Mass Transfer
Fundamentals
David P. Kessler
Robert A. Greenkorn
David I? Kessler
Robert A. Greenkorn
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
. .A..R..C E L
M
MARCELDEKKER,
INC. N E WYORK BASEL
D E K K E R
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Kessler, David P.
Momentum, heat, and mass transfer fundamentals / David P. Kessler, Robert A.
Greenkorn.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0824719727 (alk. paper)
1. Transport theory. 2. HeatTransmission. 3. Chemical engineering.
I. Greenkorn, Robert Albert. 11. Title.
TP 156.T7K48 1999
66W.284242 I 99 10432
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publisher.
This text springs from our experience over the past 30+ years teaching the
momentum, heat, and mass transferhansport sequence in the School of
Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. As faculty members in a state land
grant institution, we encounter students with a wide variety of backgrounds
planning for a wide variety of ultimate careers. We believe that with a fm grasp
of engineering fundamentals, our graduates can readily progress to careers that
involve either highly technical functions or broader responsibilities in
management.
Our objective with this volume is to provide a foundation in basic
momentum, heat, and mass transfer/transport sufficient to permit the student to
do elementary design and analysis, and adequate as a base from which to learn
more advanced concepts. We present the fundamentals of both microscopic and
macroscopic processes. The text is built around a large number of examples
which are worked in detail. Many of the examples are, of course, idealized,
because their objective is to illustrate elementary principles, but we have kept
them as realistic as possible.
Since the book is intended as a textbook, we have incorporated a high level
of detail and fedundancy in an effort to make the text readable for those just being
introduced to the area. At the expense of conciseness in many places, we have
attempted to avoid those gaps in derivations that are obvious to one familiar to
the area, but utterly opaque to the novice.
We have included many references to more advanced material, or simply to
other approaches to the material herein. Age and, we hope, wisdom has disabused
us of any conceit that we possesses the only valid approach to the subject. To
make access to other material easier for the student, we have included page
numbers for most references to avoid the necessity of an index search in the
citation. In the same vein, we have attempted to make our nomenclature conform
to the most common usage in the area and have incorporated an extensive
nomenclature table. An abbreviated thumb index permits rapid access to chapters
and the more commonly accessed tables and figures.
Problems in momentum, heat, and mass transfer in fluids are profoundly
difficult because the most practical application of the area is to the turbulent
flow regime. To date, very little in the way of rigorous solution to even the most
elementary turbulent flow problems is possible, although the exponential
increase in computing power with time holds great promise for the future.
V
vi Prefuce
We feel that dimensional analysis is, and for the foreseeable future will be,
still crucial for design of experiments, scaleup of equipment, and simplifying
differential equations and associatedboundary conditions.
Closedform analytical solutions are still important for the insight that they
bring; however, most applied problems seem clearly destined to be solved
numerically. For this reason we have included a fair amount of numerical
solution techniques.
Emphasis is mostly on finite difference algorithms, which are often easily
implemented on a spreadsheet. Finite element analysis is heavily reliant on
software, which requires too heavy a time investment to permit other than the
abbreviated treatment here, although the area is certainly of growing importance.
We have attempted to give an overview sufficient to enable the student to read
further on hidher own.
At Purdue we cover the material in this text in two threecredit required
undergraduate courses. In general, depending on the background of the students,
the material in Chapter 5 on systems of units will receive more or less
emphasis. Similarly, the transfer of heat by radiation stands alone and can be
tailored to the desires of the particular professor. Perry’s ChernicuZ Engineer’s
Hundbookl remains a useful supplemental reference for physical properties arid
empirical correlations. One of the commercial design packages can give help
with physical property estimation, pumps and pipe networks, and more detailed
heat exchanger design.
David P. Kessler
Robert A. Greenkorn
1 ESSENTIALS 1
1.6.2 Types of derivatives 63
vii
Thumb Index ix

7.2.8 Onedimensionalunsteadystateconduction 629
Semiinfinite slab 630
Finite slab 638 =
Infinite cylinder and sphere 651
7.2.9 Multidimensionalunsteadystate conduction 667
=

7.3.2 Heat transfer coefficients 675
7.4 Conduction and Convection in Series 719 =
Heisler charts 734 =
7.5 Radiation Heat Transfer Models 741 =
Reciprocity relation 759
Summation rule 760 =
7.7.3 NTU methd for design of heat exchangers 806 =
7.7.4 Ffactor method for design of heat exchangers 822 =
8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS 843 =

Table 8.2.31 Equivalent forms of Fick's Law 860
8.3 Convective Mass Transfer Models 882 =
Height of transfer unit models 903 =

8.7 Design of Mass Transfer Columns 923
8.8 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction 963 =
APPENDIX A: VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS 989 =
APPENDIX C: NOMENCLATURE 997
INDEX 1009 =
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface V
Thumb Index vii
1 ESSENTIALS 1
1.1 Models 1
Figure 1.11 Modeling the weather 1
Figure 1.12 A poor model of the weather 2
1.1.1 Mathematical models and the real world 5
1.1.2 Scale of the model 8
1.2 The Entity Balance 12
Example 1.21 An entity balance 14
1.2.1 Conserved quantities 15
1.2.2 Steadystate processes 16
1.3 The Continuum Assumption 17
Figure 1.31 Breakdown of continuum assumption 18
1.4 Fluid Behavior 19
1.4.1 Laminar and turbulent flow 19
Figure 1.4.11 Injection of dye in pipe flow 20
1.4.2 Newtonian fluids 21
Figure 1.4.21 Shear between layers of fluid 21
Figure 1.4.22Momentum transfer between layers of fluid 24
Figure 1.4.23 Sign convention for momentum flux between
layers of fluid 24
Figure 1.4.24 Sign convention for shear stress on surface
layers of fluid 25
Table 1.4.21 Summary of sign convention for
stresslmomentum flux tensor 26
Figure 1.4.25 Migration of momentum by molecular motion 26
Figure 1.4.26Viscosity of common fluids 28
Example I .4.21 Flow offluids between frxed parallel
plates 28
1.4.3 Complex fluids 29
Figure 1.4.31Complex fluids 30
Figure 1.4.32Mechanical analog of viscoelasticity 31
xi
xii Tuble of Contents
points 35
Figure 1.5.12Distanceaveragespeed for travel between two
points 36
1.5.2 Velocity averages 37
Areaaveraged velocity 37
Example 1.5.21 Areaaveruged velocity for luminar pipe
POW 39
Figure 1.5.21Velocity profile 39
Timeaveraged velocity 41
Exumple 1.5.22 Timeuveraged velocity for turbulent
POW 42
Example 1.5.23 Areaaveruge of timeaveraged velocity
for turbulent pipe flow 42
1.5.3 Temperature averages 44
Example 1.5.31 Areauverage temperuture vs. bulk
temperature 46
Example 1.5.32 Bulk temperuture for quadratic
temperuture profile, laminar pipe flow 50
1.5.4 Concentration averages 52
Example 1.5.41 Bulk concentration 54
1.5.5 Arithmetic, logarithmic, and geometric means 57
Example I S.51 Case examples of logarithmic mean 59
Example 1.5.52 Approximation of logarithmic mean by
urithmetic mean 59
1.6 Scalars, Vectors, Tensors and Coordinate Systems 60
1.6.1 The viscous stress tensor 60
Components of the viscous stress tensor 61
Figure 1.6.11(a) Vectors associated by a particukv viscous
stress tensor with the direction of the rectangular Cartesian
axes 62
Figure 1.6.11(b) Vector associated with the 3direction
decomposed into its components 63
1.6.2 Types of derivatives 63
Partial derivative 63
Total derivative 64
Substantial derivative, material derivative,derivative following the
motion 64
Example 1.6.21 Rute of change of pollen density 65
1.6.3 Transport theorem 66
Table of Contents xiii
5 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS 211
5.1 Systems of Measurement 21 1
Example 5.I I Weight vs. mass; g vs. g, 215
Table 5.1 la Systems of Units 220
Table 5.1 1b Systems of Units 221
Table 5.12 SI Prefixes 22 1
5.2 Buckingham's Theorem 222
Example 5.21 Dimensionless variablesfor pipe flow 223
5.2.1 Friction factors and drag coefficients 227
5.2.2 Shape factors 229
Example 5.2.21 Drag force on ship hull 230
Exumple 5.2.22 Deceleration of compressiblefluid 232
5.3 Systematic Analysis of Variables 234
Example 5.31 Drag force on a sphere 235
Example 5.32 Dimensionlessgroupsforaflowover u flut
plate 236
Example 5.33 Consistency of dimensionless groups across
system of dimensions 238
Example 5.34 Capillary interface height via dimensional
analysis 243
xvi Table of Contents
experienced had the real atmosphere been in the box. As we have indicated by
lighter density shading in Figure 1.11 (b), all the features of the real
atmosphere will not be present in the model, hence, the outputs of
the model will not be precisely those of the real weather. If one went
to a m m sophisticated (complicated) model, more features would be represented
(usually) more accurately. The price of a more sophisticated model is usually
more effort and expense to employ the model.
Notice that the model could be anything. At one extreme it could, to take a
very poor' example of a model, incorporate a dart board with combinations of
the wind, precipitation, and temperature, as shown in Figure 1.12. We could
randomly throw a dart at the board and use as the model output the content of the
label wbem the dart lands.
Several things are immediately obvious about this model. First, it does not
include anywhere near all possible weather patterns (outputs)  as just one
example, there is no label for hail on a windy, cool day. Second, it does not
include all (input) parameters. For example, it incorporates effects of humidity,
barometric pressure, prevailing winds, etc., only insofar as they might affect the
Probably the worst model ever used is the frontier method (hopefully apocryphal)
for weighing hogs. First, they would laboriously tie the squirming hog to the end of a
long sturdy log, then place the log across a stump for a fulcrum. Next they would
search for a rock which, when tied to the other end of the log, balanced the weight of
the hog. Then they would guess the weight of the rock.
Chapter I : Essentials 3
person throwing the dart (and hdshe is probably indoors). In fact, the output of
the model bears no systematic relationship to the inputs. Third, it is not very

precise in its outputs it predicts only "windy" or "calm" without giving a wind
velocity.
At the other end of the spectrum are weather prediction models resident on
large computers, containing hundreds of variables and large systems of partial
differential equations. If we use such a very sophisticated model, we still need to
look inside the black box and ask the same questions that we ask of the dart
board model. (For example, some of the results of chaos theory pose the
question of whether accurate longterm modeling of the weather is even
possible.)
It should be noted that the best model of a system is the system itself. One
would like to put the system to be modeled within the black box and use the
system itself to generate the outputs. One would then obtain the most
representativeoutputs.2
These outputs would be the solution of the true differential equations that
describe the system behavior, even though from the outside of the box one
would not know the form of these equations. The system, through its response
to the inputs, "solves" the equations and presents the solution as the outputs.
(We will see later, in Chapter 5 , that through dimensional analysis of the inputs
to the system it is possible to obtain the coefficients in the equations describing
the system, even absent knowledge of the form of the equations themselves.)
Even if we conduct measurements on the actual system under the same input
conditions we still must face questions of reproducibility and experimental error.
4 Chapter I : Essentials
For example, the system may be inaccessible, as in the case of a reservoir of crude
oil far beneath the ground; a hostile environment, as in the case of the interior of a
nuclear reactor; or the act of measurement may destroy the system, as in explosives
research.
To run all combinations of only 10 different pipe diameters, 10 pressure drops and
100 fluids would require 10 x 10 x 100 = 10,OOO experiments  and we still would have
completely neglected important variables such as pipe roughness.
Chapter I : Essentials 5
thirty experiments and summarize it on a single page. (We will learn how this is
done in Chapter 6.)
For example, a model of fluid flow which neglects fluid viscosity may give
excellent results for real problems at locations where the velocity gradients are
small, since the viscosity operates via such gradients, but the same model is
useless to apply to problems involving sizable gradients in velocity. We
frequently use just such a model for flow around airfoils by neglecting the
presence of velocity gradients "far from" the airfoil. In the case of a plane flying
at, say, 550 miles per hour, "far from" may be only the thickness of a sheet of
paper above the wing surface. In this case, the relative velocity between the
wing and the air goes from 0 to almost 550 miles per hour in this very short
distance and then remains relatively constant outside this boundary layer.
Obviously, within this layer the velocity gradient cannot be neglected: a model
that neglects viscosity would give emonems results.
6 Chapter I : Essentials
Approximate models that are easily manipulated without external aids (e.g.,
pencil and paper, computer, etc.) are sometimes called “rules of thumb? Rules
of thumb are also referred to as heuristics.6
The most effective engineer is one who chooses the modeling process
most economical in obtaining the answer required  that is, an answer
For example, the checkbook model gives us the amounts of the checks but
no information about where the checks were cashed  this simply is not a
feature included in the model, and it would be absurd to try to predict where a
check would be cashed by looking at the checkbook. Even a feature of the model
(the checkbook balance) that supposedly perfectly reproduces a feature of the
system (the account balance) must be checked by periodic reconciliation with the
bank account, because human error (checkbook entries omitted or incorrectly
entered, subtracted, or added), computer error (by the bank) or malice
(embezzlement) may interfere with an otherwise perfect model. Similarly, in
engineering, even models that are thought to be very accurate must still be
checked against realworld data to ensure that the assumed accuracy is, in fact,
true.
We define the macroscopic scale as one at which the model predicts only
what is happening at points in time, not points in space. We may use
information about space effects (initial and boundary conditions) in evaluating
terms (integrals) in the model, but we do not predict space effects. In each term
of a macroscopic model we integrate out the space effects individually across
each input or output area and over the volume of the system itself ("lumping").
As a consequence of these integrations, macroscopic models do not predict what
is happening at individual points, but only the gross effect over the total input
area, the total output area, or the total internal volume.
For example, consider modeling energy for the case of a fluid flowing
through a single inlet into a tank which contains a heating coil and out through
a single outlet. A macroscopic model of this situation would be concerned only
with the total amount of energy flowing into the inlet as a function of time, the
total amount of energy flowing out of the outlet as a function of time, and the
total energy contained within the tank as a function of time. The model might
use the entering and exiting velocity and/or temperature profiles (space
variations) if known as a function of time, but these would be buried in the
integrands of terms, and the model would not predict what these profiles were
at unknown points, nor would it predict the energy content of the fluid at
individual points within the tank.Macroscopic models therefore tend to produce
ordinary differential equations (with the independent variable being time) for
unsteadystate systems, or algebraic equations for steadystate systems. Process
control theory classifies such models as lumpedparumetermodels.
The microscopic scale as defined here refers to a scale that, although small, is still
large enough that continuum assumptions about materials are valid. Below this scale
lies the molecular scale. Later we will also make brief reference to the meguscopic
scale, a scale even larger than the macroscopic scale in the sense that large regional
anomalies at the macroscopic scale level must be taken into account  for example,
largescale heterogeneities in flow in porous media. An example of the megascopic
scale would be a primarily sandstone underground reservoir containing isolated large
pockets of shale.
Chapter 1: Essentials 9
and within the pipe. This means that, as well as the value of the integral, we
must concern ourselves with what is happening within the integrands that appear
in terms in the macroscopic balances. As a consequence, microscopic models
usually lead to partial differential equations, whose independent variables are the
three space coordinatesin addition to time.
(1.1.21)
(1.1.22)
10 Chapter 1: Essentials
(1.1.23)
For momentum:
r
( 1.1.24)
I 1
For energy:
(1.1.25)
(1.1.26)
An entity is a thing which has reality and distinctness of being, either in fact or for
thought. (Webster's Third New Internutionul Dictionary of the English Lunguuge, G
& C Merriam Company, Springfield, MA, 1969.)
Chapter I : Essentials 13
to the pipe axis and the inner wall of the pipe. We could equally well use the
region between the two planes and the outer wall of the pipe. Or, to take yet a
third system, we could select a certain mass of fluid and follow the mass as it
moves in space.
By input we mean that which crosses the system boundary from outside to
inside in time At; by output, the converse. (There is no real need to define the
second term, output. One could instead speak of positive and negative inputs 
it is simply traditiond.l0 )
You will note that the above is full of "that which"; we have carefully
avoided saying just what it is for which we are accounting. This is deliberate,
and is done to stress the generality of the procedure, which, as we shall see
below, is applicable to people and money as well as to mass, energy, and
momentum.
Note that our entity balance is equally valid when applied to rates.ll By
considering smaller and smaller time intervals we obtain
l0 As Tevye says in Fiddler on the Roof before singing "Tradition": "You may ask,
'How did this tradition start?' I'll tell you  I don't know! But it's a tradition. Because
of our traditions, everyone knows who he is and what God expects him to do." Even
engineering and science are bound hy tradition in their methods of communication.
The definition of a instantaneous rate for an entity is
,im
At+ 0 I
change in entity in At
At 1
I4 Chapter I : Essentials
li[
Al+O
Input + Generation
At
 Output + Accumulation
At
1
(1.22)
The entity balance can be applied to very general sorts of quantities so long
as they are quantifiable, either on a discrete scale (e.g., particles) or a continuous
scale (e.g., energy). When applied to discrete entities it is frequently called a
population balance. One such entity, of course, is people, although
automobiles, tornadoes, buildings, trees, bolts, marriages, etc., can also be
described using the entity balance approach.
If the entity balance is applied to people with a political unit (e.g., a city,
county, state, etc.) as the system, the input term is calculable from immigration
statistics and the output from emigration statistics. The accumulation term is
calculable from census figures (the differences in the number within the system
over some prescribed time interval). The generation term is made up of births
(positive)and deaths (negative).
For example, suppose that a political unit (the system) had a population of
l,OOO,OOO pe~pleat the beginning of the year (t = 0). At the end of the year (t +
At) suppose the population was 1,010,OOO.Thus the accumulation over a year
(At) was
During this time suppose that 18,000 people died and 30,000 were born,
giving a net generation of
Solution
We know that matter and energy are not conserved in processes where
nuclear reactions are taking place or where things move at speeds approaching
the speed of light. Matter and energy can, instead, be transmuted into one
another, and only their totality is conserved.
In the course of this book, we will assume that total mass and total
energy are conserved quantities, as they are for all practical purposes in the
processes we will consider. On the other hand, momentum (which can be created
or destroyed by applied forces), mass of an individual species (which can be
created or destroyed by chemical reaction), and mechanical energy and thermal
energy (which can each be transformed into the other) are not generally conserved
in our processes.
For example, we define the density at a point as the mass per unit volume;
but, since a point has no volume, it is not clear what we mean. By our
definition we might mean
(1.31)
The viscosity of a fluid can range over many orders of magnitude. For
example, in units of pPa s, air has a viscosity of about 105;water, about 103;
honey, about 10; and molten polymers, perhaps 104; a ratio of largest to
smallest of 1,OOO,OOO,OOO.(This is by no means the total range of viscous
behavior, merely a sample of commonly encountered values in engineering
problems.)
Later in the text we will discuss dimensionless numbers and their meaning.
At this point we merely state that value of the Reynolds number, a
dimensionless group, lets us differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.
The Reynolds number is composed of the density and the viscosity of the fluid
flowing in the pipe, the pipe diameter, and the areaaveraged velocity, and
represents the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.
D
ReynoldsNumber = Re = I P 
vL  inertial forces
viscous forces I (1.4.11)
In pipe flow if the value of the Reynolds number is less than about 2100, the
flow is laminar, and as the value of the Reynolds number increases beyond 2100
the flow undergoes a transition to turbulent. This transitional value is different
for different geometrical configurations,for example, flow over a flat plate.
l 2 Japan, S . 0. M. E., Ed. (1988). Visualized flow: Fluid motion in basic and
engineering situations revealed by flow visuulization. Thermodynamics and Fluid
Mechanics. New York, NY, Pergamon, p. 25.
Chapter I : Essentials 21
This differs from a solid, in which the shear stress can exist simply because
of relative displacement of adjacent layers without relative motion of the
adjacent layers.
The shear stress here is normal to the y direction. Different fluids exhibit
different resistance to shear.
"X
l 3 All fluids that do not behave according to this equation are called nonNewtonian
fluids. Since the latter is an enormously larger class of fluids, this is much like
classifying mammals into platypuses and nonplatypuses; however, it is traditional.
A complete definition of a Newtonian fluid comprises
(1.4.2 1)
TYY=  2 p $ a+ 7 v( P 2 k ) ( V * V )
7, = 2p$t&c)(v.v)
a v 2
2, = 2, =
CL
(”d ”.) x
. X+
where k is the vlsc. The onedimensional form shown will suffice for
our purposes. For further details, see Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960).
Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley; Longwell, P. A. (1966). Mechanics of
Fluid Flow, McGrawHill; Prager, W.(1961). Introduction to Mechanics of Continua.
Boston, MA, Ginn and Company; Bird, R. B., R. C. Armstrong, et al. (1977).
Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Volume 1 Fluid Mechanics. New York, NY, John
Wiley and Sons; and Bird, R. B., R. C. Armstrong, et al. (1987). Dynamics of
Polymeric Liquids: Volume 1 Fluid Mechanics. New York,NY,Wiley.
l4 Note the actual, not the absolute sense is implied; i.e., y = 10 is less than y
= 5.
Chapter I : Essentials 23
l5 For example, see McCabe, W.L., J. C. Smith,et al. (1993). Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, McGrawHill, p. 46; Bennett, C. 0. and J. E. Myers (1974).
Momentum, Heat, and Mars Transfer. New York, NY, McGrawHill, p. 18; Fox, R.W.
and A. T. McDonald (1992). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. New York, NY, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 27; Welty, J. R.,C. E. Wicks, et al. (1969). Fundamentals
of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, New York, NY, Wiley, p. 92; Ahmed, N.
(1987). Fluid Mechanics, Engineering Press, p. 15; Potter, M. C. and D. C. Wiggert
(1991). Mechanics of Fluids. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, p. 14; Li, W.S.
and S.H. Lam (1964). Principles of Fluid Mechanics. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley,
p. 3; Roberson, J. A. and C. T. Crowe (1993). Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Boston,
MA, Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 16; Kay, J. M. and R. M. Nedderman (1985).
Fluid Mechanics and Transfer Processes. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University
Press, p. 10.
l 6 This follows the convention used in Bird, R. B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960).
Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 5; Geankoplis, C. J. (1993). Transport
Processes und Unit Operations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, p. 43.
24 Chapter I : Essentials
PLANES OF
I
CONSTANT Y
Ay
Figure 1.4.23 shows the various cases, Quadrant 1 being the example
above.
M.
Y A
MOM NTUMFLUX
)qb
MOMENTU FLUX
VX "X
"X vX
Note that
all consistent with (b) above. By Newton's first law the shear stresses on the
corresponding opposite (upper) faces of the planes of constant y are the negative
of the forces shown in Figure 1.4.24.
26 Chapter I : Essentials
b c c
I t
with a larger xcomponent in the upper layer. We have assumed for illustrative
purposes that the xcomponent of momentum is uniform in each layer. If the
molecules are all of the same type (mass), the momentum vectors would then be
proportional to the velocity vectors. Each molecule could, of course, also have
y and zcomponents of velocity (not shown).
Assume that during some small time increment At, molecules at xlocations
2,5, and 6 are displaced in the negative ydirection as shown (because of the y
component of their velocity). As molecules from layer A at 2,5, and 6 mix with
layer B, they will increase the momentum of layer B. (Ultimately, of course,
they collide with and exchange xmomentum with the remaining molecules in
layer B). Since molecules in layer B possessing less momentum have been
replaced with fluid from layer A with higher momentum, layer B will have
gained momentum and thus positive momentum transfer will have been effected
from layer A to layer B. (Molecules displaced from layer B similarly transfer
momentum to the layer below.) This is a geometrically very simplified version
of the ultimate momentum transfer mechanism in a real fluid.
An analogy might be as follows: Suppose that one day you are standing
quietly on roller skates, and a friend of yours skates past at 20 mph and hands to
you an anvil which he happens to be holding. Needless to say, the jump of this
anvil from a region of higher velocity (him) to a region of lower velocity (you)
will induce a velocity in the lowervelocity region (you). This is much like the
situation as it happens in a fluid, except in a fluid the random motion of the
molecules causes them to jump from one velocity region to another.
It is often useful to divide the fluid viscosity by the fluid density to give a
quantity called the kinematic viscosity, v, (v = Vp). The kinematic viscosity
is a measure of the inherent resistance of a particular fluid to flow, or, more
particularly, to transition from laminar to turbulent flow. This can be seen from
the Reynolds number, which may be written Re = Dv/v, where v summarizes
the fluid properties and the other two variables the ambient flow conditions.
Kinematic viscosity measures the rate of diffusion of momentum: fluids with
low kinematic viscosity support turbulence more readily than those fluids with
high kinematic viscosity.
l7 Normally the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature; normally the viscosity
of a liquid decreases with temperature.
28 Chapter I : Essentials
METHANE
AIR +
I 1 r l l l l l 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 u r . d
For flow of a fluid between two fixed parallel plates of a length L, the
velocity distribution in the xdirection as a function of plate separation is
(1.4.23)
where (p1  p2) is the pressure drop over the length of the plate, 2B is the plate
separation, and y is the distance from the center line.
Chapter I : Essentials 29
vx/vx, max
Determine the shear stress at the plate walls caused by water flowing
between the plates under a pressure drop of 1 psi, if B is 0.1 ft and L is 10 ft.
Solution
(1.4.24)
(1.4.25)
viscosity. In Figure 1.4.31 the straight line indicated by (a) is Newtonian fluid
behavior.
A Bingham plastic, represented by curve (c), does not flow until the applied
shear stress reaches a yield point 70, and then for higher shear stress follows
Newtonian behavior. The relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient
for a Bingham plastic may be represented by the model
(1.4.31)
z, = m 1% In' 2 (1.4.32)
A dilatant fluid, such as some suspensions, has a behavior such that the
apparent viscosity increases as the velocity gradient increases. The harder you
"push," the more the fluid "resists" (not unlike many people  but this is
engineering, not psychology). Curve (d) in Fig. 1.4.31 represents a dilatant
fluid. This type of fluid is modeled with the power law model, Equation (1.4.3
2), with an exponent n >1.
spring
I dashpot
1
1
applied
force
(1.4.33)
remember what happened to it in the immediate past; that is, how long it has
been sheared andor stretched. Thixotropic fluids show a decrease in apparent
viscosity with time under constant rate of shear. Rheopectic fluids show an
increase in apparent viscosity with time under constant rate of shear.
This large and very interesting area of fluid mechanics is still developing
rapidly. For further information there are a wide range of multiple resources,
from the applied to the theoretical. The reader might find a starting point in one
of the references cited bel0w.1~
l 8 Tadmor, 2. and C. Gogos (1979). Principles of Polymer Processing. New York, NY,
John Wiley and Sons; Dealy, J. M. and K. F. Weissbrun (1990). Melt Rheology and its
Role in Plastics Processing. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold; Mashelkar, R.
A., A. S. Mujumdar, et al., Eds. (1989). Transport Phenomena in Polymeric Systems.
Chichester, W. Sussex, England, Ellis Horwood, Ltd.; Joseph, D. D. (1990). Fluid
Dynumics of Viscoelastic Liquids. New York, NY, SpringerVerlag; Bird,R. B., R. C.
Armstrong, et al. (1987). Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Volume I Fluid Mechanics.
New York, NY, Wiley; Bird,R. B., C. F. Curtis, et al. (1987). Dynamics of Polymeric
Liquids: Volume 2 Kinetic Theory. New York, NY, Wiley.
Chapter I : Essentials 33
1.5 Averages
We make extensive use of the concept of average, particularly in
conjunction with areaaveraged velocity, bulk or mixingcup temperature, and
bulk or mixingcup concentration,all of which are attributes of flowing streams.
All averages we will use may be subsumed under the generalized concept of
average discussed below.
Y = f(J0 (1.5.11)
We use the overbar to indicate an average and subscript(s)to indicate with respect
to which variable(s) the average is taken.19If it is clear with respect to which
variable the average is taken, we will omit the subscript.
l 9 There is obviously overlap between this notation and the notation sometimes used
for partial derivatives. The context will always make the distinction clear in cases
treated here. There are also a number of notations used for special averages, such as
the area average and bulk quantities. Treatment of these follows.
34 Chapter I : Essentials
(1.5.13)
where we have omitted the subscript because there is only one independent
variable with respect to which the average can be taken.
(1.5.14)
Sometimes we take the average with respect to more than one independent
variable; to do this we integrate over the second, third, etc., variables as well.
For example, the average of y with respect to XI,X6, and x47 is
(1.5.15)
Notation for averages does not always distinguish with respect to which
variables they are taken. This information must be known in order to apply an
average proprly, as must the range over which the average is taken.
We will in this course of study frequently use three particular averages: the
area average, the time average, and the bulk average.
le 1.5.11 Timeavera pe vs distga ceavergge SD&
Suppose I drive from Detroit to Chicago (300 miles), and upon arrival am
asked "What was your average speed?" If I answer, "60mph," I am probably
thinking somewhat as follows: My speed vs. time (neglecting short periods of
acceleration and deceleration) might be approximatedby the following:
Chapter I : Essentials 35
Here speed is the dependent variable and time the independent variable:
s = f(t) (1.5.16)
the average speed is the same as the integral of the actual speed vs. time curve.
Writing this in the form of our definition of average we have:
S tinv a m a g e
10
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
DISTANCE, MILES
This new function tells me how fast I was going as a function of where I was
rather than what time it was. I can equally well define an average speed based
on this function
Chapter I : Essentials 37
[ (300  0)mi I =
(30  0 ) (40) + (275  30) (70) + (300  275) (50) mi
(1.5.18)
(mi)*
19,600 
hr = 65.3
300 mi hr
The integral of g(x), however, does not have the intuitive appeal of the integral
of f(t) in the numerator of the righthand side of Equation (1.5.17), which is the
total distance traveled.
timeaveraged velocities
Areaaveraged velocity
(1521)
This is clearly just a special case of our definition of general average above,
where the average here is with respect to area?O
(1522)
or
(v)* = 10s
ft
(1 s.23)
and the reader is expected to insert the sign that is appropriate when substituting
in the balance for the particular system, rather than writing
(1.5.24)
(1525)
Any area could be chosen for the basis area for the areaaveraged velocity;
however, in practice the basis is usually either
2) the surface area (of the control volume) through which the
flow is passing
The velocity profile for laminar flow of liquid in a horizontal pipe of radius
R is given by the HagenPoiseuille “law”  although it is not a law in the strict
sense of the word (we will derive this relationship in Chapter 6)
(1526)
0.5
r/R O.
0.5
1 1 . 1 .
0 0.5 1
So 1u t ion
(PI  P2) R2
Vz,nIax  4pL  4pL (1.5.27)
r=O
Calculating the areaaveraged velocity using the positive sign for the dot
product
Jo
 (PI 9 2 ) R2
 4pL
21 Perry, R. H. and D.W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New
York, McGrawHill, pp. 3252.
Chapter 1: Essentials 41
 (PI P2) R’ T  T
 4pL 
R2
IR2 R21
2
(1.5.28)
(1 529)
T i mmerug ed velocity
I v = v+v' 1 (1.5.211)
Where
v = v(x,, t)
v=
lo v dt
lo dt
Notice that the timeaveraged velocity may depend on the time to over which
the average is taken if velocity is not constant in time (if the average velocity is
increasing or decreasing with time). The average magnitude of fluctuations can
also vary with time. We assume that our time interval over which the time
average is taken is long compared to the period of fluctuations, but short with
respect to changes in the time average.
The velocity profile for timeaveraged velocity for turbulent flow of liquid in
a horizontal pipe of radius R is modeled reasonably well by the 1/7 power
distribution originally proposed by Prandtl.22
Soht ion
2 x R2p, s, [ (+)I+
R
1 d(+)
(1 5214)
substituting z = (1  r/R)
44 Chapter 1: Essentials
(1.5.215)
(1.5.31)
Notice that the weighting here is not simply with respect to area, but with
respect to energy flow rate.
(1.5.32)
If, in addition, the density is constant across the crosssection, the weighting
is with respect to volumetric flow rate.
I A T(v . n) dA
At tmes we also make the assumption that the velxity is constant across
the flow crosssection (sometimes called plug flow or rodlike flow), and then the
weighting becomes with respect to area (the same weighting as we used above
for the velocity).
(1.5.34)
It is only under the additional constraints of constant density, heat capacity, and
velocity that the areaaverage temperature is equivalent to the bulk temperature.
Tb J*, c, p (v  n) dA = cpT p (v  n) dA
lTbc,p(vn)dA = lt,Tp(vn)dA
(1.5.35)
subtracting
(1 5 3  6 )
A = cp(T TRf) (1 5 3  8 )
and defining
I*flb(vn)dA E L n ( v  n ) d A
(1.5.310)
Assume that we model the axial velocity in a pipe as lamina flow (cf.
Example 1.5.21)
v, =
(PI  P2) R2
4PL 1 [ (a)']I (1.5.31 1)
(1.5.3 12)
Where
Chapter 1: Essentials 47
Solution
T = (I;)(T~T~)+T,
(1 5 3  1 3 )
Using the areaaverage temperature (applicable for plug flow with constant
heat capacity and density across the flow crosssection) gives
Substituting the temperature and velocity profiles and grouping the constants
= 2
(4 I
[To  7 4 (PI P2) R2
4pL I
(1.5.316)
(1.5.317)
= 2 [To  Ts]
Chapter I : Essentials 49
Substituting
( 1.5.3 19)
Tb = 4[T0 Ts][$f$+$]' 0
53
= 0.467 [To  T8]+ T8
Tb = (0.467)(100 50) "F+ (50) "F = 73.4 "F (15322)
The bulk temperature is higher than the areaaveraged temperature for this case
because the flow velocity is higher toward the center of the tube where the
temperature is higher, and this weights the average more heavily with the higher
temperatures.
50 Chapter I : Essentials
(1.5.323)
To = 1 4 O q = centerline temperature
Ts = 5@F = walltemperature
Solution
Substituting the temperature and velocity profiles and grouping the constants
Chapter I : Essentials 51
(1.5.326)
(1 5327)
(15328)
(15329)
(15330)
(@A)b J
A P (' .)dA I,
O A P ('  )' dA (1541)
(15 4  2 )
Since the definition is analogous to that of bulk temperature, we have again used
the subscript b to denote the bulk condition.
Since
vol 1 =
[totalmass [Y]
massA
0, [total mass] Q  pA
= A [totalmol
molA totalmol massA
] c [ vol ] M [ i a x ]
(1.5.43)
(where p and c are, respectively, the total mass concentration and the total molar
concentration) by substituting in the definition for bulk mass concentration we
obtain

xAc M (v n) dA
(x,,)~cM =
(1.5.44)
L I
(1 5 4  5 )
m 1 A ,mtalmol = C A m o l A
to; mol vol vol
massA totalmass = massA (1 546)
totalmass P vol P A vol
gives
(' .)dA
*
(cA)b E
(1 547)
Suppose that for the same pipe flow problem the concentration profile is
represented by
C A  cACAR
CAO R = l  i (1.5.48)
Where
CA = cm = 0.01 moles/ft3 at r = R
CA = cAO = 0.02 moledft3 at r = O
Chapter I : Essentials
Solution
Since here
v  n = v, (1.5.410)
(1.5.411)
vz = "
PI P2) R2
4 p L ][1(6)'] (1.5.412)
(1.5.413)
(1.5.417)
letting y = r/R
Chapter I : Essentials 57
(1.5.422)
(1.5.51)
Logarithmicmean E  (1552)
(1.5.54)
ca~e11 : e1 c ez c o (1.5.56)
This shows that the log mean preserves the sign of the original quantities if they
are both positive or both negative. Notice that the log mean of quantities which
differ in sign is not defined, because the logarithm of a negative number is
Undefined.
Chapter 1: Essentials 59
So1u t ion
(1 5 5  7 )
Case I
(1 5 5  8 )
Case I1
(1.5.59)
. . mean b t
on o f loParithmic
A+B
 l( e + l )
Arithmeticmean[A,B]
 [~T]
Logarithmicmean [A, B] In (&) (1.5.510)
m^
z
4
2
Pw
P
t
U
a
A/B
higherorder tensors associate tensors of one lower order with each direction in
space. A secondorder tensor associates a vector with each direction in space.
(1.6.11)
This tensor returns, for any direction in space, a vector that represents the
viscous stress on a surface whose outward normal coincides with this direction in
Spice.
T =
1 1
Tll Tl2
T21
T31
T13
T2, T23 = T + p 6
T32 T33
(1.6.12)
This tensor returns, for any direction in space, a vector that represents the
viscous stress (momentum flux) plus the pressure stress on a surface whose
outward n o d coincides with this direction in space.
If we take the dot product of the viscous stress tensor successively with the
rectangular Cartesian coordinate directions, we find first that for the 1 or x
direction
(1.6.13)
62 Chapter I : Essentials
This shows that the columns (or rows, since the viscous stress tensor is
symmetric) furnish the components of the vectors that represent the viscous
stresses in the respective coordinate directions.
Because of the orientation of the surfaces chosen, the vector lying in the
plane of the surface can be further decomposed into its components along the
coordinate axes that were used to determine that particular surface. We show in
Figure 1.6.11 (a) the vectors associated with each face (coordinate direction in
space), and, in addition, in Figure 1.6.11 (b) show the 3direction vector
decomposed into its component vectors along the rectangular Cartesian axes.
These component vectors can also be written in terms of the scalar components
multiplied by the appropriate basis vector.
x3 I
which is most often written omitting the indication of what is held constant in
each partial derivative as
(1.6.22)
The coefficient of the first term is the partial derivative with respect to time
(1.6.23)
which gives the time rate of change of the function Q, at a point in space.
Total derivative
By dividing by dt, the total differential can be written as the total time
derivative
(1.6.24)
(1.6.25)
= a,,a+viaio
where a, refers to the partial derivative with respect to time. The substantial
derivative can be written in operator form as
(1.6.26)
Suppose that you are a sufferer with hay fever who decides to seek relief by
going aloft in a blimp. Let Q, represent the grains of pollen per unit volume at
any point at any time (pollen count). Let our reference coordinate axis system be
rectangular Cartesian coordinates fixed to the surface of the earth.
Before you take off, while the blimp is still stationary but with the wind
blowing past, if you put your head out of the window your nose will experience
a rate of change in pollen count which corresponds to the partial derivative of
@ with respect to time, a@/& (because the velocity in each of the coordinate
directions is zero).
After the blimp takes off, and is ascending to altitude at some arbitrary
velocity (speed and direction), suppose you again open the window and put out
your head. Your nose will experience a rate of change in pollen count described
by dWdt, because the blimp now has non zero velocity components with respect
to the coordinate axes.
Suppose now that after some time aloft the pilot shuts off the engine, so
that the blimp (assumed to be neutrally buoyant, or weightless) acts like a free
balloon and is carried by the air at the velocity of the wind. Now if you put your
head out of the window your nose will experience a rate of change in pollen
count described by the substantial derivative, DWDt, because your velocity now
corresponds to the velocity of the fluid  you are following the motion of thefluid
(air)
66 Chapter I : Essentials
(1.6.27)
Consider now how the volume integral of some tensorial property of the
continuum, Tkl..., changes as we move with the fluid.
(1.6.32)
In Figure 1.6.31, consider the points that at time t are in V, the volume
interior to S . In some time At, these points will move to the volume V',
interior to S'. Points which are on the elemental surface dS will move to dS'. By
the definition of the material derivative which declares it to be the time rate of
change following the motion of the continuum, we then have that
(1.6.33)
However, we see that those points common to both V and V' will generate
terms in the numerator which involve only the change in time, not in space.
Denoting this common volume as VV', we can write, since V = VV' + (V 
VV') and V' = VV' + (V'  VV')
68 Chapter I : Essentials
(v w),t
+ At (1.6.34)
The first term in the limit gives the partial derivative of the integral with respect
to time. For convenience we denote V  VV' as VA and V'  VV' as VB. B y
recognizing that the volumes not common to V and V' can be written in terms
of the elemental volumes swept out by the elemental surfaces as indicated
dV, = (v n) dS
a
dv, = ( v . n ) d S (1.6.35)
(1.6.36)
(1.6.37)
(1.6.38)
If Ikl,. has a constant value for the region of the continuum under
consideration (a conserved quantity), then I'kl.. = 0. If this is to be true for
arbitrary values of the volume, the only way it can be true is for the integrand
above to be zero. We will use this argument several times in our course of study
to obtain microscopic equations from macroscopic balances.
Chapter 1 Problems
1.1 At the end of June your checkbook balance is $356. During July you wrote
$503 in checks and deposited $120. What is your balance (accumulation) at the
end of July? What is your accumulation rate per day in July?
1.2 At the end of January your parts warehouse contains 35,133 parts. During
February you sold 21,316 parts from the warehouse and manufactured 3,153
which were added to the warehouse. How many parts are in the warehouse at the
end of February?
1.4 To convert between English Units and SI units calculate conversion factors
for the following:
1.5 Two infinite plates are separated 0.01 in. by a liquid with a viscosity of 1.1
centipise (cP). The top plate moves at a velocity of 0.3 ft/s. The bottom plate
is stationary. If the velocity decreases linearly from the top plate through the
fluid to the bottom plate, what is the shear stress on each plate?
70 Chapter 1: Essentials
1.6 Two infinite plates are separated 0.2 mm by a liquid with viscosity of 0.9
cP. The top plate moves at a velocity of 0.1 m/s; the bottom plate is
stationary. Assume velocity decreases linearly through the fluid to 0 at the
bottom plate. What is the shear stress on each plate?
1.7 The expression for velocity vx, for fluid flow between two parallel plates is
2B is plate separation, L is length of the two plates, (ppp2) is the pressure drop
causing flow and p is the fluid viscosity. Determine the expression for the
average velocity, <vx>.
1.8 If the coordinate system in problem 1.7 is changed to the bottom plate of
the slit and the expression for velocity is
3 3 3
v  w = C i v,  C i w, = z i ( v ,  w , ) = v,  w,
i=1 i=l i=l
a x (b x c) = a (b c)  c(a b)
Show the relations for two coordinate systems, i.e., x = x(r,8, +), y = y(r, 8,
40, z = z(r98, 0).
The coordinates are related by x = r cos 8,y = r sin 8 and z = z. Apply the chain
rule and show the relationshipsbetween the derivatives.
72 Chapter I : Essentials
2
THE MASS BALANCES
We are concerned in this course of study with mass, energy, and
momentum. We will proceed to apply the entity balance to each in tun. There
also are subclassifications of each of these quantities that are of interest. In
terms of mass, we are often concerned with accounting for both total mass and
mass of a species.
\ V
73
74 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.11)
P AV (2.1 12)
0
The total mass in V can be obtained by summing over all of the elemental
volumes in V and taking the limit as AV approaches zero
(2.1.13)
Accumulution of mass
First examine the rate of accumulation term. The accumulation (not rate of
accumulation) over time At is the difference between the mass in the system at
some initial time t and the mass in the system at the later time t + At.
I duringAt
J
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 7.5
(2.1.14)
rate of
accumulation
of total mass
in V
(2.1.15)
The rate of input and rate of output terms may be evaluated by considering
an arbitrary small area AA on the surface of the control volume. The velocity
vector will not necessarily be normal to the surface.
The approximate volumetric flow rate' through the elemental area AA can
be written as the product of the velocity normal to the area evaluated at some
point within AA multiplied by the area.
r
volumetric
flow rate (2.1.16)
through AA
Notice that the volumetric flow rate written above will have a negative sign for
inputs (where a > n) and a positive sign for outputs (where a c x ) and so the
appropriate sign will automatically be associated with either input or output
terms, making it no longer necessary to distinguish between input and output.
I$[]
(2.1.17)
[F]
The mass flow rate through the total external surface area A can then be written
as the limit of the sum of the flows through all the elemental AAs as the
elemental areas approach zero. Notice that in the limit it no longer matters where
in the individual AA we evaluate velocity or density, since a unique point is
approached for each elemental =a.*
mass
through A
= l A p (v n) dA
(2.1.18)
Substitution in the entity balance then gives the macroscopic total mass
1 ] [
balance
We Erequently need to refer to the mass flow rate independent of a control volume. In
doing so we use the symbol w and restrict it to the ahsolute value
w = IApl(vn)ldA
(2.1.19)
l/Ap(vn)dA+$lvpdV = 0
woutwin+9 = 0
We can use the latter form of the balance if we know total flow rates and the
change in mass of the system with time; otherwise, we must evaluate the
integrals. In some cases, where density is constant or areaaveraged velocities are
known, this is simple, as detailed below. Otherwise, we must take into account
the variation of velocity and density across inlets and outlets and of density
within the system
In such cases
(2.1.110)
(2.1.111)
(V)Aout(v)A,,,+% = 0
78 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.1.1 12)
Tanks3 are used for several purposes in processes. The most obvious is for
storage. They are also used for mixing and as chemical reactors. Another purpose
of tankage is to supply surge capacity to smooth out variations in process flows;
e.g., to hold material produced at a varying rate upstream until units downstream
are ready to receive it. Consider the surge tank shown in Figure 2.1.11.
10 f t
Suppose water is being pumped into a 10ft diameter tank at the rate of 10
ft3/min. If the tank were initially empty, and if water were to leave the tank at a
rate dependent on the liquid level according to the relationship Qout = 2h (where
the units of the constant 2 are [ft2/min],of Q are [ft3/min],and of h are [ft]), find
the height of liquid in the tank as a function of time.
So 1u t ion
(2.1.113)
“Tank” is here used in the generic sense as a volume used to hold liquid enclosed or
partially enclosed by a shell of some sort of solid material. In process language, a
distinction is often made among holding tanks, mixers, and reactors.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 79
 39.3 I,(4
___
5h
= dt
(2.1.116)
(2.1.118)
h = 5[Lexp(&)]ft
(2.1.119)
Note that as time approaches infinity, the tank level stabilizes at 5 ft. It is
usually desirable that surge tank levels stabilize before the tank overflows for
reasons of safety if nothing else. The inlet flow should not be capable of being
driven to a larger value than the outlet flow.
. rn. l&ar
Volumetric flow rate o f flurd
.nle 2.1.12
.rn circular DW
flow
The (axially symmetric) velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow in
a smooth tube of constant circular crosssection is
80 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
v = v,[l (321
(2.1.120)
Solution
a) Since we are not referring the volumetric flow to any particular system or
control volume, we use the absolute value
(2.1.121)
(2.1.122)
Noting that
(2.1.123)
Q = 2rrvm,4 R [l(&)2]rdr
(2.1.124)
(2.1.125)
R
(2.1.126)
0
Q = 2avma[$q (2.1.127)
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 81
(2.1.128)
Solution
(2.1.129)
$ l V p d V = VdP
dt (2.1.131)
J^*p(v.n)dA = p ( v . n ) l A d A = p v A
(2.1.132)
p v A + V dp = 0
dt (2.1.133)
82 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
= 2.1 
kg
m2s (2.1.134)
Water is in steady flow through the manifold4 shown below, with the
indicated flow directions known.
Solution
jAp(v.n)dA+&lvpdV = 0
(2.1.135)
At steady state
gIvpdV = 0
(2.1.136)
so
SAp(vn)dA= 0
(2.1.137)
("..) =0
(2.1.138)
(2.1.139)
jAp ( v  n ) d A =
1 lAl (62.4)[y](8i[#n)dA
( i . n ) = II(IlIcos(nradians) =  1 (2.1.141)
and therefore
[T][%]
p ( v . n) dA =  (62.4) (8) 1 dA
=  (62.4) [T]
(8) [g](A1)
=  (62.4) [T]
(8) [$](0.3) [ft2]
=  1 5 10bmass
.7
(2.1.142)
Proceeding to the second term, and recognizing that this also is an input
term so will have a negative sign associated with it as in the first term
p ( v  n ) d A = p! (v.n)dA = pQ2
2 A2
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
=  5 lbmass
6 7
(2.1.143)
The third term, which is an output (therefore the dot product gives a positive
sign), then gives
(2.1.144)
p (v n) dA = p (v n)
a IA
4
dA = p (v4  n) A 4
[v] [9]
4
= (25) (v4 n)
= 25 (v4.n) (2.1.145)
Solving
v 4 . n =  1 . 7 6 8ft
(2.1.147)
The negative sign indicates that the velocity vector is in the opposite direction to
the outward normal. At A4 the outward normal is in the positive ydirection;
therefore, the velocity vector is in the negative ydirection, or
86 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
v4 =  1.76g j
(2.1.148)
Notice that if had emerged from the bottom of the manifold rather than
the top, the outward normal would have been in the negative rather than the
positive ydirection, giving a velocity vector in the positive ydirection, so the
resultant flow would still have been into the system  we cannot change the
mass balance by simply changing the orientation of the inlet or outlet to a
system (we can, of course, change the momentum balance by such a change).
The reader is encouraged to change the orientation of A4 to horizontally to the
left or right and prove that the mass balance is unaffected.
We can, of course, at the same time generate elemental carbon (in soot, etc.), CO,
and other byproducts of combustion. There will also be a negative generation of 0,.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 87
Consider the generation rate term.Call the rate of species mass generation
per unit volume of the ith chemical species r,, which will be a function of
position in space and of time
(2.1.21)
I%[
The rate of generation of mass of species i in a volume AV is then
approximately equal to
rate of generation
1
of mass of species i = ri AV
in volume AV
(2.1.22)
To get the rate of generation throughout our control volume, we add the
contributions of all the constituent elemental volumes in V. Taking the limit as
approaches 0, we obtain the rate of generation term in the entity balance
rate of eeneration
v
1
1
ofmassofspeciesi = lim Z r i,AV = Jv ri dV
in volume V
AV+O V
1
(2.1.23)
I accumulation 1
I of mass of species i = (m,) t+b  (m,)
in volume V
(2.1.24)
I
rate of accumulation
of mass of species i = lim
in volume V
At 0 At 1
(2.1.25)
The input and output for mass of a species are readily obtained in the same
manner as for total mass. The approximate mass flow rate of species i through
an elemental area AA can be written by multiplying the volumetric flow rate6by
the mass concentration of species i, pi, (rather than the total density, as was done
for total mass) at some point in AA
I
r
Strictly speaking, we must replace v by vi, since the individual species may not
move at the velocity v in the presence of concentration gradients. The difference
between v and vi is negligible, however, for most problems involving flowing
streams. We discuss the difference between v and vi in our treatment of mass transfer.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 89

[r] [$][q
The mass flow rate through the total external surface area A can then be
written as the limit of the sum of the flows through ail the elemental AAs as the
elemental areas approach zem.
r
(2.1.27)
1 I[
Rearranging the entity balance as
_I ]
of speciesi of speciesi
(2.1.28)
rate of accumulation rate of generation
ofmass = ofmass
of speciesi of speciesi
(2.1.29)
If there is no generation term, the macroscopic total mass balance and the
macroscopic mass balance for an individual species look very much the same
except for the density term.
90 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
Solution
(2.1.211)
Evaluating term by term,starting with the first term on the lefthand side
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 91
But, since the volumetric flow rates in and out are tbe Same in absolute value
But a total mass balance combined with constant density and the fact that inlet
and outlet volumetric flow rates are the same gives

dVtank  0
dt (2.1.215)
so
Examining the righthand side, we note that the reaction rate of A is twice the
negative of that of B by the stoichiometry
rA = 2r, (2.1.217)
92 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
= 2r,V,,&mol A
(2.1.218)
(2.1.219)
(2.1.220)
'tank (2.1.221)
( Q dp A
[P A  P Ain]  'B 'tank)
= jidt (2.1.222)
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 93
(2.1.223)
(2.1.224)
(2.1.225)
(2.1.226)
[1"
 (2) min  ( Oeo2) [$i](P [5
1
A)
[%I
 (2) min  (0.02) min (50) I"[ [$]
m3
[
(0.02)(PA) = (2) + (0.02) (50)] exp  [ (F)(
ICNI)]  2
(PA) = 31.3kg
m3 (2.1.227)
94 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
Solution
9  10 ft3/min
(2.1.228)
= (pS),[ lbmysB]
ft
"I[
(10) mm
(2.1.230)
(2.1.231)
(2.1.232)
(2.1.233)
which gives
96 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(5)[ln(152Ps)15P B =
(15  5 e(o.2d)
= 2.5 (3  e(*s20) (2.1.234)
PB = 2
jAp(v*n)dA+$jvpdV = 0 (2.2.11)
(2.2.12)
sv
In Chapter 1 from the Gauss theorem we showed
( V . U) dV = js(n  U) dS (2.2.13)
where U was an arbitrary vector (we have changed the symbol from v to U to
make clear the distinction between this arbitrary vector and the velocity vector).
The macroscopic mass balance was derived for a stationary control volume,
and so the limits in the integrals therein are not functions of time. Application
of the Leibnitz rule therefore yields
(2.2.14)
Applying these two results to the macroscopic total mass balance gives
(note that multiplying the velocity vector by the scalar p simply gives another
vector)
IV (V.pv)dV+lv%dV = 0 (2.2.15)
(2.2.16)
Since the limits of integration are arbitrary, the only way that the lefthand
side can vanish (to maintain the equality to zero) is for the integrand to be
identically zero.
i (v.pv)+&=o I (2.2.17)
p ( v * v )= 0 (2.2.18)
but we can divide by the density since it is nonzero for cases of interest, giving
1 v . v = 01 (2.2.19)
For steady flow, the density does not vary in time, so the continuity
equation becomes
p p v = 01 (2 2.1 10)
0
These forms, as well as being used in and of themselves, are often used to simplify
other equations by eliminating the corresponding terms.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 99
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES
Solution
vv=0 (2.2.112)
(22.113)
(2.2.1143
(2.2.1  15)
 
(3) =
(a[cY+f(.)i
ay (2.2.1 17)
X )x=c
vy =  c y + f ( x ) (2.2.1 18)
f (x) = constant
(2.2.119)
ard
f (x) = 0
(2.2.120)
Solution
(2.2.121)
(2.2.122)
I d
TZ(P'Vr) = 0 (2.2.123)
where we have replaced the partial derivative symbols with ordinary derivatives
because we now have an unknown function of only one independent variable.
This then becomes, for an incompressible fluid
I d
P iz ( r v r ) = 0 (2.2.124)
102 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
We multiply both sides by the radius, and, since the density is not equal to zero,
we can divide both sides by the density
a(rvr)
d = o
(2.2.125)
Integrating
/ $(r vr) dr = 1 0 dr
(2.2.126)
rv, = constant
Vr = constant
r (2.2.127)
So1u t ion
(V.pv)+% = 0 (2.2.128)
In cylindrical coordinates
*+I& a
at r &(P TV,) ++&P ve) + Z(Pvz) = 0 (2.2.129)
vz) = *
a~ +az(P
at (2.2.130)
JP % aP  0~
a t + P ~ + V Z (2.2.131)
aP
+p h z =o
at aZ (2.2.132)
The macroscopic mass balance for an individual species took the form
Models based on the above equation (which are adequate for many real problems)
are restricted to cases where the velocity of the bulk fluid, v, and the velocity of
the individual species, Vi, are assumed to be identical.
104 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
As was just noted, individual species may not move at the same velocity as
the bulk fluid, for example, because of concentration gradients in the fluid. This
becomes of much more a concern in certain classes of problems we wish to
model at the microscopic level than it was at the macroscopic level.
We begin with the more general equation, which includes the species
velocity rather than the bulk fluid velocity
jAp,(vi.n)dA+&jvp,dV = 1V ridV
(2.2.22)
The Leibnitz rule and the Gauss theorem can be applied as in the case of the
microscopic total mass balance, giving
(2.2.23)
(2.2.24)
which is the microscopic rnass balance for an individual species. There is one
such equation for each species. In a mixture of n constituents, the sum of all n
of the species equations must yield the total mass balance, and therefore only n
of the n+l equations are independent.
The microscopic mass balance in the form above is not particularly useful
for two reasons:
(2.2.25)
where Nj denotes the molar flux of the ith species with respect to axes fixed in
space, Xi is the mole fraction of species i, c is the total molar concentration, and
Dm is the diffusion coefficient.
The molar flux can be written in terms of the velocity of the ith species, V i ,
which is defined as the number average velocity
(2.2.26)
Chapter 2 Problems
2.1 For the following situation:
a. Calculate (v n)
b. Calculate vx
c. Calculate w
A=f d
a. Calculate (v n)
b. Calculate w (p = 999 kg/m3)
c. Calculate(*P(v.n)dA if Ivl = (l*)v
where vmax = 4.5 m / ~ .
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances I07
2.5 Consider the steady flow of water at 7OOF through the piping system shown
below where the velocity distribution at station 1 may be expressed by
( )
v ( r ) = 9.0 1 ’;
108 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
2.6 Water is flowing in the reducing elbow as shown. What is the velocity and
mass flow rate at 2?
p = 62.4
ft3
to
2 ft/sec
2.7 The tee shown in the sketch is rectangular and has 3 exitentrances. The
width is w. The height h is shown for each exitentrance on the sketch. You
may assume steady, uniform, incompressibleflow.
a. Write the total macroscopic mass balance and use the
assumptions to simplify the balance for this situation.
b. Is flow into or out of the bottom arm (2) of the tee.
c. What is the magnitude of the velocity into or out of the
bottom arm (2) of the tee?
"2
2.8 The velocity profile for turbulent flow of a fluid in a circular smooth tube
follows a power law such that
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances I09
Find the value of <v>/vmax for this situation. If n = 7 this is the result from
the Blasius resistance formula.
(Hint: let y = R  r)
2.9 Oil of specific gravity 0.8 is pumped to a large open tank with a 1.0ft hole
in the bottom. Find the maximum steady flow rate Qin, ft3/s, which can be
pumped to the tank without its overflowing.
2.10 Oil at a specific gravity of 0.75 is pumped into an open tank with diameter
3 m and height 3 m. Oil flows out of a pipe at the bottom of the tank that has a
diameter of 0.2 m. What is the volumetric flow rate that can be pumped in the
tank such that it will not overflow?
2.11 In the previous problem assume water is pumped in the tank at a rate of 3
m3/min. If the water leaves the tank at a rate dependent on the liquid level such
that Qout = 0.3h (where 0.3 is in m2/min and Q is in m3/min, h is in m. What
is the height of liquid in the tank as a function of time?
2.12 Shown is a perfectly mixed tank containing 100 ft3 of an aqueous solution
of 0.1 salt by weight. At time t = 0, pumps 1 and 2 are turned on. Pump 1 is
I10 Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
pumping pure water into the tank at a rate of 10 ft3/hr and pump 2 pumps
solution from the tank at 15 ft3/hr. Calculate the concentration in the outlet
line as an explicit function of time.
2.13 Water is flowing into an open tank at the rate of 50 ft3/min. There is an
opening at the bottom where water flows out at a rate proportional to
where h = height of the liquid above the bottom of the tank. Set up the equation
for height versus time; separate the variables and integrate. The area of the
bottom of the tank is 100 ft2.
2.14 Salt solution is flowing into and out of a stirred tank at the rate of 5 gal
solution/min. The input solution contains 2 lbm saldgal solution. The volume
of the tank is 100 gal. If the initial salt concentration in the tank was 1 lbm
saltlgal, what is the outlet concentration as a function of time?
If the tank is initially empty, the drain is closed, and the streams are fed at steady
rates w l and w2 lbm of solutionlhr, show that XA is independent of time and
find the total mass m at any time.
(Hint: Do not expand the derivative of the product in the species balance, but
integrate directly.)
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances 111
Cqn;;ntration
in tonk
2.16 You have been asked to design a mixing tank for salt solutions. The tank
volume is 126 gal and a salt solution flows into and out of the tank at 7 gal of
solutiodmin. The input salt concentration contains (3 lbm salt)/gal of solution.
If the initial salt concentration in the tank is (1/2 lbm &)/gal, find:
113
I14 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Although energy not associated with any mass may cross the boundary of
the system, within the system we will consider only energy that is associated
with mass (we will not, for example, attempt to model systems within which a
large part of the energy is in the form of free photons).
* Even though Brownian motion represents kinetic energy of the molecules, this
kinetic energy is below the scale of our continuum assumption. It is furthermore,
random and so not recoverahle as work (at least, until someone discovers a reallife
Maxwell demon).
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
+I I
(3.1.21)
rate of accumulationof =
total energy
1
The total energy in V can be obtained by summing over all of the elemental
volumes in V and taking the limit as AV approaches zero
;
total energy ] . 6 i i " + & + R ) p A v ]
(3.1.23)
= AVlim
to (7[(*+&+R)p*v]) (3.1.24)
= (o+&+g)pdV (3.1.25)
This is a model which neglects systems that contain energy not associated with
mass that changes significantly with time, as well as neglecting any conversion of
mass into energy or vice versa, as we have stipulated earlier  it would not be suitable,
for example, in making an energy balance on the fireball of a nuclear explosion
where both large, changing amounts of radiation are involved as well as processes
that convert mass into energy.
116 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
1 1I
accumulation]
Ofenergy
d g A t
=
”(o+&+R)pdV( t+&
(3.1.26)
At
(3.1.27)
Consider for the moment the system shown in Figure 3.1.21. Illustrated is
the addition to a system of material which is contained in a closed rigid container
(a beverage can, if you wish).
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 117
Note that to move the additional mass inside the system we must push 
that is, we must compress some of the material already in the system to make
room for the added material (thereby doing work on the mass already in the
system and increasing its energy).
In the typical process shown in Figure 3.1.21, we do not change the energy
associated with the added mass, but we cannot either add or remove mass
without performing thisflow work on the mass already in the system.
In general, the flow work necessary to add a unit mass to a system is the
pressure at the point where the mass crosses the boundary multiplied by the
volume added
flow work
per = pV (3.1.28)
unit mass
Therefore, the total energy associated with transferring a unit mass into a
system is the sum of the internal, potential, and kinetic energy associated with
the mass plus the flow work (whether or not the material is contained in a rigid
container)
Notice that the enthalpy combines some energy associated with mass with
some energy not associated with mass (the flow work). Definition of
enthalpy is not made for any compelling physical reason but rather for
convenience  the two terms always occur simultaneously and so it is
convenient to group them under the Same symbol.
This makes the energy associated with transferring a unit mass into the
system
(R+&+R) (3.1.211)
Multiplying the energy associated with transferring a unit mass into the
system by the mass flow rate gives the net rate (output minus input) of energy
transfer
Now consider the remainder of the energy that crosses the boundary not
associated with mass. We arbitrarily (but for sound reasons) divide this
energy into two classes  heat and work.
The definition of work also leads to some things being classified as work
which we might not usually think of as work  for example, energy transferred
across the boundary via electrical leads. Even though electrical current is
associated with electrons, which can be assigned a minuscule mass (although
they also have a wave nature), at scales of interest to us our models do not “see”
electrons. Therefore, such energy is lumped into the work classification by
default because it is not flow work, is not associated with mass, and does not
flow as a result of a temperature gradient.
By convention, heat into the system and work out of the system have
traditionally been regarded as positive (probably because the originators of the
convention worked with steam power plants where one puts heat in and gets
work out  a good memory device by which to remember the c~nvention).~
From thermodynamics we know that heat and work are not exact
differentials, i.e., they are not independent of the path, although their
There is currently movement away from this convention to one in which both heat
and work entering the system are regarded as positive. In this text we adhere to the
older convention .
We use Q both for volumetric flow rate and heat transfer. The distinction is usually
clear from the context; however, it would be clearer to use a different symbol. We are
faced here with the two persistent problems with engineering notation: a) traditional
use, and b) the scarcity of symbols that have not already been appropriated. Since
heat is almost universally designated by the letter Q or q, we will how to tradition and
not attempt to find another symbol.
I20 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
If we add the rates that heat and work cross the boundary for each differential
area on the surface of the system we obtain
(3.1.213)
(3.1.214)
Adding the contributions of each elemental area and letting the elemental area
approach zero we have
across A
= ,\%,F"Q =Q
across A
I
fromworkout = , \ ~ , ~= 6 ~ (3.1.215)
Substituting in the entity balance both the terms for energy associated with
mass and not associated with mass, remembering our sign convention for heat
and work, and moving the heat and work terms to the righthandside of the
equation
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 121
(R + 4 + R) p (v n) dA
(3.1.216)
+ ddtS V ( O + & + R ) p d V = 0w
which is the macroscopic total energy balance. Be sure to remember that the
enthalpy is associated only with the inputloutput term, and the internal
energy with the accumulation term.
The macroscopic total energy balance often can be simplified for particular
situations. Many of these simplifications are so common that it is worth
examining them in some detail.
For example, we know from calculus that we always can rewrite the first
term as
IA
fi p (v n) dA+
* IA
6  p (v n) dA+ IA
R p ( v . n) dA (3.1.217)
not to m l o
(3.1.218)
where typically
Resnick, R. and D.Halliday (1977). Physics: Part One. New York,NY,John Wiley
and Sons, p. 338 ff.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 123
The force produced by such a field is the negative of the gradient of the
potential, and in this case lies in the rdirection because the gradient of the
potential is zero in the 8 and +directions (derivatives with respect to these two
coordinatedirectionsare zero).
Gmm,
(F), = = Vr@ = aar=  = mr2g (3.1.2 19)
This yields the expected result; that is, the force is inversely proportional to
the square of the distance from the center of the earth and directed toward the
center. At sea level g is approximately 32.2 ft/sec2 or 9.81 d s 2 .
(3.1.220)
G m 
e
(6.6726~10l') 9
g
( 5 . 9 7 ~102') kg
= 9.81696 N
r2 (6.37 x 106+ 100)' m2 kg
(3.1.221)
(Note that Nkg = (kg m/s2)/kg = m/s2.) The difference does not appear until
the fifth significant digit.6 Consequently we usually assume in our models that
(G me/r2) = g is constant (such problems as placing items into orbit from the
earth surface excepted, obviously).
Assumption of constant acceleration of gravity reduces the potential energy
term to
We usually use one of the rectangular coordinates rather than the spherical
coordinate r, since the geometry at the earth's surface can be adequately treated in
rectangular Cartesian coordinates  for example
jA6 p (v  n) dA = g jAz p (v  n) dA
~~
We obtained 9.82 m / s 2 rather than 9.81 m / s 2 for our value because of the
approximate nature of the numbers we used. This did not matter for the illustration
because we sought differences, not absolute values.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 125
(3.1.224)
(3.1.227)
(3.1.228)
6 p ( v  n ) d A = gpQ[z,z,
(3.1.229)
From physics we know that the kinetic energy of a unit mass is expressible
as
E (3.1.230)
 2  2
We therefore write
126 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.231)
For a fluid where both p and the angle between the velocity vector and the
outward nonnal are constant across A we m a y write
(By definition the integral is the areaaverage of the cube of the ~elocity.~)
and write, for any given area A;, also assuming that a and p are constant across
AI
(3.1.234)
JA v3 dA
(v’) = * JA dA JA dA
(3.1.235)
I, dA I,dA
except for special cases
1
Note that <v3> is not the same as
3
(v3) =
!Av3dA
~
!AdA
#
[

!AVdA = (v)’ = (v)2(v)
,AdA
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 127
This is not, of course, true in general, but it is true for certain special models
such as plug flow. We also use this as an approximation as discussed below.
If we apply to this term the assumption that enthalpy and density are
constant across any single inlet or outlet area (such as the crosssection of a pipe
crossing the boundary), we may write, for each such single area
= * fii Pi (v), A,
= *fiiP,Q,
= f R,w, (3.1.236)
(3.1.237)
128 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
dt = dr
R
r = (1t)R (3.1.240)
Substituting:
* The 1/7 power model itself is an approximation to the true velocity profile, but this
is a different approximation than the one under discussion.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 129
t3” [( 1  t) R] [Rdt]
 
(v’>

(l [ i’
(4 R2
2 t’” (1  t) R] [ R dt]

[ (7/10) t’” + (7/17) t””  7/177/10 1.06
3 
4 (7/15  l/8)’
(3.1.241)
Therefore, the assumption creates an error of about
As a matter of interest, let us see what the error would be if we made this
approximation in the energy balance for laminar flow
[1  (6)’]}2
3
(v,, r dr
~t
0
I30 Chapter 3: Tlte Energy Balances
(3.1.244)
(3.1.245)
Therefore, using the approximation would yield half the correct answer;
therefore, this would be a poor model of tbe process.
wzw, = 0 (3.1.247)
For turbulent flow we frequently assume that the velocity profile can be
modeled as constant (plug flow) so as we noted above
(3.1.249)
(3.1.250)
dominate the remaining enthalpy changes (from sensible heats, etc.) An example
of phase change in a steadystate problem is illustrated below in Example 3.1.2
1. Table 3.1.21 below shows the relative magnitude of such terms for organic
compounds. (Negative enthalpy changes imply that heat is evolved.) It is to be
emphasized that this figure is for qualitative illustration only, not design.
Water enters a boiler and leaves as steam as shown. Using 1 to designate the
entering state and 2 for the exit, calculate the steadystate kinetic and potential
energy and enthalpy changes per pund.
1JF
steam
20 p i a
300cF
boiler 30 W S
pia
water
659'
20
4 in pipe
5 WS
Solution
RI=+
V2 (5)2[f]1
(2)
lbfs2 Btu
(32.2)lbm ft (778) ft lbf
=0.~5BtU
lbm
The potential energy term is, choosing z = 0 at the level of the entrance
Pipe
(3.1.252)
The enthalpy change is, using values from the steam table and ignoring the
effect of pressure on density andor enthalpy of liquids
134 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Notice that the mechanical energy terms are insignificant compared to the
thermal energy term.Tbis is typical for many engineering problems.
steam
400 psig
60pF
4 in pipe
5 ft/s U
Figure 3.1.24 Mechanical and thermal energy terms compared
for a boiler (11)
Solution
Potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible compared to the amount
of energy required to accomplish the phase change. The time derivative is zero at
steady state. The work term is zero.
A
[ (A + 6 + R) p (v  n) dA + gjv(0+ + R) p dV = W
(3.1.254)
then becomes
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 135
(3.1.255)
(3.1.256)
A,w,A, w1 = Q (3.1.257)
(3.1.258)
(3.1.259)
(3.1.260)
(3.1.261)
R,wA,w = Q
(3.1.262)
w(R2R,) = Q
We can obtain property values from the steam tables.I0 We neglect the
effect of pressure on the density and enthalpy of liquids.
(3.1.263)
v = 0.01605 Ibm
ft3 at 65"F,0.3056 psia
(3.1.264)
Rsuperheatsd
vapor = 1305.7 E at 600°F, 415 psia
(3.1.265)
We find from pipe tables that the crosssectional area for flow for 4 in nominal
diameter Schedule 40 steel pipe is 0.0884ft2.The mass flow rate, w, is then
(3.1.266)
 (‘I
(0.01605) E
ft
(5)p (0.0884)ft2
(3.1.267)
1bm
= 27.5 g
(3.1.268)
Q = w(R,R,)
Q lbm (
= 27.5 7 1305.7 
Btu  33.05
lbm Ibm
”)
Q = 35,OOoq (3.1.269)
Solution
Choose the system to be the fluid internal to the pipe, and apply the
macroscopic energy balance. Since the pipe is of uniform diameter, the kinetic
energy change will be zero. There is no potential energy change. The
accumulation term is zero because of steadystate conditions. Therefore, the work
supplied by the pump goes entirely into increasing the enthalpy of the fluid.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 137
IA
(R 6 + + R) p (v  n) dA + &jv
(0+ 6 + R) p dV = Q  W
(3.1.270)
(3.1.271)
fl1IA
1 p ( v  n ) d A + & L 2 p ( v  n ) d A = lV
(3.1.272)
A2W2A1 w1 = w (3.1.273)
w(n2n1) = w (3.1.214)
Substituting
wCP(T2TI) = w (3.1.276)
w
( T ~  T ~=)  (3.1.277)
WCP
The very small temperature increase shows why one does not, for example,
heat morning coffee by stirring the water with a spoon. A very small rise in
temperature can consume a relatively enormous amount of mechanical energy.
138 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
An insulated, perfectly mixed tank contains a heating coil. Water flows into
and out of the tank at 10 ft3/min. The volume of the water in the tank is 100
ft3, the initial temperature is 70°F and the water flowing into the tank is at
150°F. If tbe beater adds 5000 BTU/min. and tbe horsepower added by the mixer
is 5 hp, what is the tank temperature as a function of time?
10 G / m n n
So1ut ion
The tank is at steady state so far as the macroscopic total mass balance is
concerned (accumulation is zero, w1 = w2 = w). It is not at steady state with
respect to the macroscopic total energy balance, because the internal energy in
the tank is increasing with time.
l 1 Note that there also would be a volume change with temperature, which we ignore
in this model, and which would probably be negligible for most applications.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 139
R = Cp(T TEf)
0 = Cv (TT,,) (3.1.284)
e, = e, (3.1.285)
Using the fact that for a perfectly mixed tank the outlet conditions are the same
as those in the tank; specifically, that T = T2
c , ( T  T , ) ~ + c , ~ v =~ 0w (3.1.288)
Rearranging
140 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.289)
9
(62.4) ft (100) ft3 (1) &
(3.1.290)
( 1 . 1 9 7 ) 9 = 1 0.1197(T 150)
(1.197) $ = (38.960.1197T) (3.1.291)
dT
(18.96 0.1197 T)
=l dt
(3.1.292)
( [
10) In
(18.96 0.1197 T)
10.6 = t (3.1.293)
Solving for T
T = 15888.6exp
I ol
t
(3.1.294)
When the brakes on a car are applied, the kinetic energy of the vehicle (the
system) is converted to internal energy of the system at the point where the
brake shoes andor pads rub on the drums a d o r disks and to heat, which crosses
the boundary of the system where the tires rub the road. These converted forms
of energy obviously cannot easily be recovered as work  say, to raise the
elevation of the car. If the brakes had not been applied the kinetic energy could
have been used to coast up a hill and thus preserve mechanical energy in the
form of elevation (potential energy) increase.
IA
(A + 6 + R) p (v . n) dA + &Iv(0+ 6 + R) p dV
= Qw (3.1.31)
where the terms classified as thermal energy are boxed. Since the conversion of
mechanical energy into thermal energy represents a degradation of the possibility
of recovering this energy as work, it has been conventional to define a term
called lost work as
lw Ll?p(v.n)dA+&il?pdVQ (3.1.33)
It would be more logical to call this term losf mechanical energy, but we will
not assail tradition. Lost work is not lost energy. Total energy is still
conserved  mechanical energy is not.
By the above definition we adopt the same sign convention for lw as that for
W; that is, input is negative, output is positive. The lost work is a (negative)
generation term in the entity balance. Substituting the definition of lost work
and writing the relation in the form of the entity balance yields
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 143
generation (3.1.34)
 rateof
mechanicalenergy
[ (p 9 + 6 + k) p (v * n) dA + W
I (3.1.35)
+ [ i l ( & + k ) p d V ] = [I,]
1 v+$+R)
(p p (v n)d A + $ l (&+R) p dV
= 1ww (3.1.36)
.. steady state
constant g,
no variation of v, p, 6 ,or R across inlet or across outlet
and apply the assumptions as before, using the fact that 9 = Up, we obtain for
the simplified form of the macroscopicmechanical energy balance
? A P + A ~ + A =~ 1;w
(3.1.37)
144 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
In the absence of friction and shaft work this is called the BernouZZi equation
(3.1.38)
D l e 3.1.31
In pole vaulting, one of the "field" events from track and field, the idea is to
speed down a runway holding one end of a pole, insert the opposite end of the
pole into a slotshaped socket fixed in the ground, and, through rotation of the
pole about the end placed in the slotshaped socket, to propel oneself over a bar
resting on horizontal pegs attached to two uprights  without displacing the bar
from its supports.
Regarded from the energy balance perspective, considering the body of the
vaulter as the system, it is desired to convert as much internal energy of the body
(at rest at the starting point on the runway) as possible into potential energy
(height of center of gravity of the body above the ground) with just enough
kinetic energy to move this center of gravity across the bar so the body can fall
to the ground on the other side.
Initially, this is a problem for the total macroscopic energy balance, where
the vaulter converts internal (chemically stored) energy of the system into the
kinetic energy of the system (velocity of running down the runway). More
internal energy is converted into vertical velocity as the vaulter jumps with legs
and pulls upward with arms as the pole begins its rotation in the socket. At this
point some part of the energy is converted into rotational energy as the vaulter's
body rotates so as to pass over the bar in a more or less horizontal fashion.'*
It is instructive to see how fast a vaulter would have to run in order to raise
the center of gravity of hidher body 14 ft utilizing only kinetic energy. (Since a
6ft vaulter might have a center of gravity 3 ft above the ground, this would
correspond to a 17 ft vault.)
So1ut ion
l 2 Good vaulters actually curl over the bar so that at any one instant much of their
mass remains below the level of the bar, much as an earthworm crawls over a soda
straw.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 145
We also assume
and we neglect energy in the form of angular velocity of the pole or vaulter's
body.
Take the body of the vaulter as the system and take the initial state as the
point where the vaulter is running and the pole just begins to slide into the
socket, the final state as the vaulter at the height of the bar. Applying the
mechanical energy balance, we see that there are no convective terms, no heat,
no work, and no change in internal energy of the system (at this point the
chemical energy of the body has been converted in to kinetic energy), leaving us
with
$SV(b+R)pdV = 0
$l(gz+$)pdV =0 (3.1.39)
Neglecting the variation of z over the height of the vaulter's body and assuming
uniform density
+[(gz+g)pv] = 0
146 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
g(gz+$)m]
dt =0
(3.1.310)
where m is the mass of the vaulter’s body. Integrating with respect to time from
the time the pole begins to slide into the socket to the time when the body of
the vaulter is at maximum height
( ”)
d gZ+T = JI” 0 dt (3.1.311)
(gz+g) = gz
[(gz+?ii)] (3.1.312)
m ‘gz$)
i =0
V2
gz = z
v2 = 2 g z
v = 02 (3.1.313)
Solution
2
I
L
120 psig
1
100 ft
length = 500 ft
The system, if chosen to be the water in the pipe between points 1 and 2, is
Applying the above assumptions and recognizing that there is no work term we
can use the simplified form of the macroscopic mechanical energy balance
P
&+gAz+A($) = 1%
P2  P1
p + g (z2  ZI) + (3.1.315)
P
.p+gAz+*(;) = (3.1.316)
148 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
gal
v , =  Q  (230)iiiG ft3 min
*2 (0.0513) ft2 (7.48) gal (60) s
= 9.994 (3.1.317)
gal
v2 = Q (230)iii6 ft3 min
= (0.0884) ft2 (7.48) gal (60) s
= 5.80s
ft (3.1.318)
lbf s2
(32.2) lbm ft
= ft lbf
 1.03 (3.1.321)
lbm
Notice that the kinetic energy change is negligible compared with the other
terms. Also note that the lost work term is positive itself, which means that
according to our sign convention that net mechanical energy is leaving the
system, as we know it must for any real system.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 149
substitute the definition of enthalpy, and box the terms involving mechanical
energy, regarding the remaining terms as thermal energy
= Q•
(3.1.42)
Probably the most common generation of thermal energy comes from the
action of viscous forces to degrade mechanical energy into thermal energy
(viscous dissipation), the thermal energy so generated appearing as internal
energy of the fluid. However, it is also possible to generate thermal energy via
forms of energy that we have classified as work by default  microwave energy,
changing electrical fields, etc.  which are classified as work by our definition
because they cross the system boundary not associated with mass but not
flowing as a result of a temperature difference. Note that chemical reactions do
not generate thermal energy in this sense because the heat of reaction is
accounted for in the internal energy term.
By the above definition we adopt the Same sign convention for ye as that for
Q; that is, input is positive, output is negative. Substituting the definition of
thermal energy generation and writing the relation in the form of the entity
balance yields
150 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.46)
0, the rate of heat transfer to the control volume, can be expressed in terms
of the heat flux vector, q.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 151
Q= j(q.n)dA (3.2.12)
where the negative sign is to ensure conformity with our convention that heat
into the system is positive.
T =~ + p 6 (3.2.13)
Notice that the viscous stress tensor is simply the stress tensor without the
thermodynamic pressure, a component of the normal force to the surface. This is
desirable because the viscous forces go to zero in the absence of flow, while the
thermodynamicpressure persists.
For the fluids which will be our primary concern, the viscous forces act
only in shear and not normal to the surface, so the only normal force is the
pressure; however, particularly in nonNewtonian fluids, the viscous forces often
act normal to the surface as well as in shear.
The total stress tensor T incorporates the flow work from the enthalpy
term. The dot product of the total stress tensor with the outward normal to a
surface (a tensor operation which was defined in Table 1.6.9l), yields the vector
Tn (the surface traction) representing the total force acting on that surface (this
resultant force need not  in fact, usually does not  act in the n direction).
T e n = T" (3.2.14)
The dot product of this vector with the velocity gives the work passing into that
surface, including the flow work.
(3.2.15)
IS2 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
and then W by moving the flow work contribution to the other side of the
equation
I (0+ db + R) p (v n) dA + $1 (0+ 6 + R) p dV
= 1 V
(q.n)dAwj pgp(v.n)dA (3.2.17)
bF
1
(3.2.18)
gives
I, sip (v . n) d A + * j f i p dV
= ! ( q . n ) U  \ k  jA p b p ( v . n ) d A
5, fip (v . n) d A + $ l fhp dV
= IA v) dA
( 9 . n) dAlA (T".
(3.2.19)
IA [np(v.n)+(q.n)+(T".v)]dA+$I npdV = 0
(3.2.110)
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 153
and substituting for the surface traction in terns of the stress tensor13
(3.2.111)
Applying the divergence theorem to the first term on the lefthand side to change
the area integral to a volume integral, and applying the Leibnitz rule to the
second term on the lefthand side to interchange differentiation and integration
Since the limits of integration are arbitrary, the integrand must be identically
zero.
Eulerian forms of the microscopic total energy balance
This gives the microscopic total energy balance in Eulerian form (which
takes the point of view of an observer fixed in space)
r'T. 1.
l3 Writing [T. ' in rectangular Cartesian gives, since Ti* is symmetric:
Til i 'i = I TU 'i = I TY 'i . But, in symbolic form, this is .
154 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
a(p + t5+R] P)
+ V ([o+&+
R]p v) = (V.q)(V. [T.v])
(3.2.113)
This is a scalar equation. The first term represents accumulation of energy per
unit volume at the point in question; the second, energy input per unit volume
by convection; the third, energy input per unit volume by conduction; and the
fourth, surface work (by both pressure and viscous forces) per unit volume done
on the system.
This, however, is often not the most convenient form to use for many
applications. To obtain a more convenient form, we first substitute for the
kinetic energy term and then isolate the terms involving the potential energy
a(& P)
 +avt . ( a p v ) + at
(3.2.1 14)
=  (V q)  (V  [T. v])
W +at V . ( & p v )
= [p&$+&i$]+[pv.v&+&v.(pv)] (3.2.115)
+ v21 )
But the last term in brackets is zero as a result of the continuity equation.
Substituting
&+V.V&
p [ x ]+ at +v.([o+$]pv)
(3.2.1 16)
=  (V  q)  (V  [T. v])
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 155
We therefore set the partial derivative of the potential energy with time equal
to zero. Using this and the fact that
V@ =  g (3.2.1 17)
and moving the remaining term to the other side of the equation yields
at
+v * ([o+ $1 p V) =  (V.q)  ( V . [T v]) + p (v. g)
(3.2.1 18)
(3.2.119)
We see that the first of these terms is work resulting from the action of
surface forces (in cases of interest here, mainly the thermodynamic pressure
acting opposite to the normal direction, and viscous forces acting in the shear
directions  remembering, however, that, in general, it is possible to generate
normal forces through the action of viscosity in addition to the thermodynamic
pressure)
P (v 9)
* (3.2.121)
is work resulting from the action of body forces (in cases of interest here,
gravity).
I56 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
the net rate of gain of internal and kinetic energy per unit
volume at the point in question
the net rate of input of internal and kinetic energy per unit
volume to the point by convection.
the net rate of input of energy per unit volume to the point
as heat (conduction)
the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit
volume by viscous forces (including any normal forces from
viscosity)
the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit
volume by the thermodynamicpressure
the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit
volume by gravitational forces.
Lagrangianf o m of th2 microscopic total energy balance
(3.2.123)
But the factor in brackets in the fust term is the substantial derivative by
definition, and the factor in brackets in the second term is zero as a consequence
of the continuity equation, so we have the Lagrangian form of the microscopic
total energy balance as
(3.2.126)
Dt = (v.9)  v * [v v3  v [p
* "1 + p (v . g)
(3.2.127)
= p(v.v)v.[pv]v.[.r.v](.r:vv)+p(v.g)
(3.2.21)
P D t = p (v . v)  v . ['F . v] + ('F : v v )  v . [p v] + p (v . g)
(3.2.31)
Subtracting gives
1
I
D t = (v.q)p(v.v)(.r:vv)
P DO
1
(3.2.32)
where the lefthand side of the equation represents the net rate of gain of internal
energy per unit volume of a "point" of the fluid, and the terms on the righthand
side represent, respectively,
From thermodynamics
d o = ($$dv+(%)vdT
[
= p +T (8)J+ CQ
dV dT (3.2.33)
(3.2.34)
Observing that
1 DP 1 DP
(3.2.35)
v . ( p v ) +dPx = 0
(3.2.36)
(3.2.37)
DP
p(v.v)+15i. = 0 (3.2.38)
F
1 DE
P = (vv)
(3.2.39)
Pcvm aP
DT = (V.q)T(n)P(V.v)(r:Vv)
(3.2.310)
(3.2.311)
Where
The thermal energy generation term indicated contains both the effects of viscous
dissipation and of externally imposed sources such as electromagneticfields that
represent nonconductive contributionsto the heat flux.
(3.2.3 13)
aT
q, =  k x (3.2.3 14)
one obtains
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.2.315)
for
constant k,
(3.2.3 16)
Chapter 3 Problems
3.1 Initially, a mixing tank has fluid flowing in at a steady rate w l and
temperature T1.The level remains constant and the exit temperature is T2= T1.
Then at time zero, Q Btdsec flows through tbe tank walls and heats the fluid (Q
constant). Find T2 as a function of time. Use dH = C, dT and dU = C,dT
where Cp = C,.
p = 62.0 lbm/ft3
C, = 1.1 BTU/(lbm°F
4 ft diameter
w, T1
4 ft
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances I63
3.3 Two streams of medium oil are to be mixed and heated in a steady process.
For the conditions shown in the sketch, calculate the outlet temperature T. The
specific heat at constant pressure is 0.52 BTUhbmOF and the base temperature
for zero enthalpy is 32OF.
40'F
0=20.000
3.4 Two fluids are mixed in a tank while a constant rate of heat of 350 kW is
added to the tank.The specific heat of each stream 2000 J/(kg K). Determine the
outlet temperature.
w2 T2
kW
3.5 An organic liquid is being evaporated in a still using hot water flowing in a
cooling coil. Water enters the coil at 1300F at the rate of 1,OOO lbdmin., and
exits at 140OF. The organic liquid enters the still at the same temperature as the
exiting vapor. Calculate the steadystate vapor flow rate in l b d s .
164 Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
3.6 Steam at 200 psia, 60WF is flowing in a pipe. Connected to this pipe
through a valve is an evacuated tank. The valve is suddenly opened and the tank
fills with steam until the pressure is 200 psia and the valve is closed. If the
whole process is insulated (no heat transfer) and K and fare negligible, determine
the final internal energy of the steam.
At 200
A
r'L1
psia, 600' F
Hz 1321.4 Btu 1 Jbm
3.7 Oil (sp. gr. = 0.8)is draining from the tank shown. Determine
3.8 Fluid with sp. gr. = 0.739 is draining from the tank in the sketch. Starting
with the mechanical energy balance deternine the volumetric flow rate and of the
tank.
3.9 The system in the sketch shows an organic liquid (p = 50 lbm/ft3) being
siphoned from a tank. The velocity of the liquid in the siphon is 4 ft/s.
3.11 Cooling water for a heat exchanger is pumped from a lake through an
insulated 3in. diameter Schedule 40 pipe. The lake temperature is 50°F and the
vertical distance from the lake to the exchanger is 200 ft. The rate of pumping
is 150 gaymin. The electric power input to the pump is 10 hp.
I
e2o i t
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances 167
a. Draw a control volume for the system and label all control
S\lrfaces.
b. Find the power generated by a 90 percent efficient water
turbine if lw = 90 ft. 1bfAbm.
3.13 River water at 700F flowing at 10 mph is diverted into a 30' x 30' channel
which is connected to a turbine operated 500 ft below the channel entrance. The
water pressure at the channel inlet is 25 psia and the pressure 20 ft below the
turbine is atmospheric. An estimate of the lost work in the channel is 90 ft
1bfAbm.
3.14 Water flows from the bottom of a large tank where the pressure is 90 psia
to a turbine which produces 30 hp. The turbine is located 90 ft below the
bottom of the tank. The pressure at the turbine exit is 30 psia and the water
velocity is 30 ft/s. The flow rate in the system is 120 l b d s . If the frictional
loss in the system, not including the turbine, is 32 ft lbfhbm
3.17 Water is pumped from a lake to a standpipe. The input pipe to the pump
extends 10 ft below the level of the lake; the pump is 15 ft above lake level and
the water in the standpipe is almost constant at 310 ft above the pump inlet.
The lost work due to friction is 140 ft IbfAbm for pumping water through the
6,000 ft of 4in. Schedule 40 pipe used. If the pump capacity is 6,000 galhr,
what is the work required from the pump in ft lbfhbm?
3.18 Water flows from the bottom of a large tank where the pressure is 100
psig through a pipe to a turbine which produces 5.82 hp. The pipe leading to
the turbine is 60 ft below the bottom of the tank. In this pipe (at the turbine)
the pressure is 50 psig, and the velocity is 70 fVs. The flow rate is 100 l b d s .
If the friction loss in the system, not including the turbine, is 40 ft Ibf/lbm, find
the efficiency of the turbine.
I
~~ ~~ ~~~~~
p. m.v
i i (4.11)
where vi is the velocity of the body with respect to an inertial reference frame.
Resnick, R. and D. Halliday (1977). Physics: Part One. New York, NY, John Wiley
and Sons, p. 75.
or Gallilean, or absolute frames: see, for example, Fanger, C. G. (1970).
Engineering Mechunics: Stufics and Dynamics. Columhus, OH, Charles E. Merrill
Books, Inc., p. 19.
169
I 70 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Newton's 2nd law for the ith body in an inertial frame can therefore be
written as
where Fj represents the net force acting on the ith body (sum of both body and
surface forces).
in terms of rates
gives
c
body&
surface forces on
conlrol volurn
1
(F) = (output  input + accumulation rate of momentum
(4.13)
which is a form of the entity balance written in terms of rates,3 with the
sum of forces representing the generation rate term. Note that the surface forces
are those exerted on the control volume, not the forces exerted by the
control volume on the surroundings.
The discussion here will be concerned only with linear momentum, not with
angular rnoment~m.~ Consider a control volume whose surfaces are stationary
with respect to a fixed Cartesian axis system in a velocity field v. The sum of
the external forces on the control volume is the rate of generation of momentum
and so (output  input) rate of momentum transfer is constructed by multiplying
the mass crossing the boundary by its velocity. The rate of mass crossing the
boundary is its normal velocity relative to the boundary, (V n) , multiplied by
*
density and the area through which the mass passes. The momentum carried with
the mass is the amount of mass multiplied by the velocity of the mass, which
comes from the velocity field v.
Notice that this definition of relative velocity assigns the proper signs to input
and output of momentum.
Summing over the whole surface of the system and letting AA approach zero
1 1
[(momentum output  momentum input tota)
(4.15)
(4.16)
=
dV (4.18)
(4.19)
I ([
A
vx] i + [vY]j + [v,] k) p (v cos a) dA + $1V 1
(v, i + v, j + v, k p dV
= ZF,i+ZF,j+CF,k (4.110)
(4.111)
~ v , p ( v c o s a ) d A + $ S V v , p d V = LCF, (4.113)
(4.1 14)
In general, the convective terms as well as the sum of the forces may have a
nonzero component in any direction, although, if possible, we usually try to
choose a coordinate system which minimizes the number of nonzero
components. Also notice that the forces exerted by the surroundings on the
control volume (the forces in the momentum balance) are equal and opposite
in sign to the forces exerted by the control volume on the surroundings.
le 4.11 . .
m e n t m flux of fLrud rn lgmmw flow UL
circular p 
The (axially symmetric) velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow in
a smooth tube of constant circular crosssection is
= ~(v[l(~)2](i)}(v~[l(~)2](i*n)}27crLh
0

(4.1 16)
Noting that for this choice of coordinates, the outward normal is in the x
direction
174 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
(in) = 1 (4.117)
Then
Momentumflux = 2 ~tvkxi
(4.118)
=2nvLil(r~+$)cir (4.119)
= ~ ~ V ~ ~ [ C  L + Y  ] I R
2 2R2 6 R 4 (4.120)
x R2vLx
Momentum flux = i (4.121)
body forces
surface forces.
Body forces arise from the same types of fields that we considered when
discussing potential energy  gravitational, electromagnetic, etc. The change in
energy from position changes in a potential field can be accomplished by a force
acting on a body during its displacement. Such a force  for example, gravity 
does not necessarily disappear when the body is at rest. All potential fields do
not produce what we call body forces, but all body forces are produced by
potential fields. Body forces are proportional to the amount of mass and act
throughout the interior of the system or control volume.
The second type of force is the surface force. Surface forces are exerted on
the system by the surroundings via components of the traction on the surface
of the system. Traction (force) acting at a point on the surface is a vector since
it has both magnitude and direction, and it can therefore be resolved into two
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I75
components: one parallel to the surface (shear), and one component normal to
the surface.
At a point in a fluid at rest, the normal force is the Same in all directions
and is called the hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the same as the
pressure used in a thermodynamic equation of state. There is no shear in static
classical fluid systems because by definition such a fluid would deform
continuously under shear. (This classic definition of a fluid becomes somewhat
fuzzy when we later discuss nonNewtonian fluids, such a Bingham plastics, that
exhibit characteristicsof both fluids and solids.)
When a general fluid is flowing, the normal stresses are not always equal. If
the fluid is incompressible,however, the pressure can be defined satisfactorily as
the mean of the normal stresses in the three coordinate directions.
This artifice removes a constant pressure over the entire surface of the
control volume from the integral. Adding or subtracting a constant normal stress
over the entire outside surface of a control volume, no matter how irregularly
shaped, does not give a net contribution to the external force term.
176 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Xk
xi
(7" . n) dA
(4.1.22)
Consider the typical rectangular prism shown in Figure 4.1.22of area dXj
by dxk (the coordinate xk is normal to the page) on its left face, a, and whose
right face, b, is sliced at some angle p as indicated. The angle y is a right angle,
and the outward normal to b makes an angle a with the horizontal. The normal
stress is assumed to arise only from the pressure.
Notice that if the magnitude of the normal stress
(4.123)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I77
is the same on each face, one obtains no net force in the xidirection,because the
increase in area over which the normal force acts on the right face is always just
compensated by the decrease in the component of the force acting in that
direction
In this case the nonnal stress is just the pressure, which acts normal to the
surface and in a direction opposed to that of the outward normal.
Considering the right face and noting that the angle a and the angle p are equal
because their sides are perpendicular
I
= componentof normal stress in
L
dxj dx,
area on which it acts
1
= pdxjdxk (4.126)
The same conclusion would be reached if the lefthand face were sliced
at some different angle.
I78 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
/Av,pvcosadA = l j A 2 v2 M  j A l v2
v = v,(l*)+ (4.1.33)
In using the momentum balance for such flows, we often make the further
approximation of replacing cv2> by cv>2. Let us investigate the error
introduced by this second approximation (this error is over and above the error
introduced in using the 1/7 power approximate profile). For turbulent flow:
(4.1.34)
t = 1 r/R (4.1.36)
It then follows that
r = ~ (  t1)
dr = Rdt
(4.1.37)
2 n r d r = 2nR2(1t)dt
and
I80 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
r=O 3 t=l
r = R t=O (4.1.38)
f[~,t”’]~[ZnR’(l t)]dt
(v2>

I,”
i’
dr (4.1.39)
(v)2  (l [v,, t1l7] [ 2 x R2 (1  t)] dt
(1  t) dt
 Vmx
t2I7
(v’>
(io
1
 2 (4.1.310)
(1  t) dt)l
(v)2
t1I7
(4.1.311)
(4.1.312)
(4.1.313)
%error = 100
(approximate correct 1
(correct) (4.1.314)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I81
(vm, 1 [ (n)'])'2 r dr
(l
correct
approximate 1
correct
= loo (approximate 1 (4.1.315)
(4.1.316)
The sketch shows a horizontal nozzle which is attached to a fire hose (not
shown) that delivers water at a steady rate of 500 gpm. Neglecting the friction
loss in the nozzle, what is the force in the zdirection required in the threads to
keep the hose attached to the nozzle?
2 It2 in
0
Solution
First, choose a control volume bounded by the outside surface of the nozzle
and two planes, (1) and (2), normal to the flow direction. Apply the macroscopic
momentum balance, noting that the velocity and density of the water within the
nozzle does not change with time (steadystate)
s,
J A v p ( v . n ) d A +dtd vpdV = Z F
(4.1.3 18)
The lefthand side may be written as the sum of three integrals: the integral
over flow area (l), the integral over flow area (2), and the integral over the
remaining outside surface of the nozzle; however, the last integral is zero because
the velocity normal to this surface is everywhere zero. Assuming the density of
water to be constant
p l A v ( v . n ) d A= C F
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I83
P[L2
vv,dA
6, Jvv,dA = C F (4.1.319)
This vector equation represents three algebraic equations for the components.
o=o (4.1.320)
There is no momentum transfer in the xdirection, and the only forces are
the body force from gravity, any xdirected force in the threads,and any force the
fuefighter might apply in holding the nozzle, so this equation reduces to
which, since gx =  32.2 ft/s2, says that the firefighter must supply an upward
force to counteract the weight of the nozzle and the water it contains, and since
the xcomponent of the force in the threads is probably in the negative x
direction because of transmitted weight of the hose and the water it contains, the
firefighter must supply this force as well.
(4.1.322)
(4.1.323)
but a total mass balance at constant density and steady state shows that Q1 = Q2
= constant = Q . Using this fact and substituting for the velocities
184 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
P I,,vv.dA(,” 1.
vz dA = PQ ([%I2 [%I,)
(4.1.324)
We neglect any shear force on the outside surface of the nozzle from, for
example, wind blowing past the nozzle giving frictional drag at the surface. Even
if such a force existed, it would normally be small compared to the momentum
change.
We also assume that the firefighter holding the nozzle is exerting a force
only in the direction opposite to the force of gravity, and hence exerts no force in
the zdirection.
(4.1.325)
(4.1.326)
(4.1.327)
vAP
+gAz+A($) = 1kw
p+.7
P2P1 vlv? = 0
(4.1.328)
(VZ”  v:)
PI = P 2 + P 7
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I85
(4.1.329)
(4.1.330)
Substituting
(4.1.331)
(4.1.332)
Noting that
}
{[A;] 9[k]l3[*]
 1
(6.90 x lO”) 
(3.41 x 102)
6.90 x 10+4
7 [
3.41 x 102] [ 1
=  (228) ft’
(4.1.334)

Notice the force in the threads acts to the left on the nozzle this is what we
expect intuitively  if the force in the threads acted to the right, the threads would
be unnecessary as the nozzle would be thrust onto the hose.
A plane flies at 500 mph. Each engine uses loo0 lbm of air (including
bypass air) per lbm of fuel, and each engine suppIies 10,OOO lbf of thrust. If each
engine is burning 2 lbdsec of fuel, what is the outlet velocity from an engine?
So 1ut ion
lvp(v.n)dA = Z F (4.1.336)
Using a control volume which covers the external surface of the engine,
passes through the strut (which contains the fuel line) and cuts inlet area 1 and
outlet area 2, we can see that mass enters and leaves only at 1 , 2, and 3.
The fuel, which is already moving at the velocity of the airplane, enters at
low velocity and flow rate relative to the control volume, so in our model we
neglect the momentum entering the control volume at 3. We model the velocity
as constant across 1 and 2 (although different at 1 and 2). We model the velocity
as 600mph across 1, even though the demand of the engine for air might differ
from this in the realworld case.
The velocities are parallel to the xaxis; therefore the magnitude of the
velocity is the same as the magnitude of the xcomponent of the velocity. The x
component of our model then becomes
188 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
V? w ~  v ,W, = F h t
(4.1.337)
Note the differing signs from the cos a terms in the scalar product.
In the above equation we do not know the mass flow rates; however, we can
obtain them from the fuel consumption rate, the fuel/& ratio, and a macroscopic
total mass balance
lOoow, = w,
w2w1wj = 0
w2  (looo) (2)  (2) = 0
w2 = 2002q
(4.1.338)
(4.1.339)
v2 = 8 9 3 $ (4.1.34O)
Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in the pipe and
supports.
lD = 22.626 in.
flow crosssectional area = 2.792 ft2
So1ut ion
Using a control volume which goes over the outside surface of the pipe and
cuts across the flowing stream at 1 and 2, choosing coordinate axes as shown,
and applying the macroscopic momentum balance at steady state gives
Lvp(v.n)dA = C F
(4.1.341)
(4.1.342)
p 1 2 ( v y j ) v d A  p l (v,i)vdA = F , i + F y j (4.1.343)
At
w,w, =0
w2 = w, = w (4.1.345)
and the fact that w is constant implies that v l = v2 = v since p and A are
constant.
w =~ A v (4.1.346)
Q=Av (4.1.347)
(  p v Q ) i + ( p v Q ) j = F,i+F,,j (4.1.348)
The external forces are pressure forces and the forces acting through the pipe
walls and any supports. Noting that the ydirection pressure force is in the
negative ydirection
(4.1.349)
( (
+ PI A I ) i + [Fylrip P2 A2)
= [Fx]Np 1
(4.1.350)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances I91
(4.1.351)
Equating xcomponents
(4.1.352)
=  (62.4)
[Ibm
ft3 ] (2.792) ft’
lbf s2
[31(2.792) [ft’] [( ]
144) in2 (4.1.353)
 (50) ft2
=  20,270 lbf
(4.1.354)
A similar calculation equating the ycomponents gives
Therefore, the net force exerted on the control volume by the pipe supports
and the pipe walls at 1 and 2 is
We cannot separate the forces into the forces exerted by the pipe supports and by
the pipe at 1 and 2 without knowing more about the system.
192 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
The inlet, at 1, is 6in. inside diameter and the outlet, at 2, is 3in. inside
diameter. The motor and pump transfers water at a rate of 300 gal/min. If the
drag on the hull can be expressed as
2
F = 0.25 v (4.1.357)
Where
So1ution
Using coordinates attached to the boat, and a control volume which runs
over the exterior of the boat, cutting the inlet and outlet flow crosssections, the
overall momentum balance is
J ^ * v p ( v . n ) d A= C F (4.1.358)
L2pvvdAlA,pvvdA= C F (4.1.359)
p i 2 ( v y i ) v d A  p l (v,i)vdA = F x i + F y j (4.1.360)
A1
pQ(88) =0.025~~
= (0.025) [y]
[7] (Vb) 2 ft2
v = 2 3ftx
(4.1.364)
(About 15 to 16 mph)
I94 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Water is flowing at steady state into and out of a tank through pipes open to
the atmosphere as shown
D, = 3 m
D, = 10cm
D, = 4 ~ m
Q, = 0.05 m3
h, = 0.5m
The velocity profile through the exit orifice can be assumed to be flat and
describedby
v, =&$i (4.1.365)
g =9.8m/s2
h = distance to surface, m
Find the horizontal component of the force of the floor supporting the tank in
Newtons.
Solution
lvp(v.n)dA+glvpdV= C F (4.1.366)
modeling the velocity of the contents of the tank as v = 0 and using the fact that
we are at steady state
jAlvp(vn)dA+12vp(vsn)dA = C F
 p v, v, I,
I dA + p v2 v2 I,
dA = cF
Writing the vectors in terms of their projections on the axes and equating
the xcomponents
QI
v2 = A, (4.1.370)
Fx =  p V; A2 COS 30"
Fx=  p (e)' A, (0.866)
Q: (0.866)
Fx =  p 
A2
196 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
(4.1.371)
F, = 0.479N (4.1.372)
JAvp(v.n)dA+ (4.21)
Normally we are concerned with the body force due to gravity only. The surface
force may be expressed in terms of the stress vector Tn. For only these forces
acting, Equation (4.21)becomes
(4.23)
(4.24)
Forming the scalar product with an arbitrary vector and applying the
divergence theorem to replace the area integrals with volume integrals
(4.25)
Since the limits on this integration are arbitrary, the term in brackets must be
zero and
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances 197
1 q$+v.(pvv)+vp+(v.'c)pg =0 (4.26)
pD
Dv, =  v p  ( v . . r ) + p g
(4.27)
D(v  v)
p Dt =  (v . vp)  (v . [v. 1' ) + p (v . g) (4.28)
D(9
P D t =  (v . vp)  (v . [v . 'c]) + p (v . g) (4.29)
1 p DD ( ,9 =  ( v . p v )  p (  v . v )
 (v [T.v]) 
* ( ['c: V"]) (4.210)
+P (v. g)
dv
== 5i (4.21 1)
(4.212)
(4.213)
Ip g = vp+pv2v+pg I (4.214)
(4.215)
MOMENTUM
 v p +p v2v +pg
+$l;vpdV = ZF
ENERGY 
TOTAL,
I, (A + 6 + R)p (v . n) dA
= QW
 v . [P v] + P (v . g)
ENERGY6 Do = (v.q)
Dt
THERMAL p(v.v)(5:vv 1
ENERGY 
MECHANICAL
 (v.p v)  p ( v . v)
= 1ww (
 ( v .[r.v])  [ 5 : vv])
+ P (v. 8)
I
MASS 
v.(pv)+$ = 0
TOTAL
MASS 
SPECIES
= kridV
Onedimensional.
Fanger, C. G. (1970). Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics. Columhus,
OH, Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances 201
constant velocity it had when released, and the spacecraft accelerates past the
toothbrush.
which implies that the acceleration of the toothbrush with respect to an inertial
coordinate fiame is zero.
Newton's law will still be operationally valid in the accelerating coordinate frame
if we
The inertial body force is the negative of the product of the mass and the
acceleration of the accelerating frame (the spacecraft)lo
Another example is a camera sitting on the ledge above the rear seat of your
car. If you hit a cow which happens to be crossing the road, and therefore
decelerate rapidly from a velocity of 60 mph, the camera flies forward with
respect to the car as well as to the ground. The sum of forces on the camera is
zero (again neglecting friction from the air). This time the coordinate frame is
decelerating, not accelerating.
To the hitchhiker standing at the side of the road, the acceleration of the
camera is zero  it continues at 60 mph until the intervention of a force (perhaps
from the windshield  hopefully not the back of your head). In your accelerating
(in this case, decelerating) reference frame, there is still no external force on the
(
object, but there is an inertial body force of m aautomobilc), where aautomobilc is
the relative acceleration between car and ground (inertial frame). This is balanced
on the righthand side of the equation by the same mass times the relative
acceleration of the camera to the car, which is the same in magnitude as and
opposite in direction to the relative acceleration of the car and the ground.
(4,46)
In the case of rotating frames things become more complex, and the reader is
referred to texts such as that by Fanger," which cover this subject in more
detail.
Chapter 4 Problems
4.1 A fire hose has an inside diameter of 1 1/2 in. and a nozzle diameter of 0.5
in. The inlet pressure to the hose is 40 psig at a water flow of 8 ft3/min. If a
flat velocity profile is assumed, what is the value of and the direction of the force
exerted by tbe fmman holding the hose?
I '
6 i n diometer
4.3 Water is flowing out of the frictionless nozzle shown in the following
illustration, where p1 = 120 psig and the nozzle discharges to the atmosphere.
 Flow
pi = 82 psig
Q = 300 gaVmin
p = 62.4 lbdft3; 0.1337 ft3/gal
D = 4 in.
I n Flow
4.7 Water (p = 62.4 lbm/ft3)is flowing through the 180 elbow represented by
the sketch. The inlet gage pressure is 15 lbf/in2. The diameter of the pipe at 1
is 2 inches. The diameter of the opening to the atmosphere at 2 is 1 inch v1 =
10 ft/s.
4.8 Water is flowing through a 60° reducing elbow as in the sketch. The
volume of the elbow is 28.3 in3. Calculate the resultant force on the elbow.
206 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Flow
p1 = 30 psig; p2 = 28 psig
AI = 12.56 in2; A2 = 3.14 in2
w = 75 lbdsec
Flow
p1 = 26 pig; w = 85 lbdsec
AI = 12.56 in2; A2 = 3.14 in2
Draw a control volume and label all control surfaces and forces on the
control volume. Calculate the total resultant force acting on the elbow.
4.10 Two streams of water join together at a reducing tee where the upstream
pressure of both is 40 pig. Stream 1 is flowing in a 1in. pipe at 50 lbdmin,
stream 2 in a 2in. pipe at 100 lbm/min, and stream 3 exits from the tee in a 3
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances 207
in. pipe. The straight run flow is from stream 2 to stream 3. Calculate the
force of the pipe threads on the tee if the downstream pressure is 35 psig. Use
positive coordinates in the direction of flow as shown in the following figure.
4.11 Consider the horizontal lawn sprinkler shown. Observe that if the
sprinkler is split in half as shown, the two halves are identical and thus only one
half need be considered. For onehalf of the sprinkler.
4.12 A stand is to be built to hold a rocket ship stationary while a lateral or side
thrust engine is being fired. Twenty l b d s of fuel is consumed and ejected only
out of the side engine at a velocity of 4,000 ft/s. The direction of flow is as
shown in the following diagram. Find the x and y components of the restraining
force required of the stand.
208 Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
" I
4.13 The tank shown below is secured to a concrete slab by bolts and receives
an organic liquid (sp. gr. 0.72) from a filler line which enters the tank 1 ft above
the tank floor. The liquid enters at a rate of 4,500 gal/min. What are the forces
exerted on the restraining bolts? Assume that the filler line transmits no force to
the tank (due to expansion joints).
4500 goJ/min
dh
dt
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances 209
where b = @2/D1)2
Assume there is no pressure drop across the short section of pipe between the
tank and the nozzle.
I, ..
..
..
A
..

...
..
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5
APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS
each of the terms f l , f2, f3, ... fm must have the same dimension for the equation
to be meaningful.
For example, suppose that I have two bank accounts, one in the United
States of America and one in England, and am asked,“HOWmuch money do you
have?” Suppose further that my account in the United States has a balance of
$1000 and that my account in England has a balance of 500E.I do not get a
meaningful application of tbe equation
The answer is meaningless, because I have added two numbers that result from
measurements using two different scales.
$1 5 = $1750
totalmoney = $1O00+ 5OOf f
(5.14)
Notice that one can formally multiply and divide dimensions (multiplied by the
appropriate scale factor) like algebraic quantities (even though they are not). In
effect, this amounts to multiplication by unity  in the above example
(5.16)
For example, we could define the unit of mass as the pound (lbmass') by
measuring it in units of some mass we retain as a standard, the unit of length as
the foot (ft.) in terms of the wavelength of certain prescribed radiation, and the
unit of time as the second (s) in terms of the oscillations of a particular molecule
under prescribed conditions. We then cannot define the unit of force
independently,because Newton's law requires that
:[
F [force units] = m [lbmassunits] x a  units
] (5.18)
If we choose the unit force to be the force necessary to accelerate a unit mass
1 ft/s2,Newton's law dictates that
This force unit is usually designated as the poundal to avoid writing [(lbmass
ft)/s2] every time the force unit is required, so that
[pound4 = 1 [lbmass]x 1 
[$1 (5.1 10)
1 lbmassft = g,
(1) = [poundals') (5.111)
For any system, g, is common nomenclature for the conversion among force,
length, mass and time units. Multiplying or dividing any term by g, has no
effect on the intrinsic value of the term, but only effects a change in units. In
this system g, has the convenient numerical value of 1.0.
Most of the time we will write lbmass, kgmass, and gmmass when using these
units; if used for brevity we will also restrict the notation lbm, kgm and gmm to
mean mass; when we wish to refer to moles, we will write lbmol (not lbm) for pound
moles, kgmol for kilogram moles, and gmmol for gram moles.
214 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
We designate this force unit as the Newton (N), and observe that
(5.1 13)
If we choose instead to define the mass unit as pounds mass, the length unit
as the foot, the time unit as the second, and then (as we often do) choose the
force unit as the force exerted by a unit mass at sea level (lbf), the acceleration is
that of gravity at sea level and Newton’s law prescribes that
In other words
(5.1 16)

(5.1 17)
giving
(9.80) kgmassm
(1) = kgf s2 (5.1 18)
Weight refers to the force exerted by a given mass under the acceleration of
local gravity. This means that the weight of a given mass will vary depending
upon location  the weight of a certain mass is slightly less in an airplane flying
at 30,000 feet than at the surface of the earth. The same mass will have a
different weight on the surface of the moon. By virtue of the definition of pound
force, one pound mass will weigh one pound force at the surface of the earth. On
the moon, where g = 5.47 ft/s2, one pound mass would weigh
In other words, someone who weighs 150 lbf on earth would weigh 25.5 lbf on
the moon.
and the same 150 lbf earthling would weigh 4194 lbf. In each case the mass
of the person would be the same, regardless of whether they are o n
the earth, the moon, or the sun. This illustrates the difference between g,
the acceleration of gravity, and gc, the conversion among units, as well as the
differencebetween mass and weight.
Unbound atoms of carbon 12 at rest and in their ground state are understood.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 219
Table 5.11 shows the units of length, time, mass, force, work and weight
for common systems of measurement. The SI system is the metric system being
adopted as an international standard, and is the system that is recommended for
engineering practice. Reality, however, dictates that engineers will still
encounter other systems of units  particularly system (2), which uses the pound
both as a force and as a mass unit.
Also shown are other typical systems  (3), the Fgmass m t kgf T] system,
which is the metric analog of (2); (4), the British mass system which uses the
poundals the mass unit; (3,the American engineering system which uses the
slug as the mass unit; and (6), the cgs system which uses the dyne as the force
unit and the erg as the energy unit.
I
t, time
Itemperature
w, work
Watt = J/s Horsepower =
Iwl (550) ft Ibf/s
[HP]
lp,pGssure Pascal = N/m2 psf = lbf/ft2
1
I
Pascal second Poise = Poise = 0.1
viscosi ty10 = kg/(m s) 0.0672 lbmass/(ft s) kgmass/(m s)
CL’ = N s/m2 = 242 lbmass/(ft hr) [PI
IPa s] 1
Unit/System
F, force
M, mass
L, length
SI prefixes are listed in Table 5.12. These prefixes permit easy designation
of multiples of SI units. Those marked with plus signs are probably best
shunned because of danger of typographical error or confusion with other
symbols.
(5.21)
where the ICi are the dimensionlessproducts (a new set of variables). Usually r =
k, where k is the number of fundamental dimensions; therefore, in most
applications the number of dimensionless products is equal to the number of
variables less the number of fundamental dimensions.
l 1 The dimensional matrix is constructed by writing the variables as row headings and
the fundamental dimensions as column headings, and filling in the matrix with the
power of the dimension for each variable. The rank is the order of the highest order
nonzero determinant that can be selected from the matrix.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 223
Solution
l 2 The units of surface tension are energyhea or, equivalently, forcellength. Since
we are working with M,L, and t as OUT fundamental units, force must be expressed in
these units using Newton's second law  F = MUt2. This makes the units on surface
tension (MUt2)/L = M/t2. Pressure is force per unit area: writing force in terms of our
fundamental units by using Newton's law we have F/L2 = (MUt2)/L2 = M/(L t2).
224 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
M L t
L
D
8
<V>
P
c1
d
C
AP
which gives the dimensional matrix as13
r
0 1 0
0 1 0
0 12
0 11
13 0
11 1 (5.23)
1 02
0 11
11 2
We look for the largest order nonzero determinant that can be found in this
matrix. We note that determinants are square arrays, so a 3x3 determinant is
clearly the largest order determinant that exists in the matrix, and we can easily
find a nonzero 3x3 determinant by inspection14(there are more than one) as
follows' 5
13Note that for our manipulations here it does not matter whether we start with this
matrix or its transpose so long as we remember whether the rows or the columns
correspond to the dimensions or the original variables, respectively.
l 4 There are also systematic ways to find the rank of a matrix  for example, see
Amundson, N. R. (1966). Mdhematical Methods in Chemical Engineering: Matrices
and Their Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, PrenticeHall, Inc., Gerald, C. F. and P.
0. Wheatley (1989). Applied Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley,
etc.
l 5 The expansion of determinant A = [aij] is
where Mkj is the determinant of the (nl)x(n1) matrix formed by deleting row i and
column j from A (the minor of aij in A). O'Neil, P. V. (1991). Advanced Engineering
Mathematics. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, p. 689.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 225
(5.24)
(5.25)
 pressure force
P w2 Eu = Eulernumber =
inertial force (5.26)

(5.27)
(4 fluid velocity
7= Ma = Machnumber = sonic velocity (5.28)
L (v)' P = We = Webernumber = inertidforce
interfacialforce (5.29)

L = dimensionlesslength
D (5.210)
It can easily be seen that these groups are independent, since comparing
them pairwise shows that one member of each pair has (at least) one variable not
present in the other of the pair. Further, any dimensionless combination of
variables in the parent set can be expressed by multiplying and dividing these
dimensionless products.
(5.2 12)
In each of these cases we need to relate the drag force to the flow situation.
In general, the drag force is some function (often very complicated in the
case of complex shapes) of
(5.2.1 1)
gives the dimensional matrix (for purposes of illustration, using a system with
four fundamental dimensions; however, the outcome is the same if we use three
fundamental dimensions  the only difference being that we must include gc in
our list of variables when using four fundamental dimensions)
F M L t
F 1 0 0 0
P 0 130
Cr 0 1 11 (5.2.12)
D 0 0 1 0
V 0 0 11
gc 1 1 1 2
W1 [q.),i")]
p D2 0 v2 =
(5.2.13)
function
(5.2.15)
where (p v2) is proportional to the kinetic energy per unit volume and D2is
proportional to a characteristic area.
(5.2.16)
where we have used the bulk velocity as the characteristic velocity, the product
(R L) in place of the square of the characteristic length, and the conduit diameter
as the characteristic length in the Reynolds number (for geometrically similar
systems, defined below, these lengths remain in constant ratio to one another).
F = (2xRL)($p(v)*)f [(D(v)p,l
.p
(5.2.17)
where the first factor on the righthand side is the lateral area of the conduit and
the second factor on the righthand side is the kinetic energy per unit volume.
The function f is just the function ~2 divided by (ng,). Consistent with our
practice throughout the text, we do not incorporate g, in the formula, because
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 229
the definition of f is the same for all systems of units, and when g, is needed it
is selfevident by dimensional homogeneity. The friction factor is a
dimensionlessfunction of Reynolds number.
F= (qqw"(y)] (5.2.18)
For flow around objects, we usually convert the square of the characteristic
length to the crosssection of the object normal to flow. The reference
velocity usually used in the kinetic energy term and in the Reynolds number is
the freestream velocity (the velocity far enough away from the surface that
there is no perturbation by the object). The characteristic length, if the cross
sectional area is circular, is the diameter of the circle  if not, a specific
dimension must be specified.Then
(5.2.1 9)
consideration of shape by considering bodies of similar shape, that is, bodies that
are geometrically similar.
Tbe drag force exerted on the hull of a ship depends on the shape of the hull.
Hulls of similar shape may be specified by a single characteristicdimension such
as keel17 length, L, and hulls of other lengths but similar shapes have their
dimensions in the same ratio to this characteristic length  for example, the ratio
of beam width (width across the hull) to length will be the same for all hulls of
similar shape. If the hulls are considered to have the same relative water line (for
example, with respect to freeboard, the distance of the top of the hull above the
waterline), keel length will also be proportional to the draft (displacement).
The drag force will then depend on the keel length, L, the speed of the ship,
v, the viscosity of the liquid, p, the density of the liquid, p, and the acceleration
of gravity (which affects the drag produced by waves). What are the
dimensionless groups that describe this situation?
So1u t ion
Our function is
(5.2.2 1)
The rank of the dimensional matrix may be shown to be 3 for a system with
three fundamental dimensions. We will therefore have (6  3) = 3 dimensionless
groups.
(5.2.22)
l7 The keel is the longitudinal member reaching from stem to stern to which the ribs
are attached.
I * Langhaar, H. L. (1951). Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models. New York,
NY, John Wiley and Sons, p. 21.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 231
(5.2.23)
P = w2(Re,Fr)
F= (5.2.24)
p v2 L2
In each case the experiments would consist of measuring the variable on the left
hand side of the equation as a function of the variables on the righthand side of
the equation, which would be varied from experiment to experiment.
Fr = 6
Fr=4
Fr = 2
Reynolds number
Solution
(5.2.26)
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 233
M L t
pmu 1 1 2
(v) 0 1 1 (5.2.27)
p 13 0
p 1 1 2
We have four rows that can be combined in various ways to make 3x3
determinants. From the properties of determinants, the only effect on a
determinant of switching rows is to change the sign. Hence, only combinations
of rows, not permutations of rows, are significant. We can therefore f ~ n n ~ ~
(5.2.28)
different 3rdorder determinants from our dimensional matrix. We must see if any
of these are not equal to zero.
l 9 The notation for combinations is read “n choose r,” and the general formula in
terms of permutations of r things from a set of n is
=P:r!
= n!
r! (n r)
Fraser, D. A. S. (1958). Statistics: An Introduction. New York, NY, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc.
234 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
and so we have a matrix of rank less than three since we have shown all possible
thirdorder determinants to be zem.
[ ;;I = 1
(5.2.2 10)
so the rank of our dimensional matrix is two, and for this example, the rank of
the dimensional matrix, 2, is not equal to the number of fundamental
dimensions, 3. We will obtain, therefore, (4  2) = 2 dimensionless groups, not
( 4  3 ) = 1.
(5.2.211)
(5.32)
236 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Solution
(5.33)
1 : :I
b) We can easily fmd a nonzero thirdorder determinant,e.g.,
F a+c=O 3 a=1
L: l+b2~=0 3 b = l
t: l+c=O 3 c = l
(5.35)
For flow over a flat plate, the pertinent variables in predicting the velocity
in the xdirection are
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 237
Solution
"x x YV P P
MIO 0 0 0 1 1
L 1 1 1 131 (5.37)
41 0 0  1 0  1
0 1 1
131
1 01
=013=4+0 * rank=3
(5.38)
7c = v, xa p b p c
[4][LIa[3Ib
[B]'
M: b+c=O =+ a = l
L: l+a3bc=0 * b = l
t: 1c=o * c=1
(5.39)
238 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
The following table shows a list of possible variables for flow in a pipe.
Apply the algorithm for obtaining dimensionless groups in each of the five
fundamental systems of units MLt, FML, FLt, FMt, and FMLt, and show that
the results obtained are equivalent. Details of the application of the algorithm for
the FML, FLt, and FMt systems are omitted and left as an exercise in Problem
5.20. The rank of the dimensional matrix may be shown in each case to be equal
to the number of fundamental dimensions.The algorithm presented will work for
systems of four fundamental dimensions as well as three if the dimensional
conversion factor & is included in the set of Q’s purely as a formal procedure.
L L L Ft2/M L
L/t LJ0°*5 L/t Ft2/(Mt) L/t

 (LF/M)O.~ = Fth4
M/(Lt) M / [ L 0 ° * 5J (Ft2/L)/(Lt) M/[(Ft2/M)t M/(Lt)
(~~)0.5~1.5 =F a 2 1
= M2/(Ft3)
M/L3 M/L3 (Ft2/L)/L3 M/(Ft2/M)3 M/L3
= Ft2/L4 = M4/(F3t6)
L L L Ft2/M L
ML/(Ft2)
(5.310)
(5.311)
Result
.
(5.313)
Form x2
(5.3 14)
Result
(5.316)
Form ~3
(5.317)
pig]
Result
(5.319)
Form x4
Result
Choose subset
QI =AP Q3 = D Q6 =P (5.323)
Choose subset
Q, = Ap Q3 = D Q4 = v (5.324)
Choose subset
Q, = Ap Q3 = D Q4 = v (5.325)
(5.326)
25 Since the algorithm is the same for each of the systems of three fundamental
dimensions, we omit the development for the remaining three and present only the
final results.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.327)
Result
(5.329)
vMt~ (~I
x2 = ~ ( A P ) ~ Da~ (L ~ 2 L
) ) (4)'
~  ($)d
(5.330)
Result
(5.332)
Note that
(5.333)
Result
(5.336)
Form %4
n4 = gc(AP)'DbVcPd =j s ) ( L 21
( ML )8Lb(4)c(B)d (5.337)
Result
I [
It4 =
(5.339)
LLV
r 
L

D 1
L
D 31
ApD  I
k
 
k
D D
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 243
7 h
Soh tion
F M L t
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 3 0
(5.340)
0 0 1 2
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 2
1"
Looking for the largest nonzero determinant
t
0 1 3 0
0 0 12
8j j
1 0 1 0
11 1 1 21
0 130
0 0 1  2 =  i . l 0I 1i o2) + (  3 ) . 1 0I o
1 0 1 0
0 2o)=
1 1 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 2
1 [ 1 (2)] + (2) [(1)  (l)]  3 [(2)(1)] = (1) (2  4)  3 (2) =
2+6 = 8 f 0
(5.341)
(5.342)
Result
h
x, = D (5.345)
Result
(5.348)
Both the tank surface and the drain outlet are assumed to be at atmospheric
pressure. As the depth of liquid in the tank decreases, the pressure drop across the
drain pipe decreases, and so the flowrate through the drain pipe decreases. We
246 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
will assume that the drain pipe remains in the laminar flow regime so that the
instantaneous volumetric flowrate, Q, will be linear in the depth of liquid in the
tank:Q=kh.
(5.41)
(5.42)
(5.43)
Since water is very nearly incompressible, a total mass balance on the tank
contents reduces to a volume balance containing only output and accumulation
terms. Hence, the basic differential equation that models the process is
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 247
(5.44)
Using the chain rules of differentiation from calculus we can write the
derivative tern of Equation (5.44) in dimensionless form
(5.45)
Dh*=h, h* ho
h=h, D
at at at
(5.47)
t=O
=o
D3t' t'=O
kh0
(5.48)
C=ln[%] = ln[h',]
(5.49)
which yields
(5.4 10)
so it can be seen that all three of the dimensionless groups appear in the
integrated relation.
(5.411)
Solutions
Noting that
(5.4 13)
(5.4 14)
(5.4 15)
(5.4 16)
(5.4 17)
(5.418)
(5.419)
(5.420)
(5.421)
(5,422)
v; = Vi(X', t')
(5.423)
It does not matter whether a liquid or a gas flows in the pipe, whether the
pipe is large or small, etc. The solution will be the same for the same values of
the dimensionless groups. This means, for example, that we can generate (d) in
the laboratory using convenient fluids such as air and water, yet obtain a
solution applicable to corrosive, toxic, or highly viscous fluids, etc. (as long as
they are Newtonian, which is assumed in the original equation).
Ze 5.42 Onedimensional e n e r w
(5.424)
Solution
(5.426)
(5.427)
which yields
(5.428)
(5 4 2 9 )
where the first bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Prandtl number and the
second bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Reynolds number.
2.52 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Two systems described by this equation, each system with the same
Reynolds and Prandtl number, each subject to the same dimensionless boundary
conditions, will each be described by the same solution function
T* = T*(x*,to)
(5.430)
Such systems are designated as thermally similar.
(5.431)
For this example we have switched to the zdirection rather than the xdirection
for the differential equation to avoid possible confusion between the
concentration X A and the coordinate x.
Solution
ax,
 ax;
at* +vz7;
ax; at* at
ax,
ax,
ax;
aZ
aZ*
aZ
= az* a
ax,
I,  
AB
(
aZ dz* ax; az* az 1
ax:, az*
(5.433)
(5.434)
which reduces to
(5.436)
where the first bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Schmidt number and the
second bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Reynolds number.
Two systems described by this equation, each system with the same
Reynolds and Schmidt number, each subject to the same dimensionless boundary
conditions, will each be described by the same solution function
The concept of model can be extended even to permit taking data in one
transport situation and applying it to another. Consider the following three
cases, which are treated in detail later in each of the appropriate chapters.
CASE ONE
(5.438)
t = 0: v, = 0, allx (initialcondition)
x = 0: vy = V, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
x = v, = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
00:
(5.439)
v; = v; (x, t) (5.441)
v; = cp(q) (5.442)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are
covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
cp"+2qcp' = 0
(5.443)
(5.444)
whose solution is
(5.445)
(5.446)
CASE T W O
(5.447)
= 'm'
TTi
(5.448)
q =
mL (5.449)
T* = (P(q) (5.45 1)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are
covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
cp"+2qcp' = 0 (5.452)
(5.453)
whose solution is
cp = lerf[q]
= erfc [q] (5.454)
= erfc["]rn (5.455)
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 257
CASE THREE
(5.456)
(5.457)
q = J& (5.45 8)
c; = c; (x, t) (5.459)
c; = cp(rl) (5.460)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are
covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
258 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
q" + 2 q 0' = O
(5.461)
(5.462)
whose solution is
q = lerf[q]
= erfc[q] (5.463)
c; = 1erf
I&[
= [4*] (5.464)
Notice that all three of these cases are described by the same dimensionless
differential equation and dimensionless boundary conditions. The dimensionless
solutions are likewise, therefore, the same. Below is a plot of the dimensionless
solution.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 259
(5.465)
T* = e r f rn
c[l]
(5.466)
cl
= dc[&t]
(5.467)
This is not so significant in this case, because we have the form of the solution.
Frequently, however, we are confronted with physical situations
for which we either cannot write o r cannot solve the differential
equation.
If we are reasonably sure that the dimensionless differential equation and the
dimensionless boundary conditions are the same between, for example, heat
transfer and mass transfer, we know that the dimensionless solutions are the
In cases where we cannot solve the governing equation mathematically,
we obtain the solution by experiment.
*' This implies that the transport mechanisms are the same  so, for example, we
would not expect similarity between momentum transport and either mass or heat
transport in situations involving form drag, which has no counterpart in heat or mass
transfer.
260 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
I I
I vi** = ii
viDp
Pressure
I P* =
PPO
Differential V * =D V
Operations
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 261
Momentum balance
 = v*?*+
DT* 1
Dt* RePr
Br
Re Pr
Dv* =  v * p +v
 1 02.
v
@‘
+1 i
Dt* Re Fr g
NATURAL CONVECTION
Total mass balance (Continuity) v*. v ** = 0
Species mass balance
Temperaturedifference induced
flow
Energy balance
Momentum balance
Concentrationdifference induced
flow

Dt **
262 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
[ReynoldsNumber
lRe =
 inertialforces
?F
viscous forces
Froude Number
 pv2L2 = inertidforces
Fr = v
m Fr2 = 2
gL p g ~ gravitational
~ forces
Drag Coefficient
dimensionlessshear stress at surface
Prandtl Number
Pr = PE  v  momentumdiffusivity
k a thermal energy diffusivity
Graetz Number
(note close relationshipto Peclet Number for heat transfer)
Schmidt Number
s c =  v  momentumdiffusivity
DAB mass diffusivity
Lewis Number
k = Sc =thermal energy diffusivity
Pr mass diffusivity
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 263
Nusselt Number
hL
Nu =  = dimensionlesstemperaturegradient@ surface
k
Sherwood Number
I
S h =k PL=  k,L
DAB CDAB

 dimensionlessconcentrationgradient @ surface
[GrashofNumber for heat transfer

gpp2L3AT temperatureinduced buoyancy forces
P2 viscous forces
p= 6 (%)* = the& coefficientof volume expansion
vLp
=P= bulk thermal energy transport
k rate of thermalenergy conduction
I Peclet Number for mass transfer
Points in the model and prototype that correspond are called homologous
points. Phenomena occurring in the model and prototype2*at homologous
points are said to occur at homologous times, even though these events may
not occur at the same real time. An equivalent definition of similarity is that two
systems are similar if they behave in the Same manner at homologous points and
times.
(5.51)
Two systems in which all relevant physical quantities are in a constant ratio will
satisfy Equation (5.51). The z’s  dimensionless groups  are the criteria for
geometric, dynamic, thermal, etc., similarity.
II;, = c (x2)x2(n3)x3
**. (n“JXnr
(5.52)
where C is called the shape factor since it has been found to depend primarily on
shape, and XI,x2 ... yn  r are empirical exponents. In this relationship, which is
called the extended principle (really, it is a restricted principle) of similarity,
the shape factor depends on geometry; therefore, this equation is limited to
systems that have the same shape.
The shape factor can be eliminated if two systems of similar geometric form
are compared
(5.53)
where the prime distinguishes between the systems. Use of the analysis in this
manner is called extrapolation since the values of the exponents x2, x3, etc.,
are extrapolated from one system to the other.
(5.54)
In general, when two physical systems are similar, knowledge about one system
provides knowledge about the other. Equation (5.54) is called the principle
of corresponding states.
Often it is not possible to match the values for every pair of corresponding
groups as required above. In such cases we must run our experimental models so
as to minimize the unmatched effects. If it is not possible to do this, we get a
scale effect. For this reason, when running models, one has to be careful that
values of the groups are appropriate to both the model and the prototype For
example, if in testing a model of a breakwater in the laboratory, one uses a very
small scale (shallow depth), in the data obtained the surface tension of the water
may have a large effect on the behavior; however, at the scale of an actual
breakwater the surface tension of the water would usually have no perceptible
effect.
(5.55)
(5.56)
If we wish to measure the same force in the model as in the prototype, and wish
to use the Same fluid in each, determine the parameters within which we must
construct the model.
Solution
For (Pmdcl to be the same as (Ppoto, the Reynolds numbers of the model and
prototype must be equal.
(5.57)
= 1
(5.58)
K, = 1
K, = 1 (5.59)
Then
KD K v Kp  KD Kv (l)
2 1
KP  (1)
K,K, = 1 (5.5 10)
(5.51 1)
= 1
F (5.512)
(5.5 13)
FK  1
Kt Kk (5.5 14)
which implies
(5.5 15)
Therefore, so long as the same fluid is used, KF will remain equal to one for the
same values of D and v in the model and prototype; that is, the force in the
model and that in the prototype will be the same.
We wish to estimate the pressure drop per unit length for laminar flow of
ambient atmospheric air at 0.1 ft/s in a long duct. Because of space limitations,
the duct must be shaped like a right triangle with sides of 3,4, and 5 feet. We do
not have a blower with sufficient capacity to test a short section of the fullsize
duct, so it has been proposed that we build a smallscale version of the duct, and
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 269
further, that we use water as the fluid medium in order to achieve larger and
therefore more accurately measurable pressure drops in the model?
Solution
In the laminar region, we can expect the friction factor, f, which is a vehicle
(to be discussed in detail in Chapter 6) for predicting pressure drops in internal
flows, to be a function of only the Reynolds number, the same dimensionless
group as used in the previous example.
In the laminar region the friction factor is not a function of relative roughness of
the surface; therefore, we are free to choose the most easily fabricated material to
build the laboratory model.
The pressure drop is related to the friction factor for this case as
(5.517)
where C is a constant.
If we choose to make the friction factors of the model and prototype the
same, the scaling law follows as in the immediately preceding example
= 1
~ ~ ~
29 This problem can be solved quite nicely by numerical methods if the necessary
computing equipment is available. We ignore this alternative for pedagogical reasons
in order to obtain a simple illustration.
270 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.518)
This time, however, we have prescribed the scale factors for the fluids used.
Approximate values at room temperature are
(5.5 19)
1 CP = 5 . 5 6 103
~ = K,
1.8 x 104 cP (5.520)
KDK, = 7.2 (5 5 2 1 )
(5.522)
(5 5 2 3 )
K(?) = ( 7 7 2 ) z (5 5 2 5 )
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 271
We now have considerable flexibility in choosing the size of our model and the
velocity at which we pump the water.
For example, suppose that we decide it will be easy to fabricate a model duct
with hypotenuse of 2 inches. This will set the scale factor for D
(5.526)
If we decide arbitrarily that it would be easy 3 measure pressure drops per uni
length that are 10,000timeslarger than we expect in the prototype, we have
K(+) = ( 7 7 2 KZ,
) m =lO,OOo
K, = 0.657 (5.529)
(5.530)
This would require a laboratory pump of about
272 Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
= 0.197 gpm
(5.53 1)
We must make the laboratory model long enough to make entrance and exit
effects negligible. At such low velocities, we must also be careful of natural
convection from heat transfer influencing the flow field in either model or
prototype. We might find that the availability of pumps and/or pressure
measuring devices restricts us to operate at a different velocity andor pressure
drop. There is obviously further flexibility available for the model design, as
well as constraints we have not considered in detail.
Chapter 5 Problems
5.1 Write the fundamental units of the following quantities using the system of
units indicated in parentheses:
a. Diameter (FMt),
b. density (FLt),
c. acceleration (FML),
d. viscosity (MLt),
e. coefficient of thermal expansion (increase in volume per
unit volume per degree change in temperature) (FMLtT)
5.2 The discharge through a horizontal capillary tube depends upon the pressure
drop per unit length, the diameter, and the viscosity.
5.3 Using dimensionless analysis, arrange the following variables into several
dimensionlessgroups:
pipe diameter D, ft
fluid velocity v, ft/s
pipe length L, ft
fluid viscosity m, l b d s ft
fluid density r, lbm/ft3
Show by dimensional analysis how these groups are related to pressure drop in
lbf/in2.
5.5 The calibration curve for a particular flowmeter has the form
Q = f@, p, p,Ap) = volumetric flow rate
W b
p = density
(v) = bulk velocity
D = diameter
L = length
k = roughness
Using dimensional analysis find the correct representation for the pressure drop
in terms of dimensionless groups.
274 Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
5.8 For uniform flow in open channel, Bernoulli's equation for energy loss is
f v2
S=
4R 2g
where s is the head loss (in ft per unit length measured along the bottom slope
of the channel), f is the friction factor, v is the mean velocity, and R is the
hydraulic radius (Aredwetted perimeter). The mean velocity, v, in an open
channel depends on the hydraulic radius, R, the kinematic viscosity, v, the
roughness height, k, and g, the acceleration of gravity. Show by dimensional
analysis (apply the systematic analysis), Use v and R as the Q's.
5.9 In heat transfer problems with flowing fluids, frequently the six variables,
D, p, h, v, p, k, may be combined into dimensionless groups which will
characterize experimental data. Find these dimensionless groups by inspection
with the restriction that h and v only appear in separate terms. D is the diameter,
p is the density, v is the velocity, p is the viscosity, h is the heat transfer
coefficient and has dimensions Btu/hr ft20F,and k is the thermal conductivity
and has dimensions Btuhr ft O F .
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 275
5.10 In a forced convection heat transfer process the quantities listed below are
pertinent to the problem:
Tube diameter, D
Thermal conductivity of the fluid, k
Velocity of the fluid, v
Density of the fluid, p
Viscosity of the fluid, p
Specific heat of the fluid, Cp
Heat transfer coefficient, h
5.11 Two similar centrifugal pumps are specific by the diameter of the impeller
DK]. The pumps are specified by their flow rate Q[L3/t]and the pump head H
b]. The size of a pump for a given head and flow rate is determined by an
equation of the form
where N[l/t] is the angular speed and p [M/L3]. Dimensional analysis shows
H = f(&)
p N3D2
a. What is Q2?
b. What is HIM2?
group only. Find similar expressions replacing the pressure rise fust by the
power input to the pump, and then by the efficiency of the pump.
5.13 The scaling ratios for centrifugal pumps are Q/ND3= constant, W(ND)2 =
constant, where Q is the volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec),H is the pump head (ft),
and N is rotational speed (rpm). Determine the head and discharge of a 1:4 model
of a centrifugal pump that produces 20 ft3/sat a head of 96 ft when turning 240
rpm. The model operates at 1,200 rpm.
mass of air/s, m:
revolutions/s, n: [f3
diameter, D: &]
p = pof( %A)
nD3r0 n2D2ro
5.15 You are trying to simulate dynamically the cooling system of a proposed
sodiumcooled nuclear reactor by constructing a 1:4 model of the cooling system
using water. These water experiments are to be carried out at 7OoF and will
simulate flowing sodium at 1000°F. Data on sodium reactor:
flow crosssectionalarea
Hydraulicdiameter = = 1.768x 102ft
wetted perimeter
(This replaces the ordinary tube diameter for flows in noncircular channels.)
Bulk sodium velocity = 20 ft/s. Pressure drop across the core = 30 psig. For
the water model to be dynamically similar,
5.17 Suppose a hiker falls into a crack in a glacier while mountain climbing.
Assume the ice moves as a Newtonian fluid with viscosity = 250 x 106CP and
278 Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
sp. gr. = 0.97 and assume the glacier is 15m deep and is on a slope that falls
1.5 m every 1850 rn. In order to determine how long before the professor
appears at the bottom of the glacier a model is to be constructed.
5.18 The energy equation for free convection heat transfer from a flat plate of
length H at temperature To suspended in a large body of fluid at temperature T1
is
vy
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis 279
curlHE aE = K E
at
KK where K , = K / K
Kt where Kt = t'/t
KHKE where KH = H'/p, KE = E'E
(This shows that if model and prototype have different sizes the two systems
must be made of different materials.)
5.20 Apply the algorithm for obtaining dimensionless groups to the FML,FLt,
and FMt systems for which the solution details were omitted in Example 5.33.
5.21 Consider the variables involved in flow (without heat transfer) of fluid
through a porous medium such as a sand bed, limestone, filter cake, array of
glass beads, etc.
Find a complete set of dimensionless groups for this system using the MLt
system of units.
280 Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
p g = vp+pv2v+pg (6.11)
and eliminating all the terms that depend on changes in velocity, we are left with
a relationship between the pressure gradient, the density, and the acceleration of
gravity.
0 = vp+pg (6.12)
(6.13)
(6.14)
(6.15)
If the zaxis is chosen parallel to but in the opposite direction to the gravity
vector, these three equations become
281
282 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.16)
(6.17)
ap = Pg, =  p g (6.18)
where the minus sign appears because the gravity vector is in the opposite
direction of that of the positive zdirecti0n.l
c.f. Bud, R. B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York,
Wiley, p. 45. One can combine the effects of static pressure and gravitational forces
in a single quantity, P, defiied as
T = p+pgh
where h is defined as the component along a coordinate parallel to but in the
opposite direction to the gravitational vector (up as opposed to down). This
lets us write
V T = V ( p + p g h ) = Vp+V(pgh) = V p  p g
where
represents the force per unit volume of the vertical gravitational force.
The substitution used above
V(Pgh) =  P g
can be shown to be valid by considering h to be measured along the X I axis of a set of
orthogonal Cartesian axes (XI,x2, x3). The scalar field of energy per unit volume in
this coordinate system is then a function of x1 only, not of x2 or x3, and can be
described by
(6.19)
For an incompressible fluid, that is, one where p is not a function of pressure,
integrating Equation (6.19) from some datum ZO, where the pressure is denoted
by PO, to the height, z, where the corresponding pressure is p, yields
(6.1 10)
Completing the integration yields the relationship for the pressure difference in
terms of the difference in z.
We can apply Equation (6.111)at two arbitrary points, a and b, within the
same phase2and take the differenceof the results
(6.1 12)
Notice the choice of location for the datum is immaterial, so long as a consistent
datum is used.
This is the form of the equation commonly found in elementary physics texts.
~~~~~~~~~~~
We cannot apply our equations across the boundaries between phases because the
equations were derived on the assumption of a continuum, and at phase boundaries
there is a discontinuity in properties.
284 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6Al Manometers
A practical application of static fluids occurs in a device cake a
manometer. Manometers are Utubes (tubes bent into the shape of the letter
U) partmlly filled with a liquid immiscible with and differing in density from the
fluid in which the pressure is to be determined. The pressure difference between
the points at the inlet of each of the legs (the vertical parts of the U) is inferred
by measuring the difference in heights of the liquid interfaces in the legs and
applying the equations for a static fluid.
The vessel on the left and the left leg of the manometer above point 2 are tilled
with fluid A; the manometer contains fluid B between points 2 and 3; the right
leg of the manometer above point 3 and the tank on the right contain fluid C.
Solution
We cannot apply our equations for a static fluid directly between points 1
and 4 because these equations were derived for a continuum, and the path
between 1 and 4, if taken through the fluids, has abrupt discontinuities in
properties at the two fluid interfaces. (If not taken through the fluids  that is,
through the walls of the manometer  the discontinuities would require the
introduction of solid mechanical properties.) We can, however, by writing the
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 285
pressure difference as the sum of differences each in a single fluid, apply the
equations to these single fluids. By adding and subtracting pz and p3 we have
Applying Equation (6.1 14) to the various pressure drops in Figure (6.1.1 1)
(6.1.12)
The two tanks in Figure 6.1.12 both contain water (fluids A and C). The
manometer fluid B has a specific gravity of 1.1. Find the pressure difference (p1
 P4).
Solution
= 28(3) (6.1.l3)
27 AC
0
A
 J 1 ZO"0
So 1ut ion
Since the density of a the gas is so low compared to the densities of the liquids,
we neglect the pressure difference (the static head) of gas from 5 to 1 and from 6
to 4.
but since z4 = z1
(PS  PS)
(z2  z3) = (6.1.17)
g (PA +B)
which shows that, for a given pressure difference, as the densities of A and B
approach each other, the difference in height between points 2 and 3 grows larger
 that is, the manometer becomes more sen~itive.~
v
3Another way to achieve more sensitivity in a manometer in an economical fashion
is to incline one leg at an angle, viz.
If, to establish yet another imaginary line in the fluid, we mark a line of
adjacent fluid particles at a given instant and observe the evolution of such
a line with time, we obtain a timeline which may give us insights into the
behavior of the fluid. For example, we could think of marking a line in an
initially static fluid and then observing the behavior of this line as the fluid is
set into motion.
In steady flow fluids move along streamlines, since the velocity at any
point in the fluid is not changing with time; therefore, pathlines and streamlines
are coincident. Since all fluid particles passing through a given point follow the
same path in steady flow, streaklines also coincide with timelines and pathlines.
In unsteady flow the streamline shifts as the direction of the velocity changes,
and a fluid particle can shift from one streamline to another so the pathline is no
longer necessarily a streamline. Similarly, successive particles of fluid passing
through the same point no longer necessarily follow the same path, so
(6.21)
Notice that defining the stream function in this way satisfies the continuity
equation identically  for example, in two dimensions one has
Vxdr = 0 (6.23)
(v,i+v,j)x(dxi+dyj) = (v,dyv,dx 1k = 0
(6.24)
which implies
(v,dyv,dx) =0
(6.25)
There is a very nice demonstration of the differences among these lines using flow
past an oscillating flat plate in the NCFMF film Flow Visualizufion, Steven J. Kline,
principal.
290 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(gdygdx) =0
(6.24)
(6.27)
We can see, then, that our collinearity condition requires that the total
differential of the stream function be zero.
dY = 0 (6.28)
This is another way of saying that the value of the stream function does
not change along a given streamline.
Since the stream function has an exact differential, we can integrate between
two arbitrary points in the flow field to obtain
arbitrary line, 0 connecting two streamlines. By definition, the area rate of flow
across such a line is
(6.210)
(6.211)
Now consider this integral for a particular path between two streamlines,
as illustrated in Figure 6.21, indicated by P1 (at constant y), where the unit
normal is directed in the positive ydirection
(6.212)
(6.213)
(6.214)
In other words, the difference in the values of the stream functions on the
two streamIines corresponds to the volumetric flow rate between these
streamlines. Because of independence of path, we know that this is true for any
292 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
where the partial derivatives are evaluated at xk. We can write the vector gradient
as the sum of its antisymmetricand symmetric parts
and define
(6.2.13)
to obtain
(6.2.14)
We first define the dual vector of the antisymmetric part of the vector
gradient as
(6.2.15)
which implies
1
a i = 2 &ijk (6.2.16)
The vector Wi is called the vorticity of the velocity field, and lines of constant
vorticity are called vortex lines, terminology similar to that used for streamlines.
We can rewrite this expression as
(6.2.17)
(6.2.18)
(6.2.19)
We can obtain the dual tensor of the vorticity vector and use it to define
the vorticity tensor
(6.2.1 10)
(6.2.111)
(6.2.1 12)
(6.2.1 13)
(6.2.114)
(6.2.1 15)
(6.2.1 16)
(6.2.1 17)
From kinematics we can recognize that the velocity of points on a solid body
rotating about an axis through a point x(O) which can be seen from the sketch
294 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
is described by
where w is the angular velocity, the angular velocity vector is normal to the
plane of Xi and Xio and points in the direction of a righthand screw turning in the
same direction as the rigid body. Comparing with the equation for dvk* we can
see that dvk* represents a rigid body rotation about an axis through P.
which is valid for any scalar function F, a velocity field with a vanishing curl is
a gradient field, i.e.,
Equating components
(6.2.123)
(6.2.124)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 295
steady state
irrotational flow of an
incompressible and
Such fluids are called ideal fluids, and the corresponding flow model is called
potential flow. We now assemble the basic equations constituting the model
for such flows.
( v  p v ) + dP
& =0
p ( v . v ) + aP
&=0
vv=0
(6.31)
and the irrotationality condition implies that
vxv =0
(6.32)
296 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The equation of motion for a constant density Newtonian fluid  the Navier
Stokes equation
ar
p ( v * v ) v=  v p + p g (6.35)
( v * v ) v = $V(V.V)[V x ( v x v ) ]
(6.36)
c.f. Bird, R . B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York,
Wiley, pp. 726, 731. This definition is applicable in both rectangular and curvilinear
coordinates; however, for simplicity illustrating the equivalence using index
notation (rectangular coordinates)
(v.v)v = +v(vv)[v x(vxv)] j
vjajvi = ai(3vjvj)eijkvje~,aIv,
v j a, vi = a, 3 v j v j
vjajv,
0 a,  vj vj + v j
= '2v . Ja . vI . +J l  2v . aJ i V j 
a, v,
v J. a i v j + v j a j v ,
vjajVi = vjaivj VJ. ai j + vJ. aJ . vi
vjajvi = vjdjvi QED
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 297
which gives
3p v2 + P = constant (6.312)
In two dimensions
(6.314)
(6.315)
298 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
If we differentiate the frrst of the equations with respect to x and the second
with respect to y
a2Y a20
axay = p
(6.317)
(6.3 18)
If we instead differentiate the first of the equations with respect to y and the
second with respect to x
(6.319)
and add, again noting that the order of differentiation is immaterial, we obtain
(6.320)
Each such pair of Y and Q, are orthogonal  that is, streamlines and
potential functions intersect at 90 degrees. This can be seen by considering the
fact that the values of the stream function and the velocity potential are constant
along a streamline or a line of constant potential, respectively,
dY = 0
d@ = 0
(6.321)
(6.322)
constant (6.323)
Since the slopes are negative reciprocals of each other, the intersections are
orthogonal.
300 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
This means that each such pair constitutes the real part and the imaginary part of
a particular analytic function of the complex variable z, and each member of the
pair represents a solution of Laplace’s equation. This has two implications
(6.326)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 301
Thus, Equations (6.326) and (6.326) model ideal flow in two dimensions.
Tables 6.31 and 6.32 give examples of pairs of functions that satisfy the
Laplace equation.
302 Chapter 6: Momtitirm Transfer in Fluids
u=u *=uy
v=o +=Ux
r = 0 around any closed curve
c
*= =o
$=c2
Sink Flow (toward origin)
v,=O Q
&=lnr $=
2n
f
Origin is singular point
q is volume flow rate per. unit depth
c r = 0 around any closed curve *=(xi
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 303
c
Irrotational Vortex (counterclockwise,
center at origin)
+ t =o
A Asin 8
v,= case
r2 *=7
A cos e
'A2
A
v,= sin8 & = 
r2 r
Fox, R. W. and A. T. McDonald (1985). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp.
276277.
304 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
9
$ = $ + $sI = $1 + $, =
4
2n 0  3
2n 0, = 
2n (0,  0,)
(a, 0 ) I (a. 0 )
I I
I 1
K K
$= + $uf = + $2 = 2n Inr + U y =  Inr + U r s i n B
2n
X
rH JI = $4 + = $1 + $z =
Asin0
7 +uy=
A sin 0
r
+ U r sin 0
Doublet, Vortex (clockwise), and Uniform Flow (flow past a cylinder with circulation)
/\sin0 K
JI = $, + JI, + $uf = JII + + $, =  __
r
+
2n
Inr + U y
I
$=
AsinO
r
K
+
2n
Inr + UrsinO = U r
(  :')
1
K
s i n 0 + 1nr
2n
306 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.32 Continued
Sink a d Vortex
Vortex Pair (equal strength. opposite rotation, separation distance on x axis = 20)
10
Fox, R. W. and A. T. McDonald (1985). introducfion fo Fluid Mechanics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp.
27928 1.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 307
n(Z) = v(z+$)
(6.327)
So1U t ion
Sz = v, (x+iy+ x:;y)
(6.328)
y =o
(1&) =0 3 x 2 + y 2= R2 (6.331)
The first equation is simply the xaxis. The second is the locus of a circle of
radius R with center at the origin, so we can use this streamline as a solid
boundary to describe flow around a right circular cylinder normal to the xy
plane.
VY =
a
sy (6.333)
a= v,rcos e ( i + $ ) (6.334)
(6.335)
At the stagnation pints the velocity is zero, which implies that both v, and ve
ale zero
(6.336)
The first equation can be seen to be zero for r = f R; the second for 8 = 0.
Therefore, the stagnation points lie on the surface of the cylinder at its two
points of intersection with the xaxis.
Show that the complex potential = vV,z2 can describe the flow
through a corner. What are the velocity components v,(x, y) and Vy(X, Y)? What
is the physical significance of v, ?
Solution
2
=  v  z ~ = v,(x+iy) (6.337)
310 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.338)
Note that the streamline Y = 0 consists of the x and y axes  these form the
corner.
Therefore,
v, = 4+ 4 = I
[angular velocity (6.339)
2c,
Figure 6.32 Flow through a corner
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 31I
For potential flow, addition of uniform flow and a doublet yields flow
around a circular cylinder of radius R. If we now add a vortex to this flow, we
have
(6.34)
(6.34 1)
Solution
(6.342)
312 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
or
(6.343)
each of which gives the same result. It follows that vr = 0 for cos (0) = 0, r > 0;
a special case of which is 8 = d 2 , r > 0.
(6.344)
ar
(6.345)
so we require that
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 313
(6.346)
This is true for the second equation at r = R, which means that from the first
equation
= (1 + F)
R2 sin(e)
2n:Rv,
sin(@)=
4n:Rv,
Many potential flow solutions can be obtained from the theory of complex
variables via use of conformal mapping. A conformal mapping or
transformation is one that preserves angles and orientations"  that is, an angle
in the first space is mapped into the same angle in the second space, and a
direction of rotation in the fifst space is mapped into the same direction of
rotation in the second space.
If the relative velocity of the fluid layers becomes high enough, the layers
lose identity and the fluid “tumbles.”Momentum is transferred not only by the
mechanism seen in laminar flow where molecules jump from regions of one
velocity to regions of a different velocity, but also by sizable clumps of fluid
possessing the velocity of a given region moving from that region to a region of
different velocity. This type of flow is called turbulent. Turbulent flow is not
easy to describe in detail, and we therefore usually must resort to experiment and
statistical theories to describe such flow.
The result of momentum exchange within the fluid and between the fluid
and solid surfaces is the development of a velocity profile.
dx
X
CF,, = 0 (6.4.1 1)
We now proceed to write and sum the surface forces in the xdirection. The
force on the left face of the control volume is
(6.4.12)
(6.4.13)
 (4I y+*y
AYC Az (6.4.14)
316 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.4.15)
(6.4.16)
lim
AX+O
Ay+O
(6.4.17)
(6.4.18)
Observing that the only way a function of x can be equal to a function of y for
arbitrary values is for each of the functions to be equal to the same constant
dp = 
 dzyx = constant
dx dy (6.4.19)
 pdv2 = dP
dy dxY" (6.4.111)
1 dP
vx = mxY 2 c
1
+pY+C* (6.4.112)
aty = 0 v, = O
aty = a v , = O (6.4.1 13)
gives find the constants C1 and C2, which upon substitution give
v, = a2 dp((z)24
2 p dx
Y
(6.4.1 14)
(6.4.1 15)
The volumetric flow rate per unit width in the zdirection (normal to the
page) is given by
Q = l(v n)dA = l v , d y =
1 dPa3
lqLdx (6.4.1 16)
(6.4.117)
(6.4.1 18)
ow between r n f i n r k e l ~ 1 
An oil is flowing through a slit 0.01mm thick. The length of the slit is
20 mm and its width, W,is 10 mm. The fluid has a specific gravity of 0.9 and
a viscosity of 0.02 kg/(m s) at the temperature of the system.
a) Determine the flow rate through the slit if the pressure drop
causing flow is 15 mPa.
So1u tion
(6.4.120)
(6.4.121)
(6.4.122)
Q = 3 1 .mm3
27
(6.4.123)
check Re:
(4 = 9 (6.4.124)
= 0.312y (6.4.125)
(6.4.126)
= (0.9) (999) [3] [F]
(0.312) (0.01) [mm] (.&) (&)[a]
[g]
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 31 9
We now consider the case where one of the plates is moving at a uniform
velocity. Often this model is used in viscometry or for flow in a journal
bearing. For situations where the gap is very small and the radius large, this
model can be used as an approximation in cylindrical systems.
"0
dx Y t X
Figure 6.4.12 is similar to Figure 6.4.11, except the upper plate is now
considered to be moving with a constant velocity, VO.The momentum balance
before introducing boundary conditions is the same as in the previous case
(6.4.128)
aty = 0 v, = 0
at y = a v, = v, (6.4.129)
(6.4.130)
Note that this profile is linear in y for the case of zero pressure gradient.
320 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
dvx  %+a* dp
dy a 2pdx
[(2)(a)]
2, =Pdy (6.4.131)
(6.4.132)

QA  A
v 1 dPa2
(')  2 12p dx (6.4.133)
dv, = 0 = vo+a* dp
dY a 2pdx (6.4.134)
which gives
(6.4.135)
Solution
(6.4.136)
Since
(6.4.137)
322 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
,
2 = (0.0002) [v] [gg] *I,[
(360) (2 1c)
(6.4.138)
1
Tbe overall momentum balance for this situation, since we have steady flow
and neglect body forces, reduces to the requirement that the sum of the
components in the zdirection of the surface forces must equal zero. Therefore,
the net pressure force in the zdirection on the ends of this circular column must
be balanced by the viscous force on the latead surface. m e net pressure force is
(6.4.21)
The viscous force opposing the pressure force is the shear stress (or
momentum flux),,,T multiplied by the area on which this shear stress acts (or
through which the momentum flux flows), 2mL
F,, = r , ( 2 n r ~ ) (6.4.22)
(6.4.23)
(6.4.24)
(6.4.25)
“2 = w[l
Ap R2 (ff)l]
(6.4.26)
= (PIzsL  P I z s o ) (6.4.27)
(6.4.28)
The drag on the fluid from the pipe wall (the negative of the drag on the
pipe wall by the fluid) resulting from the shear force transmitted from the fluid
to the wall is the product of the wetted area of the wall and the shear stress at the
wall. The shear stress at the wall can be calculated as
Note that the shear stress varies linearly from a maximum at the wall to zero at
the center of the pipe, as shown in Figure 6.4.23.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 325
vz = 0
=0
(6.4.211)
Jo
(6.4.212)
l4 Adapted from Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New
York, Wiley, p. 45.
326 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Q = (v,)nR2  7qiL
x R4Ap
(6.4.213)
Q=z d p D4
128p L (6.4.214)
z 4 D 4
(6.4.215)
p = 1 2 8 L Q  (128) ( 8 0 0 F ) (3 m) ( 103p)
(6.4.216)
Checking to ensure that using a model valid only for laminar flow was correct
= 4.074 (6.4.217)
( (4.074F)
999 kg 7 ) (0.5 mm) (E)
R e = Tp =( V P
(1.83 x 103 3) ( 1 0 3 ~ )
(6.4.218)
r
L
T L
1 z
4
r
.)
Solution
I I
rate of momentum I in at z=O I out atz = L
gravity force on (2 It f L) P g
cylindrical shell
pressure force on atz=O atz=L
For an incompressible fluid in axial flow,the continuity equation shows that the
velocity is the same at z = 0 and z = L, so the two terms containing velocity
cancel each other. Rearranging
(6.4.22 1)
(6.4.222)
where15
P= p+pgz (6.4.223)
(6.4.2
24)
(Note: for a+0, C1+ 0, and we approach the same solution as for a single
hollow cylinder  a tube.)
Let the radius at which the maximum velocity occurs (we know there will be a
maximum velocity because the velocity goes to zero at each of the walls and is
finite in between) be designated by r = hr. At this point the momentum flux will
be zero because of Newton's law of viscosity.
(6.4.225)
(6.4.227)
(6.4.228)
atr = aR, v, = 0
atr = R, v, = 0 (6.4.229)
Note the above is valid independent of the choice of datum for the z axis.
330 Chapter 6:Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.4.230)
(6.4.231)
(6.4.232)
(6.4.2 34)
tt (PO TL)R4 ( 1  a2)2
Q = x R 2 ( 1  a 2 ) v Z=
8PL
1a4
141/a]
(6.4.235)
Find the velocity profile, average velocity and free surface velocity for a
Newtonian fluid flowing down a vertical wall of length, L, and width, W.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 331
Solution
lim
AX+O (6.4.231)
dz, (6.4.238)
dx  P g
dv
7, =  p g (6.4.239)
d2v,
P S =P8 (6.4.240)
at x = 0, !!!E=()
dx
at x = 6, v, = 0
(6.4.241)
(6.4.242)
332 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.4.243)
(6.4.244)
av = vazVy
Y
at ax2 (6.4.245)
t = 0: vy = 0, allx (initialcondition)
x = 0: vy = V, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
(6.4.246)
x = 00: v, = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
v v* vy0 v
v; = vvi  
v0  v (6.4.247)
(6.4.249)
vaV;
at
= Vv7
azv;
ax (6.4.250)
av*
dat= V =
azv;
(6.4.251)
t = 0: v; = 0, d l x (initialcondition)
x = 0: v; = 1, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) (6.4.252)
x = m: v; = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
TTi
** = (6.4.253)
(6.4.254)
(6.4.255)
q= X
(6.4.257)
(6.4.258)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 335
or that
v; = <p(rl) (6.4.259)
(6.4.261)
(6.4.262)
Rearranging
(6.4.264)
(6.4.265)
w'+2q\y = 0
(6.4.266)
(6.4.267)
(6.4.268)
lnW=  q 2 + C 1 (6.4.269)
\y= C , eq2 (6.4.270)
/ cp' dq = C, eq2dq
cp = C , l e  c 2 d c + C 2 (6.4.271)
The integral here is one that we cannot evaluate in closed form. We choose to
base our tables of numerical evaluation of the form on a lower limit of zero for
the integral. This arbitrary choice is permissible because changing the basis
point for the integration from one point to another will affect only the value of
the constant, C2.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 337
C, = 
lw
0 = Cllmec2dc+l 3 1 = 2
J?€ (6.4.272)
ec2dc
Substituting the constants in the equation and reordering the terms gives
cp = 1 2
mo
1'' et2dc
(6.4.273)
cp = lerf[q]
= erfc[q] (6.4.275)
= erfc ["]
m (6.4.276)
l 6 The error function plays a key role in statistics. We do not have space here to
show the details of the integration of the function to obtain the tables listed; for
further details the reader is referred to any of the many texts in mathematical
statistics.
l 7 Engineers have a certain regrettable proclivity to use the same symbol for the
dummy variable of integration that appears in the integrand and for the variable in the
limits. This often does not cause confusion; here, however, it is clearer to make the
distinction.
338 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The dominant force in laminar flow is the viscous force operating at the
molecular level. In turbulent flow, the mechanism of momentum transfer is
mainly the migration of relatively large aggregates of fluid which preserve their
identity for some small but finite time as they move from one point to another
(eddies). The dominant forces in turbulent flow are inertial forces. These inertial
forces arise from the rapid acceleration and deceleration of the fluid due to the
velocity fluctuations as the eddies move from regions of one velocity to regions
of a different velocity and mix with the new region.
The Reynolds number is the dimensionless product that represents the ratio
of inertial to viscous forces. As the velocity gradients in a fluid increase because
the fluid moves faster relative to solid boundaries, the inertial forces become
larger relative to the viscous forces, and eventually flow shifts from laminar
(viscousdominated)to turbulent (inertialdominated)flow.
The transition occurs at about Re = 2100 for flow in a pipe. For a flat plate
the transition occurs at about Re, = 3 x 106. Note that the characteristic length
in Re, is the distance from the nose (front) of the plate and the characteristic
velocity is the freestream velocity. It is, therefore, not surprising that transition
occurs at a different numerical value than in a pipe  in addition, one is external
flow where the velocity profile continues to develop and the other is internal
flow which reaches a fully developed state under steadyflowconditions.
velocit
fluctuabtn
average
velocity
time
V =
lo v dt [vdt
Todt
Jo
t0 (6.51)
l8 Such measurements are sometimes made in gases with hotwire anemometers  very
fine short wires through which electrical current is passed and which are cooled by the
passing gas stream. The cooling effect of the gas changes the temperature and
therefore the electrical resistance of the wire, which can be translated into fluid
velocity. Such wires can be run at constant voltage and the fluctuation in current
measured, or vice versa. Liquids, because of their larger drag, would destroy a wire, so
conductive films deposited on a nonconducting substrate are used in a similar
fashion.
Wires oriented at an angle to each other can be used to measure more than one
fluctuating component at the same time.
In Doppler anemometry, the Doppler effect is used to determine velocity hy
examining change in frequency of light signals reflected from particles in the fluid.
340 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
v = v+v' (6.52)
vz = (&)l] (6.53)
(6.54)
and the pressure drop to be directly proportional to the volume rate of flow.
For turbulent flow in pipes, experiments show that the distribution of the
timeaveraged velocity is approximately
 4
vz = +nax (6.56)

I laminar
turbulent
r/R
(
av avY av,
y m)=o
o + p &f+F+
(6.5.1  1)
(6.5.12)
Taking the time average each side of the equation, and writing the integral on the
lefthand side as the sum of the threeintegrals as shown
(6.5.14)
Writing the result for a typical term on the lefthand side and applying the
Leibnitz rule
(6.5.15)
(6.5.16)
(6.5.17)
(6.5.18)
P = P+P' (6.5.19)
=p
I + (..2 + v, 2)+ (v, 3+ v, 2)+ ( vz&
avz avz)l
+ v, &
(6.5.111)
(6.5.112)
P
(6.5.113)
+pgz
Time averaging a typical term on the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.1 13) as an
example, remembering that timeaveraged velocities by definition are constant
with respect to integration over time,and that likewise the time average of
velocity fluctuations is zero yields
t0
(6.5.115)
=P vx + 0
(6.5.118)
a
 P a;r(vx 9.) + P a (vx

vz) (6.5.120)
Notice that the units on this sort of term can be interpreted as either momentum
flux or shear stress
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 345
The same sort of result is obtained from the second, third, and fourth terms on
the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.113).
Time averaging the first term on the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.113)
gives
(6.5.123)
For this term the formal substitution gives the correct result.
Time averaging the first term on the righthand side of Equation (6.5.113)
gives
(6.5.124)
Again, formal substitution of the average for the instantaneous value gives the
same result as time averaging.
Time averaging a typical term from the second, third, and fourth terms on
the righthand side of Equation (6.5.113) and applying the Leibnitz rule twice
gives
346 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Again, the formal substitution gives the Same result as the timeaveraging
process.
Time averaging of the last term on the righthand side returns the last term
unchanged, because we have assumed density to be constant and we do not
consider timechanging gravitational fields; therefore, this term is constant in
time.
'f0pgzdt
to 0 = p g z t J r b odt = p g z (6.5.126)
Using the above results and Equation (6.5.113)gives for the timeaveraged
equation for the zcomponent (similar equations exist for the other directions)
(6.5.127)
where again the terms in the box are "extra" terms when compared with Equation
(6.5.113), and these terms have the equivalent units of either momentum flux or
shear stress. Interpreting the units as those of shear stress has led to these terms
being commonly called the "Reynolds stresses" (in honor of Osborne Reynolds
of the Reynolds number), even though they are made up of velocity fluctuations
and therefore intuitively share more of the character of momentum flux.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 347
vz v; (6.5.128)
Solution
(6.5.129)
(6.5.130)
(6.5.131)
(6.5.132)
(6.5.133)
= v,v, (6.5.134)
dS
v, = "P
+
dY (6.5.21)
~~ ~~
assuming vyIis approximately equal to v,'. If the shear stress in the fluid is
assumed to retain the form of Newton's law of viscosity, then
(6.5.22)
where p is the fluid viscosity and q is called the eddy viscosity and
This quantity is called the Reynolds stress even though it is the product of two
velocities and a density, because it has the dimensions of stress. Examining the
units, one sees it has units of stress which are the same as momentum flux.
Therefore,
(6.5.24)
(6.5.25)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 349
Note that q is not a fluid property  it depends on the flow field, and is
defined in such a way that it is related to the shear stress. As turbulence
decreases, Equation (6.5.22)approaches Newton's law of viscosity, because q
approaches zero. For turbulent flow past a boundary, q is equal to zero at the
surface, while p is negligible at a distance from the surface that is large when
compared to 6, the thickness of the viscous sublayer.
(In earlier literature one may find references to the laminar sublayer, but
this usage was found not to be correct, because turbulent eddies can be
photographed penetrating this layer and impacting the wall. In this layer,
however, viscous forces do predominate.)
(6.5.26)
(6.5.27)
(6.5.28)
(6.5.29)
3.50 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.5.210)
(6.5.211)
(6.5.213)
(6.5.214)
where C is 0 in the viscous sublayer, and is determined from experiment for the
buffer zone and the turbulent core. The logarithmic model (as opposed to the ln
power law model) expressed by Equation (6.5.214) is called the universal
velocity distribution. Data on turbulent flow in pipes with 4000 c Re c
3.2 x 106 may be fit by the following forms.
3 = E
v ' 0 < y v* < 5 (viscoussublayer)
2 [1
9, (6.5.215)
= 5 In y t,  3.05 ; 5 < Y J * < 30 (buffer zone)
(6.5.216)
<v = In [v]
2.5
Y + 5.59, ; 30 < $
Yv (turbulentcore)
(6.5.217)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 351
(6.5.218)
(6.5.219)
So 1ut ion
= 35,900 (6.5.220)
Sublayer
5v 5 P &5 P= m
y=ii.=P (6.5.221)
Flow will be stopped on the surface of the plate, and this effect will gradually
transmit itself into the main body of fluid via viscosity. The fluid which is
retarded near the plate transfers momentum from the fluid which is further from
the plate, and so on; thus, drag is transmitted into the main stream of fluid.
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer occurs
at approximately
Re, = p
P V z 5 x 10' (6.61)
The point where the velocity reaches 99% of the freestream velocity marks
the edge of what is defined as the boundary layer. The boundary layer
thickness, 6, is the distance from the surface to this point. The value of 99% is
arbitrary.
The purpose for creating this model is to divide the flow field into two
parts, the boundary layer and the freestream, with almost all the viscous
momentum transfer inside the boundary layer. In the region next to the solid
boundary, viscous effects are predominant, and in the second region, "far" from
the boundary, flow may be modeled as inviscid (an ideal fluid, if pressure effects
are small enough that density can also be modeled as constant).
The mass flow rate in the boundary layer is less than the mass flow rate
outside the boundary layer. The decrease in mass flow rate due to the retarding
354 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
effect of the viscous forces in the boundary layer can be described using the
displacement thickness, 6*, which is defined by the relation
(6.62)
6' is the distance tbe solid boundary would have to be displaced to give the same
mass flow rate if the flow field remained uniform (no drag at the surface 
inviscid flow). For incompressibleflow
(6.63)
The flow slowing next to the boundary also results in the reduction in
momentum flux in the xdirection (the flux in the ydirection correspondingly
increases) compared to that for inviscid flow. The momentum thickness, 8,
is defined as the thickness of a layer of fluid of uniform velocity, v,, for which
momentum flux would be equal to the decrease in the xmomentum caused by
the boundary layer.
(6.64)
For incompressibleflow
(6.65)
A wind tunnel has a 250mm square test section. Boundary layer velocity
profiles are measured at two crosssections. Displacement thicknesses are
calculated from the measured profiles. At 1 where the freestream speed is
V, = 3 0 m / s , the displacement thickness is 6; = 1 . 5 m . At 2
8: = 2.0 mm . What is the change in static pressure between 1 and 2?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 355
Soht ion
(6.66)
(6.67)
(6.68)
(6.69)
(6.610)
Continuity:
vI A I = v2 A, (6.611)
V =
2 where A = (L 2 6*)2
VI K2 (6.612)
(6.613)
The force on the element is made up of the pressure force on the two faces
normal to flow and the drag force at the plate surface. (The drag force on the top
of the element is neglected because of the small velocity gradient at this point.
The pressure force is neglected on the top face because the area normal to the x
direction is small and the external pressure gradient is assumed to be small also.
There are no body forces acting in the xdirection.)
(6.6.12)
(6.6.14)
(6.6.15)
$ = f(i) (6.6.16)
where 6 is the boundary layer thickness, expressions for the thickness of the
boundary layer and the shear stress on the flat plate can be determined.
c
VX = l ;
y>6 (6.6.17)
(6.6.18)
358 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.6.19)
(6.6.1 11)
From Equation (6.6.1 11) the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress
all?
(6.6.112)
(6.6.113)
The drag coefficient, which can be defined as the shear stress divided by the
kinetic energy, may be expressed as
c, = 'T
TO
=
0.058
(6.6.1 14)
ZPV Re:/'
The boundary layer concept can be used to model entrance developing flow
entering a pipe. Figure 6.6.12 shows the entrance to a pipe for (1) laminar flow
progressing to fully developed flow, and (2) transition to turbulent flow before
the laminar region becomes fully developed.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 359
For the first situation, the laminar boundary layer grows until it fills the
pipe. Downstream from that point the flow is laminar, the velocity profile is
parabolic, and the Reynolds number is less than about 2100.
In the second situation, after the fluid enters the pipe, the boundary layer
becomes turbulent before filling the pipe. Downstream of the point where the
boundary layer fills the pipe, the flow is turbulent, the velocity profile is blunt,
and the Reynolds number is greater than 2100. We usually assume the viscous
sublayer to persist the entire length of the pipe.
360 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.6.24)
(6.6.26)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 361
(6.6.27)
continuity (6.6.28)
*av* =  
ap*
ax + vy +
+ a2v;
ax* +~
aV*
momentum v;
ay e a ,y * 2 (6.6.29)
energy: aT*
v:+vo7 aT* = 1

a2T*
aX Y ay Re,& a ~ . ~ (6.6.210)
speciesmass: vi +
ac*
&
+ v* ac*
Y
A =
ay* Re,Sc

ay*2 (6.6.211)
(6.6.212)
(6.6.213)
Where
2, = p
av:
ay* I
yorO (6.6.214)
362 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.6.31)
(6.6.32)
therefore,
(6.6.33)
In Equation (6.6.33) it is called a similarity variable.
For flow over a flat plate, the pertinent variables in predicting the velocity
in the xdirection are
so
(6.6.35)
v,v 0; 11
p
(6.6.36)
p 13 0
p 111
from which we can show the rank is three from the nonzero thirdorder
determinant
(6.6.37)
(6.6.38)
Result
vx x P
Zl =,p (6.6.310)
Note that this is a local Reynolds number since it is based on the local velocity
and local distance from the front of the plate
"x x P
= pr (6.6.31 1)
Form 7c2
(6.6.312)
364 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Result
x, = Y (6.6.3 14)
Form ~3
(6.6.315)
Apply dimensionalhomogeneity
M: b + c = 0 a = 1
L: l + a  3 b  c = O b=O
t c = o c =o (6.6.316)
Result
VmXp
7C3 = p7 (6.6.317)
(6.6.318)
(6.6.3 19)
(6.6.320)
(6.6.321)
Differentiating
(6.6.323)
d’f d2f
2+f7 =0
dq3 dq
Boundary conditions:
q=o; f = O
(6.6.324)
366 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Applying the boundary conditions one can solve either by a series expansion
or by various numerical methods, one of which is detailed in the example below.
The solution is shown in Figure 6.6.31.
1
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
VX 1 VbD 0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Solve the Blasius equation for twodimensional boundary layer flow past a
tlat plate
2f+ff"= 0
(6.6.325)
forq = 0, f = f ' = o
forq = 1, f' = 1 (6.6.326)
Use a step size of 0.05 for q, and carry the computation to q = 8.0, which
can be regarded as Tbe initial value far f" sbould be between 0.30 and 0.35.
00.
(6.6.327)
q = 0: cp = 0,cp' = 0 (6.6.328)
Define
(6.6.330)
(6.6.331)
d5 
cp" =  PO'
dq  2 (6.6.332)
(6.6.333)
(6.6.334)
q = 0: cp = 0,cp' = 0 (6.6.335)
368 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.6.336)
(6.6.337)
(6.6.33 8)
(6.6.339)
(6.6.340)
rl=  : w = l (6.6.341)
y' =
(6.6.342)
x=o: f=f*
(6.6.343)
(6.6.344)
The difficulty is that we have initial conditions on only two of the variables
($ and w), while the remaining condition is a boundary condition on w. This
means that we must estimate an initial condition for 5, carry out the
w
computation, and see if we have satisfied the boundary condition on (a so
called “shooting” method). Since the solution is relatively well behaved, this
presents no great difficulty.
Noting that each equation will have its own values of kl, k2, k3, and b,
first calculate kl for each equation,
(6.6.345)
(6.6.346)
(6.6.347)
then k2
370 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
and then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 371
k4, = h f.
[(% + h)*(cp.+ k3.). (w. + k3.). (5. + k3€)]
(6.6.354)
(6.6.355)
(6.6.356)
Drag is usually divided into two classes, skin friction and form drag. Skin
friction is the term used for drag force caused by momentum transfer from the
fluid to a solid surface. Form drag is the term used for force resulting from a
pressure gradient from the front to the back of a solid object.
372 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
For example, if one holds a circular disk of cardboard (perhaps the base fiom
a nowconsumed pizza) out the window of a car as it travels down the highway,
the force in the direction of travel of the car necessary to hold the cardboard in
place will vary depending on the orientation of the disk.If the axis of the disk is
n o d to the direction of travel of the car, the main force experienced is a result
of the flow of air over the top and bottom of the disk  skin friction. If, however,
the axis of the disk is beld parallel to the direction of travel of the car, a
considerably larger force will be experienced, which is caused by the pressure
difference that develops between the forward and rearward surfaces of the disk 
form drag. Form drag does exist in the first instance, but is much less that the
skin friction because the area normal to flow on which the pressure drop acts is
very small. Similarly, skin friction exists in the second case, but the skin
friction over the forward and rearward surfaces of the disk has no component in
the direction of travel, and the skin friction on the edge of the disk acts on such a
small area as to be relatively insignificant.
Consider the case of flow over a curved surface as shown in Figure 6.71
(such as an airplane wing). At very low speeds, flow is essentially laminar and
the air follows the contour of the wing as is shown in Figure 6.7la. The
majority of the drag in this case results from skin friction, which is the transfer
of momentum from the wing, which is moving, to the surrounding air, which is
stationary. Under certain circumstances, however, as flow is increased, the
boundary layer can separate from the wing, as shown in Figure 6.7lb.
Figure 6.71 Flow around an airfoil (a) without and (b) with
separation. (From L. Prandtl and O.G. Tietjens. Fundamentals of
Hydro and Aerodynamics, New York, Dover, reprinted by
permission of the publishers.)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 373
is negligible in passing across the wing. The air, therefore, possesses two types
of mechanical energy: kinetic energy and pressure energy.
The mechanical energy does not stay constant because the air undergoes
momentum interchange with surrounding air as it goes across the wing;
therefore, the important terms in the mechanical energy balance for the air
particle are the kinetic energy, the pressure energy, and the lost work due to
friction. (There is no shaft work.)
The lift on the airfoil results from the greater increase in kinetic energy
across the upper surface of the airfoil. This form of mechanical energy can come
only from the pressure energy, so the pressure decreases, giving lift. As the air
comes off the back edge of the airfoil, it once again slows down and its kinetic
energy is reconverted to pressure energy. There is, however, a net loss of
mechanical energy because of the frictional processes as it traverses the airfoil.
This means that the remaining kinetic energy, when transformed to pressure
energy, is insufficient to recoup the original level of pressure. The pressure
gradient, in fact, becomes negative. Since flow tends to go down the pressure
gradient, it may actually reverse next to the airfoil, the boundary layer separate,
and the wing stalls. This condition is of great concern to a pilot, because
stalling means that he is progressively losing the lift on the latter part of the
wing.
The region downstream from the separation point is called the wake. The
effect of separation and the subsequent wake is to decrease the amount of kinetic
energy transfer back to pressure energy and to increase transfer to internal energy
(in other words, loss of mechanical energy).
(6.71)
374 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids

where A is a characteristic area usually either the crosssectional area normal to
flow for bodies with significant form drag, or the wetted area for bodies with
primarily skin friction (e.g., flat plates)  and
c, = c;+c; (6.72)
CD'is the drag coefficient defined on the basis of drag force from skin
friction and CD"is the corresponding coefficient for fonn drag. Their sum is the
coefficientof total drag.
(6.73)
The shear stress at the surface is, in turn, a function of Reynolds number and is
often determinable by calculation, as we shall see below.
For internal flows, the velocity in the kinetic energy term is normally
the bulk velocity. This velocity could be any velocity one wishes to choose,
but, conventionally, the bulk velocity is used. The area that is conventionally
used for internal flows is the inside surface area of the conduit, i.e., the
circumference multiplied by the length. Internal flows usually do not involve
form drag, but only skin friction.
quiescent fluid, we mean the relative velocity of the fluid as seen from the object
(thevelocity of the object). Since form drag often dominates the case of external
flow, the characteristic area usually used is the crosssectional area of the object
normal to flow (because this is the effective area upon which the pressure
difference acts to produce form drag). We could use any other welldefined area
(for example, the external surface area of the object) because, for objects of
geometrically similar shape, the ratios of the various areas remain constant as
the size of the object is changed; however, one conventionally uses the cross
sectional area normal to flow. For external flow, the drag coefficient is normally
defined in terms of total drag.
0.01 I I
22 Curves shown are empirical fits to experimental data: (continued next page)
376 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The local shear stress at the surface of a flat plate was found in Section
6.6.1 using the integral momentum balance to be
2, = 0.3324 (6.7.1 1)
Another way to determine the same result is to integrate the Blasius solution.
The laminar curve in Figure 6.7.11 comes from integrating the local shear
stress found using the Blasius solution as developed in Section 6.6.3. The drag
force per unit width for one side of the plate is
(6.7.12)
Where
(6.7.13)
[a,.]
ay y = o
= v, d X f " ( 0 ) (6.7.16)
where the Reynolds number is based on the freestream velocity and the length of
the plate.
The Prandtl solution is based on the 1/7 power velocity distribution model
and the wall shear stress model for turbulent pipe
CD = 
0*074 3 5 x 10' < Re, c 10'
Re;'' (6.7.19)
This model is applicable to plates wbere the boundary layer is turbulent starting
at the leading edge. Usually, however, there is a laminar section preceding the
turbulent section, leading to lower drag. The transition is normally somewhere
between Reynolds numbers of 3 x 105 and 3 x 106.
24 For details of development of this model and the models immediately below, see
Schlichting, H. (1960). Boundary k y e r Theory, New York, McGrawHill, p. 536.
378 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
CD = 0.427
(log Re,  0.407)2.6( (6.7.111)
Assume a water ski can be modeled as a flat plate. The ski is 2m long,
0.25m wide, and is immersed to a depth of 0.05 m. The boat dragging the ski
is moving at 25 knots. What is the skin friction force?
So1u t ion
nauticalmi
vQ = (25) hots[ knot hr
6076ft
][
nauticalmi]
0.3048m
ft [
hr
3600 sec] ][
= 12.869 (6.7.1 12)
= 1.837~
10’ (6.7.113)
1
= cDAZpvim2
FD
(6.7.1 14)
A =L(w+2d) (6.7.115)
FD = 4(0.0026) (2 m)(0.25 m + 0.1 m 5 )12.86y )2(Nsec2
I( 1020 )
(6.7.116)
FD = 153N 3 (34.4 Ibf) (6.7.117)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 379
For flow past a circular cylinder, Figure 6.7.12 shows (a) ideal flow and (b)
turbulent flow with boundary layer separation and wake formation. For the ideal
flow situation, there is no separation of the boundary layer because the presence
of the body does not result in momentum exchange.
Figure 6.7.13 shows the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder as a function of
Reynolds number.
380 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Re = D v, pIp
Figure 6.7.13 Drag coefficient for circular cylinder2
So 1u tion
v, = (v)( s)(522fi)
3600
hr = 5 8 . 7fts
(6.7.1 18)
R e = DvmP
Ft  (8 ft) (58.7 G) = 2 . 7 8 106
~ (6.7.1 19)
(16.88~10
F, = 6301bf (6.7.121)
Note: The drag coefficient for a cylinder is relatively constant at these Reynolds
numbers. For a hurricane wind at 200 mph the drag force increases 25 times.
The drag coefficient for flow past a sphere is given in Figure 6.7.14.
The leftward part of the figure where the Reynolc s number is less tlan 0.1 S
called the creeping flow regime. Various parts of the curve can be fitted
algebraically as follow
CO =24. Re c 0.1
Re ' (6.7.122)
CD = 18.5 2 c Re c 500 (6.7.123)
'
26Adapted from data in Schlichting, H.(1960). Boundary Layer Theory, New York,
McGrawHill, p. 16.
382 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu&
(6.7.125)
(6.7.126)
The net buoyancy force is negative. The velocity is downward, so the drag force
will be in the positive direction. The magnitude of the drag force is
(6.7.127)
Substituting
(6.7.128)
 6 . 9 3 ~106N+F,, = 0
F, = 6.93 x 106N (6.7.130)
(6.93 x 106)N
(6.7.132)

3 [mm] (9.9 x 102) [y]
(1.00) g [&I
cmsc
[G]
Re = 2.97
(6.7.134)
C D = 10 (6.7.135)
P
R e =  D~lcrmiMl
=
3 [mm] (0.031) [y]
(1.00) [s] (6.7.136)
(0.01) gmm
(Ibp Cmscp
Re = 0.94
(6.7.137)
CD = 30 (6.7.138)
(6.7.139)
R e = h=e r m i n r l P
3 [m](0.018) [F](1.00)
CmscP
Re = 0.542 (6.7.140)
Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids 385
c, = 35 (6.7.141)
The friction factor chart for pipe flows can be derived based on dimensional
analysis principles via the dimensionless boundary layer equations. In the usual
flow problem, we are not concerned with all the possible variables. Normally,
we will be most concerned (for incompressible fluid flowing in a horizontal
uniform pipe) with the pressure drop, Ap; the length, L; the di‘ameter, D; the
roughness height of the pipe surface, k; and, for the fluid, the average velocity,
<v>; the viscosity, p; and the density, p. (The interpretation of roughness
height is a statistical problem that has not yet been resolved satisfactorily  we
will not consider the statistics here but will use an effective roughness height.)
The relationship among the variables is
(6.7.21)
( ”)
G , Eu, Re, D ’ D = 0
(6.7.22)
The pressure drop in a uniform horizontal pipe is related to the shear stress
at the wall, which in fully developed steady flow is constmt down the pipe;
therefore, the pressure drop is proportional to the length of the pipe and
Capacity at I /rlsec
Nominal
PiW oulsiflr Wall
4ickners.
Inskit
fiamrtcr,

feral. Flow, Outside
 U.S.
Inside
vrlrwiry
Roll
sire. diomcrrr.
in.l min

in.

in. in. Schtduit in. fig
'I. 0.405 I OS 0.049 0.307 D.OSS ~*OOoSI 0.106 0.0804 0.23 1 115.5 0.19
IOST, 40s 0.068 0.269 D.072 I.OOOJO 0. I 0 6 0.0705 0. I79 89.5 0.24
IOXS. aos 0.095 0.21s 0.093 ~.0002S 0.106 0.0563 0.1 I3 56.S 0.3 1
'1. 0.540 I OS 0.065 0.410 0,097 Moo92 0.141 0.107 0.4 I2 206,s 0.33
COST, 40s 0.088 0.364 0.12s 3.00072 0.141 0.095 0.323 1613 0.42
SOXS. 80s 0.1 I9 0.302 0. IS7 D.000SO 0. I41 0.079 0.224 I 12.0 0.54
=i. 0.67s IOS 0.06s 0.5411 0.12s D.00 I62 0.I77 0.143 0.727 3633 0.42
40ST. 40s 0.09 I 0.493 0.167 D.00 I33 0.177 0. I29 0596 298.0 037
BOXS. 80s 0. I26 0.423 0.217 D.00098 0. I77 0.1 I I 0.440 220.0 0.74
'I* 0.840 ss 0.06s 0.7 10 0. Isa 0.0027s 0.220 0.I a6 I .234 617.0 0.54
I OS 0.083 0.674 0.197 0.00248 0.220 0. I76 1.112 SS6 .o 0.67
40ST, 40s 0.109 0.622 0.250 0.0021 1 0.220 0.163 0.94s 472.0 0.811
80XS. 80s 0.147 0.546 0.320 0.00 I63 0.220 0. I43 0.730 36S.O I .09
160 0. I 88 0.464 0.38s 0.001 17 0.220 0. 122 0.527 263.5 1.31
xx 0.294 0.252 0.504 0.00035 0.220 0.066 0.15s 773 1.71
'I, I .OS0 5s 0.06s 0.920 0.20 I 0.0046 I 0.275 0.24 I 2.072 1036.0 0.69
I OS 0.083 0.884 O.2S2 0.00426 0.275 0.23 I 1.903 9Sl.3 0.86
#ST. 406 0.113 0.824 0.333 0.0037 1 0.275 0.216 1.66s 832.3 1.13
IIOXS. ao: 0.IS4 0.742 0.433 0.00300 0.27s 0.I94 I .34S 672.1 I .47
IftO 0.219 0.6 I2 0372 0.00204 0.27s 0.160 0.9 I7 4sa.s I.94
xx 0.308 0.434 0.718 0.00I03 0.275 0.1 I4 0.46 I 230.S 2.44
387
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
I 1.315 ss 0.06s 1.18s 1.255 LOO768 0.344 HI0 3.449 172s 0.87
I OS 0.109 I .097 3.4 I3 1.006S6 0.344 1.287 2.946 1473 I .40
IOST, 40s 0. I33 I .049 3.494 MO600 0.344 1.27s 2.690 I345 I .68
OXS, 80s 0. I 7 9 0.9S7 3.639 Loo499 0.344 L2SO 2.240 I I20 2.17
160 0.2so 0.815 3.836 1.00362 0.344 1.2 I3 I .62S 8 12.5 2.84
xx 0.358 0.599 I .076 1.00 196 0.344 1. I57 0.878 439.0 3.66
I 'I, 1.660 5s 0.06s 1.530 D.326 1.0 I277 0.43s D.401 sit3 2865 1.1 1
10s 0.109 I .442 D.53 I 1.01 I34 0.435 D.378 5.09 254s 1.81
IOST, 40s 0. I 4 0 I .380 D.668 1.0I040 0.4 3 5 0.361 4.57 2285 2.27
IOXS, 80s 0.191 1.278 0.88 I 3.0089 I 0.43s 0.33s 3.99 199s 3.00
160 0.2so 1.160 1.107 3.00734 0.43s 0.304 3.29 164s 3.76
xx 0.382 0.896 1534 3.00438 0.43s D.23S I.97 98s s.2 I
I 'I: I .900 5s 0.06s I .770 0.375 D.0 I709 0.497 0.463 7.67 3835 I .28
1OS 0.109 I.682 0.614 D.0 I543 0.497 0.440 6.94 346s 2.09
IOST. 40s 0. I4S 1.610 0.800 0.01411 0.497 0.42 I 6.34 3I70 2.72
IOXS. 80s 0.200 I .so0 I .069 D.0I225 0.497 0.393 5.49 274s 3.63
160 0.28 1 1.338 1,429 0.00976 0.497 0.350 4.38 2 190 4.86
xx 0.400 1.100 I.885 D.00660 0.497 0.288 2.96 I480 6.4 I
2 2.375 5s 0.06s 2.24s 0.472 0.02749 0.622 0.588 12.34 6170 1.61
I OS 0.109 2.157 0.776 0.02S38 0.622 0.565 11.39 569s 2.64
4OST. 40s 0. I 5 4 2.067 1.07s 0.02330 0.622 034 I 10.4s 522s 3.65
EOST, 80s 0.218 I .939 1.477 0.020s0 0.622 0.508 9.20 4600 5.02
160 0.344 I .687 2.195 0.0 15S2 0.622 0.436 6.97 34811 7.46
xx 0.436 I .SO3 2.656 0.0 I232 0.622 0.393 s.s3 276s 9.03
2 'I: 2.87s ss 0.083 2.709 0.728 0.04003 0.7S3 0.709 17.97 898s 2.48
I OS 0. I 2 0 2.635 1.039 0.03787 0.7s) 0.690 17.00 8 500 3.53
40ST. 40s 0.203 2.469 I .704 0.03 3 27 0.7S3 0.647 14.92 7460 5.79
8OXS.8OS 0.276 2.323 2.254 0.O 294 2 0.753 0.608 13.20 6600 7.66
I 60 0.375 2. I 2 5 2.945 0.2463 0.7S3 O.SS6 I 1.01 ss3s 10.01
xx 0352 1.771 4.028 0.01711 0.7S3 0.464 7.68 3840 13.70
388 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Crosssectional
I
1
Veight of
Nominal
Pipe Outside Wall Inside  arra
3 3.500 ss 0.083 3.334 0.89 I D.06063 0.916 0.873 27.2 I 13.605 3.03
I OS 0.120 3.260 1.274 D.05796 0.9 16 0.8S3 26.02 13.010 4.33
40ST. 40s 0.216 3.068 2.228 0.0s I30 0.9 16 0.803 23.00 I1.SOo 7.58
50XS. 80s 0.300 2.900 3.016 0.04S87 0.916 0.7S9 203s 10.27s 10.25
160 0.438 2.624 4.213 0.03755 0.916 0.687 16.86 8430 14.3 I
xx 0.600 2.300 S.466 0.0288s 0.9 16 0.602 12.9s 6475 18.58
3 'i, 4.0 ss 0.083 3.8 34 1.021 0.080 I 7 I .047 I .oo4 3S.98 17.990 3.48
I OS 0.120 3.760 1.463 0.077 1 I 1.047 0.984 34.6 I 17.30s 4.97
40ST. 40s 0.226 3348 2.680 0.06870 I .047 0.929 30.80 I SA00 9.1 I
80XS. 80s 0.3 18 3.364 3.67U 0.06 I 7 0 1.047 0.88 I 27.70 I3.8SO I 2 3I
4 4.s SS 0.083 4.334 t.lS2 0.10245 1.178 1.135 46.0 2 3.000 3.92
I OS 0. I 2 0 4.260 I .65 I 0.09898 1.178 1.1 IS 44.4 22.200 5.61
40ST. 40s 0.237 4.026 3.17 0.08840 1.178 I .OS4 39.6 19.800 10.79
80XS. 80s 0.337 3.826 4.4 I 0.07986 1.178 I .002 3S.8 17.900 14.98
I20 0.438 3.624 ssa 0.07 I70 1.178 0.949 32.2 16.100 19.01
160 0.53 I 3.438 6.62 0.06647 1.178 0.900 28.9 14.4SO 2232
xx 0.674 3.IS2 8.10 O.OS419 1.178 0.8ZS 24.3 12.1so 27.54
S 5.S63 ss 0.109 2.34s 1.07 0.1SS8 1.4S6 1.399 69.9 34.950 6.36
I OS 0. I34 5.29s 2.29 0. I529 1.456 I .386 68.6 34.300 7.77
40ST. 40s 0.2S8 S.047 4.30 0. I390 I .4S6 1.321 62.3 31.1so 14.62
80XS. 80s 0.375 4.8 I 3 6.1 I 0. I263 I .4S6 1.260 57.7 28.8SO 20.78
I20 o.so0 4.S63 7.9s 0.1136 I .4 S4 I . 19s s I .o 2s.soo 27.04
I fro 0.62s 4.313 9.70 0.1015 1.4S6 1.129 4s.s 22.1so 32.96
xx 0.750 4.063 11.34 o.ow0 I .4S6 I .064 40.4 20.200 38.55
389
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.25 5s 0.109 6.407 2.23 .2239 I .734 I.667 100.s 50.2110 7.60
1OS 0.134 6.357 2.73 .2204 1.734 1.664 98.9 49.450 9.29
'OST. 40s 0.280 6.06s 5.58 1.2006 1,734 1588 90.0 45.000 18.97
OXS. 800s 0.432 5.76 I 8.40 1.1810 1.734 I.SO8 81.1 40.5 SO 28.57
I20 0.562 5.501 0.70 1.1650 1.734 I .440 73.9 36.950 36.39
160 0.7 I 9 S. 187 3.34 1. I467 1.734 I.358 65.9 32.950 45.35
xx 0.864 4.897 5 64 1.1308 1.734 I.282 50.7 29,350 53.16
8.625 5s 0.109 8.407 2.9 1S 1.3855 2.258 2.201 173.0 86.500 9.93
10s I48 8.329 3.94 I 1.3784 2.258 2.180 169.8 84.900 13.40
20 0.2so 8.125 6378 ).360I 2.2S8 2.127 161.5 80,750 22.36
30 0.277 8.07 I 7.260 t.35113 2.258 2.1 13 159.4 79.700 24.70
40ST. 40s 0.322 7.98 I 8.396 U474 2.2s 2.089 I S5.7 77.8SO 28.55
60 0.406 7.813 10.48 !.3329 2.258 1.045 149.4 74.700 3 5.64
tOXS. 80s 0.500 7.625 12.76 ).3171 2.258 t 996 142.3 71.150 43.39
I 0 0.594 7.437 14.99 1.3017 2.258 1.947 135.4 67.700 50.95
I20 0.7 I 9 7.187 17.86 328I 7 2.258 I .882 126.4 63.200 60.7 I
140 0.8 I 2 7.00 I 19.93 9.2673 2.258 1.833 120.0 6Q,ooo 67.76
xx 0.87s 6.87s 1 I.30 D.2S78 2.2S8 I.800 115.7 57.850 72.42
I60 0.906 6.8 I 3 LI.97 0.2S32 2.250 1.784 113.5 S6.750 74.69
Crossstctimd
Nominol
PiPC
rite.
Outside
diamrrrr,
Wall
rhicknru.
lnsidr
liarneter.
 area

in. in. Schedule in. in. in.' fi' min IhNf

I2 12.7s 5s 0. IS6 12.438 6.17 D.8438 3.338 3.26 378.7 189.350 22.22
IOS 0.180 12.390 7.1 1 D.8373 3.338 3.24 375.8 187.900 24.20
23 0.250 12.250 9.82 D.8 I85 3.338 3.2 1 367.0 183.500 33.38
30 0.330 12.090 12.88 0.7972 3.338 3. I7 358.0 179.000 43.77
ST.4 0 s 0.375 12.000 14.58 0.1854 3.338 3.14 352.5 176.250 4956
40 0.406 I I .938 15.74 0.7773 3.338 3.13 349.0 174.500 53.52
xs, 80s 0.500 I I .7SO 19.24 0.7f30 3.338 3.08 338.0 I69.OOO 65.42
60 0.362 11.262 2132 0.7372 3.338 3.04 331.0 165.500 73.15
U0 0.688 I I.374 26.07 0.7056 3.338 2.98 3 16.7 158.350 88.63
100 0.844 I I .626 3 1S7 0.6674 3.338 2.90 299.6 149,800 107.32
120, xx I.Ooo 10.750 36.9 i 0.6303 3.338 2.8 I 283.0 I4t.500 125.49
I40 1.12s 10.500 41.09 0.60 I3 3.338 2.75 270.0 135.m 139.67
160 1.312 10.I26 47.14 0.5592 3.338 2.6s 251.0 I25.500 160.27
Crnssstctianal
N ominol
Pipe 0l l t 5idr Wnll Insidt area
rirr. diirntrtrr. rhicknrrs. diamc.irr. Heral. Flow. Ouiridr Inside us. gall
in in. Schrdulr in. in. in? mitt

~ ff'
Extracted from American National Standard Wrought Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe, ANSI B36.101970, and Stainless
Steel Pipe, ANSI B36.191965,with permission of the publishers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York,
NY.
ST = standard wall; XS = extra strong wall; XX = double extra strong wall. Wrought iron pipe has slightly thicker walls,
approximately 3 percent, but the same weight per foot as wrought steel pipe, because of lower density. Schedules 10, 20, 30,
40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 apply to steel pipe only. Decimal thicknesses for respective pipe sizes represent their
nominal or average wall dimensions. Mill tolerances as high as 12 !h percent are permitted.
Plainend pipe is produced by a square cut. Pipe is also shipped from the mills threaded, with a threaded coupling on one
end, or with the ends beveled for welding, or grooved or sized for patented couplings. Weights per foot for threaded and
coupled pipe are slightly greater because of the weight of the coupling, but it is not available larger than 12 in., or lighter than
schedule 30 sizes 8 through 12 in., or schedule 40 6 in. and smaller.
394 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.7.24)
(6.7.25)
(6.7.26)
Unfortunately, there are two friction factors commonly used to describe flow
in pipes. The friction factor defined by Equation (6.7.26) is known as the
Fanning friction factor. The other friction factor that is used is called the
Darcy (or Blasius) friction factor. The relationship between the Fanning
friction factor and the Darcy or Blasius friction factor is
(6.7.27)
F,,,,, + h a g =0 (6.7.28)
p, ( ~ R ~ )  p ~ ( ~ R ~ )  ( 2 f t R L ) ( $ p ( v )=' )0f (6.7.29)
Solving
2 f L p (v)'
PzPt =  D (6.7.210)
P2  P1
p = lib (6.7.211)
 2fL(v)2
lw = D
(6.7.212)
so the friction factor gives us a way to evaluate both pressure drop and lost work
in horizontal pipes. We can extend the approach to nonhorizontal pipes, as we
now see.
If the pipe is not horizontal we have an additional force involved  the body
(gravity) force on the fluid in the system.
396 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Choosing the zdirection as the direction of flow, and letting 01 be the angle
between the zdirection and the gravity vector as shown in Figure 6.7.22, the
momentum balance yields
(6.7.213)
The friction factor gives the drag force or lost work in horizontal pipe.
We usually assume (an excellent assumption) that the lost work is unaltered by
pipe orientation.
Solving
2 f L p (")2
(P2PI) =  D +gpLcos a
(6.7.215)
and compare with the mechanical energy balance for a uniformsize pipe with no
shaft work
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 397
(6.7.217)
we see that

lw =
2fL(v)2
D (6.7.218)
Thus, the friction factor gives us a way to evaluate lost work in nonhorizontal
pipes as well.
f = f( Re, b) (6.7.219)
The values of relative roughness for many commercial types of pipe are given in
Figure 6.7.24.
We can obtain an analytic expression for the friction factor in laminar flow.
Making a force balance on an element of fluid pfeviously gave us
2fLp(v)2
PZPI =  D (6.7.220)
398 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
But the HagenPoiseuille equation gives us a relation between Ap and the other
variables in laminar flow
(6.7.221)
Notice that in laminar flow,fluid density does not affect pressure drop.
Substituting
32 (v) pL  2 f Lp ( v ) ~
D2 D (6.7.222)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 399
Vduer of < V D Ufor woter 01 60.F (velocity in fttrcc a diam. in inches)
Rcynolds nJmbcr Re a y
28
Reprinted from the Pipe Friction Manual. 3'd ed., copyright 1961 by the Hydraulic Institute, 122 East 42"d
St., New York, N Y 10017. See Moody, 1,. F. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Trans. ASME 66(8):671684.
400 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
ar
f = =16
(6.7.223)
Note that for laminar flow, f is not a function of pipe roughness. This line is
labeled on Figure 6.7.23.
The universal velocity distribution can be used to fit the turbulent region of
the friction factor chart. By substituting the universal velocity profile into the
definition of the friction factor, and going through a great deal of algebraic
manipulation, one can show that, in essence, the data of the friction factor chart
for hydraulically smooth pipes is fitted by
For rough pipes the universal velocity distribution yields the equation
In a general flow system, the pipe may not be of a uniform size andor there
may be various kinds of fittings, valves, and changes in pipe diameter which
will cause losses. The lost work term in the mechanical energy balance must
include these losses.
The losses from changes in pipe diameter can be estimated from the kinetic
energy term in the energy balance. Losses caused by fittings and valves are most
often treated by a model that replaces the fitting or valve with an equivalent
length of straight pipe  that is, a pipe length that would give the same pressure
loss as the fitting or valve at the same flow rate.
Equivalent lengths for standardsize fittings and valves are given in the
nomograph of Figure 6.7.25. This nomograph will also give expansion and
contraction losses for most cases except for sudden expansions into large
regions, e.g., tanks. The latter type of situation is treated in Example 6.73.
The nomograph in Figure 6.7.25 does not give losses for sudden
enlargements with diameter ratio greater than 4/1. Develop an appropriate
formula for calculation of enlargement losses and use it to calculate the lost
work involved in pumping water at 25 gaVmin from a 1in. Schedule 40 steel
pipe into a pipe that is 4 times larger in diameter.
Solution
 x'
(6.7.227)
Assume: Uniform pressure across the piping at 1 and 2, wall stress on the short
pipe negligible, plug flow (turbulent)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 403
h
c 3000
 2000
YI  'ully open
 1000

= 500
lSfondord
tee  300
Square elbow
S W I check
~ 
1
1
valve, open
ewda entrance 50
/ P
130 2 In
 10
Standard tee /

through Stde OUtlCl

r5
 3
 2
Standord elbow
;0.5
Medlum sweco elbow  
 0.3
c
30 Crane Company, Technical Paper No. 410: Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings,
and Pipe, Twentyfifth printing, 1991, Engineering Department: Joliet, IL. This
report has its genesis in a booklet originally published by Crane in 1935, Flow of
Fluids and Heat Transmission, which was published in a revised edition under the
present title in 1942. A new edition was published as Technical Paper No. 410 in
1957, and has been continually updated. The present printing contains a more
elaborate calculation method than in the nomograph above and should be consulted
for more accurate estimates; however, the nomograph above is more compact and
suffices for preliminary design calculations.
404 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.7.23 1)
(6.7.232)
(6.7.233)
(6.7.235)
(6.7.236)

IW = 1.34 ft lbf
lbm (6.7.238)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 405
Two tanks containing water and pressurized with air are connected as shown.
Prove whether the water flows from tank 1 to tank 2 or vice versa.
Solution
AP 
F + g A z = 1w
(6.7.239)
We know that the numerical value of the lost work term, [I&], must be
negative because the term represents generation in the entity balance on
mechanical energy, and since it represents loss (destruction,negative generation)
of mechanical energy its net sign must be negative. However, the lost work
itself is made up of only positive t e r n

lw =
2fL(V)*
D (6.7.240)
+
j(P2
g(z2 P1) 2,) = 1k (6.7.241)

lw =  [(P*
 pPI)+ g (z2  2 J
1 (6.7.242)
(6.7.243)
(6.7.244)
Solution
We first evaluate the terms in the mechanical energy balance using a system
which is from liquid surface 1 to liquid surface 2:
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 407
1
(6.7.245)
=  7 ft0 lbf
s
32.2 lbm ft (6.7.246)
(6.7.247)
A
= 2.41g
[
(6.7.249)
= 14,000 (6.7.250)
D = O.Oo06
k
f = 0.007 (6.7.251)
The total lost work is the sum of the loss calculated using the friction factor
chart plus the loss from the sudden expansion into tank 2 (which we cannot get
from the friction factor approach, and therefore calculate as in Example 6.7.21).
lw =
2fL(")*
D +
(v)'
[ (a)']'
2 1 
I($) (9)
1
(2)(0.007)(535) ft (2.41)'
1 lbf s2
3.068in (32.2Ibm ft)
408 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Notice that the sudden expansion loss is negligible for this problem; it was
included simply to illustrate the method of its inclusion. Substituting in the
mechanical energy balance,
13870+0 = 5.3lW
w =  73.3 
ft lbf
lbm (6.7.253)
The sign is negative, indicating that the work is done on the fluid and not
by the fluid. Since w is the actual work done on the fluid, the pump must
have an input of
Power to pump
5)
(6.7.25
= ft lbf
hP min
(1221bm)(33,000ftlbf)(23910()%?)(&)
Power to pump =  1.42hp (6.7.256)
For serial path piping systems, the total lost work consists of losses due to
friction in the straight pipe sections plus losses in fittings, etc.
If we assume for the moment that fluid properties are constant (incompressible
isothermal Newtonian flow), and that roughness, elevation change and system
configuration depend on choice of pipe and layout, then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 409
and there are four general cases which we will address by means of examples in
the order
Ap unknown
.Dunknown
L unknown
Solution
All that is n cessaq is to find the pressure drop from point 1 to point 2 and
add it to the pressure in tank B. The lost work results from 130 feet of straight
pipe plus one elbow.
Then
gal
Q  (150)fi
ft3 = 861 ft
(") = A,,  (0.02330)ft2 (7.48) gal min (6.7.261)

(q.)
fm mt 9 (qmh
ft (861) (62.4)
(2.42) lbm hr
NCP fthrcP
= 2 . 2 105
~ (6.7.262)
4f = 0,018
f = 0.0045 (6.7.263)
Ap 2fL(")2
g A z + v =  D (6.7.264)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 41 1
(6.7.265)
= 62.4
(2) (0.0045) (135.5) ft (861)’ [A]’ min2
ft (3600) s2
The system is shown in the sketch. The rotameter has flow resistance
equivalent to 20 ft of pipe; standard elbows, standard tees, and gate valves are to
be used in the system. (Neglect kinetic energy changes).
Solution
c
1 Ordinary entrance 1.5
2 Runs of tee 3.2
4 Standard elbows 11.2
2 Tees (side outlet) 10.0
4 Open gate valves 2.4
1 Rotameter 20.0
Straight pipe
(neglecting the expansion loss) I l6OS0 I
TOTAL 1 208.3 I
= 6.063
ft
(6.7.267)
= 6 . 6 8 104
~ (6.7.268)
k
D = 0.0018. (6.7.269)
Then
f = 0.0063 (6.7.270)
w = lW+gAz
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 413
 Jc’ =
2 f L (v)’
+ g Az [ [
= (2) (0.0063) (208) ft] (6.06)’ $
S
(6.7.271)
(lsW9 1‘ (
12 in
7
lbf s2 ) (32: ft) (
)
(32.2 lbm ft
( lbfs’
+
%ail
(0.8
= T h P
) (33,Wftlbf)
hpmin
( min ) =  ‘ l o pftlbmlbf (6.7.274)
Thus, we can use 1in. pipe throughout.
If we go to the next smaller size of standard pipe, 3/4 in., the equivalent
length in feet will change but the equivalent length in diameters will be about
the same, and so
(6.7.278)
414 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
f = 0.0061
(6.7.279)
and so
2 f L (”)’
lv =  + g h
i i i e i et
(6.7.281)
(6.7.282)
Ic D2 (6.7.283)
32fLpQ’
PI P2 = IT’DS (6.7.284)
D ( v > P = lcvD
Re = ~cL 44
(6.7.285)
Assume D = 4 in
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 415
(6.7.286)
D O.ooOo16
k, * 4 f = 0.012 (6.7.288)
8(4f)LPQ2
PI  P 2 = x2D5
( 17;;?3) (32.2Ibfs2
Ibm
)
ft
Assume D = 6 in
Re = (m)
6.065
(1.06 x 106) = 7.01 X 10’
(6.7.290)
D = O.ooOo10
k * 4 f = 0.013 (6.7.291)
Assume D = 5 in
Solution
(6.7.296)
P P 2 f L (v)’
 Y = l W = D (6.7.297)
= 32.1
(6.7.298)
p( V P
Re = T =
(8.81 2)(w)
(&)m
Then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 41 7
L = 97.9 m (6.7.2101)
The standpipe furnishes a pressurized water supply (for example, for fire
fighting) that is independent of electrical power. In addition, it furnishes a water
supply at constant pressure, independent of pulsations from the supply pump.
The kind of pump one would probably utilize for such an application is a
centrifugal pump, which is typical of the class of pumps most widely used in
manufacturing plants. Applications include booster pumps on the heat
exchangers, product transfer pumps, etc.
One of the advantages of a centrifugal pump is that one can throttle the
outlet. As a consequence of throttling, the fluid tends to recirculate within the
casing of the pump and increase in temperature from the lost work. However,
fairly extensive degrees of throttling are possible before this becomes a serious
problem. The result of throttling a centrifugal pump is expressed in the form of
a “characteristic curve” of the pump, which gives the volumetric output in terms
418 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
of head (pressure at outlet divided by the density of the fluid being pumped)
versus the volumetric throughput of the liquid.
40
30
20
10
0 0
0 1000 2000
gpm
What will the flow rate of water be if the gate valve is fully open?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 419
Solution
w2
A T + g A z + AP = 1kW
P (6.7.2102)
lbfs'
32.2 lbmft )+(()PI)( in2lbm
lbfft3)(lu$)
Thus:
Then
(6.7.2109)
50  (2.31) (41.2) =  (124.4)(0.0033)(100)
= 45.2 # 41.2 (6.7.2110)
Re = 1 . 8 6 10’
~ 3 f =0.0042 (6.7.2116)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 421
In problems where the velocity is unknown, but instead the pressure drop is
known, it is necessary to do a iterative calculation if the ordinary friction factor
chart is used, as in Example 6.7.28, since the velocity is necessary to find f.
(6.7.2122)
The motivation to construct such a plot comes from the fact that, in
evaluating lost work when velocity is unknown, neither the ordinate nor the
abscissa of the ordinary friction factor plot is known. When flow rate (Le.,
velocity) is given, we normally first calculate from the chart the friction factor,
which is basically
and then substitute f and <v> in the relation for lost work
(6.7.2124)
When pressure drop (i.e., lost work) is given, however, we cannot solve the
above set of equations by successive substitution because two unknowns ( a >
a n d 8 appear in the relationship given in graphical form. We therefore rearrange
the second equation to read
422 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Dlw=f
2 L (v)2 (6.7.2 125)
(6.7.2 126)
(6.7.2127)
A
If the pipe has the same diameter throughout the system, the velocity is not
needed to evaluate the Karman number and f may be found directly. If, on the
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 423
LI 2fL(v)2
lw = '7 (6.7.2128)
Solution
(6.7.2 129)
1% = 3 5 E
(6.7.2130)
(6.7.2131)
X
pyqqq
2) (loo) ft (6.7.2132)
424 Chapter 6:Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.7.2133)
f = 0.005
(6.7.2134)
Then
lw
 2fL(v)2
= 7 (6.7.2135)
lbf =
35 ftlbm (v)2)[ lbf s2
32.2 lbm ft
) (6.7.2136)
(v) = 13.9s.
ft
(6.7.2137)
R, = 8 (6.7.2138)
(6.7.2139)
Chapter 6: Momentum Tranger in Fluids 425
Solution

(4)’ mm’ (2)2 mm’
R,= = =
(4(2) +
(4)
(4(4) mm
= 0.5 mm (6.7.2140)
D,, = 4 R , = (4)(0.5)mm = 2mm (6.7.2141)
(v)
Q
= jg =
(0.8) $ (loo) mm’
= 8.49 (6.7.2142)
Since this is in the lamina flow regime, roughness is not a factor, and
64
4f = 
Re
f = U =16 = 0.094 (6.7.2144)
Re
2 p f L (v)*
Ap =
*,
426 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Solution
 Dz D1
4 (6.7.2146)
Dcq(V)P  4 R H ( v ) p
Re =  7  p
 [(a)(& k) ft] (109) (62.4 l:F
= 7.75 x 104 (6.7.2147)
D = 0.0018 (basedon Dz  D I > (6.7.2148)
f =0.0062 (6.7.2149)
ZfLp(vy
Ap = 
D,
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 427
Ap = 2,880 lbf
ft2
=  2Opsi (6.7.2150)
Note that what we have done above is consistent with our equations for pipe,
because the limit as D1 approaches zero gives D2/4 as the hydraulic radius. Four
times the hydraulic radius is the pipe diameter D2.
Dc=3in
4
P4 = 0 Psig
428 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Solution
(6.7.2151)
Assume that the flow is in the completely rough regime so the friction
factors will be constant  this assumption must be checked for accuracy at the
end of the calculation.
From the pipe nornograph, for 5in. diameter pipe in the completely turbulent
region one can read directly from the righthand ordinate
4fA = 0.0153
f A = 0.00383 (6.7.2152)
4fB = 0.0162
fB = 0.00405 (6.7.2154)
lbf
 (2) (00405) (700)ft (VB) 5
(62.4)
ft3 i
(6.7.2155)
p2 = 0.229 (vB)’ (6.7.2 156)
4fc = 0.0173
fc = 0.00433 (6.7.2157)
(6.7.2158)
p2 = 0.233 (vJ2 (6.7.2159)
A total mass balance on a control volume whose surface surrounds the pipes and
cuts the entrance plane and each of the exit planes yields
The system of equations (c), (e), (h), and (i) can be regarded as
2
fl (x,, x2, x,, x,) = 0 = p2+0.196(~,) 55 (6.7.2161)
2
fi (x,, x2, x,, x,) = 0 = pz 0.229 (v~) (6.7.2162)
f3 (x1, x,, x,, x,) = 0 = p2  0.233 (vJ2 (6.7.2163)
f4 x29 x39 x4) = = ( 5 ) 2 (VA)  (4)2 (‘B)  (3)2 (‘C) (6.7.2164)
430 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
af3 = O.466(Vc)
a(4
1 0.392 (vA) 0 0
1 0  0.458 (vB), 0
1 0 0  0.466 (vc)
0 25  16 9
[pz], +0.196(~,):55
  [Pz].0.229 (VB):
for the incremental values for the (n+l)st step [the values to be added to the nth
step to get the values for the (n+l)st step] using the values for the nth step,
followed by the addition of the incremental values to the values for the nth step
to obtain the values for the (n+l)st step.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 431
(6.7.2166)
For such a small system, the system of linear equations (n) can be solved
easily using the matrix inversion program accompanying spreadsheet software.
Results converge very rapidly, as shown in Table 6.7.22. The initial estimate of
values was made on the basis that p2 would be somewhere between the inlet and
outlet pressure^,^^ and the velocities were estimated using rule of thumb for
economical pipe velocities, which should put the flow in the turbulent regime.
i .s.
......1......i.x!2..i .....0..... .... .....
1 i 0 i4.58; 0
........................................................
1 i 0 i 0 i4.66
......................................................... (6.7.2167)
0 i 25 ;  1 6 ;  9
The vector of constants on the righthand sides for the first time step is
5.4
 7.1
 6.7 (6.7.2169)
0
Combining these results with the initial estimate of values gives for the
incremental values
0.2799982
1.M897915
1.48908335 (6.7.2170)
1.37768278
which, when added to the initial estimates, yields the values at n = 1 shown in
Table 6.7.22.
29.72
11.36
11.39
11.29
The number of decimal places shown is far in excess of the accuracy of the
calculation, and is shown only for the sake of illustration of the numerical
method.
Checking the Reynolds numbers, using values for density and viscosity as
indicated
Re =
6.72 x lO') lb
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 433
2 (v) (62.4)
 ('2) = (7.74 x 103)D (v)
(1.0) (6.72x 1 0  ~ ) (6.7.217 1)
As can be seen, the assumption of turbulent flow was justified for all three
pipes.
A pipeline 20 miles long delivers 5,000 barrels of petroleum per day. The
pressure drop over the line is 500 psig. Find the new capacity of the total
system if a parallel and identical line is laid along the last 12 miles. The
pressure drop remains at 500 psig and flow is laminar (see sketch).
B
4
12 miles *
4
1 2 1 3 0 5
4 L A b
f
7
Solution
QT = Q, + QB (6.7.2172)
Neglecting the effect of the short connecting length
434 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.7.2173)
:. Qs = QT 7f
(6.7.2174)
(6.7.2176)
(6.7.2177)
(6.7.2178)
(144$)(5003) = a(20mi)(5,280:)
(%)(&) (E!$)(*)
(59000 9p)
(6.7.2179)
a = 2.1 lbf sec / ft6 (6.7.2180)
( 14) $
= (2*1)(8) (5*280)0' (2'1) ( 12) (5*280) (6.7.2181)
Scctlon 8
I
9.
I 3 QP5
SectionC 2 Section D SectionA
t
6 mile8 + miIcs 8 miles
7200 bbl/day Smt ion €
1080 b b t / d q
Solution
Ap = 32PL(V)   3 2 p L Q
D2 D~A (6.7.2183)
ApsIbf =  a L Q
(6.7.2184)
or, converting the units of a so that we can use Ap in psi, L in miles, and Q in
barreldday,
( day )
lbf PSihY L Q mibarrel
APin = ( 5 x 1 0  ~ )(mibarrel) (6.7.2185)
We now write down the equations describing our system. First, we apply
the HagenPoiseuillelaw to each section of pipe:
436 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Section C:
Section D:
p3  pz = ( 5 x (4) QD (6.7.2187)
Section B:
0 pz = ( 5 x io’) (12) QB
(6.7.2188)
Section A:
(6.7.2189)
Point 2:
7,200QoQB = 0 (6.7.2190)
Point 3:
(6.7.2191)
(6.7.2192)
PI
 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  288
0 1 1 0 0 0 0.02 P2
0
0 1 0 0 0 0.06 0 P3 0
0 0 1 10.04 0 0 Ps  0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 7200
0 0 0 1 0  1 0 Q A
1880
0 0 0 1  1 0 0 QB 0
QD
The set may be solved easily by elemei :ary matrix methoc Is, or
alternatively solved as follows:
 2 Q B + 9,080 = 0 (6.7.2193)
QB = 4,540
(6.7.2194)
Tberefore, fiom Equation (6.7.2192)
QA = 4,540
(6.7.2195)
and Equation (6.7.2190) will give
QD = 2,660 (6.7.2196)
Equation (6.7.2187) will then give
p2 = 272
(6.7.2197)
Equation (6.7.2186) will give
p3 = 219
(6.7.2198)
following which Equation (6.7.2185) gives
438 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
p, = 560 (6.7.2199)
ps = 37psig (6.7.2200)
Notice that the pump at point 1 must now supply 560 psig, and that the
fluid added at point 3 must come from a pump which will supply 219 psig.
Both of these requirements would probably be feasible in a realworld situation.
(6.8.11)
0 +y R I
LZ f I 
(6.8.12)
Integrating
(6.8.13)
At r = R, v, = 0, giving for r 2 ro
(6.8.14)
(6.8.15)
So for r 2 ro
(6.8.16)
(6.8.17)
But a force balance on the cylinder that comprises the plug flow zone shows
2 1 r r , ~ 2 ,= ( P ,  P ~ ) I ~ ~ ; (6.8.18)
(PO  4)
2, = (6.8.19)
2L ro
(6.8.1 12)
(Ti,?) [2I):(
v, =  R2 1  (6.8.1 13)
(6.8.21)
For a tube
(6.8.22)
(6.8.23)
Letting s = lln
(6.8.24)
Integrating
(6.8.25)
At r = R, v,= 0, giving
(6.8.26)
Substituting
(6.8.27)
(6.8.28)
442 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.8.211)
(6.8.212)
(6.8.213)
For a power law fluid, a friction factor approach can be used with a modified
Reynolds number written as
(6.8.214)
(6.8.215)
(6.8.216)
Note that the apparent viscosity is not a simple property of the fluid but depends
on flow rate and geometry.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 443
Properties:
n = 0.49
p = 58 lbmass/ ft3
pW= 22,400Poise
Solution
X
( 5 8 y ) (e)
f::$ge
6.72 x 102
= 9.05 x 1 0  ~ (6.830)
f = 16 = l6 = 1.77~10'
9.05~10~ (6.831)
2f L p ( V y
Ap = D (6.832)
444 Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
Ap 2 f P (V)’
L
[
= D
= (2) (1.77 x 10‘) (54) 1 ft (&)
1
ft / ft’
= 4.59x 104 lbforce
The apparent viscosity and therefore the pressure drop decreases with
increasing flow rate.
The matrix is the material in which the holes are imbedded or past which
the fluid flows. Porosity (void fraction) is a measure of the void space (usually
the effective porosity, that is, the void space accessible to the face of the
media via connected passages as opposed to voids that are not accessible from the
surface) and is often modeled either as uniform or distributed according to some
random scheme.
One of the problems in characterizing real porous media is that the porosity is
frequently a function of the applied pressure  that is, the media (solids) are
compressible, which introduces complications in the same sort of way as
going from an incompressible fluid to a compressibleone.
The following sections illustrate some simple but typical models of the
flow behavior of porous media.
(6.9.11)
(6.9.12)
The subscript infinity on the velocity means that it refers to the approach (or
superficial, or Darcy, or filter) velocity, which is the velocity obtained
by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the total crosssectional area normal to
flow (including both the area of the pores and the area of the media)
33 Nield, D. A. and A. Bejan (1992). Convection in Porous Media. New York, NY,
SpringerVerlag, p. 5 .
34 Crichlow, H.B. (1977). Modern Reservoir Engineering  A Simulation Approach.
Englewood Cliff, NJ, PrenticeHall, Inc., p. 22.
35 The original form proposed for the Darcy equation was
Q=K A ~
where the proportionality constant K (with dimension U t ) is called the hydraulic
conductivity and H is the head of fluid (with dimension L)
m = Az+pg
AP
The hydraulic conductivity contains properties of both the fluid and the medium, and
so it is more useful to split these effects by introducing the intrinsic permeability
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 447
(6.9.13)
screensize = beaddiameter = E

[4] %[*I
In1
(6.9.14)
porous medium infinite in the y and zdirections and 1cm thick in the x
direction, subjected to a pressure drop of one atm between the faces, a volumetric
As is the case with the poise for viscosity, the Darcy is a relatively large
permeability unit for many applications, so the milliDarcy is often more
convenient to use.
We can see how the superficial velocity relates to our earlier definition of
bulk velocity (which for porous media defines what is called the pore velocity
or interstitial velocity) by writing the mass flow integral (from the
macroscopic total mass balance) over the flow crosssection and recognizing that
the normal component of the velocity is zero over the area occupied by media
(6.9.16)
(6.9.17)
(6.9.18)
we conclude that
porevelocity   (v)
 v,,  1
filter velocity V, v, E (6.9.19)
4. Laminar flow
(6.9.1 10)
where D, is the effective particle diameter of the porous material and E is the
porosity.
E = IR
(6.9.111)
Examine tbe units on the term analogous to the voltage (the potential term).
Using the FMLt system and using the unit conversion represented by gc
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 451
The first and second terms incorporate two of the forms of energy from the
mechanical energy balance: pressure energy and gravitational potential energy.
36 Kaviany, M.(1991). Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media. New York, NY,
SpringerVerlag .
452 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.9.1 13)
= b[VP+PP]
", (6.9.114)
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
catalyst m u l e s 0.45

i
crushed rock,
I SOILS I
~~~
1 k (m2)
Notice that the permeability has now become a secondorder tensor rather
than a scalar. This is because for threedimensional flow the velocity does not
(6.9.115)
(6.9.117)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 455
Packed bed models are often based on friction factors in a similar fashion to
the way we modeled flow in conduits. A friction factor for flow in a packed bed
can be defined by using the same form that we used for flow in conduits of non
circular crosssection
 2fLv:,
Iw = 
D, (6.9.21)
where Vint is the interstitial velocity, L is the thickness of the bed (length in the
flow direction) and D,, is the equivalent diameter of the pores.
Since we are usually interested in the pressure drop per unit length for
systems in which the potential energy and kinetic energy changes are negligible,
using the mechanical energy balance to substitute for the lost work term and
rearranging, we write
Ap 2fpvL
TT=1>, (6.9.22)
We now proceed to replace the equivalent diameter of the pores, about which
for a packed bed we usually h o w little, with a corresponding diameter of the
packing, of which we usually know more. If we apply our definition of void
fraction to find
(6.9.23)
 (6.9.24)
total volume  void volume
total volume
(void volume)
 (total volume)
total volume
 (void volume) (6.9.25)
total volume total volume
voidvolume  E
packing volume  (6.9.26)
and further define for the packing (where surface area means area in contact with
the fluid, and volume includes isolated pore spaces)
surfaceareapacking  S,
S = specificsurfaceareaofpacking =
packingvolume  V,
(6.9.27)
R, = voidvolume
surfacearea packing
 void volume packing volume
packing volume surfacearea packing
(6.9.28)
(6.9.29)
(6.9.210)
(6.9.211)
For a sphere
(6.9.212)
(6.9.213)
Re = 2 DpVP (6.9.214)
"(1E)
458 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.9.215)
Since the constant terms in each of the above do nothing to help us, we
drop them and replace f by fp, leaving us with the working relationships
* (F)(?)(fp)
Rep = DPVWP
P ( f E) (6.9.216)
= (6.9.217)
Example
j 6.9.2 f
sbheres
Calculate the pressure drop for air at 100°F and 1 atm flowing axially at 2.1
lbdsec through a 4ft diameter x 8ft high bed of 1inch spheres. Porosity of the
bed is 38%.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 459
Solution
= (v)Q(A)ft'(p)F
( w ) v = (Q)$(p)v (6.9.218)

$& (1  0.38) = 1837
L
(6.9.219)
(0.0182)CP(6.72x 104)
fp = 150, 1.75 = m
150 +1.75 = 1.83 (6.9.220)
Re,
Ap = L ( e ) ( v ) ( f p ) (6.9.221)
41 Note that we have neglected the effect of change in pressure on the density. To get
a slightly better model we might use the calculated pressure drop to obtain an average
pressure from which we could calculate a more nearly correct Reynolds number,
friction factor and pressure drop. To convert the problem to a differential equation
with continuously changing density and hence Reynolds number, friction factor, and
pressure (now) gradient is probably not justified considering the accuracy of the
model and empirical parameters involved.
460 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
[ ](
L
(6.9.223)
) (””)
lbfs’ 10.38
(32.2) lbm ft 0.383
Calculate the pressure drop due to friction in Pa between the bottom and
the top of the bed (ignoring the hydrostatic head).
Density Viscosity
(gm/cm3) (CP)
Water 1.o 1.o
Solution
= 2.33 mm'
(6.9.225)
D p = 6 =
h
s 2.33mm* = 2 . 5 8 ~ n (6.9.226)
(6.9.227)
E = 0.47 (6.9.228)
( 5 ) cm3
v, = S loomm2= 9 . 9 5 y
(~)(8)~mm~ (6.9.229)
(4)
Re, = D, P "W
P(1  E )
(2.58) mm (9.95) (1) @?!!
Re, = Cm3 = 484
(0.01)gmm (10) m m (6.9.230)
(W cmscp (1  0.47)
fp = + 150 + 1.75 = 2.06
150 1.75 = aga
Re, (6.9.231)
 Ap = 357 Pa
(6.9.232)
462 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu&
6.9.3 Filters
An important application of flow in porous media is the operation and
design of filters. Filtration is basically the removal of either a solid phase or a
phase dispersed as liquid drops from a gas phase or a liquid phase through
interaction with a porous medium.
The driving force for filtration can be as simple as gravity  as is the case in
filtration in the chemistry lab with a funnel and filter paper or sand bed filters in
water treatment plants. Since gravity is a relatively mild driving force, most
production processes utilize either applied pressure on the upstream side of the
filter or vacuum on the downstream side.
42 Diatoms are the skeletal remains of prehistoric marine invertebrates. Such material
is commercially available.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 463
The nature of many filtration processes lends itself to a Darcy's law type of
model. For onedimensional flow, the pressure drop across a filter cake which is
incornpre~sible~~ and for which gravitational driving forces are negligible can be
calculated using Darcy's law.
(6.9.31)
Q=v,A= L
P A[Ap] (6.9.32)
(6.9.33)
The support (e.g., filter cloth) and precoat (if any) have constant resistance if
they are not compressible. The increasing resistance represented by the cake
thickness, L, is proportional to the volume of filtrate collected, Vf, again
assuming incompressibility? Therefore we can write
But by definition
Q = dVf
dt (6.9.35)
giving
(6.9.36)
(6.9.37)
Integrating
(Apo)t = K,$+K2Vf
V2
(6.9.38)
= vf [&]
6 [2 (Kipo)] +
(6.9.39)
5
dt
= Q, = constant
(6.9.310)
(6.9.311)
Integrating
(6.9.312)
(6.9.313)
Ap = K , Q i t + K 2 Q o (6.9.314)
Here Ap is linear in t for a given filtrate rate 00. This time the data collected
consist of pressure drop vs. time, and again the data can be fitted with a
regression calculation or simply plotted on graph paper to determine K1 and KZ.
Many filter operations can be modeled as constant filtrate rate until the
pressure builds up to some maximum determined by pump characteristics, and
then by constant pressure until the filtrate rate drops below an economically
determined limit. Of course, the actual performance depends on pump
characteristics and valving, and the transition from one regime to another is not
sharp, but, within the accuracy usually required, this twostage model is often
useful.
run at a frltrate rate of 5 gpm per ft2, the same as to be used in the production
unit, and the following data were obtained
0.6 40
1.4 120
The production filter is to have an area of 400 ft2. How long will it take the
production unit to reach a pressure drop of 2.5 psi?
So 1ut ion
Ap = K , Q ~ t + K , Q ,
(6.9.315)
One fan then use either of the points remaining to get K1.Using the second
point
Ap = K , Q ~ t + K 2 Q o
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 467
(2.5) 9= ( 4 . 0 ~l0l)
Ihf min
in2
gal2
ft4
[ Bal]'
( 5 ) min ft* (1) min
A filter is run at constant rate for 20 min. The amount of filtrate collected
is 30 gal. The initial pressure drop is 5 psig. The pressure drop at the end of 20
min is 50 psig. If the filter is operated for an additional 20 min at a constant
pressure of 50 psig, how much total filtrate will have been collected?
Solution
Ap = K I Q i t + K 2 Q , (6.9.319)
(Apo) t = K; vf +K; V,
t = K; v;+ K; v, (6.9.322)
2 ( APO) ( 4 0 )
Remember that we obtained the equation for the constant pressure drop period by
integrating, assuming that at t = 0, Vf = 0. This means that the constant K2*
will incorporate the resistance of cake deposited during the constant rate
operution in addition to that of the medium ancl precoat. The constant K1*
will be the same as the constant K1 because the first term remains proportional
to Vf in the same manner as before.
Recognizing that the end of the constant rate cycle, where Q = 1.5 and
( Ap) = 50, is also the beginning of the constant pressure cycle, where Vf = 0
AP = (K;v,+K;)Q,
psig min
(50) psig = 1.00) 
[( gal2
psig min
(20) min

Vf (2) (50) Psig (50) psig
V:+66.6Vf2OO0 = 0
V, = 22.4 gal (the other root is negative) (6.9.324)
 Gd.
9:ooam
1o:oo am
2:30 PM
Soh t ion
(6.9.326)
TIlaking the derivative, recognizingthe result as linear, and substituting the lab
results
(6.9.327)
.~
K1 (the cake resistance) should be the same for the laboratory and the
production units in processing product E, but K2 for the lab will differ frcm that
for the production unit.
In using the production filter for product B,we will have a constant media
resistance represented by K2 from the production data, but a varying cake
resistance represented by K1 fmm the lab data.
0.17 23.2
in2gal ln2gal
tf = V,2 + vf (6.9.331)
2AP AP
At 75psi in a 24 hour period, we can therefore filter per square foot of the
production filter
(6.9.3 32)
giving us a total filtration volume of 6300 gal. Since the concentration of B is
10%by weight, we can therefore produce
472 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The physical configurations of actual pitot tubes are much more streamlined
and sophisticated than would be suspected from this sketch, but their principle of
operation is exactly the same. Such devices, more frequently used to measure gas
velocities than liquid velocities, are inserted into the flow stre'am with the
opening (point 1) perpendicular to the flow stream (facing upstream).
The idea behind the device is that the flow supposedly decelerates to a
standstill at point 1, thus converting most of the energy from the kinetic energy
term in the mechanical energy balance to the pressure energy term (some also
goes into the lost work term). Since the kinetic energy of the flow is a measure
of the local velocity, the difference between the dyn'amic pressure obtained at
point 1 and the static pressure obtained by openings parallel to the flow at point
4 is a measure of the velocity of the fluid.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 473
We may describe the rise in pressure associated with the deceleration of the
fluid by applying the mechanical energy balance through a system swept out by
the fluid which decelerates to nearly zero velocity at point 4 at the mouth of
pitot tube, as shown in Figure 6.10.12, The boundaries of the system are
pathlines. Writing the mechanical energy balance for this system
474 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
+gAz+ Ps  P 4 = 1ww
(v5)’ (v4)’ 1 
2 P (6.10.11)
If we arbitrarily represent the lost work term as some fraction C , of the kinetic
energy change
(6.10.12)
(1 ca)

(4’= 2 p P5 P4
(6.10.13)
(6.10.14)
(6.10.15)
The coefficient C, accounts for the mechanical energy lost while decelerating and
accelerating the fluid. This quantity cannot generally be calculated, and C, is
usually determined experimentally for any given instrument. c v p is the average
velocity over the inlet area to the system, not for the total pipe crosssection.
As the area of the pitot tube is made smaller and smaller, < v p approaches the
local velocity. The density used in Equation (6.10.14) is that of the flowing
fluid, not the manometer fluid.
0.7 5.14
0.9 7.76
Further data:
So1ution
Observe that the density of air is much less than that of water. If the pitot
tube locations are numbered as shown in Figure 6.10.1 1, we may write
(6.10.18)
476 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
PI  ~ =
2 PHOH g (~322) (6.10.19)
2 P H ~ Hg (23  ~ 2 )
v = CpilM
(v) 
ft = 11.244
S m s (6.10.1 10)
From this relation we can calculate, for each height difference, a velocity:
This profile is plotted in the following figure. Note that, as usual, our
experimental data scatter somewhat.
This simple curve fit does not yield a zero derivative at the center of the duct as
the symmetrical velocity profile model we will assume when integrating would
demand, but is reasonably close.
Q = LvdA (6.10.112)
(6.10.113)
Q= I (
0
* 26.5 [ 1  r]’ + 57.1 [1 r1) (2 ~tr) dr (6.10.1 14)
ft
Q = 45.9
S (6.10.115)
478 Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
From a mass balance, the volumetric flow rate at points 1 (the entering pipe
inside diameter) and 2 (the throat diameter) is the same if p1 = p2.
P1 A1 ( V l ) = P2 A2 (v2) (6.10.21)
Q, = Q, (6.10.22)
(6.10.23)
As with the pitot tube, the lost work term is represented as some fraction of
the kinetic energy change.
Cb (6.10.24)
then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 479
(6.10.25)
(.2>'[ 1 ($T]  2
1cg p
PZPI
(6.10.27)
(6.10.28)
then
(6.10.29)
It is customary to define
(6.10.210)
and thus
Jp[(lp'l)
 2 PZPI
(6.10.211)
(v2) = C"
Reynolds number %
Figure 6.10.22 Venturi meter coefficient (Reynolds number
based on entrance diameter)4s
(specificgravity)Hg = (13.6)
Solution
Calculating the pressure drop from the manometer data, letting points 1 and
2 be the low and high levels of the mercury, respectively, and remembering that
the legs of the manometer above the mercury are filled with water
[&][
 
( 50 in)
lbf s2
(32.2) Ibm ft
I
dm
= 3276(F)
(6.10.213)
 2 P2P1
(6.10.214)
Q= (v2) A, = C A 2
(6.10.216)
an orifice and a nozzle. The main difference between the orifice and the nozzle is
that the orifice is more or less a simple hole in a plate, while the flow nozzle
has a shape intermediate between an orifice and a venturi, in an attempt to
decrease the amount of lost work experienced with the orifice without the high
cost of fabrication of the venturi.
II 1 /
+
2 I
3~
I
I I
ORIFICE
f
FLOW NOZZLE
CO = (6.10.31)
,+
(4= c o d 2  P ~ IP2Pl
(6.10.32)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 483
A 2in. diameter orifice witb flange taps is used to measure the flow rate of
l W F crude oil flowing in a 4in.Schedule40 steel pipe. The manometer reads
30 in Hg witb a 1.1 specific gravity fluid filling the manometer above the
mercury to isolate it from the crude.
If the viscosity of the oil is 5 CP at lOOOF and the specific gravity of the oil
is 0.9, what is the flow rate?
Solution
Calculate Ap
= 1950(!$)
(6.10.34)
We do not know either <v$ or COin the flow relation below; however, CO
is aIso available in graphical form as a function of <v,> (as it appears in the Re
on the orifice coefficient plot).
Q = VOA,
= (0.61) x [1
1’
(4) (‘2)
ft2
I12
(6.10.36)
X
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 485
ft3
Q = 0.16T * 73gpm (6.10.37)
Chapter 6 Problems
6.1 An orifice is being used to measure the flow of water through a line. A
mercurywater manometer is connected across the orifice as shown below, the
lines being filled with water up to the mercurywater interface. If the manometer
reading is 5 in., what is the pressure difference between the two locations in the
pipe? Suppose the pipe had been vertical with water flowing upward, and the
distance between the two manometer taps was 2 ft. What would the pressure
difference between the two taps have been when the manometer reading was 5
in.?
I
I
In the vertical case, what would the pressure difference have been if ethyl acetate
were substituted for the water?
What is the pressure p? The specific gravity of oil is 0.8. The specific gravity
of mercury is 13.6.
a. Find PA  PB.
Find the pressure in the drum A at position A. The manometer fluid is Hg.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 487
6.5 For the following situation find the pressure at P. The specific gravity of
Hg is 13.6
x = LA tube
A,
L= &J
488 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
w=  ay'(a[t3>
6.8 The complex potential w = voz2 describes ideal flow near a plane
stagnation point.
c. What is vo?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 489
Y
"
I !
I
I \
?' 'I
6.9 Consider the twodimensional ideal flow described by the potential function
+=
re
2n
and stream function
r
y/ =  In r
2z
where r and 0 are the usual polar coordinates. Sketch the flow field. This flow
field represents a vortex  similar to the vortex seen in a draining bathtub. What
does the ideal solution yield as r approaches zero? The ideal solution does not
describe the realworld situation for small r because of large viscous forces in
this region.
6.10 Sketch the flow field for the potential function given by
K
4=lnr
2n
K
y=8
2n
490 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
where K is a constant. Note that these are the interchanged functions for the
vortex above. Depending on the sign of K,the flow represents a source or a
sink. The point at r = 0 is again a singularity. This type of mathematical
description is sometimes used for flow of oil into a well bore from an
underground formation. The solution is not good close to the well.
6.11 Two horizontal square parallel plates measuring 10 by 10 in. are separated
by a film of water at WF. The bottom plate is bolted down,and the top plate,
in contact with the water, is free to move. A spring gauge is attached to the top
plate and a horizontal force of 1 lbf is applied to the top plate. If the distance
between the plates were 0.1 in., how fast would the top plate move at steady
state? How fast would the top plate move if the distance were 1/8 in.? If the
horizontal force were increased to 1.6 lbf and the distance between the plates were
1/6 in., bow fast would the top plate move?
6.13 Find the velocity profile, average velocity, and free surface velocity for a
Newtonian fluid flowing down a vertical wall of length L. Use a control volume
(CV) of thickness Ax inside the fluid and measure x from the free surface.
Remember that because the liquid surface is "free" (unbounded physically) at
x = 0, the pressure at all points, vertical as well as horizontal, is atmospheric.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 491
6.14 Derive the equations for the velocity distribution and for the pressure drop
in laminar,Newtonian flow through a slit of height yo and infinite width.
6.15 A fluid flows down the wall of a wetted wall absorber. A gaseous material
is adsorbed into the liquid causing a viscosity variation according to
a. Draw the control volume (dxxdz) and show the forces acting
on it (assume width of film is w). Write the momentum
balance and simplify it for this problem, indicating your
assumptions for the simplification.
6.16 A Newtonian fluid is moving in laminar flow down an inclined wall under
the influence of gravity. Assume a width of w and determine the:
492 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
a. Velocity profile
b. Maximum velocity
c. Average velocity
e. Film thickness, 6
f. Drag force
6.17 Compare the plots of T~~ versus (dvz/dy) for a Newtonian fluid in laminar
flow in a pipe and for a pseudoplastic fluid with n = 0.8. Assume the viscosity
of the Newtonian fluid is p = 2 CP and the apparent viscosity of the non
Newtonian fluid p = 2 cP. (Use the velocity gradient from the Newtonian fluid
in the powerlaw expression,)
d
q
dr
= 

P O
L
PL
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 493
where r is the radius and z~~is shear stress in the z direction on the face of the
shell perpendicular to the r direction.
6.20 A fluid with a density of 1.261 gm/cm3 is flowing through a tube 3 feet
long with a diameter of 0.1 inch. If the pressure drop is 120 psi and the flow
rate is 0.004 ft3/min, what is the viscosity of the fluid?
6.21 The sketch shows a rod moving through a fluid at velocity V. The rod and
the cylinder are coaxial. Use the 1D equation of motion for a Newtonian fluid.
dr
V 1nK
6.22 Shown are data taken at short equal time intervals from a hot wire
anemometer mounted in a turbulent air stream. Plot the data,and determine the
mean velocity and the mean square fluctuation.
112
6 100
I Y l
8 87
12 80
101
18 115
6.23 The velocity data below were measured for a fluid in turbulent flow. Plot
the data, determine the velocity and the mean square fluctuation.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu& 49s
6.24 A smooth pipe carries water at a bulk velocity of 15 ft/s. The inside
diameter of the pipe is 1 in. Use the universal velocity profile to calculate the
shear stress at the wall.
6.26 For steady flow: Briefly discuss (a) how ideal flow differs from laminar
flow, and (b) how laminar flow differs from turbulent flow. (c) On a sketch
such as below, draw in a laminar boundary layer forming at the tip of the flat
plate (upper side only). At some point downstream, show on the sketch how
transition to a turbulent boundary layer occurs. Label where the laminar
sublayer, the buffer layer, and the turbulent core should be on the diagram. (d)
Describe what would happen if we increased the approach velocity.
6.27 Assume the boundary layer which forms at the entrance to a circular pipe
behaves like that on a flat plate. Estimate the length in diameters to reach fully
developed flow (for the edge of the boundary layer to reach the center line of the
pipe) for water at 68OF entering a pipe of D inches in diameter with a uniform
velocity of 0.05 ft/s. (At this velocity the flow is laminar.)
496 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
v,=
 7=a
0.05 wsec
 X
6.28 The boundary layer which forms at the entrance to a circular pipe may be
considered to behave like the boundary layer on a flat plate. Estimate the length
needed to reach fully developed flow (i.e., for the edge of the boundary layer to
reach the center line) for water at 68OF entering a pipe of 2in. ID at a uniform
velocity of (a) 50 ft/s, (b) 5 ft/s, (c) 0.05 ft/s.
6.29 Assume that the velocity distribution for laminar flow over a flat plate is
given by vX/v. = 3/2 ( ~ / 6 ) ~Obtain
. the expression for the boundary layer
thickness relative to distance along the plate, and the expression for shear stress
at the plate.
6.30 Section 6.6.2 lists the assumptions for the boundary layer model. Show
bow to derive Eq. 6.6.22 and 6.6.23 starting with these assumptions and the
microscopic mass and momentum balance.
d3f d2f
2+f7=0
dV3 dV
Using a fourthorder RungeKutta method, use a step size at .01 for h, obtain a
solution for h = 2 to h = 5 .
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 497
6.32 Calculate the total drag force on a bridge cable which is 8 in. in diameter
and extends a distance of 1,000 ft between support towers when a wind is
blowing across the line with a velocity of 40 mph. Use properties of air at
60°F.
6.33 Calculate the force acting on a circular bridge pier 5 ft in diameter which is
immersed 60 ft in a river which is traveling at 3 mph. River temperature is at
70°F.
6.34 In calculating the drag force on a wing, we might consider it as two flat
plates for the upper and lower surfaces plus a halfcylinderon the leading edge.
Estimate the drag force for a wing approximately 5 inches thick, 30 ft long and 6
feet wide traveling at 500 ft/s in air at 32OF. Data for air at 32OF, 1 atm: p =
0.081 lbm/ft3;p = 0.023 cP.
6.35 In order to estimate the drag force on an airplane wing, model the wing as
a halfcylinder for the leading edge and as two flat plates for the upper and lower
surfaces. Estimate the drag force for a wing approximately 15 cm thick, 10 m
long and 2 m wide on an airplane traveling at 100 m/s in air at OOC. The
density of the air is 1.3 kg/m3 and viscosity is .023 CPat this temperature.
6.36 For the situation sketched, find the required power input to the fluid from
the pump.
WO ter
tank
Pump
1
T loft
I
I
I
I 
25 hp pump
p, 1 otm
A, 111'
6.38 Water at 600F (viscosity 1.05 cP) is being pumped at a rate of 185
gal/min for a total distance of 200 ft from a lake to the bottom of a tank in
which the water surface is 50 ft above the level of the lake. The flow from the
lake first passes through 100 ft of 342in. Schedule 40 pipe (ID = 3.548 in).
This section contains the pump, one open globe valve and three standard elbows.
The remaining distance to the tank is through two parallel 100ft lengths of 2
1/2 in. Schedule 40 pipe (ID = 2.469), each including four standard elbows. A
reducing tee is used for the junction between the 31/2in. line and the two 2 4 2 
in. lines. Calculate the lost work in the piping system.
6.39 Water at 2ooC is pumped from a tank to another tank at a volumetric flow
rate of 1 x 10'3 m3/s. All the pipe is Schedule 40 and has an inside diameter of
0.1 m. For water at this temperature p = 998 kg/m3,p = 1 x 10'3 Pa s. If the
pump has an efficiency of 60%,what is the power required of the pump in kW?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 499
40 m
6.43 Calculate the pump horsepower required for irie system below if the pump
operates at an efficiency of 70 percent.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids SO1
Data: The fluid is water; p = 62.4 lbm/ft3,p = 1 cP. The pipe is galvanized
iron and is 3 in. ID. Q = 300 gal/min. All elbows are standard.
6.44 An airplane owner wants to install a fuel filter into his fuel line. In the
event the enginedriven fuel pump (inside the engine) fails, the electric fuel
pump will have to deliver the fuel to the engine at a minimum of 5 psig. On
takeoff, the plane will be 12 degrees nose up and the engine will require 38
gallons per hour.
0.1 ft q T+ I
I Fuel Tank
I Engine
0.5 ft
n
I
6.45 A tank contains water at 1800F. The discharge rate at the end of the pipe
is to be 100 gal/min. All pipe is Schedule4 commercial steel.
For H 2 0 @ 180°F
p = 60.5 lbm/ft3
p = .35 CP
502 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
125 FT
The value of Ah is the elevation of the surface of the water in the tank from the
discharge point.
c. Calculate Ah in ft.
6.46 Water is flowing from a pressurized tank as in the sketch. The pipe is an
8in. Schedule 40 steel pipe. Determine the gauge pressure at 1. The flow rate
is 5 ft3/s. Use 1 CPas the viscosity of water.
All p i p is horizontal
6.49 Shown is an open wastesurge tank with diameter of 30 ft. This tank is
fed by a pump supplying a steady 100 gal/min. When the pump is first turned
on, the level in the tank is 10.0 ft. The tank drains to the Ocean through 3in.
cast iron pipe as shown. Will the tank empty, overflow, or reach a constant
level? Support your answer with calculations.
6.50 For the following system a head of 20 ft. is required to overcome friction
loss. Calculate the pipe diameter.
SO4 Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
1k 1000' 2
I Q = 1000 gpm
plS 75 psig
p2 2 45 psig
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