a fi îndurerat To speak in public-a vorbi în public To take in hand-a lua în mână To lead into error-a duce în eroare To get into difficulties-a da de greutăţi To fall into the river-a cădea în râu(lac) To burst into tears-a izbucni în lacrimi 17 .spre I‘m sorry for you-îmi pare rău de tine(pentru tine) From first to last-de la primul la ultimul From heaven to earth-de la cer la pământ From bad(bead) to worse-din ce în ce mai rău From place to place-din când în când From morning to night-de dimineaţa până seara Light from the sun-lumină de la soare A man free from care-un om liber de griji A man from the country-un om de la ţară To be far from home-a fi departe de casă From theat point of view-din punctul acela de vedere From my point of view-din punctul meu de vedere To be released from prisom-a fi eliberat din închisoare Seen from above-văzut de sus Seen from below(bilou)-văzut de dedesubt On my way from Piteşti to Bucharest-în drumul meu de la P.

în general.necaz To pour walter into a glass-a turna apă în pahar Inside the room-înăuntrul camerei His is inside-el e înăuntru Near the sea shore-lângă ţărm Near at hand-la îndemână.Inside-înăuntru Near-lângă Of-de Off-departe de On-pe Over-peste To get into trouble-a da de bucluc.a nu fi la serviciu To fall off the horse-a cădea de pe cal To be on duty-a fi de serviciu To sit on the grass-a sta pe iarbă Some goods(gudz)on sale-nişte mărfuri de vănzare Haus on fire-o casă în flăcări To go on foot-a merge pe jos On a beautiful day-într-o zi frumoasă On such a day-într-o astfel de zi On this occasion(ocheijen)-cu această ocazie On certain conditions-cu anumite condiţii To stand on tip toe-a sta în vârful picioarelor To be on land-a fi pe uscat On the whole-în ansamblu.cu siguranţă.tare de urechi A book of proverbs-o carte de proverbe The force of the wind-forţa vântului A place of honour-în loc de onoare A man of mark-un om însemnat(important) A man of no importance-un om oarecare(fără importanţă) To wear adress of silk-a purta o rochie de mătase Love of a mother-iubire de mamă Master of the house-stăpânul casei A piece of paper-o bucată de hârtie A friend of mine-un prieten de-al meu The events of late-evenimentele din ultimul timp In days of old-în zilele de mult apuse Of course-bineânţeles.sigur că da Keep off the grass-nu călcaţi pe iarbă To be off duty-a fi liber.aproape Near you-lângă tine A crown of gold-o coroană de aur A flock of sheep-o turmă de oi Hard of hearing(hiring)-surd.în mare On an average-în medie To be on holiday-a fi în vacanţă To sit on a chair-a sta pe un scaun To pay on demand-a plăti la cerere To pay on the spot-a plăti pe loc On the celing-pe tavan On a desert island(ailănd)-pe o insulă pustie On the point of-a fi pe punctul de a Over the rocks-peste stânci To be head over heels in love-a fi îndrăgostit lulea To stay somewhere(samuer) over night-a sta undeva peste noapte To be famous all over the world-a fi celebru(cunoscut )în toată ţara 18 .belea.

a se termina To be wet to the skin-a fi ud până la piele To count up to ten-a număra până la zece From time to time-din când în când.de la Through-prin Through whom?-prin cine Till-până.din timp în timp To dance to the musics-a dansa după muzică I don‘t want to!-nu vreau Under lock and key-sub cheie.Past Round-în jurul Since-de.a nu mai putea să muncească To be past danger(deinger)-a fi în afara pericolului Have past one-unu şi jumătate It is past five o‘clock-este trecut de ora cinci A round table-o masă rotundă A round peg in a square hole-potrivit ca nuca în perete Round the world-în jurul lumii Since four o‘clock-de la ora patru I haven‘t seen him since-nu l-am mai văzut de atunci To go through thick and thin-a trece prin foc şi apă Through the wood-prin pădure To at through fear-a acţiona de frică All through the night-toată noaptea.tot timpul vacanţei noastre To be up lill late-a se culca târziu.a fi legat prin jurământ To be under sentence of death-a fi condamnat la moarte Under what conditions?-în ce condiţii Under these conditions-în aceste condiţii In under ten minutes-în mai puţin de 10 minute To be under age-a fi minor To be under treatement-a fi sub îngrijire medicală a fi în tratament Under my feet-sub tălpile(picioarele) mele The ball rolled underneath a table-mingea s-a rostogolit sub o masă The ups and downs of life-urcuşurile şi coborâşurile vieţii.geutăţile vieţii To run up the hill-a alerga pe deal în sus To walk up a hill-a urca un deal 19 .tot timpul nopţii To go through life-a trece prin viaţă Throughout this country-de-a lungul şi de-a latul acestei ţări Throughout our holidays-pe tot parcursul vacanţei noastre.a nu se culca devreme Till death do us part-până ce moartea ne va despărţi To go to bed-a merge la culcare To take to wife-a lua de soţie(nevastă) From end to end-de la cap la cap From hand to mouth-de la mână până la gură To come to an end-a lua sfârşit To finish-a termina.sub pază Under the tree-sub copac To swim under water-a înota sub apă To be under arms-a fi sub arme To be under a vow(veau)-a fi sub un jurământ.către To cook over the fire-a găti la foc To tremble all over-a tremura din toate mădularele.către Under-sub Up-în susul.până la To-la.a tremura tot Past his comprehension-peste puterea lui de a înţelege To be past work-a nu mai putea munci.

scoală-te Until the end of life-până la sfârşitul vieţii To refuse upon the principle-a refuza din principiu Upon the top of the hill-în vârful dealului Upon our word-pe cuvântul nostru To keep within doors-a ţine în casă Within the law-în limita legii Within a week-în mai puţin de o săptămână Within our room-în interiorul camerei noastre To be without help-a fi fără de ajutor To come without delay-a veni fără întârzâiere To escape without damage-a scăpa nevătămat To come without fail-a veni sigur(negreşit) To come without doubt-a veni fără îndoială It goes withaut sayng(seing)-se înţelege de la sine I will leave withaut him-o să plec fără el 20 .până în UponWithin-în.nu mai târziu de Without-fără Wake up!-trezeşte-te.înăuntrul.Until-până la.

if. Unele dintre ele sunt specializate pe anumite tipuri de propozitii. Compuse: however. dancing. Locutiuni: as well as. whether…or . cu alte cuvinte). k) conjunctii disjunctive: or. subiective. either…or. 4. d) “not only…but also…” Ex: I am not only intelligent but also pretty. h) conjunctii adversative: but. 21 . Ex: Only one friend of mine left Romania. whereas (pe cata vreme. comparative: as if (de parca). concesive: through. for instance. 2. as if (de parca). completive directe. De legatura: as…as. otherwise (altfel).parti de vorbire de acelasi fel Ex: I go and stay there for a week b) “as well as” Ex: I work in a school as well as at home.Conjunctia A. and. so long as (atata timp cat). De subordonare – acelea care introduc o propozitie secundara. on that account. furthermore I wood like to visit England. Ex: I am tall but fat.care leaga . unless.Ex: The question is what I must read. 3. attributive  Subordonate predicative – introduse prin: a) “what” . Learn your lesson otherwise you fail. I like do a lot of thinks for instance/example reading. namely Ela. else. I am talking while you are righting. while. tinand seama de) – contrasteaza cu propozitia principala. therefore (de aceea). conditionale: if pt. i) conjunctiile concluzive: consequently. so. f) “either…or” Ex: They are either brother and sister or husband and wife. as though pt.propozitii intre ele . or else (ori. predicative sau pt. for instance. Dupa aspect 1. as though (de parca). B. Simple: but. g) “furthermore” (cu atat mai mult) Ex: I speak English. j) conjunctii explicative: for example. Ex: pt. that’s why. Ex: Would you prefer coffee or tea? Please put your coat else you get whet. that is to say. c) “neither…nor” Ex: I am neither in the kitchen nor in the bathroom. not only…but also. Dupa functie 1. neither…nor. Ex: I haven’t slept therefore/that is why I am tired. e) “as well” Ex: He is calm and good as well. then. that is why (iata de ce). otherwise. De coordonare a) “and” . although (desi) pt. namely. both…and. … 2.

whom. Subordonate prepozitionale – introduse prin: who. why. You interpret whatever she says. Ex: You depend on what I say. whoever. only if. Ex: No one speaks like you do. why. You must approved of whatever she says. if.Ex: The question is when I can come. like. just.b) “who” . Subordonate indirecte – introduse prin: to whom. when. whoever. when. how. were. as though.Ex: It is necessary that you should understand this rule. to what. Subordonate completive directe (cele cu forma de complement): if. to anyone. e…) whatever. why. much as. which.Ex: The question is were I go. how daca sunt precedate de o prepoziitie. where. whichever. whoever. on condition that. c) “who” Ex: It hasn’t be decided who is the leader of the team. d) which. I may take whatever book you want. whatever. d) “when” . 22 .Ex: The question is who is he. whichever. Ex: She sad that she was tired. that. whoever. in the manner. c) “where” . whether. This is the boy whom I greeted. (respectand majoritatea celor spuse de mine)   Subordonate conditionale – introduse prin: if. why –  Subordonate subiective – introduse prin: a) “that” . wherever. Ex: I shall come soon if/on condition that I find my passport. that. how. whether. whoever. I don’t know if you leave Romania. I do whatever you want me to do. b) “what” Ex: It doesn’t matter what you believe. Ex: This is the woman who loves me. whom.     Subordonate adverbiale – introduse prin: as. Ex: I may give the flowers to whom you want. They acted much as I told them. as if. whatever. Subordonate atributive – introduse prin: whose. I don’t know whoever want’s my dog. that. This is the man whose wife is pretty. whichever.

Modificari ortografice: 1. daca adjectivul se termina in “ll”. dear = dearly 23 . unde. se adauga doar “lly” Ex: full – fully 4. daca adjectivul se termina in “ic”. sound = soundly 3. se transforma “e” in “y”/ “ly” Ex: capable – capably 3.  propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year. adjectivul “good” face adverbul “well” NOTA: ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb.: The bus moved slowly. (când?) Adverbele pot determina:  adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!  adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. acesta se pastreaza “ely” Ex: nice – nicely Exceptii: due – duly (datorat) true – truly whole – wholly 2. adverbele determina în general verbe: Ex.Adverbul Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum . daca adjectivul se termina in “y”. daca adjectivul se termina in “e”. tight = tightly (sunt echivalente) 5. fair = fairly 4. indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana. bright = brightly 2. dar nu tot ce are “ly” este adverb. In general adverbul este terminat in “ly”. cât de frecvent sau în ce măsura are loc o actiune. il desfac in adjectiv + ly Ex: usually = usual + ly bitterly = bitter + ly awfully = awful + ly Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect) 1. daca adjectivul se termina in “le”. se transforma in “i” si se adauga “ily” Ex: pretty – prettily gay – gaily Exceptii: shy – shyly wry – wryly coy – coyly (sfios) 6. se adauga “ally” Ex: automatic – automatically 5. când. You're speaking too quietly. (cum?) I am going home tomorrow. De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + “ly”. Functia adverbelor Astfel.

dar We traveled cheaply. NOTA: forma in “ly” se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv Ex: He is deadly tired. cu greu. intr-o maniera extinsa hard = greu hardly = de-abia. Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy. dead = deadly 7. (si nu “he is dead tired”). easy = usor Ex: Take it easy! easily = intr-o maniera lejera free = gratis freely = pe sleau. deschis full = complet fully = pe scara larga. to sell. aproape deloc high = sus highly = foarte just = tocmai justly = asa cum se cuvine late = tarziu lately = in ultima vreme 24 . cheap = cheaply Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly. to get) Ex: She bought it cheap. Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite clean = complet cleanly = intr-o maniera curata clear = exact clearly = intr-o maniera clara close = apropiat closely = indeaproape deep = adanc deeply = profund direct = direct directly = imediat due = spre (la busola) duly = punctual Ex: They went due South.6.

el devine adverb prin contructia in a + adj + manner He is a friendly person.large = extins largely = pe scara larga most = majoritatea mostly = cu precadere near = langa nearly = aproape ca pretty = foarte prettily = intr-o maniera draguta right = exact rightly = cu precizie. adj He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner.se construiesc astfel:  daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma. se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu “er” si “est”) Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast  daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly. adv coward = las (substantiv) cowardly = las (adjectiv) in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb) Gradele de comparatie . clar sharp = fix sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa short = brusc shortly = imediat Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles fast far early alike alone past solo straight next little outside NOTA: daca adjectivul se termina in “ly”. face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung (cu “more” si “the most”) Ex: 25 .

Ex: Your dress is quite unique. Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise. Adverbe de grad Adverbe de mod Adverbele de mod ne arata cum.  pretty – foarte (familiar. intre prieteni) Ex: I’m pretty tired. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv. in ce mod are loc o actiune.  rather – se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte. Ex: Your story is fairly interesting. neasteptat de. “quite” capata sensul de absolut. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul “a” Ex: This car is rather expensive. de-a dreptul. 26 . Adverbe de timp. dar nu extraordinary. Ex: This car is quite cheap.  quite – este mai puternic decat fairly. This is rather a difficult exercise. durata si frecventa 4.  fairly – foarte. NOTA : cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie. Adverbe de loc si directie 3.  by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul Ex: He is by far the fastest of all. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila. He is very much faster than I am.  much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul Ex: He is much faster than I am. comparativ sau superlativ) Ex: I do my very best. Adverbe de probabilitate 5.Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly Comparatia regulata  well – better – the best  badly – worse – the worst  much – more – the most  far – farther – the farthest – further – the furthest  near – nearer – the next  little – less – the least  late – later – the last Clasificarea adverbelor 1.  very – Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv. Adverbe de mod 2. complet.

iar there contrariul. last year  Durata. downhill.. around. onwards. such – urmat de . northwards. nu adverb. Dupa complement: They built a house nearby. departe. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau. Ex: Dupa verb: I looked everywhere. uphill. now. forwards. De retinut! Towards este prepozitie.cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv Ex: It is so difficult... not long. upwards. Cu verbe de miscare. Adverbele de loc terminate în -wards .  Când: today. back. eastwards. yesterday.. many.: backwards. B.away. outdoors. They are such interesting persons. southwards. up here. dar se aseaza dupa el Ex: He is fast enough for a champion. over there. up. sideways. homewards. She took the child outside. up there. down there. John looked . fara participarea vorbitorului: Ex.de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl Ex: He is such a man. The ship sailed westwards.. overseas. inwards. few + substantiv . A. I have so many friends / so much money. durata si frecventa Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii. astfel încât va fi întotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume: Ex.    too – se cupleaza cu pozitivul Ex: He is too fast. Adverbe de loc si directie Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. abroad. pentru cât timp: all day. under there. Adverbe de timp. Cats don't usually walk backwards.exprima ideea de miscare într-o anumita directie: Ex. under here. There is so little time left.substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de “a” .. later. for a while. Here / there. indoors.: He walked towards the car. westwards.cu much.. C.home.: Come here (= spre mine) It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi) Put it there (= departe de mine) It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi) Expresii cu here/ there: down here. since last year 27 . She ran towards me. downwards. down. little. enough – se cupleaza cu pozitivul. Adverbe care exprima atât locul cât si directia: ahead. out. outwards. over here.. here exprima ideea de înspre/ cu / împreuna cu vorbitorul. I'm going . so – se cupleaza .

never. in loc de ago se pune before Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before. dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative. occasionally. (si nu it lasts for five seconds). regularly. NOTA! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut. (si nu I’ve been waiting for ten minutes). Have you finished your work yet? No. Ex: I haven’t met her for two years. NOTA! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages. la începutul ei: Ex. Cât de frecvent: sometimes. Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday. They haven't met him yet. De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative. must): I often eat vegetarian food.  for – arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. Do you still work for the BBC? Adverbe de timp usuale:  ago – se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent Ex: I saw her one hour ago. usually. yearly De obicei.: She stayed in the house all day. for centuries) ATENTIE! nu se pune “for” dupa verbele: to last to take to wait to spend to stay Ex: I’ve been waiting ten minutes. NOTA! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut Ex: I was a student for two years (I’m no longer a student). 28 . (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten) Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei: This magazine is published monthly. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu. My mother lived in France for a year. He visits his mother once a week. Later the boy understood the story. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu. generally. (in fata verbului principal) You must always fasten your seat belt. sometimes. Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei: Ex. frequently. may. I am still hungry. It lasts five seconds. Adverbe de fecventa: frequently. Still exprima ideea de continuitate. adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfârsitul propozitiei sau emfatic.  since – arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. normally. not yet. have. often. often. (dupa verbul auxiliar must) I have never forgotten my first kiss.

not especially. rather." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: This coffee is too hot. (adverb) Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora: The girl was very beautiful. rather. completely. too Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a. really. particularly. (adjectiv) He worked very quickly. Locutiuni adverbiale  subst + after + subst day after day year after year month after month  during – urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. possibly. undoubtedly. pretty. enough.. Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina. perhaps. probably. She has almost finished. He was just leaving.: Undoubtedly. surely. (adjective) He works too hard. maybe. quite. care presupune actiuni paralele. De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii. definitely. Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand). nearly. hardly. too. (nu stiu cand) 29 . dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle? Adverbe de grad Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb: Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv) He didn't work hard enough.  Enough. Winston Churchill was a great politician. (adverb) Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru.. dar niciodata cu until.Ex: I haven’t met her since Monday. Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely. fie in fata verbului principal: Ex. Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor. se aseaza în debutul frazei: Ex. obviously. very.. just.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting. During poate fi inlocuit cu “in” daca se refera la perioade de timp Ex: during my life = in my life  from … to – poate fi inlocuit cu till. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce). scarcely. extremely.. fairly.: The water was extremely cold. quite. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly. adjectiv sau adverb: almost. pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiunii Ex: I work until I die. very. especially. not particularly. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal. Ex. (adverb) De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very: Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.

I get up at 8 o’clock and work till 10 o’clock. NOTA! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from … to in loc de “to” 30 .

Pozitia adjectivului  De obicei adjectivul se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: A very hot potato. to make. the President elect. afraid. (the people who have something to do with the matter) They had an involved discussion on the matter. complex) I am a concerned mother. ca de exemplu chief. etc: Ex. .Adjectivul (the adjective) Forma adjectivului Adjectivele sunt invariabile. (detailed. You seem upset.  Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect: Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish.  Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep.  Unele adjective îsi schimba sensul în functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa.: The table is long. ill. awake.: A hot potato. anxious) The list of the students present is outside. to appear. I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas. to feel.  Nationalitatea sau originea: Ex. (current) Functiile adjectivului Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. main. I'm alone. to become.: A good movie. annoyed.: He's asleep. on the door. to turn. Ex. to smell. some really hot potatoes.: The movie is good.: This is the main purpose of the meeting. Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very. She is a single mother.: They make an original couple. Pot exprima:  Sentimente sau calitati: Ex. Ex. alike. alive.: the Princess Royal. Ele nu îsi schimba forma în functie de gen sau numar.  Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian. alone. to keep. That poor woman was living in a garage. poor (=unfortunate) stau numai în fata substantivului determinat: Ex. sorry Ex. well.  Dupa substantiv în expresii fixe: Ex. to sound. (students who were there) The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. present. upset. This cheese tastes different. the court martial  Câteva adjective. Adjectivele involved. concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate în fata substantivului sau dupa acesta. to taste. to seem. to look. some hot potatoes. (worried.: These are the people involved / concerned. really: Ex.

little round. wooden. That boy is too tall. It was a silver tray. silver Ex: a green round plastic bucket an elegant little French clock a small round wooden table Gradele de comparatie 1. pareri sau opinii: Ex. black Swedish.: A rectangular envelope. Size. charming Size Age/Temperature Shape Colour Origin small. not a steel tray. The show was entertaining.The steel tray was a gift.: He wore a cotton shirt. absolut Comparativ de inferioritate .  Culoarea: Ex. marime si masuri: Ex.  Materie / material: Ex. rectangular red. tiny old. lovely.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film. huge. ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora.: My hat is too old. A round table. young.  Vârsta: Ex. blonde. dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion. Ordinea adjectivelor Atunci când se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv.  Dimensiuni. Age/Temperature. I will buy another one. Shape. He is still very young.  Forma: Ex. Material Value/opinion delicious. hot. comparative: a. Exista mai multe variante. relative b. pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba 2.  Judecati.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt. de superioritate 3. Origin. Victorian. Colour. de egalitate c. square. almost a boy.: Grammar is fascinating. superlative: a. de inferioritate b. Chinese Material plastic.

Comparativul de superioritate  adj scurte: adj + er + than. shallow depth (adancime) heavy. Modificari ortografice:  daca adj se termina in “e”. low height (inaltime) deep. weak strength (putere)…….etc. adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din: not so/not as + adj + as Ex: This room is not so big as the bedroom.. Ex: The bed is as good as the chair. narrow width (largime pt ceva abstract) high. Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate: as brave as a lion as blind as a bat as black as coal as busy as a bee as cool as a cucumber as clear as daylight as dry as a bone as easy as ABC as fresh as a daisy as hairy as a gorilla as mad as a hatter (palarier) as poor as a church-mouse as silent as a grave as wise as Solomon as soft as silk as smooth as grass as gentle as a lamb……. short length (lungime) broad. Comparativ de egalitate Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi: as + adj + as. Schimbare de valoare gramaticala Adjectiv Substantiv big. se adauga doar “r” Ex: nice – nicer  daca adj se termina in “y” precedat de consoana. narrow breadth (largime pt ceva concret) wide.etc.  adj lungi se formeaza: less + adj + than Ex: The chair is less comfortable than the bed. Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia: the same + subst + as NOTA! as si nu like !!! Ex: This room is the same size as the other one. light weight (greutate) strong. small size (masura) long. se transforma “y” in “ier” Ex: pretty – prettier Exceptii: shy – shyer sly – slyer . This room is not as big as the bedroom.

ATENTIE! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile “of” sau “in” Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group. proper. next (urmatorul) far – farther – the farthest (in spatiu) far – further – the furthest (in timp) late – later – the latest. marvelous. up – upper – the upmost . dublez consoana finala Ex: big – bigger  pt adj lungi: more + adj + than Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie. minimum). I am the older. Superlativul absolut very + adj very poate fi inlocuit cu: extremely exceptionally tremendously awfully ATENTIE! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie. perfect.wry – wryer (stramb)  daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala. Dintre 2. nu “the first”. maximum. comparativul implica superlativul: the + comparativ Ex: Between you and me. Altele au sufixe si prefixe: extra – large over – crowded super – fine ultra – short priceless Comparatia neregulata good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst ill – worse – the worst many – more – the most much – more – the most little – less – the least near – nearer – the nearest (cel mai apropiat). unele definesc ideea de unitate (own. Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de “to” si nu de “than” Ex: He is superior to me. the latter (ult din 2). ATENTIE! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente. primul este “the former”. complete. the last (ultimul). Superlativul relativ  adj scurte: the + adj +est Ex: large – the largest silly – the silliest  adj lungi: the most+ adj Ex: This is the most expensive thing.

pt membrii aceleiasi familii) Ex: My elder brother is older than me.… cu atat mai… (the + comparativ …the + comparativ) ATENTIE! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul “to be” lipseste: Ex: The more. your. the better (cu cat mai mare. 3) din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp Ex: It is warmer and warmer ATENTIE! pt adj lungi se repeta doar “more” Ex: It is more and more interesting.in – inner – the inmost out – outer – the outmost fore – former – the foremost old – older – the oldest old – elder – the eldest (doar atributiv. ATENTIE! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. our. aceia (plural departare) ambele merg cu “there”. acesta (singular apropiere) “these” – acestea. cu atat mai bine) ATENTIE! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. your. its. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu “to be” sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu “to be”. acestia (plural apropiere) ambele merg cu “here”. Ex: This book is good. her. 4) cu cat mai. aceea (singular departare) “those” – acelea. Deci “that” si “those” se vor cupla cu trecutul. his. “that” – acela. NOTA! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. ATENTIE! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv). their . (this = adjectiv. Adjectivul demonstrativ  anuleza articolul substantivului  invariabil ca forma (M/F)  se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina  daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ Ex: “this” – aceasta. (fratele meu mai mare) Constructii adjectivale 1) cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today 2) de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year. book = substantiv) This is a good book. (this = pronume) Adjectivul posesiv  invariabil ca forma si numar  anuleaza articolul substantivului  se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina  forme: my. Ex: I am intelligent He looks happy sau He is happy.

Ex: My book. which. Ex: Is there any milk left? . Ex: How many books do you want? Adjectivul relativ  pozitie mediana  introduce o propozitie secundara  invariabil  determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul  forme:  whatever (fara selectie). Adjectivul interogativ  pozitie initiala in propozitie  invariabil ca forma  anuleaza articolul  determina un substantiv  forme: what. Ex: Why are there so many people in some (so many) restaurants? 5. Ex: How much money do you want? How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile. Ex: Which boy is your best friend? What nu presupune selectie. In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui “certain”. In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ. ANY . how much.  whichever (selectie din numar limitat). Ex: Mother.Utilizare: 1. whose./which Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat. In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv. ai. ale cui). Ex: I have some money / friends. how many. 6. can you give me some money? 4. Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate. niste. Ex: Would you like some coffee? 3. In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie. vreo. cativa) . al. In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la “some”. Ex: What days of the week do you know? Diferenta how much / how many How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile. 2. Adjectivul nehotarat SOME (unii.  whose (a. Diferenta: what.este inlocuitorul lui “some” in: 1. Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/. Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best. Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi.

2. In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice. Ex: Any book is good for you. 3. In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc). Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc) 4. In propozitia care contine “if”. (if = incertitudine) Ex: If you find any books, buy them. 5. In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps. Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town. 6. In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat. Ex: I haven’t any friends here. NO - Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ. Ex: I have no friends here. EVERY (fara particularizare) Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi) EACH – (cu particularizare) Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare) EITHER – (fiecare din doi) NEITHER – (nici unul din doi) ATENTIE! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular. Expresii cu every si each Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate) Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica Every right = tot dreptul Every now and than = din cand in cand Every other day = alternativ Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand. SUCH (astfel) - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: I have such friends/information. SUCH A - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: This is such a man of honor. ALL - Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Ex: All books/information must be used. WHOLE - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: I like the whole book. NOTA! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si “whole” si “all” Ex: I’m home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic)

THE OTHER - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural. Ex: The other child/children can swim. Expresia “The other day” = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul. Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile) OTHER + Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: Give me other examples. + Daca e precedat de “no” poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular. Ex: No other man is as good as you are. ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different, in addition) Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)? BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi) Ex: I like both kids -> acordul in plural Both are intelligent. SEVERAL (mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit) + substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: We spent several days there. MOST (majoritatea) + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: Most books/information can be read easily. ENOUGH ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila. Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy. ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el. Ex: He is man enough to understand me.

Numeralul 1. Numeralul cardinal - arata numarul, cantitatea Numeralul zero 1) zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii Ex: It’s ten degrees above zero. 2) love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love) 3) nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal 4) naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar 5) oh = zero pentru numere de telefon De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincte De la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + “teen”), la care accentul cade pe sufix si “i”-ul este lung. De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + “ty”), care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba. Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are “u”!) Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima Ex: 42 = forty-two One hundred = 100 - Ca numeral nu poate avea plural, dar are ca substantiv. Este substantiv cand: a) este urmat de “of”: Ex: hundreds of pages b) nu determina alt substantiv: Ex: hundreds are here Numeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia “and” la englezi si fara la americani. Ex: 210 = two hundred and ten One thousand = 1,000 - Aceleasi reguli ca la suta. One million = 1,000,000 - Fara “s” la TOEFL, dar este corect si cu “s” (2 millions) in engleza. One billion = 1,000,000,000 - Americanii zic milliard. Utilizarea numeralului cardinal: 1) pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul “to be”) 2) pentru calcule matematice: Addition (to add = a aduna) 2 + 3 = 5 two plus/and three is/are/equals five (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea) 5 – 3 = 2 five minus/take away is two (acordul se face doar in sg) Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti) 2 x 3 = 6 two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Division (to divide = a imparti) 6 : 3 = 2 six divided by three is two (acordul se face doar in sg) “reminder” = rest Root = radical - cube root = radical de ordinul 3 - square root = radical de ordinul 2

Power = putere More than = > Less than = < Equal to = egal Unequal to = diferit de Parallel to = paralel Perpendicular to = perpendicular Angle = unghi Right angle = unghi drept Straight angle = unghi de 180 grade Circle angle = unghi de 360 grade Even = par Odd = impar 3) pentru exprimarea unitatii monetare: coin = moneda bill/note = bancnota nickel = 5 centi dime = 10 centi quarter of a dollar = 25 centi half of a dollar = 50 centi 4) pentru unitati de masura – la timpul potrivit (cand primim I20) !!! 5) pentru exprimarea anilor: se citesc cifrele 2 cate 2. nu se citeste Ex: 0. Aproximarea varstei se face cu: almost. intregul se citeste ca atare. under Ex: I’m in my twenties (am douazeci si) I’m mid-twenty (25 ani) 8) pentru exprimarea numerelor de telefon to dial = a forma un numar figure = cifra . NOTA! zero nu se citeste in cadrul acestor 4 cifre ale anilor Ex: 1907 = nineteen seven . (ante domini) sau in the year of Lord . iar anii formati din mai putin de 4 cifre se citesc ca un numeral. (before Christ) 6) pentru exprimarea numerelor zecimale (“decimal fractions”). punct in loc de virgula.) = a. sau I’m aged twenty.1 = point one 7) pentru exprimarea varstei (cu verbul “to be”) Ex: I’m twenty (years old) / I’m twenty years of age.c.d.era noastra (e.03 = twenty point naught three NOTA! daca intregul este <1.inaintea erei noastre = b. iar partea zecimala cifra cu cifra Ex: 20. about (around). over.n.

informal Ex: What’s the time? What time is it? What’s the time by your watch? My watch is fast = ceasul meu e inainte My watch is slow = ceasul meu e in urma My watch is wrong = ceasul meu nu merge bine My watch is broken = ceasul meu e stricat face = cadran belt = curelusa hand = limba de ceas (minutes hand. oh 9) pentru exprimarea orei: .slot = orificiu pentru ban booth = cabina telefonica receiver = receptor long-distance call = convorbire la distanta call collector = convorbire cu taxa inversa operator = centralista extension = interior to be through = a avea legatura to hang on = a ramane pe fir to hang up = a inchide Numerele de telefon se citesc cifra cu cifra cu exceptia cifrei repetate daca este la inceputul sau la sfarsitul numarului. 7. 3. seconds hand) Pentru ora exacta: a) It’s seven o’clock sharp PM/AM b) 00.00 = midnight 12. oh.00 = midday c) It’s half past … (e si jumate) d) It’s a quarter past/to … (e si un sfert/ fara un sfert) e) It’s ten minutes past/to (e si/fara zece) Ora oficiala: 08:00 = oh eight hundred hours 23:24 = twenty three twenty four Numerale speciale: couple = 2 (pt oameni si pt timp).formal . incaltaminte. Regula nu se aplica pentru zero. Ex: 223700 – double two. unelte cu structuri paralele) Ex: a pair of shoes yoke = team = 2 pentru animale Ex: a yoke of cattle = 2 vite a team of oxen = 2 boi brace = 2 pentru vanat Ex: I have brace duck (am 2 rate salbatice) score = 20 half a score = 10 . couple of minutes = 2 minute pair = 2 pereche (pt imbracaminte.

4th. … 101. numitorul va fi in plural Ex: 2/3 = two thirds Intregul = the whole Fractia pe 100 = per cent Procentaj = percentage Numeralul distributiv . 23. …21st. 2nd. etc. 32. 102. 1002. NOTA! “th” se aplica doar ultimei cifre ! Modificari ortografice: five – the fifth eight – the eighth nine – the ninth twelve – the twelfth twenty – the twentieth (+ toate cele terminate in “ty”) Utilizarea numeralului ordinal: 1) exprimarea datei (in 2 forme) a) luna/zi/an b) zi/luna/an 2) exprimarea ordinii intr-o insiruire Ex: Henry the eighth the first floor the second World War 3) pentru numeralul fractionar (common fraction/vulgar fraction) numerator = numaratorul (cardinal) denominator = numitorul (ordinal) Ex: 1/3 = one third NOTA! daca numaratorul > 1.Arata distributia lucrurilor: One by one = unul cate unul Two at a time = 2 odata By twos / in twos = cate 2 . Numeralul ordinal Se formeaza din: the + numeral cardinal + th Exceptii: the first (primul) the second (al doilea) the third (al treilea) + toate celelalte numerale compuse care contin una din aceste exceptii (21.dozen = 12 gross = 144 (12 duzini) 2. 3rd. 22nd. 33. 1001. 22. 31. etc) Prescurtari: 1st.

NOTA! nu exista “twice more”. ci “twice as much as” = de 2 ori mai mult Numeralul multiplicativ .Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate: double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori) tenfold = inzecit .Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune: once = o data twice = de 2 ori 3 times 4 times.Numeralul adverbial . etc.

thine. plural – these  Caz: Nominativ .: It's 7 o'clock.Pronumele Functia pronumelui Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Nehotarate 4. Interogative 8. functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv. exprimand starea vremii. (to) thee You / They impersonal .this. whatever.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain. Genitiv . Who did all the work? Forma pronumelui Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:  Numar: singular .: John did all the work.to her. Acuzativ – her  Gen: masculin . neutru . obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Feminin . facand astfel referire la o idee. Ex. It . Demonstrative 5. He did all the work.putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general. Reflexive 3. . Dativ .it Pronumele pot fi simple (you. Reciproce Pronumele personale Nominativ Genitiv Dativ Acuzativ I you Singular he she it we Plural you they mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it (to) us (to) you (to) them me you him her it us you them ATENTIE! I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. Relative 6. II sg. Ex. many) sau compuse (everybody. . Personale 2. distante sau in contructii pasive) Ex.poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale. Clasificarea pronumelor 1. It's vine de la it is sau it has! Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof.she.she. They say she's very clever. De întarire 7. Ele nu denumesc si nu aracterizeaza nimic. no one).thou. which.he.hers.

every se pot combina cu -one. himself. all. some. every.: Few will be chosen. yourself. everybody. (referring to an explanation just made) This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala. . no-one. No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better. someone. little. I do not like them at all. few. more. he fell off the ladder and injured herself. (referring to a recent experience) Such is my belief. on the table) is trash. these.) Can you belive I would have bought that? Pronumele relative Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. those. anybody. whoever. Pronumele reflexive Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. neither. everyone. Forme: Singular: myself. over there. ci determinanti substantivali. each. many.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) I will never forget this. which. much. any. Is it Monday? How hot it is! How far is it to the station? It demostrativ Ex. none. less. herself. several.: Who is it? It's the postman.It was spring. somebody. De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume. both. most. any. something. Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva: Ex. somebody. that. fewer will finish. Ex. This (book in my hand) is well written. Ex. -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone. everybody. It's the children. cat si ca determinanti substantivali. either. -body. Little is expected. that (book that I'm pointing to. Alte pronume nehotarate: enough.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me. everyone. someone. yourselves. Ex. that.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. NOTA! Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana. Pronumele relative sunt : who.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. anything. pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare. everything. pronumele nehotarate anyone. anybody. themselves Ex. no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele demostrative: this. itself Plural: ourselves. Pronumele nehotarate Some. fewer. such pot functiona atat ca pronume.

idei. They borrowed each other's ideas.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas. We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell. which se refera la lucruri. Ex: Here is a book. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. It is very interesting. Mary did all this herself.. Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. The team that won the championship received a great reception. pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte. Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom? Ex. yourselves. nepersonificate. which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze.: Who said that? Whose are those books? I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. Expresii: by myself = singur. What happened? What's the weather like? Pronumele reciproce Forme: each other si one another. itself Plural: ourselves.: I myself don't know the answer. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule. explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei.gen neutru – folosit pentru obiecte şi noţiuni abstracte. persoana a treia sg. herself. Ex. Who si formele sale se refera la persoane. propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.Ex. This is the program which won the prize. lucruri. In general.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment. yourself. . Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best. My mother and I give each other a hard time. Ex. themselves Ex. we can say that they gave each other books. himself. Pronumele interogativ Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari.: I worked by myself. Pronumele “IT” – functii: 1. Hockey players hit one another quite frequently. De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte. animale nepersonificate şi cărora nu li se cunosc sexul sau sunt luate în sens generic. Pronumele de intarire Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte. Pronume personal. de unul singur Ex. Mary herself did all this. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive: Singular: myself.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba The couple who live next door have the radio on all night. iar that poate face referire la ambele.

Fenomene meteorologice şi naturale: It is raining cats and dogs –plouă cu găleata(torenţial).are rolul de a introduce propoyiţia printr-un subiect formal deoarece subiectul real este deplasat după numele predicativ pentru a-l scoate în evidenţă. Starea lucrurilor în general: It‘s ok sau it‘s all right! 3. Pronume personal-folosit pentru a indica: a. Ex: It‘s nice to see /seeing such a garden –este o plăcere să vezi o asmenea grădină. b.How ould is your baby? It is five months ould. –Nu. It lightens –fulgeră. 2. It thunders –tună. Introductiv de întărire sau subliniere având rolul de a sublinia foarte puternic sau de a scoate în evidenţă oricare parte a propoziţiei cu excepţia predicatului. Starea atmosferică: It is getting dark –se întunericeşte.prefer să merg pe jos. Pronume nesemnificativ –folosit ca. . complement direct formal mai ales al unor verbe intranzitive. No. Introductiv anticipativ . It is ten degrees above zero –sunt +10º f. Ex: Shall we cab it to the station ? –Să luăm taxiul până la staţie. Acest tip de pronume apare frecvent în engleza vorbită.Peter este cel care a rezolvat toate problemele. Scurgerea timpului: It is getting lake –se face târziu c. g. Pronume introductiv a. Ex: It‘s Peter who/that solved all the problems. It‘s rather cloudy –mai degrabă e înorat d.de obicei introdusă prin conjuncţia That. b.. 5. Pronume demonstrativ (echivalent cu That sau Which rsferindu-se la ceva văzut sau menţionat înainte) Ex : He expressed his sympathies –şi-a prezentat condoleanţele It was nice of him (to do that) –drăguţ din partea lui (să facă asta) 4. Distanţele: It‘snearly ten kilometres to Albota-sunt aproape 10 km până la Albota. Timpul după calendar sau ceas : It is six o‘clock on the 4th of February. Subiectul real se poate exprima prin:  Infinitivul lung –‘to see‘  Construcţii gerumviale  O propoziţie subiectivă.I‘ would rather foot it.

to have talk. to be – was la pers I si a II-a singular. Johnson is a dentist. a poseda si intra in alcatuirea alocutiunilor verbale (to have a bath. There is a person outside the door. (= Meg is on the point of leaving. VERBUL DO DO – DID – DONE Utilizare: DO se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis. (= He plans to give…) 5. to have a shower. 2. Verbele auxiliare (to be. Did they go to the opera yesterday? 2. 3. DO ca verb auxiliar: 1.Verbul (the verb) A. to have – had VERBUL BE BE – WAS – BEEN Utilizare: 1.) 6.  Trecutul verbelor auxiliareŞ  Pt. starea fizica sau mentala sau alte informatii despre o persoana sau un lucru: Dr. were pt. (= You must finish…) The chairman is to give his annual speech tomorrow. The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake. THERE + BE + SUBSTANTIV: pentru a indica existenta unei fiinte sau a unui lucru: There are two pieces of cake left in the fridge. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIV: pentru a indica viitorul imediat: Meg is about to leave. Hasn’t he? Yes. pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului simplu so trecutului simplu: The kitten doesn’t play with strangers. to have a rest. to have)  Sunt verbe deosebit de puternice  Au forme distincte pt. How old are you? 4. BE TO + INFINITIV: pentru a da ordine/instructiuni sau pentru a comunica un plan: You are to finish your homework before dinner. A. toate celelalte  Pt. pentru a exprima varsta: The baby is two months old. to have a walk. pentru construirea timpurilor continue si a formei pasive: The old man is taking an afternoon nap.  Isi fac singure interogativul prin inversarea cu subiectul  Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei “not”  Isi fac singure intrebarea disjunctiva si raspunsul scurt Ex: He has a car. . prezent si trecut  Intra in alcatuirea altor timpuri verbale:  to be la toate formele de continuu  to have la toate timpurile perfecte  Nu-si pot forma participiul nedefinit (forma in “ing”) cu exceptia situatiei cand verbul “to have” pierde sensul de a avea. pentru a evita repetarea aceluiasi verb sau aceleiasi expresii: My company made a profit last year but IBM did not. to do. he has. pentru a exprima existenta. He is calm and patient. to have lunch).

HAD BETTER + INFINITIV fara TO (short INFINITIVE): They had better study hard from the first day of school. (It would be a good idea if you went home. posesia: Anne always has a cold. She certainly did! 3. a executa. HAVE ca verb propriu-zis: 1. Past perfect: I had worked. a administra. 2. Debbie’s got a lovely voice. Have you got a computer? . He always does the job well. pentru a forma alte timpuri: Present perfect: I have worked. Past conditional: I would have worked. The office clerk did the transaction yesterday. NOTA: A nu se confunda DO cu MAKE! Verbul MAKE are sensul general de a crea.Mary typed that letter very badly. pentru a sublinia un afirmativ sau imperativ: Do eat your vegetables! You’re wrong: I did pay you! B. HAVE ca verb auxiliar: 1. a realiza. a cauza.) 3. Comparati: to do someone a favour to make a friend to do one’s best to make the bed to do good to make money to do the dishes to make a rule to do the shopping to make a mistake to do one’s homework to make a mess to do a crossword puzzle to make a living to do one’s duty to make fun of someone to do well/badly to make oneself at home VERBUL HAVE HAVE – HAD – HAD Utilizare: HAVE se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis. Anne doesn’t always have a cold. DO ca verb propriu-zis – are sensul general de a duce la bun sfarsit. a construi. a produce. a pune in practica: Students should do the exercises at the end of each unit. Future perfect: I will have worked. (It would be a good idea if they studied hard from…) You’d better go home. A. I WON’T HAVE + COMPLEMENT + -ING: I won’t have that dog sleeping on my bed! (I won’t permit that dog to sleep on my bed!) B. se intareste sensul posesiv. Does Anne always have a cold? Cand HAVE este urmat de GOT. a face sa fie sau a prepara.

he probably has help. a manca. cu exceptia raspunsului scurt  Nu pot avea forma in “ing”  Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile  Au inlocuitori  Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul  Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei “not”  Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt CAN Utilizare: 1. HAVE + COMPLEMENT + PAST PARTICIPLE: Mrs.) 2. Can you speak English? Tim is hopeless. If he studied harder. (My best friend has someone to cut his hair every Friday. pentru a cere. pentru a face referire la abilitate sau indemanare in prezent. . similar cu may. Our neighbours had a cocktail party last week. NOTA: forme alternative: You are permitted / are allowed to / may drive ar seventeen in the UK.) My best friend has his hair trimmed every Friday. He can’t even fry and egg. please? I’ve left mine at home. You cannot go hunting out of season. 3. dar mai putin formal: You can drive at seventeen in the UK. she can type ninety words a minute. a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea. Riley had her house painted. Let’s try his office.2. a bea sau a organiza: The twins usually have dinner early. he could be there. in trecut sau la conditional: She is a great secretary. (It is impossible. he’s broken his leg. Ex: Ken could not be building the house by himself. prezent si trecut  Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata) Ex: I can (fara to) go  Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung  Nu apar niciodata singure. (He is building the house himself. we can go skiing today. Bill cannot drive for a few weeks. it is too much work. pentru a face referire la probabilitate. Verbele modale  Verbe puternice  Au forme distincte pt. he could pass the exam. (Mrs. Riley got someone to paint her house.) Ken might not be building thehouse by himself.) B. in trecut sau la conditional: Look. there’s plenty of snow. posibilitate sau imposibilitate in prezent. could si might au sensuri diferite. ATENTIE: la negativ. Can I borrow your pen. My aunt Mary doesn’t have coffee often. 3.

I could have driven you to the airport. Can I open the window? (can poate fi si el folosit. e mai bine sa ma duc devreme la culcare. (= Din moment ce nu este nimic interesant la TV. You may not smoke in my car. You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. you might convince him to come. 4. Inlocuitori: to be able to. to be capable to MAY Utilizare: 1. It is likely to rain. Might poate fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redusa posibilitate: There’s a black cloud above us.NOTA: pentru alte timpuri. dar este considerat mai putin politicos) 3. Alice may get angry if you tell her. ATENTIE: may / might as well are alt sens: There is nothing interesting on TV this evening. You may go in to see the doctor now. NOTA: forme alternative: You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. NOTA: formele alternative sunt: Maybe it wil rain. a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos: May I open the window? It is very hot in this office. The Government is very likely to deicde to raise the price of gas. adesea cu sens de viitor. I may / might as well have an early night. but I didn’t have my car. cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate: I think it may well rain today. could + INFINITIV perfect. look at those black clouds. NOTA: forme alternative: I think it is very likely to rain today. pentru a cere. If you try hard enough. • si cu forma continua: Call me after eight I may be working hard late tonight. 2. NOTA: forme alternative: Am I allowed to open the window? You are not permitted to smoke in my car. se foloseste be able to: She will be able to / has been able to type 100 words a minute. Alice is likely to get angry if you tell her. cu referire la evenimente sau actiuni posibile sau probabile in prezent.) . • cand nu stim daca actiunea s-a petrecut sau nu: Have you seen my umbrella? Dad could have taken it. It may rain. The Government may well decide to raise the price of gas again. pentru a se referi la o actiune care nu a avut loc: You could have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. Maybe Alice will get angry if you tell her. Alex says he might be going on holiday without his parents this year.

Inlocuitori: “to be allowed to”. Arata o deductie logica Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now. Ex: Need she get up early? She needn’t go there. Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii. Inlocuitori: to have to. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical. died when the Titanic sank. 11. Dupa verbele “to hope” si “to trust” Ex: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema. to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat) 6. “to be permitted to” MUST 1. 6. Ex: I must go now. 5. who might have been saved. 2. a) Must needs Ex: I must needs see your teacher. dar nu s-a petrecut. Do I need a new car? (b) Verb modal – se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative. (b) verb modal. 4. Exprimarea unei urari Ex: May all your dreams come true. 2. Exista 2 constructii cu “need” considerate arhaice. 9. arata obligativitatea Ex: I must go now. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece in trecut. I have to wear uniform.4. to be obliged to. se poate folosi numai might: You might have burnt your hand while taking that hot tray out of the oven (but you didn’t). Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to. Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere. (a) Verb lexical . hardly. NEED 1. scarcely Ex: He hardly need mention his name. Diferenta dintre must si have to. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la o presupunere in trecut: Bill isn’t at his office. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si “might” – mai ales pt conditional. Brian might not have been killed by Sally. 8. barely. needn’t (nu este necesar).este un verb regulat Ex: I need a new car. Atentie! Totusi “need” se poate intalni si in afirmative ca modal – propozitii in care exista de regula never. La forma negativa are doar forma “may not” (nu exista forma contrasa mayn’t) 10. Negativ: mustn’t (nu trebuie). Exprimarea unei interdictii Ex: People may not bring dogs into the hotel. he may have gone home early. 7. = trebuie. 3. A lot of people. . 5.

b) Needs must – sugereaza ideea de sarcasm Ex: She needs must bring me now when I have … OUGHT TO 1. Arata o datorie ca recomandare. Folosit dupa constructii ca: so that. 3. Folosit pt. 3. can’t think why. Ex: I feel sorry that he should go back. 5. actiune repetata in trecut Ex: I would meet you whenever I crossed the road. Folosit daca e precedat de verbe ca: to suggest. to be delighted. Ex: I got up early for fear that/ lest/ so that I should arrive in time. Negativ: “oughtn’t” SHOULD . to propose. Poate fi urmat de “rather” sau “sooner” pentru a exprima preferinta Ex: I would rather sleep than go for a walk. 5. to recommend. Nu are forma de sine statatoare de trecut. a exprima un obicei. to insist. to be annoyed (uimit). lest (ca sa nu). A nu se confunda cu “to be used to” care cere dupa ea verbul in “ing” Ex: I am used to getting up early. number? 2. (sunt obisnuit cu sculatul de dimineata) DARE . Daca e urmat de have si verb la participiul trecut exprima o datorie care s-a indeplinit Ex: You ought to have waited till 2 o’clock. in order that. 4. Pt a exprima probabilitatea Ex: The man would be his neighbor. Pt. Arata un obicei trecut Ex: I used to visit my grand parents when I was child. see no reason why Ex: I don’t know why you should ask me that.Este mai moale ca ought to 1. to advice Ex: I suggest that you should learn English. for fear that. 7. o cerere politicoasa Ex: Would you give me your tel. 2. Se formeaza: ought + have + participiu trecut + to Ex: Ought have invited to join the party. 2. Pt exprimarea supozitiei Ex: For his age he should be taller. 4. Dupa verbe de stari emotionale: to feel sorry for. 3. e cel mai slab din cele care = trebuie Ex: You should read this book. 4. Dupa expresiile: don’t know why. Urmat de like ca sa aiba inteles mai politicos Ex: I would like to meet you. Imi pare rau ca trebuie sa se intoarca. USED TO 1. WOULD 1. 6. Arata obligativitatea morala de a-si face datoria Ex: I ought to go (nu are acelasi nuanta cu “must”) 2. Folosit cand este precedat de o constructie impersonala: it is important/ necessary/ natural/ better Ex: It is important that you should understand.

Verbe lexicale Modurile predicative (pot sa fie predicat in propozitie): a) indicativ b) conditional c) subjonctiv d) imperativ (1) a) b) c) Modurile nepredicative: infinitivul participiul gerund MODUL INDICATIV Are 3 timpuri: . (a) Valoarea modala – in propozitii negative si interogative. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de un program. I daresay = I accept I daresay you are right again. Ex: I dare to ask you about my dog. (b) lexicala.prezent . Ex: Dare you say this? (indraznesti sa spui asta) I daren’t go there (nu indraznesc sa merg acolo) (b) valoare ca verb lexical in propozitii afirmative fiind verb regulat.viitor Prezentul are 4 aspecte: . . 4.Simplu . Desemneaza o actiune repetata ce devine o obisnuinta 2. often. NOTA! Pt a exprima indignarea se foloseste expresia: “How dare you” Ex: How dare you come so late? C. Adverbe specifice: usually. 3.Perfect continuu PREZENTUL SIMPLU 1.1. never Ex: Every day I go to my office. Fish swim. Desemneaza un adevar universal valabil. Are 2 valori: (a) modala.Perfect . o lege Ex. I dare say = I suppose I dare say I will invite them to dinner.trecut .Continuu . Ex: The train arrives tonight. always. every.

to kill. to forget. to end. In naratiune Ex: The boy enters the room. Pentru actiuni care. to smell. to cancel. while). Negativ subiect + don’t/doesn’t + verb la infinitiv scurt Ex: She doesn’t cry. Cu verbe de perceptie mentala: to think. 11. 10. Does she cry a lot? 13. Desemneaza o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii (in this very moment/now/right now) Ex: I am speaking now. to enjoy. 2. takes the ball and goes out. Se formeaza din subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt . to hate. to feel etc. Pt actiuni care. 8. to realize. “ch”. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de subiect Ex: I am leaving soon. 4. “ss”. but on Sunday I am getting up at 9. actiuni repetate care ma enerveaza . to dislike. 5. Pt. 3. Cu verbe de perceptie afectiva: to like. indicatii regizorale. 9. to quite. 6. actiuni prezente paralele in desfasurare (when. desi nu se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii. to sound. PREZENTUL CONTINUU 1. to shoot. “tch”. “z” sau “o” se adauga “es” Ex: to go => goes wash => washes b) Daca verbul se termina in “y” precedat de consoana se transforma “y” in “i” si se adauga “es”. to die. to hear. desi se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii. pentru pers III sg se adauga “s” 12. “x”. Modificari ortografice la persoana a III-a: a) Daca verbul se termina in “s”. Interogativul do/does + subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt Ex: She cries a lot. to stop. Se foloseste in descrieri Ex: The sun is shinning. nu au durata (verbe nondurative): to start. to taste. Ex: While I am talking he is sleeping. to finish. to remember. Ex: Every day I get up at 7. to remind. comentarii sportive) 6. 7. Pt. Cu verbe de perceptie senzoriala: to see.5. Ex: cry => cries 13. “sh”. constituie o rupere de ritm. to suppose. Pt actiuni pas cu pas (instructiuni de utilizare.

care fie tocmai s-a incheiat. PREZENTUL PERFECT 1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta. Interogativul . si atunci intra pe trecut).se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei “not” la verbul “to be” Ex: I am not drinking.se formeaza prin inversarea auxiliarului cu subiectul Ex: Am I sleeping? 9. (stiu cand => trecut) dar I have seen her lately. Spre deosebire de trecut. (raspunsul trebuie sa contina “have”-ul din intrebare. (se conjuga doar “to be”) Verbul in “ing” = participiu prezent si are urmatoarele modificari ortografice. Se formeaza din subiect + verbul to be + verb in “ing”. la prezent perfect momentul incheierii actiunii nu trebuie sa fie cunoscut Ex: I saw her yesterday. fie ca se desfasoara intr-un timp deschis. dar trebuie sa precizez momentul.: a) Daca verbul se termina in “e” acesta cade inaintea lui “ing” Ex: to dance => dancing b) Verbele terminate in “ie” transforma “ie” in “y” Ex: to lie => lying c) verbele terminate in consoana precedata de vocala moale dubleaza consoana finala Ex: to sit => sitting ! Sufixul “ing” nu afecteaza “y” si “i” final al verbului Ex: to play => playing to ski => skiing 8. nedeterminat. Se formeaza din have / has + verb III (participiu trecut) . I met her an hour ago. (nu stiu cand => prezent perfect) Ex: Did you see “Gone with the wind”? (nu mai poti sa-l vezi) dar Have you seen “American Pie”? (mai poti sa-l vezi) ! de multe ori la o intrebare in prezent perfect raspunsul vine in trecut daca precizez momentul cand a avut loc actiunea Ex: Have you met her? Yes. care desemneaza tot o actiune trecuta. (constatare obisnuita) She is always eating fruits before soup. (enervare) 7. Negativul . I have.Ex: dar She always eats fruits before soup.

adauga “ked” Ex: panic – panicked 5) daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala moale (vocala intre 2 consoane). se formeaza cu sufixul “ed” adaugata la forma infinitivului scurt Modificari ortografice: 1) daca verbul se termina in “e”. In interogative are sensul de “deja”: Ex: Have you met her yet? (daca ar trebui transpusa in propozitie afirmativa. sometimes) . seldom. usually. fara a preciza durata sau momentul de final). dubleaza consoana si adauga “ed” Ex: to stop – stopped (b) Verbele neregulate Au forma II si forma III diferite. already) Ex: I have just met her. recently. In propozitie are pozitie aproape finala. for – timp de (arata durata actiunii.neregulate (b) (a) Verbele regulate Au forma II si forma III identice. since – incepand din (arata momentul de inceput.adverbe de frecventa indefinita: (just. adauga doar “d” 2) daca verbul se termina in “y” precedat de consoana. fara a preciza momentul de inceput si de final). “yet” ar deveni “already”) => I have already met her. ! dupa “since” urmeaza intotdeauna trecut daca mai urmeaza o propozitie .Verbele se impart in: . Ex: I haven’t met you since Monday. il dubleaza mereu Ex: travel – travelled cancel – cancelled 4) daca verbul se termina in “ic”. Pozitia este spre finalul propozitiei. never. ever. yet – se aseaza doar pe finalul propozitiei si numai in propozitii interogative si negative.adverbe de frecventa definita: (often. Adverbele specifice prezentului perfect Intre cele 2 verbe (auxiliar si verb) avem .regulate (a) . In negativa are sensul de “inca”: Ex: I haven’t met her yet. Ex: I haven’t met her for 2 years. transforma y in i si adauga “ed” Ex: cry – cried 3) daca verbul se termina in “l”.

etc. ! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune. Ex: Citesc cartea asta de cand am venit (nu stiu de cate ori) I have been reading this book since I came. ! prezentul perfect corespunde in romana trecutului (perfectul compus) Ex: A nins = It has snowed (nu stiu cand) dar A nins acum o ora = It snowed an hour ago. PREZENT PERFECT CONTINUU . today. this year / month / week). am terminat. iar am inceput. (verb existential = pleonasm) DA – I have been working in this company all my life. nu mai pot folosi forma continua. pentru ca practic se fragmenteaza actiunea.corespunde in romana prezentului Ex: Ninge de 2 zile.) Adverbe specifice – sunt de continuitate (since si for) . ! se foloseste doar cu verbe durative – care au o durata de actiune (nu poti sa spui ca moare de 2 ore) ! se foloseste cu verbe meteo ! are caracter subiectiv (nu pot spune despre altul ca doarme de 2 ore) ! cu: to work to live to study nu se poate folosi forma continua decat daca precizez anumite conditii Ex: NU ! – I have been working all my life.Ex: I haven’t met her since I came. (este o actiune mai trecuta decat cea cu intalnirea) Pe pozitia finala mai avem adv de timp deschis (lately. se obtine prin inversia acestuia cu subiectul Ex: Has it snowed? Negativul – prin adaugarea negatiei “not” la auxiliarul “have” Ex: It hasn’t snowed. (am inceput. Interogativul – avand in constructie auxiliarul “to be”. I have read this book twice since I came. fie se desfasoara intr-un timp nedeterminat Ex: It has been snowing for 2 days.desemneaza o actiune trecuta care s-a desfasurat necontenit si care fie tocmai s-a incheiat. dar Am citit cartea asta de 2 ori de cand am venit. de 2 zile = actiunea a inceput in trecut si continua pana in prezent) have / has + been + V-ing . (ninge = prezent.

2) desemneaza o actiune la care momentul incheierii ei este bine precizat Adverbe specifice – yesterday.Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “have” TRECUTUL Timpul trecut are 4 forme: . last year / month. etc. scriam. 3 days ago. devine She told me that she wanted to win. ci ghilimelele de sus).perfect (III) .continuu (II) . II. ! pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu. Interogativ – Did + (S) + V infinitiv scurt Ex: Did you watch TV? Negativ – (S) + didn’t + V infinitiv scurt Ex: I didn’t watch TV. . Ex: I visited them yesterday. the day before yesterday.perfect continuu (IV) I. Trecutul simplu Forma: verbul la forma II 1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta. devenita obisnuinta (in romana corespunde cu perfectul compus) Ex: I used to visit my grandparents last year.simplu (I) . Trecutul continuu Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam. (Virgula are valoare de 2 puncte inainte de cuvintele cuiva si nu exista linie de dialog. 3) are valoare de prezent la trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta Ex: She said. when. 2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard. citeam) Forma: was / were + V-ing 1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment trecut raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday) Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 o’clock. the other day. repetata. “I want to win”.

you came. Trecut perfect continuu Forma: had + been + V-ing Desemneaza o actiune trecuta desfasurata necontenit si incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau al unui moment trecut Ex: I had been waiting for you 2 hours before you came. already. hardly. care ma enerva Ex: He was always asking me to help him! Interogativul si negativul – prin auxiliarul “to be” Ex: Was I dancing when you came? III. are caracter subiectiv doar cand actiunea are o specificatie de genul Ex: I had been living in this house for 5 years before we moved. incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute Ex: O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat) I had seen her before she left. 3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly. no sooner. by the time. Forma: had + verb III 1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta. repetata. after si before ! nu se foloseste decat cu verbe durative. 3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu “when” si “while”) Ex: While I was talking. just. since Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived. nu se mai poate folosi forma continua . Adverbe specifice – for. barely. cu inversie devine Hardly had I met her when she left. Adv specifice – after. before. scarcely. vorbisem. for. mai ales in inversie.Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box. scarcely. I had seen her before 1989. Trecutul perfect Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem. citisem). 4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta. since. ! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune. incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut Ex: O vazusem inainte de 1989. Ex: I had met her before she left. Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “had” IV. barely. 2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta.

till. Acest prezent poate sa fie: a) simplu – daca depinde de un program Ex: I shall come when the train arrives. the following … 2) desemneaza o actiune viitoare desfasurata in mod repetat. while. 2) actiuni viitoare in desfasurare (paralele) – when. nu pot avea viitor in ambele (when si while nu permit viitor) Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul viitor “shall / will” . ! propozitiile secundara introduse prin temporale (when. b) continuu – daca depinde de subiect Ex: I shall come when I am finding the ticket.Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “had” VIITORUL Viitorul simplu Forma: shall (I sg. often Ex: I shall always think of you. usually. ! atentie. in secundara nu pot avea decat prezent. the day after tomorrow. pl) / will + V infinitiv scurt (in SUA – will la toate persoanele) Prescurtare: ‘ll Ex: You’ll be home soon. next …. while Ex: While I’m watching TV you will be sleeping.) si if. etc. ! daca in propozitia principala am viitor. until. devenita obisnuinta Adverbe specifice – always. c) prezent perfect – cand actiunea este anterioara momentului viitor Ex: I shall come when I have saved enough money. Interogativul – prin inversia auxiliarului shall / will Ex: Will you take this car? Negativul – shall + not = shan’t will + not = won’t Viitorul continuu Forma: shall / will + be + V-ing 1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului vorbirii sau intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului precizat (tomorrow this time / tomorrow between 3 and 5). after. before. as soon as. nu pot sa contina viitor si contin prezent. 1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment bine definit Adverbe specifice – tomorrow.

Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “to be” Viitorul in trecut Forma: should / would + V infinitiv scurt Este un timp sintetic care nu poate sa apara in propozitia principala. Celelalte forme de viitor in trecut (viitor de intentie in trecut / viitor apropiat in trecut) apar cand am un verb la trecut in principala. rugaminte. . ! nu se poate folosi cu verbul “to go” si “to come”.Viitorul de intentie Forma: to be going to + V infinitiv scurt (se conjuga doar verbul “to be”) 1) desemneaza intentia (am de gand sa. (trecut) viitor (in rom) I told her that I should go to the movie. ci cu “to leave” si “to return” Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul “to be” Viitorul apropiat Desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura datorita unei porunci. iar in secundara trebuie sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara. o actiune viitoare ce urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un moment viitor apropiat Ex: I think it’s going to rain. ci in secundara atunci cand in propozitia principala am un verb la timpul trecut si vreau sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara acelui moment trecut. Are 2 forme: a) to be to + V infinitiv scurt (folosit pt ordine. sau intr-un moment imediat urmator. In acest caz verbul “to be” apare la trecut. ordin. I told him that I was going to buy the car. intentionez sa). ! daca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in propozitia secundara are durata. Ex: I-am spus ca ma voi duce la film. voi folosi forma continua => should / would + be + V-ing Ex: I told him that I should be waiting for him. Ex: I-am spus ca am de gand sa cumpar masina. comenzi) Ex: You are to read the book before midnight. b) to be about to + V infinitiv scurt (= a fi pe punctul de a) Ex: He is about to cry.

tine de un moment trecut) In principala – conditional perfect (should / would + have + V III) In secundara – subjonctiv trecut perfect / trecut perfect Ex: M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi stiut adresa. .Viitorul perfect Forma: shall / will + have + verb III Este o actiune viitoare desfasurata intr-un moment viitor anterior inceput. diferenta constand in faptul ca am conjunctia “if”. – prezent continuu (daca actiunea depinde de mine) Ex: I shall come if I am desiring this. ! “if” poate fi omis pentru cazurile 2 si 3. Acest conditional corespunde regulii de la viitor (viitor in principala – prezent in secundara). ! daca exista actiune cu desfasurare necontenita. 3) trecut (actiune ireala si imposibil de realizat. Ex: Pana la sfarsitul anului voi fi invatat toate verbele. I shall have learned all the verbs by the end of the year. Daca as fi in locul tau as citi cartea. I should come if I had time. posibil de realizat in viitor) In principala – conditional viitor (shall / will + V inf scurt) In secundara – prezent simplu (daca depinde de un program) Ex: I shall come if the plane lands on time. 2) prezent (actiune ireala. (incep sa invat mai de mult si pana la momentul viitor de reper. actiunea va fi terminata). If I were you I should read the book. forma identica were) Ex: As veni daca as avea timp. – prezent perfect (daca actiunea este anterioara) Ex: I shall come if I have done my homework. folosesc o forma continua shall / will + have + been + V-ing Ex: Te voi fi asteptat 2 ore pana la sfarsitul zilei. Omisiunea se face prin aducerea propozitiei secundare in fata si inversia subiectului cu predicatul. I should have gone there if I had known the address. I shall have been waiting for you 2 hours by the end of the day. Viitorul perfect si viitorul perfect continuu nu se folosesc decat in vorbire (nu le intalnim in TOEFL decat la listening !!!) Interogativul si negativul – cu auxiliarul CONDITIONALUL Are 3 forme: 1) viitor (conditie reala. dar posibil de realizat in prezent sau viitor) In principala – conditional prezent (should / would + V inf scurt) In secundara – subjonctiv trecut / trecut simplu (diferenta subj – trecut este ca “to be” are la subj.

devine Had I time should I go there.Pentru conditionalul 2: I should go there if I had time. I should go there. devine Had I known the address I should have gone there. Ex: I should go there if I knew the address. so / as long as – se foloseste cand sugerez ideea de restrictionare . Ex condit. In case I find the ticket I shall return. I shouldn’t go there unless I knew the address. 3: I should have invited them if it hadn’t been their choice. in case – se foloseste numai cu conditional viitor Ex: I shall return if I find the ticket. pred verbal neg But for their chioce. Pentru conditionalul 3: I should have gone there if I had known the address. 2: I should go for a walk if it weren’t for the rain. but for – se foloseste atunci cand in propozitia secundara am verbul “to be” cu valoare de predicat verbal la sensul negativ (il y a). I should have invited them. pred verbal neg But for the rain.se foloseste pt propozitii negative Ex: I shouldn’t go there if I didn’t know the address. ! daca in conditionalul 2 nu am un verb auxiliar sau modal care sa poata face inversia cu subiectul. I should go for a walk. ma voi folosi de “should”. devine Should I know the address. ! (este singura data cand avem 2 de “should”) If poate fi inlocuit prin alte expresii ca: unless but for in case so long as providing that provided that supposing that suppose that unless (=daca nu) . Ex condit. But for nu se poate folosi decat pentru conditionalul 2 si 3.

2) dupa verbul “wish” Ex: I wish you were here. I shall give it to you. .b) Subjonctivul sintetic trecut Simplu Este forma a II-a a verbului.e expresii impersonale: it is necessary it is essential it is important Ex: It is impossible that he arrive in time.analitic (2) a) prezent b) trecut (simplu si perfect) 1. o obligatie. 4) in propozitii care contin urmatoare. So /as long as you take care of the book.sintetic (1) . Long live the Queen.Ex: I shall give you the book if you take care of it. numai ca verbul “to be” are mereu forma “were”. 2) la injuraturi Ex: Damn you! Curse this rain! God bless you! 3) in propozitii secundare introduse prin “that” daca in principala am o dorinta. foarte folosit in engleza americana 1) se foloseste in urari Ex: May all your dreams come true. o necesitate: to suggest to recommend to order to demand to urge Ex: I urged that she sit down. Utilizare: 1) in propozitiile conditionalului 2 Ex: I should take it if I were you. 1.a) Subjonctivul sintetic prezent Identic ca forma cu infinitivul scurt. providing that / provided that – tot pentru restrictie supposing that / suppose that – (presupunand ca) SUBJONCTIVUL Subjonctivul are 2 forme: .

Perfect Identic ca forma cu trecutul perfect (had + verb III) Utilizare: 1) in conditionalul 3 Ex: You would have invited them if you had found enough space. b) in propozitiile care contin constructiile: for fear that (de teama ca) . I would rather didn’t go there.se foloseste in principala cu sensul de “daca e necesar” Ex: Why should you come so early? . Forma should + V infinitiv scurt . Forma shall + V infinitiv scurt . Subjonctivul analitic Se formeaza dintr-un verb modal (should / would / might / could) + V infinitiv scurt. 2.se foloseste in principala cu sensul de “vrei?” Ex: Shall I help you? (sa te ajut?) . este intalnit atat in propozitia principala. 2) dupa verbul “wish” atunci cand actiunea este trecuta si regretata (sensul propozitiei trebuie se fie negativ) Ex: I wish I hadn’t said that. cat si in cea secundara.3) dupa constructiile it’s time it’s high time as if as though even if even though would rather would sooner suppose that Ex: It’s time you went there.se foloseste in secundara dupa: a) expresiile impersonale: it is important it is necessary it is essential Ex: It is necessary that you should understand the problem. I talk as if I didn’t know you.se foloseste in secundara cu sensul de “trebuie” Ex: I have decided that they shall help her. El a luat oarecum locul subjonctivului sintetic prezent.

Forma may / might + V infinitiv scurt 1) se foloseste cand se exprima o urare Ex: May your dreams come true! 2) in subjonctive introduse prin: it is likely it is probable it is possible Ex: It is possible that they might invite us to dinner. d) atunci cand sunt introduse de: although whatever though Ex: Whatever she should say don’t interrupt her.se foloseste pentru a exprima o certitudine Ex: We studied a lot so that we could pass TOEFL. Forma would + V infinitiv scurt . c) cu urmatoarele verbe: to demand to command to suggest to recommend to request to insist Ex: I insisted that you should learn this lesson.in diateza activa. Ex: 1) I write the letter. PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA) . iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.lest (ca sa nu) in case Ex: I got up early lest I should miss the train. S CD . subiectul face actiunea . 3) in propozitii introduse prin: so that that in order that Ex: I put the perfume in front of you so that you might smell it.se foloseste dupa “wish” Ex: I wish you would call on you. actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent. (to call on = a vizita) Forma could + V infinitiv scurt .in diateza pasiva.

… an egg would be eaten. el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA 1) I eat an egg. 4) I have been eating an egg. The book is read (by me). 3) I have eaten an egg. The doctor was sent for by them. 12) I’m about to eat an egg. to wash. 8) I had been eating an egg. iar verbul de baza va fi la forma: V III + by + C agent ! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv. 9) I shall eat an egg. to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure. An egg is being eaten. An egg was eaten. He was laughed at by everybody. 5) I ate an egg. An egg is eaten. An egg is going to be eaten. An egg will have been eaten. (si nu have been sold) . to sell. An egg has been eaten. 14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten.2) The letter is written by me. to feel. to wear. 6) I was eating an egg. ! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume Ex: I read the book. 7) I had eaten an egg. etc. fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect Ex: I give him my book. An egg is about to be eaten. ! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta) Ex: They sent for the doctor. to read. Everybody laughed at him. 11) I am to eat an egg. ! anumite verbe (to eat. An egg will be eaten. An egg was being eaten. 13) … I should eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten. 10) I’m going to eat an egg. Ex: These books sold quickly. S He is given the book by me. S C agent Diateza pasiva presupune un verb “to be”. S Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva. – poate sa lipseasca ! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone). 2) I am eating an egg. CI CD devine The book is given to him by me.

Verbe neregulate . ! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East. were been a fi to bear bore born a se naste to beat beat beaten a bate to become became become a deveni to begin began begun a icepe to behold beheld beheld a zari. in secundara avem 3 raporturi: a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut Ex: While I was dancing. in secundara putem avea orice Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.Lista verbelor Infinitiv Trecut Participiu trecut Traducere to abide abode abode a astepta. a sta. 2) daca in principala avem viitor. a licita to bind bound bound a lega to bite bit bitten a musca to bleed bled bled a sangera to bless blest blest a binecuvanta to blow blew blown a sufla to break broke broken a sparge to breed bred bred a creste . a vedea to bend bent bent a idoi to beseech besought besought a implora to bear bore born a se naste to bet bet bet a paria to bid bade bidden a oferi. a locui to arise arose arisen a se ridica to awake awoke awoke a se trezi to be was. (si nu have been worn) ! verbul “to grow” nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR 1) daca in principala avem prezent. b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect Ex: I told him I had met her before. c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past Ex: I told him I should go there. in secundara avem prezent a) simplu – daca depinde de un program b) continuu – daca depinde de subiect c) perfect – daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior 3) daca in principala avem trecut.The shoes wore comfortably. he took my hand.

a trata afaceri dug dug a sapa did done a face drew drawn a desena dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed) a visa drank drunk a bea drove driven a conduce masina dwelt dwelt a locui.to bring to broadcast to burn to burst to buy to can to cast to catch to choose to cleave to cling to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forecast to foresee to foretell to forget to forgive to forgo forsake to freeze to get to give to go to grind to grow brought brought a aduce broadcast broadcast a transmite prin radio burnt (burned) burnt (burned) a arde burst burst a izbucni bought bought a cumpara could been able to a putea. a fi posibil cast cast a arunca caught caught a prinde chose chosen a alege cleft cleft a despica clung clung a se lipi came come a veni cost cost a costa crept crept a se tara cut cut a taia dealt dealt a se ocupa. a ramane. a insista ate eaten a manca fell fallen a cadea fed fed a hrani felt felt a simti fought fought a lupta found found a gasi flew flown a zbura forbade forbidden a interzice forecast forecast a prevedea foresaw foreseen a prevedea foretold foretold a prezice forgot forgotten a uita forgave forgiven a ierta a renunta la. forwent forgone a da uitarii forsook forsaken a parasi froze frozen a igheta got got a primi gave given a da went gone a merge ground ground a macina grew grown a creste .

a regla a coase .to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to knit to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to misgive to mislead to mistake to outdo to overcome to overdo to pay to put to read to rend to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to sew hung (hanged) had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leant learnt (learned) left lent let lay lit lost made meant met misgave misled mistook outdid overcame overdid paid put read rent rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed hung (hanged) had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led leant learnt (learned) left lent let lain lit lost made meant met misgiven misled mistaken outdone overcome overdone paid put read rent ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn (sewed) a spanzura a avea a auzi a ascunde a lovi a tine a rani a pastra a igenunchia a tricota a sti. a parasi a împrumuta (cuiva) a permite a fi culcat a aprinde a pierde a face a isemna a italni a inspira neicredere a induce i eroare a itelege gresit a itrece a ivinge a face exces a plati a pune a citi a sfasia. a cunoaste a aseza a conduce a se sprijini de a ivata a lasa. a rupe a calari a suna a se ridica a alerga a spune a vedea a cauta a vinde a trimite a fixa.

a clatina a se barbieri a varsa (lacrimi) a straluci a icalta. a goni a pronunta litera cu litera a petrece. a despica a mirosi a lovi a semana a vorbi a accelera. a tasni a sta i picioare a fura a ifige. a se lipi a itepa a mirosi urat a lovi a isira. a icorda a se stradui . a se roti a scuipa a despica a strica a itinde a sari. a potcovi a împusca a arata a se strange a ichide a canta a se scufunda a sta (pe scaun) a ucide a dormi a aluneca a azvarli a crapa. a cheltui a varsa a toarce.to shake to shave to shed to shine to shoe to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to slay to sleep to slide to sling to slit to smell to smite to sow to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spin to spit to split to spoil to spread to spring to stand to steal to stick to sting to stink to strike to string to strive shook shaved shed shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smote sowed spoke sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank struck strung strove shaken shaven shed shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smitten sown spoken sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stodd stolen stuck stung stunk struck strung striven a scutura.

a fi obişnuit cu To be afreid of something-a se teme de ceva To be afreid of somebody-a se teme de cineva To be angry with somebody-a fi supărat pe cineva To be anxious about something-a fi îngrijorat de ceva To be astonished at-a fi uimit(uluit) de To be aware of – a-şi da seama de.a fi alături de To be confident of-a fi încrezător în To be crauy about-a fi nebun după To be cruel to-a fi crud cu.şi cere iertare pentru To approve of something-a aproba ceva To arrive at-a ajunge la To ask for something-a cere ceva To be accustomed to something-a fi familiar cu ceva To be acquainted with-a cunoaşte.a fi rău faţă de.a fi crud faţă de .to swear swore to sweep swept to swim swam to swing swung to take took to teach taught to tear tore to tell told to think thought to throw threw to thrust thrust to tread trod to underlie underlay to understand understood to upset upset to wake woke to wear wore to weave wove to wet wet to win won to wind wound to wring to write wrung wrote sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust trodden underlain understood upset woken worn woven wet won wound wrung written a jura a matura a inota a se legana a lua a ivata. a sfasia a spune a gandi. a crede a arunca a îmbranci a calca a sustine a itelge a supara a se trezi a purta a tese a uda a castiga a se rasuci a frange.a fi conştient de To be characteristic of-a fi caracteristic pentru To be close to-a fi aproape de. a preda a rupe. a smulge a scrie VERBE CU PREPOZIŢII To accuse of-a acuza de To agree with-a fi de acord cu To agree on-a fi de acord asupra To apologize for-a.

a necesita To call on somebody-a vizita pe cineva To call at a place-a trece printr-un loc To care for-a ţine la.a se pricepe la To be good(kind)to-a fi amabil cu To be grateful to-a fi recunoscător faţă de To be indignant at-a fi indignat de To be of opinia on that-a fi de părere că To be bent on /upon-a fi hotărât să To be on the move-a fi în mişcare To be impressed by-a fi impresionat de To be independent of-a fi independent de To be indifferent to-a fi indiferent faţă de To be intent on-a fi absolvit de To be interested in-a fi interesat de Tu be jealous of-a fi gelos pe To be patient with-a fi răbdător cu To be polite to-a fi politicos(civilizat)cu To be preoccupied by-a fi preocupat de To be proud of-a fi mândru(ă) de To be satisfied with-a fi mulţumit cu(de) To be sated with-a fi sătul(dezgustat)de To be seized with-a fi prins de To be similar to-a fi asmănător cu To be sorry for-a-I părea rău pentru.To be dependent on / upon-a fi dependent de To be deprived(dipraiv) of-a fi lipsit de.a-I plăcea To compare with(to)-a compara cu To complain of-a se plânge(văita)de To conceal from-a se ascunde de To congratulate on-a felicita pentru To contribute to-a contribui la To count /rely on upon-a se bizui /baza pe To cure of-a vindeca de To deal with-a se ocupa de (cu) To defend from-a apăra de .a fi deposedat de To be different(difrent)from-a fi diferit de To be fond of-a fi legat de To be good at-a fi bun la.a-şi cere scuze To be superior to-a fi superior To be surprised at-a fi surprins de To be typical of-a fi caracteristic pentru To beg for-a cerşi.a implora To begin by-a începe prin To belong to-a aparţine To beware of-a se feri de.a se făli cu To borrow from-a împrumuta de la To call for-a cere.a se păzi To boast of-a se lăuda cu.

a se duce la To go in for-a se prezenta la To hope for-a spera la To indulge in-a se deda la.atulbura To knock at-a bate la To laugh at-a râde de To laughwith joy-a râde de bucurie To leavefor-a pleca la To lend to somebody-a da împrumut cuiva To live on-a trăi din.To depend on(upond)-a depinde de To die of-a muri de To differ from-a diferi de To do withaut-a face fără.a o porni într-o direcţie To escape from-a scăpa de To feedon-a hrăni cu To fill with-a umple cu To forgivefor-a ierta pentru To glanceat-a arunca o privire la To go to-a merge la. To object to-a obiecta asupra(împotriva) To part with-a se despărţi de To participate in-a participa la To pass for-a trece drept To peep at-a privi pe furiş la To pine for-a tânji după To play at-a se juca de-a To prevent from-a împiedica să.a îndemna să To insist on-a insista asupra To interfere in –a interveni(amesteca) în To intrudeon-a deranja.a apăra de To provide with-a înzestra cu To pull at-a trage la To put in practice-a pune în practică .a opri să To profit by something-a profita de ceva To protect from-a proteja de.a îngriji de To look for-a căuta To look into-a examina To look like-a semăna cu To look on-a considera To look to-a se îngriji de To meet with-a întâmpina To mistake for-a confunda cu.la……….a se lipsi de To doubt of –a se îndoi de To embark on –a participa la.a se complace în.a trăi cu To long for-a tânji după To look at-a privi la To look after-a avea grijă de.a lua drept To move from………to………-a se muta din……….

a se ocupa de To send for-a trimite după To separate from-a separa de To smell of-a mirosi a To stand for – a reprezenta.a privi fix la To start for-a porni către(spre) To substract from-a scădea din To succeed in in-a reuşi să To supply with-a aproviziona cu To take into account-a lua în seamă To take into consideration-a lua în consideraţie To taste of-a avea gust de To tell from-a deosebi de To think about(of)-a se gândi la To transform(change) into-a transforma(schimba)în To threaten with-a ameninţa cu To translate from…into…-a traduce din ………în……… To wait for somebody-a aştepta pe cineva To worry about – a-şi face griji în privinţa .a se face bine după To refer to-a se referi la To refrain from-a se abţine de la To remind somebody of something-a aminti cuiva de ceva To resort to somebody-a se adresa cuiva.To recover from – a-şi reveni după.a lua apărarea To stare at-a se uita fix la.a apela la cineva To retire from-a se retrage din To reproach somebody of something-a reproşa cuiva ceva To rush at something-a se repezi la ceva To see to-a se îngriji de.

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