David P. Kessler Robert A. Greenkorn
MARCEL DEKKER, INC.
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer
David I? Kessler Robert A. Greenkorn
Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana
M.A . . C E L . . R.  
MARCEL DEKKER, INC.
D E K K E R
N E WYORK BASEL
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Kessler, David P. Momentum, heat, and mass transfer fundamentals / David P. Kessler, Robert A. Greenkorn. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0824719727 (alk. paper) 1. Transport theory. 2. HeatTransmission. 3. Chemical engineering. I. Greenkorn, Robert Albert. 11. Title. TP 156.T7K48 1999 99 10432 66W.284242 I CIP This book is printed on acidfree paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 2 126969000; fax: 2 126854540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 8 12, CH400 1 Basel, Switzerland tel: 4 16 126 18482; f a : 4 16 126 18896 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special SalesProfessional Marketing at the headquarters address above. Copyright 0 1 W by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
PREFACE
This text springs from our experience over the past 30+ years teaching the momentum, heat, and mass transferhansport sequence in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. As faculty members in a state landgrant institution, we encounter students with a wide variety of backgrounds planning for a wide variety of ultimate careers. We believe that with a fm grasp of engineering fundamentals, our graduates can readily progress to careers that involve either highly technical functions or broader responsibilities in management. Our objective with this volume is to provide a foundation in basic momentum, heat, and mass transfer/transport sufficient to permit the student to do elementary design and analysis, and adequate as a base from which to learn more advanced concepts. We present the fundamentals of both microscopic and macroscopic processes. The text is built around a large number of examples which are worked in detail. Many of the examples are, of course, idealized, because their objective is to illustrate elementary principles, but we have kept them as realistic as possible. Since the book is intended as a textbook, we have incorporated a high level of detail and fedundancy in an effort to make the text readable for those just being introduced to the area. At the expense of conciseness in many places, we have attempted to avoid those gaps in derivations that are obvious to one familiar to the area, but utterly opaque to the novice. We have included many references to more advanced material, or simply to other approaches to the material herein. Age and, we hope, wisdom has disabused us of any conceit that we possesses the only valid approach to the subject. To make access to other material easier for the student, we have included page numbers for most references to avoid the necessity of an index search in the citation. In the same vein, we have attempted to make our nomenclature conform to the most common usage in the area and have incorporated an extensive nomenclature table. An abbreviated thumb index permits rapid access to chapters and the more commonly accessed tables and figures. Problems in momentum, heat, and mass transfer in fluids are profoundly difficult because the most practical application of the area is to the turbulent flow regime. To date, very little in the way of rigorous solution to even the most elementary turbulent flow problems is possible, although the exponential increase in computing power with time holds great promise for the future.
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Prefuce
We feel that dimensional analysis is, and for the foreseeable future will be, still crucial for design of experiments, scaleup of equipment, and simplifying differential equations and associatedboundary conditions. Closedform analytical solutions are still important for the insight that they bring; however, most applied problems seem clearly destined to be solved numerically. For this reason we have included a fair amount of numerical solution techniques. Emphasis is mostly on finite difference algorithms, which are often easily implemented on a spreadsheet. Finite element analysis is heavily reliant on software, which requires too heavy a time investment to permit other than the abbreviated treatment here, although the area is certainly of growing importance. We have attempted to give an overview sufficient to enable the student to read further on hidher own. At Purdue we cover the material in this text in two threecredit required undergraduate courses. In general, depending on the background of the students, the material in Chapter 5 on systems of units will receive more or less emphasis. Similarly, the transfer of heat by radiation stands alone and can be tailored to the desires of the particular professor. Perry’s ChernicuZ Engineer’s Hundbookl remains a useful supplemental reference for physical properties arid empirical correlations. One of the commercial design packages can give help with physical property estimation, pumps and pipe networks, and more detailed heat exchanger design.
David P. Kessler Robert A. Greenkorn
1 Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Clzernicul Engineer’s Hwuibook. New York, NY, McGrawHill.
THUMB INDEX
CONTENTS
xi
1 ESSENTIALS
1.6.2 Types of derivatives
1
63
2 THE MASS BALANCES
2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 The macroscopic total mass balance The macroscopic species mass balance The microscopic total mass balance (continuity equation) The microscopic species mass balance
73
74 86 96 103
3 THE ENERGY BALANCES
3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 The macroscopic total energy balance The macroscopic mechanical energy balance The macroscopic thermal energy balance The microscopic total energy balance The microscopic mechanical energy balance The microscopic thermal energy balance
113
114 141 149 150 157 158
4 THE MOMENTUM BALANCES
4.1 The Macroscopic Momentum Balance 4.2 The Microscopic Momentum Balance 4.3 Summary of Balance Equations and Constitutive Relationships
169
169 196 199
5 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
211
6 MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN FLUIDS
Table 6.31 Elementary plane flows 6.7 Drag Coefficients Table 6.7.21 Properties of pipe Figure 6.7.23 Moody friction factor chart
281
302 371 386 399
vii
Thumb Index
ix
7 HEAT TRANSFER MODELS
Table 7.2.1 1 Components of Fourier Equation 7.2.4 Onedimensional steadystateconduction in rectangular coordinates 7.2.5 Onedimensionalsteadystate conduction in cylindrical coordinates 7.2.6 Onedimensionalsteadystate conduction in spherical coordinates 7.2.8 Onedimensionalunsteadystateconduction Semiinfinite slab Finite slab Infinite cylinder and sphere 7.2.9 Multidimensionalunsteadystate conduction 7.3.2 Heat transfer coefficients 7.4 Conduction and Convection in Series Heisler charts 7.5 Radiation Heat Transfer Models Reciprocity relation Summation rule 7.7.3 NTU methd for design of heat exchangers 7.7.4 Ffactor method for design of heat exchangers
517
530
= =
= = =
536 574 581 629 630 638 651 667 675 719 734 741 759 760
806
822
= = =
=
= =
= =
8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS
Table 8.2.31 Equivalent forms of Fick's Law 8.3 Convective Mass Transfer Models Height of transfer unit models 8.7 Design of Mass Transfer Columns 8.8 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction APPENDIX A: VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS APPENDIX C: NOMENCLATURE
843
860 882 903 923 963 989 997 1009
INDEX

= = = = =
=
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface Thumb Index
vii
1 1 2 5 8 12
V
1
1.1 Models Figure 1.11 Modeling the weather Figure 1.12 A poor model of the weather 1.1.1 Mathematical models and the real world 1.1.2 Scale of the model 1.2 The Entity Balance Example 1.21 An entity balance 1.2.1 Conserved quantities 1.2.2 Steadystate processes 1.3 The Continuum Assumption Figure 1.31 Breakdown of continuum assumption 1.4 Fluid Behavior 1.4.1 Laminar and turbulent flow Figure 1.4.11 Injection of dye in pipe flow 1.4.2 Newtonian fluids Figure 1.4.21 Shear between layers of fluid Figure 1.4.22Momentum transfer between layers of fluid Figure 1.4.23 Sign convention for momentum flux between layers of fluid Figure 1.4.24 Sign convention for shear stress on surface layers of fluid Table 1.4.21 Summary of sign convention for stresslmomentum flux tensor Figure 1.4.25 Migration of momentum by molecular motion Figure 1.4.26Viscosity of common fluids Example I .4.21 Flow offluids between frxed parallel plates 1.4.3 Complex fluids Figure 1.4.31Complex fluids Figure 1.4.32Mechanical analog of viscoelasticity
ESSENTIALS
1
14
15 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 21 24 24 25 26 26 28
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29 30 31
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32 33 33 34
1.4.4 Compressible vs. incompressible flows 1.5 Averages 1.5.1 General cone t of average Example I . .1 I Timeaverage vs distanceaverage speed Figure 1.5.11 Timeaverage speed for travel between two points Figure 1.5.12Distanceaveragespeed for travel between two points 1.5.2 Velocity averages Areaaveraged velocity Example 1.5.21 Areaaveruged velocity for luminar pipe
P
35
36 37 37
Figure 1.5.21Velocity profile Timeaveraged velocity Exumple 1.5.22 Timeuveraged velocity for turbulent
POW
39 39 41 42 42
Example 1.5.23 Areaaveruge of timeaveraged velocity for turbulent pipe flow 1.5.3 Temperature averages Example 1.5.31 Areauverage temperuture vs. bulk temperature Example 1.5.32 Bulk temperuture for quadratic temperuture profile, laminar pipe flow 1.5.4 Concentration averages Example 1.5.41 Bulk concentration 1.5.5 Arithmetic, logarithmic, and geometric means Example I S.51 Case examples of logarithmic mean Example 1.5.52 Approximation of logarithmic mean by urithmetic mean 1.6 Scalars, Vectors, Tensors and Coordinate Systems 1.6.1 The viscous stress tensor Components of the viscous stress tensor Figure 1.6.11(a) Vectors associated by a particukv viscous stress tensor with the direction of the rectangular Cartesian axes Figure 1.6.11(b) Vector associated with the 3direction decomposed into its components 1.6.2 Types of derivatives P r i l derivative ata Total derivative Substantial derivative, material derivative,derivative following the motion Example 1.6.21 Rute of change of pollen density 1.6.3 Transport theorem
POW
44
46
50 52
54 57
59
59 60 60 61
62
63 63 63 64
64 65 66
Table of Contents
Figure 1.6.31 Motion of continuum Chapter 1 Problems
xiii
67 69
2 THE MASS BALANCES
73
73 73 74 74 75 77 78
78
2.1 T e Macroscopic Mass Balances h Figure 2.1 1 System for mass balances 2.1.1 The macroscopic total mass balance Accumulation of mass Input and output of mass Simplified forms of the macroscopic total mass balance Example 2.1.11 Mass balance on a surge tank Figure 2.1.1 1 Surge tank Example 2.1.12 Volumetricjlow rate offluid in laminar flow in circular pipe Example 2. I . 13 Air storage tank Example 2.I . 14 Water manifold 2.1.2 The macroscopic species mass balance Generation of mass of a species Accumulation of mass of a species Input and output of mass of a species Example 2.1.21 Macroscopic species mass balance with zero 0rder irreversible reaction Example 2. I .22 Macroscopic species mass balance with .firstorder irreversible reaction Figure 2.1.21 Perfectly mixed tank with reaction 2.2 The Microscopic Mass Balances 2.2.1 The microscopic ttl mass balance (continuity equation) oa Special cases of the continuity equation Continuity equation in different coordinatesystems Table 2.2.11 Continuity equation (microscopic total mass balance) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate tiames Example 2.2.I I Velocity components in twodimensional steady incompressible jlow, rectangular coordinates Example 2.2.12 Velocity components in twodimensional steady incompressible jlow, cylindrical coordinates Example 2.2.13 Compression of air Figure 2.2.11 Air compression by pisiston 2.2.2 The microscopic species mass balance Diffusion Chapter 2 Problems
87 87 88
90
82 86
81
79
98 99
99
99
94 96 96
94
101 102
102 103 105 105
3 THE ENERGY BALANCES
3.1 The Macroscopic Energy Balances
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113
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Table of Contents
3.1.1 Forms of energy 3.1.2 The macroscopic total energy balance Rate of accumulation of energy Rates of input and output of energy Figure 3.1.21Flow work Simplified forms of the macroscopic total energy balance The potential energy term Figure 3.1.22Gravitational field of earth The kinetic energy t r em The enthalpy term Averages and the macroscopic energy equations lw Energy balance approximation  turbulent f o Energy balance approximation  laminar flow Steadystate cases of the macroscopic total energy balance Table 3.1.21 Qualitative comparison of ranges of enthalpy changes (kcal/mol) for processes involving organic compounds Example 3.1.21 Relative magnitudes of mechmical and thermal energy terms with phase change Figure 3.1.23Mechanical energy and thermal energy terms compared for a boiler (I) Example 3.1.22 Steam production in a boiler Figure 3.1.24Mechanical and thermal energy terms compared for a boiler (U) Exunzple 3.1.23 Temperuture rise from conversion of mechanical to thermal energy Figure 3.1.25 Water supply system Emmple 3.1.24 Heuted tank, steudy state in m s s und unsteady state in energy Figure 3.1.26Heated tank 3 . 1 3 The macroscopic mechanical energy balance Exumple 3.1.31 Mechunical energy and pole vaulting Exumple 3.1.32 Culculution of lost work in pipe Figure 3.1.31 Pipe system 3.1.4 The macroscopic thermal energy balance 3.2 The Microscopic Energy Balances 3.2.1 The microscopic total energy balance Eulerian forms of the microscopic total energy balance Lagr'angian forms of the microscopic total energy balance 3.2.2 The microscopic mechanical energy balance 3.2.3 The microscopic thermal energy balance Chapter 3 Problems
113 114 115 116 117 121 121 122 125 127 128 128 129 130 132
132
133 134 134
136 136
138 141 144 147 147 140 150 150 153 156 157 158 162
4 THE MOMENTUM BALANCES
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Table of Contents
4.1 The Macroscopic Momentum Balance Example 4.11 Momentum flux offluid in laminarflow in circular pipe 4.1.1 Types of forces 4.1.2 Influence of uniform pressure over entire surface of irregular objects Figure 4.1.21 Approximation of solid by prisms Figure 4.1.22 Detail of prism 4.1.3 Averages and the momentum equation Momentum balance approximation  turbulent flow Momentum balance approximation  laminar flow Example 4.1.31 Force on a nozzle Example 4.1.32 Thrust of aircru?engine Example 4.1.33 Piping support Example 4.1.34 Jet bout Exclmple 4.1.35 Horizontalforce on tunk 4.2 The Microscopic Momentum Balance 4.3 Summary of Balance Equations and Constitutive Relationships Table 4.31 Tabulation of balance equations Table 4.32 Tabulation of common constitutive relationships 4.4 The Momentum Equation in NonInertial Reference Frames Chapter 4 Problems
xv
169
173 174
188
192 194
186
175 176 177 178 178 181 182
196 199 199 200 200 203
5 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
5.1 Systems of Measurement Example 5.I I Weight vs. mass; g vs. g , Table 5.1 la Systems of Units Table 5.1 1b Systems of Units Table 5.12 SI Prefixes 5.2 Buckingham's Theorem Example 5.21 Dimensionless variablesfor pipe flow 5.2.1 Friction factors and drag coefficients 5.2.2 Shape factors Example 5.2.21 Drag force on ship hull Exumple 5.2.22 Deceleration of compressiblefluid 5.3 Systematic Analysis of Variables Example 5.31 Drag force on a sphere Example 5.32 Dimensionlessgroupsforaflowover u flut plate Example 5.33 Consistency of dimensionless groups across system of dimensions Example 5.34 Capillary interface height via dimensional analysis
211
215
21 1
220 221 22 1 222 223 227 229 230 232 234 235
236 238
243
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245
5.4 Dimensionless groups and differential models Example 5.41 Pipe jlow of incompressible fluid with constant viscosity Example 5.42 Onedimensional energy transport Example 5.43 Mass transport in a binary mixture Example 5.44 Extrapolating m d e l results j?om one category of momentum, heat, or m s s transport to another Table 5.41 Dimensionless variables Table 5.42 Dedimensionalized balance equations Table 5.43 Dimensionless numbers 5.5 Similarity, Models and Scaling Example 5.51 Drag on immersed body Example 5.52 Scale effects Chapter 5 Problems
249 2.50 252 2.53 260 26 1 262 264 266 268 272
6 MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN FLUIDS 6.1 Fluid Statics 6.1.1 Manometers Example 6.1.11 Pressure difference using a manometer Figure 6.1.1 1 Measurement of pressure difference with manometer Example 6.1.12 Pressure dinerence between tanks Figure 6.1.12Pressure difference between tanks Example 6.1.13 Differential manometer Figure 6.1.13Differential manometer 6.2 Description of Flow Fields Figure 6.21 Paths between streamlines 6.2.1 Irrotational flow 6.3 Potential Flow Table 6.31 Elementary plane flows Table 6.32 Superposition of elementary plane flows Example 6.31 Flow around a circular cylinder Figure 6.31 Flow around circular cylinder Example 6.32 Flow of an ideal jluid through a corner Figure 6.32 Flow through a corner Example 6.33 Flow around a rotating cylinder 6.4 Laminar Flow 6.4.1 Laminar flow between infinite parallel plates Figure 6.4.11Steady flow between infinite stationary parallel plates Example 6.4.I  I Steady flow between infinite parallel plates Figure 6.4.12 Flow between infinite parallel plates, top plate moving at vo
281
281 284 284
284 285 285 286 286 288 29 1 292 295 302 304 307 308 309 310 31 I 314 315 315
31 8 3 19
Table of Contents
Figure 6.4.13Velocity profiles for laminar flow of Newtonian fluid between parallel plates with imposed pressure drop, top plate moving at steady velocity Example 6.4.12 Flow between infinite rotating concentric cylinders 6.4.2 Laminar flow in a circular pipe Figure 6.4.21Control volume for force balance on fluid in Pipe lw Figwe 6.4.22Velocity profile for laminar f o of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular crosssection Figure 6.4.23Shear stress profile for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular crosssection Example 6.4.21 Flow in a capillary viscometer Example 6.4.22 Flow between two concentric cylinders Figure 6.4.24Viscometric flow between cylinders Example 6.4.23 Filmjlow down U wall Figure 6.4.25Film flow down wall Example 6.4.24 Flow adjacent to ujlat plate instantuneously set in motion Figure 6.4.26Flow adjacent to flat plate instantaneously set in motion 6.5 Turbulent Flow Figure 6.51 Local velocity in turbulent flow as a function of time Figure 6.52 Laminar and timesmoothed turbulent (1/7 power model) velocity profiles in steady pipe flow 6.5.1 Time averaging the equations of change Exumple 6.52 Time averaging of velocity product 6.5.2 The mixing length model Figure 6.5.21Mixing length model Figure 6.5.22Universal velocity distribution Example 6.5.21 Size of sublayer and bu$er tone in turbulent jlow 6.6 The Boundary Layer Model Figure 6.61 Boundaq layer development on flat plate Example 6.61 Displacement thickness 6.6.1 Momentum balance  integral equations Figure 6.6.11Element in boundary layer Figure 6.6.12Velocity profile development in the entrance region to a pipe 6.6.2 Dedimensionalhationof tbe boundary layer equations 6.6.3 Exact solution of the momentum boundary layer equations via similarity variables
xvii
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322 325 325 326 327 327
331
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332 338 339 341 341 347 347 348 351
351 353 353 354 356 356
359 360 362
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Example 6.6.31 Similarity vuriuble developed from dimensional analysis Figure 6.6.31Solution to Blasius boundary layer equation Example 6.6.32 RungeKuttu solution of Blusius problem 6.7 Drag Coefficients Figure 6.71 Flow around an airfoil (a) without and (b) with separation 6.7.1 Drag on immersed bodies (external flow) Figure 6.7.11Drag coefficient for smooth flat plate oriented parallel to flow stream Example 6.7.11 Drag on u flat plute Figure 6.7.12Flow past circular cylinder Figure 6.7.13Drag coefficient for circular cylinder Exumple 6.7.12 Windforce on U distillation column Figure 6.7.14Drag coefficient for sphere Exumpk 6.7.13 Ternziniil velocity of a polymer sphere in water 6.7.2 Drag in conduits  pipes (internal flow) Table 6.7.21 Properties of pipe Figure 6.7.21Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element in horizontal pipe Figure 6.7.22Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element in nonhorizontalpipe Figure 6.7.23Moody friction factor chart Figure 6.7.24Relative roughness for clean new pipes Example 6.7.21 Expunsion losses Figure 6.7.25Equivalent lengths for losses in pipes Example 6.7.22 Direction o f f o w between tunks at differing pressures und heights Exmzple 6.7.23 Friction loss in ( I piping system Friction factor calculations  serial paths Case 1: Pressure drop unknown Exumple 6.7.24 Pressure loss for flow between tunks Case 2: Diameter unknown Example 6.7.25 Transfer line from tank to column Example 6.7.26 Minimum pipe diameter Case 3: Length unknown Exumple 6.7.27 Air supply through hose Case 4: Flow rate unknown Emrnple 6.7.28 Flow rute unknown Figure 6.7.26Friction factor vs. Karman number Example 6.7.29 Culculution o f f o w rute via Kurmun number when pressure drop is known Noncircularconduits
362 366 366 37 1
372 375
375 378 3 79 3 80 380 381 382 385 386
395
396 399 400 402 403
406
405
408 400 409 41 1 41 1 414 416
416
417 418 422
423 424
Table of Contents Example 6.7.210 Flow in a smooth annulus Example 6.7.211 Pressure drop in a pipe annulus Friction factor calculations  parallel paths Example 6.7.212 Pipe network with imposed pressure drop Table 6.7.22 Convergence of Newton's Method Example 6.7.213 Flow in a parallel piping system Example 6.7.214 Input of additional fluid to an existing pipe network 6.8 NonNewtonian Flow 6.8.1 Bingham plastics Figure 6.8.11Tube f o of Bingham plastic lw 6.8.2 Powerlaw fluids Example 6.81 Flow of polymer melt 6.9 Flow in Porous Media 6.9.1 Darcy's law Figure 6.9.11Permeability as a function of porosity for a bed of spheres Table 6.9.1 1 Porosities (void fractions) for dumped packings Table 6.9.12 Porosity and permeability for typical materials Example 6.9.11 Flow o water in sandstone f 6.9.2 Packed beds Example 6.9.21 Pressure drop.for air flowing though bed of spheres Example 6.9.22 Pressure dropfor waterjlowing though bed of cylinders 6.9.3 Filters Example 6.9.31 Production scale filter performance prediction from pilot plant data Example 6.9.32 Filter performance fiom data Example 6.9.33 U p t i n g existingjilter to new product 6.10 Flow Measurement 6.10.1 Pitot tube Figure 6.10.11Pitot tube schematic Figure 6.10.12Flow at mouth of pitot tube Example 6.10.11 Pitot tube traverse 6.10.2 Venturi meter Figure 6.10.21Venturi schematic Figure 6.10.22Venturi meter coefficient Example 6.10.21 Flow measurement with venturi meter 6.10.3 Orifice meter and flow nozzle Figure 6.10.31Orifice meter, flow nozzle Figure 6.10.32Orifice coefficient
xin
425 426
427 43 1
427
433 435
443 444 445
438 438 439 440
448 452
453 455
4.58
454
460
462
465 467 469
472 472 473 473
474
478 478 480 480 48 1 482 483
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Table of Contents
483 485
Example 6.10.31 Metering of crude oil with orifice Chapter 6 Problems
7 HEAT TRANSFER MODELS
7.1 The Nature of Heat 7.1.1 Forced convection heat transfer 7.1.2 Free convection heat transfer Table 7.1.21 Dimensionless Fonns: Mass, Energy, and Momentum Equations for Natural and Forced Convection 7.2 Conduction Heat Transfer Models 7.2.1 Threedimensionalconduction in isotropic media Table 7.2.11Components of Fourier Equation in Various Coordinate Systems 7.2.2 Boundary conditions at solid surfaces 7.2.3 Thermal conductivity Table 7.2.31Relative Values of Thermal Conductivity 7.2.4 Onedimensionalsteadystate conduction in rectangular coordinates Analytical solution Figure 7.2.41Homogeneous solid Figure 7.2.42Temperature profile in 1D heat transfer by conduction,rectangular coordinates Interface condition between solids  series conduction Figure 7.2.43Conduction with two solids in contact assuming no temperature drop at interface Figure 7.2.44Temperature profile with interfacial resistance Figure 7.2.45Contact resistance treated as an intermediate solid Equivalent thermal resistance  series conduction Figure 7.2.46Development of equivalent conductance for series conduction Equivalent thermal resistance  parallel conduction Figure 7.2.47Development of equivalent conductance for parallel conduction Figure 7.2.48Equivalent circuit for parallel conduction Excrmple 7.2.41 Series conduction through layers constant temperature at external surfaces Figure 7.2.49Series conduction through layers with constant temperature at external surfaces Exumple 7.2.42 Series conduction through luyers constant convective heat trunsfer coeficient at external surfaces
517
5 17 520 525
528 528 529 530 532 533 533 536 537 537 539 539 540 540 541 542 542 544
544 545
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Figure 7.2.410Series conduction through layers with constant convective heat transfer coefficient at external
Example 7.2.43 Conduction with variable thermal conductivity Figure 7.2.411 Conduction through firebrick with variable thermal conductivity Figure 7.2.412 Temperature profile Example 7.2.44 Onedimensional steadystate conduction with parallel path Figure 7.2.413Conduction with parallel paths Figure 7.2.414Analogous circuit Numerical solution The finite element method Figure 7.2.414Examples of 1D and 2D finite elements Figure 7.2.415Interpolation functions, Shape function Example 7.2.45 Solution by finite elements of steadystate conduction with generation Figure 7.2.416Bar with thermal energy source Table 7.2.41Global node numbering scheme Figure 7.2.417Comparison of finite element and analytic solution Finite element method in higher dimensions 7.2.5 Onedimensional steadystateconduction in cylindrical Coordinates Figure 7.2.51Conduction through the wall of a composite cylinder Example 7.2.51 Conduction in a fuel rod Example 7.2.52 Conduction through un insulated pipe 7.2.6 Onedimensional steadystateconduction in spherical coordinates Figure 7.2.61Radial conduction in spherical geometry Example 7.2.61 Conduction through shiekiing 7.2.7 Twodimensional steadystateconduction Taylor series Analytical solution Orthogonal functions Example 7.2.72 Convergence of steadystate rectangular coordinate solution Numerical solution Finite difference method Forward difference approximation to the first derivative Backward difference approximation to the fmt derivative Central difference approximation to the first derivative
SlllfZMXS
550
552
555
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555 555 556 558 558 560 562 563
564 569
572 573 574 574 577 578 581 582 583 586 589 59 1 598
603 605 605 607 607 608
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Approximation of second derivative Finite difference approximation to the Laplace equation Example 7.2.71 Determination of steadystate temperature distribution in a rectangular slab Irregular boundaries, Dirichlet boundary conditions Normal derivative (Neumann) boundary condition at nodal point Generation terns Example 7.2.72 Finite difference solution of 2  0 steadystate conduction 7.2.8 Onedimensional unsteadystate conduction Analytical methods for onedimensional unsteadystate conduction Semiinfinite slab Figure 7.2.81 Semiinfinite slab with constant face temperature Example 7.2.81 Semiinfinite slub: conduction in a brick wull Finite slab Figure 7.2.82 Finite slab with constant face temperatures Figure 7.2.83 Unsteadystate heat transfer in a finite slab with uniform initial temperature and constant, equal surface temperatures Exunzple 7.2.82 Finite slab nwdel vs. semiinfinite slab model for onedimnsionul unsteadystute conductive heut trunsfe r Infinite cylinder and sphere Figure 7.2.84 Unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder with uniform initial temperature and constant surface temperatwe Figure 7.2.85 Unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere with uniform initial temperature and constant surface temperature Numerical Methods for OneDimensional UnsteadyState Conduction Finite difference method Finite difference explicit form Figure 7.2.86 Finite difference grid for 1D unsteadystate conduction Example 7.2.83 Unsteadystuteheut transfer by explicit finite differences Finite difference implicit form Example 7.2.84 Finite slab unsteadystute heut transfer by finite differences 7.2.9 Multidimensional unsteadystate conduction Analytical solution for regular geometries
614 618 619
621
629 630 630
630
635 638 638 646 646 65 1
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653 654 654 654
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Table of Contents
Figure 7.2.91 Multidimensional unsteadystate temperature profiles for conduction in regular geometries expressed as product of onedimensional solutions Numerical solution of twodimensional unsteadystate conduction Finite difference method Figure 7.2.92 Alternating direction implicit method Finite element method 7.3 Convection Heat Transfer Models 7.3.1 The thermal boundary layer Figure 7.3.11 Solution of Equation (7.3.11) 7.3.2 Heat transfer coefficients Singlephase heat transfer coefficients Figure 7.3.2 1 Singlephaseheat transfer coefficients Correlationsfor prediction of heat transfer Average heat transfer coefficients Example 7.3.2I Average heat transfer coefficientsfor pipe flow Design equations for convective heat transfer Forced convection in laminar f o lw Table 7.3.21 Nusselt number limit for laminar flow in ducts with various crosssections Forced convection in turbulent flow Example 7.3.22 Comparison of the DittusBoelter, Colburn, and SiederTate equations Heat transfer in noncircular conduits and annular flow External flows, natural and f o r d convection Table 7.3.22 Values of b and n for Equation (7.3.2104) Table 7.3.23 Values of a and m for use with Equation (7.3.2105) Example 7.3.23 Heat transfer with flow normal to pipes Heat transfer with phase change Boiling  mechanism Figure 7.3.22 Boiling Curve Condensation  mechanism Boiling coefficients Table 7.3.23 Values of C for nucleate boiling model Condensing coefficients 7.4 Conduction and Convection in Series 7.4.1 Lumped capacitance models Figure 7.4.11 RC circuit analog of unsteadystatelumpedcapacitance heat transfer Criteria for use of lumped capacitance models Figure 7.4.12 Steadystateconduction through solid with convection at interface
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Figure 7.4.13 Steadystate conduction through solid with convection at interface, small vs. large Biot number Figure 7.4.14 Unsteadystate conduction through solid with convection at interface, small vs. large Biot number Example 7.4.11 Lumped capucitance models 7.4.2 Distributed capacitance models Figure 7.4.21 Midplane temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in a slab of finite thickness 2L with uniform initial temperatureand convective resistance at surfaces Figure 7.4.22 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in a slab of finite thickness with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaces Figure 7.4.23 Centerline temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaces Figure 7.4.24 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convectiveresistance at surfaces Figure 7.4.25 Center temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere of radius ro with uniform initial temperatureand convective resistance at surfaces Figure 7.4.26 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaces Example 7.4.21 Convective und conductive resistunces in series 7.5 Radiation Heat Transfer Models Figure 7.51 The electromagnetic spectrum 7.5.1 Interaction of radiation and matter Geometric description of radiation Figure 7.5.11 Directions in space Intensity of radiation Figure 7.5.12 Radiation leaving AI Lumping of quantities used in modeling radiation Incident radiation Figure 7.5.13 Extreme modes of reflection Absorptivity Reflectivity Transmittivity Emitted radiation Blackbodies Blackbody radiation Emissivity Radiosity
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Table of Contents 7.5.2 Radiant heat exchange between two opaque bodies with no intervening medium Table 7.5.21 History of radiation emitted 7.5.3 Kirchhoffs law Figure 7.5.31 Total emissivity of some surfaces 7.5.4 View factors Figure 7.5.41 Radiation between surfaces Reciprocity relation Summation rule Exumple 7.5.41 Integration to obtain viewfactor Table 7.5.41 View Factors Example 7.5.42 Use of reciprocity relation and surnmution rule to infer view factor for concentric spheres 7.5.5 Radiant heat exchange between blackbodies Example 7.5.51 Heat transfer by radiation  blackbody Example 7.5.52 Use of view factor tables with blackbody radiation exchange 7.5.6 Radiative exchange between gray bodies Figure 7.5.61 Electrical analog of net radiation from a gray Figure 7.5.62 Network analog of radiation exchange with gray surfaces in an enclosure Example 7.5.61 Twograybodyexchunge in enclosure Exumple 7.562 Heat transfer by rdiution  gray body 7.6 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Figure 7.61 Insulated pipe Figure 7.61 Overall heat transfer coefficients Example 7.61 Controlling resistancefor heat transfer resistances in series spherical container of liquid oxygen Example 7.62 Controlling resistance in replacement qf section of wall of distillation column Example 7.63 Overall heat transfer coefficient with fouling 7.7 Heat Exchangers 7.7.1 Average overall temperaturedifference 7.7.2 Countercurrentvs. ioncurrent operation Figure 7.7.21 TH diagram for countercurrent flow of two streams Figure 7.7.22 TH diagram for concurrent flow of two streams Figure 7.7.23 TH diagram for countercurrent flow of two streams Figure 7.7.24 TH diagram for concurrent flow of two streams
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Example 7.7.21 Concurrent vs. countercurrent flow in a concentric tube exchanger 7.7.3 NTU method for design of heat exchangers Figure 7.7.31 TH diagram for two streams between which sensible heat is to be exchanged in countercurrent flow Figure 7.7.32 TH diagram for two streams between which sensible heat is to be exchanged in concurrent flow Figure 7.7.33 Pinch with concurrent operation Figure 7.7.34 Pinch with countercurrent operation Table 7.7.3la Effectiveness/NTUrelationships Table 7.7.31b NTU/effectivenessrelationships Example 7.7.31 Determination of effectiveness for a concurrent flow exchanger Example 7.7.32 Calculation of urea using NTU und E for U concurrent flow exchanger Example 7.7.33 Calculation of exit temperatures using NTU and E for a heat exchanger of known area 7.7.4 Ffactor method for design of heat exchangers Figure 7.7.41 Correction factor to log mean temperature difference  one shell pass, 2" tube passes Emmple 7.7.41 Use of F Fuctor compured to effect iveness/NTU met hod Chapter 7 Problems
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8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS
8.1 The Nature of Mass Transfer 8.2 Diffusive Mass Transfer Models 8.2.1 Velocities of components in a mixture Figure 8.2.11Diffusion of vapor from vessel Figure 8.2.12 Evolution of concentration profile Figure 8.2.13 Velocity of molecule Figure 8.2.14 Changing velocity and displacement of single molecule via collisions Example 8.2.I I Average velocity when individual particles have the same velocity Figure 8.2.15 Identical molecules, identical velocities Example 8.2.12 Average velocity when individual particles have different velocities Figure 8.2.16 Identical molecules, differing velocities Example 8.2.13 Number uveruge velocity, velocities in two dimensions Figure 8.2.17 Number average velocity, velocities in two dimensions Table 8.2.11 Coordinate frame motion
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Table 8.2.12Mass transfer relationships 8.2.2 Mechanisms of mass transfer 8.2.3 Ficks law Table 8.2.31 Equivalent forms of Ficks Law referred to coordinate systems in various motions Figure 8.2.31 Flux of marbles without diffusion Figure 8.2.32 Flux of marbles with diffusion Figure 8.2.33 Fluxes compared 8.2.4 Binary diffusivities Figure 8.2.41 Diffusivities in solids Figure 8.2.42Diffusivities in liquids Figure 8.2.43 Diffusivities in gases 8.2.5 Solutions of the diffusion equation Onedimensionalequimolar counterdiffusionin rectangular coordinates Example 8.2.51 Equimolar counterdiflusion Onedimensional diffusion of A through stagnant B observed in rectangular coordinates Example 8.2.52 Diffusion of vapor through a stagnant gus Figure 8.2.51 Diffusion through stagnant gas layer One dimensional unsteadystate diffusion in a semiinfiniteslab Figure 8.2.52Semiinfiniteslab with constant face concentration 8.2.6 Diffusion in porous solids 8.2.7 Dispersion Figure 8.2.71 Dispersion and diffusion as a function of Peclet number 8.3 ConvectiveMass Transfer Models 8.3.1 The concentration boundary layer Figure 8.3.11Concentration boundary layer Figure 8.3.12 Boundary layer Figure 8.3.13 Boundary layer solution for a flat plate 8.3.2 Film theory and penetrationrenewaltheory 8.4 The Mass Transfer Coefficient for a Single Phase Example 8.41 Calculation offluxfrom a mass transfer coefficient Exutizple 8.42 Mass transfer using partial pressure as a driving force Exunzple 8.43 Mass transfer using species m s s density as driving force 8.4.1 Design equations for singlephasemass transfer coefficients Flat plates Example 8.4.11 Average mass transfer coeficient j?om loca1 coefJicient
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Mass transfer in flow in pipes Mass transfer from spheres, drops, and bubbles Example 8.4.12 Comparison of mars transfer coeffxient models Example 8.4.13 Mass transfer coefficient for dissolution of a sphere Packedbeds Height of transfer unit models 8.4.2 Dimensional analysis of mass transfer by convection 8.5 Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients Figure 8.51 Mass transfer concentrations Figure 8.52 Interface conditions Example 8.51 Culculation of interface composition 8.5.1 Incorporation of overall mass transfer coefficient into height of transfer unit model Example 8.5.11 Overall transfer units 8.6 Relationship of Overall and SinglePhaseMass Transfer Coefficients Figure 8.61Assumption necessary to utilize overall m s as transfer coefficient Example 8.61 Controlling resistancefor mass trunsfer 8.7 Design of Mass Transfer Columns Figure 8.71 Typical countercumnt gas absorber 8.7.1 Determination of liquidtogasratio a Figure 8.7.1 1 G s absorption 8.7.2 Calculation of tower diameter Figure 8.7.21 Norton Chemical Process Products Corporation Intalox@ IMTP@ Packing Figure 8.7.22 IMTPO packing pressure drop Table 8.7.21 Values of coefficient F for I M P @ packings 8.7.3 Calculation of packing height Table 8.7.31 n integrals 8.7.4 Applications Example 8.7.41 Analytical calculation of interfacial concentration Example 8.7.42 Analytical determination of number of transfer units: straight operating and equilibrium lines Example 8.7.43 Enect of change of U G on outlet composition Exumple 8.7.44 Design of absorber Example 8.7.45 Economic optimization of an absorber 8.8 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Figure 8.81 Diffusion in a membrane
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Figure 8.82 Diffusion with instantaneous irreversible reaction i a membrane n Example 8.81 Acidization of an oil well Figure 8.83 M s transfer with slow or reversible chemical as reaction Example 8.82 Mass transfer with heterogeneous reaction Example 8.83 Mass transfer with homgeneous reaction Chapter 8 Problems
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APPENDIX A: VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS
A.l Symbolic Notation Table A.l Operational properties of the del operator in different CoOrdinateErames A.2 Index Notation A.2.1 The unit tensor A.2.2 The alternating tensor or permutation symbol
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APPENDIX B: ERROR FUNCTION
Table B1 Gauss mor function Figure B1 Error function
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1
ESSENTIALS
1.1 Models
The ultimate goal of the engineer is to effect change in the real world. This goal differs from that of the scientist, who wishes to describe the real world to the greatest accuracy possible. In order to plan for such change, the engineer must rely on models of the processes which permit the simulation of cause and effect in a surrogate device which is used in place of the real world to draw inferences regarding the response of the real world to changes in various conditions (inputs). Regard the weather. The atmosphere may be considered a black box, as shown in Figure 1.1l(a). Inputs to this black box include solar heating, terrain, moisture conditions, temperatures, etc. The output may be regarded as a collection of things that we call "the weather"  wind, temperature, precipitation, etc.
Figure 1.11 Modeling the weather
In attempting to predict "the weather," we replace the atmosphere with a model. We then assume the outputs from the model to be approximately the same as (ideally, they would be identical to) the outputs we would have
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Chapter 1: Essentials
experienced had the real atmosphere been in the box. As we have indicated by lighter density shading in Figure 1.11 (b), all the features of the real atmosphere will not be present in the model, hence, the outputs of the model will not be precisely those of the real weather. If one went to a m m sophisticated (complicated) model, more features would be represented (usually) more accurately. The price of a more sophisticated model is usually more effort and expense t employ the model. o Notice that the model could be anything. At one extreme it could, to take a very poor' example of a model, incorporate a dart board with combinations of the wind, precipitation, and temperature, as shown in Figure 1.12. We could randomly throw a dart at the board and use as the model output the content of the label wbem the dart lands.
Figure 1.12 A poor model of the weather
Several things are immediately obvious about this model. First, it does not include anywhere near all possible weather patterns (outputs)  as just one example, there is no label for hail on a windy, cool day. Second, it does not include all (input) parameters. For example, it incorporates effects of humidity, barometric pressure, prevailing winds, etc., only insofar as they might affect the
Probably the worst model ever used is the frontier method (hopefully apocryphal) for weighing hogs. First, they would laboriously tie the squirming hog to the end of a long sturdy log, then place the log across a stump for a fulcrum. Next they would search for a rock which, when tied to the other end of the log, balanced the weight of the hog. Then they would guess the weight o the rock. f
Chapter I : Essentials
3
person throwing the dart (and hdshe is probably indoors). In fact, the output of the model bears no systematic relationship to the inputs. Third, it is not very precise in its outputs it predicts only "windy" or "calm" without giving a wind velocity.

It will, however, give the correct prediction occasionally, if only by chance. One should always be alert to the possibility that bad models c a n fortuitously give correct results, even though the probability of this occurring is usually vanishingly small. For this reason, statistical methods should be used to test models, even though we will not have room here to explore this subject thoroughly.
At the other end of the spectrum are weather prediction models resident on large computers, containing hundreds of variables and large systems of partial differential equations. If we use such a very sophisticated model, we still need to look inside the black box and ask the same questions that we ask of the dart board model. (For example, some of the results of chaos theory pose the question of whether accurate longterm modeling of the weather is even possible.)
Although engineers and scientists model many of the same physical situations, the scientist is interested in the model that gives maximum accuracy and best conformity with physical reality, while the engineer is interested in the model which offers the precision and accuracy sufficient for an adequate solution of the immediate problem without unnecessary expenditure of time and money. It should be noted that the best model of a system is the system itself. One would like to put the system to be modeled within the black box and use the system itself to generate the outputs. One would then obtain the most representativeoutputs.2 These outputs would be the solution of the true differential equations that describe the system behavior, even though from the outside of the box one would not know the form of these equations. The system, through its response to the inputs, "solves" the equations and presents the solution as the outputs. (We will see later, in Chapter 5 , that through dimensional analysis of the inputs to the system it is possible to obtain the coefficients in the equations describing the system, even absent knowledge of the form of the equations themselves.)
Even if we conduct measurements on the actual system under the same input conditions we still must face questions of reproducibility and experimental error.
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Chapter I : Essentials
If we cannot make measurements on the system itself" under the desired inputs, we must replace the system with a more convenient model. One of two avenues is usually chosen: either a scaled laboratory model or a mathematical model. The choice of an appropriately scaled laboratory model and conditions c n a be accomplished with the techniques presented in Chapter 5 . Using a mathematical model presents the problem of including all the important effects while retaining sufficient simplicity to permit the model to be solved. Originally, engineering mathematical models could be formulated solely in terms of intuitive quantities such as size, shape, number, etc. For example, it was intuitively obvious to the designer of a battering ram that if he made it twice as heavy andor had twice as many men swing it, the gates to the city would yield somewhat sooner. This happy but unsophisticated state of affairs has evolved into one aesthetically more pleasing (more elegant and more accurate) but intuitively less satisfying. Nature, though simple in detail, has proved to be very complex in aggregate. Describing the effect of a change in crude oil composition on the product distribution of a refinery is a far cry from deducing the effect of adding another man to the battering ram. This leaves us with a choice  we may model the processes of nature either by complex manipulations of simple relationships, or we may avoid complexity in the manipulations by making the relationships more abstract. For example, in designing a pipeline to carry a given flow rate of a liquid, we might wish to know the pressure drop required to force the liquid through the pipeline at a given rate. One approach to this problem would be to take a series of pipes of varying roughness, diameter and length, apply various pressure drops, and measure the resulting flow rates using various liquids. The information could be collected in an encyclopedic set of tables or graphs, and we could design pipeline flow by looking up the exact set of conditions for each design. The work involved would be extreme and the information would be hard to store and retrieve, but one would need only such intuitively satisfying concepts as diameter, length and flow rate.4 If, however, we are willing to give up these elementary concepts in favor of two abstractions called the Reynolds number and the friction factor, we can gather all the information needed in twenty or
For example, the system may be inaccessible, as in the case of a reservoir of crude oil far beneath the ground; a hostile environment, as in the case of the interior of a nuclear reactor; or the act of measurement may destroy the system, as in explosives research. To run all combinations of only 10 different pipe diameters, 10 pressure drops and 100 fluids would require 10 x 10 x 100 = 10,OOO experiments  and we still would have completely neglected important variables such as pipe roughness.
Chapter I : Essentials
5
thirty experiments and summarize it on a single page. (We will learn how this is done in Chapter 6.)
1.1.1
Mathematical models and the real world
As the quantities we manipulate grow more abstract, our rules for manipulating these quantities grow more formal; that is, more prescribed by that system of logic called mathematics, and less by that accumulation of experience and application of analogy which we call physical intuition. We are thus driven to methods whereby we replace the system by a mathematical model, operate on the model with minimal use of physical intuition, and then apply the result of the model to the system. Obviously, the better the model incorporates the desired features of the system, the better our conclusions will be, and conversely. We must always be aware of the fact that the model is not the real world, a fact all too easy to ignore (to the detriment of our conclusions and recommendations)as the model becomes more and more abstract.
This procedure is exemplified by the way one balances a checkbook. The symbols in the checkbook do not come from observing the physical flow of money to and from the bank, but, if the manipulations are performed correctly, the checkbook balance (the output of the model) will agree with the amount in the bank at the end of the month. In this case the mathematical model represents one aspect of the real world exactly  that is, the account balance. This is not true in general for models (and is seldom true for engineering models). The outputs of the model are useful only in the areas where the predictions of the model and the results of the real world are approximately the same. For example, a model of fluid flow which neglects fluid viscosity may give excellent results for real problems at locations where the velocity gradients are small, since the viscosity operates via such gradients, but the same model is useless to apply to problems involving sizable gradients in velocity. We frequently use just such a model for flow around airfoils by neglecting the presence of velocity gradients "far from" the airfoil. In the case of a plane flying at, say, 550 miles per hour, "far from" may be only the thickness of a sheet of paper above the wing surface. In this case, the relative velocity between the wing and the air goes from 0 to almost 550 miles per hour in this very short distance and then remains relatively constant outside this boundary layer. Obviously, within this layer the velocity gradient cannot be neglected: a model that neglects viscosity would give emonems results.
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Chapter I : Essentials
Approximate models that are easily manipulated without external aids (e.g., pencil and paper, computer, etc.) are sometimes called “rules of thumb? Rules of thumb are also referred to as heuristics.6 A practical engineering rule of thumb is that an economic velocity in pipes for fluids with properties not far from those of water is perhaps 1015 ftls. This model gives a crude optimum between the increased capital cost of pipe to keep pumping costs low (low velocity) and the increased pumping cost for the same flow rate to use smaller diameter pipe (high velocity). This rule of thumb should obviously not be extrapolated to fluids such as air, molasses, or molten polymers. Practicing engineers apply models at a variety of levels of sophistication. Some engineers work at a purely experimental level, treating variables in their physically most intuitive form and determining simple correlations of the behavior of these variables by exhaustive experimental studies in the laboratory. Other engineers work with mathematical models of relatively low sophistication but based on physical or chemical laws, and fit these models to experimentaldata taken in the laboratory by adjustment of the various parameters that appear in the models. Sil other engineers work almost completely in abstractions, often with tl mathematical models which describe processes for which data cannot be obtained in the laboratory  perhaps because sensing devices to acquire this data are not available or because the environment in which the data must be acquired is too corrosive, too hot, etc. The most effective engineer is one who chooses the modeling process most economical in obtaining the answer required  that is, an answer
An example of a much more approximate rule of thumb is that an alligator’s length in feet is the same as the distance between its eyes in inches [attributed to Joan Isbell, horticulturist, Ithaca, New York, in Parker, T. (1987). Rules of Thumb 2 . Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin, p. 21. There are several compendia of such rules of thumb, both humorous and otherwise: for example, also see Parker, T. (1983). Rules of Thumb. Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin. and Parker, T. (1990). Never Trust a Calm Dog and f Other Rules o Thumb.New York, NY, Harper Perennial Division of Harper Collins Publishers.. An heuristic is defined as (Gove, P. B., Ed. (1981). Third New International Dictionary of the English Language  Unabridged. Springfield, MA, G and C Memam Co.): “providing aid or direction in the solution of a problem but otherwise unjustified or incapable of justification ... of or relating to exploratory problemsolving techniques that utilize self educating techniques (as the evaluation of feedback) to improve performance.” Rules of thumb are seldom unjustified, but usually rely on long experience (feedback) which has not been quantified in the form of rigorous mathematical models.
Chapter I : Essentials
7
sufficiently accurate but of no higher order of accuracy than is necessary to draw conclusions appropriate to the problem.’ For example, in a model to predict the appropriate time for softboiling an egg, it might be desired to incorporate the effect of barometric pressure on the boiling temperature of water, since going from sea level to the top of a mountain can produce a significant change in this temperature, and a lower boiling temperature would require a longer time for the necessary heat transfer. It would be useless, however, to determine the barometric pressure effect to six significant figures, because the change in cooking time produced by uncertainty in other factors (e.g., eggtoegg size variation, ambient temperature when the egg is removed from the water, how long it is until the egg is broken after removing it from the water, shell thickness, and so on) far exceeds a change produced by altering the boiling temperature in the sixth digit. It is very embarrassing and not uncommon for engineers to find themselves refining t e r estimates of the effect of a factor to the point of irrelevance, while hi neglecting some far more important variable. The reader is cautioned to attempt always to work on the limiting step in the process. As stated above, a model is useful only insofar as it gives useful predictions. A bad or incomplete model will guarantee bad or incomplete predictions r e g a r d l e s s of h o w e l e g a n t l y i t is m a n i p u l a t e d . Unfortunately, as models become more complex it becomes progressively easier to lose sight of this elementary fact.
(the checkbook balance) that supposedly perfectly reproduces a feature of the system (the account balance) must be checked by periodic reconciliation with the bank account, because human error (checkbook entries omitted or incorrectly entered, subtracted, or added), computer error (by the bank) or malice (embezzlement) may interfere with an otherwise perfect model. Similarly, in engineering, even models that are thought to be very accurate must still be checked against realworld data to ensure that the assumed accuracy is, in fact, true.
no information about where the checks were cashed  this simply is not a feature included in the model, and it would be absurd to try to predict where a check would be cashed by looking at the checkbook. Even a feature of the model
For example, the checkbook model gives us the amounts of the checks but
Chem. Eng. Progr., 66(7):86(1970).
For an excellent discussion of experiment visavis theory, see S. W.Churchill,
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Chapter I : Essentials
1.1.2
Scale of the
A system can be described at different scales. In this text we will make most frequent use of the macroscopic and the microscopic scales. Macroscopic and microscopic are merely ways of saying "less detail" and "more detail."8
We define the macroscopic scale as one at which the model predicts only what is happening at points in time, not points in space. We may use information about space effects (initial and boundary conditions) in evaluating terms (integrals) in the model, but we do not predict space effects. In each term of a macroscopic model we integrate out the space effects individually across each input or output area and over the volume of the system itself ("lumping"). As a consequence of these integrations, macroscopic models do not predict what is happening at individual points, but only the gross effect over the total input area, the total output area, or the total internal volume. For example, consider modeling energy for the case of a fluid flowing through a single inlet into a tank which contains a heating coil and out through a single outlet. A macroscopic model of this situation would be concerned only with the total amount of energy flowing into the inlet as a function of time, the total amount of energy flowing out of the outlet as a function of time, and the total energy contained within the tank as a function of time. The model might use the entering and exiting velocity and/or temperature profiles (space variations) if known as a function of time, but these would be buried in the integrands of terms, and the model would not predict what these profiles were at unknown points, nor would it predict the energy content of the fluid at individual points within the tank.Macroscopic models therefore tend to produce ordinary differential equations (with the independent variable being time) for unsteadystate systems, or algebraic equations for steadystate systems. Process control theory classifies such models as lumpedparumetermodels.
A microscopic model, by contrast, does include prediction of what happens at a points in space as well as time. Consider the case of fluid in laminar flow in a single pipe: a microscopic model would predict velocity and temperature at individual points in both space and time across the inlet, across the outlet,
The microscopic scale as defined here refers to a scale that, although small, is still large enough that continuum assumptions about materials are valid. Below this scale lies the molecular scale. Later we will also make brief reference to the meguscopic scale, a scale even larger than the macroscopic scale in the sense that large regional anomalies at the macroscopic scale level must be taken into account  for example, largescale heterogeneities in flow in porous media. An example of the megascopic scale would be a primarily sandstone underground reservoir containing isolated large pockets of shale.
Chapter 1: Essentials
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and within the pipe. This means that, as well as the value of the integral, we must concern ourselves with what is happening within the integrands that appear in terms in the macroscopic balances. As a consequence, microscopic models usually lead to partial differential equations, whose independent variables are the three space coordinatesin addition to time. We will apply three different transfer coefficients in modeling at the macroscopic scale: By freestream conditions, we refer to conditions far The first, CD, is for momentum flux or shear stress:
enough from the surface in an external flow that they are essentially constant.
(1.1.21)
in parenthesis is usually zero, and is shown only t o indicate the parallel to the definitions of the o t h e r coefficients.
where z is the magnitude of the shear stress, F is the magnitude of the drag force (skin friction), A is a characteristic area, p is the density, vs is the velocity in the xdirection at the surface (equal to zero for a coordinate system fixed to the surface), and v, is the freestream velocity. The shear stress relationship is shown as proportional rather than equal because the area on which the drag coefficient is based is usually not the area on which the force acts directly, but rather some typical area such as the crosssectional area normal to flow. The second term
CD as written above is primarily used for external flows  that
is, flow around bodies. A modified form, called the friction factor, is usually used when the flow is through (inside) things  e.g., pipes  and in its definition, since there is no constant freestream velocity, an areaaveraged velocity is usually Usecl. The second, h, is for energy, specifically, for heat:
(1.1.22)
10
Chapter 1: Essentials where qs is the heat flux at the surface; h is the singlephase heat transfer coefficient;T is either the freestream temperature o r an average temperature, depending on whether external or internal flows are being modeled; and Tsis the temperature at the surface. The third, k, is for mass transfer: ,
r
1
(1.1.23)
where NA is the mass flux of species A, k is the singlephase , mass transfer coefficient, Z A ~ the concentration of A at the is surface, and ZA is either the freestream concentration or an average concentration of A depending on whether external or internal flows are being modeled. The above equations describe three transfer coefficients. From Equation (1.1.21), is the momentum transfer coefficient; from Equation (1.1.22), CD h is the heat transfer coefficient; and from Equation (1.1.23),, is the mass k transfer Coefficient. These coefficients describe the respective fluxes in terms of specific driving forces within a single phase. We can define other driving forces as well, which must be paired with different numerical coefficient values. We will later also define, in terms of appropriate overall driving forces, overall heat transfer coefficients (denoted by U with a subscript indicating the particular area on which they are based) and overall mass transfer coefficients (denoted by K with a subscript denoting the phase on which they are based), but we will not apply a corresponding overall coefficient to momentum transfer because such a coefficient is not presently in engineering use.
At the microscopic level we define the transfer in terms of point values using differential equations. The resulting coefficients are called transport coefficients. We illustrate using onedimensional forms.
For momentum:
r
I
1
( 1.1.24)
where zyxis both (both quantities have the same units)
Chapter I : Essentials
a) the flux of xmomentum in the ydirection, and
b) the shear stress in the xdirection on a surface of constant y exerted by the fluid in the region of lesser y,
and p is the (Newtonian) viscosity, vx is the xcomponent of velocity, and y is the ycoordinate.
For energy:
(1.1.25)
where q is the heat flux in the xdirection, k is the thermal conductivity, T is the temperature, and x is the xcoordinate. For mass (using for illustration the special case of equimolar counttmliffusion):
(1.1.26)
where N h is mass flux of species A in the zdirection, DAB is the diffusivity of A through B (also called the diffusion coefficient), XA is the mole fraction of A, and z is the zcoordinate. The viscosity, p., is the momentum transport coefficient, the thermal conductivity, k, is the heat transport coefficient, and the diffusivity, DAB, is the mass transport coefficient.
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Chapter 1: Essentials
1.2 The Entity Balance9
In our study we will be concerned with the movement of mass, energy, and momentum much in the same way that a business is concerned with the transport of goods and services via manufacturing and sales efforts. Just as a business needs an accounting procedure to permit description of the inventory and movement of goods, we need an accounting procedure to help us describe the storage and movement of mass, energy, and momentum. This latter accounting procedure, coupled with some physical laws (for mass and energy, conservation laws, and for momentum, Newton's second law) permits us to develop macroscopic balances which tell us how much mass, energy, and momentum has been transferred, but not how the rate of this transfer relates to the physical variables in the system (that is, to velocity, temperature, and concentration differences and to the physical properties of the fluid). The macroscopic balances are analogous to the part of a company's annual report, which tells the amount of sales over the past year and how much the inventory has changed, but not, for example, how market conditions affected the sales rate.
In our course of study, we shall be faced with the manipulation of many abstractions: "lost work," and "enthalpy," to name just two. Many of these entities will be handled by the simple accounting procedure which we will now describe  in particular, those relating to mass, energy, and momentum. Our accounting procedure (the entity balance) must be applied to a system or control volume. This accounting procedure will lead us in a natural way to the mathematical model describing a process.
By system or control volume we mean some unambiguously defined region of space. For example, if we fill a balloon with air and release it, We might take as our system the space interior to the balloon. This would provide a perfectly acceptable system even though it moves about and changes size in a peculiar way a it flies about the room. Although acceptable, it might or might not be s the most convenient system, and one of our problems in many situations is the selection of the most convenient system.
One sometimes uses a a system a specific quantity of matter, all parts of s which remain in proximity; for example, a "clump" of fluid. This is consistent with the concept of a system since this matter unambiguously defines a region in space. The idea of a system can be illustrated by considering fluid flow in a pipe. We could choose as our system the region bounded by two pl'anes normal
An entity is a thing which has reality and distinctness of being, either in fact or for thought. (Webster's Third New Internutionul Dictionary of the English Lunguuge, G & C Merriam Company, Springfield, MA, 1969.)
Chapter I : Essentials
13
to the pipe axis and the inner wall of the pipe. We could equally well use the region between the two planes and the outer wall of the pipe. Or, to take yet a third system, we could select a certain mass of fluid and follow the mass as it moves in space.
The entity balance used for our accounting system is Input + Generation= Output + Accumulation (1.21)
By input we mean that which crosses the system boundary from outside to inside in time At; by output, the converse. (There is no real need to define the second term, output. One could instead speak of positive and negative inputs it is simply traditiond.l0 )
By accumulation we mean the result of subtracting that which was in the system at the beginning of some time interval from that which was there at the end of the interval. As opposed to the input/output case, we do not define a term called "depletion" (although we could); we speak instead of a "negative accumulation. By generation we mean that which appears within the system without either being present initially or being transferred in across the boundary. It materializes, somewhat as the ghost of Hamlet's father, but in a far more predictable fashion. Similarly to the case of accumulation, we do not refer to "consumption, but rather to "negative accumulation."
It
You will note that the above is full of "that which"; we have carefully avoided saying just what it is for which we are accounting. This is deliberate, and is done to stress the generality of the procedure, which, as we shall see below, is applicable to people and money as well as to mass, energy, and momentum. Note that our entity balance is equally valid when applied to rates.ll By considering smaller and smaller time intervals we obtain
l0 As Tevye says in Fiddler on the Roof before singing "Tradition": "You may ask, 'How did this tradition start?' I'll tell you  I don't know! But it's a tradition. Because of our traditions, everyone knows who he is and what God expects him to do." Even
engineering and science are bound hy tradition in their methods of communication. The definition of a instantaneous rate for an entity is
At
,im + 0
I
change in entity in At
At
1
I4
Chapter I : Essentials
Input + Generation li[ At
Al+O

Output + Accumulation At
1
(1.22)
so the entity balance applies to rates as well as to amounts.
Dle 1.21
An entity balance
The entity balance can be applied to very general sorts of quantities so long as they are quantifiable, either on a discrete scale (e.g., particles) o a continuous r scale (e.g., energy). When applied to discrete entities it is frequently called a population balance. One such entity, of course, is people, although automobiles, tornadoes, buildings, trees, bolts, marriages, etc., can also be described using the entity balance approach. If the entity balance is applied to people with a political unit (e.g., a city, county, state, etc.) as the system, the input term is calculable from immigration statistics and the output from emigration statistics. The accumulation term is calculable from census figures (the differences in the number within the system over some prescribed time interval). The generation term is made up of births (positive)and deaths (negative).
For example, suppose that a political unit (the system) had a population of l,OOO,OOO pe~ple the beginning of the year (t = 0). At the end of the year (t + at At) suppose the population was 1,010,OOO.Thus the accumulation over a year
(At) was
1,010,Ooo 1,Ooo,Ooo= 10,000 
(1.24)
Chapter I : Essentials
I5
During this time suppose that 18,000 people died and 30,000 were born, giving a net generation of
30,000 18,000 = 12,000 people
(1.25)
If 40,000 people immigrated (input), how many emigrated (output)?
Solution
Application of the entity balance shows 40,000 + 12,000 = Output + 1 , O 0O O Solving, we see that 42,000 people emigmted. An edifying exercise is to check published statistics on population, birthldeath, and immigratiodemigration for consistency by using the entity balance. Such a calculation performed on the world population reveals a large accumulation term, often referred to as the "population explosion." (1.26)
1.2.1
Conserved quantities
It is interesting that when our equation is applied to some entities, there is never any generation. Quantities which do not exhibit generation  that is, quantities which are neither created nor destroyed  we term conserved quantities. For these quantities the entity balance contains only three terms Input = Output + Accumulation This balance can also be written in terms of rates Input Rate = Output Rate + Accumulation Rate (1.2.12) (1.2.11)
For example, if I apply the entity balance to the amount in my checking account as the system, I never find money spontaneously appearing. (If 1 didn't put it in, it isn't there to remove  the first great law of personal finance. We note in passing that an embezzler may be regarded as either an output or a negative accumulation term but the total amount of money is still conserved.)
I6
Chapter I : Essentials
Quantities which are conserved under some assumptions or approximations may not be conserved under other assumptions. Banks and the government can create and destroy money, but this requires a model of a different level, much as including nuclear reactions in our energy balance models would destroy the assumption of conservation of energy. We know that matter and energy are not conserved in processes where nuclear reactions are taking place or where things move at speeds approaching the speed of light. Matter and energy can, instead, be transmuted into one another, and only their totality is conserved. In the course of this book, we will assume that total mass and total energy are conserved quantities, as they are for all practical purposes in the processes we will consider. On the other hand, momentum (which can be created or destroyed by applied forces), mass of an individual species (which can be created or destroyed by chemical reaction), and mechanical energy and thermal energy (which can each be transformed into the other) are not generally conserved in our processes. Another difference in applying the entity balance to momentum is that we will generate a vector equation rather than a scalar equation. We will, therefore, utilize balance equations, not all of which are conservation equations, and conservation equations, all of which are balance equations. Conservation equations are a subset of balance equations.
1.2.2
Steadystate processes
some time has elapsed, the process still looks the same. This means that we are concerned with the entity balance in the form of rates as expressed in Equation (1.23). Note that this does not imply that all rates are zero. It does imply that accumulation rate is zero, because the very nature of accumulation means that content of the system is changing in time. Input and output rates, however, can be different from zero so long as they are constant in time, as can generation rates  it is only necessary that these rates balance one another so that there is no accumulation.
steadystate process. By a steadystate process we mean one which does not change in time  if we look at the process initially, then look at it again after
Another special case of the entity balance which is often of interest is for a
Chapter 1: Essentials
For a steadystateprocess, therefore, the entity balance is written as Input rate + Generation rate = Output rate or [ Generationrate = Output rate  Input rate1
17
(1.2.21)
1.3 The Continuum Assumption
We will treat only models in which each fluid property (for example, the density, the temperature, the velocity, etc.) is assumed to have a unique value at a given point at a given time. Further, we assume these values to be continuous in space and time. Even though we know that fluids are composed of molecules, and therefore, within volumes approaching molecular size, density fluctuates (and temperature is hard even to define), in order to use the concepts of calculus and differential equations we model such properties as continuous. For example, we define the density at a point as the mass per unit volume; but, since a point has no volume, it is not clear what we mean. By our definition we might mean
(1.31)
where p is the density, and Am is the mass in an elemental volume AV. Consider applying this definition to a gas at uniform temperature and pressure. Assume for the moment that we can observe Am and AV instantaneously, that is, that we can "freeze" the molecular motion as we make any one observation. For a range of values of AV suppose we make many observations of Am/AV at various times but at the Same point.
At large values of AV, because the total number of molecules in our volume would fluctuate very little, the density from successive observations would be constant for all practical purposes. As we approach smaller volumes, however, our observed value would no longer be unique, because a gas is not a continuum, but is made up of small regions of large density (the molecules) connected by regions of zero density (empty space). In fact, we would see a situation somewhat as depicted in Figure 1.31, where, as our volume shrinks, we begin to see fluctuation in the observed density even in a gas at constant temperature and pressure.
18
Chapter 1: Essentials
0.001 0.01
relative volume
0.1
1
10
100 1000
Figure 1.31 Breakdown of continuum assumption
For example, if our AV were of the same order of volume as an atomic nucleus, the observed density would vary from zero to the tremendous density of the nucleus itself, depending on whether or not a nucleus (or, perhaps, some extranuclear particle) were actually present in AV at the time of the observation. To circumvent such problems we make the arbitrary restriction that we will treat only problems where we may assume that the material behavior we wish to predict can be described adequately by a model based on a continuum assumption. In practice, this usually means that we do not attempt to model problems where distances of the order of the mean free paths of molecules are important. The continuum assumption does fail under some circumstances of interest. For example, the size of the interconnectedpores of a prous medium may be of the order of the mean free patb of gas molecules flowing through the pores. In this situation, "slip flow" (where the velocity at the gassolid interface is not zero) can result. Another example is in the upper atmosphere where the mean free path of the molecules is very large  in fact, it may become of the order of a hundred miles. In this situation, slip flow can occur at the surface of vehicles traversing the space.
Chapter I : Essentials
19
1.4 Fluid Behavior
The reader is encouraged to make use of the resources available in flow visualization, e.g., Japan, S , 0. M. E., Ed. (1988). Visualized flow: Fluid motion in basic and engineering situations revealed by flow visualization. Thermodynamics and Fluid M c a i s New York, NY, Pergamon, Japan, T. V. ehnc. S. o., Ed. (1992). Atlas of Visualization. Progress in Visualization. New York, NY,Pergamon Press, and Van Dyke, M.(1982). An Album of Fluid Motion. Stanford, CA, The Parabolic Press, which contain numerous photos, both color and black and white. There are also many films and video tapes available. There is nothing quite so convincing as seeing the actual phenomena that the basic models in fluid mechanics attempt to describe  for example, that the fluid really does stick to the wall.
1.4.1
Laminar and turbulent flow
We normally classify continuous fluid motion in several different ways: for example, as inviscid vs. viscous; compressible vs. incompressible. Viscosity is that property of a fluid that makes honey and molasses "thicken" with a decrease in temperature. Inviscid flow is modeled by assuming that there is no viscous effect. What we sometimes call ideal fluids or ideal fluid flow is modeled by not including in the equations of motion the property called viscosity. Viscous flow is modeled including these viscous effects. The viscosity of a fluid can range over many orders of magnitude. For example, in units of pPa s, air has a viscosity of about 105;water, about 103; honey, about 10; and molten polymers, perhaps 104; a ratio of largest to smallest of 1,OOO,OOO,OOO.(This is by no means the total range of viscous behavior, merely a sample of commonly encountered values in engineering problems.) In viscous flow we can have two further subclassifications. The first is luminur flow, a flow dominated by viscous forces. In steady laminar flow, the fluid "particles" march along smoothly in files as if on a railroad track. If one releases dye in the middle of a pipe in which fluid is flowing at steadystate, as shown in Figure 1.4.11,at low velocities the dye will trace out a straight line. At higher velocities the fluid moves chaotically as shown and quickly mixes across the entire pipe crosssection. The low velocity behavior is Zaminar and the higher velocity is turbulent.
20
Chapter I : Essentials
Figure 1.4.11 Injection of dye in pipe flow1*laminar (top) to turbulent (bottom)
Laminar flow is dominated by viscous forces and turbulent flow is dominated by inertial forces, In a plot of point velocity versus time we would see a constant velocity in steady laminar flow, but in "steady" turbulent flow we would see instead a velocity varying chaotically about the timeaverage velocity at the point. Later in the text we will discuss dimensionless numbers and their meaning. At this point we merely state that value of the Reynolds number, a dimensionless group, lets us differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow. The Reynolds number is composed of the density and the viscosity of the fluid flowing in the pipe, the pipe diameter, and the areaaveraged velocity, and represents the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. DP ReynoldsNumber = Re = Iv L  inertial forces viscous forces
I
(1.4.11)
In pipe flow if the value of the Reynolds number is less than about 2100, the flow is laminar, and as the value of the Reynolds number increases beyond 2100 the flow undergoes a transition to turbulent. This transitional value is different for different geometrical configurations,for example, flow over a flat plate.
l 2 Japan, S . 0. M. E., Ed. (1988). Visualized flow: Fluid motion in basic and engineering situations revealed by flow visuulization. Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. New York, NY, Pergamon, p. 25.
Chapter I : Essentials
21
1.4.2
Newtonian fluids
When two "layers" of fluid flow past each other as sketched in Figure 1.4.21, where the upper layer is moving faster than the lower layer, the deformation produces a shear stress tyx proportional to velocity gradient. (The profile in Figure 1.4.21 is shown as linear for ease of illustration.) The fastermoving layer exerts a force which tends to accelerate the slowermoving layer, and the slowermoving layer exerts a force which tends to decelerate the fastermoving layer, much as if the layers rubbed against one another like the successive cards in a deck which is being spread (even though this is not what actually happens, it is a convenient model for visualization purposes). This differs from a solid, in which the shear stress can exist simply because of relative displacement of adjacent layers without relative motion of the adjacent layers. The shear stress here is normal to the y direction. Different fluids exhibit different resistance to shear.
"X
Figure 1.4.21 Shear between layers of fluid
A Newtonian fluid follows Newton's law of v i s ~ o s i t y Newton's law .~~ of viscosity relates the shear stress to the velocity gradient as
l 3 All fluids that do not behave according to this equation are called nonNewtonian fluids. Since the latter is an enormously larger class of fluids, this is much like classifying mammals into platypuses and nonplatypuses; however, it is traditional. A complete definition of a Newtonian fluid comprises
(footnote continued on following page)
22
Chapter 1: Essentials
(1.4.2 1)
where p is the coefficient of viscosity, v, is the xcomponent of the velocity vector, y is the ycoordinate, and zyxcan be regarded as either (both quantities have the same units)
a) the flux of xmomentum in the ydirection, or b) the shear stress in the xdirection exerted on a surface of constant y by the fluid in the region of lesserI4y Units of shear stress are the same as units of momentum flux.
TYY=
 2 p $ a 7 v P 2k ) ( V * V ) + ( 
7 = ,
2p$t&c)(v.v) a v 2
2 ,
= 2 = ,
CL
where k is the vlsc. The onedimensional form shown will suffice for our purposes. For further details, see Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley; Longwell, P. A. (1966). Mechanics o f Fluid Flow, McGrawHill; Prager, W.(1961). Introduction to Mechanics o Continua. f Boston, MA, Ginn and Company; Bird, R. B., R. C. Armstrong, et al. (1977). Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Volume 1 Fluid Mechanics. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons; and Bird, R. B., R. C. Armstrong, et al. (1987). Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Volume 1 Fluid Mechanics. New York,NY,Wiley. l4 Note the actual, not the absolute sense is implied; i.e., y = 10 is less than y = 5.
(”dX+x . ”.)
Chapter I : Essentials
23
Equation (1.4.21) is often written without the minus sign? We choose to include the minus sign herein because the shear stress can be interpreted (and, in the case of a fluid, perhaps more logically be interpreted) as a momentum flux.16 Momentum "runs down the velocity gradient" as a consequence of the second l w a of thermodynamics much as water runs downhill; i.e., flows from regions of higher velocity to regions of lower velocity. It therefore seems more logical to associate a negative sign with zyx in the above illustrated case. Since the Newtonian viscosity is by convention a positive number, and the velocity gradient is shown as positive, hence the minus sign to ensure the negative direction for the momentum flux zyx.
W.L., J. C. Smith,et al. (1993). Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGrawHill, p. 46; Bennett, C. 0. and J. E. Myers (1974). Momentum, Heat, and Mars Transfer. New York, NY, McGrawHill, p. 18; Fox, R.W. and A. T. McDonald (1992). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 27; Welty, J. R.,C. E. Wicks, et al. (1969). Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, New York, NY, Wiley, p. 92; Ahmed, N. (1987). Fluid Mechanics, Engineering Press, p. 15; Potter, M. C. and D. C. Wiggert (1991). Mechanics of Fluids. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, p. 14; Li, W.S. and S.H. Lam (1964). Principles o Fluid Mechanics. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley, f p. 3; Roberson, J. A. and C. T. Crowe (1993). Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 16; Kay, J. M. and R. M. Nedderman (1985). Fluid Mechanics and Transfer Processes. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, p. 10. l 6 This follows the convention used in Bird, R. B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 5; Geankoplis, C. J. (1993). Transport Processes und Unit Operations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, p. 43.
l5 For example, see McCabe,
24
Chapter I : Essentials
PLANES OF CONSTANT Y
Ay
I
Y
VX
Figure 1.4.22 Momentum transfer between layers of fluid
Figure 1.4.23 shows the various cases, Quadrant 1 being the example above.
MOMENTU FLUX
)qb
M.
A
MOM NTUMFLUX
"X
Figure 1.4.23 Sign convention for momentum flux between layers of fluid
A similar interpretation can be made for regarding zyxas a shear stress.
Chapter I : Essentials
25
" X
vX
Figure 1.4.24 Sign convention for shear stress on surface layers of fluid
Note that in Quadrant 1 the fluid in the region of lesser y has lower velocity in the positive xdirection than the fluid above it; therefore, the shear stress exerted is to the left (negative) in Quadrant 2 the fluid in the region of lesser y has lower velocity in the negative xdirection than the fluid above it; therefore, the shear stress exerted is to the right (positive)
in Quadrant 3 the fluid in the region of lesser y has greater velocity in the negative xdirection than the fluid above it; therefore, the shear stress exerted is to the left (negative)
in Quadrant 4 the fluid in the region of lesser y has greater velocity in the positive xdirection than the fluid above it; therefore, the shear stress exerted is to the right (positive)
all consistent with (b) above. By Newton's first law the shear stresses on the corresponding opposite (upper) faces of the planes of constant y are the negative of the forces shown in Figure 1.4.24.
26
Chapter I : Essentials
The cases are summarized in Table 1.4.21.
Table 1.4.21 Summary of sign convention for stress/momentum flux tensor
We frequently refer to the action of viscosity as being "fluid friction." In fact, viscosity is not exhibited in this manner. Rather than friction from layers of fluid rubbing against one another (much as consecutive cards in a deck of cards sliding past each other), momentum is transferred in a fluid by molecules in a slowermoving layer of fluid migrating to a fastermoving region of fluid and vice versa, as shown schematically in Figure 1.4.22, where some molecules from the A layer are shown to have migrated into the B layer, displacing in turn molecules from this layer.
b
c
c
t
I
X
Figure 1.4.25 Migration of momentum by molecular motion
In the top sketch of Figure 1.4.22 we have shown the xcomponents of momentum of molecules at a particular instant in two layers A and B of fluid,
Chapter 1: Essentials
27
with a larger xcomponent in the upper layer. We have assumed for illustrative purposes that the xcomponent of momentum is uniform in each layer. If the molecules are all of the same type (mass), the momentum vectors would then be proportional to the velocity vectors. Each molecule could, of course, also have y and zcomponents of velocity (not shown). Assume that during some small time increment At, molecules at xlocations 2,5, and 6 are displaced in the negative ydirection as shown (because of the ycomponent of their velocity). As molecules from layer A at 2,5, and 6 mix with layer B, they will increase the momentum of layer B. (Ultimately, of course, they collide with and exchange xmomentum with the remaining molecules in layer B). Since molecules in layer B possessing less momentum have been replaced with fluid from layer A with higher momentum, layer B will have gained momentum and thus positive momentum transfer will have been effected from layer A to layer B. (Molecules displaced from layer B similarly transfer
momentum to the layer below.) This is a geometrically very simplified version of the ultimate momentum transfer mechanism in a real fluid.
An analogy might be as follows: Suppose that one day you are standing quietly on roller skates, and a friend of yours skates past at 20 mph and hands to you an anvil which he happens to be holding. Needless to say, the jump of this anvil from a region of higher velocity (him) to a region of lower velocity (you) will induce a velocity in the lowervelocity region (you). This is much like the situation as it happens in a fluid, except in a fluid the random motion of the molecules causes them to jump from one velocity region to another.
It is often useful to divide the fluid viscosity by the fluid density to give a quantity called the kinematic viscosity, v, (v = Vp). The kinematic viscosity is a measure of the inherent resistance of a particular fluid to flow, or, more particularly, to transition from laminar to turbulent flow. This can be seen from the Reynolds number, which may be written Re = Dv/v, where v summarizes the fluid properties and the other two variables the ambient flow conditions. Kinematic viscosity measures the rate of diffusion of momentum: fluids with low kinematic viscosity support turbulence more readily than those fluids with high kinematic viscosity.
For a Newtonian fluid, viscosity is a state property; that is, it is a function of pressure, temperature, and compo~ition.~~ Figure 1.4.26 gives values of viscosity for common fluids.
l7 Normally the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature; normally the viscosity of a liquid decreases w t temperature. ih
28
Chapter I : Essentials
METHANEAIR
+ I
1
r l l l l l
1
1 1 1 . 1 1 .
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
u
r
.
d
Figure 1.4.26 Viscosity of common fluids. (Temperature range approximately 20°F 1 5O0F.) Not intended for design purposes.
Bxamde 1.4.21
Flow o f fluids between fixed Darallel d a t e s
For flow of a fluid between two fixed parallel plates of a length L, the velocity distribution in the xdirection as a function of plate separation is
(1.4.23)
where (p1  p2) is the pressure drop over the length of the plate, 2B is the plate separation, and y is the distance from the center line.
Chapter I : Essentials
29
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
vx/vx, max Determine the shear stress at the plate walls caused by water flowing between the plates under a pressure drop of 1 psi, if B is 0.1 ft and L is 10 ft. Solution (1.4.24)
(1.4.25)
y=B
(loft)
(0.1 ft) = 0.01 lbf in2
(1.4.26)
1.4.3
Complex fluids
A plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient for gases and most homogeneous nonpolymeric liquids is a straight line, indicating that they may be modeled by Newton's law of viscosity. (The slope of the straight line is the viscosity.) Complex fluids require more complex models than Newton's law of
30
Chapter I : Essentials
viscosity. In Figure 1.4.31 the straight line indicated by (a) is Newtonian fluid behavior.
Figure 1.4.31 Complex fluids
A Bingham plastic, represented by curve (c), does not flow until the applied shear stress reaches a yield point 70, and then for higher shear stress follows Newtonian behavior. The relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient for a Bingham plastic may be represented by the model
(1.4.31)
Toothpaste typically tends to follow a Bingham model.
A pseudoplastic fluid, for example, some polymer melts or polymer solutions, has behavior such that the apparent viscosity decreases as the velocity gradient increases. In other words, the harder these fluids are "pushed," the easier they flow. Curve (b) in Figure 1.4.31 represents a pseudoplastic fluid. A power law model may be used to represent the relation between shear stress and velocity gradient for these fluids.
z ,
= m
1% In' 2
(1.4.32)
A pseudoplastic fluid is modeled with an exponent n < 1. For n = 1, m = p; and Equation (1.4.32) reduces to Newton's law of viscosity.
Chapter I : Essentials
31
A dilatant fluid, such as some suspensions, has a behavior such that the apparent viscosity increases as the velocity gradient increases. The harder you "push," the more the fluid "resists" (not unlike many people  but this is engineering, not psychology). Curve (d) in Fig. 1.4.31 represents a dilatant fluid. This type of fluid is modeled with the power law model, Equation (1.4.32), with an exponent n >1.
A viscoelastic fluid such as rubber cement has strain recovery or recoil when stress is removed. A simple mechanical analog of a viscoelastic fluid is that of a dashpot and a spring connected in series as in Figure 1.4.32.
spring
w
I
dashpot
1
1
applied force
Figure 1.4.32 Mechanical analog of viscoelasticity
The dashpot (analogous to an automotive shock absorber) taken in isolation is analogous to a viscous fluid the spring in isolation is analogous to the elastic behavior of a solid. When force is applied, the spring stretches (proportional to the displacement) and the dashpot moves (proportional to the rate of displacement). When force is released, the dashpot remains in place but the spring recoils andor oscillates depending on the degree of damping. Viscoelastic fluid models include a "spring constant" and timedependent behavior

(1.4.33)
where h is the elastic term. Other types of nonNewtonian fluids exhibit timedependent behavior. These fluids often said to exhibit "memory." This is because the fluid appears to
32
Chapter I : Essentials
remember what happened to it in the immediate past; that is, how long it has been sheared andor stretched. Thixotropic fluids show a decrease in apparent viscosity with time under constant rate of shear. Rheopectic fluids show an increase in apparent viscosity with time under constant rate of shear. We have used simplified examples to introduce complex fluid behavior. Although we will not discuss complex fluids in great detail, they are extremely important in industry. For example, many textile fibers are made by extrusion of a polymer melt, a highly nonNewtonian fluid. In pipeline flow we can sometimes cause useful drag reduction by adding a polymer which induces nonNewtonian behavior in the fluid. Many mixing processes in the synthetic rubber industry involve mixing of fluids which behave in a nonNewtonian manner. Production of such simple cosmetic articles as toothpaste, face cream, etc. involves flow of complex fluids  frequently with the accompanying problems of heat transfer and sometimes mass transfer. This large and very interesting area of fluid mechanics is still developing rapidly. For further information there are a wide range of multiple resources, from the applied to the theoretical. The reader might find a starting point in one of the references cited bel0w.1~
1.4.4
Compressible vs. incompressible flows
Flows in which the density variation in the fluid can be neglected may be modeled as incompressible,even fluids usually thought of as compressible, such as gases. Only if the density variation must be considered are the flows modeled as compressible. Most liquid flows can be modeled as incompressible. (Cavitation is an exception.) Gas flows at low speeds can frequently be modeled as incompressible. For values of the Mach number (another dimensionless group, which represents the ratio of the local velocity to the speed of sound) less than 0.3, the error is less than 5% in assuming incompressible behavior. For Mach
l 8 Tadmor, 2. and C. Gogos (1979). Principles o Polymer Processing. New York, NY, f John Wiley and Sons; Dealy, J. M. and K. F. Weissbrun (1990). Melt Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold; Mashelkar, R. A., A. S. Mujumdar, et al., Eds. (1989). Transport Phenomena in Polymeric Systems. Chichester, W. Sussex, England, Ellis Horwood, Ltd.; Joseph, D. D. (1990). Fluid Dynumics of Viscoelastic Liquids. New York, NY, SpringerVerlag; Bird,R. B., R. C. Armstrong, et al. (1987). Dynamics o Polymeric Liquids: Volume I Fluid Mechanics. f New York, NY, Wiley; Bird,R. B., C. F. Curtis, et al. (1987). Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids: Volume 2 Kinetic Theory. New York, NY, Wiley.
Chapter I : Essentials
33
numbers greater than 0.3, gases normally should be modeled as compressible fluids.
1.5 Averages
We make extensive use of the concept of average, particularly in conjunction with areaaveraged velocity, bulk or mixingcup temperature, and bulk or mixingcup concentration,all of which are attributes of flowing streams. All averages we will use may be subsumed under the generalized concept of average discussed below. Among other uses, averages link microscopic models to macroscopic models, the variables in the macroscopic models being space and/or time averages of the variables in the microscopic models. Time averages are used as models for velocity fields in turbulent flow, where the rapid local fluctuations in velocity are often either not mathematically tractable or not of interest.
1.5.1
Y = f(J0
General concept of average
In one dimension, consider a function
(1.5.11)
By the average value of y with respect to x we mean a number such that, if we multiply it by the range on x, we get the same result as would be obtained by integrating y over the same range. We write this definition as
Yaverag (b  a) = yx (b  a)
l=yf(x)dx
(1.5.12)
We use the overbar to indicate an average and subscript(s)to indicate with respect to which variable(s) the average is taken.19If it is clear with respect to which variable the average is taken, we will omit the subscript. This definition can be rewritten as
l 9 There is obviously overlap between this notation and the notation sometimes used for partial derivatives. The context will always make the distinction clear in cases treated here. There are also a number of notations used for special averages, such as the area average and bulk quantities. Treatment of these follows.
34
Chapter I : Essentials
(1.5.13)
where we have omitted the subscript because there is only one independent variable with respect to which the average can be taken. This same definition can be extended to the m e where y is a function of many variables. We define the average of y with respect to x,, as
(1.5.14)
Sometimes we take the average with respect to more than one independent variable; to do this we integrate over the second, third, etc., variables as well. 6 For example, the average of y with respect to XI,X , and x47 is
(1.5.15)
Notation for averages does not always distinguish with respect to which variables they are taken. This information must be known in order to apply an average proprly, as must the range over which the average is taken. We will in this course of study frequently use three particular averages: the area average, the time average, and the bulk average.
le 1.5.11 Timeavera pe vs distga ceavergge
SD&
Suppose I drive from Detroit to Chicago (300 miles), and upon arrival am asked "What was your average speed?" If I answer, "60mph," I am probably thinking somewhat as follows: My speed vs. time (neglecting short periods of acceleration and deceleration) might be approximatedby the following:
Chapter I : Essentials
First 45 minutes  speed about 40 mph during time to get out of Detroit Stopped for 15minutecoffee break Resumed driving, drove a 70 mph (exceeding speed limit by t 5 mph) for 3.5 hours Passed highway accident, reduced speed to 50 mph for last 30 minutes to Chicago city limits
35
A plot of my approximate speed versus time, s = f(t), is shown in Figure 1.5.11.
i
ACTUAL SPEED, MPH
Figure 1.5.11 Timeaverage speed for travel between two points
Here speed is the dependent variable and time the independent variable:
s = f(t)
The distance traveled is the integral of speed by time.
(1.5.16)
By declaring my average speed to be 60 mph, I mean that multiplying 60 mph, the average speed, by the elapsed time of 5 hours will yield the total distance, 300 mi. In Figure 1.5.11 this means that the area beneath the line at
36
Chapter I : Essentials
the average speed is the same as the integral of the actual speed vs. time curve. Writing this in the form of our definition of average we have:
S tinv a m a g e
(0.75 0) (40) 
+ (1  0.75) (0) + (4.5  1) (70) + (5  4.5) (50)
(5  0) hr
(1.5.17)
Note that we could, however, equally well regard speed as a function of distance, x, not time, t, and get another function s = g(x) as shown in Figure 1.5.12.

10
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
DISTANCE, MILES
Figure 1.5.12 Distanceaverage speed for travel between two points
This new function tells me how fast I was going as a function of where I was rather than what time it was. I can equally well define an average speed based on this function
Chapter I : Essentials
37
[
(30  0 ) (40) + (275  30) (70) + (300  275) (50) mi (300  0)mi
I =
(1.5.18)
(mi)* 19,600 hr = 65.3 300 mi hr This average speed is different, since it is intended to be used differently. Instead of multiplying by elapsed time we multiply by elapsed distance to get the integral:
coo
g(x) dx = (300) mi (65.3)
= 19,590h r
(mi)
(1.5.19)
The integral of g(x), however, does not have the intuitive appeal of the integral of f(t) in the numerator of the righthand side of Equation (1.5.17), which is the total distance traveled.
152 ..
Velocity averages
There are two primary averages that are used in conjunction with fluid velocity, although many are possible: areaaveraged velocities, and timeaveraged velocities
Areaaveraged velocity
A special average that is used frequently enough to deserve a unique notation is the areaaveraged velocity, <v>, which is defined as a number such that, if it is multiplied by the basis area through which the fluid is flowing, yields the volumetric flow rate.
38
Chapter 1: Essentials
(1521)
This is clearly just a special case of our definition of general average above, where the average here is with respect to area?O We must be careful to get the signs correct when using areaaveraged velocities or volumetric flow rates. The equation above will give the correct sign (positive for output, negative for input) for substituting in equations applied to a particular system or control volume; however, when written standing alone (not in a balance equation) the absolute value of the areaaveraged velocity or volumetric flow rate is usually implied, without explicitly writing the absolute value sign, even when it might be appropriate. For example, when simply giving values for a system where the subscript 1 denotes input conditions (cos a is negative) it is usual to write, for example
(1522) o r
(v)* = 1 s 0 ft
(1 s.23)
and the reader is expected to insert the sign that is appropriate when substituting
in the balance for the particular system, rather than writing
(1.5.24)
M
(1525) Any area could be chosen for the basis area for the areaaveraged velocity; however, in practice the basis is usually either
In doing the actual integration, it is of course necessary to express A in terms of the appropriate coordinates  e.g., dA = dx dy  and insert the appropriate limits.
2o
Chapter 1: Essentials
1) the area normal to flow,or
39
2) the surface area (of the control volume) through which the flow is passing
ed velocrtv for l w a r DW
now
The velocity profile for laminar flow of liquid in a horizontal pipe of radius R is given by the HagenPoiseuille “law”  although it is not a law in the strict sense of the word (we will derive this relationship in Chapter 6)
(1526) which is sketched in Figure 1.5.21. At z = 0,p = pl; at z = L, p = p2.
1
0.5
r/R
O.
0.5
10
1
.
1
.
0.5
1
Figure 1.5.21 Velocity profile
a) Find the areaaveraged velocity in terms of the maximum (centerline) velocity
40
Chapter I : Essentials
b) A pressure drop of 104 psi per foot is imposed on water at
7 0 9 flowing in a tube with 1 inch inside diameter. Calculate the areaaveraged velocity. Viscosity of water is 1 cP.*'
So 1u t ion
a) The maximum (centerline) velocity is
Vz,nIax

4pL
r=O

(PI  P2) R2 4pL
(1.5.27)
Calculating the areaaveraged velocity using the positive sign for the dot product
Jo
 (PI 9 2 ) R2 4pL
21
Perry, R. H. and D.W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New
York, McGrawHill, pp. 3252.
Chapter 1: Essentials
41
 (PI P2) R’ T  T  4pL R2 2
IR2 R21
(1.5.28)
Taking the ratio of the two velocities
(1 529)
so for laminar tube flow the areaaveraged velocity is half the centerline velocity
b) For the given conditions
(v,) = 0.15 ft
( 104) $ ! in
(8) ( 1 ) C P
(0.5)’ in2
(6.72 x 104) lbm cp ft s (1) ft
(32.2) lbm ft lbf s2
(1 .5.210)
T i mmerug ed velocity A second velocity average that will be of considerable utility to us (e.g., in our discussion of turbulence) is the timeaveraged point velocity. This velocity is a direct application of our definition of general average, and is illustrated by the following example.
42
Chapter 1: Essentials
Timeaveraged velocitv for turbulent flow
Examde 1.5.22
Turbulent flow involves rapid fluctuations in time of tbe velocity at a point. We can represent the velocity in time at any point as the sum of a timeaveraged component and a fluctuation
I v = v+v' 1
Where
(1.5.211)
v = v(x,, t)
v=
lo lo
v dt
dt
v' = v'(x,, t)
(1.5.2 12)
Notice that the timeaveraged velocity may depend on the time to over which the average is taken if velocity is not constant in time (if the average velocity is increasing or decreasing with time). The average magnitude of fluctuations can also vary with time. We assume that our time interval over which the timeaverage is taken is long compared to the period of fluctuations, but short with respect to changes in the time average.
The velocity profile for timeaveraged velocity for turbulent flow of liquid in a horizontal pipe of radius R is modeled reasonably well by the 1/7 power distribution originally proposed by Prandtl.22
22
Schlichting, H. (1960).Boundary Layer Theory, McGrawHill, p. 506.
Chapter I : Essentials
43
vz
= v,,
[1 (&)I+
(1 5213)
Calculate the areaaveraged, timeaveraged velocity in terms of the maximum (centerline) velocity.
Soht ion
Using the definition
2 x R2p ,
s, [ (+)I+
R
1
d(+)
(1 5214)
substituting z = (1  r/R)
44
Chapter 1: Essentials
(1.5.215)
1.5.3
Temperature averages
The bulk temperature, Tb,is defrned as the temperature that would result if the fluid flowing were permitted to exit the system through the basis area and were caught in a cup and mixed perfectly. For this reason it is sometimes called the mixing cup temperature. Using the energy balance this implies
(1.5.31)
Notice that the weighting here is not simply with respect to area, but with respect to energy flow rate. We usually apply bulk temperatures in models for which either or both of heat capacity and density may be taken as constant across the flow crosssection.23If the heat capacity is constant across the flow crosssection and can be canceled in the numerator and denominator, the weighting becomes with respect to mass flow rate.
Otherwise we would have to define an average heat capacity or density in addition to the bulk temperature, which would result in the definition of one average depending upon how another average was defined  a situation ripe for ambiguity.
23
Chapter I : Essentials
4s
(1.5.32)
If, in addition, the density is constant across the crosssection, the weighting lw is with respect to volumetric f o rate. I A T(v . n) dA
J' (v  n )dA
(1.5.33)
At tmes we also make the assumption that the velxity is constant across the flow crosssection (sometimes called plug flow or rodlike flow), and then the weighting becomes with respect to area (the same weighting as we used above for the velocity).
(1.5.34)
It is only under the additional constraints of constant density, heat capacity, and velocity that the areaaverage temperature is equivalent to the bulk temperature. The definition of a bulk enthalpy or mixing cup enthalpy follows directly from assuming constant heat capacity in the definition of bulk temperature and inserting the definition of enthalpy Tb
J*, c, p (v  n) dA
=
cp p (v  n) dA T
(1.5.35)
lTbc,p(vn)dA = lt,Tp(vn)dA subtracting
(1 5 3  6 )
from each side gives
46
Chapter I : Essentials
Using the definition of enthalpy
A = cp TRf) (Tand defining
b '
(1 5 3  8 )
cIp (Tb
 'mf)
(1.5.39)
gives, upon substitution I*flb(vn)dA E L n ( v  n ) d A
(1.5.310)
Dle 1.5.31
Areaavergge tempeLBture vs. bulk t e m p e r a m
Assume that we model the axial velocity in a pipe as lamina flow (cf. Example 1.5.21)
v, =
(PI  P2) R2 14PL
[
(a)']
I
(1.5.31 1)
Assume that the temperature distribution across the crosssection may be modeled as the simple linear profile
(1.5.3 12)
Where
Chapter 1: Essentials
47
TR = temperature at r = R (at the pipe wall) = 5OOF TO = temperature at r = 0 (at the center line) = lOOOF
Calculate the areaaverage tempemture and the bulk temperature.
Solution
Rearranging the temperature profile
T = (I;)(T~T~)+T,
(1 5 3  1 3 )
Using the areaaverage temperature (applicable for plug flow with constant heat capacity and density across the flow crosssection) gives
=
4
(TO
 TR) + (TR)
( 1 .5.3 14)
(T) = $(lOO5O)P+(50)”F = 67°F

48
Chapter I : Essentials
In contrast, using the definition of bulk temperature and the definition of areaavemged velocity
Substituting the temperature and velocity profiles and grouping the constants
= 2
[To  7 4 (PI P2) R2 4pL
(4
I
I
(1.5.316)
Using the relationship developed in Example 1.5.11 to simplify the constants (1.5.317)
= 2 [To  Ts]
Chapter I : Essentials
49
Substituting
( 1.5.3 19)
Substituting for the dummy variables of integration to simplify notation Tb = 4 [To  Ts]
1'
[X
 X2  X3 + X 4 ] dX
(1 5320)
Tb = 4[T0 Ts][$f$+$]'
0
53= 0.467 [To  T8]+ T8
Tb = (0.467)(100 50) "F+ (50) "F = 73.4 "F
(15322)
The bulk temperature is higher than the areaaveraged temperature for this case because the flow velocity is higher toward the center of the tube where the temperature is higher, and this weights the average more heavily with the higher temperatures.
50
Chapter I : Essentials
Bulk teture
for auadratic temperature
For the flow situation described in Example 1.5.11, suppose the temperature distribution in the water to be given by:
(1.5.323)
To = 1 4 O q = centerline temperature Ts = 5@F = walltemperature
Calculate the bulk temperature for the given conditions.
Solution
Solving the profile for T
T = [ToTs]1
[ $(;)'++(;)']
+T,
(1.5.324)
Using the definition of bulk temperature and the definition of areaaveraged velocity
Substituting the temperature and velocity profiles and grouping the constants
Chapter I : Essentials
51
(1.5.326)
Defining new constants for compactness in notation
(1 5327)
(15328)
Substituting x = (r/R)2 to simplify notation
52
Chapter I : Essentials
(15329)
(15330)
Tb = 0.306p I + 0.5 P2 = (0.306) (2) [To T,]+ (0.5) (2) [T,] = 0.612 To 0.388 Ts = (0.612) (140) + (0.388) (50) +
Tb = 105°F
(15331)
1.5.4
Concentration averages
The bulk concentration is defined in a way similar to the bulk temperature, but with concentration substituted for enthalpy. The bulk mass concentration of species A, UAb, is defined as the concentration that would result if the fluid flowing were permitted to exit the system through the basis area and were caught in a cup and mixed perfectly. For this reason it is sometimes called the mixing cup concentration. We define the bulk concentration only for models which assume total mass density and total molar density to be constant across tbe flow crosssection, for the same reason as for assuming constant properties in the case of bulk temperature.
A we define the bulk mass concentration using the condition
Letting OA represent the instantaneous point mass concentration of species
(@A)b
J A
P ('
.) dA
I,
O A
P
('  ) '
dA
(1541)
For the special but common case that p = constant
Chapter I : Essentials
53
(aA)b
I, ('
..) = dA
I,
( ..) dA
(15 4  2 )
Since the definition is analogous to that of bulk temperature, we have again used the subscript b to denote the bulk condition. Since
0 [total mass] Q , 
massA
[totalmass1 = [Y] vol
pA
=
A
molA [totalmol ] c [ totalmol] M [massA] vol iax
(1.5.43)
(where p and c are, respectively, the t t l mass concentration and the total molar oa concentration) by substituting in the definition for bulk mass concentration we obtain (x,,)~cM =
xAc M (v n) dA

(1.5.44)
For the special but common case that c = constant
54
Chapter 1: Essentials
L
I
(1 5 4  5 )
Similarly, for constant p and c, using m 1 A ,mtalmol = C A m o l A t; mol o vol vol massA totalmass = massA vol P A vol totalmass P gives
(1 546)
(' .) dA
*
(cA)b
E
(1 547)
Suppose that for the same pipe flow problem the concentration profile is represented by
CAOc ACAR CA R
= l  i
(1.5.48)
Where
CA = cm = 0.01 moles/ft3 at r = R
CA = cAO
= 0.02 moledft3 at r = O
Chapter I : Essentials
Calculate the bulk concentration.
Solution
Solving for the concentration profile explicitly in terns of CA
Since here
v  n = v,
(1.5.410)
the appropriate relationship for bulk concentration is
(1.5.411) Using the concentration profile above, the HagenPoiseuillevelocity profile
vz
=
"
PI P2) R2 4 p L ][1(6)']
(1.5.412)
and the corresponding areaavemged velocity
(1.5.413)
to substitute in the equation for bulk concentration gives
56
Chapter I : Essentials
+I,
R
[1(k)~]2xrdr
(1.5.416)
(1.5.417)
letting y = r/R
Chapter I : Essentials
57
(1.5.422)
1.5.5 Arithmetic, logarithmic, and geometric means
We will later have many occasions to use three different averages24 the of value of a given quantity at two conditions. The arithmetic mean of 8 evaluated at condition 1 and condition 2 is defined as
(1.5.51)
The arithmetic mean is often referred to simply as the mean without qualifying adjective, and conventionally one assumes the arithmetic mean is the one intended if no qualifying adjective is appended. The logarithmic mean of 8 evaluated at condition 1 and condition 2 is defined as
Logarithmicmean E (1552)
24
Mean and average denote the same quantity.
58
Chapter I : Essentials The geometric mean of 8 evaluated at condition 1 and condition 2 is
[Geometricmean
Clehedas
+/I
(1.5.53)
The geometric mean frequently has utility in problems whose natural description is in spherical coordinates. The logarithmic mean is often abbreviated to log mean. It frequently has utility in problems whose natural description is in cylindrical coordinates. Notice that natural logarithms are required, not logarithms to the base 10, which would yield a different number. The logarithmic mean is symmetrical
(1.5.54)
Two cases of the log mean are worth examining.
CWI: e1 >
epo
(1.5.55)
In this case the numerator is positive, the fraction in the denominator is positive and greater than 1, so the logarithm is positive, and the resulting log mean is positive.
ca~e : e1 c ez c o 11
(1.5.56)
In this case the numerator is negative, the fraction in the denominator is positive and greater than 1, so the logarithm is positive, and the resulting log mean is negative. This shows that the log mean preserves the sign of the original quantities if they are both positive or both negative. Notice that the log mean of quantities which differ in sign is not defined, because the logarithm of a negative number is Undefined.
Chapter 1: Essentials
Example 1.5.51 Case examdes of loparithmic mean
59
Compute the logarithmic mean of the following quantities:
So1u t ion
(1 5 5  7 )
Case I
(1 5 5  8 )
Case
I1
(1.5.59)
. . on o f loParithmic mean b t
For ease in calculation, it is sometimes desirable to model the logarithmic mean of two quantities, A and B, by the arithmetic mean. To determine the error introduced in this approximation,consider the function
60
Chapter I : Essentials
Arithmeticmean[A,B] Logarithmicmean [A, B]
 l [~T]  ( e + l )
In
A+B
(&)
(1.5.510)
The following plot shows this function.
m^
z
P w
t
U
2
4
P
a
A/B
A discrepancy of less than 1% is obtained between ratios of 0.7 to 1.O. At a ratio of 0.5 the error is still less than 5%. The discrepancy is less than 10% clear down to the value of 0.33. Outside of these limits the error grows rapidly, a! can ! be seen.
1.6 Scalars, Vectors, Tensors and Coordinate Systems
1.6.1
The viscous stress tensor
In the same way that a vector, which is a firstorder tensor, associates a scalar (its component), which is a zeroorder tensor, with each direction in space,
Chapter I : Essentials
61
higherorder tensors associate tensors of one lower order with each direction in space. A secondorder tensor associates a vector with each direction in space.
tensor
A secondorder tensor that will be of much use to us is the viscous stress
(1.6.11)
This tensor returns, for any direction in space, a vector that represents the viscous stress on a surface whose outward normal coincides with this direction in
Spice.
Another secondorder tensor that will be of use to us is the total stress tensor
T =
1 1
Tll Tl2
T1 2
T13 T2, T23 = T + p 6
T32 T33
T31
(1.6.12)
This tensor returns, for any direction in space, a vector that represents the viscous stress (momentum flux) plus the pressure stress on a surface whose outward n o d coincides with this direction in space.
Components of the viscous stress tensor
If we take the dot product of the viscous stress tensor successively with the rectangular Cartesian coordinate directions, we find first that for the 1 or xdirection
(1.6.13)
62
Chapter I : Essentials
Similarly, for the 2 (y) and 3 (z) directions
This shows that the columns (or rows, since the viscous stress tensor is symmetric) furnish the components of the vectors that represent the viscous stresses in the respective coordinate directions. We now illustrate the geometric significance of the above equations. In Figure 1.6.11(a) we have shown an arbitrarily oriented surface, A, with its outwardly directed unit normal n, and the surface traction vector, r, that some particular stress tensor associates with the direction in space indicated by n. The vector 'c can be decomposed into a vector in the normal direction, T ~ and a , , vector lying in the plane of the surface, T ~ as indicated. Such a procedure can be carried out for any surface at an arbitrary orientation in space. Consider then the particular surfaces B, C, and D. whose outward unit normals are the basis vectors for rectangular Cartesian coordinates, 61, 82, and 83. The stress tensor will return an appropriate surface traction for each of these directions in space, indicated in the figure by r1, q ,and 13. Each of these vectors may be decomposed into a vector in the direction of the outward normal and a vector lying in the plane of the surface. (Remember that we deal with only one of these vectors at a time  we choose one direction, the tensor gives us back one vector  despite the appearance from the figure that all three vectors appear simultaneously.)
Figure 1.6.11 (a) Vectors associated by a particular viscous stress tensor with the direction of the rectangular Cartesian axes
Chapter 1: Essentials
63
Because of the orientation of the surfaces chosen, the vector lying in the plane of the surface can be further decomposed into its components along the coordinate axes that were used to determine that particular surface. We show in Figure 1.6.11 (a) the vectors associated with each face (coordinate direction in space), and, in addition, in Figure 1.6.11 (b) show the 3direction vector decomposed into its component vectors along the rectangular Cartesian axes. These component vectors can also be written in terms of the scalar components multiplied by the appropriate basis vector.
z'63
4
6i z i j 6 3 j = 6, 2 3 + 6 , 2 2 3 1
+ 6 3 233
(1.6.1 5)
x3
I
the 3direction
Figure 1.6.11 (b) Vector associated with decomposed into its components
1.6.2
Types of derivatives
There are three types of derivatives that we shall meet in our consideration of fluid mechanics.
Partial derivative
If a scalar function written as
@(XI,
x2, x3, t)
has a total diflerential, it may be
64
Chapter I : Essentials
which is most often written omitting the indication of what is held constant in each partial derivative as
(1.6.22)
The coefficient of the first term is the partial derivative with respect to time
(1.6.23)
which gives the time rate of change of the function Q, at a point in space.
Total derivative
By dividing by dt, the total differential can be written as the total time derivative
(1.6.24)
This expression represents the change in time of the function (dWdt) as we move about with arbitrary velocities in the coordinate directions (dxl/dt, dxZ/dt, dx3/dt).
Substantial derivative, material derivative, derivative following the motion
If we constrain the motion to follow the motion of the individual fluid particles, we obtain the substantial derivative or material derivative or derivative following the motion, given by
Chapter 1: Essentials
65
=
a,,a+viaio
(1.6.25)
where a, refers to the partial derivative with respect to time. The substantial derivative can be written in operator form as
(1.6.26)
Dle 1.6.21
Rate o f c e
o f Dollen densitv
Suppose that you are a sufferer with hay fever who decides to seek relief by going aloft in a blimp. Let Q, represent the grains of pollen per unit volume at any point at any time (pollen count). Let our reference coordinate axis system be rectangular Cartesian coordinates fixed to the surface of the earth.
Before you take off, while the blimp is still stationary but with the wind blowing past, if you put your head out of the window your nose will experience a rate of change in pollen count which corresponds to the partial derivative of @ with respect to time, a@/& (because the velocity in each of the coordinate directions is zero). After the blimp takes off, and is ascending to altitude at some arbitrary velocity (speed and direction), suppose you again open the window and put out your head. Your nose will experience a rate of change in pollen count described by dWdt, because the blimp now has non zero velocity components with respect to the coordinate axes. Suppose now that after some time aloft the pilot shuts off the engine, so that the blimp (assumed to be neutrally buoyant, or weightless) acts like a free balloon and is carried by the air at the velocity of the wind. Now if you put your head out of the window your nose will experience a rate of change in pollen count described by the substantial derivative, DWDt, because your velocity now corresponds to the velocity of the fluid  you are following the motion of thefluid
(air)
66
Chapter I : Essentials
b
(1.6.27)
1.6.3
Transport theorem
Since our study here is fluids, which are frequently continuously deforming, it is often convenient to adopt the Lagrangian viewpint, where we ride on a fluid particle to observe changes in our variables rather than taking the Eulerian viewpoint of an observer fixed to the ground. The substantial derivative for a general Cartesian tensor is sometimes denoted by a dot in the superscript position
Consider now how the volume integral of some tensorial property of the continuum, Tkl..., changes as we move with the fluid.
(1.6.32)
where the integral is taken at some time t.
Chapter I : Essentials
67
Figure 1.6.31 Motion of continuum
In Figure 1.6.31, consider the points that at time t are in V, the volume interior to S . In some time At, these points will move to the volume V', interior to S'. Points which are on the elemental surface dS will move to dS'. By the definition of the material derivative which declares it to be the time rate of change following the motion of the continuum, we then have that
(1.6.33) However, we see that those points common to both V and V' will generate terms in the numerator which involve only the change in time, not in space. Denoting this common volume as VV', we can write, since V = VV' + (V VV') and V' = VV' + (V'  VV')
68
Chapter I : Essentials
+
(v w),t
At
(1.6.34)
The first term in the limit gives the partial derivative of the integral with respect to time. For convenience we denote V  VV' as VA and V'  VV' as VB. B y recognizing that the volumes not common to V and V' can be written in terms of the elemental volumes swept out by the elemental surfaces as indicated dV, = (v n) dS
a
dv, = ( v . n ) d S the second term can be written as
(1.6.35)
(1.6.36)
giving the result
(1.6.37)
We can apply the Gauss theorem to the second term
Chapter I : Essentials
69
(1.6.38)
If Ikl,. has a constant value for the region of the continuum under consideration (a conserved quantity), then I'kl.. = 0. If this is to be true for arbitrary values of the volume, the only way it can be true is for the integrand above to be zero. We will use this argument several times in our course of study to obtain microscopic equations from macroscopic balances.
Chapter 1
Problems
1.1 At the end of June your checkbook balance is $356. During July you wrote $503 in checks and deposited $120. What is your balance (accumulation) at the end of July? What is your accumulation rate per day in July?
1.2 At the end of January your parts warehouse contains 35,133 parts. During February you sold 21,316 parts from the warehouse and manufactured 3,153 which were added to the warehouse. How many parts are in the warehouse at the end of February? 1.3 What are the conversion factors for:
Newtons (N) to pounds force (lbf) Pascals (Pa) to pounds force per square inch (lbf/in2) Watts (W) to horsepower (hp) meters CUM (m3) to quarts (qt)
1.4 To convert between English Units and SI units calculate conversion factors for the following:
1 lbf to Newtons (N) 1 lbf/in2 to Pascal (Pa) 1 BTU to Joules (J) 1 hp to Watts (W) I quart to m3
1.5 Two infinite plates are separated 0.01 in. by a liquid with a viscosity of 1.1 centipise (cP). The top plate moves at a velocity of 0.3 ft/s. The bottom plate is stationary. If the velocity decreases linearly from the top plate through the fluid to the bottom plate, what is the shear stress on each plate?
70
Chapter 1: Essentials
1.6 Two infinite plates are separated 0.2 mm by a liquid with viscosity of 0.9 cP. The top plate moves at a velocity of 0.1 m/s; the bottom plate is stationary. Assume velocity decreases linearly through the fluid to 0 at the bottom plate. What is the shear stress on each plate? 1.7 The expression for velocity vx, for fluid flow between two parallel plates is
2B is plate separation, L is length of the two plates, (ppp2) is the pressure drop causing flow and p is the fluid viscosity. Determine the expression for the average velocity, <vx>. 1.8 If the coordinate system in problem 1.7 is changed to the bottom plate of the slit and the expression for velocity is
Determine the average velocity, e x > . 1.9 The relationship
3 3 3
v  w = C i v,  C i w, = z i ( v ,  w , ) = v,  w,
i=1
i=l
i=l
shows how to transform symbolic vector notation to index vector notation. D o the same for a. The product of a scalar and a vector s v b. The scalar product of two vectors v w c. Thecrossproductoftwovectors v x w 1.10 Show that
a x (b x c) = a (b c)
 c(a b)
1.11 Show that
Chupter 1: Essentials
71
f : v v = v .f (
v)
V.
(V. ?)
1.12 The sketch shows rectangular and spherical coordinates where
Show the relations for two coordinate systems, i.e., x = x(r,8, +), y = y(r, 8, 40, z = z(r98, 0 . )
1.13 The sketch shows rectangular and cylindrical coordinates, where
The coordinates are related by x = r cos 8,y = r sin 8 and z = z. Apply the chain rule and show the relationshipsbetween the derivatives.
72
Chapter I : Essentials
2
THE MASS BALANCES
We are concerned in this course of study with mass, energy, and momentum. We will proceed to apply the entity balance to each in tun. There also are subclassifications of each of these quantities that are of interest. In terms of mass, we are often concerned with accounting for both total mass and mass of a species.
2.1 The Macroscopic Mass Balances
Consider a system of an arbitrary shape fixed in space as shown in Figure 2.11. V refers to the volume of the system, A to the surface area. AA is a small increment of surface area; AV is a small incremental volume inside the system; v is the velocity vector, here shown as an input; n is the outward normal; a is the angle between the velocity vector and the outward normal, here greater than ~t radians or 180° because the velocity vector and the outward normal fall on opposite sides of AA.
\
V
Figure 2.11 System for mass balances
73
74
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
Using the continuum assumption, the density can be modeled functionally
by
(2.11)
2.1.1
The macroscopic total mass balance
total mass. Since total mass will be conserved in processes we consider, the generation term will be zero.
We now apply the entity balance, written in terms of rates, term by term to
output
input
accumulation
The total mass in AV is approximately
P AV
(2.1 12)
0
where p is evaluated at any point in AV and At.
The total mass in V can be obtained by summing over all of the elemental volumes in V and taking the limit as AV approaches zero
(2.1.13)
Accumulution of mass First examine the rate of accumulation term. The accumulation (not rate of accumulation) over time At is the difference between the mass in the system at some initial time t and the mass in the system at the later time t + At.
I
duringAt
J
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
7 . 5
(2.1.14)
The rate of accumulation is obtained by taking the limit rate of accumulation of total mass in V
(2.1.15)
Input and output of mass The rate of input and rate of output terms may be evaluated by considering an arbitrary small area AA on the surface of the control volume. The velocity vector will not necessarily be normal to the surface. The approximate volumetric flow rate' through the elemental area AA can be written as the product of the velocity normal to the area evaluated at some point within AA multiplied by the area.
r
volumetric flow rate through AA
(2.1.1 6)
Notice that the volumetric flow rate written above will have a negative sign for inputs (where a > n) and a positive sign for outputs (where a c x ) and so the appropriate sign will automatically be associated with either input or output terms, making it no longer necessary t distinguish between input and output. o The approximate mass flow rate through AA can be written by multiplying the volumetric flow rate by the density at some point in AA
We frequently need to refer to the volumetric flow rate independent of a control volume. In doing so we use the symbol Q and restrict it to the ahsolute value
Q
= kI(v*n)ldA
76
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
[F]
I$[]
(2.1.17)
The mass flow rate through the total external surface area A can then be written as the limit of the sum of the flows through all the elemental AAs as the elemental areas approach zero. N t c that in the limit it no longer matters where oie in the individual AA we evaluate velocity or density, since a unique point is approached f r each elemental =a.* o mass through A
= l A p (v n) dA
(2.1.18)
Substitution in the entity balance then gives the macroscopic total mass balance Total mass
output
rate
1 ] [
Total mass
input
rate
+
accumulation = 0 T:s o] ; a
We Erequently need to refer to the mass flow rate independent of a control volume. In doing so we use the symbol w and restrict it to the ahsolute value
w = IApl(vn)ldA
For constant density systems w = p Q
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.1.19)
77
l/Ap(vn)dA+$lvpdV = 0 woutwin+9 = 0
We can use the latter form of the balance if we know total flow rates and the change in mass of the system with time; otherwise, we must evaluate the integrals. In some cases, where density is constant o areaaveraged velocities are r known, this is simple, as detailed below. Otherwise, we must take into account the variation of velocity and density across inlets and outlets and of density within the system
Simplijied forms of the macroscopic total mass balance
Many applications involve constant density systems. Further, our interest is often only in total flow into or out of the system rather than the manner in which flow velocity varies across inlet and outlet crosssections. Such problems are usually discussed in terms of areaaverage velocities. The areaaverage velocity is simply a number that, if multiplied by the flow crosssection,gives the Same result as integrating the velocity profile across the flow crosssection, i.e., the total volumetric flow rate. (So it is really the area average of the normal component of velocity.)
In such cases
(2.1.110) which can be written in terms of mass flow rate as (2.1.111) or in volumetric flow rate (V)Aout(v)A,,,+% = 0
78
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.1.1 12)
m D l e 2.1.11
Mass balance on a surge ta&
Tanks3 are used for several purposes in processes. The most obvious is for storage. They are also used for m x n and as chemical reactors. Another purpose iig of tankage is to supply surge capacity to smooth out variations in process flows; e.g., to hold material produced at a varying rate upstream until units downstream are ready to receive it. Consider the surge tank shown in Figure 2.1.11.
10 f t
Figure 2.1.11 Surge tank
Suppose water is being pumped into a 10ft diameter tank at the rate of 10 ft3/min. If the tank were initially empty, and if water were to leave the tank at a rate dependent on the liquid level according to the relationship Qout = 2h (where the units of the constant 2 are [ft2/min],of Q are [ft3/min],and of h are [ft]), find the height of liquid in the tank as a function of time.
So 1u t ion
This situation is adequately modeled by constant density for water, so (2.1.113)
“Tank” is here used in the generic sense as a volume used to hold liquid enclosed or partially enclosed by a shell of some sort of solid material. In process language, a distinction is often made among holding tanks, mixers, and reactors.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
79
2 h min  10
[e] [g]$ [&](,q0 + h) =
[ft3]
(2.1.1 14) (2.1.1 15)
h5+39.3$
 39.3
=0
I,(4
___
5h
=
dt
(2.1.116)
(2.1.1 17) (2.1.118)
t =  39.3 In
[v]
h = 5[Lexp(&)]ft
(2.1.119)
Note that as time approaches infinity, the tank level stabilizes at 5 ft. It is usually desirable that surge t n levels stabilize before the tank overflows for ak reasons of safety if nothing else. The inlet flow should not be capable of being driven to a larger value than the outlet flow. From a safety standpoint it would be important to examine the input flow rate to make sure it is the maximum to be expected, and to make sure that the exit flow rate is realistic  for example, could a valve be closed or the exit piping be obstructed in some other way, e.g., fouling or plugging by debris (perhaps a rag left in the tank after cleaning), such that the exit flow becomes proportional to some constant with numerical value less than 2. Overflow could be serious even with cool water because of damage to records or expensive equipment; with hot, toxic, andor corrosive liquids the hazard could be severe.
. circular DW .nle 2.1.12 rn
. . Volumetric flow rate o f flurd rn l&ar
flow
The (axially symmetric) velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow in a smooth tube of constant circular crosssection is
80
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
v = v,[l
(321
(2.1.1 20)
Calculate the volumetric flowrate.
Solution
Choose the flow direction to be the zdirection. a) Since we are not referring the volumetric flow to any particular system or control volume, we use the absolute value
(2.1.121) (2.1.122)
Noting that
(2.1.123)
Q
= 2rrvm,4 R [l(&)2]rdr
(2.1.124)
(2.1.125)
R
0
(2.1.1 26) (2.1.127)
Q
= 2avma[$q
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
81
(2.1.128)
Dle 2.1.13
Air stoLgpe t a d
A tank of volume V = 0.1 m 3 contains air at 1000 kPa and (uniform) density of 6 kg/m3. At time t = 0, a valve at the top of the tank is opened to give a free area of 100 mm2 across which the air escape velocity can be assumed to be constant at 350 m / s . What is the initial rate of change of the density of air in the tank?
Solution
(2.1.129) Examining the second term
But, since the tank volume is constant, dV/dt = 0 and $ l V p d V = VdP dt The first term yields, since the only term is an output
J^*p(v.n)dA = p ( v . n ) l A d A = p v A
(2.1.131)
(2.1.132)
Substituting in the mass balance p v A + V dp = 0 dt (2.1.133)
82
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
kg = 2.1 m2s
(2.1.134)
l j x a m d e 2.1.14
Water manifold
Water is in steady flow through the manifold4 shown below, with the indicated flow directions known.
The following information is also known.
A manifold is a term loosely used in engineering to indicate a collection of pipes connected to a common region: often, a single inlet which supplies a number of outlets; e.g., the burner on a gas stove or the fuel/air intake manifold for an multicylinder internal combustion engine. If the volume of the region is large compared to the volume of the pipes, one does not ordinarily use the term manifold  for example, a number of pipes feeding into or out of a single large tank could be called but would not ordinarily be called a manifold.
Chapter 2 The Mass Balances :
83
area, determine v.4.
Assuming that velocities are constant across each individual crosssectional
Solution
We apply the macroscopic total mass balance to a system which is bounded by the solid surfaces of the manifold and the dotted lines at the fluid surfaces. jAp(v.n)dA+&lvpdV = 0 At steady state gIvpdV = 0 so SAp(vn)dA= 0
(2.1.135)
(2.1.136)
(2.1.137)
and, recognizing that at the solid surfam
("..)
=0
(2.1.138)
the macroscopic total mass balance reduces to
84
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.1.139)
Examining the first term,
jA ( v  n ) d A = p
1
lAl
(62.4)[y](8i[#n)dA
but the outward normal at A1 is in the negative xdirection, so the velocity vector at A1 and the outward normal are at an angle of 1800, giving
( i . n ) = II(IlIcos(nradians) =  1
(2.1.141)
and therefore p ( v . n) dA =  (62.4)
[T][%] =  (62.4) [T] (A1) (8) [g] =  (62.4) [T] (0.3) (8) [$]
(8)
=  1 5 1bmass 0.7
1 dA
[ft2]
(2.1.142)
Proceeding to the second term, and recognizing that this also is an input term so will have a negative sign associated with it as in the first term p ( v  n ) d A = p! (v.n)dA = pQ2
2
A2
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
=  5 lbmass 6 7
(2.1.143)
The third term, which is an output (therefore the dot product gives a positive sign), then gives
(2.1.144)
The fourth term simplifies to
p (v n) dA = p (v n)
a
4
= (25)
[v] [9] (v4 n)
= 25 (v4.n)
Substituting these results into the simplified macroscopic total mass balance
 (150)
[1 
 (56)
+
Solving
ft v4.n = 1.768
{ [y] [$I}
(25)
(v4n)
[9 + (250) [v] 1
=
The negative sign indicates that the velocity vector is in the opposite direction to the outward normal. At A4 the outward normal is in the positive ydirection; therefore, the velocity vector is in the negative ydirection, or
+
p (v . n) dA = (62.4)
[T] n)]![
(v4
IA
4
dA = p (v4  n) A 4 (0.4) [ft2]
(2.1.145)
o
(2.1.146)
(2.1.147)
86
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
v4 =
 1.76g j
(2.1.148)
Water flows into the system at b.
N t c that if had emerged from the bottom of the manifold rather than oie the top, the outward normal would have been in the negative rather than the positive ydirection, giving a velocity vector in the positive ydirection, so the resultant flow would still have been into the system  we cannot change the mass balance by simply changing the orientation of the inlet or outlet to a system (we can, of course, change the momentum balance by such a change). The reader is encouraged to change the orientation of A4 to horizontally to the left or right and prove that the mass balance is unaffected.
2.1.2
The macroscopic species mass balance
As noted earlier when we discussed conserved quantities, total mass can be modeled as conserved under processes of interest to us here. However, individual species are not, in general, conserved, especially in processes where chemical reactions occur. Chemical reaction can give a positive or negative generation of an individual species.
For example, if we feed a propaneair mixture into a combustion furnace there will be a negative generation of propane (since propane disappears) and there will be a positive generation of C02.sIn such a case, to apply the entity balance in a useful way we need a way to describe the rate of generation of a species by chemical reaction. Let us consider for the moment applying, to a control volume fixed in space, the entity balance (again, as for total mass, written in terms of rates) now to mass of a chemical species, which is assumed to be involved in processes for which the generation is by chemical reaction.
We can, of course, at the same time generate elemental carbon (in soot, etc.), CO, and other byproducts of combustion. There will also be a negative generation of 0,.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances Generation of mass of a species
87
Consider the generation rate t r .Call the rate of species mass generation em per unit volume of the ith chemical species r,, which will be a function of position in space and of time
I%[
rate of generation of mass of species i = ri AV in volume AV
(2.1.21)
The rate of generation of mass of species i in a volume AV is then approximately equal to
1
(2.1.22)
To get the rate of generation throughout our control volume, we add the contributions of all the constituent elemental volumes in V. Taking the limit as approaches 0, we obtain the rate of generation t r in the entity balance em
rate of eeneration ofmassofspeciesi = lim Z r i,AV = Jv ri dV AV+O V in volume V
v
1
1
1
(2.1.23)
Accumulation of mass of a species
In the same manner as for total mass,the amount of accumulation of mass of species i (not rate of accumulation)over time At is the difference between the mass of species i in the system at some initial time t and the mass of species i in the system at the later time t + At. The mass of species i in the system at a given time is determined by taking the sum of the masses of species i in all of the elemental volumes that make up the system and then letting the elemental volumes approach zero, in a similar way to that shown in Equation 2.1.15 for total mass.
88
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
I
I
accumulation of mass of species i = (m,) t+b  (m,) in volume V
1
(2.1.24)
The rate of accumulation of mass of species i is obtained by taking the limit as At approaches 0
I
r
rate of accumulation of mass of species i = lim At 0 in volume V
At
1
(2.1.25)
Input and output of mass of a species
The input and output for mass of a species are readily obtained in the same manner as for total mass. The approximate mass flow rate of species i through an elemental area AA can be written by multiplying the volumetric flow rate6by the mass concentration of species i, pi, (rather than the total density, as was done for total mass) at some point in AA mass flow rate of speciesi through AA
I
G
pi ( v . n)AA
(2.1.26)
Strictly speaking, we must replace v by vi, since the individual species may not move at the velocity v in the presence of concentration gradients. The difference between v and vi is negligible, however, for most problems involving flowing streams. We discuss the difference between v and vi in our treatment of mass transfer.
Chapter 2 The Mass Balances :
[r] [$][q
The mass flow rate through the total external surface area A can then be written as the limit of the sum of the flows through ail the elemental AAs as the elemental areas approach zem.
r

89
mass flow rate of speciesi through A
(2.1.27)
1 I[
rate of output ofmass of speciesi
Rearranging the entity balance as rate of input ofmass of speciesi
_I
j
rate of generation rate of accumulation ofmass = ofmass of speciesi of speciesi
1[
]
(2.1.28)
entering the various terms as just developed
(2.1.29)
which is the macroscopic mass balance for an individual species, i. If there is no generation term, the macroscopic total mass balance and the macroscopic mass balance for an individual species look very much the same except for the density term.
90
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
BxarnDle 2.1.21 acroscopic sbecies mass balance with zeroorder irreversible reaction
Water (whose density p may be assumed to be inde ndent of the concentration of A) with p = loo0 kg/m3 is flowing at 0.02 m /min through a pipe of inside diameter 0.05 m into a perfectly mixed tank containing 15 m3 solution and out at the same rate through a pipe of diameter 0.02 m as shown in the following illustration.
F
The entering liquid contains 20 kg/m3 of A. The zeroorder reaction 2A+B (2.1.2 10)
takes place with rate rg = 0.08 kg B/(min m3).
If the initial concentration of A in the tank is 50 kg/m3, find the outlet concentration of A at t = 100 min.
Solution
Applying the macroscopic mass balance for an individual species (2.1.211) Evaluating t r by t r ,starting with the first term on the lefthand side em em
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
91
But, since the volumetric flow rates in and out are tbe Same in absolute value
The second t r on the lefthand side is em
But a total mass balance combined with constant density and the fact that inlet and outlet volumetric flow rates are the same gives
  0 dVtank
dt
(2.1.215)
so
Examining the righthand side, we note that the reaction rate of A is twice the negative of that of B by the stoichiometry rA = 2r, (2.1.217)
92
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
= 2r,V,,& A mol
(2.1.218)
Substituting i the balance n
(2.1.219)
but, since the tank is perfectly stirred
(2.1.220)
'tank
(2.1.221)
Integrating and applying the initial condition
( Q
dp A [P A  P Ain]  'B
= jidt
'tank)
(2.1.222)
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
93
(2.1.223)
(2.1.224)
(2.1.225) Evaluating the constant term
(2.1.226)
Introducing the required time
 (2) min  (
[1"
 (2) min  (0.02) min (50)
[%I
Oeo2)
I"[
[$i] [5 (P 1
A)
[$]
m3
(0.02)(PA) = (2) + (0.02) (50)] exp (PA)
[
[ (F) (
ICNI)]  2 (2.1.227)
= 31.3kg
m3
94
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
Bxamde 2.1.22 Macroscooic soecies mass balance with firstorder irreversible reaction
Suppose that a reaction B 3 C takes place in a perfectly mixed tank.(By perfectly mixed we mean that Pi is independent of location in the tank, although it can depend on rime. Although no real vessel is perfectly mixed, this is often a good model.) Further suppose that the initial concentration of B in the tank is 5 lbm/€t3, that the inlet concentration of B is 15 lbm/ft3, that the volume of liquid in the tank is constant at 100 ft3, and that f o in and out of the tank is constant at 10 lw ft3/min. If
Q
= ( k PB) o( = 0.1 m i d ) what is PB as a function of time?
Solution
9

10 ft3/min
Figure 2.1.21 Perfectly mixed tank with reaction
Applying the macroscopic mass balance for an individual species
(2.1.228)
Evaluating t r by term em
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
95
= (pS),[
lbmysB] mm (10) ft
"I[
(2.1.230)
(2.1.231) Substituting in the balance
(2.1.232)
but, since the tank is perfectly stirred
(2.1.233) which gives
96
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(5)[ln(152Ps)15P B =
(15  5 e(o.2d) = 2.5 (3  e(*s20) PB = 2
(2.1.234)
2.2 The Microscopic Mass Balances
The microscopic mass balance is expressed by a differential equation rather than by an equation in integrals. In contrast to the macroscopic balances, which are usually applied to determine inpudoutput relationships, microscopic balances permit calculation of profiles (velocity, temperature, concentration) at individual points within systems.
2.2.1 The microscopic total mass balance (continuity equation)
The macroscopic total mass balance was determined (Equation 2.1.19) to be
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
97
jAp(v*n)dA+$jvpdV = 0 which can be written as
(2.2.11)
(2.2.12)
sv
In Chapter 1 from the Gauss theorem we showed ( V . U) dV =
js(n 
U)
dS
(2.2.13)
where U was an arbitrary vector (we have changed the symbol from v to U to make clear the distinction between this arbitrary vector and the velocity vector).
The macroscopic mass balance was derived for a stationary control volume, and so the limits in the integrals therein are not functions of time. Application of the Leibnitz rule therefore yields
(2.2.14) Applying these two results to the macroscopic total mass balance gives (note that multiplying the velocity vector by the scalar p simply gives another vector)
I
V
(V.pv)dV+lv%dV = 0
(2.2.15)
Combining the integrands, since the range of integration of each is identical
The Leibnitz rule is useful in interchanging differentiation and integration operations. It states that for f a continuous function with continuous derivative
Kaplan, W. (1952). Advanced Calculus. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley, p. 220.
98
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
(2.2.16)
Since the limits of integration are arbitrary, the only way that the lefthand side can vanish (to maintain the equality to zero) is for the integrand to be identically zero.
i
(v.pv)+&=o
I
(2.2.17)
This is the microscopic total mass balance or the equation of
continuity.
Special cases of the continuity equationa
For incompressible fluids, the time derivative vanishes, and by factoring the constant density the continuity equation may be written as
p ( v * v )= 0
(2.2.18)
but we can divide by the density since it is nonzero for cases of interest, giving
1 v . v = 01
(2.2.19)
For steady flow, the density does not vary in time, so the continuity equation becomes
p p v = 01
(2 2.1 10)
0
These relationships often prove convenient in simplifying other equations.
These forms, as well as being used in and of themselves, are often used t simplify o other equations by eliminating the corresponding terms.
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances Continuity equation in different coordinate systems
99
For computation of numerical results, it is necessary to write the continuity equation in a particular coordinate system. Table 2.2.11 gives the component farm in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.
Table 2.2.11 Continuity equation (microscopic total mass balance) in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate frames
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES
D l e 2.2.11 dv incornle
Velocitv c o w n t s in twodimasional flow. r e c t k l a r coordinates
The xcomponent of velocity in a twodimensional steady incompressible flow is given by
v, = c x
(2.2.111)
where c is a constant. What is the form of the ycomponent of velocity?
Icx)
Chapter 2 TIre Mass Balances :
Solution
The continuicj equation reduces to
vv=0
(2.2.112)
which is, for a twodimensional flow
(22.113) (2.2.1143 But from the given xcomponent
(2.2.1  15)
Integrating with respect to y [(2)dy =
J
c cdy=
 c y + f ( x ) = vy
J
(2,2.116)
Notice that since we are integrating a partis! derivative of a function of x and y with respect to y, we can determine the result of such an integration only to within a function of x rather than a constant, because any such function disappears if we take the partial derivative with respect to y. Consequently, the result shown would, as is required, satis€ythe inverse operation
 
(3)
=X
(a[cY+f(.)i
ay )x=c
(2.2.1 17)
We have added the subscript x to the partial derivative to emphasize that x is being held constant during the operation. We should write such a subscript in conjunction with all partial derivatives; however, the subscripts are usually obvious so we customarily omit them for conciseness. Therefore, the most genera! form is
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
vy =  c y + f ( x )
This form includes, of course
f (x) = constant
101
(2.2.1 18)
(2.2.119)
ard
f (x) = 0
(2.2.120)
Examrrle 2.2.12 Velocity comDonents in twodimensional steady incomuressible flow. cvlindrical coordinates
Water is in steady onedimensional axial flow in a uniformdiameter cylindrical pipe. The velocity is a function of the radial coordinate only. What is the form of the radial velocity profile?
Solution
The continuity equation in cylindricalcoordinates is (2.2.121) which, for steady flow reduces to (2.2.122) which then becomes, for velocity, a function of r only I d TZ(P'Vr) = 0 (2.2.123)
where we have replaced the partial derivative symbols with ordinary derivatives because we now have an unknown function of only one independent variable. This then becomes, for an incompressible fluid
I d P iz ( r v r ) = 0
(2.2.124)
102
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
We multiply both sides by the radius, and, since the density is not equal to zero, we can divide both sides by the density a(rvr) = d
o
(2.2.125)
/
Integrating ( $r vr) dr = 1 0 dr
(2.2.126)
rv, = constant which gives as the form of the radial velocity profile
Vr
= constant
r
(2.2.127)
Examde 2.2.13
Compression o f air
Air is slowly compressed in a cylinder by a piston. The motion of the air is onedimensional. Since the motion is slow, the density remains constant in the zdirection even though changing in time. As the piston moves toward the cylinder head at speed v, what is the time rate of change of the density of the air?
Figure 2.2.11 Air compression by piston
So1u t ion
We begin with the continuity equation
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
I03
(V.pv)+% = 0
In cylindrical coordinates
(2.2.128)
*+I&
at
r &(P TV,) ++&P
ve) + Z(P = 0 vz)
a
(2.2.129)
In one dimension (the zdirection)
a~ a vz) at +z(P = *
Expanding the derivative of the product
a
(2.2.130)
JP
t
+
%~ P
+
aP
V
Z
0 ~
(2.2.131)
However, density is constant in the zdirection, so
+paP
at
h z
aZ
=o
(2.2.132)
2.2.2
The microscopic species mass balance
We can develop a microscopic mass balance for an individual species in the Same general way that we developed the microscopic total mass balance, but, as in the macroscopic case, individual species are not conserved but may be created or destroyed (e.g., by chemical reactions), so a generation term must be included in the model. The macroscopic mass balance for an individual species took the form
Models based on the above equation (which are adequate for many real problems) are restricted to cases where the velocity of the bulk fluid, v, and the velocity of the individual species, Vi, are assumed to be identical.
104
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
As was just noted, individual species may not move at the same velocity as the bulk fluid, for example, because of concentration gradients in the fluid. This becomes of much more a concern in certain classes of problems we wish to model at the microscopic level than it was at the macroscopic level.
We begin with the more general equation, which includes the species velocity rather than the bulk fluid velocity jAp,(vi.n)dA+&jvp,dV =
1
V ridV
(2.2.22)
By incorporating the species velocity v, instead of the velocity of the bulk fluid v we can model cases where Vi and v are significantly different. This is the whole point of mass transfer operations. The Leibnitz rule and t e Gauss theorem can be applied as in the case of the h microscopic total mass balance, giving
(2.2.23)
Again the limits of integration are arbitrary, so it follows that
(2.2.24)
which is the microscopic rnass balance for an individual species. There is one such equation for each species. In a mixture of n constituents, the sum of all n of the species equations must yield the total mass balance, and therefore only n of the n+l equations are independent. The microscopic mass balance in the form above is not particularly useful for two reasons: First, it does not relate the concentration to the properties of the fluid. This is done via a constitutive equation (such an equation relates the flow variables to the way the fluid is constituted, or made up).
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
Second, it is written in terms of mass concentration, while as most m s transfer process operate via molar concentrations (diffusiveprocesses tend to be proportional to the relative number of molecules, not the relative amount of mass).
DifSusion
10.5
An example of a constitutive equation relating fluxes and concentrations is Fick's law of diffusion
(2.2.25)
j where N denotes the molar flux of the ith species with respect to axes fixed in space, X is the mole fraction of species i, c is the total molar concentration, and i D is the diffusion coefficient. m
The molar flux can be written in terms of the velocity of the ith species, V i , which is defined as the number average velocity (2.2.26)
obtain velocity as a function of concentration and then putting the result in the
It is not difficult to see that substituting this relationship in Fick's law to
microscopic species mass balances (adjusting the units appropriately) is not a trivial task. We will return to this later in Section 8.2.
Chapter 2
Problems
2.1 For the following situation: a. Calculate (v n) b. Calculate vx c. Calculate w Use coordinates shown.
106
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
W
2.2 For the following
A=f d
a. Calculate (v n) b. Calculate w (p = 999 kg/m3) c. Calculate(*P(v.n)dA if Ivl = (l*)vwhere vmax = 4.5 m / ~ .
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
I07
2.3 Calculate
I, P (v n) dA for the following situation
*
\A,,
circular; diameter * 1 I t
Use coordinates shown.
2.4 A pipe system sketched below is carrying water through section 1 at a velocity of 3 ft/s. The diameter at section 1 is 2 ft. The same flow passes through section 2 where the diameter is 3 ft. Find the discharge and bulk velocity at section 2.
2.5 Consider the steady flow of water at 7 O through the piping system shown OF below where the velocity distribution at station 1 may be expressed by
v ( r ) = 9.0 1
( )’; 
108
Chapter 2 The Mass Balances :
Find the average velocity at 2.
2.6 Water is flowing i the reducing elbow as shown. What is the velocity and n mass flow rate at 2?
p = 62.4
ft3
2 ft/sec
to
2.7 The tee shown in the sketch is rectangular and has 3 exitentrances. The width is w. The height h is shown for each exitentrance on the sketch. You may assume steady, uniform, incompressibleflow. a. Write the t t l macroscopic m s balance and use the oa as assumptions to simplify the balance for this situation. b. Is flow into or out of the b t o arm (2) of the tee. otm c. What is the magnitude of the velocity into or out of the bottom a m (2) of the tee? r
"2
2.8 The velocity profile for turbulent flow of a fluid in a circular smooth tube follows a power law such that
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
I09
Find the value of <v>/vmax for this situation. If n = 7 this is the result from the Blasius resistance formula. (Hint: let y = R  r)
2.9 Oil of specific gravity 0.8 is pumped to a large open tank with a 1.0ft hole in the bottom. Find the maximum steady flow rate Qin, ft3/s, which can be pumped to the tank without its overflowing.
2.10 Oil at a specific gravity of 0.75 is pumped into an open tank with diameter 3 m and height 3 m. Oil flows out of a pipe at the bottom of the tank that has a diameter of 0.2 m. What is the volumetric flow rate that can be pumped in the tank such that it will not overflow?
2.11 In the previous problem assume water is pumped in the tank at a rate of 3 m3/min. If the water leaves the tank at a rate dependent on the liquid level such that Qout = 0.3h (where 0.3 is in m2/min and Q is in m3/min, h is in m. What is the height of liquid in the tank as a function of time? 2.12 Shown is a perfectly mixed t n containing 100 ft3 of an aqueous solution ak of 0.1 salt by weight. At time t = 0, pumps 1 and 2 are turned on. Pump 1 is
I10
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
pumping pure water into the tank at a rate of 10 ft3/hr and pump 2 pumps solution from the tank at 15 ft3/hr. Calculate the concentration in the outlet line as an explicit function of time.
2.13 Water is flowing into an open tank at the rate of 50 ft3/min. There is an opening at the bottom where water flows out at a rate proportional to
where h = height of the liquid above the bottom of the tank. Set up the equation for height versus time; separate the variables and integrate. The area of the bottom of the tank is 100 ft2.
2.14 Salt solution is flowing into and out of a stirred tank at the rate of 5 gal solution/min. The input solution contains 2 lbm saldgal solution. The volume of the tank is 100 gal. If the initial salt concentration in the tank was 1 lbm
saltlgal, what is the outlet concentration as a function of time?
2.15 A batch of fuelcell electrolyte is to be made by mixing two streams in large stirred tank. Stream 1 contains a water solution of H2SO4 and K2SO4 in mass fractions XA and x g l lbm/lbm of solution, respectively (A = H2SO4, B = K2SO4). Stream 2 is a solution of H2SO4 in water having a mass fraction
XA2.
If the tank is initially empty, the drain is closed, and the streams are fed at steady rates w l and w2 lbm of solutionlhr, show that XA is independent of time and find the total mass m at any time.
(Hint: Do not expand the derivative of the product in the species balance, but integrate directly.)
Chapter 2: The Mass Balances
111
Cqn;;ntration in tonk
2.16 You have been asked to design a mixing tank for salt solutions. The tank volume is 126 gal and a salt solution flows into and out of the tank at 7 gal of solutiodmin. The input salt concentration contains (3 lbm salt)/gal of solution. If the initial salt concentration in the tank is (1/2 lbm &)/gal, find:
assuming that the output concentration is the same as that within the tank. b. Plot the output salt concentration as a function of time and find the asymptotic value of the concentration m(t) as
t+.
a. The output concentration of salt as a function of time
c. Find the response time of the stirring tank, i.e., the time at which the output concentration m(t) will equal 62.3 percent of the change in the concentration from time t = 0 to time t +  .
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3
THE ENERGY BALANCES
3.1 The Macroscopic Energy Balances
The entity balance can be applied to forms of energy to obtain, for example, macroscopic energy balances. Total energy, like total mass, can be modeled as a conserved quantity for processes of interest here, which do not involve interconversion of energy and mass by either nuclear reactions or mass moving at speeds approaching that of light. On the other hand, neither thermal energy nor mechanical energy is conserved in general, but each can be created or destroyed by conversion to the opposite form  thermal to mechanical (for example, via combustion processes in engines), or, more frequently, mechanical to thermal (through the action of friction and other irreversible processes).
3.1.1
Forms of energy
Just as we did for mass balances, to develop the macroscopic energy balances we consider an arbitrary system fixed in space. Since mass (because of its position, motion or physical state) carries with it associated energy, each of the macroscopic energy balances will therefore contain a term which corresponds to each term in the corresponding macroscopic mass balance. Energy associated with mass can be grouped within three classifications. 1. Energy present because of position of the mass in a field (e.g., gravitational, magnetic, electrostatic). This energy is called potential energy, a. 2. Energy present because of translational or rotational motion of the mass. This energy is called kinetic energy, K.
3. All other energy associated with mass (for example, rotational and vibrational energy in chemical bonds, energy of
113
I14
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances Brownian motion’, etc.). This energy is called internal energy, U.
In general, U, 4, and K are functions of position and time. In addition, however, energy is also transported across the boundaries of a system in forms not associated with mass. This fact introduces terms in the macroscopic (and microscopic) energy balances that have no counterpart in the overall mass balances. Although energy not associated with any mass may cross the boundary of the system, within the system we will consider only energy that is associated with mass (we will not, for example, attempt to model systems within which a large part of the energy is in the form of free photons). As we did with mass, we assume that we continue to deal with continua, that is, that energy, like mass, is “smeared out” locally. A consequence of this is that we group the energy of random molecular translation into internal energy, not kinetic energy, even though at a microscopic level it represents kinetic energy. The continuum assumption implies that we cannot see the level of detail required to perceive kinetic energy of molecular motion, but rather simply see a local region of space containing internal energy.
We shall denote the amount of a quantity associated with a unit mass of material by placing a caret, ( A ) above the quantity. Thus, for example, 0 is the internal energy per unit mass (F L M ) and $ the is I rate of doing work per unit mass (F L/[M t]).
3.1.2
The macroscopic total energy balance
We now apply the entity balance, written in terms of rates, term by term to total energy. Since total energy will be conserved in processes we consider, the generation term will be zero.
Even though Brownian motion represents kinetic energy of the molecules, this kinetic energy is below the scale of our continuum assumption. It is furthermore, random and so not recoverahle as work (at least, until someone discovers a reallife Maxwell demon).
*
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
rate of output of]  [rate of input of] t t l energy oa total energy
+I
rate of accumulationof = t t l energy oa
I
(3.1.21)
Rate of accumulation of energy
The energy in AV is approximately2
(0+ 6 + E)p AV
where 6,
(3.1.22)
a, K,and p are each evaluated at arbitrary points in AV and At.
The total energy in V can be obtained by summing over all of the elemental volumes in V and taking the limit as AV approaches zero total energy ] . 6 i i " + & + R ) p A v ]
(3.1.23)
= AV  t o lim =
1
;
(7[(*+&+R)p*v])
(3.1.24) (3.1.25)
(o+&+g)pdV
Applying the definition of accumulation yields
This is a model which neglects systems that contain energy not associated with mass that changes significantly with time, as well as neglecting any conversion of mass into energy or vice versa, as we have stipulated earlier  it would not be suitable, for example, in making an energy balance on the fireball of a nuclear explosion where both large, changing amounts of radiation are involved as well as processes that convert mass into energy.
116
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
1 1I
accumulation]
Ofenergy
d g A t
=
”(o+&+R)pdV(
t+&
(3.1.26)
We then obtain the energy accumulation rate by dividing by At and taking the limit as At approaches zero ( o + & + R ) p d V I I+&
I
v ( o + & + R ) p d V It
At
(3.1.27)
Rates of input and output of energy
We will first consider input and output of energy during addition o r removal of mass. As each increment of mass is added to or removed from the system, energy also crosses the boundary in the form o f kinetic, potential and internal energy associated with the mass energy transferred in the process of adding or removing the mass. Consider for the moment the system shown in Figure 3.1.21. Illustrated is the addition to a system of material which is contained in a closed rigid container (a beverage can, if you wish).
.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
117
Figure 3.1.21 Flow work
Note that to move the additional mass inside the system we must push that is, we must compress some of the material already in the system to make room for the added material (thereby doing work on the mass already in the system and increasing its energy). In the typical process shown in Figure 3.1.21, we do not change the energy associated with the added mass, but we cannot either add or remove mass without performing thisflow work on the mass already in the system. In general, the flow work necessary to add a unit mass to a system is the pressure at the point where the mass crosses the boundary multiplied by the volume added flow work = pV per unit mass
(3.1.28)
Therefore, the total energy associated with transferring a unit mass into a system is the sum of the internal, potential, and kinetic energy associated with the mass plus the flow work (whether or not the material is contained in a rigid container)
(0 6 + K)+ p 9 +
(3.1.29)
Thermodynamics teaches that it is convenient to combine the flow work with the energy associated with the mass added or removed by defining the abstraction enthalpy, H.
I18
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
A =
o+pv
(3.1.2 10)
Notice that the enthalpy combines some energy associated with mass with some energy not associated with mass (the flow work). Definition of enthalpy is not made for any compelling physical reason but rather for convenience  the two terms always occur simultaneously and so it is convenient to group them under the Same symbol. This makes the energy associated with transferring a unit mass into the system
(R+&+R)
(3.1.211)
Multiplying the energy associated with transferring a unit mass into the system by the mass flow rate gives the net rate (output minus input) of energy transfer associated with mass and from flow work
Now consider the remainder of the energy that crosses the boundary not associated with mass. We arbitrarily (but for sound reasons) divide this energy into two classes  heat and work. By heat we mean the amount of energy crossing the boundary not associated with mass which flows as a result of a temperature gradient.
By work we mean energy crossing the boundary
not associated with mass
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances which does not transfer as a result of the temperature gradient except for flow work.
119
Since this is definition by exclusion, or by using a complementary set, what we classify as work needs some clarification. We normally think of work as a force acting through a distance  for example, as transmitted by a rotating shaft passing through the boundary, socalled sh@ work. Note that even though such a shaft has mass, its mass is not crossing the boundary  each part of the mass remains either within or outside the system  so the energy is not transmitted by being associated
with mass crossing the boundary.
The definition of work also leads to some things being classified as work which we might not usually think of as work  for example, energy transferred across the boundary via electrical leads. Even though electrical current is associated with electrons, which can be assigned a minuscule mass (although they also have a wave nature), at scales of interest to us our models do not “see” electrons. Therefore, such energy is lumped into the work classification by default because it is not f o work, is not associated with mass, and does not lw flow as a result of a temperature gradient. By convention, heat into the system and work out of the system have traditionally been regarded as positive (probably because the originators of the convention worked with steam power plants where one puts heat in and gets work out  a good memory device by which to remember the c~nvention).~ We will denote the rate of transfer of heat or work across a boundary as Q or W (units: Ir:L/t]). If we wish to refer only to the amount of heat or work (units: Ir:L]), we will use Q or W. From thermodynamics we know that heat and work are not exact differentials, i.e., they are not independent of the path, although their
There is currently movement away from this convention to one in which both heat and work entering the system are regarded as positive. In this text we adhere to the older convention . We use Q both for volumetric flow rate and heat transfer. The distinction is usually clear f o the context; however, it would be clearer to use a different symbol. We are rm faced here with the two persistent problems with engineering notation: a) traditional use, and b) the scarcity of symbols that have not already been appropriated. Since heat is almost universally designated by the letter Q or q, we will how to tradition and not attempt to find another symbol.
I20
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
difference (the internal energy  from first law) is independent of path. Therefore, we usually write small amounts of heat or work as 6Q or 6W rather than dQ or dW to remind ourselves of this fact. If we add the rates that heat and work cross the boundary for each differential area on the surface of the system we obtain
[
energy input rate = fromheatin acrossAA
]
80
energy output rate
(3.1.213)
with units in each case of
(3.1.214)
Adding the contributions of each elemental area and letting the elemental area approach zero we have
r
energy input rate across A
=
,\%,F"Q
=Q
energy output rate fromworkout = , \ ~ , ~= 6 ~ across A
I
(3.1.215)
Substituting in the entity balance both the terms for energy associated with mass and not associated with mass, remembering our sign convention for heat and work, and moving the heat and work terms to the righthandside of the equation
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
121
(R + 4 + R) p (v
n) dA
+dSV(O+&+R)pdV = dt
0w
(3.1.216)
which is the macroscopic total energy balance. Be sure to remember that the enthalpy is associated only with the inputloutput term, and the internal energy with the accumulation term.
Simplified forms o the macroscopic total energy bulance f
The macroscopic total energy balance often can be simplified for particular situations. Many of these simplifications are so common that it is worth examining them in some detail. For example, we know from calculus that we always can rewrite the first term as
IA fi
p (v n) dA+
*
IA6
p (v n) dA+
IA R
p ( v . n) dA
(3.1.217)
We now proceed to examine ways of simplifying each of the above terms, initially examining the second term, then the third term, and then the first term.
The potential energy term
We observe that the imposed force fields of most interest to us as engineers are conservative; that is, the force may be expressed as the gradient of a potential function, defined up to an additive constant. This function gives the value of the potential energy per unit mass referred to some datum point (the location of which determines the value of the additive constant).
122
not to m l o
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Figure 3.1.22 Gravitational field of earth
For example, in the case illustrated in Figure 3.1.22, we show a mass, m, in the gravitational potential field, a,of the earth, with reference point of zero energy at the center of the earth. In spherical coordinates the potential function @ may be written as5 (3.1.218)
where typically
= potential energy, [N] [m]
G = a universal constant which has the same value for any pair of particles
m = mass of object, [kg]
m, = mass of earth, [kg] = 5.97 x 10' [kg]
Resnick, R. and D.Halliday (1977). Physics: Part One. New York,NY,John Wiley and Sons, p. 338 ff.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances r = distance from the center of gravity of the earth to center of gravity of object [m] This relation is valid only outside the earth's surface.
123
The force produced by such a field is the negative of the gradient of the potential, and in this case lies in the rdirection because the gradient of the potential is zero in the 8 and +directions (derivatives with respect to these two coordinatedirectionsare zero).
(F), =
=
Vr@ =  =  = m g a ar r2
Gmm,
(3.1.2 19)
(G me/r2)is commonly called g, the acceleration of gravity L]/( t}2.
This yields the expected result; that is, the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the earth and directed toward the center. At sea level g is approximately 32.2 ft/sec2 or 9.81 d s 2 .
We can now rewrite our potential function as
(3.1.220)
In practice, most processes take place over small changes in r, at large values of r, that is, at the surface of the earth, where (r2  rl) is of perhaps the order of 100 meters, while r2 and rl themselves are of the order of 6.37 x 106 meters (the radius of the earth). Under such a circumstance the acceleration of gravity (G md9) is nearly constant, as we now demonstrate. Examining the value of (G md$) for such a case we find that Gme  r2
( 6 . 6 7 2 6 ~ lO")
kg2 (6.37 x 106)2 rn2
(5.97 x 1024) kg
= 9.81727N kg
124
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Gm e
(6.6726~10l')
r2
(5.97~ 102') kg g = 9.81696 N (6.37 x 106+ 100)' m2 kg (3.1.221)
9
(Note that Nkg = (kg m/s2)/kg = m/s2.) The difference does not appear until the fifth significant digit.6 Consequently we usually assume in our models that (G me/r2) = g is constant (such problems as placing items into orbit from the earth surface excepted, obviously). Assumption of constant acceleration of gravity reduces the potential energy term to
We usually use one of the rectangular coordinates rather than the spherical coordinate r, since the geometry at the earth's surface can be adequately treated in rectangular Cartesian coordinates  for example lQp(v.n)dA= glzp(v.n)dA
(3.1.223)
Consider now the case of a system with a single inlet denoted by 1 and a single outlet denoted by 2, with the zdirection being parallel to and opposite in direction to the gravity vector. Assume that change in potential energy is negligible across the crosssection of the inlet and across the crosssection of the outlet, a l t h o u g h p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y is, in g e n e r a l , different at the two locations (for example, a fourinch pipe inlet 100 feet vertically below a sixinch pipe outlet).
jA p (v  n) dA = g jA p (v  n) dA 6 z
~~
We obtained 9.82 m / s 2 rather than 9.81 m / s 2 for our value because of the approximate nature of the numbers we used. This did not matter for the illustration because we sought differences, not absolute values.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
125
(3.1.224) If density is constant across each cross:section individually
i & p ( v . n ) d A = gJC*zp(v.n)dA
(3.1.225)
If density in addition is the same at 1 and 2 (3.1.227) (3.1.228) If we further assume steadystate conditions, so that wl = w2 = w; Q1 = 4 2 =
Q
6 p ( v  n ) d A = gpQ[z,z,
(3.1.229)
The kinetic energy term
From physics we know that the kinetic energy of a unit mass is expressible
as
E2
 2
(3.1.230)
We therefore write
126
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.231)
For a fluid where both p and the angle between the velocity vector and the outward nonnal are constant across A we m a y write iRp(v.n)dA = p
l$
(v cos a)dA
= 2/A~3dA p cos a =
p cos a ‘ A 7 (v’)
(3.1.232)
(By definition the integral is the areaaverage of the cube of the ~elocity.~) We frequently assume that
and write, for any given area A;, also assuming that a and p are constant across AI
lAi J A
(vi> l p (v n) dA = cos ai ? pi (y) A i = cos ai(vi) wi 7T .
(3.1.234)
which requires the assumption that
v3 dA
(v’) =
*
JA
I, dA I,dA
dA
JA
dA
(3.1.235)
Note that <v3> is not the same as
(v3) = !Av3dA
~
#
!AdA
[
 = (v)’ = (v)2(v) !AVdA
,AdA
1
3
except for special cases
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
127
This is not, of course, true in general, but it is true for certain special models such as plug flow. We also use this as an approximation as discussed below. The enthalpy term This term requires that we evaluate differences in enthalpy, sometimes between streams that differ in temperature, phase, andor composition. Enthalpy changes are evaluated using the concept of enthalpy as a state function, and choosing the appropriate path from initial to final state. For changes in enthalpy which are expressed by changes in temperature or phase at constant composition, this term is easily represented using sensible or latent heats; that is, enthalpy changes tied to heat capacities per unit mass in the first case, and to unit masses in the second. For streams of differing compositions, heats of mixing are the usual model. For chemical reaction, heats of reaction serve the same purpose. We will not treat the enthalpy model itself in any detail here, but refer the reader to the many texts available on thennodynamics. If we apply to this term the assumption that enthalpy and density are constant across any single inlet or outlet area (such as the crosssection of a pipe crossing the boundary), we may write, for each such single area
=
*
fii
Pi (v), A,
= *fiiP,Q, = f R,w,
bulk temperature, as defined in Chapter 1
(3.1.236)
To make it easier to relate temperature and enthalpy, we use the mixingcup or
(3.1.237)
128
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Averages and the macroscopic energy equations
The velocity distribution for turbulent flow in pipes is fairly well represented by the following empirical profile:
v = vmx(lff)5
1
(3.1.238)
Let us consider the approximation in Equation (3.1.233) by taking the ratio of the average using the 1/7 power model for the turbulent velocity profile* to the approximation in Equation (3.1.233).
Defining an auxiliary variable t = 1  r/R, we have
dr dt = R r = (1t)R
Substituting:
(3.1.240)
The 1/7 power model itself is an approximation to the true velocity profile, but this is a different approximation than the one under discussion.
*
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
129
(v’>  
t3” [( 1  t) R] [Rdt]
(4
R2 2
(l [
I IO
t’” (1
 t) R] [ R dt]

[ (7/10) t’” + (7/17) t”” 4 {[ (7/8) t8” + (7/15) t””]’}
3 

i’
7/177/10 4 (7/15  l/8)’
~
1.06
(3.1.241)
Therefore, the assumption creates an error of about %error = 100 approximatequantity exact quantity exact quantity 1  1 0 6  5.7% = 1001.06
(3.1.242)
We could, of course, apply this correction, but it is seldom worthwhile because of a) the approximate nature of the velocity distribution used and b) other uncertainties that are usually present in real problems.
As a matter of interest, let us see what the error would be if we made this approximation in the energy balance for laminar flow
(v,,
0
[1  (6)’]} 2
3
~t dr r
I30
Chapter 3: Tlte Energy Balances
This may be written as
(3.1.244)
This time we define t = (r/R)2so that dt = 2(r/R) d(r/R). Substituting
(3.1.245)
Therefore, using the approximation would yield half the correct answer; therefore, this would be a poor model of tbe process. Steadystate cases of the macroscopic total energy balance
A common special case of the macroscopic energy balance is that of a steadystate (no accumulation) system with a single inlet, a single outlet, cos a = + 1 for the outlet and 1 for the inlet, and no variation of , 6 , or R across either inlet or outlet. For this case, dropping the accumulation term and recognizing the integrals as the mass flow rates, the macroscopic energy balance becomes
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(R2 + 4j2+ R2) w2 (RI + 4, + RI) w1 = Q  W
But a steadystate macroscopic mass balance gives
(3.1.246)
wzw, = 0
(3.1.247)
so we can write w2 =wl = w. Dividing the energy balance by w to put it on a unit mass basis
(R,+ &2 + R2) w  (RI +&, + RI) w
= QW
(R, Q1)+p2 + (R,4,) Q  w G1) = AR+A#+AR = 0  W
( R , + & 2 + R , )  ( R , + 6 1 + R 1 ) = Qw
(3.1.248)
For turbulent flow we frequently assume that the velocity profile can be modeled as constant (plug flow) so as we noted above
(3.1.249) The macroscopic energy balance then reduces to
(3.1.250)
Conditions on this model are single inlet, single outlet steady state constant g, Cp, p no (i.e., negligible) variation of v, A , 6 , or R across inlet or across outlet Frequently the evaluation of the enthalpy change will involve a heat of combustion, reaction, phase change, etc. These are sometimes large terms which
I32
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
dominate the remaining enthalpy changes (from sensible heats, etc.) An example of phase change in a steadystate problem is illustrated below in Example 3.1.21. Table 3.1.21 below shows the relative magnitude of such terms for organic compounds. (Negative enthalpy changes imply that heat is evolved.) It is to be emphasized that this figure is for qualitative illustration only, not design.
Table 3.1.21 Qualitative comparison of ranges of enthalpy changes (kcal/mol) for processes involving organic compounds9
Relative magrritudes o f mechanical and a1 enemv terms wrth Dhase changg
Water enters a boiler and leaves as steam as shown. Using 1 to designate the entering state and 2 for the exit, calculate the steadystate kinetic and potential energy and enthalpy changes per pund.
Frurip, D. J., A. Chakrabarti, et al. (1995). Deferminafion o Chemical Heafs by f Experiment and Prediction. International Symposium on Runaway Reactions and Pressure Relief Design, Boston, MA, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, p. 97.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
I33
wateri a 659' 20 p
4 in pipe
1JF
boiler
steam 20 p i a
300cF
30 W S
5 WS
Figure 3.1.23 Mechanical energy and thermal energy terms compared for a boiler (I)
Solution
The kinetic energy term is
V2
RI=+
(5)2[f]1 lbm ft (778) ft lbf lbfs2 Btu (2) (32.2)
0 . 0 1 lbm ~  0 . 0 0 0 5= 0.017580 lbm ~
=0.~5BtU
lbm
R2=+
V2
(30)2[$]' lbf s2 Btu Btu (2) (32.2) lbm ft (778) ft lbf = 0.0180lbm
&RI =
Pipe
*l
(3.1.251)
The potential energy term is, choosing z = 0 at the level of the entrance
=
z1 = (32'2)
9(1 '
S
ft (32.2) lbm ft (778) ft lbf
Ibf s2
Btu
= (0)Btu
lbm
& = g Z = (32.2) , ,
= (0.0643) Btu
lbf s2 Btu 4 (50) ft (32.2) lbm ft (778) ft lbf
(3.1.252) The enthalpy change is, using values from the steam table and ignoring the effect of pressure on density andor enthalpy of liquids
134
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
thermal energy t r .Tbis is typical for many engineering problems. em
Notice that the mechanical energy terms are insignificant compared to the
Example 3.1.22
Steam Droduction in a boiler
Liquid water enters a boiler at 5 psig and 65OF through a 4 in pipe at an areaaverage velocity of 5 ftls. At steady state, steam is produced at 6 0 0 O F and 400 pig. What is the rate of heat addition required?
steam
4 in pipe
400 psig
60pF
5 ft/s
U
Figure 3.1.24 Mechanical and thermal energy terms compared for a boiler (11)
Solution
Potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible compared to the amount of energy required to accomplish the phase change. The time derivative is zero at em steady state. The work t r is zero. The macroscopic energy balance
A [
(A + 6 + R) p (v  n) dA +
gjv(0+
+ R) p dV
=
W
(3.1.254)
then becomes
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
135
(3.1.255) (3.1.256)
A,w,A, w = Q 1
The macroscopic total mass balance yields
(3.1.257)
(3.1.258) (3.1.259) (3.1.260) (3.1.261) which reduces the energy balance to
R,wA,w =
Q
w(R2R,) =
Q
(3.1.262)
We can obtain property values from the steam tables.I0 We neglect the effect of pressure on the density and enthalpy of liquids. (3.1.263)
v = 0.01605 Ibm at 65"F,0.3056psia ft3
Rsuperheatsd = 1305.7 vapor
(3.1.264) (3.1.265)
E
at 600°F, 415 psia
We find from pipe tables that the crosssectional area for flow for 4 in nominal diameter Schedule 40 steel pipe is 0.0884ft2.The mass flow rate, w, is then
l 0 Keenan, J. H. and F. G. Keyes (1936). Thermodynamic Properties of Steam. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
136
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.266)

(0.01605) E ft
(‘I
(5)p (0.0884)ft2
(3.1.267) (3.1.268)
1bm = 27.5 gSubstituting the values obtained in the energy balance gives
Q = w(R,R,)
Q
Q
= 27.5 7 1305.7  33.05 Btu lbm lbm Ibm = 35,OOoq
(
”)
(3.1.269)
Examole 3.1.23 TemDerature rise from conversion of mechanical to thermal energx
Water is pumped at 120 gpm through 300 ft of insulated 2 in Schedule 40 steel pipe, from a tank at ground level in a tank farm to a tank on the ground floor of a production building. The pump used supplies 5 HP to the fluid, and the pressure at the inlet and outlet o the pipe are identical. What is the f temperature rise of the water?
?
tank farm
120 gpm 5 HP
prod‘n bldg
Figure 3.1.25 Water supply system
Solution
Choose the system to be the fluid internal to the pipe, and apply the macroscopic energy balance. Since the pipe is of uniform diameter, the kinetic energy change will be zero. There is no potential energy change. The accumulation term is zero because of steadystate conditions. Therefore, the work supplied by the pump goes entirely into increasing the enthalpy of the fluid.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
137
IA (R 6
+ + R) p (v  n) dA +
&jv+ 6 + R) p dV = Q  W (0
(3.1.270) (3.1.271)
fl1IA( v  n ) d A + & L 2 p ( v  n ) d A = lV 1p
A2W2A1
(3.1.272) (3.1.273)
w1 =
w
The macroscopic total mass balance shows that w1 = w2 = w w(n2n1) =
But we can write
w
(3.1.214)
(RZ
Rl)
=
cp(T2 T1)
(3.1.275)
Substituting
wCP(T2TI) =
w w ( T ~  T ~ )=
WCP
(3.1.276) (3.1.277)
Btu (33,000) ft lbf (778) ft lbf HPmin
(3.1.218)
(T2 Tl) = 0.21 O F
(3.1.279)
The very small temperature increase shows why one does not, for example, heat morning coffee by stirring the water with a spoon. A very small rise in temperature can consume a relatively enormous amount of mechanical energy.
138
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
i
a m d e 3.1.24
g
i?
Heated tank. steady state in mass and
$
An insulated, perfectly mixed tank contains a heating coil. Water flows into and out of the tank at 10 ft3/min. The volume of the water in the t n is 100 ak ft3, the initial temperature is 70°F and the water flowing into the tank is at 150°F. If tbe beater adds 5000 BTU/min. and tbe horsepower added by the mixer is 5 hp, what is the tank temperature as a function of time?
10 G / m n
n
Figure 3.1.26 Heated tank
So1ut ion The tank is at steady state so far as the macroscopic total mass balance is concerned (accumulation is zero, w1 = w2 = w). It is not at steady state with respect to the macroscopic total energy balance, because the internal energy in the tank is increasing with time. Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes,' the macroscopic total energy balance becomes I A ( R ) p ( v  n ) d Adt d l( 0 ) p d V = +v
%
fl1
IA1 1,
P (V  n ) d A + fl2
(R2 
0W
(3.1.280)
p (v  n) dA+&Iv (0)p dV
=
Qw
0w
(3.1.281)
(3.1.282) (3.1.283)
(W1)+f12(W2)+$/v(0)pdV
HI) (w) +
$I"(0)
=
p dV =
Q w
l 1 Note that there also would be a volume change with temperature, which we ignore in this model, and which would probably be negligible for most applications.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances We know from thermodynamics that
139
R
= Cp(T TEf)
(3.1.284)
0 = Cv (TT,,)
and that for an incompressible fluid
e, = e,
(3.1.285)
For a perfectly mixed tank,the internal energy is not a function of location within the tank, even though it is a function of time. Using this fact and the h equality of the heat capacities, and assuming that t e heat capacities are constant
Expanding the derivative of the product, noting that V is constant as is Tref
[c, (T2  TI )] w
+c
p
P
[v $1
=
Q  lv
(3.1.287)
Using the fact that for a perfectly mixed tank the outlet conditions are the same as those in the tank; specifically, that T = T2 c , ( T  T , ) ~ + c , ~ v = 0w ~ Rearranging
(3.1.288)
140
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.1.289) Integrating and substituting known values (62.4) ft (100) ft3 (1)
9
&
(3.1.290) ( 1 . 1 9 7 ) 9 = 1 0.1197(T 150) (1.197)
$ = (38.960.1197T)
dT (18.96 0.1197 T)
(3.1.291)
=l
dt
(3.1.292)
(
(18.96 0.1197 T) = t 10) In 10.6
[
(3.1.293)
Solving for T 0.1197 T = 18.96 10.6 exp T= 18.96 0.1197 10.6 0.1197
[t
PO)]
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
141
T = 15888.6exp
I ol
t
(3.1.294)
As t approaches infinity, the tank temperature approaches 158OF.
3.1.3 The macroscopic mechanical energy balance
The work term, the kinetic energy term, the potential energy term and the flow work part of the enthalpy term all represent a special type of energy  mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is either work or a form of energy that may be directly converted into work. The other terms in the total energy balance (the internal energy and heat terms) do not admit of easy conversion into work. These we classify as thermal energy. Mechanical energy need not go through a heat engine to be converted to work. A given change in potential energy can be very nearly completely converted into work (completely, if we could eliminate friction). For example, the potential energy in the weights of a grandfather clock are quite efficiently converted into the work to drive the clockworks. Conversely, to obtain work from thermal energy we must go through some sort of heat engine, which is subject to efficiency limitations from the second law of thermodynamics, and which depends on the working temperatures of the heat engine. Because of the second law limitation, heat and internal energy represent a "lower quality" energy. It therefore should come as no surprise that we might be interested in a balance on the "higher quality" energy represented by the mechanical energy terms. Even though we do not create or destroy energy, we are concerned about loss of the "high quality" energy through conversion to the "low quality" forms, much as we might be concerned with a conversion of crystal structure that changes our diamond to coke  even if we still have the same amount of carbon in the end. The balance on macroscopic mechanical energy is yet another application of the entity balance, in this case incorporating a generation term which accounts for the destruction of mechanical energy  mechanical energy is not a conserved quantity. Total energy remains a conserved quantity, since any
142
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
mechanical energy destroyed appears in the form of thermal energy, thus preserving the conservation of t t l energy. oa When the brakes on a car are applied, the kinetic energy of the vehicle (the system) is converted to internal energy of the system at the point where the brake shoes andor pads rub on the drums a d o r disks and to heat, which crosses the boundary of the system where the tires rub the road. These converted forms of energy obviously cannot easily be recovered as work  say, to raise the elevation of the car. If the brakes had not been applied the kinetic energy could have been used to coast up a hill and thus preserve mechanical energy in the form of elevation (potential energy) increase.
IA + R) (A + 6
The macroscopic total energy balance is
p (v . n) dA +
&Iv + 6 + R) (0
=
Qw
p dV
(3.1.31)
Substituting the definition of enthalpy gives
jA + p v + &+ R) p (v (m
,
n) dA +
&Iv+ R) (m+&
=
p dV (3.1.32)
[41w
where the terms classified as thermal energy are boxed. Since the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy represents a degradation of the possibility of recovering this energy as work, it has been conventional to define a term called lost work as
lw
Ll?p(v.n)dA+&il?pdVQ
(3.1.33)
It would be more logical to call this term losf mechanical energy, but we will not assail tradition. Lost work is not lost energy. Total energy is still conserved  mechanical energy is not.
By the above definition we adopt the same sign convention for lw as that for W; that is, input is negative, output is positive. The lost work is a (negative) generation term in the entity balance. Substituting the definition of lost work and writing the relation in the form of the entity balance yields
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
output input rate of mechanical energy
143
+
accumulation rate of mechanicalenergy generation mechanicalenergy

(3.1.34)
r t of ae
[
(p 9 + 6 + k) p (v * n) dA + W
+ [ i l ( & + k ) p d V ] = [I,]
I
(3.1.35)
1 v+$+R)
(p
p (v n)d A + $ l
(&+R) p dV
= 1ww
(3.1.36)
If we make approximately the same assumptions for the macroscopic mechanical energy balance that we did for the macroscopic total energy balance:
. .
single inlet, single outlet steady state constant g, no variation of v, p, 6 ,or R across inlet or across outlet
and apply the assumptions as before, using the fact that 9 = Up, we obtain for the simplified form of the macroscopicmechanical energy balance
? A P + A ~ + A= ~
1;w
(3.1.37)
144
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
In the absence of friction and shaft work this is called the BernouZZi equation
(3.1.38)
D l e 3.1.31
In pole vaulting, one of the "field" events from track and field, the idea is to speed down a runway holding one end of a pole, insert the opposite end of the pole into a slotshaped socket fixed in the ground, and, through rotation of the pole about the end placed in the slotshaped socket, to propel oneself over a bar resting on horizontal pegs attached to two uprights  without displacing the bar from its supports.
Regarded from the energy balance perspective, considering the body of the vaulter as the system, it is desired to convert as much internal energy of the body (at rest at the starting point on the runway) as possible into potential energy (height of center of gravity of the body above the ground) with just enough kinetic energy to move this center of gravity across the bar so the body can fall to the ground on the other side. Initially, this is a problem for the total macroscopic energy balance, where the vaulter converts internal (chemically stored) energy of the system into the kinetic energy of the system (velocity of running down the runway). More internal energy is converted into vertical velocity as the vaulter jumps with legs and pulls upward with arms as the pole begins its rotation in the socket. At this point some part of the energy is converted into rotational energy as the vaulter's body rotates so as to pass over the bar in a more or less horizontal fashion.'*
It is instructive to see how fast a vaulter would have to run in order to raise the center of gravity of hidher body 1 ft utilizing only kinetic energy. (Since a 4 6ft vaulter might have a center of gravity 3 ft above the ground, this would correspond to a 17 ft vault.)
So1ut ion
We assume that there is no dissipation of energy from
l 2 Good vaulters actually curl over the bar so that at any one instant much of their mass remains below the level of the bar, much as an earthworm crawls over a soda straw.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
motion of arms and legs flexing and then straightening of the pole (we assume that energy absorbed by the pole as it flexes is totally returned to tbe system) wind resistance pole to ground friction as the pole slides into the socket and rotates, etc. We also assume kinetic energy is converted totally to potential energy, which means that no linear velocity would remain to carry the vaulter across the bar
145
an infinitesimal thickness to the vaulter's body or a curl over the bar so that a 17foot elevation of the center of gravity would clear a 17foothighbar,
and we neglect energy in the form of angular velocity of the pole or vaulter's body. Take the body of the vaulter as the system and take the initial state as the point where the vaulter is running and the pole just begins to slide into the socket, the final state as the vaulter at the height of the bar. Applying the mechanical energy balance, we see that there are no convective terms, no heat, no work, and no change in internal energy of the system (at this point the chemical energy of the body has been converted in to kinetic energy), leaving us with $SV(b+R)pdV = 0 $l(gz+$)pdV
=0
(3.1.39)
Neglecting the variation of z over the height of the vaulter's body and assuming uniform density
+[(gz+g)pv] = 0
146
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
g(gz+$)m]
dt
=0
(3.1.310)
where m is the mass of the vaulter’s body. Integrating with respect to time from the time the pole begins to slide into the socket to the time when the body of the vaulter is at maximum height
d gZ+T =
( ”)
= gz
JI”
0 dt
(3.1.311)
(gz+g)
[(gz+?ii)] (3.1.312)
i
m ‘gz$)
=0
gz =
v2 = 2 g z v = 02
Substituting known quantities
z
V2
(3.1.313)
= 30
$ = 20.5 mph
(3.1.3 14)
This is the equivalent of running 100 yards in 10 s  a pretty good pace, particularly when carrying an unwieldy pole  and this is without considering energy lost because of wind resistance, friction with the ground, etc., which also must be supplied by the vaulter. Obviously, legs, arms, shoulders, etc. (which contribute to the vertical component of velocity) are important.
Chapter 3: llze Energy Balances
Examble 3.1.32 Calculation o f lost work in p b e
147
point 1 (in the 3inch pipe) is 120 psig and at point 2 (in the 4 in pipe) is 15 psig. If the pipe rises in elevation 100 ft what is the lost work?
40 steel pipe. The pipe expands to a 4inch pipe as shown. The gauge pressure at
Water is flowing at 230 gdmin. through 500 ft of fouled 3inch Schedule
Solution
2
120 psig
1
L
100 ft
I
length = 500 ft
Figure 3.1.31 Pipe system
The system, if chosen to be the water in the pipe between points 1 and 2, is single inlet, single outlet steady state constant g, V no variation of v, p, 6 , or R across inlet or across outlet
can use the simplified form of the macroscopic mechanical energy balance
Applying the above assumptions and recognizing that there is no work term we
&+gAz+A($) P
P2  P1 p + g (z2  ZI) +
= 1%
(3.1.315)
Evaluating term by t r ,choosing z = 0 and substituting known information em l plus the values from the pipe table for crosssectional flow aTea
P .p+gAz+*(;)
=
(3.1.316)
148
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Computing tbe velocities
v,=Q
*2

ft3 min (0.0513) ft2 (7.48) gal (60) s (3.1.317)
gal
(230)iiiG
gal
= 9.994
min = (0.0884) ft2 (7.48) gal (60) s = 5.80s ft
=
v2
Q
(230)iii6 ft3
(3.1.318)
Computing the individual terms of the equation
= AP p
(15 120)
( (62.4) Ibm
ft3
144
ft2
in2
= 242.3 ft lbf
lbm
(3.1.319)
g Az = (32.2)
lbfs2 4 (100) ft (32.2) lbm ft = loo 7i.f
S
(3.1.320)
lbf s2 (32.2) lbm ft
=
ft lbf  1.03lbm
(3.1.321)
1% =  2 4 2 . 3 ~ + 1ft~ ~  1 . ft lbf lbf 0 3 lbm lbm = 143 ft lbf lbm
(3.1.322)
Notice that the kinetic energy change is negligible compared with the other terms. Also note that the lost work term is positive itself, which means that according to our sign convention that net mechanical energy is leaving the system, as we know it must for any real system.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
149
3.1.4
The macroscopic thermal energy balance
p (v . n) dA + =
We now take the macroscopicenergy balance
(R + & + I?)
0w
%j + db + R)p dV (0
V
(3.1.41)
substitute the definition of enthalpy, and box the terms involving mechanical energy, regarding the remaining terms as thermal energy
f* (0I+ )
p ( v . n) dA+
$Iv l) (o+m
p dV
=
Q•
(3.1.42)
The conversion of portions of these mechanical energy terms to thermal energy represents a generation of thermal energy (not of total energy  total energy is still conserved under processes of interest here). If we define
ye
= rate of thermalenergy generation
per unit volume
(3.1.43)
Probably the most common generation of thermal energy comes from the action of viscous forces to degrade mechanical energy into thermal energy (viscous dissipation), the thermal energy so generated appearing as internal energy of the fluid. However, it is also possible to generate thermal energy via forms of energy that we have classified as work by default  microwave energy, changing electrical fields, etc.  which are classified as work by our definition because they cross the system boundary not associated with mass but not flowing as a result of a temperature difference. Note that chemical reactions do not generate thermal energy in this sense because the heat of reaction is accounted for in the internal energy term.
By the above definition we adopt the Same sign convention for ye as that for Q; that is, input is positive, output is negative. Substituting the definition of thermal energy generation and writing the relation in the form of the entity balance yields
150
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
output  input rate of thermal energy
+
accumulation rateof thermal energy
I
generation
I
(3.1.46)
This is the macroscopic thermal energy balance. It is common in practical applications for the heat transferred (Q) or the sensible and latent heat terms (the lefthand side of the equation) to be much larger than the thermal energy generation unless exceptionally large velocity gradients andor unusually large viscosities are involved, so models using this equation will frequently neglect
Ye dV
.
3.2 The Microscopic Energy Balances
3.2.1
The microscopic total energy balance
p (v  n) dA +
The macroscopic total energy balance was determined above to be
I,(R+ 6 + R)
$l(o + 6 + l?)
p dV (3.2.11)
= QW
We wish to develop a corresponding equation at the microscopic level.
0, the rate of heat transfer to the control volume, can be expressed in terms of the heat flux vector, q.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
151
Q=
j(q.n)dA
(3.2.12)
where the negative sign is to ensure conformity with our convention that heat into the system is positive.
At the microscopic level W will not involve shafts or electrical leads crossing the boundary of the system (a point); instead, it will involve only the rate of work done per unit volume on the system at the surface via the total stress tensor T, which is related to the viscous stress tensor T by
T =~ + p 6
(3.2.13)
Notice that the viscous stress tensor is simply the stress tensor without the thermodynamic pressure, a component of the normal force to the surface. This is desirable because the viscous forces go to zero in the absence of flow, while the thermodynamicpressure persists. For the fluids which will be our primary concern, the viscous forces act only in shear and not normal to the surface, so the only normal force is the pressure; however, particularly in nonNewtonian fluids, the viscous forces often act normal to the surface as well as in shear. The total stress tensor T incorporates the flow work from the enthalpy term. The dot product of the total stress tensor with the outward normal to a surface (a tensor operation which was defined in Table 1.6.9l), yields the vector Tn (the surface traction) representing the total force acting on that surface (this resultant force need not  in fact, usually does not  act in the n direction). T e n = T"
(3.2.14)
The dot product of this vector with the velocity gives the work passing into that surface, including the flow work.
(3.2.15)
IS2
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Proceeding to use the above results in replacing first Q in the macroscopic energy balance
(0+ p v + 6 + R) p (v n) dA+
#jv & + R) p dV (0+ = [( q . n ) d A  \ k
A
(3.2.16)
and then W by moving the flow work contribution to the other side of the equation
I
(0+ db + R) p (v n) dA +
=
1
$1
V
(0+ 6 + R) p dV
(3.2.17)
(q.n)dAwj pgp(v.n)dA
Defining C2 = (U + @ + K) and using the fact that
bF 1
gives
(3.2.18)
I,
sip (v . n) d A + * j f i p dV
=
5, fip (v . n) d A + $ l
=
!
( q . n ) U  \ k  jA p b p ( v . n ) d A
IA
fhp dV (3.2.19)
( 9 . n) dAlA (T". dA v)
I
Combining the area integrals
A
[np(v.n)+(q.n)+(T".v)]dA+$I npdV = 0 (3.2.110)
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
and substituting for the surface traction in terns of the stress tensor13
153
(3.2.111)
Applying the divergence theorem to the first tr on the lefthand side to change em the area integral to a volume integral, and applying the Leibnitz rule to the second t r on the lefthand side to interchange differentiation and integration em
V
(ap v) + (V
q) + (V . [T . v]) +at
dV =
(3.2.112)
zero.
Since the limits of integration are arbitrary, the integrand must be identically
Eulerian forms of the microscopic total energy balance
This gives the microscopic total energy balance in Eulerian form (which takes the point of view of an observer fixed in space)
T ,
a(n 4 + V
9
(np v) + (V q) + (V . [T . v])
=0
l3
Writing [T.
i 'i
'
in rectangular Cartesian gives, since Ti* is symmetric:
=
I TY
'i
Til
=
I TU 'i
. But, in symbolic form, this is
.
r'T. 1.
154
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
a(p
+
t5+R] P)
+ V ([o+&+ v) = (V.q)(V. [T. R]p v])
(3.2.113)
T i is a scalar equation. The first term represents accumulation of energy per hs
by convection; the third, energy input per unit volume by conduction; and the fourth, surface work (by both pressure and viscous forces) per unit volume done
unit volume at the point in question; the second, energy input per unit volume on the system.
This, however, is often not the most convenient form to use for many applications. To obtain a more convenient form, we first substitute for the kinetic energy term and then isolate the terms involving the potential energy
 +avt . ( a p v ) +
=
a(& P)
at
 (V
q)  (V  [T. v])
(3.2.1 14)
Examining only the potential energy terms
W+V.(&pv) at
=
[p&$+&i$]+[pv.v&+&v.(pv)]
=p
[$+
v. v6J+ 6
[g+ v .
(3.2.115)
(p v)]
But the last term in brackets is zero as a result of the continuity equation. Substituting
&+V.V&
p [ x
]+
+ v21 )
at
+v.([o+$]pv)
(3.2.1 16)
=  (V  q)  (V  [T. v) ]
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
155
Change in potential energy with time at a p i n t in a stationary fluid ensues from changing the potential fiela however, the only potential field of concern in our problems is gravitational, which is constant for problems of interest here. (We shall ignore all other field effects such as those engendered by electromagnetism, including any effects caused by fields that are unsteady. O r u models therefore will not be valid for phenomena involving such field effects.) We therefore set the partial derivative of the potential energy with time equal to zero. Using this and the fact that V@ =  g
(3.2.1 17)
and moving the remaining term to the other side of the equation yields
at
+v
*
([o+
$1
p V) =  (V.  ( V . [T v]) q)
+ p (v. g)
(3.2.1 18)
Examining the last two terms
(3.2.119)
We see that the first of these terms is work resulting from the action of surface forces (in cases of interest here, mainly the thermodynamic pressure acting opposite to the normal direction, and viscous forces acting in the shear directions  remembering, however, that, in general, it is possible to generate normal forces through the action of viscosity in addition to the thermodynamic pressure)
and the second
P (v 9)
*
(3.2.121)
is work resulting from the action of body forces (in cases of interest here, gravity).
I56
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
We have chosen by this classification to regard the potential energy term as work rather than potential energy  the classification is, of course, arbitrary, but em results from our regarding the potential energy t r as a force acting through a distance rather than as a difference in two values of the potential function. This gives the alternative form of the Eulerian equation as
The terms on the lefthand side represent, respectively the net rate of gain of internal and kinetic energy per unit volume at the point in question the net rate of input of internal and kinetic energy per unit volume to the point by convection. The terms on the righthand side represent, respectively the net rate of input of energy per unit volume to the point as heat (conduction) the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit volume by viscous forces (including any normal forces from viscosity) the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit volume by the thermodynamicpressure the rate of work done on the fluid at the point per unit volume by gravitational forces. Lagrangianf o m of th2 microscopic total energy balance
To obtain the Lagrangian forms of the microscopic total energy balance, that is, from the viewpoint of an observer riding on a “particle” of fluid, we expand the derivatives on the lefthand side
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
I57
(3.2.123)
P
['*X +
v
VQ] + h
[$+ V . (p v)] =  V  q  V  [T  v]
(3.2.125)
But the factor in brackets in the fust term is the substantial derivative by definition, and the factor in brackets in the second term is zero as a consequence of the continuity equation, so we have the Lagrangian form of the microscopic total energy balance as
(3.2.126)
Performing the same manipulations as with the Eulerian form we can obtain
Dt
=
(v.9)  v
*
[v v3  v [p
*
"1 + p (v . g)
(3.2.127)
3.2.2 The microscopic mechanical energy balance
By taking the dot product of the microscopic momentum balance with the velocity v, we obtain a microscopic balance that involves only mechanical energy  that is, energy directly convertible to work. This is the microscopic mechanical energy balance, below and in Equation (4.2 lO), whose development is shown in Section 4.2.
258
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
= p(v.v)v.[pv]v.[.r.v](.r:vv)+p(v.g)
(3.2.21)
323 ..
The microscopic thermal energy balance
For many engineering applications, the energy equation is more useful written in terms of lhermal energy, using the temperature and heat capacity of the fluid in question. The differential total energy balance can be converted to an equation expressing only thermal energy by subtracting from it the microscopic mechanical energy balance, which has the form14
P D t = p (v . v)  v . ['F . v] + ('F : v v )  v . [p v]
+ p (v . g)
(3.2.31)
Subtracting gives
1
I
P DOt =  ( v . q )  p ( v . v )  ( . r : v v ) D
1
(3.2.32)
where the lefthand side of the equation represents the net rate of gain of internal energy per unit volume of a "point" of the fluid, and the terms on the righthand side represent, respectively, the net rate of thermal energy input per unit volume by conduction the reversible work input per unit volume by compression the irreversible thermal energy input per unit volume from dissipation of kinetic energy into thermal energy via the action of viscosity (viscous dissipation) From thermodynamics
l4
This equation ignores changing electrical fields, microwave energy, etc.
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
159
d o = ($$dv+(%)vdT
= p
[
+T
(8)J+ CQ
dV
dT
(3.2.33)
(3.2.34) Observing that
1 DP
1 DP
(3.2.35)
utilizing the continuity equation v.(pv)+x=0 dP and rewriting, illustrating using rectangular coordinates (3.2.36)
(3.2.37)
D P p(v.v)+15i. = 0
(3.2.38) (3.2.39)
 F DP 1 E
= (vv)
Substituting Equation (3.2.39) into Equation (3.2.35), the result in Equation (3.2.34), and thence into Equation (3.2.32)
I60
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Pcvm = (V.q)T(n)P(V.v)(r:Vv) DT aP
(3.2.310)
As a frrst illustration, for constant thermal conductivity one obtains after substituting Fourier’slaw of heat conduction
(3.2.311)
Where
ye = thermal energy generation
=
[(V q)  k V’T]  (T:V v)
(3.2.3 12)
The thermal energy generation term indicated contains both the effects of viscous dissipation and of externally imposed sources such as electromagneticfields that represent nonconductive contributionsto the heat flux. As a second illustration, ignoring viscous dissipation and nonconductive contributions to the heat flux, rewriting Equation (3.2.31 1) in component form for a rectangular coordinate system yields
(3.2.3 13)
After inserting Fourier’s l w a
q, =  k x
aT
(3.2.3 14)
one obtains
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
(3.2.315)
where, since we have not assumed the thermal conductivity to be constant in space, it continues to reside inside the derivatives. Third, in cylindrical coordinates, for unsteadystate heat transfer with flow in only in the zdirection, with transfer only by conduction in the rdirection, only by convection in the zdirection (neglecting conduction in the zdirection compared to convection in the zdirection)
for
an incompressible fluid (for which
with
e
=
2: v )
constant k, the following equation is obtained
(3.2.3 16)
which is the differential equation describing unsteadystate temperature of an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube with no thermal energy generation in one dimensional axial flow at constant pressure, where k is the constant coefficient of thermal conductivity. For a solid rod fixed in space, as opjmsed to fluid in a tube, with no temperature gradient in the zdirection so that there still is no conduction in this direction, vz is zero and the second term drops out of the equation. Solutions of this equation are discussed in Chapter 7.
162
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
Chapter 3
Problems
3.1 Initially, a mixing tank has fluid flowing in at a steady rate w l and temperature T1. level remains constant and the exit temperature is T2= T1. The Then at time zero, Q Btdsec flows through tbe tank walls and heats the fluid (Qconstant). Find T2 as a function of time. Use dH = C, dT and dU = C,dT where Cp = C,.
3.2 A perfectly mixed tank with dimension as in the sketch of liquid is at an initial temperature of To= 100°F at time t = 0 an electrical heating coil in the tank is turned on which applies 500,000 B T U h , and at the same time pumps are turned on which pump liquid into the tank at a rate of 100 gal/min. and a temperature of T1= 80°F and out of the tank at a rate of 100 gaymin. Determine the temperature of the liquid in the tank as a function of time.
Properties of liquid (assume constant with temperature):
p = 62.0 lbm/ft3 C, = 1.1 BTU/(lbm°F
4 ft diameter
w, T 1
4 ft
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
I63
3.3 Two streams of medium oil are to be mixed and heated in a steady process. For the conditions shown in the sketch, calculate the outlet temperature T. The specific heat at constant pressure is 0.52 BTUhbmOF and the base temperature for zero enthalpy is 32OF.
yI
200 Ibm /min
w2
.
1 0 Ibm / min 0
40'F
0=20.000
3.4 Two fluids are mixed in a tank while a constant rate of heat of 350 kW is added to the tank.The specific heat of each stream 2000 J/(kg K). Determine the outlet temperature.
w1 = 200 lbmasdmin. w2 = 100 lbmass/min.
T1 = 25OC
T = 10°C 2
w2 T 2
kW
3.5 An organic liquid is being evaporated in a still using hot water flowing in a cooling coil. Water enters the coil at 1300F at the rate of 1,OOO lbdmin., and exits at 140OF. The organic liquid enters the still at the same temperature as the exiting vapor. Calculate the steadystate vapor flow rate in l b d s .
164
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
3.6 Steam at 200 psia, 60WF is flowing in a pipe. Connected to this pipe through a valve is an evacuated tank. The valve is suddenly opened and the tank fills with steam until the pressure is 200 psia and the valve is closed. If the whole process is insulated (no heat transfer) and K and fare negligible, determine the final internal energy of the steam.
At 200
A
psia, 6 0 F 0'
r'L1
Hz 1321.4 Btu 1 Jbm
3.7 Oil (sp. gr. = 0.8) draining from the tank shown. Determine is
a. efflux velocity as a function of height b. initial volumetric flow rate (gal/min.) c. mass flow rate (lbds)
How long will it take to empty the upper 5 ft of the tank?
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
165
3.8 Fluid with sp. gr. = 0.739 is draining from the tank in the sketch. Starting with the mechanical energy balance deternine the volumetric flow rate and of the tank.
3.9 The system in the sketch shows an organic liquid (p = 50 lbm/ft3) being siphoned from a tank. The velocity of the liquid in the siphon is 4 ft/s.
a. Write down the macroscopic total energy balance for this problem and simplify it for this problem (state your assumptions). b. What is the magnitude of the lost work lw. c. If the lw is assumed linear with the length of the siphon, what is the pressure in psi at l?
3.10 A siphon as shown in the sketch is used to drain gasoline (density = 50 lbm/ft3) from a tank open to the atmosphere. The liquid is flowing through the tube at a rate of 5.67 fds.
166
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances a. What is tbe lost work lw? b. If the lw term is assumed to be linear with tube length, what is the pressure inside the bend at point A?
3.11 Cooling water for a heat exchanger is pumped from a lake through an insulated 3in. diameter Schedule 40 pipe. The lake temperature is 50°F and the vertical distance from the lake to the exchanger is 200 ft. The rate of pumping is 150 gaymin. The electric power input to the pump is 10 hp. a. Draw the flow system showing the control surfaces and control volume with reference to a zero energy reference plane. b. Find the temperature at the heat exchanger inlet where the pressure is 1 psig.
3.12 It is proposed to generate hydroelectric power from a dammed river as shown below.
Ie2o i t
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances a. Draw a control volume for the system and label all control S\lrfaces. b. Find the power generated by a 90 percent efficient water turbine if lw = 90 ft. 1bfAbm.
167
3.13 River water at 700F flowing at 10 mph is diverted into a 30' x 30' channel which is connected to a turbine operated 500 ft below the channel entrance. The water pressure at the channel inlet is 25 psia and the pressure 20 ft below the turbine is atmospheric. An estimate of the lost work in the channel is 90 ft 1bfAbm.
a. Draw a flow diagram showing all control volumes and control surfaces with reference to a zero energy plane. b. Calculate the horsepower from a 90 percent efficient water turbine.
3.14 Water flows from the bottom of a large tank where the pressure is 90 psia to a turbine which produces 30 hp. The turbine is located 90 ft below the bottom of the tank. The pressure at the turbine exit is 30 psia and the water velocity is 30 ft/s. The flow rate in the system is 120 l b d s . If the frictional loss in the system, not including the turbine, is 32 ft lbfhbm a. Draw a flow system showing the control volume and control surfaces with reference to a zero energy plane. b. Find the efficiency of the turbine. 3.15 A pump operating at 80 percent efficiency delivers 30 gdmin. of water from a reservoir to a chemical plant 1 mile away. A Schedule 40 3in. pipe is used to transport the water and the lost work due to pipe friction is 200 ft Ibfhbm. At the plant the fluid passes through a reactor to cool the reacting chemicals, and 800,000 B T U h are transferred before the water is discharged to the drain. The elevation of the plant is 873 ft above sea level; the elevation of the reservoir is 928 ft above sea level. a. What is the minimum horsepower required for this pump? b. The pump is removed from the system; will water flow? c. Can you calculate the flow rate? D so or state why not. o
168
Chapter 3: The Energy Balances
3.16 Nitrogen gas is flowing isothermally a 77OF through a horizontal 3in. t insidediameter pipe at a rate of 0.28 lbm/sec. The absolute pressures at the inlet and outlet of the pipe are 2 atm and 1 atm, respectively. Determine the lost work lw in BTUAbm. The gas constant is 0.7302 ft3 atm/lbmole O F . Molecular weight of N2is 28. 3.17 Water is pumped from a lake to a standpipe. The input pipe to the pump extends 10 ft below the level of the lake; the pump is 15 ft above lake level and the water in the standpipe is almost constant at 310 ft above the pump inlet. The lost work due to friction is 140 ft IbfAbm for pumping water through the 6,000 ft of 4in. Schedule 40 pipe used. If the pump capacity is 6,000 galhr, what is the work required from the pump in ft lbfhbm? 3.18 Water flows from the bottom of a large t n where the pressure is 100 ak psig through a pipe to a turbine which produces 5.82 hp. The pipe leading to the turbine is 60 ft below the bottom of the tank. In this pipe (at the turbine) the pressure is 50 psig, and the velocity is 70 fVs. The flow rate is 100 l b d s . If the friction loss in the system, not including the turbine, is 40 ft Ibf/lbm, find the efficiency of the turbine. 3.19 Water flowing in a 1in. K pipe is suddenly expanded to a 9in. ID pipe D by means of an expanding conical section similar to a nozzle (here, a diffuser),. Heat is added at 3 BTUAbm. Find the outlet temperature if the inlet temperature is 80°F, inlet pressure is 40 psig, outlet pressure is 30 psig, and the outlet velocity is 5 fds. Assume
with constant density p = 62.4 lbmass/ft3.
4
THE MOMENTUM BALANCES
4.1 The Macroscopic Momentum Balance
Momentum, in contrast to mass and energy, is not, in general, i conserved quantity. It can be created or destroyed by forces external to t h f system (either body or control volume) acting on the system. Moreover momentum is a vector quantity, and so we will have to write vector equations. Newton 's first law1states
I
~~
~~
~~~~~
Every body persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed ) Of
This law is often explained by assigning a property to bodies designated as inertia. Since this is a statement about acceleration (change in velocity), and, since acceleration depends on the reference frame with respect to which it is measured, this law is really a statement about reference frames. Reference frames in which this law is valid are called inertialframes. The momentum vector of a body with mass mi is defined as
p. m.v
i i
(4.11)
where vi is the velocity of the body with respect to an inertial reference frame.
Resnick, R. and D. Halliday (1977). Physics: Part One. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, p. 75. or Gallilean, or absolute frames: see, for example, Fanger, C. G. (1970). Engineering Mechunics: Stufics and Dynamics. Columhus, OH, Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., p. 19.
169
I 70
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Newton's 2nd law for the ith body in an inertial frame can therefore be written as
where Fj represents the net force acting on the ith body (sum of both body and surface forces). Applying the entity balance for momentum
in terms of rates
in an inertial reference frame
to a control volume either stationary or in uniform motion for a fluid flowing in andor out of the control volume by adding the momentum contributions of the individual bodies (fluid particles) within or crossing the boundary of the control volume and taking the limit as the size of the fluid particle approaches zero (using the continuum assumption) gives
surface forces on conlrol volurn
body&
c
(F) = (output  input + accumulation rate of momentum
1
(4.13)
which is a form of the entity balance written in terms of rates,3 with the sum of forces representing the generation rate term. Note that the surface forces are those exerted on the control volume, not the forces exerted by the control volume on the surroundings.
3
generation rate = output rate  input rate
+ accumulation rate
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I71
The discussion here will be concerned only with linear momentum, not with angular rnoment~m.~ Consider a control volume whose surfaces are stationary with respect to a fixed Cartesian axis system in a velocity field v. The sum of the external forces on the control volume is the rate of generation of momentum and so (output  input) rate of momentum transfer is constructed by multiplying the mass crossing the boundary by its velocity. The rate of mass crossing the boundary is its normal velocity relative to the boundary, (V n) , multiplied by density and the area through which the mass passes. The momentum carried with the mass is the amount of mass multiplied by the velocity of the mass, which comes from the velocity field v.
*
at
momentum output momentum
(4.14)
Notice that this definition of relative velocity assigns the proper signs to input and output of momentum. Summing over the whole surface of the system and letting AA approach zero [(momentum output  momentum input tota)
1 1
(4.15) (4.16)
The rate of momentum accumulation is written by first considering a small volume AV and writing its mass times its velocity
The analog of force for angular momentum is torque, T
z =rxF
where r is the displacement vector. The analog of linear momentum is angular momentum, P = rxp
172
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
[rate of momentum accumulationin AV] =
$(v p AV)
(4.
The rate of momentum accumulation is found by summing over all the elemental volumes in V and taking the limit as AV goes to zero [total rate o momentum f
=
dV
(4.18)
Substituting these terms in the entity balance gives the macroscopic momentum balance
(4.19)
This is a vector equation. It implies the equality of the resulting vector on the left to that on the right. Equality of vectors implies the equality of their components; therefore, the vector equation implies one scalar equation (which states the equality of one pair of components, one from the left and one from the right) for each coordinate direction. Equation (4.19) can be written in component form for rectangular coocdinates as
I ([
A
vx] i + [vY]j + [v,] k) p (v cos a) dA +
$1
V
(v, i + v, j + v, k p dV
(4.110)
= ZF,i+ZF,j+CF,k
1
or, in index notation
(4.111)
As is illustrated by the index form, equality of vectors implies equality of their corresponding components, so the vector equation yields three scalar equations in rectangular coordinates
Chapter 4: l%e Momentum Balances
173
I, v, p (v cos a)dA + 2 Sv v, p dV = I;Fx
~ v , p ( v c o s a ) d A + $ S V v , p d V = LCF,
(4.112) (4.113) (4.1 14)
In general, the convective terms as well as the sum of the forces may have a nonzero component in any direction, although, if possible, we usually try to choose a coordinate system which minimizes the number of nonzero components. Also notice that the forces exerted by the surroundings on the control volume (the forces in the momentum balance) are equal and opposite in sign to the forces exerted by the control volume on the surroundings.
le 4.11 circular p 
m e n t m flux of fLrud rn lgmmw flow UL
. .
The (axially symmetric) velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow in a smooth tube of constant circular crosssection is
v = v,, [l
(;)'I
(4.115)
Calculate the momentum flux. Choose the flow direction to be the xdirection. Solution a) The momentum flux across any arbitrary pipe crosssectionis Momentum flux =
VI,
(v.4
= ~(v[l(~)2](i)}(v~[l(~)2](i*n)}27crLh 0
(4.1 16)

Noting that for this choice of coordinates, the outward normal is in the xdirection
174
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
(in) = 1 Then
(4.117)
vkx Momentumflux = 2 ~t i
(4.118)
=2nvLil(r~+$)cir =
~ ~ V ~ ~ [ C  L + Y  ] I
(4.119)
R
2 Momentum flux =
x R2vLx
2R2 6 R 4
(4.120) (4.121)
i
4.1.1
Types of forces
body forces surface forces.
There are two types of forces with which we must contend:
Body forces arise from the same types of fields that we considered when discussing potential energy  gravitational, electromagnetic, etc. The change in energy from position changes in a potential field can be accomplished by a force acting on a body during its displacement. Such a force  for example, gravity does not necessarily disappear when the body is at rest. All potential fields do not produce what we call body forces, but all body forces are produced by potential fields. Body forces are proportional to the amount of mass and act throughout the interior of the system or control volume. The second type of force is the surface force. Surface forces are exerted on the system by the surroundings via components of the traction on the surface of the system. Traction (force) acting at a point on the surface is a vector since it has both magnitude and direction, and it can therefore be resolved into two
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I75
components: one parallel to the surface (shear), and one component normal to the surface. The normal component in many problems is constituted of only the negative of the pressure multiplied by the area on which it acts, although nonNewtonian fluids can also have viscous forces acting in the normal direction. At a point in a fluid at rest, the normal force is the Same in all directions and is called the hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the same as the pressure used in a thermodynamic equation of state. There is no shear in static classical fluid systems because by definition such a fluid would deform continuously under shear. (This classic definition of a fluid becomes somewhat fuzzy when we later discuss nonNewtonian fluids, such a Bingham plastics, that exhibit characteristicsof both fluids and solids.) When a general fluid is flowing, the normal stresses are not always equal. If the fluid is incompressible,however, the pressure c n be defined satisfactorily as a the mean of the normal stresses in the three coordinate directions. The pressure field in either a static or a moving fluid exhibits a gradient caused by gravity. This gradient can often be neglected except in special circumstances; for example, where buoyancy forces enter the problem.
Influence of uniform pressure over 4.1.2 entire surface of irregular objects
To obtain the net force resulting from pressure on a control volume, we must integrate over the entire outside surface
net force produced by on surface of control volume
(4.1.21)
For irregularly shaped volumes, this can lead to cumbersome integrals. We often can avoid integrating the force produced by pressure over the nonflow surface of irregular volumes by performing the integration in gauge pressure. This artifice removes a constant pressure over the entire surface of the control volume from the integral. Adding o subtracting a constant normal stress r over the entire outside surface of a control volume, no matter how irregularly shaped, does not give a net contribution to the external force term.
176
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
This can be seen by dividing an irregular control volume into elementary prisms as shown in Figure 4.1.21, adding the forces on the left and righthand faces, and taking the limit as the face areas of the prisms approach zero to obtain the area integral.
Xk
xi
Figure 4.1.21 Approximation of solid by prisms
(7" . n) dA
(normal stress x area
)left facc
+
Inormal stress area1
x
rime faa
(4.1.22)
Consider the typical rectangular prism shown in Figure 4.1.22of area dXj by dxk (the coordinate xk is normal to the page) on its left face, a, and whose right face, b, is sliced at some angle p as indicated. The angle y is a right angle, and the outward normal to b makes an angle a with the horizontal. The normal stress is assumed to arise only from the pressure. Notice that if the magnitude of the normal stress
(4.123)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I77
Figure 4.1.22 Detail of prism
is the same on each face, one obtains no net force in the xidirection,because the increase in area over which the normal force acts on the right face is always just compensated by the decrease in the component of the force acting in that direction
Fxion left face
componentof normal stress in
area on which it acts]
(4.124)
In this case the nonnal stress is just the pressure, which acts normal to the surface and in a direction opposed to that of the outward normal.
Fxion left face = p dx, dx,
(4.125)
Considering the right face and noting that the angle a and the angle p are equal because their sides are perpendicular
Fxion right face
= componentof normal stress in
L
I
area on which it acts
dxj dx,
1
= pdxjdxk
(4.126)
The same conclusion would be reached if the lefthand face were sliced at some different angle.
I78
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Therefore, the imposition of a uniform pressure (normal force) over the outer surface of an irregularly shaped object contributes no net force tbe surface of the object.
4.1.3
Averages and the momentum equation
If we examine the fifst t r in the macroscopic momentum balance in em cylindrical coordinates as applied to constantdensity steady axial flow in a uniformdiameterpipe between upstream crosssection 1 and downstream crosssection 2, with the positive zcoordinate in the direction of flow, we see that U = 0 , that the magnitude of the zcomponent of v is the same as the magnitude of v itself, and that the cosine is 1 at crosssection 1 and +1 at crosssection 2, so the term reduces to
/Av,pvcosadA =
=P
l j A 2 v2 M  j A l
v2
[(4) (41 A
(4.1.31)
We often make the assumption in evaluating such a term that
(v’)
= (v)2
(4.1.32)
In the following Sections we examine this assumption for a particular turbulent flow profile and for laminar flow.5
Momentum balance approximation  turbulent flow
The velocity distribution for turbulent flow in pipes is fairly well represented by the following empirical profile:
v = v,(l*)+
(4.1.33)
In using the momentum balance for such flows, we often make the further approximation of replacing cv2> by cv>2. Let us investigate the error
Such an approximation in the momentum balance is similar to the assumption
(v3) e (v)3
=
(V)(V)*
that we made in the energy balance for some models.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
179
introduced by this second approximation (this error is over and above the error introduced in using the 1/7 power approximate profile). For turbulent flow:
(4.1.34)
Changing the variable of integration in the numerator and denominator of the quotient for convenienceby defining
t
= 1 r/R
(4.1.36)
It then follows that r = ~ (  t1 )
dr = Rdt
2 n r d r = 2nR2(1t)dt
(4.1.37)
and
I80
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
3
r=O r = R
t=l
t=O
(4.1.38)
Substituting in terms of the new variable
(v2>
(v)2
f[~,t”’]~[ZnR’(l
t)]dt

(l
[v,,
t1l7]
[ 2 x R2 (1  t)] dt
(1  t) dt
(1  t) dt)l
i’
I,”
dr
(4.1.39)
(v’>
(v)2
 Vmx  2
(io
1
t2I7
(4.1.310)
t1I7
(4.1.311)
(4.1.312)
(4.1.313) (approximate correct (correct)
%error = 100
1
(4.1.314)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances Momentum balance approximation  laminur jlow
For laminar flow:
(vm, 1 
I81
[
(n)'])'2
r dr
correct approximate (lcorrect = loo (approximate
1
1
(4.1.315)
Rearranging and defining t = (r/R)*so that dt = (2r/R)d(r/R)as in the previous laminar flow case:
(4.1.316)
Therefore, if the approximation is used
% error = l O O y , =
 25%
(4.1.317)
182
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances Force on a no&
Example 4.1.31
The sketch shows a horizontal nozzle which is attached to a fire hose (not shown) that delivers water at a steady rate of 500 gpm. Neglecting the friction loss in the nozzle, what is the force in the zdirection required in the threads to keep the hose attached to the nozzle?
2 It2 in
0
Solution First, choose a control volume bounded by the outside surface of the nozzle and two planes, (1) and (2), normal to the flow direction. Apply the macroscopic momentum balance, noting that the velocity and density of the water within the nozzle does not change with time (steadystate) J A v p ( v . n ) d A + d vpdV = Z F dt
(4.1.3 18)
s,
The lefthand side may be written as the sum of three integrals: the integral over flow area (l), the integral over flow area (2), and the integral over the remaining outside surface of the nozzle; however, the last integral is zero because the velocity normal to this surface is everywhere zero. Assuming the density of water to be constant p l A v ( v . n ) d A= C F
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I83
P[L2
vv,dA
6, J
vv,dA = C F
(4.1.319)
This vector equation represents three algebraic equations for the components.
so this component equation yields merely
There is neither force acting nor momentum transferred in the ydirection,
o=o
(4.1.320)
There is no momentum transfer in the xdirection, and the only forces are the body force from gravity, any xdirected force in the threads,and any force the fuefighter might apply in holding the nozzle, so this equation reduces to
which, since gx =  32.2 ft/s2, says that the firefighter must supply an upward force to counteract the weight of the nozzle and the water it contains, and since the xcomponent of the force in the threads is probably in the negative xdirection because of transmitted weight of the hose and the water it contains, the firefighter must supply this force as well. We now turn to the zcomponent equation. If we assume the velocity profile to be uniform (that v, is constant across f o area 2 and across flow area l), we lw may write the zcomponent of the lefthand side of (a) as
(4.1.322) (4.1.323) but a total mass balance at constant density and steady state shows that Q1 = Q2 = constant = Q . Using this fact and substituting for the velocities
184
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
P
I,,vv.dA(,”
vz dA
1.
= PQ
([%I2 [%I,)
(4.1.324)
Turning now to the zcomponent of the righthand side of (a), we observe that the significant external forces acting on the system in the zdirection are the force in the threads (which is mechanically transmitted by the coupling on the end of the hose) and the pressure forces. We neglect any shear force on the outside surface of the nozzle from, for example, wind blowing past the nozzle giving frictional drag at the surface. Even if such a force existed, it would normally be small compared to the momentum change. We also assume that the firefighter holding the nozzle is exerting a force only in the direction opposite to the force of gravity, and hence exerts no force in the zdirection.
(4.1.325) (4.1.326) (4.1.327) But since we are working in gauge pressure, p2 = 0. We do not know p1 and therefore evaluate it by applying the mechanical energy balance to the water inside the nozzle, neglecting the lost work in the nozzle
v+gAz+A($) AP
= 1kw (4.1.328)
p+.7 P2P1 vlv? = 0
PI = P 2 + P 7
(VZ”  v:)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I85
(4.1.329) (4.1.330) Substituting
(4.1.331)
Substituting the left and righthand sides in the zcomponent macroscopic momentum balance
(4.1.332) Noting that
A, = A, =
f(@)* = 3.41 x 10,ft2
(*), = 6.90 x 103ft2
(4.1.333)
186
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
{[A;] 9[k]l3[*] }
1 (6.90 x lO”)
 x 10+4 7 3.41 x 102] 6.90
(4.1.334)
(3.41 x 102)
[
[
1
=  (228) ft’
Substituting in the zcomponent balance
[FbeahIZ 548 lbf =

(4.1.335)
Notice the force in the threads acts to the left on the nozzle this is what we expect intuitively  if the force in the threads acted to the right, the threads would be unnecessary as the nozzle would be thrust onto the hose.
D l e 4.1.32
Thrust o f air&
e
u
A plane flies at 500 mph. Each engine uses loo0 lbm of air (including bypass air) per lbm of fuel, and each engine suppIies 1 , O lbf of thrust. If each 0O O engine is burning 2 lbdsec of fuel, what is the outlet velocity from an engine?
/A
/ fuelfr&n tank in wing
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
So 1ut ion
I87
We choose coordinates attached to the plane as shown to make the control volume fixed with respect to the coordinate system. The velocity and density of the engine and contents are steady in time.
lvp(v.n)dA = Z F
(4.1.336)
Using a control volume which covers the external surface of the engine, passes through the strut (which contains the fuel line) and cuts inlet area 1 and outlet area 2, we can see that mass enters and leaves only at 1 , 2, and 3. The fuel, which is already moving at the velocity of the airplane, enters at low velocity and flow rate relative to the control volume, so in our model we neglect the momentum entering the control volume at 3. We model the velocity as constant across 1 and 2 (although different at 1 and 2). We model the velocity as 600mph across 1, even though the demand of the engine for air might differ from this in the realworld case. We are not interested in the z component equation because no momentum transfer or flow is occurring in the z direction. The ydirection balance contains no momentum transfer terms, and so expresses the fact that the force in the strut must support the weight of the engine. We model the pressure as atmospheric over the entire control surface, including areas 1 and 2; therefore, external forces act on the control volume in the xdirection only where the strut cuts the control surface, and where aerodynamicdrag is exerted on the external surface of the control volume. Since the thrust (xdirected force in the strut) is used to overcome the drag over the entire surface of the aircraft., we neglect the drag on the engine surface compared to the thrust. The velocities are parallel to the xaxis; therefore the magnitude of the velocity is the same as the magnitude of the xcomponent of the velocity. The xcomponent of our model then becomes
188
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
V?
w ~  v ,W, = F h t
(4.1.337)
Note the differing signs from the cos a terms in the scalar product. In the above equation we do not know the mass f o rates; however, we can lw obtain t e from the fuel consumption rate, the fuel/& ratio, and a macroscopic hm total mass balance
lOoow, = w, w2w1wj = 0
w2
 (looo) (2)  (2) = 0
= 2002q
(4.1.338)
w2
Substituting in the model
(4.1.339)
v2 = 8 9 3 $
(4.1.34O)
Examnle 4.1.33
Pininn sumort
The sketch shows a horizontal pipeline elbow carrying water at a rate of 7000 gal/min to supply cooling in an oil refinery.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
189
The line is 24 in nominaldiameterSchedule 40 steel pipe. The pressure at points 1 and 2 may both be modeled as 50 psig (negligible pressure drop due to viscous dissipation). The velocity profiles at 1 and 2 may be modeled as flat. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in the pipe and supports. For 24in. nominaldiameter pipe:
l = 22.626 in. D
flow crosssectional area = 2.792 ft2
So1ut ion
Using a control volume which goes over the outside surface of the pipe and cuts across the flowing stream at 1 and 2, choosing coordinate axes as shown, and applying the macroscopic momentum balance at steady state gives
Lvp(v.n)dA = C F Since the only flow in or out of the control volume is at 1 and 2
(4.1.341)
(4.1.342) The density can be modeled as constant.
I90
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
p 1 2 ( v y j ) v d A  p l (v,i)vdA = F , i + F y j
At
(4.1.343)
(p v, v2 A2) j  (p v, v, A
i = F, i + Fyj
(4.1.344)
But a macroscopic total mass balance shows
w,w,
w2
=0 = w, = w
(4.1.345)
and the fact that w is constant implies that v l = v2 = v since p and A are constant.
w =~ A v
(4.1.346) is
The fact that v is constant, combined with constant A, implies that constant, since Q=Av Using these facts (  p v Q ) i + ( p v Q ) j = F,i+F,,j (4.1.348) (4.1.347)
The external forces are pressure forces and the forces acting through the pipe walls and any supports. Noting that the ydirection pressure force is in the negative ydirection
(4.1.349)
= [Fx]NpPI A I ) i + [Fylrip P2 A2) +
(
(
1
(4.1.350)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I91
(4.1.351) Equating xcomponents
(4.1.352)
=  (62.4)
[Ibm] ft3
(2.792) ft’ lbf s2
 (50)
[3 (2.792) [ft’] [( 1
144) in2
ft2
]
(4.1.353)
=  20,270 lbf
(4.1.354)
A similar calculation equating the ycomponents gives
[FYII,, = 20,270 lbf
(4.1.355)
Therefore, the net force exerted on the control volume by the pipe supports and the pipe walls at 1 and 2 is
[F ] ~ , = ( 20,270 lbf) i + (20,270 lbf) j
(4.1.356)
We cannot separate the forces into the forces exerted by the pipe supports and by the pipe at 1 and 2 without knowing more about the system.
192
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
fixamble 4.1.34
Jet boat
A boat is propelled by a jet at water as in the sketch.
The inlet, at 1, is 6in. inside diameter and the outlet, at 2, is 3in. inside diameter. The motor and pump transfers water at a rate of 300 gal/min. If the drag on the hull can be expressed as
F = 0.25 v Where
v = speed of boat relative to fixed water, ft/sec F = total drag force, lbf
2
(4.1.357)
and the constant 0.25 has dimensions of [Ibf sec2]/ft2 Calculate the speed of the boat.
So1ution
over the exterior of the boat, cutting the inlet and outlet f o crosssections, the lw
overall momentum balance is
Using coordinates attached to the boat, and a control volume which runs
J ^ * v p ( v . n ) d A= C F Since the only flow in or out of the control volume is at 1 and 2 L2pvvdAlA,pvvdA= C F Assuming plug flow at the inlet and outlet
(4.1.358)
(4.1.359)
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
193
p i 2 ( v y i ) v d A  p l (v,i)vdA = F x i + F y j
A1
(4.1.360)
But a macroscopic total mass balance shows that w1 = w2 = w, which, combined with the constant density implies that Q = constant. The xcomponent of the force is the drag force, which acts to the right as the boat proceeds to the left. Equating the components in the xdirection yields an equation for the speed.
pQ(88)
P Q2
p
(v2 v,) = 0.025 v2
=0.025~~ = 0.025 v2
(k k)
(4.1.362)
Substituting known data
2
= (0.025)
v = 2 3ft x
[y] [7]
(Vb) 2
ft2
(4.1.364)
(About 15 to 1 mph) 6
I94
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Water is flowing at steady state into and out of a tank through pipes open to the atmosphere as shown
D, = 3 m D, = 10cm D, = 4 ~ m Q, = 0.05 m3
h, = 0.5m
The velocity profile through the exit orifice can be assumed to be flat and
describedby
v, =&$i
(4.1.365)
g =9.8m/s2 h = distance to surface, m
Find the horizontal component of the force of the floor supporting the tank in Newtons.
Solution
Writing the macroscopic momentum balance on a control volume that goes over the outside surface of the tank and exit pipe and cuts AI as shown
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
I95
lvp(v.n)dA+glvpdV= C F
(4.1.366)
modeling the velocity of the contents of the t n as v = 0 and using the fact that ak we are at steady state
jAlvp(vn)dA+12vp(vsn)dA = C F
 p v, v,
I,
I
dA + p v2 v2
I,
dA =
cF
Writing the vectors in terms of their projections on the axes and equating the xcomponents
But a total mass balance at steady state gives
v2
= A,
QI
(4.1.370)
so, substituting in the xcomponent equation
Fx =  p V; A2 COS 30"
Fx=  p
(e)'
A, (0.866)
Q : Fx =  p (0.866) A2
196
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
(4.1.371) F, = 0.479N (4.1.372)
4.2 The Microscopic Momentum Balance
The macroscopic momentum balance was determined in section 4.1 to be JAvp(v.n)dA+ (4.21)
Normally we are concerned with the body force due to gravity only. The surface force may be expressed in terms of the stress vector Tn. For only these forces acting, Equation (4.21)becomes
(4.23)
(4.24) Forming the scalar product with an arbitrary vector and applying the divergence theorem to replace the area integrals with volume integrals
(4.25) Since the limits on this integration are arbitrary, the term in brackets must be zero and
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
197
1
q$+v.(pvv)+vp+(v.'c)pg
=0
(4.26)
Equation (4.26) is the microscopic momentum balance. The terms represent the rate of increase per unit volume of momentum: the first, at a point; the second, convection of momentum into or from the point; the third, from pressure forces; the fourth, from the action of viscous forces; and the fifth, from gravitational forces. The equation can also be written as
p D , = vp(v..r)+pg Dv
If we take the dot product with the velocity, v
(4.27)
D(v  v) p Dt =  (v . vp)  (v . [v.
1) '
+ p (v . g)
(4.28)
1
P D t =  (v . vp)  (v . [v . 'c]) + p (v . g)
p D ( ,9 =  ( v . p v )  p (  v . v ) D
 (v [T.v]) *
D(9
(4.29)
(
['c:
V"])
(4.210)
+P
(v. g)
This is the microscopic mechanical energy balance. It is in Lagrangian form, and therefore describes the rate of change per unit volume of kinetic energy as one follows the fluid motion. The terms on the righthand side represent, respectively, rate of work done per unit volume by pressure forces
198
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
rate of reversible conversion to internal energy per unit volume rate of work done per unit volume by viscous forces rate of irreversible conversion to internal energy per unit volume rate of work done per unit volume by gravitational forces
To illustrate a common application of Equation (4.27), for a Newtonian fluid, where x is the position vector
== 5i
Substituting this in Equation (4.27)and using the definitions
dv
(4.21 1)
(4.212) (4.213) yields a differential equation called the NavierS tokes equation.
Ip
g = vp+pv2v+pg
I
(4.214)
The investigation of solutions of this equation for various system where momentum is transferred by viscous motion is a large part of the topic of momentum transport as a transport phenomenon. For example, the axial flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a horizontal pipe is described in cylindrical coordinates by (4.215) Chapter 6 is devoted entirely to the topic of momentum transfer in fluid flow and utilizes the momentum balance in both its integral and differential forms. At this point it is useful to summarize both the macroscopic and microscopic equations of mass, energy, and momentum.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
199
4.3 Summary of Balance Equations and Constitutive Relationships
The balance equations in Table 4.31 are not applicable to systems where there is interconversionof energy and mass.
Table 4.31 Tabulation of balance equations MOMENTUM
+$l;vpdV
=
ZF
 v p +p v2v
+pg
ENERGY TOTAL,
I, (A + 6 + R)p (v . n) dA
= QW
ENERGY6THERMAL

v . [P v] + P (v . g)
Do =  ( v . q ) Dt
p(v.v)(5:vv
1
ENERGY MECHANICAL
= 1ww
 (v.p v)  p ( v . v)  ( v .[r.v])  [ 5 : vv])
(
MASS TOTAL
MASS 
I
= kridV
+ P (v. 8)
v.(pv)+$
= 0
SPECIES
For onedimensional flow of an incompressible fluid.
200
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
We summarize the common constitutive relationships  those equations that relate material properties to the fluxes  in Table 4.32.
Table 4.32 Tabulation of common constitutive relationships
4.4 The Momentum Equation in NonInertial Reference Frames
The momentum equation as we have written it applies to an inertial reference frame system. By an inertial frame we mean a frame which is not accelerated.s (We exclude rotation entirely and permit only uniform translation.) These frames are also referred to as Gallilean frames or Newtonian frames. The acceleration of frames attached to the earth's surface, however, is slight enough that our equations give good answers for most engineering problems  the error is of the order of onethird of 1 percent. For problems involving relatively large acceleration of the reference frame, however, Newtonian mechanics must be reformulated. An example of such a problem is the use of a reference frame attached to a rocket as it accelerates from zero velocity on the pad to some orbital velocity. For such a problem, observations from an inertial frame and from the accelerating frame can differ greatly. For example, if an astronaut in zero gravity but in an accelerating rocket drops a toothbrush, he or she sees it apparently accelerate toward the "floor" (wherever the surface opposite to the direction of the acceleration vector of the spacecraft might be at the time). This observation is with respect to an accelerating frame (the spacecraft) within which the astronaut is fixed. To an observer in an inertial frame, however, the toothbrush simply continues at the
Onedimensional. Fanger, C. G. (1970). Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics. Columhus, OH, Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
201
constant velocity it had when released, and the spacecraft accelerates past the toothbrush. In other words, observed acceleration depends on the motion of the reference frame in which it is observed. If this is true, Newton's second law must change in form when written with respect to an acceleratingreference frame, because the force experienced by a body should not depend on the motion of the observer. Here we will consider only a simple example of this  that of a system of constant mass.g Return to the astronaut's toothbrush. There is no net external force on the toothbrush (we neglect any drag from the atmosphere within the spacecraft). Newton's law becomes
=
=
atoothbrush, observed from inutial frame
atoothbrush. observed from iautial frame
(4.4 1)
which implies that the acceleration of the toothbrush with respect to an inertial coordinate fiame is zero. With respect to an accelerating frame (one attached to the spacecraft), however, there is an apparent acceleration of the toothbrush. This apparent acceleration is equal to the negative of the difference in acceleration between that of a frame attached to the spacecraft and that of the inertial frame. Since the acceleration of the inertial frame is zero, the relative acceleration is
Newton's law will still be operationally valid in the accelerating coordinate frame if we interpret the acceleration on the righthand side as the acceleration of the object as observed from the accelerating frame and also add an appropriate force (the inertial body force) to the lefthand side. The inertial body force is the negative of the product of the mass and the acceleration of the accelerating frame (the spacecraft)lo
We neglect the drag force from the atmosphere in this discussion. Mechanics. New York, NY, Wiley.
l0 Hansen, A. G. (1967). Fluid
202
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Another example is a camera sitting on the ledge above the rear seat of your car. If you hit a cow which happens to be crossing the road, and therefore decelerate rapidly from a velocity of 60 mph, the camera flies forward with respect to the car as well as to the ground. The sum of forces on the camera is zero (again neglecting friction from the air). This time the coordinate frame is decelerating, not accelerating. To the hitchhiker standing at the side of the road, the acceleration of the camera is zero  it continues at 60 mph until the intervention of a force (perhaps from the windshield  hopefully not the back of your head). In your accelerating (in this case, decelerating) reference frame, there is still no external force on the object, but there is an inertial body force of m aautomobilc), where aautomobilc is
(
the relative acceleration between car and ground (inertial frame). This is balanced on the righthand side of the equation by the same mass times the relative acceleration of the camera to the car, which is the same in magnitude as and a opposite in direction to the relative acceleration of the c r and the ground.
(4,46)
In the case of rotating frames things become more complex, and the reader is referred to texts such as that by Fanger," which cover this subject in more detail.
I 1 Fanger, C. G. (1970). Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics. Columbus, OH, Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., p. 562.
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
203
Chapter 4
Problems
flat velocity profile is assumed, what is the value of and the direction of the force exerted by tbe f m n holding the hose? m a
4.2 Your company is planning to manufacture a boat propelled by a jet of
4.1 A fire hose has an inside diameter of 1 1/2 in. and a nozzle diameter of 0.5 in. The inlet pressure to the hose is 40 psig at a water flow of 8 ft3/min. If a
water. The boat must be capable of exerting a 200lbf pull on a line which holds it motionless. The intake to the boat is inclined at an angle of 85" and is a pipe with a 6in. inside diameter. The motor and pump are capable of delivering 150 gaVmin through the horizontal outlet. a. Calculate the outlet pipe size which gives the required thrust. b. Calculate the minimum horsepower output required of the motor if its efficiency is 100 percent.
I
'
6 i n diometer
4.3 Water is flowing out of the frictionless nozzle shown in the following illustration, where p1 = 120 psig and the nozzle discharges to the atmosphere.
a. Show a control volume and all control surfaces with all forces labeled. b. Find the resultant force in the bolts at (1) which is necessary to hold the nozzle on the pipe. ee c. If mercury, sp. gr. = 13.6, w r flowing through the nozzle instead of water at the same conditions, what would be the new resultant force on the bolts?
204
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
4.4 Consider the straight piece of pipe
1
Flow
pi = 82 psig Q = 300 gaVmin p = 62.4 lbdft3; 0.1337 ft3/gal D = 4 in.
b. Calculate the force on the bolts at point 1. Are the bolts in tension or compression?
4.5 Water is flowing out of a frictionless nozzle discharging to the atmosphere. The inlet diameter and nozzle diameter are shown on the sketch. The pressure at p2 = 80 bar.
a. Draw the control volume and label the control surfaces.
a. Sketch a control volume and label it. b. What is the resultant force on the bolts holding the nozzle to the pipe? c. If a fluid of specific gravity = 10 flows through the nozzle what is the resulting force on the bolts?
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
205
150 rnrn

flow
4.6 Consider the sketch below where p1 = 300 psig; p2 = 270 psig; Q = 400 gpm D = 5 in, r = 62.4 Ibm/ft3 a. Draw a control volume and label it b. Calculate the force on the bolts c. Are the bolts in compression or tension?
I
I
n
Flow
4.7 Water (p = 62.4 lbm/ft3)is flowing through the 180 elbow represented by
the sketch. The inlet gage pressure is 15 lbf/in2. The diameter of the pipe at 1 is 2 inches. The diameter of the opening to the atmosphere at 2 is 1 inch v1 = 10 ft/s. a. Write down the macroscopic totalmomentum balance and simplify it for this problem (state your assumptions). b. What is the horizontal component of force required to hold the elbow in place?
4.8 Water is flowing through a 60° reducing elbow as in the sketch. The volume of the elbow is 28.3 in3. Calculate the resultant force on the elbow.
206
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
Flow
p1 = 30 psig; p2 = 28 psig AI = 12.56 in2; A2 = 3.14 in2 w = 75 lbdsec
4.9 Consider steady, constanttemperature flow of water through the 45" reducing elbow shown below. The volume of the elbow is 28.3 in3.
Flow
p1 = 26 pig; w = 85 lbdsec AI = 12.56 in2; A2 = 3.14 in2
Draw a control volume and label all control surfaces and forces on the control volume. Calculate the total resultant force acting on the elbow. 4.10 Two streams of water join together at a reducing tee where the upstream pressure of both is 40 pig. Stream 1 is flowing in a 1in. pipe at 50 lbdmin, stream 2 in a 2in. pipe at 100 lbm/min, and stream 3 exits from the tee in a 3
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
207
in. pipe. The straight run flow is from stream 2 to stream 3. Calculate the force of the pipe threads on the tee if the downstream pressure is 35 psig. Use positive coordinates in the direction of flow as shown in the following figure.
4.11 Consider the horizontal lawn sprinkler shown. Observe that if the sprinkler is split in half as shown, the two halves are identical and thus only one half need be considered. For onehalf of the sprinkler.
a. Use a mass balance to obtain an expression for vo in terms of v1. b. Use the frictionless mechanical energy balance to find vl. c. Find the value of FR that will just prevent the sprinkler from rotating.
4.12 A stand is to be built to hold a rocket ship stationary while a lateral or side thrust engine is being fired. Twenty l b d s of fuel is consumed and ejected only out of the side engine at a velocity of 4,000 ft/s. The direction of flow is as shown in the following diagram. Find the x and y components of the restraining force required of the stand.
208
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
" I
4.13 The t n shown below is secured to a concrete slab by bolts and receives ak an organic liquid (sp. gr. 0.72) from a filler line which enters the t n 1 ft above ak the tank floor. The liquid enters at a rate of 4,500 gal/min. What are the forces exerted on the restraining bolts? Assume that the filler line transmits no force to the tank (due to expansion joints).
Over f tow pipe J
1
4500 goJ/min
4.14 A cylindrical storage tank is connected to a nozzle by a short length of horizontal pipe as shown in the following diagram. At time equal to zero, the height of liquid in the t n is H ft above the axis of the discharge pipe. The ak liquid discharges through the nozzle into the atmosphere as the liquid level h(t)
changes.
a. Using a mass balance, show that the liquid level h(t) is related to the nozzle discharge velocity v2 by
dh dt
Chapter 4: The Momentum Balances
b. Using a mechanical energy balance on the discharge pipe and the results of part a, show that the nozzle discharge velocity v2 and the gage pressure at the pipe entrance (pl  p2) are given as functions of time by
209
where b = @2/D1)2
c. Using a momentum balance on the nozzle and the results of part b, show that the force exerted on the threads of the nozzle FT,is given as a function of time by
Assume there is no pressure drop across the short section of pipe between the tank and the nozzle.
I,
.. ..
A
..

.... ..
.
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5
APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
5.1 Systems of Measurement
A dimension or unit is a way of assigning a numerical value to a property, For example, one could assign the number 66 to the property height as measured in the dimension or unit of inches. The appropriate number if the property were measured in cm would be 167.6; if the property were measured in feet, 5.5.
To have physical meaning, equations must be d i m e n s i o n a l l y homogeneous: in an equation of the form
each of the terms f l , f2, f3, to be meaningful.
... fm must have the same dimension for the equation
For example, suppose that I have two bank accounts, one in the United States of America and one in England, and am asked,“HOWmuch money do you have?” Suppose further that my account in the United States has a balance of $1000 and that my account in England has a balance of 500E.I do not get a meaningful application of tbe equation total money = money in US + money in England
if I perform the calculation as
(5.12)
total money = $1OOO+ 500& = 1500?
212
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
The answer is meaningless, because I have added two numbers that result from measurements using two different scales. The calculation i meaningful if (assuming the current exchange rate to be s $1S O = 1&)I convert the terms to the same units, either as
$1 5 = totalmoney = $1O00+ 5OOf f $1750
(5.14)
totalmoney = $1OOOf:+5OOE
$1.5
= 1167&
(5.15)
Notice that one can formally multiply and divide dimensions (multiplied by the appropriate scale factor) like algebraic quantities (even though they are not). In effect, this amounts to multiplication by unity  in the above example
(5.16)
In this example we were concerned with measuring only one variable money. In the usual engineering problem, however, we are concerned with many variables, and so we need many measures; in other words, a system of units, not just a single unit. Useful systems of dimensions or units for engineering and scientific use must be consistent with fundamental physical laws  e.g., Newton's second law, which says that models of our physical systems must obey the law force = mass x acceleration
(5.17)
Because of this particular constraint, we can independently define only three of the four dimensions, mass, length, time, and force, because any combination of these units must satisfy Newton's second law.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
213
For example, we could define the unit of mass as the pound (lbmass') by measuring it in units of some mass we retain as a standard, the unit of length as the foot (ft.) in terms of the wavelength of certain prescribed radiation, and the unit of time as the second (s) in terms of the oscillations of a particular molecule under prescribed conditions. We then cannot define the unit of force independently,because Newton's law requires that
F [force units] = m [lbmassunits] x a  units
:[
]
(5.18)
If we choose the unit force to be the force necessary to accelerate a unit mass 1 ft/s2,Newton's law dictates that [force unit] = 1 [lbmass]x 1
[9]
(5.19)
This force unit is usually designated as the poundal to avoid writing [(lbmass ft)/s2] every time the force unit is required, so that [pound4 = 1 [lbmass]x 1 a 1 lbmassft = g, (1) = [poundals') (5.111)
[$1
(5.1 10)
For any system, g, is common nomenclature for the conversion among force, length, mass and time units. Multiplying or dividing any term by g, has no effect on the intrinsic value of the term, but only effects a change in units. In this system g, has the convenient numerical value of 1.0. The choice of gc to designate this conversion factor for units is unfortunate, o because it frequently leads t confusion with g, the acceleration of gravity. Some books write g, as an integral part of equations; we shall not do this since all equations must be dimensionally homogeneous and, therefore, the need for g, is selfevident when it is required.
Most of the time we will write lbmass, kgmass, and gmmass when using these units; if used for brevity we will also restrict the notation lbm, kgm and gmm to mean mass; when we wish to refer to moles, we will write lbmol (not lbm) for pound moles, kgmol for kilogram moles, and gmmol for gram moles.
214
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Similarly, if we use a system of units in which the fundamental units are kilograms for mass (kgmass), meters for length (m), and seconds for time (s), unit of force as that required to accelerate one kilogram one meter [force unit] = 1 [kgmass] x 1 We designate this force unit as the Newton (N), and observe that
(5.1 13)
(5.112)
so the numerical value of g, equals 1.0 in this system of units as well.
as the foot, the time unit as the second, and then (as we often do) choose the force unit as the force exerted by a unit mass at sea level (lbf), the acceleration is
that of gravity at sea level and Newton’s law prescribes that force = mass x acceleration = m x g where g = 32.2 ft/s2, so the units must satisfy the equation
(1) [lbfl = (1) [lbmass] x (32.2)
If we choose instead to define the mass unit as pounds mass, the length unit
(5.1 14)
[F]
(5.1 15)
In other words
(5.1 16)
and in this system & has the numerical value 32.2.
We encounter a similar problem if we work in a system which defines the unit of length as the meter, the unit of mass as the kilogram mass, the unit of
by one kilogram of mass at sea level.
time as the second, and then defines the kilogram force (kgf) as the force exerted
Chupter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
21s
(5.1 17)

giving
(1) =
(9.80) kgmassm kgf s2
Weipht vs.
vs.
(5.1 18)
le 5.11
Weight refers to the force exerted by a given mass under the acceleration of local gravity. This means that the weight of a given mass will vary depending upon location  the weight of a certain mass is slightly less in an airplane flying at 30,000 feet than at the surface of the earth. The same mass will have a different weight on the surface of the moon. By virtue of the definition of pound force, one pound mass will weigh one pound force at the surface of the earth. On the moon, where g = 5.47 ft/s2, one pound mass would weigh 1 [Ibmass] x 5.47
[$I [32,2E:Lft]
x
= 0.17 lbf
(5.119)
In other words, someone who weighs 150 lbf on earth would weigh 25.5 lbf on the moon.
On the surface of the sun, where g = 900.3 f t / ~ one ~ ~ , pound mass would weigh
and the same 150 lbf earthling would weigh 4194 lbf. In each case the mass of the person would be the same, regardless of whether they are o n the earth, the moon, or the sun. This illustrates the difference between g, the acceleration of gravity, and gc, the conversion among units, as well as the differencebetween mass and weight.
Chemical Rubher Publishing Company, CRC Handbook o Chemistry and Physics. f 50th ed. 1969, Cleveland, OH: Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, p. F145. Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 50th ed. 1969, Cleveland, OH: Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, p. F145.
216
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Units became essential when mankind needed to trade on a sightunseen basis. One pile of goods can be traded for another if they are both physically present for inspection. One quantity of salt, for example, could be visually compared to another. For sidebysideinsight trading to take place, however, the goods must be physically present before the trader. This is not an overwhelming restriction when applied to diamonds  and, in fact, some diamonds are still traded on a sidebyside basis. It is inconvenient when applied to, say, elephants, or impossible when applied to land, which cannot be moved (unless the two plots of land fortuitouslyadjoin each other). One needs to assign a numerical quantity (value of a unit) to compare goods which are removed from each other in physical location. The assignment of values to units immediately requires standards. If we are to trade land on the basis of area determined by measuring dimensions with a stick, we had better both either use the same stick or sticks of equal length. Happily, there is some international cooperation in establishment of such standards.
In 1948, the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM4)by its Resolution 6 instructed the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM5) "to study the establishment of a complete set of rules for units of measurement The 1lth CGPM (1960) by its Resolution 12 adopted the name International System of Units for the resulting system, with the international abbreviation SI (Systeme International d'Unit6s) and established rules for prefixes, derived and supplementary units, etc. The 10th CGPM (1954) by its Resolution 6, and the 14th CGPM (1971) by its Resolution 3 adopted the following seven base units.6
...I'
The current primary standards for the SI system follow7:
*Length: meter. Originally defined by the distance between two marks on an international prototype of platinumiridium, this original standard was replaced in 1960 by 1 650 763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the orangered line (between levels 2plo and 5d5) of the spectrum of krypton86; in 1983 the krypton standard was replaced by
'
Confkrence GCn6rale des Poids et Mesures. ComitC International des Poids et Mesures. Taylor, B. N., Ed. (1991). The International System of Units (SI). NIST Special Publication 330. Washington, DC,National Institute of Standards and Technology. ASME (1975). ASME Orientation and Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units. New York, NY, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of U299 792 458 of a second. [17th CGPM (1983) Resolution 1J
2Z7
Mass: kilogram. This is the only base unit still defined by an artifact.
The kilogram is equal to the mass of a cylinder of platinumiridium alloy. This bar is kept (under conditions specified by the fust CGPM in 1889) by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris, France.
Time:second. Originally defined as 1/86 400 of a mean solar day. The 1lth CGPM adopted a definition by the International Astronomical Union based on the tropical year. This definition in turn has been replaced with
The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium133 atom. [13th CGPM (1967)J
Temperature: Kelvin, The 10th CGPM (1954) by its Resolution 3 selected the triple point of water as the fundamental fixed point and assigned to it the temperature 273.16 K. The 13th CGPM (1967) by its Resolution 3
a) adopted the name Kelvin and the symbol K (rather than degree Kelvin and symbol K), and b) decided that this unit and symbol should be used to express an interval or difference in temperature. In its Resolution 4 it defined the unit of thermodynamic temperature as follows The Kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1D73.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
.Amount of matter: mole (symbol mol). Gramatoms and grammolecules are directly related to atomic and molecular weights, which are relative masses. Historically physicists
218
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
used the atomic weight of 16 for a particular isotope of oxygen, while chemists used 16 for a mixture of isotopes. In 195960an agreement between the InternationalUnion of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) assigned the value 12 to isotope 12 of carbon. The CIPM confiied in 1969 the definition of the mole listed below, which was adopted by the 14th CGPM (1971) in its Resolution 3 1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon 12* 2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. Note that mass and amount of substance are different quantities.
Luminous Intensity: candela. Before 1948 there were in various countries a variety of standards based on flame or incandescentfilaments. These were replaced by a standard based on the luminous intensity in the normal direction of a surface of U600 OOO m2 of a Planckian radiator (blackbody) at the temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 N/m2. The 9th CGPM (1948) adopted the name candela (symbol cd) for this unit. The 16th CGPM (1979) in its Resolution 3 replaced this definition with the following defmition
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 10l2 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.
Electric current: ampere. The "international" units for current and resistance,the ohm and the ampere, were introduced by the International Electrical Congress held in Chicago in 1893, and the definitions were confirmed by the International
Unbound atoms of carbon 12 at rest and in their ground state are understood.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
219
Conference of London in 1908. The definitions of these units were replaced [9th CGPM, (1948)l by The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed one meter apart in a vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x lQ7Newton per meter of length. [CIPM (1946) Resolution 2, approved by the 9th CGPM
(194811
Table 5.11 shows the units of length, time, mass, force, work and weight for common systems of measurement. The SI system is the metric system being adopted as an international standard, and is the system that is recommended for engineering practice. Reality, however, dictates that engineers will still encounter other systems of units  particularly system (2), which uses the pound both as a force and as a mass unit.
Also shown are other typical systems  (3), the Fgmass m t kgf T] system, which is the metric analog of (2); (4), the British mass system which uses the poundals the mass unit; (3,the American engineering system which uses the slug as the mass unit; and (6), the cgs system which uses the dyne as the force unit and the erg as the energy unit.
We will use a variety of systems in this text because we believe that systems of units other than SI will be in use for many years, although we believe SI clearly to be a superior system.
220
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.11a Systems of Unitsg
I
t, time
Itemperature
w, work
Watt = J/s Horsepower = (550) ft Ibf/s [HP] psf = lbf/ft2 Poise = 0.0672 lbmass/(ft s) = 242 lbmass/(ft hr) Poise = 0.1 kgmass/(m s)
[PI
Iwl
lp,pGssure
Pascal = N/m2 Pascal second = kg/(m s) = N s/m2 IPa s]
I
lo
1
viscosi ty10
CL’
1
i brackets. Asterisks denote a fundamental unit. n A commonly used nonSI unit is the centipoise [cP]. 1 CP = 0.01 poise [PI In SI units 1 P = 0.1 Pa s = 0.1 kg/(m s) 1 CP = (0.001) Pa s = (0.001) kg/(m s) = (0.001) N s/m2 In [kgf kgmass M t T] units (system 3 above) 1 P = 0.1 kgm/(m s) In FMLtT units 1 CP = (6.72~104) Ibmass/(ft s) = 2.42 Ibmass/(ft hr).
9 Abbreviation shown
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.1lb Systems of Units
221
Unit/System F, force
M, mass
L, length
t, time
*second
gc
W, work (energy)
s] (1) 1b ft/(poundal
S2)
*second [s] (1) slug ft/(lbf s2)
*second [s] (1) g cm4dyne s2)
SI prefixes are listed in Table 5.12. These prefixes permit easy designation of multiples of SI units. Those marked with plus signs are probably best shunned because of danger of typographical error or confusion with other symbols.
Table 5.12 SI Prefixes
222
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
52 Buckingham's Theorem .
Dimensionally homogeneous functions are a special class of functions. The theory of dimensional analysis is the mathematical theory of tbis class of functions. Dimensional analysis is based on requiring the mathematical model for a given problem to be a dimensionally homogeneous
equation.
A set of dimensionless products obtained from the set of variables incorporated in a dimensionally homogeneous equation is complete if (a) each product in the set is independent of all the other products and (b) every other dimensionless product of the variables is not independent but is a product of powers of dimensionlessproducts in the set.
Buckingham's theorem states that if an equation is dimensionally homogeneous, it can be reduced to a relationship among a complete set of dimensionless products. One can show that if n variables Qi [i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n] are related by
(5.21)
then there are (n  r) independent dimensionlessproducts Itj = 1,2, 3, ..., (nr)] in a complete set of dimensionlessproducts formed from these n variables where r is the rank of dimensional matrix.ll These dimensionless products can in turn be related by another function
+(lc1, lc*, lc3,
..., 7Pr)
=0
(5.22)
where the ICi are t e dimensionlessproducts (a new set of variables). Usually r = h k, where k is the number of fundamental dimensions; therefore, in most applications the number of dimensionless products is equal to the number of variables less the number of fundamental dimensions.
l 1 The dimensional matrix is constructed by writing the variables as row headings and the fundamental dimensions as column headings, and filling in the matrix with the power of the dimension for each variable. The rank is the order of the highest order nonzero determinant that can be selected from the matrix.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Examble 5.21
223
Dimensionless variables for pirre _flow
The original set of variables chosen depends on what is important in the physical situation being modeled; however, for fluid flow in a pipe one possible set of variables is L, the length of the pipe D, the diameter of the pipe g, the acceleration of gravity <v>, the bulk velocity of the fluid p, the density of t e fluid h p, the viscosity of the fluid 6, surface tension of the fluid the c, the speed of sound in the fluid Ap, the pressure difference across the length What is a complete set of dimensionless variables (dimensionless products) for this set of primary variables?
Solution
First we must choose the system of units in which we propose to work. Assume that we choose an MLt system. We need not include temperature because temperature is neither a dimension for any of our variables nor a variable in itself; in other words, we are assuming either an isothermal system or one in which the effects of temperaturechanges are unimportant.
of the variables in terms of the fundamental dimensions are12
We have nine variables and three fundamental dimensions. The dimensions
l 2 The units of surface tension are energyhea or, equivalently, forcellength. Since we are working with M,L, and t as OUT fundamental units, force must be expressed in these units using Newton's second law  F = MUt2. This makes the units on surface tension (MUt2)/L = M/t2. Pressure is force per unit area: writing force in terms of our fundamental units by using Newton's law we have F/L2 = (MUt2)/L2 = M/(L t2).
224
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
M
L D 8
<V>
L
t
P c1
d
C
AP
which gives the dimensional matrix as13
r
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 12 0 11 13 0 11 1 1 02 0 11 11 2
(5.23)
We look for the largest order nonzero determinant that can be found in this matrix. We note that determinants are square arrays, so a 3x3 determinant is clearly the largest order determinant that exists in the matrix, and we can easily find a nonzero 3x3 determinant by inspection14(there are more than one) as follows' 5
13Note that for our manipulations here it does not matter whether we start with this matrix or its transpose so long as we remember whether the rows or the columns correspond to the dimensions or the original variables, respectively. l 4 There are also systematic ways to find the rank of a matrix  for example, see Amundson, N. R. (1966). Mdhematical Methods in Chemical Engineering: Matrices and Their Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, PrenticeHall, Inc., Gerald, C. F. and P. 0. Wheatley (1989). Applied Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley, etc. l 5 The expansion of determinant A = [aij] is where Mkj is the determinant of the (nl)x(n1) matrix formed by deleting row i and rm column j f o A (the minor of aij in A). O'Neil, P. V. (1991). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, p. 689.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
225
(5.24)
Therefore, the rank of the dimensional matrix is three, so r = k = 3 and n  k = 9  3 = 6, and we should be able to find six independent dimensionless products (groups).
A systematic way of determining these groups is given below. For the moment, we simply list them with the name and abbreviation that they are customarily given16
(5.25)
P
fluid velocity 7 Ma = Machnumber = sonic velocity =
L (v)' P = We = Webernumber = inertidforce interfacialforce  = dimensionlesslength L D
(4
w2
pressure force Eu = Eulernumber = inertial force
(5.26)
(5.27)
(5.28)
(5.29)
(5.210)
l6 The American Institute of Chemical Engineers officially suggests Buck, E. (1978). Letter Symbols for Chemical Engineering. CEP(0ctober): 7380, that the Reynolds, Euler, Froude, and Weber numbers be designated as NR,, etc., but this is by no means universally followed. We do not do so here, because we feel that the notation we use is less confusing, since it does not repeat the same symbol (N) in every quantity.
226
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
It can easily be seen that these groups are independent, since comparing them pairwise shows that one member of each pair has (at least) one variable not present in the other of the pair. Further, any dimensionless combination of variables in the parent set can be expressed by multiplying and dividing these dimensionless products. For example, if we construct the dimensionless product (group)
we can write it as the following combination of dimensionlessproducts from our complete set
(5.2 12)
Example 5.21 is a practical illustration of the application of Buckingham‘s theorem. As pointed out in the example, dimensionless groups have physical significance. We will see later that they are parameters in the dimensionless equations which are the mathematical models for the physical systems described. We know that the n variables are related by some unknown but dimensionally homogeneous equation, for example, a) the differential equation describing the process and its boundary conditions, or, equivalently, b) the solution to this equation with its boundary conditions, but the form of this model equation is at this point unknown. Buckingham’stheorem, however, tells us that the solution to this equation can be expressed as a functional relationship among a complete set of (nr) dimensionless products equally as well as by the initial functional form relating the n original variables. This reduces the dimensionalityof our original problem, an enormous advantage.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
227
521 ..
Friction factors and drag coefficients
In the course of making calculationsregarding fluid flow, we are, in general, confronted with two situations flow through things (e.g., pipes, conduits, etc.) flow around things (e.g., drops, wings, hulls, etc.)
In each of these cases we need to relate the drag force to the f o situation. lw
case of complex shapes) of
In general, the drag force is some function (often very complicated in the the properties of the fluid (density, viscosity) the properties of the object (usually characterized as some characteristic length) the flow field (usually described by a characteristic velocity)
Consider, then, the prediction of drag force as a function of these variables. We use v and D as generic variables at this p i n t (for example, v refers to no particular velocity and D does not necessarily refer to diameter). The function
(5.2.1 1)
gives the dimensional matrix (for purposes of illustration, using a system with four fundamental dimensions; however, the outcome is the same if we use three fundamental dimensions  the only difference being that we must include gc in our list of variables when using four fundamental dimensions)
F M L t F 1 0 0 0 P 0 130 Cr 0 1 11 D 0 0 1 0 V 0 0 11 g 1 1 1 2 c
(5.2.12)
It can be shown that this matrix is of rank 4, so in a complete set we should be able to obtain 6  4 = 2 dimensionless products. Carrying out the dimensional analysis yields
228
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
W1
[q.),i")] p D2 0
v2
=
(5.2.13)
In principle, we can solve WI explicitly for
function
(p:fb2) 
to obtain a new
(*)
=
W2[(.?)]
(5.2.14)
This relation may be rewritten as
(5.2.15)
where (p v2) is proportional to the kinetic energy per unit volume and D2is proportional to a characteristic area. For internal flows in circular conduits this may be expressed a. .
(5.2.16) where we have used the bulk velocity as the characteristic velocity, the product (R L) in place of the square of the characteristic length, and the conduit diameter as the characteristic length in the Reynolds number (for geometrically similar systems, defined below, these lengths remain in constant ratio to one another). The Fanning friction factor, f, is then defined by the relation
F = (2xRL)($p(v)*)f
[(D(v)p,l
.p
(5.2.17)
where the first factor on the righthand side is the lateral area of the conduit and the second factor on the righthand side is the kinetic energy per unit volume. The function f is just the function ~2 divided by (ng,). Consistent with our practice throughout the text, we do not incorporate g, in the formula, because
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
229
the definition of f is the same for all systems of units, and when g, is needed it is selfevident by dimensional homogeneity. The friction factor is a dimensionlessfunction of Reynolds number.
A friction factor (unfortunately also designated by f') four times the magnitude of the Fanning friction factor is sometimes also defined in the literature. This friction factor is called the Darcy or BIasius friction factor. Two different friction factors, both designated by f, cause no real difficulty as long as one is consistent in which friction factor one uses and observes the factor of four. The biggest danger of mistake is usually in using a value from a chart or
table which incorporatesone friction factor in a formula using the other. For external flows, Equation (5.2.15) may be written as
F=
(qqw"(y)]
(5.2.18)
where we now have a different function because we have a different flow situation. For flow around objects, we usually convert the square of the characteristic length to the crosssection of the object normal to flow. The reference velocity usually used in the kinetic energy term and in the Reynolds number is the freestream velocity (the velocity far enough away from the surface that there is no perturbation by the object). The characteristic length, if the crosssectional area is circular, is the diameter of the circle  if not, a specific dimension must be specified.Then
(5.2.1 9)
where CD, called the drag coefficient, is a dimensionless function of Reynolds number (CD and ~3 are different functional forms because of the constants introduced). Again, we do not incorporate g, because the definition is valid for any consistent system of units.
522 ..
Shape factors
Dimensional analysis can seldom be used to predict ways in which phenomena are affected by different shapes of object. Therefore, when applying dimensional analysis to a problem it is usually convenient to eliminate the
230
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
consideration of shape by considering bodies of similar shape, that is, bodies that are geometrically similar.
D r u force on ship hull
Tbe drag force exerted on the hull of a ship depends on the shape of the hull. Hulls of similar shape may be specified by a single characteristicdimension such as keel17 length, L, and hulls of other lengths but similar shapes have their dimensions in the same ratio to this characteristic length  for example, the ratio of beam width (width across the hull) to length will be the same for all hulls of similar shape. If the hulls are considered to have the same relative water line (for example, with respect to freeboard, the distance of the top of the hull above the waterline), keel length will also be proportional to the draft (displacement).
The drag force will then depend on the keel length, L, the speed of the ship, v, the viscosity of the liquid, p, the density of the liquid, p, and the acceleration of gravity (which affects the drag produced by waves). What are the dimensionless groups that describe this situation?
So1u t ion
Our function is
(5.2.2 1)
The rank of the dimensional matrix may be shown to be 3 for a system with three fundamental dimensions. We will therefore have (6  3) = 3 dimensionless groups. If we carry out the dimensional analysis, we obtain
(5.2.22)
(the dimensionless group F/[pv2L2] is sometimes called the pressure coefficient, P ) . l *
l7 The keel is the longitudinal member reaching from stem to stern to which the ribs are attached. I * Langhaar, H. L. (1951). Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, p. 21.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
To run experiments, we would fearrange (5.2.21) as (5.2.23) and would rearrange (5.2.22) as
231
F = Fr) P = w2(Re,
p v2 L2
(5.2.24)
In each case the experiments would consist of measuring the variable on the lefthand side of the equation as a function of the variables on the righthand side of the equation, which would be varied from experiment to experiment. Notice the numerous advantages of (5.2.24) over (5.2.23). Using (5.2.23), to run three levels of each variable would require 35 = 243 experiments. Using (5.2.24), to run three levels of each variable would require only 32 = 9 experiments.
To use (5.2.24), we could easily vary both Reynolds and Froude numbers by varying velocity (which is easily accomplished in a towing tank) and hull length (which could be accomplished by using models of the same shape but different sizes).
.
agent to water), p (perhaps by varying fluid; or dissolving something in water to vary density; or varying temperature to vary density, even though this is not a very big effect), and g (perhaps by building two laboratories, one on a very high mountain and one in a mine, or building the experiment in a centrifuge). None of these alternatives is particularly appealing.
To use (5.2.23), we would also have to find a way to vary p (perhaps by vaqing temperature or fluid or adding a thickening
To present the results of (5.2.23) in a compact form is difficult, as is extrapolating or interpolating the results. The results of (5.2.24), however, can be concisely presented on a twodimensional graph, where the approximate results of interpolation or extrapolation can be easily visualized, as is illustrated in the following figure (the data is artificial and must not be used for design purposes). The figure shows the data from nine hypothetical experiments arranged in
232
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
a factorial design (each of three levels of Re combined with he each of t r e levels of Fr, and hypothetical curve fits which could be used for interpolation (or extrapolation, if the curves were to be extended beyond the range of the data  which would be dangerous).
Fr = 6
Fr=4
Fr = 2
Reynolds number
vle 5.2.22
Deceleration o f corUpressible fh&i
The important variables that determine the maximum pressure, pmax, resulting when flow of a compressible fluid is stopped instantly (for example, by shutting a valve rapidly) are the velocity, a+, the fluid at shutoff,the density of of the fluid, p, and the bulk modulus of the fluid, p = p(dp/dp)~
Find a complete set of dimensionless groups for this problem.
Solution
The dimensions of the bulk modulus are
(5.2.26)
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
The dimensional matrix in an MLt system is
233
M L t pmu 1 1 2 (v) 0 1 1 0 p 13 p 1 1 2
(5.2.27)
We have four rows that can be combined in various ways to make 3x3 determinants. From the properties of determinants, the only effect on a determinant of switching rows is to change the sign. Hence, only combinations of rows, not permutations of rows, are significant. We can therefore f ~ n n ~ ~ (5.2.28) different 3rdorder determinants from our dimensional matrix. We must see if any of these are not equal to zero. From the properties of determinants we know that if any two rows of a determinant are identical, the determinant is zero, so it immediately follows that any determinant that contains both the first and fourth rows of our dimensional matrix will be zero. This eliminates two of our four combinations  the first and fourth rows combined with 1) the second row and 2) the third row. This leaves us with two determinants to investigate further. One contains the first row in combination witb the second and third rows, and the other contains the fourth row in combination with the second and third rows. However, since the first and fourth rows are identical, these last two determinants are identical, leaving only a single determinant to investigate
l 9 The notation for combinations is read “n choose r,” and the general formula in terms of permutations of r things from a set of n is = = n! r! (n r) r! Fraser, D. A. S. (1958). Statistics: An Introduction. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
P :
234
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
and so we have a matrix of rank less than three since we have shown all possible thirdorder determinants to be zem.
We proceed to check secondorder determinants. It is easy to find by inspection a 2x2 determinant that is not equal to zero, e.g.
[ ;;I
= 1
(5.2.2 10)
so the rank of our dimensional matrix is two, and for this example, the rank of the dimensional matrix, 2, is not equal to the number of fundamental dimensions, 3. We will obtain, therefore, (4  2) = 2 dimensionless groups, not ( 4  3 ) = 1.
An acceptable set can be seen to be
(5.2.211)
5.3 Systematic Analysis of Variables
The proof of Buckingham’stheorem is based on a set of algebraic theorems concerned with the class of functions known as d i m e n s i o n a l l y homogeneous.2o A systematic approach to finding a set of independent dimensionless products can be based on this algebraic theory. We now develop a systematic way to convert a functional relationship among n independent quantities Q1, Q2, ... Qn to one involving (nr) , ~ , dimensionless products lcl, 1c2, ~ 3 ... z ~  where r is the rank of the dimensional matrix of the Q’s
*O Brand,
L. (1957). The Pi Theorem of Dimensional Analysis. Arch. Rd. Mech. A n d .
1: 35.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
235
In general, the number of dimensionless products in a complete set is equal to the total number of variables minus the maximum number of these variables that will not form a dimensionless product (the rank of the dimensional matrix). The algorithm to find tbe R'S as follows:
1) Select the number of fundamental dimensions.
2) List the Q variables and their dimensions in terms of the fundamentaldimensions.
3) Select a subset of the Q variables equal in number to the number of fundamental dimensions such that
none of the selected quantities is dimensionless, the set includes al the fundamental dimensions and l no two variables of the subset have the same dimensions. forming the product of the subset variables each raised to an unknown power times one of the remaining Q variables to a known power. (This process is repeated nk times, using all the remaining Q variables.)
5 ) Apply dimensional homogeneity to each of the products obtained to determine the unknown exponents.
4) The dimensionless products (p's) are found one at a time by
Algebraic manipulation of the dimensionless products that does not change their number will not destroy the completeness of the set. Thus, a II may be replaced by any power of itself, by its product of any other ~t raised to any power, or by its product with a numerical constant.
d e 5.31
Drqg force on a
S
D
~
The drag force, F, on a smooth sphere of diameter D suspended in a stream of flowing fluid depends on the freestream velocity, v,, the fluid density, p, and the fluid viscosity, p. (5.32)
236
Using the FLt system,
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(a) Wie the dimensional matrix. rt
(b) Show that the rank of the dimensional matrix is 3.
(c) Using ( ? p) as the fundamental set, determine the I D,, dimensionless group incorporating v,.
Solution
a) The dimensional matrix in the indicated system is
(5.33)
b) We can easily fmd a nonzero thirdorder determinant,e.g.,
1 : :I
F L:
t:
0 1 1 = (l)[(l)(1) (1)(0)] =  1
(5.34)
c) Choosing Q1= F, Q2 = D, and Q3 = p as the subset, (n  k) = (6  3) = 3
a+c=O l+b2~=0 l+c=O
3 3
3
a=1 b = l c = l
(5.35)
Example 5.32 Dimensionless prouus for flow over a flat ulate
For flow over a flat plate, the pertinent variables in predicting the velocity in the xdirection are
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
v, = f (x, y, v,, p, p)
Using the MLt system
237
(5.36)
(a) Wie tbe dimensional matrix. rt (b) Show that the rank of the dimensional matrix is 3. (c) Using (x, p, p) as the fundamental set, determine the dimensionless group incorporating v,.
Solution
"x x YV P P MIO 0 0 0 1 1 L 1 1 1 131 41 0 0  1 0  1
(5.37)
1
0 1 1 131
01
=013=4+0
*
rank=3
(5.38)
c) Choosing Q1= x, Q2 = p, and Q3 = p as the subset
7c
= v, xa p b p c
[4] [3Ib [LIa [B]'
=+ a = l b = l * c=1
M: L:
t:
b+c=O l+a3bc=0 1c=o
*
(5.39)
238
U D l e 5.33 i pvstem of d
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Consistencv
0
f dimension less pro U D s
across
The following table shows a list of possible variables for flow in a pipe. Apply the algorithm for obtaining dimensionless groups in each of the five fundamental systems of units MLt, FML, F t FMt, and FMLt, and show that L, the results obtained are equivalent. Details of the application of the algorithm for the FML, FLt, and FMt systems are omitted and left as an exercise in Problem 5.20. The rank of the dimensional matrix may be shown in each case to be equal to the number of fundamental dimensions.The algorithm presented will work for systems of four fundamental dimensions as well as three if the dimensional conversion factor & is included in the set of Q’s purely as a formal procedure.
W(Lt2)
L L L/t
M/(Lt) M/L3
L
F/(Ft2/M)2 F/L2 = M2/(Ft4) L L Ft2/M L L L Ft2/M L LJ0°*5 L/t Ft2/(Mt) L/t  (LF/M)O.~ = Fth4 M / [ L 0 ° * 5J (Ft2/L)/(Lt) M/[(Ft2/M)t M/(Lt) (~~)0.5~1.5 =F a 2 1 = M2/(Ft3) M/L3 (Ft2/L)/L3 M/(Ft2/M)3 M/L3 = Ft2/L4 = M4/(F3t6) L L Ft2/M L
F/L2
F/L2
I

ML/(Ft2)
For the MLt system
(5.310)
21
22 From 23 From
24
From Newton’s law, F = M U 2 . Newton’s law, t = (ML/F)0*5. Newton’s law, M = Ft2/L. From Newton’s law, L = Ft2/M.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
239
(5.311)
Apply dimensional homogeneity M:a=O a=O L: 1  a + b + c = O b=1 t: 2ac = 0 c = o Result
.
(5.312)
(5.313)
Form
x2
(5.3 14)
Apply dimensional homogeneity M: l + a = O a=1 L:1a+b+c=O b=1 t 12ac = 0 c = l Result
(5.315)
(5.316)
Form ~3
(5.317)
Apply dimensional homogeneity M: l + a = 0 a = 1 L:3a+b+c=O * b=O t: 2ac = 0 c = 2 Result
(5.318)
pig]
x4
3
(5.319)
Form
x4 = k(Ap)'Dbve
L(3)aLb(+)c
(5.320)
240
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Apply dimensional homogeneity M:a=O a=O L: 1  a + b + c = O 3 b =  1 c=o t: 2ac = 0 Result
(5.321)
For the FML system25
Choose subset
QI
=AP
Q3
= D
Q6
=P
(5.323)
For the FLt system
Choose subset
Q, = Ap Q3 = D Q4 = v
(5.324)
For the FMt system
Choose subset
Q, = Ap Q3 = D Q4 = v
(5.325)
For the FMLt system
(5.326)
25
Since the algorithm is the same for each of the systems of three fundamental dimensions, we omit the development for the remaining three and present only the final results.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.327) Apply dimensional homogeneity Fa=O M:d=O L: 1  2 a + b + c  3 d = 0 t:c=O Result (5.329)
b=1 c = o d=O
a=O
(5.328)
x2 = ~ ( A P ) ~ D ~ (L t~ (~ ~ 2 L a v M I )
Apply dimensional homogeneity F:a=O M: l + d = O L:  1  2 a + b + c  3 d = 0 t:  1  c = 0 Result
)
~ 
(4)'
($)d
(5.330)
b=1 c = 1 d = 1
a=O
(5.331)
(5.332) Note that (5.333)
112
= k (AP)a DbV Pd '
*
(L) (+)a
Lb(+)c
(3)d
(5.334)
Apply dimensional homogeneity F a = O M:d=O L: 1  2 a + b + ~  3 d = 0 t:  1  c = 0
a=O b=1 c = o
d=O
(5.335)
242
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Result (5.336) Form
n 4
%4
= gc(AP)'DbVcPd
=j
( ML L 2 ) 8 L b ( 4 ) c ( B ) d s)( 1
(5.337)
Apply dimensional homogeneity F:  l + a = 0 M: l + d = O L: 1  2 a + b + c  3 d = 0 t:  2  c = 0
a b c d
= l =O = 2 = l
(5.338)
I
Result
[
It4
=
(5.339)
The five sets of dimensionless groups are equivalent. FML L D
LLV r
FLt
1
FMt L D
ApD

31
FMLt

I
k D
k 
D
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Dle 5.34 Capillarv interface heinht via dimensional
243
g na l v s is
When a capillary (a tube of very small diameter) is dipped into a liquid, a t concave or convex meniscus foms a the interface between the liquid and air, depending on the surface tension, and the interface inside the tube is raised or depressed some distance, h, relative to the interface of the surrounding liquid. Shown is a case where the meniscus is concave, and the liquid rises in the capillary.
7h
The displacement of the capillary interface relative to the surrounding liquid is a function of the diameter of the capillary tube,D; the density of the liquid, p; the acceleration of gravity, g; and the surface tension of the liquid, a.Use the FMLt system of units to determine a complete set of dimensionlessproducts for this problem.
Soh tion
Dimensions of the variables are
The dimensional matrix is
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
1
F 0 0 0 0 1
M
0 0 1 0 0 1
1 1 3 1 1 1
L
2
0 0 0 2 0
t
(5.340)
1"
Looking for the largest nonzero determinant
0 1 3 0
t
0 0 12 1 0 1 0 11 1 1 21
8j
j
0 130 0 0 1  2 =  i . l 0 1 o2 + (  3 ) . 1 0 o 2 ) = I i ) I 0 o 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 [ 1 (2)] + (2) [(1)  (l)]  3 [(2)(1)] = (1) (2  4)  3 (2) = 2+6 = 8
f
0 (5.341)
Therefore, the rank of the dimensional matrix is 4 and we expect 6  4 = 2
dimensionless groups.
(5.342) =hDapbgCg:
LLa
X,
(5.343)
Apply dimensional homogeneity F:d=O M: b + d = 0 L: l + a  3 b + c + d = 0 t:  2 c  2 d = 0
a b c d
= 1 =O = o =O
(5.344)
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Result h x, = D
245
(5.345)
Apply dimensional homogeneity F: l  d = O M: b + d = 0 L:  1 + a  3 b + c + d = 0 t: 2c2d = 0 Result
a = 2 b=1 c = 1 d = l
(5.347)
(5.348)
5.4 Dimensionless groups and differential models
underlying functional foms that describe the process. In principle, the functional form can then be elucidated by doing experiments in the laboratory. Laboratory experiments, however, are nothing more than a way of solving the differential equations that describe a process. If we have the correct differential equation model, by making it dimensionless we can find the dimensionless variables associated with the problem. For example, if we consider the case of draining various tanks of differing sizes using a pipe that enters at the bottom of the tank, our laboratory experiment might be to observe the depth of water, h, in the tank as a function of time for various initial depths, h,, (at t , 0). For convenience we assume t = to start at 0; we could equally well vary the initial value of time. Both the tank surface and the drain outlet are assumed to be at atmospheric pressure. As the depth of liquid in the t n decreases, the pressure drop across the ak drain pipe decreases, and so the flowrate through the drain pipe decreases. We
systematic analysis of a set of variables without any knowledge of the
We have been able to find complete sets of dimensionless products using
246
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
will assume that the drain pipe remains in the laminar flow regime so that the instantaneous volumetric flowrate, Q, will be linear in the depth of liquid in the tank:Q=kh.
The functional relationship we would like to determine is
(5.41)
and the dimensional matrix in an (L, t) system would be
(5.42)
The rank of this matrix is two, and so we expect (5  2) = 3 dimensionless groups in a complete set. Such a set is (either from systematic analysis or by inspection, noting that Qt/D3 = kh0t/D3 is dimensionless)
(5.43)
where we have designated the dimensionless groups as a dimensionless depth, h*, a dimensionless initial depth, ho*, and a dimensionless time, t*. Since water is very nearly incompressible, a total mass balance on the tank contents reduces to a volume balance containing only output and accumulation terms. Hence, the basic differential equation that models the process is
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
247
(5.44)
with the initial condition h = h, at t = O? N t c that the constant k is oie dimensional, with the dimensions of L2/t. We can dedimensionalize this differential equation and its boundary condition using the dimensionless variables (indicated by an asterisk superscript) previously defined. Using the chain rules of differentiation from calculus we can write the derivative tern of Equation (5.44) in dimensionless form
(5.45)
Substituting in Equation (5.44), using the definition of h,*
The boundary condition dedimensionalizes as
26
Although the value of k is not important to this example, it could be determined from (where the subscript 0 refers to the surface of the liquid in the tank, 1 refers to the drain pipe inlet, and 2 refers to the drain pipe outlet) PZPI = 
2 f L p (v)2 (mechanicalenergy balance on drain pipe) D,,
p1  po = p1  0 = p g (b  0) (mechanicalenergy balance on tank)
248
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
h=h, at t=O
Dh*=h, at
h* ho
D
(5.47)
at
t'=O
=ot' D3
kh0
Our dimensionless groups in Equation (5.43) appeared as dimensionless variables both in the differential equation and in the boundary condition, and as a dimensionless coefficient in the differentialequation. Integrating Equation (5.46) using Equation (5.47) gives
(5.48)
Applying the initial condition gives C=ln[%] = ln[h',] which yields
(5.4 10)
(5.49)
so it can be seen that all three of the dimensionless groups appear in the integrated relation.
This illustrates two things which we take without proof The dimensionless products we determine via the systematic method have significance in the fundamental differential equation(s) describing the process and its (their) boundary conditions. Another way to find sets of dimensionless products is via dedimensionalizing the differential equation and boundary
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
conditions (of course, this presupposes our ability to write the equations and boundary conditions in their dimensional form).
249
The differential equation describing laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant viscosity in the axial direction in a pipe, neglecting hn pressure gradients other t a in the longitudinal direction, is
(5.411)
Make this equation dimensionless by using the following dimensionless variables
Solutions
Noting that
(5.4 13)
(5.4 14)
(5.4 15)
(5.4 16)
(5.4 17)
Applying the chain rule and substituting in terms of dimensionless variables
250
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.418)
(5.419)
(5.420)
(5.421)
(5,422)
For the same dimensionless boundary conditions, all systems described by the above differential equation will have the same solution
v; =
Vi(X',
t')
(5.423)
Coincidence of the dimensionless velocity profiles indicates (by definition) dynamic similarity between two systems. It does not matter whether a liquid or a gas flows in the pipe, whether the pipe is large or small, etc. The solution will be the same for the same values of the dimensionless groups. This means, for example, that we can generate (d) in the laboratory using convenient fluids such as air and water, yet obtain a solution applicable to corrosive, toxic, or highly viscous fluids, etc. (as long as they are Newtonian, which is assumed in the original equation).
Z 5.42 e
Onedimensional e
n
e
r
w
The differential equation describing energy transport for a fluid at constant pressure in one dimension is
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
251
(5.424)
Make this equation dimensionless using the following dimensionless variables
Solution
Using the chain rule
(5.426)
Using the definitions of the dimensionlessvariables
(5.427)
which yields
(5.428)
By multiplying and dividing by p this can be written as
(5 4 2 9 )
where the first bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Prandtl number and the second bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Reynolds number.
2.52
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Two systems described by this equation, each system with the same Reynolds and Prandtl number, each subject to the same dimensionless boundary conditions, will each be described by the same solution function
T* = T*(x*,to)
Such systems are designated as thermally similar.
(5.430)
Example 5.43
Mass transport in a binarv mixture
The differential equation describing mass transport in one dimension of component, A, in a binary mixture of A and B is
(5.431)
For this example we have switched to the zdirection rather than the xdirection for the differential equation to avoid possible confusion between the concentration X A and the coordinate x. Make this equation dimensionless using the dimensionlessvariables
Solution
Using the chain rule
ax, at* ax,  +vz7;
ax; at* at
ax;
ax,
ax;
aZ
aZ*
aZ
=
ax, I,  AB
az* a ax:, az* aZ dz* ax; az* az
(
1
(5.433)
Using the definitions of the dimensionless variables
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
253
(5.434)
which reduces to
ax; ax; =  a2x; D~~ +vz7 at* (v)D aze2
(5.435)
After multiplying and dividing by (pp) we can write (5.436) where the first bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Schmidt number and the second bracketed term is the reciprocal of the Reynolds number.
Two systems described by this equation, each system with the same Reynolds and Schmidt number, each subject to the same dimensionless boundary conditions, will each be described by the same solution function
x; = x;(z*, t*)
(5.437)
Examde 5.44 ExtraDolatinP model results from one categorr o f momentum, heat. or mass transport to another
The concept of model can be extended even to permit taking data in one transport situation and applying it to another. Consider the following three cases, which are treated in detail later in each of the appropriate chapters.
CASE ONE
Consider a flat plate adjacent to a quiescent fluid of infinite extent in the positive xdirection and the zdirection. Let the plate be instantaneously set in motion at a constant velocity.
254
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
The governing differentialequation
(5.438)
has boundary conditions
t = 0 v, = 0, allx : (initialcondition) x = 0: vy = V, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) x = v, = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
00:
If we dedimensionalize the dependent variable in the equation using
(5.439)
and combine the independent variables in a dimensionless similarity transformation
q=
X
Jairr
(5.440)
we reduce the problem to a dimensionless ordinary differential equation where now, instead of velocity being a function of two independent variables,
v; = v; (x, t)
(5.441)
the dimensionless velocity is now a new function of only one independent variable, q. We therefore use a new symbol for the function, namely, 0
v; = cp(q)
(5.442)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
cp"+2qcp' = 0
(5.443)
with boundary conditions
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
255
(5.444)
whose solution is
(5.445)
The solution of our problem in terms of the original variables is then
(5.446)
CASE T W O
Consider a heat conduction in the xdirection in a semiinfinite (bounded only by one face) slab initially at a uniform temperature, Ti, whose face suddenly at time equal to zero is raised to and maintained at Ts. The goveming differential equation
(5.447)
has boundary conditions
t = 0: T = T,, allx (initialcondition) x = 0: T = T,, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) x = m: T = T,, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
If we dedimensionalize tbe dependent variable in the equation using
=
TTi 'm'
(5.448)
and combine the independent variables in a dimensionless similarity
transformation
256
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
q
=
L m
(5.449)
we reduce the problem to a dimensionless ordinary differential equation where now, instead of temperahm being a function of two independent variables,
T' = T' (x, t)
(5.450)
the dimensionless temperature is now a new function of only one independent variable, q. We therefore use a new symbol for the function, namely, Q
T* = (P(q)
(5.45 1)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
cp"+2qcp' = 0
(5.452)
with boundary conditions
(5.453)
whose solution is
cp = lerf[q] = erfc [q]
(5.454)
The solution of our problem in terms of the original variables is then
= erfc["]rn
(5.455)
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
CASE THREE
257
Consider diffusion of component A in the xdirection in a semiinfinite (bounded only by one face) slab initially at a uniform concentration, cAi, whose face suddenly at time equal to zero is raised to and maintained at CAS. The governing differential equation
(5.456)
has boundary conditions
t = 0: cA = c,, allx (initialcondition) x = 0: C, = cAs,all t > 0 (boundary condition) C, = c,, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) x =
00:
If we dedimensionalize the dependent variable in the equation using
(5.457)
and combine the independent variables in a dimensionless similarity
transformation
q =
J &
(5.45 8)
we reduce the problem to a dimensionless ordinary differential equation where now, instead of concentration being a function of two independent variables,
c; = c; (x, t)
(5.459)
the dimensionless concentration is now a new function of only one independent variable, q. We therefore use a new symbol for the function, namely, @ c; = cp(rl)
(5.460)
We have reduced the problem (omitting the intermediate steps which are covered later) to an ordinary differentialequation
258
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
q" + 2 q 0' = O
(5.461)
with boundary conditions
(5.462)
whose solution is
q = lerf[q]
= erfc[q]
(5.463)
The solution of our problem in terms of the original variables is then
c; = 1erf
I&[
[4 * ]
(5.464)
=
Notice that all three of these cases are described by the same dimensionless differential equation and dimensionless boundary conditions. The dimensionless solutions are likewise, therefore, the same. Below is a plot of the dimensionless solution.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
259
The plot can be taken as representing any of the three solutions
T* = e r f rn] c[l
(5.465) (5.466)
cl dc[&t] =
(5.467)
This is not so significant in this case, because we have the form of the solution. Frequently, however, we are confronted with physical situations for which we either cannot write o r cannot solve the differential equation. If we are reasonably sure that the dimensionless differential equation and the dimensionless boundary conditions are the same between, for example, heat transfer and mass transfer, we know that the dimensionless solutions are the In cases where we cannot solve the governing equation mathematically, we obtain the solution by experiment. Since we would obtain the same solution whether we performed a heat transfer or a mass transfer experiment, we can choose the easier. In this example, it would usually be the heat transfer experiment, because, in general, temperatures are more easily measured than concentrations (because of such factors as the sensing element disturbing the flow, size of sensing element, sample size required, method of analysis, etc.). We could, therefore, determine data for mass transfer by taking heat transfer measurements, converting them to the dimensionless solution, and then mapping the dimensionless solution into concentration variables. Lists of common dimensionless variables, dimensionless equations, and dimensionless groups are listed in Tables 5.41, 5.42, and 5.43.
This implies that the transport mechanisms are the same  so, for example, we would not expect similarity between momentum transport and either mass or heat transport in situations involving form drag, which has no counterpart in heat or mass transfer.
*'
260
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.41 Dimensionless variables
I
Pressure
I
I
I
vi** = iiviDp PPO P* =
Differential Operations
V * =D V
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.42 Dedimensionalized balance equations
261
Species mass balance Energy balance Momentum balance NATURAL CONVECTION Total mass balance (Continuity) Species mass balance
no ReSc vo2x; DT* 1 Br  = v*?*+Dt* RePr Re Pr
Dv* 1  =  v * p +v
02.
Dx;   
D* t
Re
v
1 +
@‘
i
Fr g
v*. v ** = 0
Temperaturedifference induced flow Energy balance
Momentum balance
Concentrationdifference induced flow

D ** t
262
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.43 Dimensionless numbers
lRe
[ReynoldsNumber  inertialforces viscous forces = Froude Number
?F
Fr = v
Drag Coefficient
m
Fr2 =
inertidforces 2  pv2L2 = gravitationalforces gL p g ~ ~
dimensionlessshear stress at surface
Darcy [or Blasius] friction factor 4 . Fanning equal to ‘
= dimensionlesspressure drop (internal flow)
Prandtl Number
Pr = PE
k
v a
momentumdiffusivity thermal energy diffusivity
Graetz Number (note close relationshipto Peclet Number for heat transfer)
Gz = (v) A P e
p
kL
D bulk thermal energy transport = Re, Pr  = L rate of thermal energy conduction
Schmidt Number s c =  v  momentumdiffusivity DAB mass diffusivity Lewis Number k = Sc =thermal energy diffusivity Pr mass diffusivity
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.43 Continued
263
Nusselt Number hL Nu =  = dimensionlesstemperaturegradient@ surface k
I
Sherwood Number S h =k PL=  k,L  dimensionlessconcentrationgradient @ surface DAB CDAB [GrashofNumber for heat transfer gpp2L3AT temperatureinduced buoyancy forces P2 viscous forces

p=
6 (%)* = the&
* ( 'p )
coefficientof volume expansion
Grashof Number for mass transfer G , = gQ 2 L 3 ~Aconcentrationinducedbuoyancy forces r P2 viscous forces
=
pax,,
= concentrationcoefficientof volume expansion
Biot Number for heat transfer
Bib =
=
internalresistanceto conductivethermal energy transfer boundary layer resistance to convectivethermal energy transfer
Biot Number for m s transfer as internal resistanceto diffusivem s transfer as ~ i , k L = = aAB boundary layer resistanceto convectivemass transfer
[FourierNumber for heat transfer Fob = = rate of thermal energy conduction rate of thermal energy accumulation ~2 Fourier Number for mass transfer , Fo, = 1 t = rate of species diffusion rate of species accumulation 1,2
1
264
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
Table 5.43 Continued Peclet Number for heat transfer (note close relationshipto Graetz number)
bulk thermal energy =P= transport vLp k rate of thermalenergy conduction I Peclet Number for mass transfer

 v L p cp
k
bulk mass transport ,  rate of mass diffusion
Brinkman Number heating from viscous dissipation heating from temperaturedifference Eckert Number
5.5 Similarity, Models and Scaling
The use of scaling laws in designing physical models is based on the concept of similarity. In plane geometry, two polygons are geometrically similar when corresponding angles are equal and lengths of corresponding sides are in a constant ratio. Such figures have the same shape but may differ in size andor position. Geometrical similarity is extended to bodies of arbitrary shape and size by requiring that corresponding lengths (whether of sides or distances between arbitrary points) be in constant ratio.
Physical similarity is more than geometrical similarity. A physical body has properties other than shape  mass, velocity, etc. We say two physical systems are similar if their relevant physical properties are in a constant ratio at geometrically corresponding points. Physical similarity presumes geometric similarity, but requires more than just geometrical similarity. For example, dynamic similarity exists if two geometrically corresponding points experience forces in a constant ratio (which may or may not have the same value as the ratio for lengths). Two bodies are thermally
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
26.5
similar if at geometrically corresponding points the ratio of the temperatures is constant.
Points in the model and prototype that correspond are called homologous points. Phenomena occurring in the model and prototype2*at homologous points are said to occur at homologous times, even though these events may not occur at the same real time. An equivalent definition of similarity is that two systems are similar if they behave in the Same manner at homologous points and times. The classical principle similarity from Buckingham ntheorem is
(5.51)
Two systems in which all relevant physical quantities are in a constant ratio will satisfy Equation (5.51). The z’s  dimensionless groups  are the criteria for geometric, dynamic, thermal, etc., similarity. If we arbitrarily restrict the f of Equation (5.51) to a power function (a product of powers) then
II;,
=
c (x2)x2 (n3)x3
**.
(n“JXnr
(5.52)
where C is called the shape factor since it has been found to depend primarily on shape, and XI,x2 ... yn  r are empirical exponents. In this relationship, which is called the extended principle (really, it is a restricted principle) of similarity, the shape factor depends on geometry; therefore, this equation is limited to systems that have the same shape. The shape factor can be eliminated if two systems of similar geometric form are compared
(5.53)
28 One dictionary definition of prococype is “the original on which a thing is modeled.” This is a little ambiguous for common engineering usage, because w e often use data from our model to design an object, in which case the object is modeled on the model as rhe original. We usually mean the laboratory or mathematical representation when we say “model,” and the real world object under investigation or to be created when we say “prototype.”
266
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Anulysis
where the prime distinguishes between the systems. Use of the analysis in this manner is called extrapolation since the values of the exponents x2, x3, etc., are extrapolated from one system to the other. It is possible to eliminate the effect of the exponents by comparing geometrically similar systems which have the same values of the corresponding dimensionless groups on the righthand side. This makes al ratios on the rightl hand side equal to unity, and therefore the righthand side is equal to unity independent of the values of the exponents, thus
(5.54)
of corresponding states.
In general, when two physical systems are similar, knowledge about one system provides knowledge about the other. Equation (5.54) is called the principle
Often it is not possible to match the values for every pair of corresponding groups as required above. In such cases we must run our experimental models so as to minimize the unmatched effects. If it is not possible to do this, we get a scale effect. For this reason, when running models, one has to be careful that values of the groups are appropriate to both the model and the prototype For example, if in testing a model of a breakwater in the laboratory, one uses a very small scale (shallow depth), in the data obtained the surface tension of the water may have a large effect on the behavior; however, at the scale of an actual breakwater the surface tension of the water would usually have no perceptible effect. We can define scale factors as the ratio of a parameter in the model, Xmdel, to that in the prototype, Xproto.
(5.55)
le 5.51
Drap on immetsed body
Consider scaling the drag on a body immersed in the stream of incompressible fluid. The following equation describes the flow, where 9 (..) is functional notation.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
267
(5.56)
If we wish to measure the same force in the model as in the prototype, and wish to use the Same fluid in each, determine the parameters within which we must construct the model.
Solution
For (Pmdcl to be the same as (Ppoto, the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype must be equal.
(5.57)
In terms of the scale factors
= 1
(5.58)
If the same fluid is used in model and prototype
K, = 1 K, = 1
(5.59)
Then
KD K v Kp
KP

KD Kv
(l)
(1)
2 1
(5.5 10)
K,K, = 1
so the product of D and v needs to correspond in model and prototype. Then
268
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.51 1)
F
= 1
(5.512)
(5.5 13)
K F 1 K Kk t
which implies
(5.5 14)
(5.5 15)
Therefore, so long as the same fluid is used, KF will remain equal to one for the same values of D and v in the model and prototype; that is, the force in the model and that in the prototype will be the same.
Dle 5.52
Scale effech
We wish to estimate the pressure drop per unit length for laminar flow of ambient atmospheric air at 0.1 ft/s in a long duct. Because of space limitations, the duct must be shaped like a right triangle with sides of 3,4, and 5 feet. We do not have a blower with sufficient capacity to test a short section of the fullsize duct, so it has been proposed that we build a smallscale version of the duct, and
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
269
further, that we use water as the fluid medium in order to achieve larger and therefore more accurately measurable pressure drops in the model? Discuss how to design and build the laboratory model.
Solution
Since there is no reason to create more scaling problems than we already have, we will make the laboratory model geometrically similar to the fullsize duct. We will therefore be able to characterize it by a single length dimension, which we will designate as D. In the laminar region, we can expect the friction factor, f, which is a vehicle (to be discussed in detail in Chapter 6) for predicting pressure drops in internal flows, to be a function of only the Reynolds number, the same dimensionless group as used in the previous example. friction factor = f = f (Re) = f
("" F
(5.5 16)
In the laminar region the friction factor is not a function of relative roughness of the surface; therefore, we are free to choose the most easily fabricated material to build the laboratory model.
The pressure drop is related to the friction factor for this case as
(5.517)
where C is a constant.
If we choose to make the friction factors of the model and prototype the same, the scaling law follows as in the immediately preceding example
= 1
~
~
~
This problem can be solved quite nicely by numerical methods if the necessary computing equipment is available. We ignore this alternative for pedagogical reasons in order to obtain a simple illustration.
29
270
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(5.518)
This time, however, we have prescribed the scale factors for the fluids used. Approximate values at room temperature are
(5.5 19)
1 CP = 5 . 5 6 103 ~ = 1.8 x 104 cP
K,
(5.520)
Therefore, to keep the Same friction factor will require
KDK, = 7.2
(5 5 2 1 )
Examining the scaling for pressure drop
(5.522)
(5 5 2 3 )
However, we intend to make Kf= 1.0, so
K(?) =
(1) (772) K2, KD
(5.524)
K(?) = ( 7 7 2 ) z
(5 5 2 5 )
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
271
We now have considerable flexibility in choosing the size of our model and the velocity at which we pump the water. For example, suppose that we decide it will be easy to fabricate a model duct with hypotenuse of 2 inches. This will set the scale factor for D
(5.526)
and we now have constrained our mdel to
K2 K(+) = (772) & = 2 . 3 2 104KZ ~
(5 5 2 7 )
If we decide arbitrarily that it would be easy 3 measure pressure drops per uni length that are 10,000timeslarger t a we expect in the prototype, we have hn
K(+) = 1 , O 0 O O
and we must have a velocity in the laboratory model of
(5.528)
K(+) = ( 7 7 2 KZ, =lO,OOo ) m K, = 0.657
Therefore, we need a water velocity in the laboratory model of
(5.529)
(5.530)
This would require a laboratory pump of about
272
Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
= 0.197 gpm
(5.53 1)
which is small, but well within the range of availability. We must make the laboratory model long enough to make entrance and exit effects negligible. At such low velocities, we must also be careful of natural convection from heat transfer influencing the flow field in either model or prototype. We might find that the availability of pumps and/or pressure measuring devices restricts us to operate at a different velocity andor pressure drop. There is obviously further flexibility available for the model design, as well as constraints we have not considered in detail.
Chapter 5
Problems
5.1 Write the fundamental units of the following quantities using the system of units indicated in parentheses:
a. Diameter (FMt), b. density (FLt), c. acceleration (FML), d. viscosity (MLt), e. coefficient of thermal expansion (increase in volume per unit volume per degree change in temperature) (FMLtT)
5.2 The discharge through a horizontal capillary tube depends upon the pressure drop per unit length, the diameter, and the viscosity.
Quantity Discharge Pressure dropfiength Diameter Viscosity Symbol
Q
Dimensions L Vt M / (L’ t’) L M / ( L t)
Ap/L D c1
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
a. b. How many dimensionless groups are there? Find the functional form of the equation.
273
5.3 Using dimensionless analysis, arrange the following variables into several dimensionlessgroups:
pipe diameter D, ft fluid velocity v, ft/s pipe length L, ft fluid viscosity m, l b d s ft fluid density r, lbm/ft3 Show by dimensional analysis how these groups are related to pressure drop in lbf/in2.
5.4 Using D (diameter), p (density), and g (acceleration of gravity) as Q's, form a dimensionless group using as the additional variable p (viscosity). Use the MLt system and solve the equations (do not do by inspection).
5.5 The calibration curve for a particular flowmeter has the form
Q = f@, p, p,Ap) = volumetric flow rate
Using the dimensional analysis, find the required dimensionless variables p1 and p2 where F(pl, p2) = 0. Let Q1= D, Q2 = p, Q3= Ap.
5.6 The pressure drop in a viscous incompressible fluid flowing in a length, L, may be represented functionally as
W
b
p = density (v) = bulk velocity D = diameter L = length k = roughness
Using dimensional analysis find the correct representation for the pressure drop in terms of dimensionless groups.
274
Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
5.7 Flow in a long straight pipe is turbulent. The average velocity, v, at a distance, y, from the pipe wall depends on roughness height of the pipe, k, the pipe diameter, D, the kinematic viscosity, v (v = Vp), the mass density of the flowing fluid, p, and the shear stress at the pipe wall, T ~ .
a. Wie down the functional relation for these variables. rt b. Show the dimensional matrix for these variables in an M, L, t system c. If the functional relation in a is reduced to a complete set of dimensionless products, how many products are there? d. Determine the dimensionless products using the systematic algorithm (use v, y, p as the subset of Qs).
5.8 For uniform flow in open channel, Bernoulli's equation for energy loss is
S=
f v2
4R 2g
where s is the head loss (in ft per unit length measured along the bottom slope of the channel), f is the friction factor, v is the mean velocity, and R is the hydraulic radius (Aredwetted perimeter). The mean velocity, v, in an open channel depends on the hydraulic radius, R, the kinematic viscosity, v, the roughness height, k, and g, the acceleration of gravity. Show by dimensional analysis (apply the systematic analysis), Use v and R as the Q's.
5.9 In heat transfer problems with flowing fluids, frequently the six variables, D, p, h, v, p, k, may be combined into dimensionless groups which will characterize experimental data. Find these dimensionless groups by inspection with the restriction that h and v only appear in separate terms. D is the diameter, p is the density, v is the velocity, p is the viscosity, h is the heat transfer coefficient and has dimensions Btu/hr ft20F,and k is the thermal conductivity and has dimensions Btuhr ft O F .
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
275
5.10 In a forced convection heat transfer process the quantities listed below are pertinent to the problem:
Thermal conductivity of the fluid, k Velocity of the fluid, v Density of the fluid, p Viscosity of the fluid, p Specific heat of the fluid, Cp Heat transfer coefficient, h Using dimensional analysis, find the functional relationship among these parameters. 5.11 Two similar centrifugal pumps are specific by the diameter of the impeller DK]. The pumps are specified by their flow rate Q[L3/t]and the pump head H b]. The size of a pump for a given head and flow rate is determined by an equation of the form
T b diameter, D ue
where N[l/t] is the angular speed and p [M/L3]. Dimensional analysis shows
H = f(&)
p N3D2
If a centrifugal pump with D1 = 1 ft. has a Q1 = 400 gal/min of water when tuning at N1 = 1800 rpm Answer the following concerning a geometrically similar pump with D2 = 2 ft. and N2 = 1200 rpm pumping an organic liquid with sp. gr. = 0.82.
a. What is Q2? b. What is HIM2? 5.12 Dimensional analysis is useful in the design of centrifugal pumps. The pressure rise across a pump (proportional t the head developed by the pump) is o affected by the fluid density, p, the angular velocity, o,the impeller diameter, D, the volumetric flow rate, Q, and the fluid viscosity, p. Find the pertinent dimensionless groups, choosing them so the Ap, Q, and p each appear in one
276
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
group only. Find similar expressions replacing the pressure rise fust by the power input to the pump, and then by the efficiency of the pump.
5.13 The scaling ratios for centrifugal pumps are Q/ND3= constant, W(ND)2 = constant, where Q is the volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec),H is the pump head (ft), and N is rotational speed (rpm). Determine the head and discharge of a 1:4 model of a centrifugal pump that produces 20 ft3/sat a head of 96 ft when turning 240 rpm. The model operates at 1,200 rpm.
5.14 The pressure, p, on the discharge side of a centrifugal compressor is given by an equation that has the functional form
h The dimensions of the variables in t e MLt system are:
discharge pressure, p: inlet pressure, po:
inlet air density, po: mass of air/s, m: revolutions/s, n: diameter, D: &]
I [:y] [
[f3
E 1
El
a. Use the MLt system of fundamental dimensions and show by dimensional analysis (use the algorithm) that:
p = pof( %A) nD3r0 n2D2ro
b. Two geometrically similar air compressors operate in the same room. One compressor is twice as large as the other. The larger operates at 1/2 the speed of the smaller.
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
(1) How do the mass rates of discharge of the two compressorscompare? (2) How do the discharge pressures compare?
277
5.15 You are trying to simulate dynamically the cooling system of a proposed sodiumcooled nuclear reactor by constructing a 1:4 model of the cooling system using water. These water experiments are to be carried out at 7OoF and will simulate flowing sodium at 1000°F. Data on sodium reactor: Hydraulicdiameter = flow crosssectionalarea wetted perimeter
= 1.768x 102ft
(This replaces the ordinary tube diameter for flows in noncircular channels.) Bulk sodium velocity = 20 ft/s. Pressure drop across the core = 30 psig. For the water model to be dynamically similar, a. What must the water velocity be? b. What is the expected pressure drop in the water model? 5.16 The following variables describe mixing in a tank f (P, N, D, p, p) = 0 P is power, worldtime  W 2 / t 3 ] N is rotational speed of impeller  [l/t] D is diameter of the t n L1 ak . p is density of the fluid  FI/L3] p is viscosity of the fluid  FI/Lt]

a. Show the functional relationship among the variables is
b. To scale a liquid mixing tank the power input per unit volume is kept constant. If it is desired to construct a prototype of an existing mixer by a 2:l ratio, by what ratio must the t n diameter, D, and impeller speed, N, be changed? ak 5.17 Suppose a hiker falls into a crack in a glacier while mountain climbing. Assume the ice moves as a Newtonian fluid with viscosity = 250 x 106CP and
278
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
sp. gr. = 0.97 and assume the glacier is 15m deep and is on a slope that falls 1.5 m every 1850 rn. In order to determine how long before the professor appears at the bottom of the glacier a model is to be constructed.
a. The variables that describe this problem are
Use the MLt system of units, p, g, D, as repeating variables and determine the dimensionless groups that describe this problem (you may assume r = k and that two of the groups are H D , IJD) b. If a model is constructed using a fluid with a viscosity of 250 CPand a sp. gr. = 1.26 and the model professor reappears after 9.6 hours, when will the professor appear at the bottom of the glacier?
5.18 The energy equation for free convection heat transfer from a flat plate of length H at temperature To suspended in a large body of fluid at temperature T1 is
This equation is nonlinear and is difficult to solve. Usually dimensional analysis is applied to such equations. Given the following definitions
V Z
=
(&)lt2Y'
'py
=
(g)
1I4
vy
Chapter 5: Application of Dimensional Analysis
279
where a = Wpc, and B = pgp(ToT1), write the above equation in dimensionless form.
5.19 In a system of conductors and dielectrics Maxwell's equations are used to find the potential field, E, and the magnetic field, H, where
curlHE aE = K E at For two geometrically similar systems that have similar electromagnetic properties E, p,and K and similar initial and boundary conditions, determine the following scale factors, where the prime refers to the model system
K K Kt KHKE
where K , = K / K where Kt = t'/t where KH = H'/p, KE = E'E
I
(This shows that if model and prototype have different sizes the two systems must be made of different materials.)
5.20 Apply the algorithm for obtaining dimensionless groups to the FML, FLt, and FMt systems for which the solution details were omitted in Example 5.33. 5.21 Consider the variables involved in flow (without heat transfer) of fluid through a porous medium such as a sand bed, limestone, filter cake, array of glass beads, etc.
f(L, 4 v, p,p, n k , g, v,,
D,p) = 0
where I> = Dispersion coefficient k = Permeability
Find a complete set of dimensionless groups for this system using the MLt
system of units.
280
Chapter 5: Applicution of Dimensional Analysis
5.22 The equation of continuity for flow through a porous medium is
where the repeated index i indicates summation over i = 1,2,3. The equation of motion for flow through a porous medium is given by Darcy’slaw
where 63 is the magnitude of the unit vector in the zdirection. Make these equations dimensionless using the following dimensionless variables and then indicate the functional form for flow of a fluid through a porous medium.
6
MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN
FLUIDS
6.1 Fluid Statics
Consider a static fluid  one that is not moving, i.e., where the velocity vector is everywhere zero. We further assume that density and viscosity are not functions of time (for example, as might be caused by an changing temperature field  perhaps from imposed microwave radiation). Starting with the equation of motion (the NavierStokes equation)
p g = vp+pv2v+pg
(6.11)
and eliminating all the terms that depend on changes in velocity, we are left with a relationship between the pressure gradient, the density, and the acceleration of gravity.
0 = vp+pg
Equation (6.12) in component form gives the three equations
(6.12)
(6.13) (6.14)
(6.15)
If the zaxis is chosen parallel to but in the opposite direction to the gravity vector, these three equations become
281
282
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.16) (6.17)
ap =
Pg, =  p g
(6.18)
where the minus sign appears because the gravity vector is in the opposite direction of that of the positive zdirecti0n.l Equations (6.16) and (6.17) show that pressure is not a function of x or y (because the gravity vector has no component acting in either of these two directions). Further, since we assume steady state for viscosity and density,
c.f. Bud, R. B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 45. One can combine the effects of static pressure and gravitational forces in a single quantity, P, defiied as T = p+pgh where h is defined as the component along a coordinate parallel to but in the opposite direction to the gravitational vector (up as opposed to down). This lets us write V T = V ( p + p g h ) = Vp+V(pgh) = V p  p g where
represents the force per unit volume of the vertical gravitational force. The substitution used above V(Pgh) =  P g can be shown to be valid by considering h to be measured along the X I axis of a set of orthogonal Cartesian axes (XI,x2, x3). The scalar field of energy per unit volume in this coordinate system is then a function of x1 only, not of x2 or x3, and can be described by
The gradient of this scalar field is then
= a,(pgx1)6, = (  P g ) 6 , =  P ( d 1 ) = P g qPg.1) since the gravitational vector and the x1 axis are collinear but in opposite directions. Therefore V(P@) =  P g which is the substitution used above.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
283
pressure is not a function of t. T i means that pressure is a function of z only, hs and therefore we can write the partial derivative in Equation (6.18) as an ordinary derivative. Equation (6.18) tben becomes
(6.19)
For an incompressible fluid, that is, one where p is not a function of pressure, integrating Equation (6.19) from some datum ZO, where the pressure is denoted by PO, to the height, z, where the corresponding pressure is p, yields
(6.1 10)
Completing the integration yields the relationship for the pressure difference in terms of the difference in z.
(PPO) = Pg(zzo) = pg(z0z)
(6.1 11)
We can apply Equation (6.111)at two arbitrary points, a and b, within the same phase2and take the differenceof the results
(Pa  PO)  (Pb  PO) = (P.
 Pb)
(6.1 12)
Notice the choice of location for the d t m is immaterial, so long as a consistent au datum is used. If h is defined as (q z), Equation (6.111) reduces to
P = Po+PO
(6.1 13)
This is the form of the equation commonly found in elementary physics texts.
~~~~~~~~~~~
We cannot apply our equations across the boundaries between phases because the equations were derived on the assumption of a continuum, and at phase boundaries there is a discontinuity in properties.
284
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6Al
Manometers
by measuring the difference in heights of the liquid interfaces in the legs and applying the equations for a static fluid.
Examde 6.1.11 Pressure difference usinn a manometer
A practical application of static fluids occurs in a device cake a manometer. Manometers are Utubes (tubes bent into the shape of the letter U) partmlly filled with a liquid immiscible with and differing in density from the fluid in which the pressure is to be determined. The pressure difference between the points at the inlet of each of the legs (the vertical parts of the U) is inferred
A manometer is used to determine the pressure difference between two vessels as shown in Figure 6.1.11.
Figure 6.1.11 Measurement of pressure difference with manometer
The vessel on the left and the left leg of the manometer above point 2 are tilled with fluid A; the manometer contains fluid B between points 2 and 3; the right leg of the manometer above point 3 and the tank on the right contain fluid C. Find the difference in pressure between points 1 and 4. Solution We cannot apply our equations for a static fluid directly between points 1 and 4 because these equations were derived for a continuum, and the path between 1 and 4, if taken through the fluids, has abrupt discontinuities in properties at the two fluid interfaces. (If not taken through the fluids  that is, through the walls of the manometer  the discontinuities would require the introduction of solid mechanical properties.) We can, however, by writing the
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
285
pressure difference as the sum of differences each in a single fluid, apply the equations to these single fluids. By adding and subtracting pz and p3 we have
(PI PO) = (PI  P2) + (Pz P3) + (P3  P4)
(6.1.11)
Applying Equation (6.1 14) to the various pressure drops in Figure (6.1.1 1)
(6.1.12)
Example 6.1.I2
Pressure difference between tanks
The two tanks in Figure 6.1.12 both contain water (fluids A and C). The manometer fluid B has a specific gravity of 1.1. Find the pressure difference (p1  P4).
Figure 6.1.12 Pressure difference between tanks
Solution
Substituting in Equation (6.1.l1) from the previous example
286
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
 (62.4)
9 (32.2) % (3.0 ft  2.5 ft) +
S
 (1.1) (62.4)
9
(32.2)
5 (2.5 ft  2.0 ft)
S
1
1
+
= 28(3)
(6.1.l3)
Examble 6.1.13
Differential manometer
A differential manometer employs two fluids which differ very little in density. It normally also has reservoirs of a large crosssection to permit large changes in position of the interface level between the manometer liquids without appreciable change in interface levels between the manometer liquids and the fluid whose pressure is to be determined. A typical differential manometer is shown in Figure 6.1.13.

27 J 1
A C
A
0
ZO"0
Figure 6.1.13 Differential manometer
Two fluids, A and B, are employed to measure the difference in pressure of a gas C at points 5 and 6 as shown, Develop an equation for the difference in pressure between point 5 and point 6.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
287
So 1ut ion 3 by writing
The pressure difference is obtained in terms of the difference between 2 and
Since the density of a the gas is so low compared to the densities of the liquids, we neglect the pressure difference (the static head) of gas from 5 to 1 and from 6 to 4.
Applying Equation (6.1.12)
but since z4 = z1
(z2
 z3) =
(PS
 PS)
+B)
g (PA
(6.1.17)
which shows that, for a given pressure difference, as the densities of A and B approach each other, the difference in height between points 2 and 3 grows larger  that is, the manometer becomes more sen~itive.~
3Another way to achieve more sensitivity in a manometer in an economical fashion is to incline one leg at an angle, viz.
so that a small vertical displacement will induce a proportionately larger
displacement of the interface along the right leg of the tube. Such arrangements are
v
288
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6 2 Description of Flow Fields .
We have modeled fluids as continua even though they are made up of discrete molecules. It is, however, convenient to talk of fluid “particles,” by which we mean aggregates of fluid that remain in proximity to one another. Such a fluid “particle,”if we could somehow paint it a different color to distinguish it from the surrounding fluid, would trace a path line if we took successive multiple exposures with a fixed camera of this particle as it passed through space.
If we think of instead continuously marking each fluid particle that passes through a given point in space  experimentally, for example, by supplying a tracer such as an injected dye or a stream of small bubbles  and taking an single photograph showing the instantaneous position of all particles so marked, the line established is called a streakline. A streamline is yet another imaginary line in a fluid, this time established by moving in the direction of the instantaneous local fluid velocity to get from one point to the next on the line. A streamline is thereby everywhere in the direction of the velocity vector at a particular instant in time. By definition, then, there can be no flow across a streamline because there is no component of the velocity normal to the streamline.
If, to establish yet another imaginary line in the fluid, we mark a line of adjacent fluid particles at a given instant and observe the evolution of such a line with time, we obtain a timeline which may give us insights into the behavior of the fluid. For example, we could think of marking a line in an initially static fluid and then observing the behavior of this line as the fluid is set into motion.
In steady flow fluids move along streamlines, since the velocity at any point in the fluid is not changing with time; therefore, pathlines and streamlines are coincident. Since all fluid particles passing through a given point follow the same path in steady flow, streaklines also coincide with timelines and pathlines. In unsteady flow the streamline shifts as the direction of the velocity changes, and a fluid particle can shift from one streamline to another so the pathline is no longer necessarily a streamline. Similarly, successive particles of fluid passing through the same point no longer necessarily follow the same path, so
sometimes called draft tubes, probably because of their original application in measuring stack draft pressures for power plants.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
289
streaklines do not necessarily coincide with streamlines and pathlines in unsteady flow.4
A stream tube is a imaginary tube whose surfaces are composed of streamlines. Since there is no flow across streamlines (because the component of the velocity normal to the streamline is zero), there is no flow through the walls of a stream tube.
The stream function Y is a quantity defined by
(6.21)
Notice that defining the stream function in this way satisfies the continuity equation identically  for example, in two dimensions one has
because the order of differentiation is immaterial if the partial derivatives are continuous, as they are in cases of interest here. Consider an element of differential length, dr, lying along a streamline; i.e., tangent to the streamline. The condition that the velocity vector be collinear to the tangent to the streamline is expressed by Vxdr = 0 or, for example, for flow only in two dimensions (v,i+v,j)x(dxi+dyj) = (v,dyv,dx which implies
(v,dyv,dx)
(6.23)
1k =
0
(6.24)
=0
(6.25)
There is a very nice demonstration of the differences among these lines using f o lw past an oscillating flat plate in the NCFMF film Flow Visualizufion, Steven J. Kline, principal.
290
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
or, in terms of the stream function (gdygdx)
=0
(6.24)
However, for functions with continuous first partial derivatives near an arbitrary point in question (which, to reiterate, is true for functions of interest here), the function (here, the stream function) has a total differential. We consider a particular instant in time, say to, so the stream function is not a function of time and therefore we can write, again for two dimensions, the t t l oa differential as
(6.27)
We can see, then, that our collinearity condition requires that the total differential of the stream function be zero.
dY = 0
(6.28)
This is another way of saying that the value of the stream function does
not change along a given streamline.
Since the stream function has an exact differential, we can integrate between two arbitrary points in the f o field to obtain lw
I:Y vd
= Y z  Y , = constant
(6.29)
that is, the integral is independent of path. A function whose integral between any two arbitrary points is independent of path is called a point function. Common examples of point functions are the functions referred to in thermodynamics as state functions, e.g., the enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, etc.  as opposed to heat and work, which are pathdependent.
To interpret the meaning of difference in the value of the stream function between streamlines, consider the twodimensional (area) rate of flow across an
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
291
arbitrary line, 0 connecting two streamlines. By definition, the area rate of flow across such a line is
(6.210)
but this can be written as
(6.211)
where Q is measured along the line connecting the two streamlines.
X
Figure 6.21 Paths between streamlines
Now consider this integral for a particular path between two streamlines, P1 (at constant y), where the unit normal is directed in the positive ydirection
as illustrated in Figure 6.21, indicated by
(6.212) (6.213) (6.214)
In other words, the difference in the values of the stream functions on the two streamIines corresponds to the volumetric flow rate between these streamlines. Because of independence of path, we know that this is true for any
292
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
other path we might choose between the streamlines, whether it be at constant x, as is true for P2 (which we could have chosen for the illustration rather than P1 with equal ease), or some arbitrary convoluted path such as P3.
6.2.1
Irrotational flow
are Xk and x k + dxk, respectively, in a velocity field instantaneouslydescribed by
The relative velocity between two fluid particles P and P' whose coordinates
the vector field Vj(Xk), is expressed by the total derivative
where the partial derivatives are evaluated at xk. We can write the vector gradient as the sum of its antisymmetricand symmetric parts
and define
(6.2.13)
to obtain
(6.2.14)
We now proceed to show that dvk* corresponds to the relative velocities of a instantaneous rigid body rotation of the neighborhood of the particle P about an axis through P.5 We first define the dual vector of the antisymmetric part of the vector gradient as
(6.2.15)
We can also show that d q * * corresponds to the instantaneous pure deformation of this neighborhood, for example, see Prager, W. (1961). Introduction to Mechanics of Continua. Boston, MA, Ginn and Company, p. 62 ff.; however, this is not essential to our argument at the moment.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
which implies
a i
293
1 = 2 &ijk
(6.2.16)
The vector Wi is called the vorticity of the velocity field, and lines of constant vorticity are called vortex lines, terminology similar to that used for streamlines. We can rewrite this expression as
(6.2.17) (6.2.18) (6.2.19)
We can obtain the dual tensor of the vorticity vector and use it to define the vorticity tensor
(6.2.1 10)
(6.2.111)
(6.2.1 12) (6.2.1 13) (6.2.114) (6.2.1 15) (6.2.1 16) (6.2.1 17)
This permits us to write the antisymmetric part of the relative velocity, dVk*, a~ dv; =
Eijk mi dxj
(6.2.1 18)
From kinematics we can recognize that the velocity of points on a solid body rotating about an axis through a point x(O) which can be seen from the sketch
294
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
is described by
where w is the angular velocity, the angular velocity vector is normal to the plane of Xi and Xio and points in the direction of a righthand screw turning in the same direction as the rigid body. Comparing with the equation for dvk* we can see that dvk* represents a rigid body rotation about an axis through P.
If the vorticity vanishes identically, the motion of a continuum is called irrotational. For such a flow
However, because of the identity
&ilk
3, &@ = 0
3
curlgradQ = V x V@ = 0
(6.2.121)
which is valid for any scalar function F, a velocity field with a vanishing curl is a gradient field, i.e.,
vi
=
aio
v =
VQ,
(6.2.122)
Equating components
(6.2.123) (6.2.124)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
295
6.3 Potential Flow
In Section 6.1 we considered static fluids. In such fluids, viscosity played no part because there were no velocity gradients, the fluid being everywhere stationary. There is another important class of fluid behavior in which viscosity effects play no part, even though this time the fluid is in motion  behavior in which the viscosity of the fluid can be assumed to be zero. Such an assumption is useful in two situations:
.
where the viscosity of the fluid is so small, or
where the velocity gradients are so small that viscous forces play a relatively unimportant role in the problem to be solved. Many realworld flow problems can be successfully modeled as being
steady state irrotational flow of an incompressible and inviscid (viscosity of zero) fluid.
for such flows.
Such fluids are called ideal fluids, and the corresponding flow model is called potential flow. We now assemble the basic equations constituting the model For constant density the continuity equation reduces to
( v  p v ) + dP = 0 &
p(v.v)+& = 0 aP vv=0
(6.31)
and the irrotationality condition implies that
vxv =0
(6.32)
296
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The equation of motion for a constant density Newtonian fluid  the Navier Stokes equation
PD, = vp+pv*v+pg
when applied to flow of an inviscid fluid reduces t Euler's equation o
(6.33)
ar
P[g+(v*V)v] = vp+pg (6.34)
which at steady state becomes
p ( v * v ) v=  v p + p g (6.35)
The lefthand side of this relation can be rewritten by defining6
( v * v ) v = $V(V.V)[V x ( v x v ) ] (6.36)
c.f. Bird, R . B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, pp. 726, 731. This definition is applicable in both rectangular and curvilinear coordinates; however, for simplicity illustrating the equivalence using index notation (rectangular coordinates)
(v.v)v
vjajvi
= +v(vv)[v
x(vxv)]
j
=
ai(3vjvj)eijkvje~,aIv,
a, (3v j Vj) v j a, vi = a, 3 v j v j
v j a j v, = vjajv, vjajvi
'j a j vi
=
(4
'j Vj)EkljEklmvjal vm
 (6,
6jm
6im6p)v j a, v,
vjajVi = vjaivj VJ. ai j + vJ. aJ . vi
=
vjdjvi
= '2v . J . v . + l  2 . a i V j a I J v J
QED
0 a,
 vj
vj + v j
a, v,
vJ ai vj + v j a j v , .
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
which gives
p
297
{+
v ( v . .) 
[. (vxv)]} x
(6.37)
Introducing the irrotationality condition reduces the relation to
z p v ( v . " ) = VP 1 v(3p
"2)
(6.38) (6.39) (6.310) (6.311)
= VP
0
v(;pv2)+v4=
v(qpvz+*) = 0 which upon integration gives the conclusion that
3p v2 +
P = constant
(6.312)
In two dimensions
4p (v: +
vi) + P = constant
(6.313)
Since we have shown in Section 6.2 that
(6.314)
we have the pair of equations
(6.315)
298
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
These correspond to the CauchyRiemann conditions on the real functions that form a function, n(z), a complex variable, z = (x + i y)' of "(z) = @(x, Y) + i Y(x, Y)
(6.3 16)
The CauchyRiemannconditions are both necessary and sufficient to ensure that the function has a derivative in a neigbborhood about a point.* Functions that satisfy the CauchyRiemann conditions are known as analytic, or holomorphic, or regular functions. If we differentiate the frrst of the equations with respect to x and the second with respect to y
axay
a2Y
=
a20 p
(6.317)
and add, noting that the order of differentiation is immaterial, we obtain (6.3 18) If we instead differentiate the first of the equations with respect to y and the second with respect to x
(6.319)
and add, again noting that the order of differentiation is immaterial, we obtain
In most mathematics texts, the function a ( Z ) = 0 (X, y) + i Y(X, y) is written as w(z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y). Churchill, R . V. (1948). Introduction to Complex Variables and Applications. New York, NY, McGrawHill, p. 30.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
299
(6.320)
Equations (6.318) and (6.320)are forms of Laplace’s equation. Each such pair of Y and Q, are orthogonal  that is, streamlines and hs potential functions intersect at 90 degrees. T i can be seen by considering the fact that the values of the stream function and the velocity potential are constant along a streamline or a line of constant potential, respectively, dY = 0 d@ = 0
(6.321)
However, because the CauchyRiemann conditions are satisfied, we know that we can write
(6.322)
from which we can extract tbe respective slopes
constant
(6.323)
But from the CauchyRiemannconditions we see that
Since the slopes are negative reciprocals of each other, the intersections are orthogonal.
300
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Any pair of functions Y and # that satisfy the CauchyRiemann conditions furnishes streamlines and potential lines of some particular twodimensional, incompressible, irrotational flow field. Either function can be interpreted as the stream function and the other of the pair as the velocity potential. Since there is no flow across streamlines, any streamline in such a flow field can be interpreted as a solid boundary. This means that each such pair constitutes the real part and the imaginary part of a particular analytic function of the complex variable z, and each member of the
pair represents a solution of Laplace’s equation. This has two implications
a) Every analytic function of a complex variable will furnish, upon being put in the form
n ( z ) = @(x,y) + i Y(x, Y)
(6.325)
a pair of functions @ and Y that represent a solution to some set of problems in ideal fluid flow. Such a manipulation is relatively straightforward given the analytic function. The set of problems for which the pair represent a solution can be defined by interpreting various streamlines as solid boundaries. Whether the boundaries represented by constant values of Y are of any realworld problem of interest is another matter. We will see below that often only a particular streamline may be of interest to interpret as a boundary, as in the case of twodimensional flow past a cylinder. The various values of @ and Y have been worked out for many flow problems. See Table 6.31 for elementary plane flows and Table 6.32 for superposition flows.
b) If w e d o not have the analytic function, we can
construct it by solving the Laplace equation with appropriate boundary conditions to determine Q, and Y and then assembling them in the form
(6.326)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Usually this is a much more difficult problem than (a). We frequently do not bother to construct the function i2 once we determine @ and Y because we can determine the velocity field directly from Qi and Y . Thus, Equations (6.326) and (6.326) model ideal flow i two dimensions. n
301
Tables 6.31 and 6.32 give examples of pairs of functions that satisfy the Laplace equation.
302
Table 6.31 Elementary plane flows9
Chapter 6: Momtitirm Transfer in Fluids
u=u
v=o
*=uy
+=Ux
r = 0 around any closed curve
c
Source Flow (from origin)
*=
=o
q is volurr~ flow rate per unit depth
Origin is singular point
f = 0 around any closed curve
Sink Flow (toward origin)
S'C6
$=c2
v,=O
f
Q &=lnr 2n
$=
c
q is volume flow rate per. unit depth
Origin is singular point
r = 0 around any closed curve
*=(xi
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
c
303
Irrotational Vortex (counterclockwise, center at origin)
+
t
Origin is singular point K is strength of the vortex = K around any closed curve enclosing origin I = 0 around any closed curve not enclosing origin Doublet (center at origin)
=o
=l C '
A v,= case r2
Asin 8
*=7
& = A cos e
'A2
v,=
f
A sin8 r2
r
J
I
Origin is singular point A is strength of the doublet r = 0 around any closed curve
Fox, R. W. and A. T. McDonald (1985). Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 276277.
304
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.32 Superposition of elementary plane flows’o
Source a d Uniform Flow (flow past a halfbody)
Source 8nd Sink (equal strength, separation distance on x axis = 2a)
$ = $(a, 0 )
I
+
$sI
= $1
+ $,
(a. 0 )
=  0  3 =  (0,  0,) 2n 2n 0, 2n
=
4
9
4 = 4
+ 4,i = 41 + 4,
4  Inr,
2n
4 +  Inr, 2n
=
In 2
2n
r,
Source, Sin&, a d Uniform Flow (flow past a Rankine body)
I
:
A
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Vortex (clockwise) and Uniform Flow
305
I
=
I I
1
$=
X
+ $uf
+ $2
=
K K 2n Inr + U y =  Inr + U r s i n B
2n
Doublet and Uniform Flow (flow past a cylinder)
rH
JI
= $4
+
= $1
+ $z
=
Asin0  7u y =   A sin 0 + U r sin 0 + r
=
u(r  &)sin0
= U,( 1
 $)sin 0
a=
6
4=4,+&,=4,
+&=
A cos 0  r  u x =  UrcosO 7 h cos 0
Doublet, Vortex (clockwise), and Uniform Flow (flow past a cylinder with circulation)
JI
I
=
$ ,
+ JI, +
AsinO
$uf
= JII
+
+ $,
=  __
/\sin0
r
K +  Inr + U y 2n
$=
r
K +  Inr + UrsinO = U r 2n
(  :')
1
K s i n 0 + 1nr 2n
306
Table 6.32 Continued
V
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Sink a d Vortex
Vortex Pair (equal strength. opposite rotation, separation distance on x axis = 20)
10
27928 1.
Fox,
R. W. and A. T. McDonald (1985). introducfion fo Fluid Mechanics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
307
Example 6.31
Flow around a circular cylinder
a) Show that the following complex potential which is the sum of uniform flow and a doublet describes flow of an ideal fluid with approach velocity v, around a circular cylinder of radius R.
n(Z)
= v(z+$)
(6.327)
b) Plot typical streamlines and lines of constant velocity
potential.
c) Find the stagnation points for the flow.
So1U t ion
a) Substituting in the complex potential using the definition of z
Sz = v,
(
x+iy+ x;) :y
(6.328)
Multiplying and dividing the fraction by the complex conjugate, Z
=v,x
(
1+x:2 2 ) y
+ i v  Y (1
6)
(6.329)
which using Equation (6.325) permits us to identify
Qi =
v,x
Y = v,y
( (
1+ xy) 2 :2
1.2Yy.)
(6.330)
308
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Since there is no flow across a streamline, any streamline can be interpreted as the boundary of a solid object. If we examine the streamline Y = 0, we see that it is satisfied by y
=o
=0
3
(1&)
x 2 + y 2= R2
(6.331)
The first equation is simply the xaxis. The second is the locus of a circle of radius R with center at the origin, so we can use this streamline as a solid lw boundary to describe f o around a right circular cylinder normal to the xy plane. b) Substituting arbitrary values into 0 and Y , choosing arbitrary values for y and solving for x or vice versa yields streamlines and potential lines
Figure 6.31 Flow around circular cylinder
c) From the velocity potential
@ = v,x
(
1+x2:y2)
(6.332)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
309
VY
=
a sy
(6.333)
It is easiest to use polar coordinates
a=
v,rcos e ( i + $ )
(6.334)
(6.335)
At the stagnation pints the velocity is zero, which implies that both v, and ve ale zero
(6.336)
The first equation can be seen to be zero for r = f R; the second for 8 = 0. Therefore, the stagnation points lie on the surface of the cylinder at its two points of intersection with the xaxis.
Example 6.32
Flow of an ideal fluid throunh a corner
= vV,z2 can describe the flow Show that the complex potential through a corner. What are the velocity components v,(x, y) and Vy(X, Y)? What
is the physical significance of v, ?
Solution
=  v  z ~ = v,(x+iy)
2
(6.337)
310
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.338)
Note that the streamline Y = 0 consists of the x and y axes  these form the corner.
Therefore,
v, =
4+ 4
=
[angular velocity
I
(6.339)
The solution is shown below. This solution can be generalized to n0n90~ corners.
2c,
Figure 6.32 Flow through a corner
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids Examde 6.33
Flow around a rotatinp cvlinder
31I
For potential flow, addition of uniform flow and a doublet yields flow around a circular cylinder of radius R. If we now add a vortex to this flow, we have
(6.34)
which describes flow around a rotating circular cylinder of radius R, where r is a constant related to the speed of rotation called the circulation, and v, and p,, respectively, are the velocity and pressure far from the surface of the cylinder. Remembering that in cylindricalcoordinates
(6.34 1)
a) show that v, = 0 along the line (r, 0) = (r, d )r f 0 2 , b) for v, = 1 d s , I =  20 m2/s and R = 3 m, find the ‘ stagnation points.
Solution
a) One can use either
(6.342)
312
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
or
(6.343)
each of which gives the same result. It follows that vr = 0 for cos (0) = 0, r > 0; a special case of which is 8 = d 2 , r > 0. b) At the stagnation points, Vr = 0 and ve = 0. We can use the expression for vr derived in part (a) and obtain ve f?om either
(6.344)
ar
(6.345)
so we require that
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
313
(6.346) This is true for the second equation at r = R, which means that from the first equation 2n:Rv, sin(@)=
= (1 + F) R2 sin(e)
4n:Rv,
= arcsin(O.531) =
(
 0.559 (radians) =  32 (degrees) 3.7 (radians) = 212 (degrees
(6.347)
Therefore, the stagnation points lie at (r, 8) = (3 m,212 degrees) and (3 m, 32 degrees)
(6.348)
lw Many potential f o solutions can be obtained from the theory of complex variables via use of conformal mapping. A conformal mapping or transformation is one that preserves angles and orientations"  that is, an angle in the first space is mapped into the same angle in the second space, and a direction of rotation in the fifst space is mapped into the same direction of rotation in the second space.
l 1 O'Neil, P. V. (1991). Advanced Engineering Wadsworth, p. 1405.
Mathematics. Belmont, CA,
314
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Although it can be proved12 that either of two bounded simply connected regions in the (x, y) and (4,Y)13 planes can be mapped conformally onto the other, finding the transformation to do so is not, in general, a simple task. Such transformations, however, often permit problems with difficult boundary configurations to be mapped into a simpler geometry, in which the problem can be more easily solved, and the solution subsequently mapped back to the original plane containing the problem boundary configuration.
A conformal mapping of particular utility is the SchwarzChristoffel transformation, which maps the upper halfplane into the interior of any domain bounded by a polygon.
6.4 Laminar Flow
The equations used to describe the movement of fluids are formulated assuming a continuum. For flow which we call laminar, layers of fluid exchange momentum as they slide past one another smoothly much as when one pushes on the top of a deck of cards, the top card slides over the next card, which transfers momentum to the succeeding card, etc., and so on down through tbe deck. At a solid surface, the velocity of the fluid is that of the surface, which can be demonstratedby experiment.

In laminar flow, the fluid particles move in smooth paths. It is important to recognize that fluid “particle” does not refer to a molecule of fluid. Rather, by fluid “particle” we mean some identifiable region in the fluid that is moving as a unit at the moment.
If the relative velocity of the fluid layers becomes high enough, the layers lose identity and the fluid “tumbles.”Momentum is transferred not only by the mechanism seen in laminar flow where molecules jump from regions of one velocity to regions of a different velocity, but also by sizable clumps of fluid possessing the velocity of a given region moving from that region to a region of different velocity. This type of flow is called turbulent. Turbulent flow is not easy to describe in detail, and we therefore usually must resort to experiment and statistical theories to describe such flow.
The result of momentum exchange within the fluid and between the fluid and solid surfaces is the development of a velocity profile.
l 2 Wylie, C. R. and L. C. Barrett (1995). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1262. l3
(U, v) in the usual mathematical notation.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
315
6.4.1 Laminar flow between infinite parallel plates
Suppose that we have two parallel infinite plates with a Newtonian fluid in steady flow in the gap between them, as in Figure 6.4.11.
dx
X
Figure 6.4.1 1 Steady flow between infinite stationary parallel plates
We can write the xdirection momentum balance on a control volume of dimensions Ax by Ay by a unit distance in the zdirection for this situation. Since the flow is steady, there is no net transfer of momentum in or out of the control volume, and there are no body forces acting in the xdirection, this balance reduces to
CF,, = 0
(6.4.1 1) 
We now proceed to write and sum the surface forces in the xdirection. The force on the left face of the control volume is
(6.4.12)
The force on the right face of the control volume is
(6.4.13)
The shear force on the top of the control volume is

(4 I
y+*y
AC Az Y
(6.4.14)
316
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The shear force on the bottom of the control volume is
(6.4.15)
Summing the surface forces, setting the result equal to zero
(6.4.16)
rearrang ig, dividing by (Ax Ay Az), and taking the limit
AX+O
lim
(6.4.17) (6.4.18)
Ay+O
Observing that the only way a function of x can be equal to a function of y for arbitrary values is for each of the functions to be equal to the same constant dp dzyx  =  = constant dx dy Integrating with respect to y
Tyx
(6.4.19)
=
gyc,
(6.4.1 10) 
Substituting for the shear stress in terms of the Newtonian viscosity
 pdv = 2 dP dy dxY"
(6.4.11 1)
Integrating once again with respect to y
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
1 dP mxY
317
vx =
2
+pY+C*
c 1
(6.4.112)
Applying the boundary conditions aty = 0 v, = O aty = a v , = O (6.4.1 13)
gives find the constants C1 and C2, which upon substitution give
v, = a2 dp 2 p dx
((z)24
Y
(6.4.1 14)
Notice that the velocity profile is parabolic. The shear stress distribution is given by (6.4.1 15)
The volumetric flow rate per unit width in the zdirection (normal to the page) is given by
Q
=
l(v
n)dA = l v , d y =
lqLdx
1 dPa3
(6.4.1 16) 
The average velocity is given by (6.4.117) The maximum velocity is obtained by setting dv, / dy equal to zero (6.4.1 18) which is satisfied at y = a / 2, giving the maximum velocity as
v,,
=
&% $(v) =
(6.4.1 19)
318
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Flow is lamina in this instance as long as the Reynolds number alp Re = p a> < 1400.
ow between r n f i n r k e l ~ 1 An oil is flowing through a slit 0.01mm thick. The length of the slit is 20 mm and its width, W,is 10 mm. The fluid has a specific gravity of 0.9 and a viscosity of 0.02 kg/(m s) at the temperature of the system.
a) Determine the flow rate through the slit if the pressure drop causing flow is 15 mPa.
b) What if the top plate were moving at a constant velocity with respect to the bottom plate?
So1u tion
(6.4.120) (6.4.121)
(6.4.122)
Q = 3 1 .mm3 27
check Re:
(6.4.123)
(4 = 9
= 0.312y
(6.4.124)
(6.4.125)
= (0.9) (999)
[3] [F]
(0.312)
(0.01) [mm]
(.&)
[g] [a] (&)
(6.4.126)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
= 0.14
3
31 9
laminar
(6.4.127)
We now consider the case where one of the plates is moving at a uniform velocity. Often this model is used in viscometry or for flow in a journal bearing. For situations where the gap is very small and the radius large, this model can be used as an approximation in cylindrical systems.
"0
dx
Y
t
X
Figure 6.4.12 Flow between infinite parallel plates, top plate moving at vo
Figure 6.4.12 is similar to Figure 6.4.11, except the upper plate is now considered to be moving with a constant velocity, VO. momentum balance The before introducing boundary conditions is the same as in the previous case
(6.4.128)
In this case the boundary conditions are aty = 0 v, = 0 at y = a v, = v,
(6.4.129)
Applying these boundary conditions to Equation (6.4.128) yields the following
(6.4.130)
Note that this profile is linear in y for the case of zero pressure gradient.
320
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The shear stress is found by taking the derivative of velocity and substituting Newton's law of viscosity
dvx  %+ dp a*
dy a
2pdx
, 2
[(2) (a)]
=Pdy
(6.4.13 1)
The volumetric flow rate per unit width in the zdirection is
(6.4.132)
The average velocity is
(') 
   A 1 dPa2 Qv A 2 12p dx
(6.4.133)
dv, = 0 =
d Y which gives
vo+a*
a
dp 2pdx
(6.4.1 34)
(6.4.135)
The velocity profile as a function of pressure drop is shown in Figure 6.4.13.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
321
Y
Figure 6.4.13 Velocity profiles for laminar flow of Newtonian fluid between parallel plates with imposed pressure drop, top plate moving at steady velocity
le 6.4.12
Flow between i&ite
t o t a t b p concentric
cvlinders
A Stonner viscometer consists of concentric inner and outer cylinders. The inner cylinder is rotated with fluid in between them. The viscosity of the fluid can be determined f o the tor ue required to rotate the inner cylinder. Assume a rm fluid of viscosity 0.002 Ibf dft is placed in a viscometer of length 4 inches and spacing .01 inch between the cylinders. If the inside '7.5inch diameter cylinder is rotated at 360 rpm,determine the torque required. Assume the viscometercan be modeled as flow between two paraliel plates.
9
Determine the torque.
Solution
(6.4.136)
Since
(6.4.137)
322
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
, 2
= (0.0002)
[v] [gg] *I,[
(360)
(2 1c)
1
(6.4.138) (6.4.139)
= 0.1 in Ibf (6.4.140)
z, = 0.942lbf / ft2 ,
T = F R = 7,xDLR = f 7 , D 2 L
T=
(f)(0.9423) (2.5 in)2
(A)in) (4
The reader should check the Reynolds number.
6.4.2
Laminar flow in a circular pipe
One of the most useful laminar velocity profiles is for flow in a circular conduit such as a pipe. Assume a fluid is in steady laminar flow in a pipe of radius, R, and length, L, under the influence of a pressure drop, Ap. We have already indicated that one can obtain the appropriate differential equation to model a particular physical situation by eliminating extraneous or negligible terms from the general balance (here, that of momentum).
One can also develop the appropriatedifferential equation by writing it from first principles  but one must be careful not to leave out any significant terms. Here we choose to illustrate the latter approach, although the former would be equally valid.
Velocity profiles for steady laminar flow can be determined by writing a force balance on a right cylindrical control volume, as indicated in Figure 6.4.21.
Figure 6.4.21 Control volume for force balance on fluid in pipe
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
323
Tbe overall momentum balance for t i situation, since we have steady flow hs and neglect body forces, reduces to the requirement that the sum of the components in the zdirection of the surface forces must equal zero. Therefore, the net pressure force in the zdirection on the ends of this circular column must be balanced by the viscous force on the latead surface. m e net pressure force is
(6.4.21)
The viscous force opposing the pressure force is the shear stress (or momentum flux),,T multiplied by the area on which this shear stress acts (or , through which the momentum flux flows), 2mL
F,, = r , ( 2 n r ~ )
At steady state Fp + Fv = 0 and
(6.4.22)
(6.4.23)
Substituting Newton’s law of viscosity
(6.4.24)
Integrating and subsequently applying the conditions that a) at r = R, v, = 0 and b) at r = 0, dv, / dr = 0 (since there is no source or sink present on the centerline and hence by symmetry there can be no momentum transfer across the centerline)yields
(6.4.25)
“2
= w[l Ap R2
(ff)l]
(6.4.26)
Note that Ap is defined as
324
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
= (PIzsL  P I z s o )
(6.4.27)
Since Equation (6.4.26) gives the velocity as a function of the radius, we can differentiate and set the derivative equal to zero to determine the maximum velocity (6.4.28)
It is seen that the maximum velocity occurs at r = 0. Substituting r = 0 into the velocity profile gives the maximum velocity as
v ,,
=
Ap  R2 4PL
(6.4.29)
Figure 6.4.22shows a graph of the predicted velocity profile. The drag on the fluid from the pipe wall (the negative of the drag on the pipe wall by the fluid) resulting from the shear force transmitted from the fluid to the wall is the product of the wetted area of the wall and the shear stress at the wall. The shear stress at the wall can be calculated as
Note that the shear stress varies linearly from a maximum at the wall to zero at the center of the pipe, as shown in Figure 6.4.23.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids vz = 0
325
Figure 6.4.22 Velocity profile for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular c r o s s  ~ e c t i o n ~ ~
=0
Figure 6.4.23 Shear stress profile for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe or duct of circular crosssection
An average velocity for a crosssection is found by integrating
(6.4.21 1)
Jo
The ratio of tbe local velocity, v,, to the maximum velocity is (6.4.212)
l4 Adapted from Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 45.
326
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The volumetric flow rate can be obtained from
Q
= (v,)nR2
x R4Ap  7qiL
(6.4.213)
Equation (6.4.213) is the HagenPoiseuille equation.
fixamble 6.4.21
Flow in a caDillarv viscometer
A capillary viscometer 3 m long and 0.5 mm in diameter passes a fluid of density 999 kg/m3 a a volumetric flow of 800 m 3 / sunder a pressure drop of 3 t mPa. What is the viscosity of tbe fluid?
So 1u t ion
Q=z d p D4
128p L
(6.4.214)
p = 1 2 8 L Q  (128) ( 8 0 0 F ) (3 m) ( 103p)
z 4 D 4
15) (6.4.2(6.4.216)
Checking t ensure that using a model valid only for laminar flow w s correct o a
= 4.074
( 999 kg 7 (0.5 mm) (4.074F) )
(1.83 x 103
Re=T= p(
(E)
(6.4.217)
V P
3)
( 1 0 3 ~ )
(6.4.218) (6.4.219)
Re=1112
3
laminarflow
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Examde 6.4.22 Flow between two concentric cvlinders
327
An incompressible Newtonian fluid is in upward steady axial flow in an annular region between two concentric vertical circular cylinders of radii R and aR,as sbown in Figure 6.4.24. Determine tbe expressions for shear stress, velocity profile, maximum velocity, average velocity and volumetric flow rate.
r
L
Figure 6.4.24 Viscometric flow between cylinders
1
T
L
z
4
r
 . )
328
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Solution
I rate of momentum I
I
in at r = c
I
I
I
outatr = r+Ar
rate of momentum
gravity force on cylindrical shell pressure force on
I
in at z=O
out atz = L
(2 It
f
L) P g
atz=L
atz=O
Substitute in momentum balance
For an incompressible fluid in axial flow,the continuity equation shows that the velocity is the same at z = 0 and z = L, so the two terms containing velocity cancel each other. Rearranging
(6.4.22 1)
(6.4.222) where15
This is the same approach we took in hydrostatics:
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
P= p+pgz
329
(6.4.223)
Upon integrating with respect to r
(6.4.224)
(Note: for a+0, C1+ 0, and we approach the same solution as for a single hollow cylinder  a tube.) Let the radius at which the maximum velocity occurs (we know there will be a maximum velocity because the velocity goes to zero at each of the walls and is finite in between) be designated by r = hr. At this point the momentum flux will be zero because of Newton's law of viscosity.
(6.4.225)
Then it follows that
) ) c, =  (POL'2L(A R'
(6.4.226)
(6.4.227)
Substituting using Newton's law of viscosity and integrating
(6.4.228)
atr = aR, v, = 0 v, = 0 atr = R, (6.4.229)
o =  (PO  %) R2(1 + cz)
4PL
Note the above is valid independent of the choice of datum for the z axis.
330
Chapter 6:Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.4.230)
Substituting in Equation (6.4.227)
(6.4.231)
3 (6.4.2 2)
(6.4.234) Q = x R 2 ( 1  a 2 ) v Z=
tt (PO TL) R4
8PL
1a4
( 1  a2)2
141/a]
(6.4.235)
Examde 6.4.23
Film flow down a wall
Find the velocity profile, average velocity and free surface velocity for a Newtonian fluid flowing down a vertical wall of length, L, and width, W.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
331
Figure 6.4.25 Film flow down wall
Solution
AX+O
lim
(6.4.231) (6.4.238) (6.4.239) (6.4.240)
!!!E=()
dz,
dx  P g dv 7, =  p g d2v, S =P8 dx v, = 0
P
at x = 0, at x = 6,
(6.4.241)
(6.4.242)
332
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.4.243)
At the free surface, x = 0, and
(6.4.244)
ExamD le 6.4.24 pet in mo tio n
Flow adjacent to a _flat plat e instantaneous 1V
Consider a flat plate adjacent to a quiescent fluid of infinite extent in the positive xdirection (normal to the plate; x = 0 at the plate surface), ydirection (along the plate surface)and the zdirection (along the plate surface).Let the plate be instantaneously set in motion in the ydirection at a constant velocity, V. The velocity profile induced in the fluid by drag from the plate will “penetrate” into the fluid with time in the general fashion shown in Figure 6.4.26.
Figure 6.4.26 Flow adjacent to flat plat instantaneously set in motion
The partial differentialequation describing the momentum transfer, which is the microscopic momentum balance, is
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids av = vazVy
at
333
Y
ax2
(6.4.245)
has initial and boundary conditions
t = 0: vy = 0, allx
(initialcondition)
x = 0: vy = V, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) x = 00: v, = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
(6.4.246)
Dedimensionalizethe dependent variable in the equation using
v; =
v v*
 vy0 v vvi   v v0
(6.4.247)
Treating individual factors
av, a t  =   av, av; = V aV; at at
av;
(6.4.248)
(6.4.249)
Substituting in the differential equation
vaV; = V v 7azv; at ax
dat= V =
(6.4.250)
av*
azv;
(6.4.251)
with transformed initial and boundary conditions
t = 0: v; = 0, d l x
x = 0: v; = 1, all t x = m: v; = 0, all t
(initialcondition)
> 0 (boundarycondition) > 0 (boundarycondition)
(6.4.252)
This is the analogous problem to that of temperature profiles in a semiinfinite slab initially at uniform temperature whose face is suddenly increased to
334
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
a different temperatufe, and to that of concentration profiles resulting from certain binary diffusion processes in a semiinfinite medium. The dimensionless velocity, v; ,is analogous to the dimensionlesstemperature defined in Chapter 7
**
=
TTi
(6.4.253)
or the dimensionlessconcentration defined in Chapter 8
(6.4.254)
and the kinematic viscosity (momentum diffusivity) is analogous to the thermal diffusivity, a,or the binary diffusivity, Dm . The solution to the differential equation is
(6.4.255)
and can be written as
f,(v;, x, t, v) = v;  f,(x, t, v) = 0
(6.4.256)
where we observe that f2( v; , x, t, v) must be a dimensionally homogeneous function. Applying the principles of dimensional analysis in a system of two fundamental dimensions (L, t) indicates that we should obtain two dimensionless groups. One of our variables, v;, is already dimensionless and therefore serves as the first member of the group of two. A systematic analysis such as we developed in Chapter 5 will give the other dimensionless group as the similarity variable
q=X
(6.4.257)
which implies that
(6.4.25 8)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
or that
v; = <p(rl)
335
(6.4.259)
Transforming the terms in the differentialequation we have
(6.4.261) Substituting in the differential equation
(6.4.262) Rearranging
cp"+ 2 q cp' = 0
(6.4.263)
which leaves us with an ordinary differential equation, not a partial differential equation as we originally had, because of the combining of two independent variables into one via the similarity transformation.
336
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The initial and boundary conditions transform as
(6.4.264)
which gives the transformed boundary conditions as
(6.4.265)
This equation is easily solved because it can be seen to be separable via the simple expedient of substituting w for $'.
w'+2q\y = 0 (6.4.266) (6.4.267) (6.4.268)
lnW=  q 2 + C 1
\y=
(6.4.269) (6.4.270)
C , eq2
Back substituting for
w
/
cp' dq = C,
eq2dq
(6.4.271)
cp = C , l e  c 2 d c + C 2
The integral here is one that we cannot evaluate in closed form. We choose to base our tables of numerical evaluation of the form on a lower limit of zero for the integral. This arbitrary choice is permissible because changing the basis point for the integration from one point to another will affect only the value of the constant, C2.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
337
Introducing the boundary conditions and substituting the appropriate value for the defrnite integrals16
1
0 = Cllmec2dc+l
3
C, = 
lw
1
=
2
J?€
ec2dc
(6.4.272)
Substituting the constants in the equation and reordering the terms gives
cp = 1 2
mo
1''
et2dc
(6.4.273)
We defme the errorfunction and the complementary error function error function = erf (q)
, =
$l
''
ec2dc
(6.4.274)
complementaryerrorfunction = erfc(q) = 1  erf (q) which allows us to write17
cp = lerf[q] = erfc[q]
(6.4.275)
so the solution of our problem is
= erfc
["] m
(6.4.276)
l 6 The error function plays a key role in statistics. We do not have space here to show the details of the integration of the function to obtain the tables listed; for further details the reader is referred to any of the many texts in mathematical statistics. l 7 Engineers have a certain regrettable proclivity to use the same symbol for the dummy variable of integration that appears in the integrand and for the variable in the limits. This often does not cause confusion; here, however, it is clearer to make the distinction.
338
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
A table of values of the error function is listed in Appendix B.
6.5 Turbulent Flow
by momentum transfer from the fluid to containing walls or to solid objects in
Both laminar and turbulent flow are characterized by a pressure loss caused
the flow stream. There are two principal mechanisms by which momentum is transferred from one location to another within a flowing fluid.
The dominant force in laminar flow is the viscous force operating at the molecular level. In turbulent flow, the mechanism of momentum transfer is mainly the migration of relatively large aggregates of fluid which preserve their identity for some small but finite time as they move from one point to another (eddies). The dominant forces in turbulent flow are inertial forces. These inertial forces arise from the rapid acceleration and deceleration of the fluid due to the velocity fluctuations as the eddies move from regions of one velocity to regions of a different velocity and mix with the new region. The Reynolds number is the dimensionless product that represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces. As the velocity gradients in a fluid increase because the fluid moves faster relative to solid boundaries, the inertial forces become larger relative to the viscous forces, and eventually flow shifts from laminar (viscousdominated)to turbulent (inertialdominated)flow.
The transition occurs at about Re = 2100 for flow in a pipe. For a flat plate the transition occurs at about Re, = 3 x 106. Note that the characteristic length in Re, is the distance from the nose (front) of the plate and the characteristic velocity is the freestream velocity. It is, therefore, not surprising that transition occurs at a different numerical value than in a pipe  in addition, one is external flow where the velocity profile continues to develop and the other is internal flow which reaches a fully developed state under steadyflowconditions.
In turbulent flow,the velocity at a point varies in time stochastically both in magnitude and in direction. If the velocity in a particular direction is measured at a point in a fluid in turbulent flow, a result similar to that shown in Figure 6.51 is obtained.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
339
velocit n fluctuabt average velocity
time
Figure 6.51 Local velocity in turbulent flow as a function of time
Although we can measurethe (virtually) instantaneous velocity in turbulent flow,18 we cannot, in general, solve the basic differential equation models describing such flows for these instantaneous velocities. We resort instead to models of time averaged velocities, which we can treat in some cases. The average velocity used with turbulent flow is a timeaveraged velocity defineclas
V =
lo
v dt
[vdt t0
(6.51)
Todt Jo
l8 Such measurements are sometimes made in gases with hotwire anemometers  very fine short wires through which electrical current is passed and which are cooled by the passing gas stream. The cooling effect of the gas changes the temperature and therefore the electrical resistance of the wire, which can be translated into fluid velocity. Such wires can be run at constant voltage and the fluctuation in current measured, or vice versa. Liquids, because of their larger drag, would destroy a wire, so conductive films deposited on a nonconducting substrate are used in a similar fashion. Wires oriented at an angle to each other can be used to measure more than one fluctuating component at the same time. In Doppler anemometry, the Doppler effect is used to determine velocity hy examining change in frequency of light signals reflected from particles in the fluid.
340
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
where v is the instantaneous velocity. At any time the instantaneous velocity is the sum of the average velocity and the velocity fluctuation.
v = v+v'
(6.52)
In Equations (6.4.211) and (6.4.212) we above saw the velocity distribution and average velocity for laminar flow in a tube to be
vz
=
(&)l]
(6.53)
(6.54)
and the pressure drop to be directly proportional to the volume rate of flow. For turbulent flow in pipes, experiments show that the distribution of the timeaveraged velocity is approximately
vz z
vz,[l
61)
(6.55)
and the average velocity (as shown above in Example 1.5.23) to be approximately
vz
 4 = +nax
(6.56)
Figure 6.52 shows a qualitative comparison of the laminar and turbulent velocity profiles in a pipe.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
341
Ir/R

laminar
turbulent
0.2
0
02 1
014
0:s 0:s
1
"z f vz, max
Figure 6.52 Laminar and timesmoothed turbulent (1/7 power model) velocity profiles in steady pipe flow
6.5.1
Time averaging the equations of change
Let us now examine the result of time averaging some typical equations that are frequently encountered. First, starting with the continuity equation in rectangular coordinates and restricting it to an incompressible fluid
av avY m ) = av, o + p &f+F+ o y
(
(6.5.1  1)
(6.5.12)
Substituting using Equation (6.52) gives
a(v, + v;)
ax
a(vy+ v;) a(vz + v;) +  a y  + a Z = O
(6.5.13)
342
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
T k n the time average each side of the equation, and writing the integral on the aig he lefthand side as the sum of the t r eintegrals as shown
(6.5.14)
Writing the result for a typical term on the lefthand side and applying the Leibnitz rule
(6.5.15)
(6.5.16)
Applying the result to the whole equation
(6.5.17) (6.5.18)
so we find that for an incompressible fluid, the timeaveraged equation is identical in form to the instantaneous equation, but with velocities replaced by their respective time averages. This is not true in general.
Next, as a typical example, examine in the same fashion the zcomponent of the equation of motion in rectangular coordinates for a Newtonian fluid with constant density and viscosity, observing that the pressure at any time can be written as the time average plus the fluctuation (just as with the velocity) P = P+P' The zcomponent of the equation of motion is (6.5.19)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
343
If we multiply the continuity equation for an incompressible fluid, Equation (6.5.12),by p and vz, and add it t Equation (6.5.110). the righthand side will o remain unchanged and the lefthand side wl become il
=p
I
+
(..2 + v, 2) (v, 3+ v, 2)+ ( +
vz&
+ v, &
avz
(6.5.111) (6.5.112)
avz)l
which, upon substitution in Equation (6.5.1lO),gives
P
(6.5.113)
+pgz Time averaging a typical t r on the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.1 13) as an em example, remembering that timeaveraged velocities by definition are constant with respect to integration over t m ,and that likewise the time average of ie velocity fluctuations is zero yields
t0
dX
I'
dt
(6.5.1 14) 
344
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.5.115)
=P
& [ v, (tlb"dt)] P & [v, (1yv; to dt)]
vx
(6.5.117)
+
0
(6.5.118)
 a  P a;r(vx 9.) + P a (vx vz)
(6.5.120)
In this instance, as opposed to the case of the continuity equation, we see that we obtain an "extra" term (enclosed in the box) from the time averaging process  in other words., we cannot obtain the correct result by formally replacing time average of the velocity product by the product of the timeaveraged velocities.
Notice that the units on this sort of term can be interpreted as either momentum flux or shear stress
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
345
momentum
flux
shear stress
(6.5.122)
The same sort of result is obtained from the second, third, and fourth terms on the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.113). Time averaging the first term on the lefthand side of Equation (6.5.113) gives
(6.5.123)
For this term the formal substitution gives the correct result. Time averaging the first term on the righthand side o Equation (6.5.113) f gives
(6.5.124)
Again, formal substitution of the average for the instantaneous value gives the same result as time averaging. Time averaging a typical term from the second, third, and fourth terms on the righthand side of Equation (6.5.113) and applying the Leibnitz rule twice gives
346
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Again, the formal substitution gives the Same result as the timeaveraging process. Time averaging of the last term on the righthand side returns the last term unchanged, because we have assumed density to be constant and we do not consider timechanging gravitational fields; therefore, this tr is constant in em time.
to 0 'f0pgzdt
= p g z t J r b odt = p g z
(6.5.126)
Using the above results and Equation (6.5.113)gives for the timeaveraged equation for the zcomponent (similar equations exist for the other directions)
(6.5.127)
where again the terms in the box are "extra" terms when compared with Equation (6.5.113), and these terms have the equivalent units of either momentum flux or shear stress. Interpreting the units as those of shear stress has led to these terms being commonly called the "Reynolds stresses" (in honor of Osborne Reynolds of the Reynolds number), even though they are made up of velocity fluctuations and therefore intuitively share more of the character of momentum flux.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Example 6.52 Time avercrpinp o f velocitv btoduct
347
Time average the t r em
vz v;
Solution
(6.5.128)
(6.5.129) (6.5.130)
(6.5.131)
(6.5.132)
(6.5.133)
= v,v,
(6.5.134)
6.5.2
The mixing length model
A model equation for velocity distribution in turbulent flow in a tube can be developed by assuming the shear stress to be proportional to the fluctuating velocities vy' and v,I. This model was originally formulated by Prax~dtl~~ who assumed a "particle" of fluid to be displaced a distance, P (called the mixing length), before its momentum was changed by the new environment, a shown s in Figure 6.5.21.
Prandtl related the velocity fluctuations to the timeaveraged velocity gradient as
v, = " P
+
dS d Y
(6.5.21)
~~
~~
l9
Prandtl, L. (1925). ZAMM 5: 136.
348
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Figure 6.5.21 Mixing length model
assuming is approximately equal to v,'. If the shear stress in the fluid is assumed to retain the form of Newton's law of viscosity, then
vyI
(6.5.22)
where p is the fluid viscosity and q is called the eddy viscosity and
"z
= pv;v;
(6.5.23)
This quantity is called the Reynolds stress even though it is the product of two velocities and a density, because it has the dimensions of stress. Examining the units, one sees it has units of stress which are the same as momentum flux. Therefore,
(6.5.24)
where 1 is the mixing length and
(6.5.25)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
349
Note that q is not a fluid property  it depends on the flow field, and is defined in such a way that it is related to the shear stress. As turbulence decreases, Equation (6.5.22)approaches Newton's law of viscosity, because q approaches zero. For turbulent flow past a boundary, q is equal to zero at the surface, while p is negligible at a distance from the surface that is large when compared to 6, the thickness of the viscous sublayer. (In earlier literature one may find references to the laminar sublayer, but this usage was found not to be correct, because turbulent eddies can be photographed penetrating this layer and impacting the wall. In this layer, however, viscous forces do predominate.) The concept of mixing length, together with the timeaveraged velocity, may be used to obtain an expression for average velocity during steadystate turbulent flow in a pipe. Close to the wall, where q is negligible, the shear stress is assumed to be given by Equation (6.5.22), where the thickness for which p dominates is 8, the thickness of the viscous sublayer. The shear stress at the wall is
(6.5.26)
(6.5.27)
In the latter equation, v = p/p (the kinematic viscosity). We assume that 2 is equal to 20 throughout the viscous sublayer and that 6 is much less than R, the radius of the tube;therefore,we can use a rectangular coordinate.
Defining a shear velocity (the friction velocity)
(6.5.28)
which measures the intensity of eddies in twodimensional flow and the consequent momentum transfer, Equation (6.5.28) may be written in the following form:
(6.5.29)
3.50
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
For y > 6, p is assumed to be much less tban q and (6.5.210) Since 4 has dimensions of length, we may assume as a simple model that 4 = Ky and substitute into Equation (6.5.210) (6.5.211) Assuming the shear stress to be constant at TO throughout the turbulent core, and integrating Equation (6.5.211)
2 = 1 In [y] + constant
(6.5.212)
(6.5.213) The constant of integration may be determined by assuming that v, is 0 at some value of y, say yo, (but not at y = 0 since log[O] = ). (6.5.214) where C is 0 in the viscous sublayer, and is determined from experiment for the buffer zone and the turbulent core. The logarithmic model (as opposed to the ln power law model) expressed by Equation (6.5.214) is called the universal velocity distribution. Data on turbulent flow in pipes with 4000 c Re c 3.2 x 106 may be fit by the following forms.
2 [1 < = In [v]5.5 v Y +
2.5
9,
3 = E ' 9, v
0 < y v* < 5 (viscoussublayer)
(6.5.215) (6.5.216) (6.5.217)
= 5 In y t,  3.05 ; 5 < Y J * < 30 (buffer zone) ; 30 < $ (turbulentcore) Yv
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
351
Figure 6.5.22 is a plot of tbis model, where v+ and y+ are, respectively, a dimensionless velocity and a dimensionless distance from tbe wallzodefined using the friction velocity in the following fashion
(6.5.218)
(6.5.219)
Figure 6.5.22 Universal velocity distribution
&
fixarnde 6.5.21
Size of sublaver and buffer zone in turbulent
Water is flowing in a 1in. Schedule 40 steel pipe at a bulk velocity of 5 ft/s. If the pressure drop over 100 ft of pipe is 30 psig, what is the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the buffer zone?
2o Note
that y+ is a Reynolds number based on distance from the wall.
352 So 1ut ion
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
= 35,900
(6.5.220)
Sublayer
y=ii.=P
Force balance on fluid
5v
5 P &P= m 5
(6.5.22 1)
Edge of buffer zone
y=30"
v'
 (6) (0.000268ft) = 0.00161 ft
or 0.0193 in (6.5.225)
Buffer zone 0.00161  0.000268 = 0.00134ft or 0.0161 in. (6.5.226)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
353
6.6 The Boundary Layer Model
Consider flow over a flat plate from a uniform velocity profile as shown in Figure 6.61. (Only the upper flow field is shown  there is a mirror image field on the lower surface of the plate.)
Figure 6.61 Boundary layer development on flat plate
Flow will be stopped on the surface of the plate, and this effect will gradually transmit itself into the main body of fluid via viscosity. The fluid which is retarded near the plate transfers momentum from the fluid which is further from the plate, and so on; thus, drag is transmitted into the main stream of fluid. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer occurs at approximately Re, =
pz P V
5 x 10'
(6.61)
The point where the velocity reaches 99% of the freestream velocity marks the edge of what is defined as the boundary layer. The boundary layer thickness, 6, is the distance from the surface to this point. The value of 99% is arbitrary. The purpose for creating this model is to divide the flow field into two parts, the boundary layer and the freestream, with almost all the viscous momentum transfer inside the boundary layer. In the region next to the solid boundary, viscous effects are predominant, and in the second region, "far" from the boundary, flow may be modeled as inviscid (an ideal fluid, if pressure effects are small enough that density can also be modeled as constant). The mass flow rate in the boundary layer is less than the mass flow rate outside the boundary layer. The decrease in mass flow rate due to the retarding
354
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
effect of the viscous forces in the boundary layer can be described using the displacement thickness, 6*, which is defined by the relation
(6.62)
6' is the distance tbe solid boundary would have to be displaced to give the same mass flow rate if the flow field remained uniform (no drag at the surface inviscid flow). For incompressibleflow
(6.63)
The flow slowing next to the boundary also results in the reduction in momentum flux in the xdirection (the flux in the ydirection correspondingly increases) compared to that for inviscid flow. The momentum thickness, 8, is defined as the thickness of a layer of fluid of uniform velocity, v,, for which momentum flux would be equal to the decrease in the xmomentum caused by the boundary layer.
(6.64)
For incompressibleflow
(6.65)
Dle 6.61
Dient
thickness
A wind tunnel has a 250mm square test section. Boundary layer velocity profiles are measured at two crosssections. Displacement thicknesses are calculated from the measured profiles. At 1 where the freestream speed is V, = 3 0 m / s , the displacement thickness is 6; = 1 . 5 m . At 2
8 = 2.0 mm . What is the change in static pressure between 1 and 2? :
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
355
Y
Soht ion
(6.66) (6.67) (6.68)
(6.69)
(6.610)
Continuity:
vI A I = v2 A,
V 2 =
VI
(6.611) (6.612) (6.613)
K 2
where A = (L 2 6*)2
 1 = 0.004 or
0.4%
(6.614)
356
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.6.1
Momentum balance
 integral equations
Figure 6.6.11 shows a boundary layer and identifies a small differential element, Ax, of this boundary layer. An xdirection momentum balance can be applied to this element in the boundary layer in steady flow. The net force in the xdirection is equal to the net rate of momentum transferred to the element.
Figure 6.6.11 Element in boundary layer
The force on the element is made up of the pressure force on the two faces normal to flow and the drag force at the plate surface. (The drag force on the top of the element is neglected because of the small velocity gradient at this point. The pressure force is neglected on the top face because the area normal to the xdirection is small and the external pressure gradient is assumed to be small also. There are no body forces acting in the xdirection.) external force on element =  toAX  9AX 6 dx From a steadystate total mass balance mass flow rate in top of element = mass flow rate out right side  mass flow rate in left side
(6.6.1 1)
(6.6.12)
From a steadystatexmomentum balance
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
output flow rate of momentum input flow rate of momentum = flow rate of momentum out right side  flow rate of momentum in left side  flow rate of momentum in top
3.57
Substituting these terms in the xmomentum balance, dividing by Ax, and taking the limit as Ax approaches zero yields
(6.6.14) For a flat plate with dp/dx = 0, v, = constant (6.6.15) Assuming a velocity distribution of the form
$ = f(i)
(6.6.16)
where 6 is the boundary layer thickness, expressions for the thickness of the boundary layer and the shear stress on the flat plate can be determined.
For laminar flow, a possible fonn of Equation (6.6.16) is
c = l ;> 6 VX y
(6.6.17) (6.6.18)
358
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Substituting muation (6.6.17) into Equation (6.6.18) yields
(6.6.19)
zo = 0.332
(6.6.1 10)
Turbulent flow may be modeled by the logarithmic universal velocity distribution or an arbitrary law such as the l/7th power law for pipe flow, depending on the particular situation. In the latter case (6.6.1 11) From Equation (6.6.1 11) the boundary layer thickness and the shear stress
all?
(6.6.112) (6.6.113) The drag coefficient, which can be defined as the shear stress divided by the kinetic energy, may be expressed as
T O c, = 'T = 0.058
ZPV
Re:/'
(6.6.1 14)
The boundary layer concept can be used to model entrance developing flow entering a pipe. Figure 6.6.12 shows the entrance to a pipe for (1) laminar flow progressing to fully developed flow, and (2) transition to turbulent flow before the laminar region becomes fully developed.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
359
Figure 6.6.12 Velocity profile development in the entrance region to a pipe (a) laminar flow (b) turbulent flow
For the first situation, the laminar boundary layer grows until it fills the pipe. Downstream from that point the flow is laminar, the velocity profile is parabolic, and the Reynolds number is less than about 2100. In the second situation, after the fluid enters the pipe, the boundary layer becomes turbulent before filling the pipe. Downstream of the point where the boundary layer fills the pipe, the flow is turbulent, the velocity profile is blunt, and the Reynolds number is greater than 2100. We usually assume the viscous sublayer to persist the entire length of the pipe.
360
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.6.2 Dedimensionalization of the boundary layer equations
T e transfers of heat and of mass are also calculated using a boundary layer h model, and discussion of this model will be augmented in Chapters 7 and 8. The general boundary layer model is based on the following approximations
thermal boundary layer concentrationboundary layer
(6.6.21)
With these assumptions, the microscopic differential equations, of change that is, the balance equations describing continuity (total mass), momentum, energy and mass of individual species  simplify to the boundary layer equations in two dimensions.
(6.6.24)
speciesmass: v,
a ax + vyay = DAB2 C A &A
&A
(6.6.25)
These equations may be made dimensionless using
(6.6.26)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
361
(6.6.27)
which will give continuity momentum energy: speciesmass:
v; (6.6.28)
ap* ++ vy*av*=  +ax + ax* ~ ay
aV*
a2v; e a ,y * 2
(6.6.29) (6.6.210) (6.6.211)
aT* v:+vo7
aX
vi
Y
aT* =
ay
A

Re,&
1
a2T*
a ~ . ~
ay*2
ac* + + v* ac* = Re,Sc & ay*
Y
for momentum transfer
(6.6.212) (6.6.213)
Where
2 ,
= pay* av:
I
yorO
(6.6.214)
362
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.6.3 Exact solution of the momentum boundary layer equations via similarity variables
The solution of the momentum boundary layer equations may be obtained by using similarity variables. For this case it is assumed that the pressure gradient is zero. W look for solutions of the form e (6.6.31) where q = y 16. Assume (6.6.32) therefore, (6.6.33) In Equation (6.6.33) it is called a similarity variable.
fixarnnle 6.6.3 I Similaritv variable develoned from dimensional analvsis
For flow over a flat plate, the pertinent variables in predicting the velocity in the xdirection are
so
(6.6.35) Using the MLt system, the dimensional matrix is
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
363
v, 0 11 v ; p
(6.6.3 6)
p 13 0 p 111
from which we can show the rank is three from the nonzero thirdorder determinant
(6.6.37)
Choosing as the fundamental set (x, p , p), and anticipating (6  3) = 3 dimensionless groups in a complete set
(6.6.38)
Apply dimensional homogeneity M: b + c = 0 a= 1 L: l + a  3 b  c = 0 b= 1 t:  1  c = 0 c = 1
(6.6.39)
Result
Zl
=,p
vx x P
(6.6.310)
Note that this is a local Reynolds number since it is based on the local velocity and local distance from the front of the plate
"x x P = pr
(6.6.3 1) 1
Form 7c2
(6.6.312)
364
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Apply dimensional homogeneity M: b + c = 0 a = 1 L: l + a  3 b  c = 0 b=O c =o t:c=O Result x, = Y
,6.6.3 3)
(6.6.3 14)
Form ~3 (6.6.315) Apply dimensionalhomogeneity M: b + c = 0 a = 1 L: l + a  3 b  c = O b=O t c = o c =o Result
7C3
(6.6.316)
= p7
VmXp
(6.6.317)
This is a Reynolds number that is intermediate between the Reynolds number defined by x1 and a Reynolds number based on the t t l length of the plate and oa the freestream velocity, since it contains the local distance but the freestream velocity.
(6.6.318) We can obtain our similarity variable, q, by (6.6.3 19) Introducing the stream function (which satisfies the continuity equation identically)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
365
(6.6.320)
The dimensionless stream function is defined as
(6.6.321)
Velocity components are given by
Differentiating
(6.6.323)
Substituting these expressions into the momentum balance Equation (6.6.29) yields the Blasius boundary layer equation
d’f d2f 2+f7 =0 dq3 dq
Boundary conditions:
q=o; f = O
(6.6.3 24)
366
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Applying the boundary conditions one can solve either by a series expansion or by various numerical methods, one of which is detailed in the example below. The solution is shown in Figure 6.6.31.
1
0.8
0.8 0.7
0.6
VX
1 VbD
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2 0.1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Figure 6.6.31 Solution to Blasius boundary layer equation
Example 6.6.32
RunneKutta solution of Blasius problem
Solve the Blasius equation for twodimensional boundary layer flow past a tlat plate
2f+ff"= 0
with boundary conditions
(6.6.325)
forq = 0, f = f ' = forq = 1, f' = 1
o
(6.6.326)
by reducing the equation to a system of frrstorder ordinary differential equations and using a fourthorder RungeKuttaZ' method.
21 RungeKutta methods use weighted averages of derivatives across intervals to estimate the value of the dependent variable at the end of the interval, For a simpler version of the same approach, see Example 9.21, Design of a cooling tower, which uses Heun's method.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
367
Use a step size of 0.05 for q, and carry the computation to q = 8.0, which can be regarded as Tbe initial value far f" sbould be between 0.30 and 0.35.
00.
Plot the results. Solution
The nonlinear ordinary differential equation and associated initial and boundary conditions, using t$ in place off, can be written as
(6.6.327) with initial conditions
q = 0 cp = 0,cp' = 0 :
(6.6.328)
and boundary condition
qJ":
q'=l
(6.6.329)
Define
(6.6.330)
(6.6.331) giving a set of ordinary fmtorder differential equations
cp" =  d5 dq 
PO' 2
(6.6.332) (6.6.333) (6.6.334)
with initial conditions
q = 0: cp = 0,cp' = 0
(6.6.335)
368
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
and boundary condition
(6.6.336)
The three equations are of the form
(6.6.337)
(6.6.3 3 8) (6.6.339)
with initial conditions
(6.6.340)
and boundary condition
rl=  : w = l
(6.6.341)
Fox a single equation
y' =
(6.6.342)
with initial condition
x=o: f=f*
(6.6.3 43)
the fourthorder RungeKutta algorithm is
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
369
(6.6.344)
We apply the fourthorder RungeKutta method to Equations (6.6.332),(6.6.333), and (6.6.334). The difficulty is that we have initial conditions on only two of the variables ($ and w), while the remaining condition is a boundary condition on This means that we must estimate an initial condition for 5, carry out the computation, and see if we have satisfied the boundary condition on (a socalled “shooting” method). Since the solution is relatively well behaved, this presents no great difficulty.
w. w
If we apply the algorithm using a spreadsheet, it is easy to insert various guesses for and observe the final value for w. In general, for such a system of equations we could apply a more sophisticated numerical technique such as some variation on Newton’s method if we so desired, but for this problem, convergence using this simple trial and error method is rapid. Since the problem at hand does not demand high sophistication, we will simply use the trialanderror calculation. Noting that each equation will have its own values of kl, k2, k3, and first calculate kl for each equation,
(6.6.345) (6.6.3 46) (6.6.347)
b,
then k2
370
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
and then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
371
k4, = h f.
[(%
+ h)*(cp.+ k3.).
(w.
+ k3.).
(5. + k3€)]
(6.6.354)
(6.6.355)
(6.6.3 56) 
The functions can next be updated
5n+1
Wn+l
= = =
5, +
Wn
(k le + 2 k,,+ 2 k, + k
+
6 (k,,+ 2 k,, + 2k,+
(6.6.35 7)
kV)
(6.6.358) (6.6.3 59) 
(Pn+l
Cpn+~(k,,+2k2,+2k,,+k4~)
This algorithm is easily adapted to spreadsheet use.
6.7 Drag Coef‘ficients
Drag coefficients are used to relate flow rate to momentum transfer for both external (over the outside surfaces of a solid such as over a flat plate, a cylinder, a sphere, etc.) and internal flows (inside a conduit such as a pipe). The basic concept is the same in both cases, but with external flows the velocity used is the velocity “far” from the surface, i.e., the velocity of approach or the freestream velocity, and for internal flows the velocity used is usually the areaaverage velocity. Drag is usually divided into two classes, skin friction and form drag. Skin friction is the term used for drag force caused by momentum transfer from the em fluid to a solid surface. Form drag is the t r used for force resulting from a pressure gradient from the front to the back of a solid object.
372
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
For example, if one holds a circular disk of cardboard (perhaps the base fiom a nowconsumed pizza) out the window of a car as it travels down the highway, the force in the direction of travel of the car necessary to hold the cardboard in place will vary depending on the orientation of the disk.If the axis of the disk is n o d to the direction of travel of the car, the main force experienced is a result of the flow of air over the top and bottom of the disk  skin friction. If, however, the axis of the disk is beld parallel to the direction of travel of the car, a considerably larger force will be experienced, which is caused by the pressure difference that develops between the forward and rearward surfaces of the disk form drag. Form drag does exist in the first instance, but is much less that the skin friction because the area normal to flow on which the pressure drop acts is very small. Similarly, skin friction exists in the second case, but the skin friction over the forward and rearward surfaces of the disk has no component in the direction of travel, and the skin friction on the edge of the disk acts on such a small area as to be relatively insignificant. Consider the case of flow over a curved surface as shown in Figure 6.71 (such as an airplane wing). At very low speeds, flow is essentially laminar and the air follows the contour of the wing as is shown in Figure 6.7la. The majority of the drag in this case results from skin friction, which is the transfer of momentum from the wing, which is moving, to the surrounding air, which is stationary. Under certain circumstances, however, as flow is increased, the boundary layer can separate from the wing, as shown in Figure 6.7lb. To understand why the boundary layer separates, imagine a small particle of air which is going to pass over the wing. The mechanical energy balance developed in Chapter 4 can be applied to this particle of air as a system. To simplify things, let us assume that the particle does not change position significantlyin a gravitational field, and therefore the change in potential energy
Figure 6.71 Flow around an airfoil (a) without and (b) with separation. (From L. Prandtl and O.G. Tietjens. Fundamentals of Hydro and Aerodynamics, New York, Dover, reprinted by permission of the publishers.)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
373
is negligible in passing across the wing. The air, therefore, possesses two types of mechanical energy: kinetic energy and pressure energy. The mechanical energy does not stay constant because the air undergoes momentum interchange with surrounding air as it goes across the wing; therefore, the important terms in the mechanical energy balance for the air particle are the kinetic energy, the pressure energy, and the lost work due to friction. (There is no shaft work.) The lift on the airfoil results from the greater increase in kinetic energy across the upper surface of the airfoil. This form of mechanical energy can come only from the pressure energy, so the pressure decreases, giving lift. As the air comes off the back edge of the airfoil, it once again slows down and its kinetic energy is reconverted to pressure energy. There is, however, a net loss of mechanical energy because of the frictional processes as it traverses the airfoil. This means that the remaining kinetic energy, when transformed to pressure energy, is insufficient to recoup the original level of pressure. The pressure gradient, in fact, becomes negative. Since flow tends to go down the pressure gradient, it may actually reverse next to the airfoil, the boundary layer separate, and the wing stalls. This condition is of great concern to a pilot, because stalling means that he is progressively losing the lift on the latter part of the wing. The region downstream from the separation point is called the wake. The effect of separation and the subsequent wake is to decrease the amount of kinetic energy transfer back to pressure energy and to increase transfer to internal energy (in other words, loss of mechanical energy). Bodies are often streamlined to cause the separation point to be as far downstream as possible. If there is no separation, the primary loss is caused by the shear in the boundary layer, that is, skin friction. Remember that even though we call this term skin friction, it is not really due to the layer of air molecules adjacent to the surface of tbe body rubbing on the surface. We know that these molecules are almost always attached to the surface. Skin friction is simply a term we use to describe the momentum transfer from boundary layer formation. The general drag coefficient is defined by the equation
(6.71)
374
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
where A is a characteristic area usually either the crosssectional area normal to flow for bodies with significant form drag, or the wetted area for bodies with primarily skin friction (e.g., flat plates)  and

c,
=
c;+c;
(6.72)
CD'is the drag coefficient defined on the basis of drag force from skin friction and CD"is the corresponding coefficient for fonn drag. Their sum is the coefficientof t t l drag. oa
The form drag coefficient, CD", is usually determined from experiments cld using some sort of s a e (or sometimes fullsize) physical model because there is seldom an adequate model to calculate it from first principles. Skin friction is a function of the shear stress at the surface
(6.7 3)
The shear stress at the surface is, in turn, a function of Reynolds number and is often determinable by calculation, as we shall see below.
To use a given drag coefficient appropriately, it is necessary t o know the velocity and the area that was used in its definition (as well as whether it is a coefficient of total drag, form drag, or skin friction). We distinguish two cases.
For internal flows, the velocity in the kinetic energy term is normally the bulk velocity. This velocity could be any velocity one wishes to choose, but, conventionally, the bulk velocity is used. The area that is conventionally used for internal flows is the inside surface area of the conduit, i.e., the circumference multiplied by the length. Internal flows usually do not involve form drag, but only skin friction. For external flows, completely different definitions are used. External flows usually involve both skin friction and form drag (except for such special cases as an infinitesimally thick plate positioned parallel to flow, where the crosssectional area normal to flow is zero, obviating form drag). The characteristic velocity is usually taken to be the freestream velocity. Notice that there is equivalence from the standpoint of the drag force generated between fluid flowing past an object and the object moving through the fluid. Therefore, when we say "freestream velocity" for the case of an object moving through a
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
375
quiescent fluid, we mean the relative velocity of the fluid as seen from the object (thevelocity of the object). Since form drag often dominates the case of external flow, the characteristic area usually used is the crosssectional area of the object normal to flow (because this is the effective area upon which the pressure difference acts to produce form drag). We could use any other welldefined area (for example, the external surface area of the object) because, for objects of geometrically similar shape, the ratios of the various areas remain constant as the size of the object is changed; however, one conventionally uses the crosssectional area normal to flow. For external flow, the drag coefficient is normally defined in terms of total drag.
6.7.1 Drag on immersed bodies (external flow)
Figure 6.7.11 shows empirical curves fit to the data for drag coefficient for a smooth flat plate aligned parallel to the flow stream.
00 .1
I
I
1o6
1o8
1o9
Figure 6.7.11 Drag coefficient for smooth flat plate oriented parallel to flow stream22
22
Curves shown are empirical fits to experimental data: (continued next page)
376
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The local shear stress at the surface of a flat plate was found in Section 6.6.1 using the integral momentum balance to be
2,
= 0.3324
(6.7.1 1)
The laminar curve in Figure 6.7.11 comes from integrating the local shear stress found using the Blasius solution as developed in Section 6.6.3. The drag force per unit width for one side of the plate is (6.7.12)
Where
Another way to determine the same result is to integrate the Blasius solution.
(6.7.13)
From the Blasius solution
[a,.] ay
y = o
= v, d X f " ( 0 )
(6.7.16)
From Table 6.6.31 one can find
Curve 1: CD = 1 3 8 .2
4 E
Laminar, Blasius Transitional
Curve 2: CD =
0*455 l7O0 (log ReL)2'58 (%)02
curve 3: CD =  Turbulent, Prandtl 074 Curve 4: CD =
(log
0*455
Turbulent, PrandtlSchlichting
For details see Schlichting, H. (1960). Boundary Layer Theory, New York, McGrawHill, p. 538.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
f"(0) = e , ( O ) = 0.332
377
(6.7.17)
Substituting, performing the integration, doubling the result (so as to account for both the top and the bottom surfaces of the plate) and applying the relationship between the drag force and the drag coefficient, wbere W is the width of the plate,23 one obtains
cD
=
1.328
(6.7.18)
where the Reynolds number is based on the freestream velocity and the length of the plate. The Prandtl solution is based on the 1/7 power velocity distribution model and the wall shear stress model for turbulent pipe
CD = 0*074
Re;''
3
5 x 10' < Re, c 10'
(6.7.19)
This model is applicable to plates wbere the boundary layer is turbulent starting at the leading edge. Usually, however, there is a laminar section preceding the turbulent section, leading to lower drag. The transition is normally somewhere between Reynolds numbers of 3 x 105 and 3 x 106. The PrandtlSchlichting curve comes from applying the logarithmic universal velocity profile for pipe flow,assuming that transition takes place at a critical Reynolds number of 3 x 105,empirically modifying constants in the model to account for experimental data, and allowing for the laminar initial section, resulting in the equation
23 Note
that the relationship of drag force t drag coefficient gives o
Fdnl
24
For details of development of this model and the models immediately below, see Schlichting, H. (1960). Boundary k y e r Theory, New York, McGrawHill, p. 536.
378
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Schultzhow corrected for the upward deviation of the outward boundary layer velocity of a fa plate compared t a pipe, and developed the relation lt o C = D
0.427 (log Re,  0.407)2.6(
(6.7.111)
examble 6.7.1 1

Drag on a tlat d a t e
Assume a water ski can be modeled as a flat plate. The ski is 2m long, 0.25m wide, and is immersed to a depth of 0.05 m. The boat dragging the ski is moving at 25 knots. What is the skin friction force?
So1u t ion
nauticalmi 6076ft 0.3048m hr ft 3600 sec] vQ = (25) hots[ knot hr nauticalmi] = 12.869 (6.7.1 12) Use as the viscosity of water v = 1.4 x IQ6m2/s.
][
[
][
= 1.837~ 10’
From Figure 6.7.11 C
FD
(6.7.113)
= 0.0026
(6.7.1 14)
1 = cDAZpvim2
A =L(w+2d)
F = D
4(0.0026)
(2 m)(0.25 m + 0.1 m
(34.4 Ibf)
I( 1020 )12.86y )2(Nsec2 5 )
(6.7.115)
F = 153N D
(6.7.116) (6.7.117)
3
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
379
For flow past a circular cylinder, Figure 6.7.12 shows (a) ideal flow and (b) turbulent flow with boundary layer separation and wake formation. For the ideal flow situation, there is no separation of the boundary layer because the presence of the body does not result in momentum exchange.
Figure 6.7.12 Flow past circular cylinder
Figure 6.7.13 shows the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder as a function of Reynolds number.
380
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
C
Re = D v, pIp
Figure 6.7.13 Drag coefficient for circular cylinder2
Bxarnole 6.7.12
Wind force on a distillation column
Calculate the drag force on a distillation column 50 ft high by 8ft diameter in a w n of 40 mph. For a r v = 16.78 x 105ft2/s, p = 0.0735 lbm/ft3. id i
So 1u tion
v, =
(v)( s)(522fi) 3600hr
= 5 8 . 7ft s
R e = DvmP Ft

(8 ft) (58.7
G)
(6.7.1 18) (6.7.1 19)
= 2 . 7 8 106 ~
(16.88~10
From Figure 6.7.13
Adapted from data in Schlichting, H. (1960). Boundary b y e r Theory, New York, McGrawHill, p. 16.
25
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer i Fluids n
381
(0.4) (0.0735
F&ag
p) f)* (58.7 (8
ft) (50 ft)
= = 6301bf
(2) (32.2 Ibf sec
q)
(6.7.120) (6.7.121)
F ,
Note: The drag coefficient for a cylinder is relatively constant at these Reynolds numbers. For a hurricane wind at 200 mph the drag force increases 25 times. The drag coefficient for flow past a sphere is given in Figure 6.7.14.
101
100
101
10*
103
p/p
104
105
Re = D v,
Figure 6.7.14 Drag coefficient for sphere26
The leftward part of the figure where the Reynolc s number is less tlan 0.1 S called the creeping flow regime. Various parts of the curve can be fitted algebraically as follow 24 = . Re c 0.1 Re ' CD = 1 .  2 c Re c 500 85 '
CO
(6.7.122)
(6.7.123)
Adapted from data in Schlichting, McGrawHill, p. 16.
26
H.(1960). Boundary Layer Theory, New York,
382 CD = 0.44; 500 < Re < 10’
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu&
(6.7.124)
Ie 6.7.13
T e r w velocit! o f a
DO^ snhere
in
water
Calculate the terminal velocity in room temperature water of a 3mm diameter sphere made of a polymer with density 1.15 gm/cm3.
So 1u t ion
We make a balance at terminal velocity on the vertical components of the force vectors (assuming that the positive direction, chosen as the zdirection, is upward, which gives the vertical component of the acceleration of gravity a negative sign). A balance on the zcomponentsof the force vectors in the vertical direction is the scalar equation.
(6.7.125) (6.7.126)
The net buoyancy force is negative. The velocity is downward, so the drag force will be in the positive direction. The magnitude of the drag force is
(6.7.127)
Substituting
(6.7.128)
This is one nonlinear algebraic equation in two unknowns, CD and vterminal The other relationship we have is the graph of CD vs. Re.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
383
=  6.93 x 106N
Fbooylacy + Fbg = 0 6.93~ 106N+F,, = 0 F, = 6.93 x 106N
(6.7.129)
(6.7.130)
The drag force is given by
Fhag= CD7 pvatcr ,? 1 A,, .v
L
= 6.93 x 106N
(6.7.131)
6.93 x 106N (6.93 x 106)N
(6.7.132) To obtain an initial guess for vtermindassume CD= 1.0 1.0 = 9.80x 102 vwonl v ~ =d 9.80~0  ~ 1
vmd
= 9.90~ 10’
[?I2
[y]
(6.7.133)
Calculating the correspondingRe
384
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids

3 [mm] (9.9 x 102)
[y] g(1.00)
[&I
cmsc Re = 2.97 Reading the drag coefficient from the graph
[G]
(6.7.134) (6.7.135)
C D = 10
To get a second guess for vtermind,use a successive substitution technique
R e =  D~lcrmiMlP = Re = 0.94
3 [mm] (0.031)
[y] (1.00)
[s]
(6.7.136)
(Ibp
(0.01) gmm Cmscp (6.7.1 7) 3
Reading the drag coefficient f o the graph rm
CD
= 30
(6.7.138)
R e = h e r m i n r l P =
3 [m] (0.018)
[F] (1.00)
CmscP
(6.7.139)
Re = 0.542
(6.7.140)
Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
Reading the drag coefficient from the graph
385
c,
= 35
(6.7.141)
Therefore, the terminal velocity is somewhat less than 0.018 c d s .
6.7.2
Drag in conduits

pipes (internal flow)
Common properties of pipe are shown in Table 6.7.21.27 The friction factor chart for pipe flows can be derived based on dimensional analysis principles via the dimensionless boundary layer equations. In the usual flow problem, we are not concerned with all the possible variables. Normally, we will be most concerned (for incompressible fluid flowing in a horizontal uniform pipe) with the pressure drop, Ap; the length, L; the di‘ameter, D; the roughness height of the pipe surface, k; and, for the fluid, the average velocity, <v>; the viscosity, p; and the density, p. (The interpretation of roughness height is a statistical problem that has not yet been resolved satisfactorily  we will not consider the statistics here but will use an effective roughness height.) The relationship among the variables is (6.7.21)
By Buckingham’s theorem, a complete set of dirnensionless products for these variables is
G , Eu, Re, D ’ D = 0
(
”)
(6.7.22)
The pressure drop in a uniform horizontal pipe is related to the shear stress at the wall, which in fully developed steady flow is constmt down the pipe; therefore, the pressure drop is proportional to the length of the pipe and
Ap =
3p (v)’
G, (Re,
6)
(6.7.23)
27 Reprinted from ASME A17.4 by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
386
Table 6.7.21 Properties of pipe
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Nominal
PiW
sire.
in.
oulsiflr diomcrrr. in.
Schtduit
Wall 4ickners. in.
Inskit fiamrtcr, in.
feral.
in.l
Flow,
Outside
 U.S.
Inside
Capacity at I /rlsec vrlrwiry
Roll min
'I.
0.405
I OS IOST, 40s IOXS. aos I OS COST, 40s
SOXS. 80s IOS 40ST. 40s BOXS. 80s
0.049 0.068 0.095
0.065
0.307 0.269 0.21s
fig
D.OSS
D.072 0.093
0,097 0.12s 0. IS7
~*OOoS I I.OOOJO ~.0002S
0.106 0. I 0 6 0.106
0.0804
0.0705 0.0563 0.107
0.095
0.23 1 0. I79 0.1 I3 0.4 I2 0.323 0.224 0.727 0596 0.440 I .234 1.112 0.94s 0.730 0.527 0.15s 2.072 1.903
1.66s
115.5 89.5 56.S
0.19 0.24 0.3 1
'1.
0.540
0.088
0.1 I 9
0.06s
0 410 . 0.364
032 .0 0.5411 0.493 0.423 0.7 10 0.674 0.622 0.546 0.464 0.252 0.920 0.884 0.824 0.742 0.6 I2 0.434
Moo92
3.00072 D.000SO
D.00 I62 D.00 I33 D.00098
0.141 0.141 0. I41 0.I77 0.177 0. I77 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.275 0.275 0.275 0.27s 0.27s 0.275
0.079
0.143 0. I29 0.1 I I
0.I a6
206,s 1613 I 12.0 3633 298.0 220.0 617.0
SS6 .o
0.33 0.42 0.54
0.42 037 0.74 0.54 0.67 0.811 I .09 1.31
1.71
=i.
0.67s
0.09 I 0. I26
0.06s 0.083 0.109 0.147 0. I 88 0.294
0.12s 0.167 0.217 0.197 0.250 0.320 0.38s
0.504
0. Isa
'I*
0.840
I OS 40ST, 40s 80XS. 80s
ss
xx
'I,
I .OS0
160
0.0027s 0.00248 0.0021 1 0.00 I63 0.001 17 0.00035 0.0046 I 0.00426 0.0037 1 0.00300 0.00204 0.00I03
0. I76 0.163 0. I43 0. 122
0.066
472.0 36S.O 263.5 773
IIOXS. ao: IftO
5s I OS #ST. 406
xx
0.06s 0.083 0.113 0.IS4 0.219
0.308
0.20 I O.2S2 0.333 0.433 0372 0.718
0.24 I 0.23 I 0.216 0.I94 0.160 0.1 I 4
1036.0 9Sl.3 832.3
0.69
0.86 1.13
I .34S 0.9 I7 0.46 I
672.1 4sa.s 230.S
I .47 I.94 2.44
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
I
1.315
387
IOST, 40s OXS, 80s 160
I OS
ss
xx
0.06s 0.109 0. I33 0. I 7 9 0.2so 0.358
0.9S7 0.815 0.599
I .097 I .049
1.18s
1.255 3.4 I3 3.494 3.639 3.836 I .076 D.326
LOO768 1.006S6 MO600 Loo499 1.00362 1.00 196
0.344 0.344 0.344 0.344 0.344 0.344
HI0
1.287 1.27s L2SO 1.2 I3 1. I57 D.401 D.378 0.361 0.33s
3.449 2.946 2.690 2.240 I .62S 0.878 sit3 5.09 4.57 3.99 3.29 I.97 7.67 6.94 6.34 5.49 4.38 2.96 12.34 11.39 10.4s 9.20 6.97 s.s3 17.97 17.00 14.92 13.20 I 1.01 7.68
172s 1473 I345 I I20 8 12.5 439.0 2865 254s 2285 199s 164s 98s
3835 346s 3I70 274s 2 190 I480
0.87 I .40 I .68 2.17 2.84 3.66
I 'I,
1.660
10s IOST, 40s IOXS, 80s
5s
xx
I 'I:
I .900
160
0.06s 0.109 0. I 4 0 0.191 0.2so 0.382
0.06s 0.109 0. I4S 0.200 0.28 1 0.400
1.530
1.278 1.160 0.896
I .442 I .380
D.53 I
D.668 0.88 I 1.107 1534 0.375 0.614 0.800 I .069 1,429 I.885 0.472 0.776 1.07s 1.477 2.195 2.656
0.728 1.039 I .704 2.254 2.945 4.028
1.0 I277 1.01 I34 1.0I040 3.0089 I 3.00734 3.00438
D0 I709 . D0 I543 . 0.01411 D.0I225 0.00976
0.43s 0.435 0.4 3 5 0.43s 0.43s 0.43s
0.497 0.497 0.497 0.497 0.497 0.497 0.622 0.622 0.622 0.622 0.622 0.622
0.7S3 0.7s) 0.7S3 0.753 0.7S3 0.7S3
1.1 1 1.81 2.27 3.00
3.76
0.304
D.23S 0.463 0.440 0.42 I 0.393 0.350 0.288 0.588 0.565 034 I 0.508 0.436 0.393
s.2 I
5s 1OS IOST. 40s IOXS. 80s 160
I .770
I.682 1.610
I .so0
1.338 1.100
xx
D.00660
I .28 2.09 2.72 3.63 4.86 6.4 I
1.61 2.64 3.65 5.02 7.46 9.03
2
2.375
5s I OS 4OST. 40s
EOST, 80s
xx
2 'I: 2.87s
160
0.06s 0.109 0. I 5 4 0.218 0.344 0.436
0.083 0. I 2 0 0.203 0.276 0.375 0352
2.24s 2.157 2.067 I .939 I .687 I .SO3 2.709 2.635 2.469 2.323 2. I 2 5 1.771
0.02749 0.02S38 0.02330 0.020s0 0.0 15S2 0.0 I232
0.04003 0.03787 0.03 3 27 0.O 294 2 0.2463 0.01711
6170 569s 522s 4600 34811 276s 898s 8 500 7460
I OS 40ST. 40s
8OXS.8OS I 60
ss
0.709 0.690 0.647
0.608 O.SS6 0.464
6600
xx
ss3s
3840
2.48 3.53 5.79 7.66 10.01 13.70
388
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.2.71
Continued
Crosssectional arra
I
1
Nominal
sirr.
in.
Pipe
Outside diamrrrr,
in.
Wall
Inside
hicknrsr.
Schedule
in.
fiamrtrr.
in.
Ueral,
in.' 0.89 I 1.274 2.228
Veight of
plainend Outside
Jnride
Flow,
U.S. gall
min
pipe.
3
3.500
I OS
ss
40ST. 40s
50XS. 80s 160
xx
0.083 0.120 0.216 0.300 0.438 0.600 0.083 0.120
0.226 0.3 18
3.334 3.260 3.068 2.900 2.624 2.300 3.8 34 3.760 3348 3.364 4.334 4.260 4.026 3.826 3.624 3.438 3.IS2
2.34s 5.29s S.047 4.8 I 3 4.S63 4.313 4.063
3.016
4.213 S.466 1.021 1.463 2.680 3.67U t.lS2 I .65 I 3.17 4.4 I 6.62 8.10 1.07 2.29 4.30 6.1 I 7.9s 9.70 11.34 D.06063 D.05796 0.0s I30 0.04S87 0.03755 0.0288s
/I'
Iblfi
13.605 13.010
0.916 0.9 16 0.9 16 0.916 0.916 0.9 16
0.873 0.8S3 0.803 0.7S9 0.687 0.602 I .oo4 0.984 0.929 0.88 I
1.135 1.1 IS I .OS4 I .002 0.949 0.900 0.8ZS
1.399 I .386 1.321 1.260
27.2 I 26.02 23.00 203s 16.86 12.9s 3S.98 34.6 I 30.80 27.70 46.0 44.4 39.6 3S.8 32.2 28.9 24.3 69.9 68.6 62.3 57.7
I1.SOo
10.27s
8430 6475 17.990 17.30s I SA00 I3.8SO 2 3.000 22.200 19.800 17.900
3.03 4.33 7.58 10.25 14.3 I 18.58
3.48 4.97 9.1 I I 2 3I 3.92 5.61 10.79 14.98 19.01 2232
3 'i,
4.0
I OS 40ST. 40s 80XS. 80s
4 4.s
ss
0.080 I 7 0.077 1 I 0.06870 0.06 I 7 0 0.10245 0.09898 0.08840 0.07986 0.07 I70 0.06647 O.OS419
I .047
1.047 I .047 1.047 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178 1.178
1.4S6 1.456 I .4S6 I .4S6 I .4 S4 1.4S6 I .4S6
SS
I OS
40ST. 40s 80XS. 80s I20 160
xx
0.083 0. I 2 0 0.237 0.337 0.438 0.53 I 0.674 0.109 0. I34 0.2S8 0.375 o.so0
0.62s
ssa
16.100
14.4SO 12.1so 34.950 34.300
27.54
6.36 7.77 14.62 20.78 27.04 32.96 38.55
S
5.S63
ss
I OS 40ST. 40s 80XS. 80s I20 I fro
0.1SS8 0. I529 0. I390 0. I263
0.1136 0.1015
31.1so
28.8SO
I . 19s
1.129 I .064
s I .o
4s.s 40.4
2s.soo
22.1so 20.200
xx
0.750
o.ow0
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
389
6.25
5s 1OS 'OST. 40s OXS. 800s I20 160
xx
0.109 0.134 0.280 0.432 0.562 0.7 I 9 0.864
0.109 I48 0.2so 0.277 0.322 0.406 0.500 0.594 0.7 I 9 0.8 I 2 0.87s
6.407 6.357 6.06s 5.76 I 5.501 S. 187 4.897 8.407 8.329 8.125 8.07 I 7.98 I 7.813 7.625 7.437 7.187 7.00 I 6.87s 6.8 I 3 10.842 10.420 10.2so 10.136 10.020 9.750 9362 9.312 9.062 8.750 8.500
2.23 2.73 5.58 8.40 0.70 3.34 5 64 2.9 1S 3.94 I 6378 7.260 8.396 10.48 12.76 14.99 17.86 19.93 1 I.30 LI.97 4.47 5.49 8.2s 10.07 11.91 16.10 18.95 22.66 26.27 30.63 34.02
.2239 .2204 1.2006 1.1810 1.1650 1. I467 1.1308 1.3855 1.3784 ).360I t.35113 U474 !.3329 ).3171 1.3017 328I 7 9.2673 D.2S78 0.2S32 0.5993 0.5922 0373 I
I .734
1.734 1,734 1.734 1.734 1.734 1.734 2.258 2.258 2.2S8 2.258 2.2s 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.258 2.2S8 2.250 2.814 2.8 14 2.814 2.8 14 2.814 2.814 2.8 14 2.8 14 2.8 I 4 2.814 2.814
I.667 1.664 1588 I.SO8 I .440
I.358 I.282
100.s 98.9 90.0 81.1 73.9 65.9 50.7
50.2110 49.450 45.000 40.5 SO 36.950 32.950 29,350 86.500 84.900 80,750 79.700 77.8SO 74.700 71.150 67.700 63.200 6Q,ooo 57.850 S6.750 I34.500 132.900 128.SOO 126.000 123.000 I 16J00 I I1.7OO 106.150 lM.500 94.000 88.S00
7.60 9.29 18.97 28.57 36.39 45.35 53.16 9.93 13.40 22.36 24.70 28.55 3 5.64 43.39
8.625
5s 10s 20
30 40ST. 40s 60 tOXS. 80s I 0 I20 140
xx
I60
0.906
0. I 3 4 0.16s 0.250 0.307 0.365 0.500 0.594 0.7 I 9 0.844 I .Ooo 1.125
2.201 2.180 2.127 2.1 13 2.089 1.045 t 996 1.947 I .882 1.833 I.800 1.784 2.744 2.728 2.685 2.6SS 2.620 2.550 2.503 2.438 2.372 2.29 t 2.225
173.0 169.8 161.5 159.4 I S5.7 149.4 142.3 135.4 126.4 120.0 115.7 113.5 269.0 265.8 2S7.0 2s2.0 246.0 233.0 223.4 2 12.3 20 I .o 188.0 177.0
50.95
60.7 I 67.76 72.42 74.69 18.70 28.04 34.24 40.48 54.74 64.4 3 77.03 89.29 104.13 115.64
10.75
5s
15.23
I OS
20 30 40ST. 40s 80s. 6OXZ 80 100 120 140. X X 160
0.9503
0.5475 0.518s 0.4987 0.4729 0.4479 0.4i76 0.394 I
390 Table 6.2.71
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Continued
Crossstctimd area
Nominol PiPC
rite.
in.
Outside diamrrrr, in.
Wall rhicknru.
Schedule
in.
lnsidr liarneter. in.
Wctal. in.'
Fiow.
Outside
I2
12.7s
IOS 23 30 ST.4 0 s 40 xs, 80s 60
5s
6.17 7.1 1 9.82 12.88 14.58 15.74 19.24 2132 26.07 3 1S7 36.9 i 41.09 47.14
fi'
D.8438 D.8373 D.8 I85 0.7972 0.1854 0.7773 0.7f30 0.7372 0.7056 0.6674 0.6303 0.60 I3 0.5592 1.0219 1.01211 0.9940 0.9750 0.9575 0.9397 0.92 I8 0.8957 0.8522 0.80 17 0.76 10 0.72 I 3 0.6827 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338 3.338
U.S. Inside
gall min
Weight of plainend pipe.
IhNf
0. IS6 0.180 0.250 0.330 0.375 0.406
0.500
120, xx I40
160
U0 100
0.362 0.688 0.844
I.Ooo 1.12s
1.312
12.438 12.390 12.250 12.090 12.000 I I .938 I I .7SO 11.262 I I.374 I I .626 10.750 10.500 10.I26 13.688 13.624 13.500 13.376 13.250 13.124
13.000
3.338 3.665 3.66s 3.66s
3.665 3.665 3.665 3.665 3.66 S 3.665 3.66s 3.665 3.665 3.665
3.26 3.24 3.2 1 3. I7 3.14 3.13 3.08 3.04 2.98 2.90 2.8 I 2.75 2.6s
378.7 375.8 367.0 358.0 352.5 349.0 338.0 331.0 3 16.7 299.6 283.0 270.0 251.0 459 4s4 446 438 430 422 414 402 382 360 342 324 306
189.350 187.900 183.500 179.000 176.250 174.500 I69.OOO 165.500 158.350 149,800 I4t.500 135.m
I25.500
229.500 227.W 223.000 2 19.000 215.0 21 I.OO0 207 .OOO 20 I . m
19 I .OOO 180.tXMl
22.22 24.20 33.38 43.77 4956 53.52 65.42 73.15 88.63 107.32 125.49 139.67 160.27 22.76 27.70 36.7 I 4561 54.57 63.44 72.09
u5.05 106. I 3 130.8s
14
14
5s I OS
10
20 30. ST
xs
40
60
mo
100
I20
I40 160
0.156 0. I88 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.438 0.300 0.594 0.750 0.938 I .094 I .230 I .406
6.78
8.16 10.80 13.42
16.0s
12.812 12.500 12.124 I I.Rl2 II.So0 11.188
18.66 21.21 25.02 3 I.22 38.49 44.36 50.07 S5.63
3.58 3.57 333 3.50 3.47 3.44
3.40
3.3s
3.27
1.17 3 .09 3.01 2.93
471,000
162.000 l53.000
150.79 170.2 I
iai.11
391
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
16
I6
SS 1 OS 10 20 30. ST 40. XS
0.16s 0.188 0.250 0.3 I 2 0.37s
o.so0
0.6S6 0.844 I .03 1 I .2 19 I .438 1.594
0.16s 0.188 0.250 0.3 12 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.562 0.7SO 0.938 1.156 1.37s 1.562 I .78 I
60 U 0
100
I0 2
I40 I60 I8 18
15.670 15.624 I SSOQ 15.376 15.2SO 15.00 14.688 14.312 13.938 13.562 13.124 12.812 17.670 17.624
8.18 9.34 12.37 15.38 18.41 24.3s 3 I .62 40.19 48.4U 56.6 I 65.79 72. I 4 9.23
1.3393 1.3314 I.3 104 I .2985 I .2680 1.2272 1.1766 1.1171 I .OS96 1.0032 0.9394 0.8953
1.7029 I .694 1 1.6103 1.6468 I .6230 I S993 1.5163 1.5533 I .4849 1.4180 1.3423 1.2684 1.2070 1.1370
4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4. I89 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.189 4.712 4.7 I2 4.7 13 4.7 I2 4.712 4.712 4.7 I2 4.712 4.712 4.112 4 712 4 712 4.712 4.7 I 2
4.10 4.09 4.06 4.03 3.99 3.93 3.85
3.75
3.6s
3.5s
3.44 3.35 4.63 4.6 I 4.58 4.5s 4.S2 4.48 4.4s 4.42 4.32 4.22 4.1 I 3.99 3.89 3.78
601 S98 sa7 1178 568 5 so 5 28 50 I 474 4 50 422 402
764
300.s00
299.000 293.SOO 289.000 284.000 215.000 264,000 250.500 237.000 225.000 21 1 . 0 201.000 382.000 379.400
27.87 3 1.62
42.05
52.27 62.58 82.77 107.so 136.11 164.112 192.43 223.57 245.22 31.32 35.48 47.39
5s
I OS
ST 30
10 20
17.soo
17.376 17.250 17.124
xs
10.s2 13.94 17.34 20.76 24. I6
27.49 30.79 40.64 SO. 28 61.17 7 1.82 80.66
90.715
760 71 10
739 728 718 70? 697 666 636 60 2 S69 540 5 10
375.000
369.500 364.000 359.000
58.94
7039 82.15 91.45 104.67 138.17 170.92 207.96 244. I 4 214.22 308.SO
17.000
16.876 16.500 16.124 15.688 15.250 14.876 14.438
353,500
40 60 80
I 0
I20
140
I60
348.500 333.000 3 18.00 30 I .OOo 284580 210.000 25S.000
392
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.2.71
Continued
Crnssstctianal
N ominol
rirr.
in
~
Pipe
0l l t 5idr
diirntrtrr.
in.
Schrdulr
Wnll rhicknrrs. in.
Insidt diamc.irr. in.
area 
Heral.
in?
Flow.
ff'
Ouiridr
Inside
us. gall
mitt
20
20
5s
IOS
20, ST 30. XS 40 60
80 100
10
0.188 0.218 0.2so 0.375
0.s00
120 I40 160 24 24 5s
10. 10s
0.594 0.8 I2 I .03I I .2R I I. 5 0 1.750 I .969 0.218 0.2so 0.37s o.so0 0.562 0.688 0.969 1.219 1.s3 I 1.812 2.062 2.344
19.624 19.564 19300 19.2SO 19.000 18.812 18.376 17.93R 17.418 17.000 16.SO 16.062 23364 23.500 23.250 23.000 22.876 22.624 22.062 2IS62 20.938 20.376 19.876 19.3 I 2
I 1.70 13.55 1S.SI 23.12 30.63 36.2 I 48.95 61.44 75.33 87.18
100.3 1 1 1.s
2.1004 2.0878 2.0740 2.02 1 I I .9689 I .9302 1.8417 1.7550 1.6585 1.S763 I .a849
1.407 1
5.236 S.236 S.236 S.236 5.236 5.236 S.236 5.236 5.236 S.236 S.236 S.236 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283 6.283
S. I4 5.12 5.11 5.04 4.97 4.92 4.8 1 4.70 4.57 4.45 4.32 4.21
94 3 937 930 902 88 3 866 8 26 7R7 744 707 66s 632 13S9
471.300 467300 465.000 4 s 1.OOo 44 1.500 433.000 413.000 393,500 372.000
3S3.SO
39.76 45.98
332.500 3l 6 . W 679.So0 67 S .000 662.SOO 642.SOO 640.500 626.500 S96.000 569,000 S36.SW 482.SOO 456.500
508.000
78.60 104.13 123.1 I 166.40 208.87 2S6. 10 296.37 34 I .Q9 379.17
52.73
20. ST
xs
30 40 60 80
120
100
I40 I60
16.29 18.65 27.8 3 36.90 4 I .39 S0.39 70. I I R7.24 108. I 126.3 142. I 159.5
3.0285 3.012 2.948 2.885 2.8S4 2.792 2.6SS 2.536 2.39 1 2.264 2.155
2.034
6.17 6.t5 6.09 6.02 s .99 5.92 5.78 5.64 5.48 s.33 5.20
5.06
13SO
I325 1295 1281 (253 I192 I138 1073 1016 96 S 913
55.08 63.4 I 94.62 125.49 140.68 I7 1.29 238.35 296.58 367.39 429.39 483.12 S42. I 3
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
393
30
30
10, IOS
ss
ST
20.XS 30
0.250 0.312 0.375 0.500 0.625
29.500 29.376 29.250 29.000 28.750
23.37 29.10 34.90 46.34 57.68
4.746 4.707 4.666 4.587 4.508
7.854 7.8S4 7.854 7.854 7.854
7.72 7.69 7.66 7.59 7.53
2130 21 10 2094 2055 2020
1.065.OoO
1.oss.OoO
1,084.000 1,027,500
1.01o.Ooo
79.43 98.93 118.65 157.53 196.08
Extracted from American National Standard Wrought Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe, ANSI B36.101970, and Stainless with permission of the publishers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Steel Pipe, ANSI B36.191965, NY. ST = standard wall; XS = extra strong wall; XX = double extra strong wall. Wrought iron pipe has slightly thicker walls, approximately 3 percent, but the same weight per foot as wrought steel pipe, because of lower density. Schedules 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 apply to steel pipe only. Decimal thicknesses for respective pipe sizes represent their h nominal or average wall dimensions. Mill tolerances as high as 12 ! percent are permitted. Plainend pipe is produced by a square cut. Pipe is also shipped from the mills threaded, with a threaded coupling on one end, or with the ends beveled for welding, or grooved or sized for patented couplings. Weights per foot for threaded and coupled pipe are slightly greater because of the weight of the coupling, but it is not available larger than 12 in., or lighter than schedule 30 sizes 8 through 12 in., or schedule 40 6 in. and smaller.
394
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
This equation is referred to as the Darcy equation. The function G(Re, k / D) is called the pipe friction factor, f. A chart that graphs the friction factor is known as a Stanton or Moody diagram. Figure 6.7.23 is such a diagram. The point of transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow is at a critical velocity, <v>&tical. By dimensional analysis we can show (6.7.24) (6.7.25) From experiment, Re, is approximately 2100 for circular pipes in ordinary applications. The transition is not well defined; in fact, one can obtain laminar flow up to about a Reynolds number of 104 in systems carefully isolated from disturbances such as vibration, etc. In ordinary pipes, however, there are sufficient external disturbances to trigger turbulence far below this point. It is not possible in going to laminar from turbulent flow to maintain turbulent flow much below a Reynolds number of about 2100. The friction factor is commonly defined as some multiple of the proportionality factor in a model relating the drag force to the product of a characteristicarea and a characteristic kinetic energy per unit volume. (6.7.26) Unfortunately, there are two friction factors commonly used to describe flow in pipes. The friction factor defined by Equation (6.7.26) is known as the Fanning friction factor. The other friction factor that is used is called the Darcy (or Blasius) friction factor. The relationship between the Fanning friction factor and the Darcy or Blasius friction factor is (6.7.27) In this text we shall assume an unsubscripted f to be understood as referring to the Fanning friction factor. (Conversion of formulas and/or graphical relationships from the Fanning to the Blasius or Darcy friction factor is, of course, trivial, but it is essential to keep in mind which friction factor is being used; otherwise an error of a factor of four is likely.)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
395
Figure 6.7.21 Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element in horizontal pipe The energy dissipated by friction is termed lost work or head loss. If we make a momentum balance on the system in Figure 6.7.21, assuming steady flow in a horizontal pipe and using the friction factor to calculate pressure drop, we see that in the xdirection the drag force at the wall balances the difference in the pressure forces on either end of the cylinder.
F,,,,,
+ h a g
=0
(6.7.28) (6.7.29)
p, ( ~ R ~ )  p ~ ( ~ R ~ )  ( 2 f t R L ) ( $ p ( v )= )0f '
Solving PzPt =

2 f L p (v)'
D
(6.7.210)
The mechanical energy balance for this case reduces to
P2  P1 p= lib
(6.7.211)
Substituting for AP in terms of the friction factor 2fL(v)2 lw = D 

(6.7.212)
so the friction factor gives us a way to evaluate both pressure drop and lost work in horizontal pipes. We can extend the approach to nonhorizontal pipes, as we now see.
If the pipe is not horizontal we have an additional force involved  the body (gravity) force on the fluid in the system.
396
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Figure 6.7.22 Momentum balance on cylindrical fluid element in nonhorizontal pipe
Choosing the zdirection as the direction of flow, and letting 01 be the angle between the zdirection and the gravity vector as shown in Figure 6.7.22, the momentum balance yields (6.7.213) The friction factor gives the drag force or lost work in horizontal pipe. We usually assume (an excellent assumption) that the lost work is unaltered by pipe orientation.
(p  p2) (x R  (2 x R L) ' )
(3p
( Y ) ~ )f
+ g p (X R2 L)COS( a) = 0
(6.7.214)
Solving (P2PI) = 2 f L p (")2 D +gpLcos a (6.7.215)
If we rearrange the above equation, noting that (L cos a)= Ah
(Pz  PI) i+g(h,h,)=

2 f L (v)2 D
(6.7.216)
and compare with the mechanical energy balance for a uniformsize pipe with no shaft work
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
397
(6.7.217) we see that lw =

2fL(v)2 D
(6.7.218)
Thus, the friction factor gives us a way to evaluate lost work in nonhorizontal pipes as well. We now must have a way to determine f. If we make actual experiments (usually in horizontal, uniformdiameterpipe) we find
f = f( Re,
b)
(6.7.219)
The group k/D is the dimensionless pipe roughness. In theory, it is supposed to represent the ratio of some sort of average roughness height to the pipe diameter. In fact, data were obtained by gluing particles of known uniform size to the wall of a smooth pipe, plotting the resulting pressure drop data (for which k/D is simply the ratio of particle diameter to pipe diameter), then taking pressure drop data for various types of commercial pipe and assigning values of k/D to the pipes, depending upon which data for artificially roughened pipe to which they correspond. Figure 6.7.23 is a plot obtained in this manner. Figure 6.7.23 is called a Moody friction factor chart or Stanton diagram. It is based on data of Moody. The data can be presented in such a way as to give either a Fanning friction factor or a Darcy (or Blasius) friction factor. The commonly used chart shown here has as its ordinate the Darcy (or Blasius) friction factor, which is four times the Fanning friction factor. The values of relative roughness for many commercial types of pipe are given in Figure 6.7.24. We can obtain an analytic expression for the friction factor in laminar flow. Making a force balance on an element of fluid pfeviously gave us
PZPI = 
2fLp(v)2 D
(6.7.220)
398
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
But the HagenPoiseuille equation gives us a relation between Ap and the other variables in laminar f o lw
(6.7.221)
Notice that in laminar flow, fluid density does not affect pressure drop. Substituting
32 (v) pL
D2

2 f Lp ( v ) ~ D
(6.7.222)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Vduer of < V D Ufor woter
01
399
60.F (velocity in fttrcc a diam. in inches)
Rcynolds nJmbcr Re
a
y
fFpnning
= f = fDprcy /
Figure 6.7.23 Moody friction factor chart2' 4 = fBIp,ius / 4  Note that the ordinate is in terms of 4f.
28
Reprinted from the Pipe Friction Manual. 3'd ed., copyright 1961 by the Hydraulic Institute, 122 East 42"d St., New York, N Y 10017. See Moody, 1,. F. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Trans. ASME 66(8):671684.
400
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Pipe diameter
0, in.
Figure 6.7.24 Relative roughness for clean new pipes2y
*’
Moody, L. F. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Trans. A S M E 6 6 ( 8 ) : 671684.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer i Fluids n
401
ar
f = =16
(6.7.2 23)
Note that for laminar flow, f is not a function of pipe roughness. This line is labeled on Figure 6.7.23.
For the turbulent region, f gradually approaches a fairly constant value  in other words, f no longer depends on Re but is primarily a function of pipe roughness. A qualitative explanation of the behavior of f is that at low Reynolds numbers, the flow is streamlined, and roughness protuberances contribute only skin friction, not form drag. At higher Reynolds numbers, the roughness protrudes beyond the viscous sublayer and form drag becomes important, overshadowing the skin friction contribution. The universal velocity distribution can be used to fit the turbulent region of the friction factor chart. By substituting the universal velocity profile into the definition of the friction factor, and going through a great deal of algebraic manipulation, one can show that, in essence, the data of the friction factor chart for hydraulically smooth pipes is fitted by
1 4.06 log (Re Jf)  0.6 =
4f
(6.7.224)
A portion of the turbulent region can also be represented by an empirical curve fit using the Blasius relation:
f
= 0.0791
Re'" '
.
2.1 x 103< Re < 10'
(6.7.225)
For rough pipes the universal velocity distribution yields the equation
1= 4.06 log (f) 3.36 + JT
(6.7.226)
In many practical situations it is more convenient to use the friction factor chart than the above algebraic forms. However, with computer calculations the various equations are often convenient to use.
402
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
In a general flow system, the pipe may not be of a uniform size andor there may be various kinds of fittings, valves, and changes in pipe diameter which will cause losses. The lost work term in the mechanical energy balance must include these losses. The losses from changes in pipe diameter can be estimated from the kinetic energy term in the energy balance. Losses caused by fittings and valves are most often treated by a model that replaces the fitting or valve with an equivalent length of straight pipe  that is, a pipe length that would give the same pressure loss as the fitting or valve at the same flow rate. Equivalent lengths for standardsize fittings and valves are given in the nomograph of Figure 6.7.25. This nomograph will also give expansion and contraction losses for most cases except for sudden expansions into large regions, e.g., tanks. The latter type of situation is treated in Example 6.73.
le 6.7.21
ansion losses
The nomograph in Figure 6.7.25 does not give losses for sudden enlargements with diameter ratio greater than 4/1. Develop an appropriate formula for calculation of enlargement losses and use it to calculate the lost work involved in pumping water at 25 gaVmin from a 1in. Schedule 40 steel pipe into a pipe that is 4 times larger in diameter.
Solution

x'
(6.7.227)
Assume: Uniform pressure across the piping at 1 and 2, wall stress on the short pipe negligible, plug flow (turbulent)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
403
h
c
3000
 2000
YI
 'ully
open
lSfondord300 tee
Square elbow
 1000 = 500 
S W I check ~ valve, open
 1 1
/
ewda entrance
50
130
Close return bend
2
I n
P
Standard tee
through Stde OUtlCl
/
 10 r5  3
 2
Standord elbow
Medlum sweco elbow

 0.3 c
; 0.5
Long sweep elbow or run of stondord tee

Figure 6.7.25 Equivalent lengths for losses in pipes3
30 Crane Company, Technical Paper No. 410: Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, Twentyfifth printing, 1991, Engineering Department: Joliet, IL. This report has its genesis in a booklet originally published by Crane in 1935, Flow of Fluids and Heat Transmission, which was published in a revised edition under the present title in 1942. A new edition was published as Technical Paper No. 410 in 1957, and has been continually updated. The present printing contains a more elaborate calculation method than in the nomograph above and should be consulted for more accurate estimates; however, the nomograph above is more compact and suffices for preliminary design calculations.
404
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
F x = PI
A2
 Pz A2 = P A2 (v2)
[
(v2)

(%)I
(6.7.228) (6.7.229) (6.7.230) (6.7.23 1) (6.7.232) (6.7.233)
PIPZ = AP
 *P = P
2
(v2) ((v2)
 (VI))
(6.7.235) (6.7.236)
For our situation we use the model that
IW = 1.34 ft lbf lbm

(6.7.238)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
405
Direction o f flow between tanks at differing Examde 6.7.22 pressures and her'nhts
Two tanks containing water and pressurized with air are connected as shown.
Prove whether the water flows from tank 1 to tank 2 or vice versa.
Solution
Writing the mechanical energy balance between surfaces 1 and 2
AP F + g A z = 1w
(6.7.239)
We know that the numerical value of the lost work term, [I&], must be negative because the term represents generation in the entity balance on mechanical energy, and since it represents loss (destruction,negative generation) of mechanical energy its net sign must be negative. However, the lost work itself is made up of only positive t e r n lw =

2fL(V)* D must be negative.
(6.7.240)
Therefore, [
Assume flow is from 1 to 2
406
Chupter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
g P1) +( jz (P2 2
2,)
= 1k
lw =  [(P* p +  PI)

g (z2  2 J
1
(6.7.241) (6.7.242)
(6.7.243) (6.7.244)
Therefore, the flow is from 1 to 2.
Example 6.7.23
Friction loss in a
D~DSW
..
svsm
A distilled oil is transferred from a tank at 1 atm absolute pressure to a pressure vessel at 50 psig by means of the piping arrangement shown. The oil flows at a rate of 23,100 lbm/hr through a 3in. Schedule 40 steel pipe. The total length of straight pipe in the system is 450 ft. Calculate the minimum horsepower input to a pump having an efficiency of 60 percent. The oil has a density of 52 lbm 1ft3 and viscosity of 3.4 cP.
Solution
We first evaluate the terms in the mechanical energy balance using a system which is from liquid surface 1 to liquid surface 2:
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
407
32.2 lbm ft
1
(6.7.245)
=  7 ft lbf 0 s
(6.7.246) (6.7.247)
The equivalent length of pipe in the system is
Le, = 450+4.5+50+(2)(5)+20 = 535ft
(6.7.248)
A = 2.41g
Re =
(w)((
8f
2.41ft
521bm
ft3
[
(6.7.249)
P ft s (3.4cP) (l72x 10v4 lbm)]
(6.7.250)
= 14,000
Using the friction factor plot and pipe roughness chart:
k = O.Oo06 D
f = 0.007
(6.7.251)
The total lost work is the sum of the loss calculated using the friction factor chart plus the loss from the sudden expansion into tank 2 (which we cannot get from the friction factor approach, and therefore calculate as in Example 6.7.21).
I
lw =
2fL(")* D
+
() v' 2 1 
[ (a)']'
1
(2)(0.007) (535) ft ( . 1 ' 24) 3.068in
I($) (9)
1 lbf s2
(32.2Ibm ft)
408
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
= 5.30+ 0.0903 = 5.31
(6.7.252)
Notice that the sudden expansion loss is negligible for this problem; it was included simply to illustrate the method of its inclusion. Substituting in the mechanical energy balance,
13870+0 = 5.3lW ft lbf w =  73.3 lbm
(6.7.253)
The sign is negative, indicating that the work is done on the fluid and not by the fluid. Since w is the actual work done on the fluid, the pump must have an input of
0.6W,0 = 73.3 lbf ft lbm =  122ft lbf lbm
w,oponp
(6.7.254)
Power to pump
(6.7.25 5)
(1221bm)(33,000ftlbf)(23910()%?)(&) hP min Power to pump =  1.42hp
Frictionfactor calculations  serial paths
=
ft lbf
(6.7.256)
For serial path piping systems, the total lost work consists of losses due to friction in the straight pipe sections plus losses in fittings, etc.
L, Q,D, k,Ah, p, p,
(6.7.257)
If we assume for the moment that fluid properties are constant (incompressible isothermal Newtonian flow), and that roughness, elevation change and system configuration depend on choice of pipe and layout, then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
409
Ap = f (L, Q,D)
(6.7.25 8)
and there are four general cases which we will address by means of examples in the order Ap unknown
.Dunknown
L unknown
Q
(i.e., velocity) unknown
Case 1: Pressure drop unknown
ExamDle 6.7.24
Pressur e loss f or flo w between tanks
Water is pumped at a rate of 150 gpm from tank A to tank B as shown. Each tank is 20 ft in diameter. The pressure in tank A is 10 psig and in t n B is ak 35 psig. All pipe is 2inch Schedule 40 steel and the only fittings are the elbows shown, which are all standard. Calculate the pressure at the pump outlet in psig.
410
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Solution
All that is n cessaq is to find the pressure drop from point 1 to point 2 and add it to the pressure in tank B. The lost work results from 130 feet of straight pipe plus one elbow. From the pipe tables inside diameter = 2.067 inches flow cross sectional area = 0.02330 ft2
and from the pipe nomographs
(6.7.259)
relative roughness = 0.00085 Lcquivalent, standard elbow = 5*5 ft Then
(6.7.260)
(")
= A,,
Q 
 (0.02330) (7.48) gal ft2
(150)fi ft3
gal
= 861 ft min
(6.7.261)

(q.) 9 (q fm mt mh
ft (861) (62.4)
NCP
= 2 . 2 105 ~
4f = 0,018 f = 0.0045
(2.42) lbm fthrcP
hr
(6.7.262)
and from the friction factor plot (6.7.263)
Applying the mechanical energy balance between 1 and 2
g A z + v = 
Ap
2fL(")2
D
(6.7.264)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
41 1
(6.7.265)
= 62.4
(2) (0.0045) (135.5) ft (861)’ ft
1
[A]’
min2
(3600) s2
Ap = 3 4 1 5 a f ft’
3
23.7lbf
in2
(6.7.266)
Therefore, the pressure at the pump outlet is 35 + 23.7 = 58.7 psig.
Case 2:
Diameter unknown
Examde 6.7.25
Transfer line from tank to column
Benzene (density = 55 lbm/ft3, viscosity = 0.65 cP) is stored in a vented tank and is to be pumped to the top of a vented absorption column at a controlled rate of 120 lbm/min. You have a pump with a 1/2hp motor, which operates with an 80 percent t t l efficiency, and which has an outlet for 1in. oa steel pipe.
1. Can 1in.Schedule 40 steel pipe be used throughout? 2. Could a smaller standard pipe size (still in Schedule 40 steel) be used throughout?
412
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The system is shown in the sketch. The rotameter has flow resistance equivalent to 20 ft of pipe; standard elbows, standard tees, and gate valves are to be used in the system. (Neglect kinetic energy changes).
Solution
From the mechanical energy balance and Figures 6.24 to 6.27
1 Ordinary entrance 2 Runs of tee 4 Standard elbows 2 Tees (side outlet) 4 Open gate valves 1 Rotameter Straight pipe (neglecting the expansion loss) TOTAL
c
I
1.5 3.2 11.2 10.0 2.4 20.0
1
l6OS0
208.3
I
I
= 6.063ft
(6.7.267)
= 6 . 6 8 104 ~
for 1in. pipe
(6.7.268)
k D
Then
= 0.0018.
(6.7.269)
f = 0.0063
(6.7.270)
Applying the mechanical energy balance:
w
= lW+gAz
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 2 f L (v)’
413
 Jc’ =
+ g Az
= (2) (0.0063) (208) ft] (6.06)’
[
[
$
S
(lsW9
lbfs’ lbf 1 ((32.2 lbm ft) (32: ft) (60 ft) (32.2 lbm ft ‘ 12 in 7s2 )
+
(6.7.271)
(6.7.272) Therefore, the energy required is
w = (33.4E)(607i)
ft lbf = 93.4ft lbf lbm
(6.7.273)
The energy available to the fluid is
= T h P
(0.8
%ail
) (33,Wftlbf) ( hpmin
min
) =  ‘ l o pftlbm (6.7.274) lbf
Thus, we can use 1in. pipe throughout. If we go to the next smaller size of standard pipe, 3/4 in., the equivalent length in feet will change but the equivalent length in diameters will be about the same, and so
Le, = 160+
(v)
(48) = 186ft
(6.7.275)
(We use nominal diameter with sufficient accuracy.) Also A (v)’ = 6.06< = 6.06 Oemft2 The Reynolds number is 0.00371ft’
= 9.8 ft
(6.7.276)
(6.7.278)
414
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
f = 0.0061
(6.7.279)
and s o
2 f L (”)’ lv =  + g h
 (2) (0.0061) (186) (9.8)’ (12) + (32.2) (60)
w=
(0.92) (32.2)
+
(32.2)
(89ftlbf (&&f = 149 ft lbf lbm) lbm) lbm
(6.7.280)
Since only 110 lbm is available, 3/4in. pipe is too small.
i i
i e
i
et
Water is to be pumped through a loo0 ft of pipe at 1500 gal/min. The discharge pressure from the pump must not exceed approximately 140 psig. The outlet pressure must be at least 30 psig. What is the smallest pipe diameter that
can be U&?
So 1u t ion
(6.7.281) (6.7.282)
Ic D2
(6.7.283) (6.7.284) (6.7.285)
PI P2 =
32fLpQ’
IT’ DS
Re = ~cLD ( v > P = lcvD 44
Assume D = 4 in
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
415
(6.7.286)
= 1.06 x 106
(6.7.287)
k, O.ooOo16 D
PI  P 2 =
*
4 f = 0.012
(6.7.288)
8(4f)LPQ2
x2D5
= Iz:
(85)(0.012) (loooft) (62*ybm)( 3 . 3 4 9 2
( 17;;?3) (32.2 Ibm ) Ibfs2
ft
(&)I
= 3 4 3 3 > 110% = Apln in
Assume D = 6 in
(6.7.289)
Re =
(m) x (1.06 6.065
*
106) = 7.01 X 10’
(6.7.290)
k = O.ooOo10 D
4 f = 0.013
(6.7.291) (6.7.292)
= 48Ibf < 1 1 0 7 = Ibf in2 111
4
Assume D = 5 in
Re =
(w)
= 111Ibf
(1.06~ = 8.43~ 106) 10’
=o.m12 k
D
*
9
(6.7.293) (6.7.294) (6.7.295)
4 f = 0.012
in
110Ibf = Ap111
416
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Therefore, 5inch nominal diameter pipe would seem to be appropriate.
Case 3 :
Length unknown hose
de
6.7.27
Air w l v thr&
Air is to be supplied to a tool through a hose at 0.2 kg/sec and maximum pressure drop of 50 Wa/m2 (which is low enough that we can consider the air as an incompressible fluid). The hose is to be 30 mm in diameter. The clensity and viscosity of the air at the conditions in the hose are 8.81 kg/m3 and 1.8 x 105 kg/(m sec), respectively. What is the maximum length of the hose?
Solution
(6.7.296) 2 f L (v)’ P P  Y = l W = D (6.7.297)
= 32.1
p( V P (8.81 Re = T =
= 4.71 x 10’
2)(w) () &m
(1.8 x 10’
(6.7.298)
&)
(6.7.299)
From the friction factor chart assuming hydraulically smooth hose (4 f ) = 0.0135 Then (6.7.2 100)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
41 7
L = 97.9 m
Case 4:
(6.7.2101)
Flow rate unknown
One method of supplying a relatively constant pressure to water lines used for fire fighting, drinking water, sanitary use, etc., is to maintain a rather large reservoir of water at sizable elevation in a standpipe, more commonly known as a water tower. The idea behind using a standpipe is to use a supply pump running at a more or less steady volumetric rate to fill the standpipe, even though the demand for water withdrawal will at different times be greater or less than the rate of this supply pump. The storage capacity of the standpipe supplying the surge capacity is then utilized either to supply any extra demand above the pump capacity or to store the excess capacity when demand falls below pump rate. This permits the supply pump to be sized to supply only the average demand, rather than the peak &mand. The standpipe furnishes a pressurized water supply (for example, for fire fighting) that is independent of electrical power. In addition, it furnishes a water supply at constant pressure, independent of pulsations from the supply pump. The kind of pump one would probably utilize for such an application is a centrifugal pump, which is typical of the class of pumps most widely used in manufacturing plants. Applications include booster pumps on the heat exchangers, product transfer pumps, etc. A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller with vanes mounted on a shaft. As the impeller rotates, t e centrifugal forces developed in the water contained in h the case (volute) hurl the water from its entrance at the center of the impeller to the periphery, where it exits into the pipe it supplies. One of the advantages of a centrifugal pump is that one can throttle the outlet. As a consequence of throttling, the fluid tends to recirculate within the casing of the pump and increase in temperature from the lost work. However, fairly extensive degrees of throttling are possible before this becomes a serious problem. The result of throttling a centrifugal pump is expressed in the form of a “characteristic curve” of the pump, which gives the volumetric output in terms
418
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
of head (pressure at outlet divided by the density of the fluid being pumped) versus the volumetric throughput of the liquid.
A centrifugal pump does not supply a constant volumetric flow of water; rather, the volumetric flow supplied depends upon the hydraulic resistance of the system to which the water is supplied. An example follows of how one uses the characteristic curve for a centrifugal pump to determine tbe flow rate in the pipe network wbicb the pump supplies.
le 6.7.28
Flow rate unRnown
Water is supplied to a standpipe thorough 10oO equivalent feet of straight pipe, as shown above, by a pump with characteristic curve shown below. Assume that p = 1 cP, that p = 62.4 lbm/ft3, and that tbe pipe is smooth.
40
30
20
10
0
0
1000
0
2000
gpm
What will the flow rate of water be if the gate valve is fully open?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids Solution
419
A mechanical energy balance from 1 to 2 (note this excludes the pump) yields
A T + g A z + AP = 1kW
w2
P
(6.7.2102)
32.2 lbmft )+(()PI)(
lbfs'
in2lbm ) ( l u $ ) lbfft3
(6.7.2103)
(6.7.2104)
502.31 P I =  124.4f v2 p, is given by the pump characteristiccurve as a functionof (5, i.e., (v) A
f is given by the friction factor chart as a function of a>, Re i.e.,
(6.7.2105)
Therefore we have three equations, Equation (6.7.2103), Equation (6.7.2104), and Equation (6.7.2105), in three unknowns, <v>, f, and p1. Equation (6.7.2104) and Equation (6.7.2105) are in graphical form. This solution converges relatively easily by trial,so we will not resort to a more sophisticated numerical method. Proceed as follows: (1) Assume cv>. (2) Calculate Re and read f 6.om the friction factor chart. (3) Determine p1 from the pump characteristiccurve.
(4) Substitute in Equation (6.7.2103) to see if an identity is
obtained.
Thus:
Assume <v> = 10 ft/s
420
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids (0.5) (10) (62.4)
(1) (6.72 x 10l)
Re =
= 4.64x 10’
3
f = 0.0033 (6.7.2106)
Then
= (v) A = = 800gpm
(lq) [(0.5)2ft2]( 7 . 4 8 s ) (6OL) (3)
(6.7.21 07) (6.7.2108)
AP = 95ft lbf lbm
From the pump characteristic
(6.7.2109)
50  (2.31) (41.2) =  (124.4)(0.0033)(100) = 45.2 # 41.2
Making a new assumption: Assume <v> = 5 fds Re = 2.3 x 10’
= 800(&)
(6.7.21 10)
*
f =0.0037
(6.7.21 1 1) (6.7.2112) (6.7.21 13) (6.7.21 14) (6.7.21 15)
= 400gpm
Ap = 41.2
AP p = 102ft lbf lbm
(p)
= 4 4 lbf ~ . 2
100) 50  (2.31)(44.2) =  (124.4)(0.0037)( =  5 2 # 44.2
Making a new assumption:
Assume cv> = 4 ft/s
Re = 1 . 8 6 10’ ~
3
f =0.0042
(6.7.21 16)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
421
= 800(ifr) = 320gpm
(6.7.2117) (6.7.2118) (6.7.2119) (6.7.2120) (6.7.2121)
AP = 103ft lbf lbm Ap = 41.2 = 44.6lbf in2 50  (2.31)(44.6) =  (124.4)(0.O042)(100) = 53 z 52.7
(e)
: 0 =320gpm .
In problems where the velocity is unknown, but instead the pressure drop is known, it is necessary to do a iterative calculation if the ordinary friction factor chart is used, as in Example 6.7.28, since the velocity is necessary to find f. Problems of this kind are simplified by plotting the friction factor, f, as a function of the Karman number.
(6.7.2122)
The motivation to construct such a plot comes from the fact that, in evaluating lost work when velocity is unknown, neither the ordinate nor the abscissa of the ordinary friction factor plot is known. When flow rate (Le., velocity) is given, we normally first calculate from the chart the friction factor, which is basically
f
= (91
[(.,I
(6.7.2123)
and then substitute f and <v> in the relation for lost work
(6.7.2124)
When pressure drop (i.e., lost work) is given, however, we cannot solve the above set of equations by successive substitution because two unknowns ( a > a n d 8 appear in the relationship given in graphical form. We therefore rearrange the second equation to read
422
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Dlw=f
2 L (v)2
and multiply both sides by ( cV> p/jQ2 to obtain D
(6.7.2 125)
(6.7.2 126)
(6.7.2127)
This equation involves only one unknown, f, since we can calculate 1W from the mechanical energy balance if we are given Ap (assuming no large kinetic energy changes). We can easily plot the relation between f and Re f i from the friction factor plot by picking values of Re, reading f, calculating Re f i and plotting. Such a plot is given in Figure 6.7.26.
A
Figure 6.7.26 Friction factor vs. Karman number
If the pipe has the same diameter throughout the system, the velocity is not needed to evaluate the Karman number and f may be found directly. If, on the
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
423
other hand, there is a velocity change large enough to be a significant part of
1 , even Figure 6.7.27 will not avoid the iterative solution. ;
Knowing f and & , we can easily get <v> from lw =
LI
2fL(v)2
' 7
(6.7.2128)
Water at llOOF flows through a horizontal 2in Schedule 40 pipe with equivalent length of 100 ft. A pressure gauge at the upstream end reads 30 psi, lw while one at the downstream end reads 15 psi. What is the f o rate in gallons per minute?
Solution
Applying the mechanical energy balance: (6.7.2 129)
1% = 3 5 E
(6.7.2130)
Calculating the Kannan number: (6.7.2131)
(0.62 cP) (6.72 x 104*)
X
pq q y q
2) (loo) ft (6.7.2132)
424
Chapter 6:Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.7.2133) From the Karman plot, with k/D = O.OOO9,
f = 0.005
(6.7.2134)
Then
lw

2fL(v)2
=
7(v)2)[
(6.7.2135) lbf s2 32.2 lbm ft
35 ft lbf = lbm
(v) = 13.9s. ft
)
(6.7.2136)
(6.7.21 37)
Non circu l r conduits a
For noncircular conduits with turbulent flow, the hydraulic radius concept is often used. The hydraulic radius is a useful model which assumes that the resistance of a circular pipe with some equivalent diameter is the same as the noncircularconduit in question.
T e hydraulic radius is defined as the flow crosssectional area divided by h the wetted perimeter of the noncircular conduit in question . The equivalent diameter is defined as four times the hydraulic radius (as opposed to the ordinary diameter, which is twice the radius). One then uses the equivalent diameter of the pipe in the Reynolds number for use in determining friction factors as usual.
R = ,
8
(6.7.2138) (6.7.2139)
Chapter 6: Momentum Tranger in Fluids
Examole 6.7.24 0 Flow in a smoo th annulus
425
Water is pumped at a rate of 0.8 cm3/sthrough the annular space formed by 10anlong horizontal glass tubes, the inner tube with outer diameter 2 m and m the outer tube with inner diameter 4 mm.Calculate the pressure drop in Pa.
Solution
R,=
=
(4)’ mm’
=
D,, = 4 R , = (4)(0.5)mm = 2mm
(v)
(4(2)

+
(4(4) mm
(2)2 mm’ (4)
= 0.5 mm
(6.7.2140) (6.7.2141)
Q = jg =
= 8.49
(0.8)
$
(loo) mm’
(6.7.2142)

(2) mm (8.49)
(1)
(0.01)gmm
cm3
(10) mm (6.7.2143)
cm
= 170
cmscp
Since this is in the lamina f o regime, roughness is not a factor, and lw
64 4f = Re Re
f = U = = 0.094 16
2 p f L (v)*
(6.7.2144)
Ap =
* ,
426
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Ap =6.78Pa
Examble 6.7.211
(6.7.2145)
Pressure droD in a DiDe annulus
Water at 70°F is flowing at 10 ftlsec in the annulus between a 1in. OD tube and 2in. ID tube of a concentric tube heat exchanger. If the exchanger is 100ftlong, what is the pressure drop in the annulus? Neglect end effects.
Solution
Note that if we are going to manufacture an actual exchanger for a plant application, we certainly would not make one which was 100ft long, but rather would make it in several sections and place the sections side by side.
 D D1 z
Re =
4

[(a)(& k)

Dcq(V) P  ( v ) p 7R Hp 4
(6.7.2146)
ft] (109) (62.4
l:F
(6.7.2147) (6.7.2148) (6.7.2149)
= 7.75 x 104
D = 0.0018 (basedon Dz  D I > f =0.0062 Ap =

ZfLp(vy D,
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
427
Ap = 2,880 lbf ft2 =  2Opsi
(6.7.2150)
Note that what we have done above is consistent with our equations for pipe, because the limit as D1 approaches zero gives D2/4 as the hydraulic radius. Four times the hydraulic radius is the pipe diameter D2.
Frictionfactor calculations  parallel paths
The calculation of flow in piping systems containing branches (parallel paths)  pipe networks  is more complex, requiring numerical solutions most often done using a computer. In principle, the calculations are the same as for serial paths; however, systems of simultaneous nonlinear equations are generated, whereas for the serial path there was but a single equation.
sed Dressure drop
The simple pipe network shown is constructed of Schedule 40 steel pipe with the dimensions indicated. The network has pressures imposed at the outlets as labeled.
Dc=3in
4
P4 = 0 Psig
428
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Calculate p~ and the velocities in the pipes.
Solution
A mechanical energy balance on the ith pipe i s
(6.7.2151) Assume that the flow is in the completely rough regime so the friction factors will be constant  this assumption must be checked for accuracy at the end of the calculation.
Mechanical energy balance on pipe A:
From the pipe nornograph, for 5in. diameter pipe in the completely turbulent region one can read directly from the righthand ordinate 4fA = 0.0153 f A = 0.00383 (6.7.2152)
Substituting in the mechanical energy balance for pipe A and simplifying ( 5 5  P ~ )~ (2) (.0038) (800)ft(v,)2$ in2 (62.4) Ibm ft

Ibf s2 (32.2) lbm ft
ft2 (144) in2
L
(55  pz) = 0.196 (vJ2
Mechanical energy balance on pipe B:
(6.7.2153)
From the nornograph, for 4in. pipe 4fB = 0.0162 fB = 0.00405 (6.7.2154)
Substituting in the mechanical energy balance for pipe B and simplifying
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
429
lbf
(62.4)

(2) (00405) (700)ft (VB)
i
5
(6.7.2155) (6.7.2 156)
ft3
p2 = 0.229 (vB)’
Mechanical energy balance on pipe C:
From the nomograph, for 3in. pipe
4fc = 0.0173 fc = 0.00433
(6.7.2157)
Substituting in the mechanical energy balance for pipe C and simplifying
(6.7.2158) p2 = 0.233 (vJ2 (6.7.2159)
A t t l mass balance on a control volume whose surface surrounds the pipes and oa cuts the entrance plane and each of the exit planes yields
(5)2
(vA)
= (4)2 (‘B)
+ (3)2 ( ‘ C )
(6.7.2160)
The system of equations (c), (e), (h), and (i) can be regarded as
fl (x,, x2, x,, x,) = 0 = p2+0.196(~,) 55
fi (x,, x2, x,, x,) = 0 = pz 0.229
2
(v~)
 (4)2 (‘B)  (3)2 (‘C)
2
(6.7.2161) (6.7.2162) (6.7.2163) (6.7.2164)
f3 (x1, x,, x,, x,) = 0 = p2  0.233 (vJ2
f4
x29
x39 x4)
=
=
( 5 ) 2 (VA)
430
Chapter 6 Momentum Transfer in Fluids :
This is a system of nonlinear algebraic equations which we can solve by Newton's method. We need the frrst partial derivatives
a(4
Newton's method becomes a solution of
af3
= O.466(Vc)
1
1
1
0.392 (vA)
0
0
0
0
 0.458 (vB),
0
0
25
 0.466 (vc)
9
0
 16
[pz], +0.196(~,):55
  [Pz].0.229 [Pz], 0.233
(VB):
(VC)i
(6.7.2165)
 (3)z (.C)
(5)2
('A)
 (4)z (.B)
for the incremental values for the (n+l)st step [the values to be added to the nth step to get the values for the (n+l)st step] using the values for the nth step, followed by the addition of the incremental values to the values for the nth step to obtain the values for the (n+l)st step.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
431
(6.7.2166)
For such a small system, the system of linear equations (n) can be solved easily using the matrix inversion program accompanying spreadsheet software. Results converge very rapidly, as shown in Table 6.7.22. The initial estimate of values was made on the basis that p2 would be somewhere between the inlet and outlet pressure^,^^ and the velocities were estimated using rule of thumb for economical pipe velocities, which should put the flow in the turbulent regime.
Table 6.7.22 Convergence of Newton's Method
We indicate the calculations for the frrst step, n = 0 to n = 1: The coefficient matrix for the first step is
......1 ..i.x!2..i ..... ..... .... ..... .... 0 ........................................................ 1 i 0 i4.58; 0
i .s.
1 i 0 i 0 i4.66 .........................................................
0 i 25 ;  1 6 ;  9
(6.7.2167)
and its inverse can be computed to be
0.54036367 0.29599659 0,16363974  0.084729 0.1 1725417  0.0755093  0.0417448 0.02161455 0.11798333  0.1537125 0.0357292  0.0184998 0.11595787 0.06351858  0.1794764  0.0181822
(6.7.2168)
31 The pipeline is horizontal, so nowhere should pressure increase because of a potential energy change; likewise, there is no point in the network where there is conversion of kinetic to pressure energy  therefore, pressure should decrease monotonically.
432
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
The vector of constants on the righthand sides for the first time step is
5.4  7.1  6.7 0
(6.7.2169)
Combining these results with the initial estimate of values gives for the incremental values
0.2799982 1.M897915 1.48908335 1.37768278
(6.7.2170)
which, when added to the initial estimates, yields the values at n = 1 shown in Table 6.7.22. Convergence was assumed to be satisfactory at n = 3, giving the final result that
29.72 11.36 11.39 11.29
The number of decimal places shown is far in excess of the accuracy of the calculation, and is shown only for the sake of illustration of the numerical method. Checking the Reynolds numbers, using values for density and viscosity as indicated
Re =
6.72 x lO') lb
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
433

('2) = (7.74 x 103)D (v) (1.0) (6.72x 1 0  ~ )
2 (v) (62.4)
(6.7.217 1)
D, in v, ftJs Re
'
5 11.36 4.40E+05
I
4.00 11.36 3.52E+05
3 .00 11.29 2.62E+05
As can be seen, the assumption of turbulent flow was justified for all three pipes.
A pipeline 20 miles long delivers 5,000 barrels of petroleum per day. The pressure drop over the line is 500 psig. Find the new capacity of the total system if a parallel and identical line is laid along the last 12 miles. The pressure drop remains at 500 psig and flow is laminar (see sketch).
B
4
12 miles
*
0
b
4
5
1
4
2 1
L
3
0 miles
7
A
4miles
1880 bbilday
0 1
f
8miles
A
Solution
A mass balance yields
QT
=
Q + QB ,
(6.7.2172)
Neglecting the effect of the short connecting length
434
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
: Qs = QT .
f 7
(6.7.2173) (6.7.2174)
The overall pressure drop we denote as
ApT = 500psig
(6.7.2 175) (6.7.2176) (6.7.2177)
But if we assume laminar flow
(6.7.2178)
We do not have physical properties, and so we evaluate a using the information given for the original line.
(144$)(5003)
= a(20mi)(5,280:)
(59000 9p) (&) (E!$)(*) (%)
a = 2.1 lbf sec / ft6
(6.7.2179) (6.7.2180)
Substituting in Equation (6.7.2177) using Equation (6.7.2178)
( 14)
= (2*1)(8) (5*280)0' (2'1) ( 12) (5*280)
$
(6.7.2181)
= 7,200 barrels / day
(6.7.2182)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
FxamDle 6.7.2 14 network
435
Innut o f addr'tional flur'd to an existinn Dim
It is desired to add an additional plant to the Win. pipeline network designed in Example 6.7.213. The plant will produce 1,880 barrels/day and will be located at point 3 (see sketch). The pipeline network is to supply equal quantities of product to the plants at points 4 and 5.
Scctlon 8
I
SectionC
6 mile8 7200 bbl/day
2
I
9 .
Section D + miIcs
3
t
SectionA
Smt ion €
8 miles
QP5
1080 b b t / d q
What pressure must a throttling valve at 5 maintain in order that QA = QB (p4 remains at 0 psig and the pressure at 1 is changed in such a way that the flow in Section C is maintained at 7,200 banels/day).
Solution
The HagenPoiseuilleequation yields
Ap = 32PL(V)   3 2 p L Q D2 D~A ApsIbf =  a L Q
(6.7.2183) (6.7.2184)
or, converting the units of a so that we can use Ap in psi, L in miles, and Q in barreldday, lbf APin = PSihY ( 5 x 1 0  ~ )(mibarrel) L Q (mibarrel) day
(6.7.2185)
We now write down the equations describing our system. First, we apply the HagenPoiseuillelaw to each section of pipe:
436
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Section C:
pz  p1 =
[ 5 x 103(8) (7,200)]
( 5 x
(4)
QD
(6.7.2186)
Section D:
p3  pz = (6.7.2187)
Section B: 0 pz =
( 5 x io’) (12)
QB
(6.7.2188)
Section A:
(6.7.2189)
Total mass balances around points 2 and 3 yield
Point 2:
7,200QoQB = 0 (6.7.2190)
Point 3:
(6.7.2191)
We also have the imposed restriction
(6.7.2192)
Note: We assume a direction of flow for stream D in Equations (6.7.2190) and (6.7.2191). If the direction assumed is wrong, the only effect is that the flow rate calculated for stream D will be negative; however, we must assume a consistent direction for any given stream in all our equations.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
437
Equations (6.7.2186) through (6.7.2192) constitute a set of seven linearly independent equations in the seven unknowns p1, p2, p3, ps, &,& and QD, and can be written in matrix notation as

0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.06 0 10.04 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0  1 0 1  1 0 0
0
PI
P2
P 3
Ps
Q A
QB QD
 288 0 0 0 7200 1880 0
The set may be solved easily by elemei :ary matrix methoc Is, or alternatively solved as follows:
Use Equation (6.7.2192) to substitute for QA in Equation (6.7.2191), then add the result to Equation (6.7.2190) to yield
 2 Q B + 9,080 = 0
QB
= 4,540
(6.7.2193) (6.7.2194)
Tberefore, fiom Equation (6.7.2192)
QA
= 4,540
(6.7.2195)
and Equation (6.7.2190) will give
QD
= 2,660
(6.7.2196)
Equation (6.7.2187) will then give
p2 = 272
Equation (6.7.2186) will give
p3 = 219
(6.7.2197)
(6.7.2198)
following which Equation (6.7.2185) gives
438
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
p, = 560 and Equation (6.7.2188)gives ps = 37psig
(6.7.2199)
(6.7.2200)
Notice that the pump at point 1 must now supply 560 psig, and that the fluid added at point 3 must come from a pump which will supply 219 psig. Both of these requirements would probably be feasible in a realworld situation. This problem illustrates the general attack on pipe network problems: Write the independent equations describing the system; if these are fewer than the number of unknowns, the system is underdetermined and values must be assigned to some of the unknowns; if there are fewer unknowns than independent equations, the system is overdetermined and some variables that have been fixed will have to be considered unknowns.
6.8 NonNewtonian Flow
6.8.1
Bingham plastics
As we discussed in Chapter 1, a Bingham plastic is modeled by
(6.8.11)
Consider the flow of Bingham plastic in a circular tube as shown in Figure 6.8.11.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
439 R
0
+y
I
Lf Z
I

Figure 6.8.11 Tube flow of Bingham plastic
In cylindrical coordinates for a Bingham fluid with r 2 ro, where z = r = roandp = h w h e r e z > TO
(6.8.12)
70 at
Integrating
(6.8.13)
At r = R, v, = 0, giving for r 2 ro
(6.8.14)
(6.8.15)
So for r 2 ro
(6.8.16)
Then for r I ro, vz = v,(ro)
440
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.8.17)
But a force balance on the cylinder that comprises the plug flow zone shows
2 1 r r , ~ 2 ,= ( P ,  P ~ ) I ~ ~ ;
2 ,
=
(PO  4)
(6.8.18) (6.8.19)
2L
ro
Substituting in Equation (6.8.17)
(6.8.1 12)
Which yields, for r 5 ro
v, =  R2 1 
(Ti,?) [2I):(
Powerlaw fluids
(6.8.1 13)
6.8.2
The powerlaw fluid analog of the HagenPoiseuille equation for a Newtonian fluid can be derived using the power law model. From the constitutive equation
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
441
(6.8.21)
For a tube
(6.8.22)
(6.8.23)
Letting s = lln
(6.8.24)
Integrating
(6.8.25)
At r = R, v,= 0, giving
(6.8.26)
Substituting
(6.8.27)
Determining the flow rate
(6.8.28)
442
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.8.211) (6.8.212) (6.8.213)
For n = l/s = 1 and m = p, Equation (6.8.213)reduces to the HagenPoiseuille equation. For a power law fluid, a friction factor approach can be used with a modified Reynolds number written as
(6.8.214)
where n and y are properties of the particular nonNewtonian fluid. (For a Newtonian fluid n = 1 and y = p.) This definition permits the usual chart for the friction factor t be used for tbe lamina flow regime. o Another modification uses the apparent viscosity. The parameters n and y are characteristic of the particular nonNewtonian fluid and can be determined by doing flow measurements in the capillary tube. The diameter and velocity can be incorporated in t e apparent viscosity by defining h
(6.8.215) (6.8.216)
Note that the apparent viscosity is not a simple property of the fluid but depends on flow rate and geometry.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Examble 6.81 Flow o f Dolvmer melt
443
Molten polyethylene is to be pumped through a 1inch Schedule 40 steel pipe at the rate of 25 gal/min. Calculate the pressure drop per unit length. Properties: n = 0.49 p = 58 lbmass/ ft3 pW= 22,400Poise
Solution
The Reynolds number is
r
( 5 8 y )
X
(e)
f::$ge
(6.830) (6.831) (6.832)
6.72 x 102
= 9.05 x 1 0  ~
l6 = 1.77~10' 9.05~10~ 2f L p ( V y Ap = D
f
= 16 =
444
Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
L
Ap
= (2) (1.77 x 10‘) (54)
[
2 f P (V)’
=
D
1
ft
(&)
1
= 4.59x 104 lbforce/ ft’ ft
= 318 psi/ ft
(6.833)
The apparent viscosity and therefore the pressure drop decreases with increasing flow rate.
6.9 Flow in Porous Media
Many process fluid flow operations involve porous media  flow in filters, packed bed catalytic reactors, absorption, desorption, and distillation units, to name just a few. Other examples of porous media flows involve environmental flows: flow of petroleum, natural gas, and water in underground reservoirs; flow of agricultural fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides in soils; transport, absorption and adsorption in natural soils, specially prepared beds of rocks, sand, etc., or underground formations used for w s e disposal of naturally occurring chemicals at or waterborne contaminants such as sewage, microorganisms, etc. The bodies of mammals and fish offer multiple illustrations of flow in porous media: the general microcirculation in the capillary system, membrane flows, the flow in the alveolar system of the lungs, flow in the kidney, liver, and other internal organs, etc. Plants also use flow in porous media for the transport of nutrients and disposal of waste products.
A porous medium can be anything from a (consolidated) solid with holes in it  like a sponge  to an (unconsolidated) assembly of solid particles in contact at various points but not bonded together  like a bag of marbles. In the first case models tend to emphasize flow through passages (capillary models and models using the hydraulic radius approach); in the second case, models tend to be derived from flow around things (drag models).
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flurds
445
The matrix is the material in which the holes are imbedded or past which the fluid flows. Porosity (void fraction) is a measure of the void space (usually the effective porosity, that is, the void space accessible to the face of the r media via connected passages as opposed to voids that a e not accessible from the surface) and is often modeled either as uniform or distributed according to some random scheme. porosity = ible void vol total volume &=volume plusyfvoid volume)
E
One of the problems in characterizing real porous media is that the porosity is frequently a function of the applied pressure  that is, the media (solids) are compressible, which introduces complications in the same sort of way as going from an incompressible fluid to a compressibleone. The accessible void volume includes both flowthrough pores, which have at least one inlet and at least one outlet that connects to the surface either directly or via other pores, and deadend pores, which are culdesacs, having diffusive inlets only (deadend pores are important primarily in multicomponent systems). Tbe inaccessible void volume consists of pores whose inlet and outlet (if either or both even exist) do not intersect a path which connects to the surface  isolated pores. In the following sections we will drop the adjective accessible, and assume that reference to “pore” is to be understood as “accessiblepore,” and references to “porosity”to be to “effectiveporosity” unless specifically otherwise
Stated.
The following sections illustrate some simple but typical models of the flow behavior of porous media.
6.9.1
Darcy’s law
Flow at low superficial velocities through materials that exhibit relatively low porosity is often modeled by Darcy’s “law,” an empirical equation of motion Darcy describing flow rate as a function of pressure drop in a porous medium.32
H. Darcy, Les Fontaines publiques de f a ville de Dijon (Paris: Victor Dalmont, 1856) cited in Crichlow, H. B. (1977). Modem Reservoir Engineering  A Sirnufarion Approach. Englewood Cliff, NJ, PrenticeHall, Inc., p. 39. Darcy’s law is not a law in the same sense as Newton’s laws of motion; we will, however, drop the quotation marks as is common practice.
32
446
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
arrived at his law in the course of investigations of the hydrology of the fountains of Dijon, France.33
.Tbe rate of flow of a fluid through a homogeneous medium is
In onedimensional(xdirection)rectangular Cartesian coordinates the Darcy equation35takes the microscopic form
(6.9.11)
In words, Darcy’s law states that34
directly proportional to the pressure or hydraulic gradient and to tbe crosssectional area normal to the direction of flow and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid.
and the microscopic fom
(6.9.12)
The subscript infinity on the velocity means that it refers to the approach (or superficial, or Darcy, or filter) velocity, which is the velocity obtained by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the total crosssectional area normal to f o (including both the area of the pores and the area of the media) lw
33 Nield, D. A. and A. Bejan (1992). Convection in Porous Media. New York, NY, SpringerVerlag, p. 5 . 34 Crichlow, H.B. (1977). Modern Reservoir Engineering  A Simulation Approach. Englewood Cliff, NJ, PrenticeHall, Inc., p. 22. 35 The original form proposed for the D r y equation was ac
Q=K
A
~
where the proportionality constant K (with dimension U t ) is called the hydraulic conductivity and H is the head of fluid (with dimension L)
m = Az+pg AP
The hydraulic conductivity contains properties of both the fluid and the medium, and so it is more useful to split these effects by introducing the intrinsic permeability
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
447
(6.9.13)
The constant of proportionality, k, is called the specific permeability or the intrinsic permeability. It depends in a relatively complicated way on the geometry of the medium, and, in general, is a secondorder tensor, not a simple scalar. We here see only one component of the secondorder tensor. It would be convenient if the permeability bore some simple relationship to the porosity, but since pores generally vary widely in geometry, which is not described by porosity, such a relationship is possible only among media with similar (scalable)geometry. For example, as shown in Figure 6.9.11, a reasonable correlation between permeability and sieve opening can be constructed over a wide range of particle diameters for uniform diameter spherical beads. If the beads are packed in a consistent manner (e.g., close packed, dumped, etc.) the void fraction will be independent of bead size (if the volume considered is large compared to the bead diameter)and screensize = beaddiameter =
E
so with a little algebra we could replace the ordinate with porosity.
If we examine the dimensions of permeability in the FMLt system using the units conversion represented by gc, we see that the permeability must have units of L2 (the same conclusion would, of course, be reached in any other fundamental set of units).
[4] %[*I I1 n
(6.9.14)

The common unit of permeability for geophysical problems (such as are involved in underground reservoirs) is the Darcy. The Darcy is defined such that for onedimensional horizontal flow of a fluid of one CP viscosity through a
448
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
porous medium infinite in the y and zdirections and 1cm thick in the xdirection, subjected to a pressure drop of one atm between the faces, a volumetric
10 5
10.~
10.~
10*
Mean sieve opening, cm
*
10.’
Figure 6.9.11 Permeability as a function of porosity for a bed of spheres (adapted from Stegemeier, G.L., Laumhach, D.D., and Volek, C.W. Representing Steam Processes with Vacuum Models. SPE 6787, S2nd Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Denver, CO (1977)
flux of one (cm3/s)/cm2will be obtained if the medium has a permeability of one Darcy. (Note that AplAx is negative for flow in the positive xdirection.)
1 Darcy
U
0.987 x 10l2m2
(6.9.15)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
449
As is the case with the poise for viscosity, the Darcy is a relatively large permeability unit for many applications, so the milliDarcy is often more convenient to use.
bulk velocity (which for porous m d a defines what is called the pore velocity ei
We can see how the superficial velocity relates to our earlier definition of
or interstitial velocity) by writing the mass flow integral (from the macroscopic t t l m s balance) over the f o crosssection and recognizing that oa a s lw the normal component of the velocity is zero over the area occupied by m d a ei
(6.9.16) (6.9.17) If we make the assumption that
(6.9.18)
we conclude that porevelocity     (v) filter velocity V,
v,, v ,
 1
E
(6.9.19)
This is usually referred to as the DupuitForcheimerrelationship. Darcy’s original model was one dimensional and further assumed
1. A homogeneous and singlephasefluid
2. No chemical reactions between the media and the fluid
450
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
3. Permeability to be independent of fluid, temperature, pressure, and position
4. Laminar flow
5. No electrokinetic effects exist (potential differences that can be produced by f o  the streaming potential which is lw measured as the zeta potential)
6. Pore sizes to be sufficiently larger than the mean free path of the fluid molecules that no slippage at the pore walls occurs (slippage is called Knudsen diffusion or the Kli nke nbe rg effect)
Darcy’s law is valid for creeping flow, as defined by
(6.9.1 10)
where D, is the effective particle diameter of the porous material and E is the porosity.
An analog of a slight modification of Darcy’s law is Ohm’s law
E = IR
(6.9.111)
Examine tbe units on the term analogous to the voltage (the potential term). Using the FMLt system and using the unit conversion represented by gc
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
451
The first and second terms incorporate two of the forms of energy from the mechanical energy balance: pressure energy and gravitational potential energy.
A logical question might be “why doesn’t Darcy’s law contain a term corresponding to the kinetic energy term of the mechanical energy balance?” The answer is that it should, but applications of the law are normally to situations where changes‘in kinetic energy are negligible at the scale over which the law is applied. Obviously, however, if we wish to model flows on the scale of individual pores which vary widely in effective diameter, such effects must be incorporated into any models we apply to predict pressure drop and flow rate.
Darcy’s law is an empirical, macroscopic momentum equation. A large body of literature exists36which attempts by a variety of approaches (e.g., volume averaging) to relate it to the microscopic description of flow (the NavierStokes equation). Some typical values of porosity and permeability for various porous materials are given in Table 6.9.11 and Table 6.9.12. Note that the permeability units are different in the two sections of the table.
36 Kaviany,
SpringerVerlag .
M.(1991). Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media. New York, NY,
452
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.9.11 Porosities (void fractions) for dumped packings3
Extending the onedimensional Darcy model to three dimensions in Cartesian coordinates
(6.9.1 13)
In symbolic notation, valid for curvilinear coordinates
"=  b [ V P + P P ] ,
(6.9.114)
~~~~~
~
~
~
~
~
37 Leva,
M.and M.Grummer (1947). Chem Eng Prog 43: 713.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Table 6.9.12
453
Porosity and permeability for typical materials3*
catalyst m u l e s cigarette fles itr
coal
COnCrete
crushed rock,
0.45 0.17 0.49 0.02 0.12 0.02  0.07 0.44 0.45


i
1
i
Fiberglass leather limestone limestone (dolomite) Raschig rings sand
sand
sandstone sandstone silica powder soil spherical packings, shaken wire rings
P
0.88  0.93 0.56  0.59 0.02  0.20 0.04 0.10 0.56  0.65 0.37 0.50 0.31  0.50 0.08 0.38 0.08  0.40 0.013 0.051 0.43  0.54 0.36  0.43

0.000001  2.
2.  180.
0.00000011  11. 0.37  0.49 0.29  14. 3,800.  10,OOO.

>
0.68 0.76

I
SOILS
1
~~~
k (m2)
I
Notice that the permeability has now become a secondorder tensor rather than a scalar. This is because for threedimensional flow the velocity does not
38 Scheidegger, A. E. (1974). The Physics of Flow Through Porous Media. Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto Press. 39 Values in part from Nield, D. A. and A. Bejan (1992). Convection in Porous Media. New York, NY, SpringerVerlag, p. 6.
454
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
necessarily point in the same direction as the pressure gradient or the gravitational field (it does for isotropic media, it does not for anisotropic m d a .The permeability, as a secondordertensor, relates these two directions ei) it associates a direction for the velocity with every direction for the pressure gradient o gravitational field and vice versa. The resistance to flow experienced r by the fluid depends upon the direction in which it is moving. Singlephase f o is described by the equation of continuity, using the lw relationship between the local and superficial velocities is
(6.9.115)
and Darcy’s law, which is the equation of motion.
le 6.9.11 Flow of water in
What is the volumetric flow rate of water through a horizontal sandstone core 10 cm long and 5 cm in diameter if k = 2 Darcies and Ap = 1 atm?
Solution
(0.987 x 10’’) m2 (100) CPcm s (100) gmm Darcy g kgm
= 2X1O4$
(6.9.1 16)
Using the definition of supficial velocity
(6.9.117)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
455
6.9.2
Packed beds40
Packed beds are just specific instances of flow through unconsolidated porous media (where we now refer to what we previously called “media” as “packing”). However, flow in what we consider a “packed bed” as opposed to “porous media” tends, in general, to approach more closely flow around objects than flow through channels, and interstitial velocities also tend to be higher. Hence, the appropriate mathematical models often have somewhat differing features. Packed bed models are often based on friction factors in a similar fashion to the way we modeled flow in conduits. A friction factor for flow in a packed bed can be defined by using the same form that we used for flow in conduits of noncircular crosssection
 2fLv:, Iw = D,
(6.9.21)
where Vint is the interstitial velocity, L is the thickness of the bed (length in the flow direction) and D,, is the equivalent diameter of the pores. Since we are usually interested in the pressure drop per unit length for systems in which the potential energy and kinetic energy changes are negligible, using the mechanical energy balance to substitute for the lost work term and rearranging, we write
TT=1>,
Ap
2fpvL
(6.9.22)
We now proceed to replace the equivalent diameter of the pores, about which for a packed bed we usually h o w little, with a corresponding diameter of the packing, of which we usually know more. If we apply our definition of void fraction to find
40 The important topic of momentum transfer in countercunent gasliquid flow in packed beds is deferred until design of mass transfer columns, because they constitute its primary application.
456
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(6.9.23)
total volume  void volume
total volume
total  (total volume)volume volume)  (void
(6.9.24)
(void volume)
voidvolume packing volume

total volume
E
total volume
(6.9.25) (6.9.26)

and further define for the packing (where surface area means area in contact with the fluid, and volume includes isolated pore spaces)
S = specificsurfaceareaofpacking =
surfaceareapacking  S, packingvolume  V, (6.9.27)
the hydraulic radius of a packed bed may then be defined by
R, =
voidvolume surfacearea packing  void volume packing volume  packing volume surfacearea packing
(6.9.28)
As before, we define Dq = 4 RH. We also continue to make the assumption analogous to the DupuitForcheimerrelation (6.9.29)
The appropriate Reynolds number is then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
4.57
(6.9.210) where we are now using the superficial velocity. We now define an equivalent particle diameter in terms of a sphere diameter, that is, a sphere with the same surface area and volume as the packing in question (this is not precisely the Deq we have used previously for noncircular conduits, although it is similar). As can be seen from the above
(6.9.2 1) 1 For a sphere
(6.9.212)
so for a nonspherical particle we define
(6.9.213) which gives as the Reynolds number
Re = 2 DpVP
"(1E)
(6.9.214)
458
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
and as the friction factor relationship
(6.9.215) Since the constant terms in each of the above do nothing to help us, we drop them and replace f by fp, leaving us with the working relationships
* (F)(?)(fp)
Rep = DPVWP P ( f E)
(6.9.216) (6.9.217)
=
Experimentally, the relationship between friction factor and Reynolds number has been found to be reasonably modeled by
Example 6.9.2sbheres
Calculate the pressure drop for air at 100°F and 1 atm flowing axially at 2.1 lbdsec through a 4ft diameter x 8ft high bed of 1inch spheres. Porosity of the bed is 38%.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
459
Solution
Using the fact that ( w ) v = (Q)$(p)v ( A ) f t ' ( p ) F = (v)Q we can determine the Reynolds number as
(6.9.218)

L
(0.0182)CP(6.72x 104)
$& (1  0.38) = 1837
1.83
(6.9.219)
For this Reynolds number we use the Ergun equation
fp =
150 1.75 150, 1.75 = m + =
Re,
(6.9.220)
which then gives for the pressure
Ap = L ( e ) ( v ) ( f p ) (6.9.221)
Note that we have neglected the effect of change in pressure on the density. To get a slightly better model we might use the calculated pressure drop to obtain an average pressure from which we could calculate a more nearly correct Reynolds number, friction factor and pressure drop. To convert the problem to a differential equation with continuously changing density and hence Reynolds number, friction factor, and pressure (now) gradient is probably not justified considering the accuracy of the model and empirical parameters involved.
41
460
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
L
[
lbfs’ (32.2) lbm ft
3
](
10.38 0.383
) (””)
(6.9.223)
= 305 Ibf ft2
2.1 psi
(6.9.224)
le 6.9.22
Pressure drot,
fer
water flowing thorrpir bed of
cvlinders
A cylindrical column 8mm in inside diameter and 40mm in height is filled with dumped cylinders 3mm in diameter and 2mm long. Water flows through the bed at a rate of 5 cm3/s.
The void fraction of the bed is estimated to be 0.47.
Calculate the pressure drop due to friction in Pa between the bottom and the top of the bed (ignoring the hydrostatic head). Use the following physical properties. Density Water
( mc 3 g /m)
1.o
Viscosity (CP) 1.o
Solution
=
A
V
= lateral area+ end areas
volume
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
461
= 2.33 mm' D p =6 = s 2.33mm* = 2 . 5 8 ~ n
h
(6.9.225) (6.9.226) (6.9.227)
E
= 0.47
S loomm2= 9 . 9 5 y (~)(8)~mm~
(6.9.228) (6.9.229)
v, =
( 5 ) cm3
(4)
Re, = D, P P(1  E )
"W
Re, =
fp
(2.58) mm (9.95)
(1) @! ? !
Cm3
= +0 1.75 = aga + 1.75 = 2.06 15 150 Re,
(W
(0.01)gmm (10) m m cmscp (1  0.47)
= 484
(6.9.230) (6.9.231)
 Ap
= 357 Pa
(6.9.232)
462
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu&
6.9.3
Filters
An important application of flow in porous media is the operation and design of filters. Filtration is basically the removal of either a solid phase or a phase dispersed as liquid drops from a gas phase or a liquid phase through interaction with a porous medium. If the amount of solid or liquid to be removed is small, tbe parous medium is usually some material other than the material to be removed; for example, a surgical mask which is designed to remove dispersions of liquid droplets or solid particles in air by collecting them on fibers of a woven material. On the other hand, if the material to be collected is large in amount, sometimes the bed of collected material itself is used as the filtration medium. In order to support the process at the outset  to collect the initial filter cake  it is necessary to have some sort of support, frequently in the form of a cloth or wire screen. In addition, if the material to be collected is dispersed in a sufficiently small size, a precoat of some material which yields a cake with smaller pore size than the cloth or screen support is employed. A classical precoat material is diatomaceous earth.42 The driving force for filtration can be as simple as gravity  as is the case in filtration in the chemistry lab with a funnel and filter paper o sand bed filters in r water treatment plants. Since gravity is a relatively mild driving force, most production processes utilize either applied pressure on the upstream side of the filter or vacuum on the downstream side.
It is also possible to use a different body force from gravity by creating centrifugal filters, which use centrifugal force to drive the fluid through a
porous medium as opposed to keeping the fluid medium stationary and simply letting the particles pile up at the face of a solid (an enhanced settling process), as in centrifugation in test tubes or productionscale solidbowl filters. Filters, like most pieces of equipment, can be run in either batch or continuous modes. By the very nature of the increasing collection of particles in a cake or on a support, filtration tends to have an unsteadystate nature.
No matter what the specific process, the fundamentals of modeling filtration remain the same. The filtering medium andor the filter cake andor the support andor the precoat are porous media.
42
Diatoms are the skeletal remains of prehistoric marine invertebrates. Such material is commercially available.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
463
The nature of many filtration processes lends itself to a Darcy's law type of model. For onedimensional flow, the pressure drop across a filter cake which is incornpre~sible~~for which gravitational driving forces are negligible can be and calculated using Darcy's law.
(6.9.31)
Q=v,A=
P A[Ap] L
(6.9.32)
Solving this equation for the pressure drop
(6.9.33)
Drawing an analogy to Ohm's law, E = I R, the term in parentheses represents the resistance to flow. As opposed to the Ohm's law case, the resistance changes with time in this model because of tbe increase in L. The support (e.g., filter cloth) and precoat (if any) have constant resistance if they are not compressible. The increasing resistance represented by the cake thickness, L, is proportional to the volume of filtrate collected, Vf, again assuming incompressibility? Therefore we can write AP =
Q (KI Vf +K,)
(6.9.34)
But by definition
Q=dVf
dt
(6.9.35)
43 We assume throughout this section that permeability is independent of pressure i.e., that the cake is incompressible, so pressure does not change its structure and hence its resistance t flow. o 44 For a more extensive discussion of filtration, including, for example, continuous filters and compressible cakes, the reader is referred to texts such as McCabe, W. L. and J. C. Smith (1976). Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGrawHill. or Geankoplis, C. J. (1993). Transport Processes and Unit Operations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
464
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
giving
(6.9.36)
Two models described by this equation are of particular interest. It is relatively easy to operate filters at constant pressure drop or at constant rate of filtrate flow. In other cases models combining these two extremes offer good approximation to actual operation. Since it is difficult to predict porous media properties a priori, we usually must collect laboratory data on the actual system and from this data design and operate production units. For constant pressure and constant flow rate modes of operation, therefore, we wish to put our model in such a form that we can use laboratory data to infer K1and K2. First, for constant pressure drop denoted by Ap
(6.9.37)
Integrating
V2 (Apo)t = K,$+K2Vf
This result may be rearranged to the convenient form
(6.9.38)
6 [2 (Kipo)] vf [&]
This is a linear relationship between Wfand Vf.
+
=
(6.9.39)
We apply the relationship by taking laboratory data at constant pressure N and , drop, recording t and Vf. Next we compute t f fit the above equation either by linear regression techniques or simply by plotting and fitting a line by eye using graph paper (if we plot Vf versus tf/Vf we will get a straight line with slope K1/2Ap, and intercept K2/Apo).
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flukis
465
Second, for a constant flow rate of filtrate we have
5 = Q, = constant dt
(6.9.310)
(6.9.311) Integrating
(6.9.312) (6.9.313)
Ap = K , Q i t + K 2 Q o
(6.9.314)
Here Ap is linear in t for a given filtrate rate 00. This time the data collected consist of pressure drop vs. time, and again the data can be fitted with a regression calculation or simply plotted on graph paper to determine K1 and KZ.
Many filter operations can be modeled as constant filtrate rate until the pressure builds up to some maximum determined by pump characteristics, and then by constant pressure until the filtrate rate drops below an economically determined limit. Of course, the actual performance depends on pump characteristics and valving, and the transition from one regime to another is not sharp, but, within the accuracy usually required, this twostage model is often useful.
Exarnde 6.9.31 Production scale filter Derformance prediction from Dilot trlant data
A 20gallon sample of 0.5% solids in water is filtered on a 3ft2 pilot plant filter using the same cloth and precoat thickness as to be used in the production plant. The filter cake may be assumed to be incompressible. The pilot unit was
466
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
run at a frltrate rate of 5 gpm per ft2, the same as to be used in the production unit, and the following data were obtained
Pressure Drop
0.6 1.4
Time
40
120
The production filter is to have an area of 400 ft2. How long will it take the production unit to reach a pressure drop of 2.5 psi? So 1ut ion
Ap = K , Q ~ t + K , Q , Using the point at t = 0 (0.2)psi = K , 5 
(6.9.315)
( ,f...I,)’0
gal
+ K2
(5
A)
(6.9.316)
K, = 0.04psi min ft2
One fan then use either of the points remaining to get K1.Using the second point
The time to reach 25 psi is then
Ap = K , Q ~ t + K 2 Q o
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
467
(2.5)
9=
(4.0~ l0l)
Ihf min
in2
ft4
gal2
[ Bal]'
( 5 ) min ft* (1) min
t = 230min
(6.9.3 18)
Filter oerformance from data
Example 6.9.32
A filter is run at constant rate for 20 min. The amount of filtrate collected is 30 gal. The initial pressure drop is 5 psig. The pressure drop at the end of 20 min is 50 psig. If the filter is operated for an additional 20 min at a constant oa pressure of 50 psig, how much t t l filtrate will have been collected?
Solution For the constant rate period
Ap = K I Q i t + K 2 Q ,
(6.9.319)
At constant rate we have initially
( 5 ) psig = K , (1.5)2 [min] 2 (0) min + K2(1.5) gal g a 1
K2 = 3.33psig min gal (6.9.320)
At the end of the constant rate period
(50)psig = K , (1.5)2 (20)rnin+(3.33)(1.5)~min gal2 psig min2 gal psig min K, = 1.00gal2 For the constant pressure drop period
gal
(6.9.321)
468
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(Apo) t = K;
t =
vf +K;
V,
K; 2 ( APO)
v;+
( 4 0 )
K;
v,
(6.9.322)
Remember that we obtained the equation for the constant pressure drop period by integrating, assuming that at t = 0, Vf = 0. This means that the constant K2* will incorporate the resistance of cake deposited during the constant rate operution in addition to that of the medium ancl precoat. The constant K1* will be the same as the constant K1 because the first term remains proportional to Vf in the same manner as before.
( Ap) = 50, is also the beginning of the constant pressure cycle, where Vf = 0
Recognizing that the end of the constant rate cycle, where Q = 1.5 and
AP = (K;v,+K;)Q,
(50) psig =
[(
1.00) 
psig min gal2
K; = 33.3 psig min
gal Substituting in the constant pressure expression
(6.9.323)
(20) min
Vf

psig min
(2) (50) Psig
(50) psig
V:+66.6Vf2OO0 = 0 V, = 22.4 gal (the other root is negative) (6.9.324)
The total tiltrate collected is then
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids 30 gal + 22.4 gal = 52.4 gal
469
(6.9.325)
Dle 6.9.33
Ad
.. exrsting _filter to new Droducl
O r present production plant contains a 1oOft2batch filter that consists of a u supporting screen and cloth, on which is deposited 0.25 in. of a diatomaceous earth precoat. This filter is presently used at a constant pressure drop of 50 psi to filter substance A from a 5% by weight water solution. The plant is now to be converted to produce a new product, B, which is somewhat similar to product A. This product will also be in a water solution, but 10%by weight. It has been proposed that the present filter, modified to operate at 75 psi, be used in the process to produce B.
What production rate of B in lbm for 24 hrs of continuous filtration can we expect using our present filter with the present precoat if we convert it to a pressure capability of 75 psi? Information irr: Oisposal;
A 50gallon sample of the new material (10% B in water) was shipped to a filter manufacturer to be tested on a 1ft2 laboratoryscale model of the filter being used in the plant. Unfortunately,the manufacturer ran the test at a pressure drop of 25 psi, and used a precoat of only 0.125 inch, but returned the following data.
I
Volume of Filtrate collected,
I
Time
0 30 min 3.5 hrs
I
30
0 10
Current production shift records show for a typical run
470

Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids

Gd.
9:ooam 1o:oo am 2:30 PM
Soh t ion
For constant pressure operation we may write
(6.9.3 26)
TIlaking the derivative, recognizingthe result as linear, and substituting the lab results
(6.9.327)
.~
We a n then calculate K2 for the Wioratory setup
13.5)  ks
(K2),,li.iab
(30)
hr Ibf (0.17) in2 gal2 (30) gal + ( K J lbf (25) (2) (25) in2 = 0.37 in2 gal
3
(6.9.328)
K1 (the cake resistance) should be the same for the laboratory and the production units in processing product E, but K2 for the lab will differ frcm that for the production unit.
Performing the same calculation for the production hti,but on a 1ft2basis
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer i Fluids n
471
(,, K)
= 0.62 hr lbf
in2gal2
(6.9.329)
(K2)*&&pfo&
= 23.2 lbf hrs in2 gal
(6.9.330)
In using the production filter for product B,we will have a constant media resistance represented by K2 f o the production data, but a varying cake rm resistance represented by K fmm the lab data. 1 0.17tf =
in2gal V,2 + 2AP
23.2
ln2gal
AP
vf
(6.9.331)
At 75psi in a 24 hour period, we can therefore filter per square foot of the production filter
hr lbf lbf hrs (0.17) (23.2) in2 gal2 in2gal (24) hr = V,2 + vf (2) (75) Ihf (75) in2 in2
(6.9.3 32) giving us a total filtration volume of 6300 gal. Since the concentration of B is 10%by weight, we can therefore produce
472
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6300 gal water 8.33 lb water l0 lbm = 5831 lbm of B gal water 90 lbm water (6.9.333)
6.10 Flow Measurement
Instruments used for the measurement of flow of gases and liquids furnish convenient illustrations of application of the principles of momentum, heat, and mass transfer. The following sections consider some of these devices which rely on momentum transfer for their function.
6.10.1
Pitot tube
Figure 6.10.11shows a schematic diagram of a device called a pitot tube. This particular pitot tube uses a manometer to measure the pressure drop between points 1 and 4. Although a manometer is shown as the pressure measuring device, any appropriate pressure measuring device could be used. The physical configurations of actual pitot tubes are much more streamlined and sophisticated than would be suspected from this sketch, but their principle of operation is exactly the same. Such devices, more frequently used to measure gas velocities than liquid velocities, are inserted into the flow stre'am with the opening (point 1) perpendicular to the flow stream (facing upstream). The idea behind the device is that the flow supposedly decelerates to a standstill at point 1, thus converting most of the energy from the kinetic energy term in the mechanical energy balance to the pressure energy term (some also goes into the lost work term). Since the kinetic energy of the flow is a measure of the local velocity, the difference between the dyn'amic pressure obtained at point 1 and the static pressure obtained by openings parallel to the flow at point 4 is a measure of the velocity of the fluid.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
473
Figure 6.10.11 Pitot tube schematic
As the opening at p i n t 1 of the pitot tube is made progressively smaller, velocities closer and closer to the velocity at a point are obtained. The pitot tube, however, by its very nature is cumbersome enough that it is seldom used to approximate point measurements. For measurements over very small regions and of rapidly fluctuating velocities, other techniques are usually used; e.g., hot film or hot wire anemometers or laser Doppler techniques.
Figure 6.10.12 Flow at mouth of pitot tube
We may describe the rise in pressure associated with the deceleration of the fluid by applying the mechanical energy balance through a system swept out by the fluid which decelerates to nearly zero velocity at point 4 at the mouth of pitot tube, as shown in Figure 6.10.12, The boundaries of the system are pathlines. Writing the mechanical energy balance for this system
474
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
(v5)’
(4’ v)
2
+gAz+ Ps  P 4 = 1ww P
1

(6.10.11)
If we arbitrarily represent the lost work term as some fraction C , of the kinetic energy change
(6.10.12) we may write, assuming that <vq>* is much less than c v p 2 (1 ca)
(4’ 2 p =
P5
P4
(6.10.13)
(6.10.14) Since
d z
is simply another coefficient: let us rename it Cpitot, the
pitot tube coefficient, so (6.10.15) The coefficient C, accounts for the mechanical energy lost while decelerating and accelerating the fluid. This quantity cannot generally be calculated, and C is , usually determined experimentally for any given instrument. c v p is the average velocity over the inlet area to the system, not for the total pipe crosssection. As the area of the pitot tube is made smaller and smaller, < v p approaches the local velocity. The density used in Equation (6.10.14) is that of the flowing fluid, not the manometer fluid.
A cylindrical duct 2 ft in diameter carries air at atmospheric pressure. A pitot tube traverse is made in the duct using a waterfilled manometer giving
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Radial distance Erom
Wall
475
Height difference in manometer fluid levels
07 . 0.9
7.76
5.14
Calculate the approximate velocity profile and volumetric flow rate. Further data:
ft3 P ~ = 6 2 . 4 u H ft3 Cgror 0.99 =
p& = 0.0808 bQl
So1ution
The height differences may be converted to pressures and the pressures to velocities as follows: Observe that the density of air is much less than that of water. If the pitot tube locations are numbered as shown in Figure 6.10.1 1, we may write
PI  P4 = (PI  P2) + (P2  P) + (P,  P4) ’ =  p* g (z,  z2) p m g (z2 z3)  p* g (Z’
which can be written, noting that z4 = zl
 z4)
(6.1016)
(6.10.18)
476
But, in addition, PHOH >> pair, so
PI ~ 2
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
=
PHOH
g (~322)
(6.10.19)
Substituting in the expression relating the pressure drop to velocity
v =
CpilM
2 P H ~ H (23  ~ 2 ) g (2) (62.4
F) 2)
(32.2
(z3 z2) in
(A)
(v)
= 0.99
(v)  = 11.244ft S m s
(6.10.1 10) 
From this relation we can calculate, for each height difference, a velocity: Radial distance from wall, d (ft) 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 1
<V>
I
i
(ft/s) 9.8 15.8 22.4 25.4 31.2
J
This profile is plotted in the following figure. Note that, as usual, our experimental data scatter somewhat. We would have to decide in a realworld situation whether we had good reason for drawing a smooth curve such as shown approximating the data and assuming a symmetrical velocity profile or if, in fact, the curve should go through the individual data pints. (Upstream disturbances can severely distort velocity profiles.) We fit a secondorder polynomial to the data, forcing it to pass through (O,O), because we know the fluid sticks to the wall. The polynomial tit is
Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
477
(V)
=
 26.5 dZ+ 57.1 d
(6.10.111)
This simple curve fit does not yield a zero derivative at the center of the duct as the symmetrical velocity profile model we will assume when integrating would demand, but is reasonably close.
1 0 011 0:2 0:3 0:4 0:5 016 0:7 0:s0 9 1 RADIAL DISTANCE FROM WALL, FT.
We now obtain the volumetric flow rate from the model by
Q = LvdA
This relation m a y be written as
(6.10.112)
(6.10.113)
if we assume no variation in the 8 direction. Noting that d = (1  r)
Q=
I (*
0
26.5 [ 1  r]’
+ 57.1 [1 r1) (2 ~t dr r)
(6.10.1 14) (6.10.115)
ft Q = 45.9
S
478
Chapter 6: Momentum Trunsfer in Fluids
6.10.2
Venturi meter
The flow of a fluid through the constriction of a venturi meter as shown in Figure 6.10.21, causes a pressure drop which may be related to the average flow velocity with a mechanical energy balance and the mass balance. As can be seen from Figure 6.10.22, a properly designed venturi profile permits almost frictionless flow in some situations; i.e., the pressure energy that is converted to kinetic energy is almost all recovered downstream of the meter, so a very small permanent pressure drop (represented by lost work in the form of its conversion to internal energy of the fluid) is introduced into the flow.
Figure 6.10.21 Venturi schematic
From a mass balance, the volumetric flow rate at points 1 (the entering pipe inside diameter) and 2 (the throat diameter) is the same if p1 = p2.
P1
A1 ( V l ) =
P2 A2 (v2)
Q, = Q,
A mechanical energy balance yields
(6.10.21)
(6.10.22)
(6.10.23)
As with the pitot tube, the lost work tr is represented as some fraction of em the kinetic energy change.
C b
then
(6.10.24)
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
479
(6.10.25)
But a mass balance allows replacing c v p in terms of c v p .
(VI)
= 2(v2)
(6.10.26)
Substituting and rearranging
1
(.2>'[
($T]

1cg p
2
PZPI
(6.10.27)
Defining the venturi coefficient as C, (6.10.28) then (6.10.29)
It is customary to define
(6.10.210)
and thus
(v2)
= C"
Jp[(lp'l) 2 PZPI
(6.10.211)
The venturi coefficient in the above equations can be determined approximately using Figure 6.10.22,or by calibration of the actual unit.
480
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Reynolds number
%
Figure 6.10.22 Venturi meter coefficient (Reynolds number based on entrance diameter)4s
Examde 4.I0.2I
Flow measurement with venturi meter
A venturi meter with a throat diameter of 1 112 in. is installed in a 4in. Schedule 40 pipe line to measure the flow of water in the line. Using a manometer containing mercury as the manometric fluid, the pressure drop
observed is 50 in H from entrance to vena contracta. g
Data:
(specificgravity)Hg = (13.6)
1bm = 62.4 ft3 Cvenluri 0.975 =
PHOH
What is the flowrate of water in the pipe?
45
Fluid Meters: Their Theory and Applicdion, 4th e d , ASME (1937).
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids Solution
481
Calculating the pressure drop from the manometer data, letting points 1 and 2 be the low and high levels of the mercury, respectively, and remembering that the legs of the manometer above the mercury are filled with water
(PI P2) = [  g
( 1 '
z2)]
[PHgPHOH]
(6.10.212)
(pIp2) = (62.4)[?](13.61.0)(32.2)[$]

( 50 in)
= 3276(F)
[&] [

lbf s2 (32.2) Ibm ft
Q=
Q
(v2)
A, = C A 2
= (0.975)
4
d m
 2 P2P1
I
(6.10.213) (6.10.214) (6.10.215)
(#)2
ft2
Q
= O.7OT ft3
a (0.70) ft
];[
[
(748) gal ft3
I]&[
(60) = 315 gpm
(6.10.216)
(This is in the turbulent flow regime, so the coefficient used is reasonable.)
6.10.3
Orifice meter and flow nozzle
An orifice or a flow nozzle is essentially a restriction placed normal to the flow in a pipe to cause a pressure drop. The pressure is related to the average velocity of fluid via the mechanical energy balance. Figure 6.10.31 shows both
482
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
an orifice and a nozzle. The main difference between the orifice and the nozzle is that the orifice is more or less a simple hole in a plate, while the flow nozzle has a shape intermediate between an orifice and a venturi, in an attempt to decrease the amount of lost work experienced with the orifice without the high cost of fabrication of the venturi.
I
II 1 /
2
ORIFICE
+
f
I
3~
I
I
FLOW NOZZLE
Figure 6.10.31 Orifice meter, flow nozzle
We apply the mechanical energy balance, replacing lost work with a constant times kinetic energy as in the case of the venturi; however, in the case of the orifice and flow nozzle, tbe position of the vena contracta (minimum effective flow area) changes with velocity. Since location of the pressure taps remains fixed we use a coefficient defined as
CO =
(6.10.31)
Solving as before for <v> in terms of
p
(6.10.32)
(4= c o d 2  P ~ I
P2Pl
,+
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
483
The value of the orifice coefficient can be shown to be a function of the Reynolds number and p as in Figure 6.10.32, which shows a typical orifice coefficient.
Figure 6.10.32 Orifice (a) DJD1 = 0.80, (b) DJD1 = 0.60, (c) DJD1 = 0.20
ExamDle 6.10.31
Meterinn o f crude oil with orifice
A 2in. diameter orifice witb flange taps is used to measure the f o rate of lw l W F crude oil flowing in a 4in. Schedule40 steel pipe. The manometer reads 30 in Hg witb a 1.1 specific gravity fluid filling the manometer above the mercury to isolate it from the crude.
If the viscosity of the oil is 5 CP at lOOOF and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.9, what is the flow rate?
46 Tuve
and Sprenkle (1933). Insfrumenfs6: 201.
484
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Solution
Calculate Ap (PI P*) =
[PHgg(’l
z2)]+[~~u.8(z2z,)]
(PI  P2) =
[ g
(21
 4 [PH# Pnu*.] 1
(p, p2) =  (62.4)
[p] 1.1) (32.2) [S] (13.6
(6.10.33)
= 1950(!$)
(6.10.34)
We do not know either <v$ or COin the flow relation below; however, CO is aIso available in graphical form as a function of <v,> (as it appears in the Re on the orifice coefficient plot).
Q
=
(v,) A,
= CA,
(6.10.35)
We have, therefore, two equations in two unknowns, but one is not in analytical form. We could fit the orifice coefficient chart numerically to some analytic function and solve simultaneously using either an explicit analytical or a numerical technique, but this would be overkill for such a simple problem. We proceed instead by trial. Assume CO= 0.61
Q = VOA,
= (0.61) x
[1’ 1
ft2
(4) (‘2)
I12
(6.10.36)
X
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
ft3 Q = 0.16T
485
*
73gpm
(6.10.37)
Chapter 6
Problems
6.1 An orifice is being used to measure the flow of water through a line. A mercurywater manometer is connected across the orifice as shown below, the lines being filled with water up t the mercurywater interface. If the manometer o reading is 5 in., what is the pressure difference between the two locations in the pipe? Suppose the pipe had been vertical with water flowing upward, and the distance between the two manometer taps was 2 ft. What would the pressure difference between the two taps have been when the manometer reading was 5 in.?
I
I
In the vertical case, what would the pressure difference have been if ethyl acetate were substituted for the water?
6.2 For the following situation
486
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
What is the pressure p? The specific gravity of oil is 0.8. The specific gravity of mercury is 13.6.
6.3 For the following situation
The liquid at A and B is water.
a. Find PA  PB.
b. If the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia, find the gauge pressure at A.
6.4 For the following situation
Find the pressure in the drum A at position A. The manometer fluid is Hg.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
487
6.5 For the following situation find the pressure a P. The specific gravity of t Hg is 13.6
6.6 An inclined tube reservoir manometer is shown in the sketch.
P
a. Show the expression for the liquid deflection,L, is given in terms of the pressure difference Ap by the following n expression, where x is the change in level of the reservoir i inches
x = L A tube A,
L=
& J
488
Chapter 6 Momentum Transfer in Fluids :
b. If the height of an equivalent column of water is what is the expression for the manometer Ap = pHp0gAhe
sensitivity ?
L
4
c. If D = 96 mm, d = 6 mm, what angle 8 is necessary to provide a 5:l increase in liquid deflection, L, compared to the total deflection in a Utube manometer (i.e. Ap = pgh)? 6.7 Consider the ideal flow field determined by
w=
a.
b.
 ay'(a[t3>
Show this flow field is hotational. What is the velocity potential for this flow?
6.8 The complex potential w = voz2 describes ideal flow near a plane stagnation point.
a. Determine the expression for the potential and stream functions. b. What are the velocity components vx, vy? c. What is vo?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Y
"
489
I !
I
I
\
?'
'I
6.9 Consider the twodimensional ideal f o described by the potential function lw
+=
2n
re
and stream function
y/ =  In r
2z
r
where r and 0 are the usual polar coordinates. Sketch the flow field. This flow field represents a vortex  similar to the vortex seen in a draining bathtub. What does the ideal solution yield as r approaches zero? The ideal solution does not describe the realworld situation for small r because of large viscous forces in this region.
6.10 Sketch the flow field for the potential function given by
4=lnr 2n
K
and stream function
y=8
K
2n
490
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
where K is a constant. Note that these are the interchanged functions for the vortex above. Depending on the sign of K,the flow represents a source or a sink. The point at r = 0 is again a singularity. This type of mathematical description is sometimes used for flow of oil into a well bore from an underground formation. The solution is not good close to the well.
6.11 Two horizontal square parallel plates measuring 10 by 10 in. are separated
plate and a horizontal force of 1 lbf is applied to the top plate. If the distance between the plates were 0.1 in., how fast would the top plate move at steady state? How fast would the top plate move if the distance were 1/8 in.? If the horizontal force were increased to 1.6 lbf and the distance between the plates were 1/6 in., bow fast would the top plate move?
6.12 A Newtonian fluid is flowing between two parallel plates of length L. The two plates are separated by a distance h. The flow is steady and only in the y direction. Sufficient forces are applied to both plates so the upper plate has a velocity VB while the bottom plate moves at vo.
by a f l of water at WF. The b t o plate is bolted down,and the top plate, im otm in contact with the water, is free to move. A spring gauge is attached to the top
a. Draw a control volume and label it.
b. What is the pressure drop per unit length?
c. Derive the appropriate 2ndorderdifferential equation for
velocity and put it in dimensionless form. d. Calculate the dimensionless average velocity. e. If the fluid were pseudoplastic (nonNewtonian)how would you change a, b, c, d? (Don't do it  explain.)
6.13 Find the velocity profile, average velocity, and free surface velocity for a Newtonian fluid flowing down a vertical wall of length L. U e a control volume s (CV) of thickness Ax inside the fluid and measure x from the free surface. Remember that because the liquid surface is "free" (unbounded physically) at x = 0, the pressure at all points, vertical as well as horizontal, is atmospheric.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
491
I
6.14 Derive the equations for the velocity distribution and for the pressure drop in laminar,Newtonian flow through a slit of height yo and infinite width. 6.15 A fluid flows down the wall of a wetted wall absorber. A gaseous material is adsorbed into the liquid causing a viscosity variation according to
where po is the value of viscosity at the film surface. To determine the expression for velocity:
b
a. Draw the control volume (dxxdz) and show the forces acting on it (assume width of fl is w . Write the momentum im ) balance and simplify it for this problem, indicating your assumptions for the simplification.
b. Derive the 2ndorder differential equation describing the problem to be solved for velocity as a function of film
thickness.
c. What are the boundary conditionsfor this problem?
6.16 A Newtonian fluid is moving in laminar flow down an inclined wall under the influence of gravity. Assume a width of w and determine the:
492
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
a. Velocity profile b. Maximum velocity c. Average velocity d. Volumetric flow rate
e. Film thickness, 6
f. Drag force
6.17 Compare the plots of T~~ versus (dvz/dy) for a Newtonian fluid in laminar flow in a pipe and for a pseudoplastic fluid with n = 0.8. Assume the viscosity of the Newtonian fluid is p = 2 CP and the apparent viscosity of the nonNewtonian fluid p = 2 cP. (Use the velocity gradient from the Newtonian fluid in the powerlaw expression,)
6.18 Glycerine at 2 6 . W is flowing through a horizontal tube 1 ft in length and 0.1in. ID. For a pressure drop of 40 psi the flow rate is 0.00398 ft3/min. The density of glycerine at 26.5OC is 1.261 gm/cm3. What is the viscosity of the glycerine? Glycerine may be regarded as a Newtonian fluid.
6.19 An incompressible fluid is in steadystate laminar flow in the annular space between two horizontal, concentric pipes of length L. To find the expressions for the velocity distribution and pressure drop, the momentum balance may be applied to a control volume which is an annular shell of thickness dr. Show the differentialequation obtained
d q
dr
=
L
P O
PL
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
493
where r is the radius and z~~is shear stress in the z direction on the face of the shell perpendicular to the r direction.
6.20 A fluid with a density of 1.261 gm/cm3 is flowing through a tube 3 feet long with a diameter of 0.1 inch. If the pressure drop is 120 psi and the flow rate is 0.004 ft3/min, what is the viscosity of the fluid? 6.21 The sketch shows a rod moving through a fluid at velocity V. The rod and the cylinder are coaxial. Use the 1D equation of motion for a Newtonian fluid.
a. Show by appropriate assumptions that the equation of motion simplifies to
dr
b. What are the boundary conditions that apply to this equation? c. Integrate the equation and apply the boundary condition to show V 1nK
d. Show the volumetric flow rate is
494
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.22 Shown are data taken at short equal time intervals from a hot wire anemometer mounted in a turbulent air stream. Plot the data,and determine the mean velocity and the mean square fluctuation.
I Time I Velocitv. ft/s I
6
I
112 100
Y l
8
87
12
80
11 0
18
115
6.23 The velocity data below were measured for a fluid in turbulent flow. Plot the data, determine the velocity and the mean square fluctuation.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Flu&
49s
6.24 A smooth pipe carries water at a bulk velocity of 15 ft/s. The inside diameter of the pipe is 1 in. Use the universal velocity profile to calculate the shear stress at the wall. 6.25 Water at 6 O flows through a straight section of 100 ft of 1in.Schedule OF 40 pipe. At a bulk velocity of 5 ft/s the total pressure drop over the 100 ft is 3
psi. Calculate the thickness of the viscous sublayer inside the pipe. What is the equivalent roughness height for this pipe? Would the pipe be considered completely rough or hydraulically smooth under the given conditions? 6.26 For steady flow: Briefly discuss (a) how ideal flow differs from laminar flow, and (b) how laminar flow differs from turbulent flow. (c) On a sketch t such as below, draw in a laminar boundary layer forming a the tip of the flat plate (upper side only). At some point downstream, show on the sketch how transition to a turbulent boundary layer occurs. Label where the laminar sublayer, the buffer layer, and the turbulent core should be on the diagram. (d) Describe what would happen if we increased the approach velocity.
6.27 Assume the boundary layer which forms at the entrance to a circular pipe behaves like that on a flat plate. Estimate the length in diameters to reach fully developed flow (for the edge of the boundary layer to reach the center line of the pipe) for water at 68OF entering a pipe of D inches in diameter with a uniform velocity of 0.05 ft/s. (At this velocity the flow is laminar.)
496
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
v,=
 7=a
0.05 wsec
 X
6.28 The boundary layer which forms at the entrance to a circular pipe may be considered to behave like the boundary layer on a flat plate. Estimate the length needed to reach fully developed flow (i.e., for the edge of the boundary layer to reach the center line) for water at 68OF entering a pipe of 2in. ID at a uniform velocity of (a) 50 ft/s, (b) 5 ft/s, (c) 0.05 ft/s.
6.29 Assume that the velocity distribution for laminar f o over a flat plate is lw Obtain the expression for the boundary layer given by vX/v. = 3/2 ( ~ / 6 ) ~ . thickness relative to distance along the plate, and the expression for shear stress at the plate.
6.30 Section 6.6.2 lists the assumptions for the boundary layer model. Show bow to derive Eq. 6.6.22 and 6.6.23 starting with these assumptions and the microscopic mass and momentum balance. 6.31 Obtain a computer solution to the Blasius equation for twodimensional boundary layer flow past a flat plate d3f d2f 2+f7=0 dV3 dV
Using a fourthorder RungeKutta method, use a step size at .01 for h, obtain a solution for h = 2 to h = 5 .
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
497
6.32 Calculate the t t l drag force on a bridge cable which is 8 in. in diameter oa and extends a distance of 1,000 ft between support towers when a wind is s blowing across the line with a velocity of 40 mph. U e properties of air at 60°F. 6.33 Calculate the force acting on a circular bridge pier 5 ft in diameter which is immersed 60 ft in a river which is traveling at 3 mph. River temperature is at 70°F. 6.34 In calculating the drag force on a wing, we might consider it as two flat plates for the upper and lower surfaces plus a halfcylinderon the leading edge. Estimate the drag force for a wing approximately 5 inches thick, 30 ft long and 6 feet wide traveling at 500 ft/s in air at 32OF. Data for air at 32OF, 1 atm: p = 0.081 lbm/ft3;p = 0.023 cP.
6.35 In order to estimate the drag force on an airplane wing, model the wing as a halfcylinder for the leading edge and as two flat plates for the upper and lower surfaces. Estimate the drag force for a wing approximately 15 cm thick, 10 m long and 2 m wide on an airplane traveling at 100 m/s in air at OOC. The density of the air is 1.3 kg/m3 and viscosity is .023 CPat this temperature.
6.36 For the situation sketched, find the required power input to the fluid from the pump.
WO ter tank
Pump
Underground stream
p, * 5 psig
300 go1 /min
498
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.37 A 25hp pump is employed to deliver an organic liquid (p=50 lbm/ft3) through a piping system, as shown. Under the existing conditions, the liquid flow rate is 4,488 gaymin. a. Calculate the frictional losses ("lost work") in the piping system between points 1 and 2 in ft lbf/s. b. Assuming that the frictional losses vary as the square of the flow rate, calculate the required pump horsepower if the delivery rate is to be doubled.
T
loft
I
1
I
I
I
25 hp pump
1 otm
111'

p,
A,
6.38 Water at 600F (viscosity 1.05 cP) is being pumped at a rate of 185 gal/min for a total distance of 200 ft from a lake to the bottom of a tank in which the water surface is 50 ft above the level of the lake. The f o from the lw lake first passes through 100 ft of 342in. Schedule 40 pipe (ID = 3.548 in). This section contains the pump, one open globe valve and three standard elbows. The remaining distance to the tank is through two parallel 100ft lengths of 21/2 in. Schedule 40 pipe (ID = 2.469), each including four standard elbows. A reducing tee is used for the junction between the 31/2in. line and the two 2 4 2 in. lines. Calculate the lost work in the piping system. 6.39 Water at 2ooC is pumped from a tank to another tank at a volumetric f o lw rate of 1 x 10'3 m3/s. All the pipe is Schedule 40 and has an inside diameter of 0.1 m. For water at this temperature p = 998 kg/m3,p = 1 x 10'3 Pa s. If the pump has an efficiency of 60%,what is the power required of the pump in kW?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
499
40 m
6.40 Water is pumped from an open tank to a pressure vessel at 45 psig as shown. The difference in liquid levels between the two tanks is 50 ft. The flow rate is 20,000 lb& in a 3inch Schedule 40 steel pipe. The total length of pipe is 300 ft. What is the horsepower required if the pump has an efficiency of 50%?
6.41 An 80°F organic liquid (p = 52 lbm/ft3,p = 3.4 cP) is pumped from an open vessel to a pressurized storage tank as shown in the sketch. The difference in liquid levels between the two tanks is 60 ft The pipe is 3inch Schedule 40 steel and the sum of all straight lengths of pipe is 400 ft. The liquid is pumped at a rate of 20,000 lbmlhr. a. Show the equivalent length of the piping system is 485 feet. (You may assume entrance to pressure tank does not contribute.)
b. Show how to find the friction factor.
c. If the pump has an efficiency of 65%, what is the minimum horsepower required for tbe pump?
SO0
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.42 Water, at W F , is to be pumped at 200 gdmin for a t t i distance of 200 oa ft from a lake to the bottom of a t n in which the water surface is 50 ft above ak the level of the lake, The flow from the lake first passes through 100 ft of 31/2in. Schedule 40 commercial steer pipe (ID = 3.548 in.). This section contains the pump, one open globe valve, and three standard elbows. The remaining distance to the tank is through two parallel 100 ft lengths of 2IDin. Schedule 40 cast kon pipe (D 2.469 in.), each including fow standard elbows. = A reducing tee is used for the junction between the 31/2 and the two 211'2in. lines. Calculate the lost work in the system.
6.43 Calculate the pump horsepower required for irie system below if the pump operates at an efficiency of 70 percent.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
SO1
Data: The fluid is water; p = 62.4 lbm/ft3,p = 1 cP. The pipe is galvanized iron and is 3 in. ID. Q = 300 gal/min. All elbows are standard.
6.44 An airplane owner wants to install a fuel filter into his fuel line. In the event the enginedriven fuel pump (inside the engine) fails, the electric fuel pump will have to deliver the fuel to the engine at a minimum of 5 psig. On takeoff, the plane will be 12 degrees nose up and the engine will require 38 gallons per hour.
a. Can the filter be safely installed?
b. If not, can the size of the electric fuel pump be increased to allow a safe installation?
c. How big a pump is necessary?
0.1 ft
q T+
Engine
I
Fuel Tank
0.5 ft
I
n
I
I
Pipe 3/8inch Schedule 40 Steel Elbows Standard Pump power = 1 W, Efficiency = 55%
p = 3.1 CP
p = 6 lbdgal
6.45 A tank contains water at 1800F. The discharge rate at the end of the pipe is to be 100 gal/min. All pipe is Schedule4 commercial steel.
For H 2 0 @ 180°F p = 60.5 lbm/ft3
p = .35 C P
502
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
125 F T
The value of Ah is the elevation of the surface of the water in the tank from the discharge point. a. Show the equivalent length of the system 4in. pipe (include 4in. elbow plus contraction to 2in.line is 40 ft and the 2in. line is 197 ft. b. Determine the lost work in each pipe.
c. Calculate Ah in ft.
6.46 Water is flowing from a pressurized tank as in the sketch. The pipe is an 8in. Schedule 40 steel pipe. Determine the gauge pressure at 1. The f o rate lw is 5 ft3/s. Use 1 CPas the viscosity of water.
6.47 An experiment is performed to check the equivalent length of a standard elbow in a galvanized iron pipe system. The pressure drop p1p2 between two taps 10 ft on either side of the elbow is found to be 11 psig when the mass flow h rate of water is 26 lbds. Calculate t e equivalent length of the elbow.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
503
All p i p is horizontal
6.48 Water at 68OF flowing at an average velocity of 9.7 f t h through an old rusty pipe having an ID of 4.026 in. gave a net loss of head of 12.4 ft for a 51.5 ft test length. How does the experimental friction factor compare with that calculated for new commercial pipe? 6.49 Shown is an open wastesurge tank with diameter of 30 ft. This t n is ak fed by a pump supplying a steady 100 gal/min. When the pump is first turned on, the level in the t n is 10.0 ft. The tank drains to the Ocean through 3in. ak cast iron pipe as shown. Will the tank empty, overflow, or reach a constant level? Support your answer with calculations.
Entrances ore ordlnory
P # 50 lbm/ft3
 .
_

6.50 For the following system a head of 20 ft. is required to overcome friction loss. Calculate the pipe diameter.
SO4
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.51 Water is to be pumped through loo0 ft. of a horizontal Schedule 40 steel pipe at a flow rate of loo0 gpm. The maximum discharge pressure of the pump is 75 psig. The water pressure necessary at the end of the pipe must exceed 45 psig. Determine the smallest pipe size that may be used.
1k
1000'
2
IQ = 1000 gpm
plS 75 psig p2 2 45 psig = 1.2 105 ftvs
p = 1.94slug/ft3
6.52 An organic liquid flows from a reactor through a pipe to a storage tank in an oil refinery at a rate of 3 m3/min. The pipe is a commercial steel pipe with an inside diameter of 0.2 m. The gauge pressure inside the reactor vessel is 110 kPa. What is the total length of the pipe?
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
SOS
odhuy
1 114 sudden enlargement
6.53 A fluid with viscosity of 100 CP and density 77.5 lbm/ft3 is flowing through a 100 ft length of vertical pipe (Schedule 40 steel). If the pressure at the bottom of the pipe is 20 psi greater than at the top, what is the mass flow rate?
6.54 Water at 6OOF is flowing from a very large constant head reservoir to an irrigation ditch through a 11/2411. Schedule 40 cast iron pipe as shown below. All elbows are 900 standard elbows. Find the water flow rate in gallons per minute.
6.55 A hypodermic syringe is used to inject acetone at 700F into a laboratory equilibrium still operating at 5.0 psig. The syringe has a 1.5in.barrel ID and is connected to the still by 5.09 ft of special hypodermic tubing having an ID of 0.084 in. What injection rate in gallons per m n t would you expect for a force iue of 15 lbf applied to the syringe plunger? State your assumptions.
Barometer = 750 mm Hg Viscosity = 0.35 cP
506
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
Specific gravity = 0 7 .
6.56 An industrial furnace uses natural gas (assume 100% CH4) as a fuel. The natural gas is burned with 20% excess air, and is converted completely to CO2 and water. The combustion products leave the furnace a 5OOOF and pass into the t stack, which is 150 ft high and 3.0 ft ID. The temperature of the air outside of the stack is 65OF and barometric pressure is 745 mm Hg.
a. If the gases in the stack were standing still, what would be the stack draft (difference in pressure inside and outside the bottom of the stack)? b. If the gases were moving upward in tbe stack at a rate of 10 Ws, what would be the stack draft., neglecting friction? c. Including tbe effect of friction, estimate the expected flow rate. (The 10 ft/s given previously no longer applies). Make whatever simplifying assumptions you may feel necessary. p = 0.03 CP. 6.57 A liquid with p = 54 lbm/ft3 and p = 1.5 CPflows from a tank maintained at constant level through 70 ft of 11/2inch Schedule 40 steel pipe to another constant level tank 60 ft. below the other tank. There are two standard elbows, 2 ordinary entrances and an open gate valve in the piping system. What is the flow rate in the 1 1/2inch pipe?
1
opengate
I
60 ft
2
Ordinary entrance
Std Elbows
Ordinary entrance
6.58 Water (p = 1 cP) flows from a constant level tank through a 3in. inside diameter drawn tubing with an equivalent length of 200 ft. The exit of the pipe
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
507
W D = 0.0005).
is 30 ft. b l w the water level. Calculate the velocity of f o at 2 in fds. (Use eo lw
2
6.59 Water is flowing in the pipe network shown below. The water flows through a process in branch C, which for the purpose of calculating pressure drop can be considered as 300 ft of straight pipe. A bypass section is provided with a throttling valve so that the water flow to the process can be adjusted.
For the system shown, find
p2,
p3, <vA>, <vB>, and a,>.
All pipe is horizontal 3in. Schedule 40 steel. Pressures at points 1 and 4, respectively, are 30 psig and 2 psig.
p = 62.4 p 1 c P
PROCESS
0
1
A
2
C
W 
3
D
4
508
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.60 A large constant head water reservoir feeds two irrigation lines as shown below. If we neglect any kinetic energy change due to an area change of the piping and any losses which are associated with the tee joint at point A, find the bulk velocities in each line.
4 = 11/2in Schedule 40 commercial pipe
= 2in Schedule 40 commercial pipe
Gate volvr one  quar tcr
/
0
25 11
@
6.61 A horizontal pipeline system, composed of 6in. ID pipe, carries cooling water at about W F for a lean oil cooler and a product cooler. The product cooler needs much less cooling water than does the lean oil cooler. (Lengths given are equivalent lengths; that is, they include bends, fittings, etc.) Outlets exist at points 3 (lean oil cooler) and 5 (product cooler) and the outlet pressures may both be taken to be 0 psig. The inlet is supplied by a pump capable of maintaining a 30psig pressure. It has become necessary to increase the flow supplied at point 3, with less flow required at point 5. If a 6in. line is installed from point 4 to point 3, as indicated, what will be the flow rate in this branch? Assume f  0.015 over the entire system.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
so9
800 I t
6.62 Calculate the equivalent diameter of the annular space between a 11/2 and a 2411. Schedule 40 pipe. 6.63 A rectangular enclosed channel of asphalted cast iron is used to transport water at 30 ftfs. Find the pressure drop for each foot of channel length.
6.64 A conduit whose crosssection is an equilateral triangle (with side 5 in.) has a pressure drop of 1 psi/ft. How much air at standard conditions will the conduit deliver? 6.65 In many nuclear reactors, the nuclear fuel is assembled in solid form in the form of a lattice through which liquid sodium coolant is pumped. This assembly is usually built up of fuel plates which are thin rectangular prisms. In one such assembly, the openings for coolant are 2.620 in. wide by 0.118 in. The plates are 25 in. long. Manifolding at the ends is such that an infinite diameter may be assumed. Calculate the pressure drops in psi between the inlet and outlet manifolds of the fuel assembly for botb water at an average temperature of l O F and sodium at 4OOOF,assuming that the surface roughness OO of the plates is equivalent to drawn tubing and that fluid velocities of 20 ft/s are Used.
510
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.66 A polymer with n = 0.5 g has a numerical value of 1500 and p = 58 lbm/ft3is flowing at a velocity of 0.25 ft/s through a square conduit 114 inch on a side.
a, What are the units of g?
b. What is the pressure drop per foot (psi/ft)?
6.67 For flow of a fluid through a porous medium the equation of continuity is
q$+(V.pq)
=0
where f is porosity and q is the superficial (Darcy) velocity. The equation of motion is Darcy's law
Q = $(vP+Pg)
where k is permeability. Defrne
@
= p+pgz
(gravity in the zdirection). a. Show by combining the above that the equation of condition far single fluid flow in a porous medium is
b. Show for the flow of an incompressible flow V.kV@=O or if k is constant
V 2 W
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
52 2
c. For a compressible liquid
If Q is constant and assume gravity is negligible and show
d. For the flow of an ideal gas
P=mP Assume gravity is negligible and show
M
+pat = V k Vp2 ap
*
6.68 A filter is to be operated as follows:
a. At a constant rate of 2 gal/min until the pressure drop reaches 5 psi, and then
b. At a constant pressure drop of 5 psi to the end of the run.
How long will it take to collect 500 gal of filtrate operating as above? You may make appropriateassumptions. The following data have been taken at a constant rate of 1 gallmin.
6.69 Calculate the pressure drop for water at lOOOF and 1 atm flowing at 500 l b h through a bed of 1/2in. spheres. The bed is 4 in. in diameter and 8 in. high. The porosity (void fraction) of the bed is 0.38. Assume gravity is negligible.
512
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
6.70 A 12in. circular duct in which a gas witb p = 0.001 lbm ft3 and p = 0.1 CPis flowing is shown below. A pitot tube attached to a differential manometer is inserted in the duct as shown. Flow is laminar, and the pitot tube coefficient may be taken as 1.0. a. Calculate the velocity (if any) in ft/s using the pitot tube lw equation. If no f o is present, explain.
b. Calculate the mass flow rate in l b d s if possible explain why in detail.
 if not,
12 in.
.3 Ibm/f1’
= 6 2 . 4Ibm
6.71 A pitot tube traverse was made in a 3in. Schedule 40 steel pipe in which water at 58OF was flowing. By integrating
LvdA
=I
R2
v2n;rdr =nIR2ydr2
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
513
graphically, we get a flow rate of 0.1336 ft3/s (C is the coefficient). At the ak same time as the traverse the discharge into a weigh t n was 1,400 lbm of water in 194.4 s. Find the pitot tube coefficient. Explain the integration above.
6.72 You are calibrating a pitot tube in a 4in. Schedule 40 pipe in which water is flowing at WF. The following data are recorded:
I
0.5
I
h(inches of manometer fluid,
16.59 18.49 21.55
1
0.7
23.70
where y is the distance measured from the wall. At the same time, a sample of the flow is taken by discharging the entire stream into a weighing tank. The discharge rate was found to be 1,410 lbm in 60 s. Assuming that the velocity profile is symmetrical, find the pitot tube coefficient.
6.73 Fuel oil is flowing into an openhearthfurnace complex and is entering through a venturi meter as shown below.
6 ‘in.
2
.1
The lost work between points 1 and 2 is estimated at 5 percent of Ap/r between 1 and 2. If the specific gravity of the oil is 1.4 and the meawed pressure drop is p2  p =  8 psig, 1
a. Show a control volume and label all control surfaces and forces.
514
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
b. Calculate tbe oil flow rate in gallons per minute.
6.74 A venturi meter is used t determine rate of f o in a pipe. The diameter o lw at the entrance (1) is 6 in. and at the vena contracta (2) is 4 in. Find the discharge through the pipe when p1  pz = 3 psi, for oil with specific gravity = 0.6.
6.75 A venturi meter is placed in a 4in. ID pipe on an angle of 300 with the horizontal. Water at room temperature flows through the venturi, which has a throat of 2 in. If the pressure drop in the meter is measured by a mercury manometer, find the velocity of water in the 4in. pipe.
6.76 Water at 7OoF is flowing in a 3in. ID pipeline and is being metered by an orifice meter where b = 0.5. Calculate the flow rate in gallons per minute if the Ap across the orifice is 28 in. of manometer fluid where the manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 1.7. Justify your assumption on CO,the orifice discharge coefficient. 6.77 Water at 7OOF is flowing in a 4in. ID pipeline and is being metered by an orifice meter where b = 0.6. Calculate the flow rate in gallons per minute if the Ap across the orifice is 26 in. of manometer fluid where the manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 1.6. Justify your assumption on CO,the discharge coefficient. 6.78 Water is being metered by an orifice as shown below. Calculate the water flow rate in gallons per minute.
Chapter 6: Momentum Transfer in Fluids
515
6.79 Water is metered by an orifice (see sketch). Calculate tbe flow rate in gallons per minute.
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7
HEAT TRANSFER MODELS
7.1 The Nature of Heat
One term in our overall energy balance is "heat" and was defined as energy transferred across the boundary of the system as a result of temperaturedifference. The overall energy balance tells us only that the sum of all the terms in the equation must remain constant  that a balance be maintained  that is, that energy be a conserved quantity. We can,therefore, calculate rate of transfer of any of the various forms of energy directly from the overall energy balance only if we know the total of the remaining terms. The overall energy balance by itself (or even when combined with the overall momentum and mass balances) is therefore seldom sufficient to determine the state of our system. In construction of the overall energy balance, however, we did not make any statement about how the rate of transfer of heat depended on the distribution in space of temperature or the thermal resistance of the medium. We will now consider rate equations (as opposed to balance equations) which will give us additional information for modeling. Elementary physics teaches us that heat transfers by three mechanisms: conduction convection radiation
Conduction is the transfer of energy on a molecular scale independent of net bulk flow of the material. For example, in a solid the molecules are held in a more or less rigid structure, so that there is no large amount of molecular translation from point to point. As long as the molecules have significant amounts of thermal energy, however, they do vibrate, with the vibrations increasing in amplitude with the thermal energy level.
518
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
These vibrations can be transmitted from one layer of molecules to an adjacent layer of molecules at a lower thermal energy level, one of the ways in which heat conduction takes place. Another mechanism of heat conduction on a molecular level involves the socalled free electrons which are more abundant in metals than otber substances.These "free" electrons are electrons which are very loosely bound to atoms and are therefore relatively free to move about in the solid. Sometimes these electrons are referred to as the "electron gas." These electrons are excellent carriers of both thermal energy and electrical energy and, therefore, substances which have large numbers of free electrons are good conductors of heat as well as good conductors of electricity  for example, silver and aluminum. In liquids, molecules also vibrate as a result of thermal energy. In liquids, however, they are not held in a rigid lattice structure and the molecules can undergo a process of molecular diffusion, which is the interchange of position of molecules on a molecular scale. In this process, energy is not transferred from one molecule to the next, but rather by the interchange of a highenergy molecule with a lowenergy molecule. If one looks at the problem microscopically, that is to say, on a molecular level, some of these mechanisms of conduction look much like what we define as convection. The question is really one of scale. In convection we are concerned with groups of molecules which contain many millions of molecules, so we simply ignore the molecular level.
A classical example of energy transfer by conduction is that of transfer of thermal energy down a poker thrust into a fire to wann the hand holding it; a more literary example is a cat on a hot tin roof, with conduction from roof to feline paw.
Convection is the transfer of energy from place to place by a bulk flow of matter from a hotter region to a colder, or vice versa. The thermal energy is carried by the matter rather than being transmitted by it. Convection is usually subdivided into two categories: free convection and forced convection.
By forced convecfion, we mean convection which is induced by some prime mover such as a pump, fan, blower, etc. By free (or natural) convection, we mean convection which results from density differences within the system.' This type of convection can, for example, result from thermal gradients or concentration gradients. Either of these mechanisms of convection can give rise
These terms are also applicable to mass transfer; for example, density differences can result from either temperature or concentration gradients, or both.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
519
to either laminar or turbulent flow, although turbulent flow is perhaps more common in forced convection problems than in free convection problems. In flowing systems, the classification of heat transfer as convection rather than conduction is largely a question of scale, with larger scale associated with convection. In fact, if we wish to be rigorous, what we refer to as heat transfer by convection is really a sequential process. For example, in transfer of heat from a warmer to a cooler region by what we call convection,a mass of material moves by bulk flow from a hotter region to a colder region, at which point it mixes with the local fluid and ultimately gives up the energy by conduction on a molecular Scale to the colder surrounding fluid.
in homes and transfer of t h e m energy on the earth by largescale movements
i Typical examples illustrating convective heat transfer are forced ar furnaces
of the atmosphere.
Radiation is the transfer of energy by the emission and subsequent absorption of electromagneticradiation. A heat lamp transfers heat primarily by radiation, as does a campfire. The energy from the sun arrives via radiation. The mechanism of heat transfer by radiation does not fall into the convenient parallelism with mass and momentum transfer that conductive and convective heat transfer do. There is no mass or momentum transfer process analogous to that of radiation for cases of interest here.
We know, of course, from physics that radiation is associated with an equivalent amount of mass and, therefore, when radiation is emitted mass is transferred. The amount of mass, however, is insignificant in any presentday engineering process. Convective and conductive heat transfer are intimately related, because heat transferred by convection ultimately involves conduction. Perhaps a crude analogy will make this clearer. Suppose we have a group of people assembled, and someone in the back of the group wishes to communicate with someone in the front. One approach to the problem is for the person to write a note and hand it to his neighbor toward the front, and have the neighbor pass it to his neighbor to the front, etc. This is analogous to conduction. Another alternative is for the person in the back row to walk through the group (convection)and hand the note to the individual in front (conduction). Here, although the mechanism is convection, the ultimate transfer is still by conduction. The radiation analog is for the person standing at the rear of the group to shout the message, which utilizes a different medium (air) to carry the message  a medium in which the message moves as sound waves, of a very different nature from electromagnetic waves.
520
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.1.1
Forced convection heat transfer
For forced convection, the microscopic thermalenergy equation, incorporating Fourier’s law and assuming a Newtonian fluid of constant density and thennal conductivity2 with viscous dissipation the only generator of thennal energy, as shown in Section 3.2.3 is
(7.1.11)
In rectangular coordinates, this equation takes the form
+v,+v2+v3E) d T aT aT at ax, ax2
+2p ax,
((*)’.(”)’.(”)’] (3 ( ), 3)’ av, +P
ax, ax,
ax3
=
q.+
ax,
a? ,+2+a? a?
ax, ax,,
+
+ av, +
(3 +
ax,
ax,
ax,
ax3 ax,
”)’
ax,
1
(7.1.12)
The last two terms on the righthand side account for viscous dissipation (the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy) and are frequently negligible, even for forced convection models, except for systems where either velocity gradients or viscosity are unusually large. Since energy is conserved in systems we consider in this text, the lost mechanical energy appears in the thermal energy balance as part3 of the generation of thermal energy, which we designate below as ye (for generationfimml). Let us use the following dimensionless variables to dedimensionalize this equation for forced convection models. The single superscript * is used for forced convection, the double superscript ** for free convection.
One can generate thermal energy in other ways; e.g., through effects produced by fluctuating electromagnetic fields.
* This equation omits certain forms of energy input; i.e., microwave radiation.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
521
(7.1.13)
Calculating some derivatives to be used later
(7.1.14)
Using the chain rule for the time derivative
(7.1.15)
and for a typical space coordinate
(7.1.16)
(7.1.17)
av; ax;
Substituting in the energy equation
(7.1.18)
522
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
P
e, [$][(T*To)] [g]+ [v v:] [&I [Tl To]
[v v:]
+
[&I
[Tl  To] a' T
I;.[
+
[v v;]
[$1 [A] [m;}
[TlTO] a' T
(7.1.19)
Factoring constants
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
523
Rearranging
+
(([g][S]r ([$1
+
+
+[
$11 ([$1 $1)
+
+[
(7.1.111)
Using the definitions of the Reynolds number, the Prandtl number, and the Brinkman number (all dimensionless)
524
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
we can write
Using Qp* to denote the dissipation4 function written in dimensionless variables, applying tbe definition of the substantial derivative, and defining the dimensionless operator in rectangular coordinates as
v* = 6,+6,+6, d d ax; ax;
ax;
d
the dimensionless energy balance for forced convection becomes D T* = (&)V**T'+(&)@;
(7.1.l15)
where the definition of the dimensionless substantial derivative operator is
The dissipation function is comprised of those terms in the balance representing conversion of mechanical to thermal energy via the action of viscosity.
+
+
(&)
{([3]T ([%IT ([q)
+
(7.1.l14)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
525
7.1.2
Free convection heat transfer
For free convection, we begin with the energy equation incorporating Fourier’s law and assuming a Newtonian fluid of constant density and thermal conductivity. The terms which result from viscous dissipation are usually considered negligible for free convection models, and consequentlyare omitted.
(7.1.21)
and its rectangular coordinateform p ~ p (aT v ,  aTv 2  +aT 3 z ) + + ~ at ax, ax, ax,
= k(
ax,
a? 2a? T + a? +
ax,
ax,,
(7.1.22)
Use the following dimensionless variables to dedimensionalize this equation for free convection models. (The single superscript * is used for forced convection, the double superscript ** for free convection.) We need new definitions for dimensionless velocity and time because there is no “natural” time or velocity because motion is induced by density differences caused by temperature differences, not forced by an outside agent.
(7.1.23)
Calculating some derivatives we will need below
526
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.1.24)
the previous example
Using the chain rule for the time derivative gives a different result than in
2
=
[$][z][G] a aT’ = [$][(T1To)][$] T
(7.1.25)
as does application to the derivative of velocity with respect to a typical space coordinate
(7.1.26)
The space derivatives of the temperature remain the same as in the previous example
aT
(7.1.27)
z[
tellIlS
a?
T,T, 
a?’’ D2 ][a$]
(7.1.28)
Substituting in the energy equation after deleting the viscous dissipation
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
527
T $V~][~][T1T0][7]a'
+
[&v:*] [A] To] [TI
[$I}
T
89'
3x2
9 1
Factoring constants and rearranging
z]+[Y][z]) a?"' T
(7.1.29)
(7.1.210)
Adjusting the definition of the dimensionless substantial derivative operator to use dimensionless variables from Eree convection

$*=
lab*]

+[.;*I
 +[.;*I
[P.,]
+[.;*I
a []:
 (7.1.211)
gives
(7.1.212)
528
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
Table 7.1.21 summarizes the equations for forced and free convection transfer in Newtonian fluids with constant density and thermal conductivity.
MOMENTUM
1 Dv*  =  v * p * + v *2v * Dt* Re
1 8 +  g Fr
Dv** Dt**
v*2v**
 x Gr,, g ;
7.2 Conduction Heat Transfer Models
Previously we accounted for the conversion of mechanical energy into either heat or internal energy by categorizing it as "lost work." Simply naming the category did not give a means of relating the category to the physical variables of the system so that prediction could be added to the model as well as description.
In carrying the model to the next level of detail, "lost work" was related to momentum transfer using Newton's law of viscosity:
(7.21)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
529
We now use an analogous equation for heat transfer, which is (in its onedimensional form)
(7.22)
Q A
rate of heat flow in xdirection
area normal to xditection
where designates heat f o and q designates heat flux. This relationship lw describes heat transfer by conduction. The isotropic thermal conductivity k, as will be mentioned later, is a function of pressure and (primarily) of temperat~re.~ Equation (7.22), known as Fourier's law, is a phenomenological law; that is, it is true not because of our ability to derive it from frrst principles (although we are coming closer with models based on molecular dynamics), but rather because we define the thermal conductivity as the number which makes the equation true. Conveniently, in doing this the thermal conductivity turns out to be relatively constant  otherwise, the attempt would be futile. In fact, some efforts6 have been made to find higherorder dependence of heat transfer upon the temperature gradient, but such efforts to date have been unsuccessful.
7.2.1 Threedimensional conduction in isotropic media
We wrote the Fourier equation in onedimensional form in Cartesian coordinates to show that it parallels our previous equation (Newton's law of viscosity) for momentum transfer. The general form of the Fourier equation for isotropic media is
(7.2.1 1)
I
1
For cases where the thermal conductivity varies with direction in the material (anisotropy) the thermal conductivity becomes a tensor; we will treat in this text primarily materials which may be considered isotropic. An example of an anisotropic material is a fibrous material such as wood, where the resistance to heat conduction varies depending on whether one is going along the grain or across the grain. Flumerfeld, R. V. and J. C. Slattery (1969). AIChEJ 15: 291.
530
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
q = heat transfer flux [F/(t L) = M/t2], witb units of energy [F L = M L2/t2]per unit time [t] and unit area k2] typically, Btu/(hr ft2),a vector quantity
k = thermal conductivity in units of energy per unit time, unit area, and unit temperature gradient [F L/(t L2 T/L) F/(t T) = = M L/(t3 T)]; typically, Btu/(hr ft2 OF/ft) or W/(m K), here written as a scalar quantity (this assumes an isotropic medium  in a more general medium the thermal conductivity is a secondorder tensor  but for most of the problems of interest herein, we can assume isotropy)
= gradient of the temperature field: a vector whose dimensions are temperature per unit length [T/L] (typically, OF/ft), a vector quantity
The negative sign is chosen for the equation because heat flows in the opposite direction to the temperature gradient: heat runs downhill, as it were, just as a skier progresses downhill. A negative temperature gradient (derivative) in the xdirection gives a positive heat flux in the xdirection. Remember also that the gradient operator takes different forms in various coordinate systems as can be seen in the fluxes listed in Table 7.2.11.
Table 7.2.11 Components of Fourier Eyuation in Various Coordinate Systems
Rectangular Cartesian
qn =
Cylindrical
Spherical
qf =  kJT h qe = k aT 1 r ae q, =   1 a T kr sin9 dp
ka ax
az
T X qf =  ka
q, = k aT 1 r ae
qz = kaT
T q y = ka ay
qz = kaT
aZ
When considering energy transfer in solids rather than liquids, there is no viscous dissipation because there is no flow; however, thermal energy can be generated by imposed fluctuating electromagnetic fields, so, in general, one can have a thermal energy generation term ye in the unsteadystate energy balance even in the absence of dissipation in the mechanical energy balance
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
531
(7.2.12) For a solid q = k*VT Substituting Equation 7.2.13 into Equation 7.2.12
(7.2.14)
(7.2.13)
In rectangular coordinates
(7.2.15)
If the material is isotropic,k is independent of direction and may be factored out of the derivative, then both sides divided by k
2+++
p C aT k at
a2T ax2
a2T d2T ye ay2 az2 k
(7.2.16)
The thermal diffusivity, a, so called because it both has the same units and serves an analogous function in heat transfer to the mass diffusivity (i.e., the diffusion coefficient, I ) ) in mass transfer, is defined in terms of the resulting group
k a = thennaldiffusivity E pC P
(7.2.17)
At steady state for an isotropic material and if there is no source for thermal energy (for example, from microwave beating, etc.)
d2T d2T ++ d2T = 0
ax2
ay2
az2
(7.2.18)
532
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
or, in symbolic notation V2T = 0
(7.2.19)
This is the wellknown Laplace equation, which appears in many contexts in engineering, and has been extensively studied for many years. As is typical for differential equations, there are an infinite number of solutions T(xi, t) from which the boundary conditions of the particular problem select the appropriate set for the physical situation(s)considered.
722 ..
Boundary conditions at solid surfaces
For heat transfer problems considered here, there are three types of boundary conditions at solid surfaces that are pertinent Constant surface temperature (the Dirichlet condition), typically, T = T,
(7.2.21)
Constant surface heat flux (the Neumann condition), typically,
(7.2.22)
where qs= 0 for an insulated boundary (adiabatic condition) Convection coefficientprescribed at surface, typically,
kal
dx
x=xs
= h(T,T)
(7.2.23)
where h is the heat transfer coefficient and T is the ambient temperature For unsteadystate problems an initial profile must also be specified: T(xi, 0 . )
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
533
723 ..
Thermal conductivity
Typical values for thermal conductivities of some common materials are given in Table 7.2.31.
Table 7.2.31 Relative Values of Thermal Conductivity, Btu/[hr ft OF] (Qualitative use only not for design calculations)

METHANE HYDROGEN HELIUM ETHANE CAfWON DIOXIDE ARGON AMMONIA
OXYGEN
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
534
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Table 7.2.31 (continued) Relative Values of Thermal Conductivity, Btu/[hr ft OF] (Qualitative use only not for d e sign calcuI ations)

MERCURY CAnBNTETRACHLORIDE Ro CARBONDtSULFIDE
TWCtQOROETHYLENE TlRPENTINE
n)(YLENEGLYCOC
KEROSENE BENZENE OCTANE PEMANE GASOCINE METHANOL ACETONE AMMONIA WATER
XYLENE
0.01
,
. . . . ,.
0:1
,
i
10
ASBESTOS ASPHALT BRICK (BUILDING) PLASTER (BUILDING) GRANITE GLASS (BOROSILGATE) K;E SNOW WOOL (ANIMAL) PAPER CONCRETE w(300 (BALSA, ACROSS GRAIN) WOOD (WHITE PINE, ACROSS GRAIN) WOO0 (PARALLEL TO GRAIN)
0.01
0.1
1
10
In general, the thermal conductivity is a fairly weak function of pressure and a much stronger one of temperature. In our work we will not be greatly concerned with pressure effects on thermal conductivity. We will, however, treat cases in which temperature effects on thermal conductivity are important.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
535
Data are available' or may be estimated by a variety of equations based on molecular principles.8 * 9 ~O1 The high thermal conductivity of metals is largely due to the great number of free electrons  the socalled electron gas. Since these electrons are responsible for electrical conductivity as well as t h e m conductivity, these two properties are highly correlated. Nonconducting (electrically) solids must rely mostly on lattice vibrations to conduct thermal energy, except for some cases where radiation is exchanged between molecules. There are four mechanisms for conduction in solids: motion of free electrons vibrations of the lattice coupling of molecular magnetic dipoles electromagneticradiation between atoms
Thermal conductivity of gases and nonmetallic liquids is small.
For a stationary solid the velocity terms in the energy balance are zero, leaving
(7.2.31)
Using as the constitutive relationship the Fourier equation
('7.2.3 2)
gives (7.2.33)
For example, the Thermophysical Properties Research Center (TPRC) in the Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS) at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, maintains large data bases on thermal conductivity as well as other thermophysical properties. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, pp. 247 ff. Hsu,S. T. (1963). Engineering Heat Transfer, D. Van Nostrand, pp. 9 ff., 569 ff. l0 Perry, R. H., C. H. Chilton, et al., Eds. (1963). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, pp. 3224.
536
or, in rectangular coordinates
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
If the thermal conductivity is constant, k = k = k = k, giving , , ,
(7.2.35) If, in addition, steadystate conditions prevail and there is no thermal energy generation (7.2.36)
7.2.4 Onedimensional steadystate conduction in rectangular coordinates
Onedimensionalconduction in single or multilayer media in the absence of thermal energy generation is relatively simple to treat by analytical methods, so these problems will be the primary focus of the analytical treatment in this section. We then use the case of conduction with thermal energy generation to illustrate the finite element numerical method. The finite element method is one of two numerical methods for the solution of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations that we illustrate by simple examples. Our purpose is not to become involved in the details of the solution methods, but only to give the reader a basic understanding of upon what the particular method is based.
Both of these numerical methods are normally implemented at a scale where the numerical method used for machine solution of the large systems of equations is an important item. Both methods use the generation of a mesh to cover the domain of interest. The finite element method in particular relies heavily upon software for mesh generation. We confine ourselves to essentially trivial examples in order not to become involved with details of the numerical analysis/computer implementation.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models : Analytical solution
537
If we assume the x axis to be in the direction of heat flow, and further assume that no heat is being conducted in the y or zdirections (or equivalently, that no temperature gradients exist in those directions),the Fourier equation reduces to1' dT qx = kdx (7.2.41)
If we consider the case of a single homogeneous solid as shown in Figure 7.2.41, where the area normal to heat flow is constant and the faces are maintained at T1and T2,we may integrate the equation as follows: (7.2.42)
(7.2.43)
Figure 7.2.41 Homogeneous solid
A total energy balance shows us that Q is constant; since A is constant, qx is constant and may be removed from the integrand above. If we know k as a function of T, we can integrate the righthand side. For various functional forms this might be done analytically, numerically, or graphically.
l 1 An energy balance shows that Qx is constant. In the present geometry, the area is constant as we move in the xdirection, so qx is constant. This is not true in general for example, in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, the area usually changes as we go in the rdirection.
538
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The simplest case is that of constant k, where Equation (7.2.43) integrates
as
(7.2.44)
temperahm profile
and some arbitrary point x in the solid (where we have T) we obtain the
If the limits on the integration are taken raber as between x1 (where we have T1)
(7.2.45)
This is the equation of a straight line. Therefore, for conduction problems
at steady state
where the crosssectional area normal to the flow of heat is constant k is constant
the temperature profile is linear, as shown in Figure 7.2.42.
BY using the fact that Qx/A = qx, we can rearrange this equation to the
form12
resistance =
potentialdifference current
(7.2.46)
as
l2 The parallel is obvious to
careful of signs.
where E = voltage difference, I = current, and R = resistance. However, by convention E represents a voltage difference El  E2 = AE = E. Our convention is that the A symbol represents the value at point 2 minus the value at point 1, so one must be
R=E I
Ohm’slaw in the form
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
539
(7.2.47)
resistance = potentialdifference   AT current QX
Ax
kA
Figure 7.2.42 Temperature profile in 1D heat transfer by conduction, rectangular coordinates
Equation (7.2.47) is satisfactory for a single solid; however, we frequently have a series of different solids, as in the case where we have a composite wall (for example, a layer of insulation plus the wall itself). Before we discuss this case we must briefly treat a very important point: the interface condition between solids.
Interface condition between sollds  series conduction
In this text we will make the assumption that there is no thermal resistance between solids in direct contact for series conduction unless we
specifically state otherwise. Another way to state this assumption is to say that the contact faces of two solids A and B have at the same surface temperature that in Figure 7.2.43 both the righthand face of solid A and the lefthand face of solid B are at T3. For clean, smooth solids in intimate contact this is a good assumption.
540
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.2.43 Conduction with two solids in contact assuming no temperature drop at interface
However, dirt at the interface or a poor contact which leaves void space along the contact line (for example, because of an irregular surface) can make it a poor assumption, so the assumption does not hold, as in Figure 7.2.44. The righthand temperature of solid A is no longer the same as the lefthand temperature of solid B.
Figure 7.2.44 Temperature profile with interfacial resistance
When interfacial resistance is present, one way it can be modeled is by treating it as if it were another solid in the series of solids in the conduction path, as in Figure 7.2.45, by defining an effective resistance (see fouling coefficients in heat exchangers later in Section 7.6 for a similar treatment.) The interfacial resistance becomes just another in the series of resistances in the conduction path.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
541
Figure 7.2.45 Contact resistance treated as an intermediate solid
We could calculate the heat flow through the wall in Figure 7.2.43 by applying Equation (7.2.42) to either solid A or solid B  both approaches would give the same answer because
(7.2.4 8)
(7.2.4 9)
However, to solve the problem by this method requires a knowledge of T3, and this temperature is often hard to obtain experimentally. For example, suppose that solid B is merely a coat of paint instead of a fairly thick coat of insulation how does one measure T3? The usual information we have at our disposal is the overall temperature drop, that is, T1  T2. (In fact, we usually do not even have the surface temperatures T1 and T2,but rather the temperatures somewhere in the fluid phase adjoining the wall. This will be discussed further when we study convection; for the moment assume that we know T1 and Tz.)
542
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Equivalent thermal resistance  series conduction
Let's see if we can develop an equation for heat conduction through solids in series in terms of the overall temperature drop (T1  T2) and an equivalent resistance by incorporating the individual thicknesses, AXA and Axg, and the thermal conductivities, kA and kB. In other words, we want an equation which gives
Q,
=9 2

 (A T)ovefdl [equivalentresistance]  (T2  TJ [equivalentresistance]
[equivalentresistance]
(7.2.4 10)

for the situation in Figure 7.2.46.
Figure 7.2.46 Development of equivalent conductance for series conduction
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
543
Thus far we know how to relate qx only to the individual temperature drops. However, observe that
 (AT
= (T,
 T2) = U 1  73) + (T3  T2)l
(7.2.411)
and that for each solid individually (7.2.412) Substituting Equation (7.2.412) in Equation (7.2.411)
(AT)md
= cr,T*) =
(7.2.413)
and the result in Equation (7.2.4lO), we have (7.2.4 14)
1 (equivalent resistance)
This yields (equivalent resistance) =
(7.2.415)
The first term involves only properties of solid A and the second only of solid B, so the equivalent resistance for two solids in series can be seen to be the sum of two resistances, one for solid A and one for solid B. Substituting in Equation (7.2.410) (7.2.416)
544
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Note that the area is constant. Observe that although this example was done for onAj solids, the same two procedure is valid for any number of layers of solids in series. We simply add the individual temperature differences to get the overall AT,substitute for the individual temperature differences using Equation (7.2.4 12), and obtain [the minus sign occurs because by definition AT = (T2 Tl) rather than (T1  T2).
Qn
= qxA =
1
(7.2.4 17)
Equivalent thermal resistance  parallel conduction
Now let us consider conduction in parallel layers. The physical situation being considered is shown in Figure 7.2.47.
Figure 7.2.47 Development of equivalent conductance for parallel conduct ion
Again we are pursuing an equivalent resistance to use in the formula
Qx
= qxA
[equivalentresistance]

 v  T,) 2 [equivalentresistance] (T,  T J [equivalentresistance]
(7.2.418)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
545
However, in the parallel case the temperature drops are identical for the two layers, whereas in the series case the fluxes were the same. If we assume that thermal energy flows in only the xdirection (a good assumption in this case, since the linear xdirection temperature profiles will coincide in the two materials for constant thennal conductivities, thus giving rise to no tempetature gradients in the ydirection), the electrical analog would be as shown in Figure 7.2.48, where R = [LU(kA)]i for the appropriate solid. i
Q
Figure 7.2.48 Equivalent circuit for parallel conduction
An energy balance around the point at either T1 or T2 gives us
Q=
QA+QB
(7.2.419)
QA
Substituting for
and QB
in terms of the driving force and
corresponding resistances
(TI
Q=
[$1,
 T2)
+
1
1
( T J 2 )
(TI Tz) =
Q
(m+m)
1
(7.2.420)
(7.2.421)
(&+R)
1
(7.2.422)
546
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(TI 4) =
Q([9]A+[5&]J' (7.2.423)
(7.2.424)
Extending t i pattern to m m branches in parallel would give hs
Example 7.2.44 shows how to evaluate the equivalent resistance for situations involving both series and parallel paths for the heat conducted.
Series c&uctiQ
lavers

c o n w
A thermocouple attached to the combustion side of the inside wall of a furnace indicates 1500°F. The inside wall is firebrick, 3 inches thick, and is in intimate contact with a 0.25inch steel wall. The steel wall is to be coated with a layer of magnesia insulation. For economic reasons, the heat loss through the composite wall must not exceed 50 Btu/(hr ft2). The outside temperature of the insulation at steady state is not to exceed 15O0F. How thick a layer of magnesia isrequired?
Solution
By applying in succession a total energy balance to each of the sections as shown, we see that the only terms involved are the input of heat to the left face and the output of heat at the right face of each. (There is no convection, we are at steady state, and there is no work.) It follows that the heat in and out of each of the faces must be equal, and, since tbe areas normal to the heat transfer are equal, the fluxes are also equal. Using subscripts f, s, and m to refer to firebrick, steel, and magnesia, respectively,
Qf= Q, = Qm = Q
 A Qr  Qs A
= constant
A  Qm
= q = constant
(7.2.425)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
547
Figure 7.2.49 Series conduction through layers with constant temperature at external surfaces
But we can express the heat flux in each of the sections in terms of the driving force and the resistance of that section
qx =

qx =qx = 
[&If [&I,
(T2 1)
(T3
[&I,
4)
(1.2.426)
(T44)
Substituting known values
(T2 1500) OF
f
548
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
00 .3
5 0 hr ft2 [ %=
(Ax) ft
&
1
m
(150 T3) OF
(7.2.427)
This is a set of three independent equations in three unknowns (Ax, T2, and T3), but the set does not require simultaneous solution. The first equation can immediately be solved for T2
0.6 (T21500) =  500.25
=  20.8
(7.2.428)
T2 =  20.8 + 1500 = 1479.2 Substituting this result in the second equation (T3 1479) =  (50) (4)
T3 = 0.004+ 1479.2
=  0.004
= 1479.2
(7.2.429)
and substituting in the third equation (be careful to write 150, not 1500, for T4)
hm=
(0.03) (150  1479.2)
(50)
= 0.80ft
(7.2.430)
Notice the order of magnitude of the temperature drops  the steel contributes virtually nothing, the firebrick only a very modest amount; the magnesia takes almost the total temperature drop. This is a function primarily of the large range in thermal conductivities, and also partly because of differing thicknesses, although the thickness effect is much smaller. We can see the reason by comparing thermal resistances (remembering the areas are all the same)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
549
(7.2.431)
Rm
=
[] a.
(0.80) = (0.03)(A)
=5F

It is frequently not worth including some resistance terms in models because of their relatively minor contribution to the overall temperature drop.
Example 7.2.42 Series c o b c tion throuph layers constant convective hea t transfer coefficient at external s urfaces
A flat composite furnace wall consists of 9 in. of firebrick pk = 0.96 Btu/(hr ft OF)], 4.5 in. of insulating brick F = 0.183 Btu/(hr ft O F ) ] , and 4.5 in. of building brick pk = 0.40 Btu/(hr ft OF)]. The individual convective heat transfer coefficients at the inside and outside walls are 10 Btu/(hr ft2 O F ) and 10 B tu/(hr ft2 O) respectively. F,
The model for the heat transfer coefficient is
Q, = hAAT
(7.2.4 2) 3
where AT is defined in terms of the surface temperature and the ambient temperature in such a way as to give the proper sign to Qx. Consequently, the resistances represented by the internal and e x t e d ambient phases are resistance = potentialdifference current
(7.2.433)
(7.2.434)
550
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
Qx
= hoA(T,To) 1   AT
7
1 resistance = h0 A The temperature of the gas within the furnace is 240 ambient air outside the furnace is 1OoOF.
O F
hoA
Qx
(7.2.435)
and that of the
a) What is the heat transfer rate per square foot of wall area? b) What is the temperature at the surface of each layer of brick?
Solution
Figure 7.2.410 Series conduction through layers with constant convective heat transfer coefficient at external surfaces
A = 1 ft2
1....hr ft2 = 0.1 hi*  (10)(1)
Btu
O F
(7.2.436)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
551
tbL
kh
A

(0.96) (1)
I'(
= 0.78hr ft2"F Btu = 2 . 0 6hrft2 "F 7&= 2.94.r hrft2 "F
hrft2 "F
(7.2.437)
Lib khA
 (0.183) (1)
(0.40) (1)
8) (7.2.43
 L, = k, A
I'(
(7.2.439) (7.2.440) (7.2.44 1) (7.2.442)
1 =   (1) hoA (l)(l)
at1
Btu  l
R, = 4.88hr ft2 "F
(b) Since
Q is constant, we can write for any individual resistance step
(7.2.443)
So for the individual steps
3
T, = 2353°F
(7.2.444)
Q
Btu (2353 T)F 2'i 471= =  , hr L , 0.78 hr ft2"F kfbA Btu 3 T = 1985°F ,
(TI 2)
(7.2.445)
552
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
471= Q = rT hr hr ft2 2.06 kib A
( 2 T ) T 3
(1985  T3)"F, Btu
(7.2.446)
T3 = 1013°F
j
kbb
A
3
= (1013  T4)"Fi hr ft2 "F 2.94 Btu T4 = 570%
471%
(7.2.447)
A firebrick whose thermal conductivity variation with temperature can be describedas
k = (0.1)+ (5.0x 10") T
Where k = Btu/@ ft O F ) T=OF
(7.2.448)
is to be used in a 4inch thick furnace liner. The outside temperature of the liner is to be about lOOOF and the inside temperature 15WF. Calculate the heat flux and the temperature profile.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
So 1ut ion
553
Figure 7.2.41 1 Conduction through firebrick with variable thermal conductivity
qx =  k m dx
(7.2.449)
Here q is constant because of the constancy of A, so q x c d x=  c k d T
q X h=
I
7.2
(0.1+5.OxlO’T)dT
TI
0.1T+5.0~ 5 2 10 T2]lCV Btu _____ hr ft ”F
4, = 
(U)(0.1 (100
Btu hr ft2 “F
[
(7.2.450)
 1500)
+ (5.0 x 10”)
( 1002 T)] l50O2
(7.2.451)
9, = 5 8 8
To obtain the profile one simply chooses as a system the solid between one face (located at x = 0) and an unspecified point x where the temperature is T. Here, arbitrarily choosing the left face and proceeding as before
q,[dx
= [kdT
554
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
q,x =
1
T
TI
1
(0.1 OX lO’T)dT
T
(588) x =  1 . T + 5 0x 10’T2] 01 .
Ism
(7.2.452)
=
(0.1)(T1500)+(5.0~l O  ’ ) ( q50O2 ) ] 1~ (&)
where x is in feet and T in degrees Fahrenheit. Note that this is a nonlinear relationship which is in the form x = f(”). We could solve for T to obtain T = g(x); instead, we will simply plot the result. Preparing a table of values from the above equation we have
1200 1100 1o00
900
0.086 0.113 0.139 0.164 0.188 0.21 1 0.234 0.255 0.276 0.296
which yields the plot shown in Figure 7.2.412.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
555
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 DISTANCE FROM LEFT FACE, FEET
Figure 7.2.412 Temperature profile (straight line shown for purpose of comparison)
Examule 7.2.44 parallel uath
Onedimensional steadvstate conduction with
For the composite wall shown in Figure 7.2.413, draw the electrical analog and write the conduction equation in terms of an equivalent resistance and the overall temperature drop. The appropriate areas in Equations (7.2.455) to (7.2.464) are normal to the xdirection.
Figure 7.2.413 Conduction with parallel paths
Solution
If we assume that thermal energy flows only in the xdirection (as if there were an infinitesimally thin, perfectly insulating wall between B and C, and the temperature gradients normal to the xdirection in A and D were insignificant)
556
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Ri
the electrical analog would be as shown in Figure 7.2.414, where = [Ax/&A)]i for the appropriate solid.
RD
Figure 7.2.414 Analogous circuit Energy balances around the points at T3 and T4 give us
(7.2.454)
which gives Q A = Q D,which we designate simply as Q .
Substituting for Q A and Q B in the first equation in terms of the conductance and driving force
4 Q = (T3  T ) +
Q=
(T3
T4)
(&+E%)
1
(7.2.455)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(T3T4)
557
=Q
1
(&+E)
1
(7.2.456)
(Use of the second equation in a similar fashion yields the same result.)
As for the case of purely series resistances, we wish to write
(7.2.45 7)
T,  ~2 = Q Requiaent
(7.2.4 5 8)
Writing the overall driving force i terms of the individual driving forces n
(T1 T2) = (T,  T3) + (T3  T4) + (T, T,)
and substituting
(7.2.459)
Q Requidcut = Q [
fi], Q
+
1
(&+EFL)
(7.2.461)
1
1
+
[&ID
(7.2.462)
which gives
558
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Tl T2 1
Q=
+,
+[&I, +( A .A , [ l[ I )
1
(7.2.463)
This may be written more compactly as
(7.2.464)
where, by comparison with the results above, the middle term can be seen to give the equivalent resistance of two solids with parallel, onedimensional conduction paths connected in series with two regular series resistances.
Numerical solution
We introduce at this point the finite element method, which, with the finite difference method, comprise the two main numerical techniques used for the solution of heat transfer conduction problems with awkward boundaries, irregular source terms, etc. It is emphasized that the isolation of this method to onedimensional problems is purely for the purpose of pedagogy, and must not be construed to mean that the method is either valid or useful only for such simple problems.
The finite element method
One approach to the solution of partial differential equations F
(U and its derivatives) = 0
(7.2.465)
is to attempt to find a single approximating function, U, that satisfies the equation throughout the domain of interest in some average sense, rather than satisfying the equation exactly, as is the objective with analytical methods (an interpolation problem). of For certain cases, these methods give satisfactory results  for example, use
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
the RaleighRitz method, based on minimizing a member of the class of functions called functionals using the calculus of variations
559
polynomials) equal to zero at a series of selected points
true solution and a sum of trial functions (usually
collocation methods, which make the residual between the
Galerkin methods, which weights the residual with the trial functions of the collocation method Obtaining a good fit to the partial differential equation over the whole domain is not easy; however, if the domain is subdivided into smaller regions, a number of fairly lowdegree polynomials (often linear functions) can be used to make up the approximating function with good success. One then has, of course, the additional problem of joining the solutions within each element to the solution for adjoining elements at their common boundaries. The process of subdivision leaves us with finite elements, hence the name of the method now to be considered. We can characterize how well we have fit the differential equation with an approximation, 6 , by examining the residual, R, which will remain after using the approximating function, 6 ,in the differential equation rather than the true solution, U F(u) = 0
(7.2.466) (7.2.467) (7.2.468)
F(ii)
f
0
R = F(ii) The overall process is to
Subdivide the domain of solution into subdomains (the finite elements). For the one and twodimensional problems most of interest here, the elements are line segments for the onedimensional problem, and usually triangles or quadrilateralsfor the twodimensional problems, examples of which are shown in Figure 7.2.414.
560
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.2.414 Examples of 1D and 2D finite elements
Select an approximation methdfunctions to be used within the elements. Match the approximation functions for the elements at their common boundaries by adjusting the coefficients in the functions Apply the boundary conditions (in the finite element method, this becomes an intrinsic part of the solution rather than being accomplished at the end of the process) Solve the resulting system of equations We now consider a onedimensional problem. We will use as approximation functions firstorder polynomials
U
(x) = a,+ a, x
(7.2.469)
where U is the approximation to the dependent variable, x is the independent variable, and and a1 are constants. If the distance variable z goes over the interval [0, L], we subdivide the interval into elements, and denote the left and right nodes of a typical element by
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
561
zl and z2, respectively. (This is a local numbering, i.e., applicable to only nodes in the element in question. We shall also need a global numbering system, which will permit distinguishing among all the nodes taken as a group.)
For our illustration, we shall choose a firstorder (linear) polynomial for the approximation function, which we will call u(z). At the ends of the element, the approximation function will assume the values u l and u2, respectively. The approximation function must pass through the values of u(x) at the ends of the element
(xl) = U (x2) =
U
U,
U,
= a,+al x, = a, +a, x2
(7.2.470)
and a1
This system of equations can readily be solved for the values of a, = u1x2u2x1 x2  X I a, = U  U x2  X l Substituting in Equation (7.2.469)
i j
(7.2.47 1)
= a,+a,x
(7.2.472)
and rearranging
6 =
[ m 2  x1 + [ & ] U xx x] U 1
(7.2.473)
Defining
N2
=
I;.[ [&I
x2
x
(7.2.474)
xx
gives
562
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
= N,u,+N,u,
a
(7.2.475)
For historical reasons, this is usually referred to as the shape functiod3 and N I and N2 are called the interpolation functions, and their sum is always unity, as illustrated in Figure 7.2.415.
L
7
NODE 1
NODE 2
.. 
Figure 7.2.415 Interpolation functions (above), Shape function (below)
We now must choose a way to represent the fit of the function to the differential equation.Common methods are
l 3 It is the Lagrange firstorder interpolating polynomial. When we choose first degree functions, the shape functions are often referred to as chapeau functions, from the French word for hat, because of the resemblance to the cartoon witch's hat or dunce's cap when regarded for adjoining elements, viz.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models tbe direct approach the method of weighted residuals, which minimizes the weighted integral of the residual
(7.2.476)
563
where D is the domain of the solution and independent weighting functions14 the variational approach
Wj
are linearly
These methods specify relationships among the unknowns in Equation (7.2.475) so as to satisfy the differential equation in some optimal sense.
ExamDle 7.2.45 Solution bv finite elements o f steadvstate conduction with generation
Consider the case of steadystateconduction in one dimension with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a thermal energy source. The governing differential equation in this case is
0 = k+Yy, d2T
dx2
(7.2.477)
which is an ordinary, not a partial differential equation and so will offer simplicity for pedagogical purposes. We rewrite, defining
l 4 Several alternatives exist for choosing the weighting functions. For example
Collocation methods make the residual vanish at certain selected points by adjusting coefficients (basically, weighting with a Dirac delta function, which vanishes everywhere except at the collocation points Subdomain methods, which make the average value of the residual in chosen subdomains vanish by adjusting coefficients Least squares methods, which minimize the integral of the square of the residual Galerkin’s method, which uses the interpolation functions as the weighting functions
564
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
rrYe
k
(7.2.478)
so our problem consists of solving the differential equation and boundary conditions
dX2
d2T
=
r
T = T, T = T2
= 5.
(7.2.479) (7.2.480)
atx = 0 atx = L
We shall assume L = 10, T1 = 200, T2 = 120, and
Let us choose to use four equallength elements as shown in Figure 7.2.416.
Figure 7.2.416 Bar with thermal energy source
We will use the approximation function
;. = N,T,+N,T2 I
(7.2.481)
where N1 and N2 are the functions shown above in (7.2.427).We will illustrate a solution using the example of application of Galerkin's method.
The residual is
d2T R = +Idx2 We wish to minimize this residual subject to
(7.2.482)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
i =1,2, ...,n
565
jDRWldD= 0
(7.2.483)
Application of Galerkin's method implies that the weighting functions be tbe interpolation functions NI and N2.
(7.2.484)
(7.2.485)
It is typical of finite element methods to integrate the lefthand side by parts15at this juncture. This reduces the order of the highest order t r in the em integral and, it is to be hoped, replaces it with another integral that is more tractable than the original. Here we choose NI =
U
(7.2.486)
giving
Next we evaluate the first term on tbe righthand side, beginning with i = 1
Application of the rule for differentiation of a product followed by integration gives
544
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.488)
so,for i = 1
(7.2.489) and in the same manner, for i = 216
=
[e],
(7.2.490) (7.2.491)
Substituting these results into (i)
(7.2.492)
rearranging
l 6 The first term on the right in (1) and the second term on the right in (n) represent the natural boundary conditions at the ends of the element, that is, the case of an insulated boundary where the flux is zero.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
567
(7.2.493) Thus, the integration by parts has not only lowered the highest order derivative f o a second to a first derivative, but it has also incorporated the rm boundary conditions directly into the element equations. The first of these effects means that the approximation functions need to preserve only continuity at the nodes, not slope as well. The lefthand side represents the element properties. The fvst term on the right represents one of boundary conditions imposed on the element, and the second (the tbennal energy source) is a forcing function. Examining the lefthand sides
(7.2.494) the linearity of the shape functions makes evaluation simple. For n = 1 and n = 2, respectively
(7.2.495) Writing the derivative
T = NlT,+N2T2
dT dx

[I
T1 + 
[YC~'.~]~~
(7.2.496)
Substituting in the lefthand sides
568
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.497)
Substituting in (4)and writing the result in matrix form
terns
We now apply the results to our specific problem. Evaluating the source
TN,dx =
l: r
I" (w)
(5)
dx = 6.25
N, dx = l * ' ( 5 )
(*) dx = 6.25
(7.2.499)
Substituting
l11  111 " T2 2.50 [ ] 
=
+
[z]
(7.2.4100)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
gives the set of equations for an element
569
0.4 Tl  0.4 T =   +6.25 Z
[z]
[$I
X1
 0.4 T, + 0.4 T2 =
x2
+ 6.25
(7.2.4101)
We next need to establish a global numbering scheme to permit assembling the element equations. Here the establishment of such a scheme is trivial; however, in two or threedimensional problems it is not so trivial. Table 7.2.41 shows the scheme we shall use. Table 7.2.41 Global node numbering scheme
t
1 1 2 
2
1
1
2
4 4
I
2
1 2
I
2 2 3
~
1
I
4 5
Next we write the element equations using the global coordinates, and add them one by one to obtain the system matrix. During this process the internal boundary conditions cancel as indicated. First element
I
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0
(7.2.4102)
570
Addsecond
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
[=I
0 0 0 0
+OS4
d'l'
X1
+6.25
0.4 0.4  0.4 0.4 + 0.4 0 0.4
L

0 0.4
0 0
0 0 0 0
0
( ( ( (
Tl
6.25 + 6.25
XZ
T 2
T3 =
dT [=] +6.25
0
(7.2.4103)
0.4 0.4 0 0 0
 0.4 0 0.8 0.4  0.4 0.4 + 0.4 0 0.4
0
0
0 0 0.4 +0.4

0
0 0 0
(7.2.4 104)
0 0
0.4  0.4 0 0 0
 0.4 0.8  0.4
0 0
0  0.4 0 0.8 0.4  0.4 0.4 + 0.4 0 0.4
0
+O.d
 OJ
( ( (
[$I
12.5
+6.25
XI
12.5 6.25 + 6.25
[g]
x2
+6.25
(7.2.4 105)
0.4 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 0.4 0 0 0 0.4 0.8 0.4 0 0 0 0.4+0.4
12.5 12.5 12.5
[$Ix2 +
I
1
(7.2.4106)
6.251
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
571
Since only the temperatures at the ends of the bar are specified, the derivatives at the ends of the bar are unknowns. We therefore bring them to the 1 other side of the equations and transfer the known temperatures T and T2 to the righthand side (after multiplying by their respective coefficients from the lefthand side).
1.00.4 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.4 0 0 0 0.4 0.8 0.4 0 0 00.4 0.8 0 0 0 00.41.0
 54.25 60.5 12.5 92.5  73.75
(7.2.4107)
d
The solution to the set of equations above is
20.5 186.9 222.5 226.9  17
(7.2.4108)
We can solve this problem analytically for comparison
dT dx
= rx+c,
(7.2.4109)
I d T = I(Tx+C,)dx
T=[
r3;+clx+c2
x2
1
(7.2.4110) (7.2.4111)
T, =  C 2
At x = L, T = T2
(7.2.4112)
572
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
cl = rZ T,T,
L
(7.2.4113) (7.2.4 114)
Substituting for C1 and C2
(7.2.4115) (7.2.4116)
T = 120+33~2.5~~ The results are plotted in Figure 7.2.417.
(7.2.4117)
I

ANALYTICAL FINITE ELEMENT
 )  I
1
1
0
1
2
3 4
5
X
6 7
8
9 10
Figure 7.2.417 Comparison of finite element and analytic solution
The finite element solution coincides with the analytic solution at the nodes, but because of the linearity of the shape functions does not do as well interior to nodes where tbe analytic solution is highly curved.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Finite element method in higher dimensions
573
Extension of the onedimensionalfmite element method to two dimensions is straightforward, although increasing in complexity. Therefore, we will not treat the higher dimensional applications other than for passing mention (nor will we treat other than the simple linear interpolation functions already discussed). The range of element shapes expands considerably as one goes from one to two dimensions, with triangular and quadrilateral shapes both in wide use. Other shapes are also possible. Automatic mesh generation software becomes very useful with the expansion to higher dimensions. We will not attempt to treat this very important subject in any more detail, but instead refer the reader to the many texts available specifically on the finite element technique. Two very lucid introductions to finite element methods as well as other numerical techniques useful to engineers are Chapra, S. C. and R. P. Canale (1988). Numerical Methods for Engineers. New York, McGrawHill. Gerald, C. F. and P. 0. Wheatley (1994). Applied Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWaley . For more complete treatments of finite elements the reader is referred to, for example, Mechanics. New York, Hemisphere. Becker, E. B., G. F. Carey, et al. (1981). Finite Elements: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, PrenticeHall. Carey, G. F. (1986). Finite Elements: Fluid Mechanics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, RenticeHall. Finlayson, B. A. (1980). Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering. New York, N Y , McGrawHill. Finlayson, B. A. (1992). Numerical Methods for Problems with Moving Fronts. Seattle, WA, Ravenna Park Publishing, Inc. Hughes, T. J. R. (1987). The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, RenticeHall. Segerlind, G. J. (1984). Applied Finite Element Analysis. New York, John Wiley and Sons.
Baker, A. J. (1983). Finite Element Computational Fluid
574
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Stasa, F. L. (1985). Applied Finite Element Analysis for Engineers. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Taylor, C. and T. G. Hughes (1981). Finite Element Programming of the NavierStokes Equations. Swansea, U.K., Pineridge Press Limited.
7.2.5 Onedimensional steadystate conduction in cylindrical coordinates
We next consider a derivation similar to that of the preceding section but for cylindrical rather than rectangular coordinates. This time we consider conduction in only the rdirection, as shown in Figure 7.2.51.
Figure 7.2.51 Conduction through the wall of a composite cylinder
Using Table 7.2.11, the Fourier equation reduces to
($)r
= q, = kd, dT
(7.2.51)
An energy balance on a system between any two surfaces of constant r tells is constant, since we have no thermal energy generation in the model us that under consideration.
To integrate we must account for the fact that A (and therefore q) is not constant as in the rectangular coordinate case considered previously, but is instead a function of r. The relationship is A = 27crL.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
575
Considering the case of constant k and integrating between any two values of r, rl and r2 where the correspondingtemperaturesare T1 and T2
= Qr
2xL
l,  k l l
R
2
= kdT
dr =
T2 dT
(7.2.52)
and so
Q, l 2xL
rd = k(T,T,) r,
(7.2.53)
This parallels Equation (7.2.45) but is not the form of the equation used most by engineers. Many engineers prefer to say, "I intend to apply the rectangular coordinate form Equation (7.2.45)] to the case where the area is changing." Very well, let us put Equation (7.2.53) in this form; that is, Heat transfer x distance =  thermal conductivityx temperaturedrop Area (7.2.54) Comparing with Equation (7.2.45), we see we lack
(1) an appropriatearea (2) a distance
To introduce the distance, we multiply and divide Equation (7.2.53) by (r2 rl), and rearrange slightly (r2  ri) 2x (r2 r,) L
Q,
= k(T,TJ
(7. 2.55)
in fact. we can rewrite as
576 2 x (r2 rl) L
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.56)
and define this quantity to be the logarithmic mean area, A,,.
(7.2.57)
We then may write Equation (7.2.52) as (7.2.58) which corresponds directly to Equation (7.2.45). Referring to Figure 7.2.51 and using the same argument for a series of resistances (now cylinders) in series as we used for the rectangular coordinate case, we write the sum of the individual temperature differences as (7.2.59) Rearranging
(7.2.5 10) The denominator of the righthand side is the thermal resistance term, which represents a series of resistances of the individual materials.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models Examp le 7.2.51
Conductron a a fuel rod n
577
. .
A nuclear reactor contains a bundle of cylindrical fuel rods, with each rod having a radius of 25 mm. The rod may be modeled as a solid with average properties
w k = 25m K
At steady state the fission of the fuel produces a temperature distribution in tbe rod described by T(r) = (750)[C]  (4 x 10’)
[3] [m2] (r2)
What is the rate of heat transfer at the surface for a unit length of the rod?
Solution
(2) =kg
r
I k dT z
2zrL
Q Q, = 2lcrk dT dr
(7.2.511)
Using the given temperatureprofile to evaluate the derivative at the surface
(7.2.512)
dT = dr
dl(750)  (4 x 10’) (r2)]
dr
= (2) (4x 10’) (0.025) = 2 x 10
dr r=o.Qsrn dr
=
 (2) (4 x 10’) (r)
(7.2.513)
578
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Substituting to evaluate the heat transfer per unit length
L = 2 x r k  dT 
2
dr
=  (2) (K) (0.025)[m] (25) = 0.75 x 10SW jji
[A] [g]
(2x 104) (7.2.514)
Example 7.2.52
Conduction throuph an insulated b k e
A 3inch glasslined steel pipe carries steam which keeps the inside surface of the glass at 35OoF.The glass coating is 1/32inch thick and the pipe is coated on the outside with 1inch of magnesia insulation.
Calculate the heat loss per foot of pipe if the outside surface temperature of the insulation may be assumed to be 12OoF. The following properties may be used: Inside diameter of 3in. pipe = 3 inches Outside diameter of 3in. pipe = 3.5 inches kglaS = 0.5 Btu/(hr ft O F ) ksteel= 26 Btu/@ ft OF) kmagnesia = 0.03 Btu/(hr ft O F )
Solution
The relationship for conduction through a series of cylindrical resistances is
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
1
1 =A.
579
Q, =
ATwadl
(7.2.515)
B. C. ...
We are given that ATovm = T4TI = (120350)OF (7.2.516)
Since we are required to find the loss per foot of pipe, we take L = 1 ft. Remembering that we are given diameters, not radii for the pipe, we can compute
[blplssr in & = 2.604~ ft =(1) 10~
(32) (12)in in
~~IsIcc,
=
[b],gauil
= 2.083 x 102ft (‘2) ln = (1) in = 8.333 x 102ft ft (12) in
(3.5  3.0) (2)
&
(7.2.5 17)
x 3.0 3.02x
[
!
L
3 q
in(1)ft
ft
In
3.0
(3.0  2 x
A)
(12) in
= 0.7772ft2
(7.2.518)
580
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
x (D,  D ~L ) I n 5
[A4ltccl
=
 x [3.5  3 .o] in ( 1) ft
(12) in (7.2.5 19) 
ft
D 2
= 0.8492ft2
= 1.158ft2 which yields
(7.2.5 20)
[=I
A r
d=
lIw *$
fi(0.7772)ft2 = 6.701 x 103 r ft (2.083 x 102)ft = 9.434x 104 .E (26) 2kF(0.8492)ft2 tu
(0.5)

(2.604x 10~)ft
[*l~da
(8.333 x 102) ft = 2.399 "F hr  (0.03) (1.158)ft2 Btu
hrft 9;
(7.2.521)
Substituting in the original relationship
Q, =
(120350)%
hrT
6.701x 103hroF+9.434x10hr "F + 2.399Btu Btu Btu Btu = 95.6 for each foot of length hr
(7.2.522)
It is worth noting that
The resistance of the magnesia dominates the resistance terms, as it should
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
Even though the glass is thinner than the pipe wall, its thermal resistance is much larger It is probably not worth using the logarithmic mean area over the arithmetic mean for the glass In fact, the first two t r s in the denominator could probably em be neglected altogether  this is an example of a controlling resistance, specifically, the magnesia. This, of course, is the usual business of insulation.
7.2.6 Onedimensional steadystate conduction in spherical coordinates
If one repeats for radial conduction in spherical coordinates (see Figure 7.2.61) the approach previously used in the rectangular and cylindrical coordinate frames,one has from the Fourier equation
dT = q, = kz (7.2.61)
just as for cylindrical coordinates. An energy balance on a system between any two surfaces of constant r again tells us that Q is constant, since we have no thermal energy generation in the model under consideration. However, now the area is a different function of radius:
A = 4zr2
(7.2.62)
582
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.2.61 Radial conduction in spherical geometry
This changes the integration (we continue to assume constant thermal conductivity)to
(7.2.63)
= k(T,T,)
(7.2.64)
As before, we multiply and divide by (r2  rl) and get
= k(T,T,)
(7.2.65)
but, rearranging the denominator of the lefthand side:
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
583
( $$
4 x (r2  rl)
4 x (12  rl)
)=(
(C2r1) r2r1 = 4xr2r1
=
=
)
(7.2.66)
(7.2.67)
4
d r n
and now the appropriatemean area is the geometric mean.
Then
Q (r2  rl)
*fP
= k(T,Tl)
(7.2.68)
in spherical coordinates, which corresponds to Equations (7.2.45) and (7.2.58) in tbe rectangular and cylindrical systems. For a composite sphere we get, using the same procedure as before
(7.2.69)
Conduction thr&
s
. .w
We are faced with the problem of disposal of radioactive waste. It has been proposed to coat the waste with a new organic coating containing a shielding material, followed by disposal in underground cavern storage. At least a 3inch thickness of coating is necessary to obtain the required shielding. One of many problems associated with this scheme is that the thermal energy generated by the w s e must be transferred through the coating to the surroundings. at
584
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
We are concerned about whether the minimum shielding thickness will satisfy the thermal energy removal requirement. (Obviously many other considerations such as mechanical strength, stability, cost, etc., will also have to be addressed sooner or later.) To make a quick assessment of the practicality of such a coating, as an initial model we will assume that the waste is a 1foot radius sphere which generates 440 Btu/hr. The proposed coating material degrades thermally above 400°F. For this preliminary calculation we will assume that the cavern environment will keep the outer surface of the coating at a maximum of 200°F. The thermal conductivity of the coating will be assumed to be 0.02 Btu/(hr ft OF) and to be independent of temperature. What maximum thickness of coating could be used and still avoid thermal degradation of the interior surface of the coating?
So 1ut ion
An energy balance using the coating as the system shows that Q is constant. We can express Q in terms of the temperatures using Fourier's law. We will obtain
Q ( 1 2  rl)
Where
=
 k (T2Tl)
(7.2.610)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
585
= (4%r2) ft
(7.2.611)
Rearranging (a) and substitutingknown values
(0.02) ~c ft2 (200  400) Btu (4 r2) hr ft "F Btu (440) hr (r2  1) = 0.1142r2
OF
(7.2.612)
r2 = 1.129ft
which gives as the maximum coating thickness maximum thickness = (r2 rl) = (1.129 1) ft = 0.129ft = 1.55 in
(7.2.613)
(7.2.614)
We are faced with the usual design dilemma  two requirements are in conflict, i.e., they cannot both be satisfied simultaneously. If we use a sufficiently thick coating for adequate shielding, we will have thermal degradation;if we use a sufficiently thin coating to avoid thermal degradation, we will not have adequate shielding. To reconcile such conflicts is the heart of engineering. The following list includes only a few of the design questions that should be explored next:
Is the data used for shielding requirements and thermal degradation trustworthy? Is the assumed outer surface temperature realistic? If so, is there a way to lower it? C n we store the waste in a form with a higher surface area a to volume ratio? (For example, as spheres of smaller diameter, or in sheet farm) C n we modify the coating so as either to require less a thickness for shielding or to improve its thermal stability?
586
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
Is tbere another coating that could be used? Is there an alternative form of disposal  e.g., recycling? Can we prevent the generation of the waste from the outset?
rm Thefinite element method differs f o the finite difference method in that the finite element method relies upon fitting a series of approximating functions to the solution of the differential equation, not to the equation itself as in the finite difference method.
7.2.7
Twodimensional steadystate conduction
Twodimensional steadystateconduction in a material with constant thermal conductivity in the presence of thermal energy generation can be described by a model obtained by deleting the timedependent term in the microscopic energy balance, which leaves
(7.2.71)
Without thermal energy generation , dividing by k leaves the twodimensional Laplace equation
V 2 T = [ a2T a2T] = O
+
ax2
ay2
(7.2.72)
This elliptic17 equation occurs in many contexts other than steadystate heat transfer; for example, we have already used it to describe potential flow, where the dimensionless temperature is replaced by the velocity potential. We shall later see its utility in describing molecular diffusion, where the dependent variable becomes some species concentrationrelated (chemical potentialrelated) quantity.
l 7 Secondorder partial differential equations are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or n hyperbolic after writing the equation i the form
B2  4 A C < 0 e Elliptic
B24AC=O B24AC>0
j
according to
Parabolic Hyperbolic
Here we will be concerned only with elliptic and parabolic equations.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
587
The primary difficulty, as is more or less true in general for partial differential equations, is in satisfying the boundary conditions. Irregular boundaries tend to complicate analytic solutions immensely, finite difference solutions somewhat, and finite element solutions least. Analytically, the Laplace equation is often solved for multidimensional problems with aid of the technique from the theory of complex variables1* known as conformal mapping, which is basically a method of transforming a problem with more difficult geometry into one witb simpler geometry. Numerically, a solution method often adopted is the finite diflerence method, which replaces the differential equation by a difference (algebraic) equation based on representing the derivatives in the differential equation by differences developed using the Taylor series. Like all numerical solutions, the computation is subject to errors  truncation error from termination of infinite series at a finite number of terms, and roundoff error from the fact that digital computers must operate with a finite number of digits to represent ~ariab1es.l~ (In general, we also need to be concerned with the statistical concepts of accuracy, which has to do with whether the average of the data is correct, and precision, which is a measure of the scatter of data. Error can also propagate through calculations and thereby be magnified. Finally, there is error introduced through good oldfashioned blunders and mistakes.) We very often work witb the partial differential equations and boundary conditions in dimensionlessform, e.g., by defining in the case of energy transfer the following dimensionlessvariables
(7.2.7 3)
From the basic equation
~
~
See any text on complex variables or complex analysis; e.g., Churchill, R. V. (1948). Introduction to Complex Variables and Applications. New York, NY, McGrawHill. l9 See, for example, Nakamura, S. (1991). AppZied Numerical Methods with Software. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, Chapter 1.
l8
588
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.74) (7.2.75)
Applying the chain rule to transform to dimensionless variables
Substituting using the definitions of the dimensionless variables
(7.2.77)
and requiring that L = W
a2e + 2% a(~*)' a(y*)'
+
L2Ye =0 k (T, To)
(7.2.78)
In the absence of thermal energy generation this becomes
(7.2.79)
Dimensionless Dirichlet boundary conditions for the typical problem we shall consider are shown in the following sketch
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
589
............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............... @ = O ~...~...~...~.~.~.*.~...~...~~ ............... 8 = 0
1
n
0
X
*
which correspond to dimensionlessboundary conditions
o e (1, y*) = o
e(o,y*) =
8 (x*,0) = 0
(7.2.710)
e(x*, 1) = 1
Taylor series
The Taylor series with a remainder in two variables may be written as
(7.2.711)
with remainder
(7.2.712)
590
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
which is a more general form than the (perhaps) more familiar onevariablefonn
f [ x + h ] = f[x]+(,#)f[x]
(7.2.713)
with remainder
(7.2.7 14) which is frequently written in another form as (72.7 15)
w t remainder ih
RN = (N+l)!
fN+I
(5)
(7.2.716)
sometimes written as
where the last term is read as "terms of the order of (x  X O ) ~ + ~ .Notice that this " does not mean that the remainder is of magnitude (x  x ~ ) ~ +because we l, have no general way of predicting the magnitude of the derivative in the
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
591
remainder.20 We are merely regarding the remainder as a function of the magnitude of Ax = x  XO.
R N (xxO)
= fN+' (5) ) ~ + ' (x x~ (N+ l)!
(7.2.718)
The significance of the statement, therefore, is that if we cut the size of Ax by, for example, half, if the value of 5 did not change (which may or may not be true), the error (whatever it is) will be reduced by
fN+I
(k)
(N+l)!
fN+I
(h2)N+1
(N+l)! Analytical solution
(5)(AXJN+'
(7.2.719)
The heat conduction problem can often be solved by a series solution method for relatively regular geometries, i.e., rectangular parallelepipeds, cylinders, spheres, and shapes capable of being mapped into such regular geometries. The primary problem in solving partial differential equations lies usually in satisfying the boundary conditions. Since there are many different combinationsof boundary conditions possible, historically there have been many techniques used for analytical solution of such equations. In this text we will not attempt in any sense to be exhaustive in enumerating possible solution methods; instead we will attempt to illustrate common methods which give general insight into all methods as well as exemplifying a large class of solutions the reader is apt to encounter. In the realm of twodimensional steadystate conduction, we choose to illustrate using the method of separation of variables, which leads to a series solution  in the geometry chosen, a Fourier series. The typical problem we use
2o Strictly speaking, the notation signifies [see Gerald, C. F. and P. 0. Wheatley (1994). Applied Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley] Error = o[(Ax)"]
for some constant K # 0
AxbO
i f lim (%or) = KAP
592
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
is the dimensionlesstwodimensional steadystateconduction equation presented in Equations (7.2.79) and (7.2.710).*l
Y
................ ................ .~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.'.~.~.~.~. O = O ................ @ = 0 ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ ................ X 0
0
1 ................ ................
?
U o=o
1
F l
0=1
*
(7.2.720) e(o,y*) =
o o
e(i,y*) =
e(x*,o) =
o
(7.2.721)
e(x*, I) = 1
The method of separation of variables revolves about the assumption that the twodimensional function that satisfies the partial differential equation can be written as the product of two functions, the first a function of only the first variable, and the second a function of only the second variable, e.g.,
e (x*, y*) = a (x*) Y (ye)
(7.2.722)
The validity of this assumption rises and falls on whether or not we can find, as a result of using the assumption, two functions which, when multiplied together, yield a resultant function which satisfies the partial differential equation and the boundary conditions. Such a resultant function is, by definition, a solution of the problem.
il
The same differential equation and boundary conditions are also applicable to the appropriate problems in diffusion of mass.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
593
We proceed by substituting the assumption into the partial differential equation
(7.2.723)
Noting that we are now dealing with functions of one variable, and further, that functions of only x* act as constants when differentiating with respect to y* and vice versa
(7.2.724)
which can be rearranged to
(7.2.725)
Notice that we have an equation which says that a function of x* only is equal to a function of y* only.
f(x') = g (' Y)
(7.2.726)
If this is to be true for arbitrary values of x* and y*, the only way that this can occur is if each of the functions is equal to the same constant. We choose this constant to be ( c2) for purposes of later algebraic simplicity and write (now dropping the indication of independent variable in each function)
(7.2.727)
This relation now gives us two secondorder linear homogeneous ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients
594
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.728) (7.2.729)
Solving these equations in order, we find the characteristic (or auxiliary) equationfor the first to be22 h2+C2= 0 h = +ic (72730)
(7.2.731)
This is the case of two complex conjugate roots, so the corresponding general solution is
(7.2.732)
ei" = c o s o + i s i n o
we can write this result as
(7.2.733)
a = K;[cos (c x*) + i sin (c x*)]
+ K; cos ( c x') + i sin ( c
but using the identities
I
4
(7.2.734)
cos (0) = cos (
0)
sin(o) = sin(a)
we can write
~
(7.2.735) (7.2.736)
~~~~~~~~
22This method of solution can be found in most treatments of differential equations or advanced engineering mathematics, for example, Kreyszig, E. (1993). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 628.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
K; [cos (c x*) + i sin (c x*)]
(7.2.737)
595
a=
+ K, [cos (c x*)  i sin (c x*)]
a = (K;+K;)+x*) + i (K;  K;) sin (c x*)
Defining new constants for compactness of notation
K, = (K;+K;)
(7.2.738)
K, =i(K;K;)
we have
@ = K, cos (c x')
(7.2.739)
+ K, sin (c x')
(7.2.740)
Next considering the equation for Y we have the characteristicequation
(7.2.741) (7.2.742)
This is the case of two real conjugate roots, so the corresponding general solution is
Y = K3eCy*+K4eCY*
(7.2.743)
Taking the product of the two solutions we have a function that satisfies the original partial differential equation
8 = K , cos (c x')
[
+ K, sin (c x*) K, ecY*+ K, e'Y*]
I[
(7.2.744)
We now attempt to make this solution satisfy the boundary conditions. We begin with the boundary condition
e (0, y')
=
o
(7.2.745)
596
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Substituting in our function
0 = [Kl cos(0)+ K, sin(O)] [K3 ecY* K, e c y * ] + 0 = [K1] ecY* K, e 'Y*] [K1 +
(7.2.746)
For this t vanish for arbitrary values of y* (we cannot make the second term in o brackets equal to zero without losing the y* dependence of our solution)
K, = 0
leaving
8 =
(7.2.7 47)
[K2 (c x*)] [K3 + K, ecY*] sin eCY*
(7.2.748)
We now apply the boundary condition
e(x*,o) =
o
(7.2.749)
giving
0 = [K, sin (c x*)] [K3 K ] + ,
(7.2.750)
which leads t the conclusion that o
ICY=&
(7.2.751)
so
8 = [K2 sin (c x*)] [K3 eCY* K, e'Y*] 8 = [K,K,sin(c~*)][e~Y*e~Y*]
(7.2.7 52)
Applying the third boundary condition
e(1.y') = 0
(7.2.753)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
we have
0=
597
[K2 sin (c)] [ecY* ecy*] K3
(7.2.754)
For this to be satisfied without eliminating part of our solution sin (c) = c = nx:
o
n
#
O;n = 1,2,3, ...
(7.2.755) (7.2.756)
The value n = 0 is excluded because this would yield
(7.2.75 7)
new constant K, (dependent on n) which incorporates the 2 inserted in the
numerator
8 = K O s i n ( n x x * ) [eoxy*enry*
removing the dependence on y*. Multiplying and dividing by 2, and defining a
1
: n
#
O;n = 1,2,3, ... (7.2.75 8)
8 = K, sin (n x x') sinh (n IC y*): n
#
0; n = 1,2,3, ...
(7.2.759)
Now we do not have a single solution, but an infinity of solutions depending on the value of n. Fortunately, since we are dealing with a linear homogeneous partial differential equation these solutions may be superposed to give the most general s0Iution2~
8=
0
4 K, sin (n
IC x') sinh (n IF y')
(7.2.760)
To incorporate the fourth boundary condition, we need to use the concept of orthogonulfinctions, so we will make a brief digression.
23 Kreyszig, E. (1993). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 646.
598
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Orthogo w l functions
scalar (ordot) product
The concept of orthogonal vectors has already been used in this work in the
(7.2.761)
u.v = 0
in symbolic form, which indicates that two vectors (here, in 2space) are at right angles to each other, as shown in the following illustration.
X
Similarly, we can represent any vector by a combination of a set of orthogonal vectors, or basis. In 2space rectangular coordinates, the basis is the set of unit vectors along the x and y axes. Thus, we can represent the vectbr U as
U
= u,i+u,j
(7.2.762)
The idea of orthogonality can be extended to functions, by defining that if
(7.2.763)
the two functions of x, gl(x) and g2(x) are orthogonal on the interval [a, b]. Any function of x can be represented in terms of a set of orthogonal functions gn(x) (7.2.764)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
599
In order to compute with this formula, we must have a way to determine the coefficients A,. We establish such a method by multiplying both sides of the equation by gm(x)and integrating f o a to b rm
(7.2.765)
Interchanging summation and integration
(7.2.766) Recognizing that A, is not a function of x
N t c that because of the orthogonality of the set of functions, all the integrals oie on the right are zero except for the one in which m is equal to n. We therefore Write
(7.2.768)
so
(7.2.769)
which is the formula required to evaluate An. This ends our digression. We now return to attempting to make our solution
8=
n=l
E Knsin (n
IC
x’) sinh (n x y’)
(7.2.770)
600
satisfy the fourth boundary condition 8(x', 1) = 1 Substituting
1 =
n=l
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
(7.2.77 1)
I K, sin (n x x') sinb (n x ) :
(7.2.772)
We now state without proof that the sine functions above (the sinh function is just a constant) are a fonn of Fourier series and are orthogonal on our interval of interest.24 Following the example of orthogonal functions, if we now multiply both sides of the equation by sin(mxx*)and integrate over [0, 11
6'
Since
(1) sin (m IE: x') dx' =
K, sin (m x x') sin (n x x') sinh (n x ) dx'
(7.2.773)
1
K, sinh (n x )
(7.2.774)
is not a function of x*, it may be moved outside the integral sign
(1) sin (m x x') dx' =
0x1
E
I
K, sinh (n x )
1'
sin (m x x') sin (n x x') dx'
(7.2.775)
I
Again, the only terms not equal to zero are those for which m = n
~~
24
Kreyszig, E. (1993). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 250.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
601
I'(l)sin(nnx*)dx* ~ , s i n h ( n x )=
O
sin2 (n n x*) d ~ *
(7.2.777)
Comparing this with our earlier result
(7.2.778)
we see that we can identify
1
H
f(x)
H
sin (n 7c x*) e g, (x)
(7.2.779) (7.2.780) (7.2.78 1) (7.2.7 82) (7.2.783) (7.2.784)
K, sinh (n 7c)
0a 1 w b X* @ x functions.
A,
with the situation previously considered in our aside regarding orthogonal
First considering the denominator
= =
21
I,' (4) &l dx*I
0
[cos (2 n x x*)] 2 n n: dx'
 k , [ * s i n ( n x x * ) c o s (nxx*)]l'
0
=+
(7.2.785)
602
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
men the numerator
6'
sin (n x x*) d ~ = *
nx
(7.2.786)
=
and substituting in
8=
n=l
2 K, sin (n x x') sinh (n x y*)
(7.2.789)
we have
This function satisfies both the partial differential equation and the boundary conditions and therefore constitutes a solution to thie problem posed, thereby verifying the validity of the sepamtion of variables originally postulated. One can recover the original dependent variable, temperahue, by using the definition of e.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Examde 7.2.72 Convergence of steadvstate rectannular coordinate solution
603
For the dimensionless t m e a u eprofile eprtr
2 * = z,,,2 [(  1 ) "n+ ' + 1
sinh (n x ye) ]sin(nxx*) s i d (n x )
(1.2.792)
Investigate the speed of convergence at the following points
0.1
0.1
0.8 0.5
Solution
Notice that the factor
I(""," I
+
0.249904602
( I .2.793)
is zero for even values of n, so the sum changes only every other term. We can easily calculate using a spreadsheet, other mathematical software, or by programming
604
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Notice that the series converges quite rapidly, with only a few terms (only half of which are nonzero) being more than adequate for most engineering calculations. This is also true for the corresponding solutions in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, although the series are in terms of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials, respectively, rather than Fourier series as in this case.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models Numerical solution
605
The most common approaches to numerical solution of both steadystate and UnsteadyState conduction problems a ~ e finite differencesolutions finite element solutions Both of the methods involve covering the region of interest (the interior and boundary of the material within which the differential equation is to be satisfied) with a grid. The finite element method has the advantage of being able to utilize grids based on shapes such as triangles or irregular quadrilaterals, and therefore being able to follow irregular boundaries more closely. Because of this flexibility in grid compositions, finite element methods offer the advantage of being able to use a coarse grid where the solution is changing slowly, and a finer grid where the solution is changing rapidly, which offers considerableadvantages in computation. Finite difference solutions return the approximate value of the desired function at only the points of the grid, and therefore require a decision as to interpolation method if values at intermediatepoints are required. Finite element methods, on the other hand, return an approximating function valid throughout the region of solution  the interpolation is an intrinsic part of the method. Finite element methods for two and threedimensionalproblems, although not difficult to comprehend, are complex and require a level of software dependence not required for finite difference methods. The fact that we used and will use only onedimensional illustration for the finite element method should not, therefore, be construed by the reader to imply any lack of utility for application to higherdimensionalproblems  the reason is purely pedagogical.
Finite difference method
The finite difference solution of differential equations (including those describing steadystate heat conduction) consists of a sequence of steps Covering the region of interest (the interior and boundary of the material within which the differential equation is to be satisfied) with a grid
606
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
At the nodes (intersection points) of the grid, replacing the derivatives in the differential equation with an algebraic approximation
Solving the resultant set of algebraic equations to obtain an estimate of the dependent variable (temperature) at the nodal points We proceed to apply this series of steps to the steadystate conduction problem. The following illustration is a typical set of four nodal points from such a grid.
Y4
j+1
i, j+l k h
A.
i + l , j+l
i,j
i
i+l, j
c
i+l
The algebraic approximation to the derivatives in the differential equation is obtained by truncating a series expansion about a grid node  here, a twodimensional Taylor series expansion, which, in general, can be written using the grid spacing shown above as
f
[x + h, Y +k] =
f [X,.Y]
+ (h & + k$)
f
[x, Y]
(7.2.794)
with remainder
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
607
R, = & ( h X
*)
f[x+eh,y+ck]
01~11;0S~11
(7.2.795)
We first examine the xdirection approximations to the first partial derivative, tben to the second partial derivative. The ydirection approximations follow directly by the same method and will therefore not be developed separately.
Expanding in the forward xdirection from the point at (i, j)
h = + h k=Ay=O
(1.2.196)
Substituting in the Taylor series we obtain a form reminiscent of the onedimensional Taylor series approximation, but incorporating partial rather than ordinary derivatives.
a2f  +(h13
ax2
I1
3!
(7.2.797)
Truncating the series after the linear term
(7.2.798)
and solving for the first partial derivative, we obtain the forward difference approximation
(7.2.799)
n
:
.
.
to thefirst derivativc
Expanding in the backward xdirection from the point at (i, j)
608
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
h =  h k=Ay=O
(7.2.7100)
Substituting in the Taylor series we again obtain the usual onedimensional series approximation
(7.2.7101)
Truncating the series after the linear term
(7.2.7102)
and solving for the first partial derivative, we obtain the backward difference approximation
(7.2.7103)
rence
.
.
to w r s t &
r i m
.
.
Subtracting the backward difference series from the forward difference series, but now truncating each series after three terms rather than two, we have
(7.2.7104) (7.2.7 105)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
609
Notice that, in the act of subtracting, the third terms negate each other and therefore, fortuitously, we obtain for the central difference a better order of approximation than that derived from either the forward or backward difference form.
(7.2.7106)
Corresponding forms for forward, backward, and central difference approximations are found for the ydirection in identical fashion.
. ApDroon
.
of second de r i v m
If, rather than subtracting the backward difference series from the forward difference series, we now add the two series, retaining truncation after three terns in each case, we can develop an approximation for the second partial derivative.
"1
(7.2.7 107) (7.2.7 108) (7.2.7109)
ax2 i. j +O[(Ax)']
Again, a corresponding form for the approximation to the second partial derivative with respect to y is found by the identical method.
Finite merence ion
.
. to the &place e e m
For a rectangular (L is not necessarily equal to W,even though it has been so drawn) slab with Dirichlet boundary conditions as shown, let us dedimensionalizethe partial differential equation and boundary conditions.
610
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Solution
V2T = 0 (7.2.7110)
Boundary conditions:
T(0,y) = To T(L,y) = T o T(x,O) = To T(x, W) = T, (7.2.7111)
Dedimensionalizeusing
(7.2.7112)
This maps the problem into
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
611
(7.2.7113)
with boundary conditions
e(o,y*) = o e 1, y*) = 0 e x*,o) = 0 e X*, 1) = 1
(7.2.7114)
Combining the above expression for the xdirection with the corresponding approximation for the ydirection, we can develop a finite difference approximation to the Laplace equation (using the dimensionless form for purposes of illustration)
(7.2.7115)
Requiring that Ax* = Ay* = h*
This is a linear algebraic equation that can be written for each interior node. The system of equations thus obtained can be solved to obtain the approximate value of 0 at each interior node.
612
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
ExamD le 7.2.71 Determination o f steadv state temberature distribution in a rectauular slab U
Apply the dedimensionalized form just obtained to calculation of the steadystate temperature distribution in the slab shown in the following figure.
Mapping the problem into dimensionless coordinates
q le = l I
1.0 h*=O.=
*='
0.0 0.0
k* = 0.33
e=o
1.0
X*
At interior points replace the dimensionless differential equation with
(7.2.7117)
Since h = k
Note that this example applies equally well t diffusion o v2c, = 0 with corresponding boundary conditions and with the thermal conductivity replaced by the diffusivity by using 0  CACAO
25
cAl
 cAO
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
613
el+l,jel,j+I qj+ ell,j b = 0 + 4 + ~
which can be written in terms of a computationalmolecule as
(7.2.7118)
(*}el*,
=0
(7.2.7119)
Apply at interior points at (U): at(1,2): at ( 2 4 : at ( 2 4 :
o + I 4e,,+e,,,+8,, e,, +  4 e,,, + O + o + o + e,,  4 o,, + e2,1 0
e2,, e2,
elJ e l ~
e,, + 1
4
e1,,+ O
+ e2,1= 0 =o =0 =0
(7.2.7120)
4 1 1 0 14 0 I] o 14 1 0 1 14
=
[
Ii]
(7.2.7121)
This is a system of linear algebraic equations  here, four equations in four unknowns  which can readily be solved by the application of elementary matrix manipulation by (7.2.7122) (7.2.7123) (7.2.7124) This relationship can readily be solved numerically via computer by using software such as EXCEL, MATLAB, MATHCAD, MAPLE, MATHEMATICA, FORTRAN, C, PASCAL, SAS, IMSL, etc.
614
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
A A' b Al*b
 4 1 1 4 0 1 0 1
1 0 4 1
0 1 1 4
0.275 0.075 0.025 0.025
0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1
0.08 0.04 0.28 0.08
0.045 0.085 0.095 0.295
1 1 0 0
0.375 0.375 0.125 0.125
(7.2.7125)
One can then recover the nodal estimated temperatures
e,,l= 0.375 =
IT
*
3
(1000) T = 37.5
at
& = 0.33, = 0.66 Y 30
y = 20
at x = 10,
(7.2.7126)
T = 37.5
at x = 20,
y = 20
(7.2.7127)
e2,,= 0.125=
*
(To) at = 0.33,Y = 0.33 30 (1000) T = 12.5 at x = 10, y = 10 (To)
(1000) at
%
(7.2.7128)
e22 = 0.125 =
r
% = 0.66,  = 0.33 Y 30
y = 10
C O *
T = 12.5
at x = 20,
(7.2.7129) ..
bauderis .
& b o u n d a r v
One of the problems with the finite difference method is that, for irregularly shaped objects, it is not always possible to make the boundary intersect the grid points that are proximate to the boundary. Consider the problem of using the very coarse grid shown below to compute the solution to the Laplace equation in
26
Neumann (derivative) types of boundary conditions are complicated to handle for irregular boundaries and wl not be treated here. il
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
615
the region indicated. The boundary of the region does not pass though most of the grid points adjacent to the boundary.
Admittedly, one can make the boundary approach the grid points more closely by using a finer mesh spacing; however, this comes at considerable increased computational time because as the number of nodes increases, so does the number of simultaneous equations that must be solved. Even with a finer mesh, however, without some sort of mapping into a different space where the region assumes a more regular shape, although the mesh points will approach the boundary more and more closely, true coincidence will not be obtained. Consequently, we seek to develop a method to deal with irregular boundaries. We shall simultaneouslyconsider all four cases of irregular boundaries, that is, boundaries that pass between grid points rather than through them.
Y
*
X
*
616
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
As shown, we consider boundariesthat pass at distances of Plh, P2h P3h and P < 1) measured from an arbitrary grid point €30. (Opencircles denote regular grid points;darkened circles denote points where the boundary intersects the grid.)
P4h ( 0 <
We can approximate the frrst partial derivatives in the xdirection at 80by using a truncated Taylor expansion (7.2.7130) (7.2.7131)
and in the ydirection by
(7.2.7132) (7.2.7 133) We can then use t e definition of the second partial derivatives h (7.2.7134) (7.2.7 135)
to approximate the second partial derivatives using the differences between the first partial derivatives divided by the appropriate space interval. For the xdirection
(7.2.7136)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models The same procedure gives for tbe ydirection
(7.2.7137)
617
Each of these approximations has error O[h*]. Applying them to the Laplace equation
(7.2.7138)
Rearranging
We apply this relationship at nodes adjacent to the boundary that do not lie on the boundary. One can think of the weighting factors in terms of a computational module, albeit more complicated than the one used for internal nodes.
+

[ha;?D;]
[P (P P [P (P : P [P (P P J] [P (P P.)I
1
1
1
+
3
I +
e3
+
1
+
e1
2
+
e2
4
1 2+
e4
(7.2.7139)
+
=O
618
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
J
(7.2.7140) . . .. N o m l derivative (Neumann) b o w condrfiDn at m
w
I
I
I
I
LI
X
We will treat only boundary conditions hat fix normal derivatives (Neumann conditions) at a nodal point on the boundary of our region. We will not consider irregular boundaries in the context of normal derivatives.
If the value of 0 at the boundary point 00 unknown, and instead a normal is derivative COis prescribed at Oo (on the boundary of the region in question), we have an additional unknown, 0 0 ,and therefore need an additional independent equation. To circumvent this problem we introduce a fictitious point, 0 4 , and apply at 00 usual approximation for the Laplace equation. the
e,+e,4e,+e1+e,
=
o
(7.2.7141)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
619
At first glance this does not seem to have helped the situation much, because although we have written an additional independent equation, we have also introduced another unknown, 6 4 . However, we can use the central difference approximation to the derivative at 8 0 to substitute for 634.
(7.2.7142) e 2  e 4 + 2 h * c o= 8, = e 2 + 2 h * c 0
o
(7.2.7143) (7.2.7144)
Note that the central difference approximation is O[h2], the same order as the approximation we used for the second partial derivatives in the Laplace equation. Substituting the approximation at 00in the Laplace equation
e, + (e2 + 2 h* c,) 4 e, + e,+e2 = o
e,+2e24eo+e, = 2h*c,
(7.2.7145) (7.2.7146)
We simply append this equation to our set of linear algebraic equations and solve as before.
Generati t e r m *on
The Laplace equation describes conduction of thermal energy without thermal energy generation. As we saw earlier in this chapter, however, the form of the differential equation incorporating thermal energy generation is not greatly different.
(7.2.7147)
The units of the last term on the lefthand side are
Ye
[
( l e z i yL e ]
[
energy length time temperature
temperature (length)
I
(7.2.7148)
620
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
which matches, as it must, the units on the second partial derivatives of temperature. (7.2.7149) Inserting our approximations for Ax = h = Ay
(7.2.7150) (7.2.7151)
Therefore, all that is necessary in order to incorporate thermal energy generation into our numerical solution is to add the specified term at any node where generation is occurring. Notice that the generation can be different at different nodes. Remember that k in Quation (7.2.7152) is the thermal conductivity, not Ay. We have assumed that k is constant in the differential equation model that we are using, so k carries no subscript^?^ One can, of course, work instead with the dimensionless form of the equation after performing the appropriate transformation. First dedimensionalizingthe dependent variable
(7.2.7 154)
Notice that the finite difference solution lends itself readily to space varying thermal conductivity and thermal energy generation, as well as initial temperature distributions andor Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions that vary in space.
27
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models then applying tbe chain rule to dedimensionalizethe independent variables
Ye + k(T, To) =
621
1LlB
ax* [E
and assuming for purposes of illustration that L = W, we have the dimensionless heat conduction equation, including thermal energy generation
a2e + a2e
a ( x . ) '
a(~')'
Defining a dimensionless grid size
(7.2.7158)
to relate the dimensionless grid to the dimensional grid, and introducing the approximations to the second partial derivatives, we obtain
Examble 7.2.72 conduction
The irregular shape shown in (x, y) coordinates with the origin at the lower lefthand corner of the grid has dimensions of 10 mm in both the x and ydirections, and is 1 mm thick.
+
1
(7.2.7155) (7.2.7156)
1 & l & + aY ay'] k (T,ye To) = 0 
[
+
L2% = 0 k (T, To)
(7.2.7157)
Finite difference s olution o f 2  0 stead!state
622
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The lefthand vertical side of the object is maintained at 100 K, the righthand side at 50 K, and the lower side and diagonal side at 75 K. The derivative of the temperature at the top side is maintained at 7 Wmm. The thermal conductivity of the material is 0.6 W/(m K).
At point 6 a steadystate thermal energy source (microwave energy) is applied at the rate of 0.05 W/mm3.
Calculate the steadystate temperature distribution using the grid shown, assuming the origin to be at the lower lefthand corner of the grid. (In a realworld problem, it is, to be sure, highly unlikely that we would ever use such a coarse grid  here we are interested in the solution from a pedagogical point of view and therefore wish to keep the system of equations small.) Solution We can solve this problem either in dimensional or dimensionless form. The dimensionless method is more useful (both because of its applicability to a more general class of problems as well as the mapping of certain boundary conditions into the convenient values of zero and one).
We define the variables
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
623
(7.2.7161)
The differential equation transforms t [cf. Equation (7.2.71531 o
a(~')'
a2e + a2e
a(y')'
+
L'Ye =0 k (T, To)
(7.2.7162)
Noting that
=1 10050 atT = 7 5 3 = 7550  0.5 10050 atT = 50,Q = 1 0  5 0 = 0
atT = 1 0 , 9 =
~
(7.2.7163)
atx = 0,x' = & = O atx = 10,x' = aty = 0,y' = 0
m=o aty = 10,y' =   1 ;2.5 h' = 1 = 0.25 0
#=1
(7.2.7 164)
(7.2.7 165) (7.2.7 166)
= (10)(&)(7)
= la4
(7.2.7167)
in (x*, y*) coordinates with the origin at the lower left corner of the grid, the boundary conditions transform t o
624
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
oI
X*
I 0.75; y* =
0.75 IX * 5 i ; y * = 0 I X * 5 1;y' = 1;
2 5 X* +OS
o
e = 0.5 *;   1.4 * :
3
e = 0.5
(7.2.7 168)
so the problem maps into
Here, h = 0.25 mm. At points 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 we can write the approximation to the Laplace equation using the form of Equation (7.2.7lm),omitting the generation term and substituting the known Dirichlet boundary conditions where appropriate. i+e,+e,+e44e, = o e,+e,,+e,+es4e, = o e , + e , , + o + e 6  4 e ,= o e,+e,+e,+e,4es = o e,+e,+o+o.54e8 = o Rearranging
(7.2.7169)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
625
e,+e2+e44e1 =  1
e,+e2+e6+e74es = 0 + @64e 8 = 0.5 7
e , + e , , + e 3 + e s  4 e= o 2 e 2 + e , , + e 6  4 e ,= o
o
(7.2.7170)
At point 6 the difference equation retains ?be generation term

[“I’
(Tl
L2 [%I6
To)

(0.25)2 (10j2[m2] (0.05) (0.6)
[a]
[&][] I +
=  10.42
(100 50) [K] (7.2.717 1)
We apply Equation (7.2.7160)
e s + e ,  4 e 6 + o + e 8 10.42 = e s + e 3  4 e 6 + e 8 10.42 =
(7.2.7172)
0.5 + 0.6 e, + 0.5 es+ 0.45  2.5 e, e,  5 e, + 1.2 e, =  0.9s
At p i n t 7, = 112, pz = 1,
p3
=
o
(7.2.7173)
= 1, p 4 = 1/3
626
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
0.6667 + 0.75 e5+ 0.6667 e, + 1.125  5 e, = 0.75 T5 + 0.6667 T  5 T =  1.792 g ,
o
(7.2.7 174)
By adding a fictitious row of points across the top, we generate the following three equations
1 +erz+e,,+e, 48, = o eg+e,,+e,,+e24eloo = e,o+el,+o+e34el, o =
We introduce the Neumann boundary condition via
(7.2.7175)
2 h*
(7.2.7176)
which can be rearranged to
Substituting gives
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
1 +e, + o . 7 + e , , + e l  4 e , = o e , + e 2 + o . 7 + e , ,+ e z  4 e l O= o e,,+e,+o.7+0+e~4e~~ =o
627
(7.2.7178)
Collecting terms and rearranging
2 8 , + e , ,  4 e 9 = 1.7 = ~ 9 + 2 e , + e , ,  4 e , , 0.7 e , , + 2 e ,  4 e I 1 = 0.7
(7.2.7179)
Appending these three equations t the equations already developed for points 1, o 2, 3, 5, and 8, and for points 4, 6, and 7, gives the set of 11 equations in 1 1 dimensionless unknowns
e , + e 2 + e 4  4 e 1=  1 e,+e,,+e3+e,4e, = o e,+e,,+e64e3 = o e,+e,+e6+e74e, = o e 7 + e 6  4 e s = 0.5 e,  5 e, + 1.2 e, =  0.95 e, + e,  4 86 + e, =  10.42 0.75 T + 0.6667 T  5 T =  1.792 S S 7 2 8 , + e , ,  4 e 9 =  1.7 e9+ 2 e2+ell 4 e,, = 0.7 e,,+2e,4eI1 = 0.7
(7.2.7180)
Writing the system in the form
AO=b
(7.2.7181)
note that the matrix A and its inverse are each unchanged from the dimensional solution. The vector b is now
628
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
1.OOO 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.500
1
 10.420
0.950
A  ' A 0 = A'b
8 = A' b
(7.2.7 182)
yields the 8 vector as
I I
1,601 1.711
Transforming 9 back to the original T coordinate we have for the vector T
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
111 130 136
,
629
92
138 239
1
I
7.2.8 Onedimensional unsteadystate conduction
Onedimensional unsteadystate conduction in a medium with constant thermal conductivity and without thermal energy generation is described by a differential equation in one space dimension and time
(7.2.81)
Using the definition of the thermal diffusivity, a
a= k
p gives
G
(7.2.82)
(7.2.83) We now have moved from a steadystate problem which is defined by an elliptic equation to an unsteady state problem defined by a parabolic equation (because of the presence of the fust partial derivative with respect to time). The method of solution of this equation, like most partial differential equations, depends heavily on the type of boundary conditions involved. We will consider a
630
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
series of examples which will illustrate a variety of methods of solution. For a given problem, more than one of these approaches may work. We cover the example in rectangular coordinates in detail an example of both the analytical procedure of applying separation of variables techniques followed by series solution and the numerical procedures available. Tbe choice both of ultimate solution method, i.e., analytical or numerical, and the particular implementationof the solution method chosen depend on the particular problem at hand, and, especially, the shape of the boundary and form of the boundary conditions.
Analytical methods for onedimensional unsteadystate conduction
Semiinfinite slab
Consider a heat conduction in the xdirection in a semiinfinite (bounded only by one face) slab initially at a uniform temperature, Ti, whose face suddenly at time equal to zero is raised and maintained at Ts. The temperature profile will “penetrate” into the slab with time in the general fashion shown in Figure 7.2.81.
Figure 7.2.81 Semiinfinite slab with constant face temperature
The partial differential equation which is the microscopic energy balance
aT  = a a2T at
ax*
(7.2.84)
has boundary conditions
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
t = 0: T = T,, allx
x = 0: T = T,, all t
631
x =
00:
> 0 (boundary condition) T = T,, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
(initialcondition)
(7.2.85)
Consider the dedimensionalization of the depenccnt variable in the equation using
T '
 T Ti T,T,
(7.2.8 6)
which will give, dedimensionalizing term by term
(7.2.8 7) (7.2.88)
Substituting
(7.2.89)
yields the transformed partial differential equation
at  a a2T' aT'  with transformed boundary conditions
t = 0: T' = 0, allx (initialcondition) x = 0 T' = 1, all t > 0 (boundarycondition) : x = =: To = 0, all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
(7.2.810)
(7.2.81 1)
This is the analogous problem to that of velocity profiles in a Newtonian fluid adjacent to a wall suddenly set in motion, and to that of certain binary diffusion in a semiinfinite medium. The dimensionless temperature, T*, is analogous to the dimensionlessvelocity
632
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
vyvi
0
VY
=
 v,0  vy v v
(7.2.812)
(V being the velocity of the wall) or the dimensionlessconcentration
(7.2.8 13)
and the thermal diffusivity is analogous to the kinematic viscosity, v, or the binary diffusivity, DAB. The solution to the differential equation To = f, (x, t, a)
can be written as
(7.2.814)
fi (T', x, t, a) = T o  f, (x, t, a) = 0
(7.2.815)
where we observe that fZ(T*,x, t, a)must be a dimensionally homogeneous function. Applying the principles of dimensional analysis in a system of two fundamental dimensions (L, t) indicates that we should obtain two dimensionless groups. One of our variables, T*, is already dimensionless and therefore serves as the first member of the group of two. A systematic analysis such as we developed in Chapter 5 will give the other dimensionless group as the similarity variable
q=
rn
X
(7.2.816)
which implies that
(7.2.817)
or that T' = cp(rl) Transforming the terms in the differentialequation we have
(7.2.818)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
633
1 = mp ' ' Substituting i the differential equation n
(7.2.820)
(7.2.821) Rearranging
cp"
+ 2 7.l cp'
=0
(7.2.822)
which leaves us with an ordinary differential equation because of the combining of two independent variables into one via the similarity transformation. The initial and boundary conditions transform as
(7.2.823)
which gives the transformed boundary conditions as
634
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.824)
w for Q
Equation (7.2.822) is easily solved via the simple expedient of substituting which renders it separable
(7.2.825) (7.2.826) (7.2.827)
lnw=  q 2 + h C , y = C, eq2 Back substituting for w
(7.2.828)
(7.2.829)
cp'dq = C,
5
eq2dq
(7.2.830)
As we saw in the corresponding momentum transfer example in Chapter 6, the integral here is one that we cannot evaluate in closed form?
Introducing the boundary conditions and substituting the appropriate value for the definite integrals29
28 Engineers have a certain regrettable proclivity to use the same symbol for the dummy variable of integration that appears in the integrand and for the variable in the limits. This often does not cause confusion; here, however, it is clearer to make the distinction. 29 The error function plays a key role in statistics. We do not have space here to show the details of the integration of the function to obtain the tables listed; for further details the reader is referred to any of the many texts in mathematical statistics.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
635
1 = C,$e(’dS+C,
C = l(Cl)(0) = 1 ,
0 = C , ~ m e  t z d f , + l a CI = 
l
1 e tZdc
=A
(7.2.83 1)
Substituting the constants in the equation and reordering the terms gives
We defined the error function and the complementary error function in Chapter 6
error function = erf (q)
=
Af
ec2d[
(7.2.833)
complementaryerrorfunction = erfdq) = 1 erf (q) allowing us to write
<p = lerf[q]
= erfc[q]
(7.2.834)
The solution of our problem is then To= lerf[L(] fi
= erfc [l]
4Ei
(7.2.835)
A table of values of ~e error function is listed in Appendix B.
Examble 7.2.81
Semiinfinite slab: conductr‘on in a brick wall
A brick furnace wall, so thick as t be essentially infinite in the zdirection, o is initially at a uniform temperature of 4oooF
636
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
At time t = 0, a very high velocity jet of hot gas at a temperature of 8Oo0F impinges upon the inside wall of the furnace. The heat transfer from the jet of hot gas to the wall is good enough that the convective resistance can be neglected, and the wall surface assumed to be maintained at 8OoOF. The properties of the wall are listed in the following table.
,
Value Thermal cond~ctivity~~ 1 Btu/(hr ft2 OF) Density31 110 lbmass/ft3 0.2 Btu/(lbmass OF) Heat Capacity32
property
What is the temperature one inch from the wall surface after five minutes?
Solution
The thermal diffusivity is
30Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3146. 31 Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 395. 32 Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3128.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
637
= 1.818~ 103$
(7.2.836)
From the error function solution for a semiinfinite slab we have that
T e=  Ti 
T  Ti s
lerf
(A) rn
(1) [in1
= 1erf
v ( 4 ) (1.818 x lO')
= 1  erf (0.677)
[T] [s] (300)
(7.2.837)
Interpolating linearly from the error function
lerf (0.677) erf
I)@.)(
[erf (0.68)  erf (0.64)]
(0.68  0.64)
(0.667  0.64) erf (0.677) = erf (0.677) =
[erf (0.68) erf ( . 4 ] 06) (0.667  0.64) + erf (0.64) (0.68  0.64)
10.66378  0.634591 (0.68  0.64) (0.667  0.64)+ 0.63459 (7.2.838)
erf (0.677) = 0.654
Substituting
T T T x i '
=
% . B
= 1 erf' (0.677)= 1  0.654
(7.2.839)
T = 538°F
638
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Finite slab
Now let us again consider solutions to the equation at (7.2.840)
but with boundary conditions that describe conduction in a finite (rather than semiinfinite) slab initially at T which at time t = 0 has each face suddenly i raised to and maintained at T,, as shown in Figure 7.2.82.
Figure 7.2.82 Finite slab with constant face temperatures
The appropriate initial and boundary conditions are t = 0: T = Ti, x =  b: T = T,, x = b: T = T,, b 5 x I b (initialcondition) all t > 0 (boundarycondition) all t > 0 (boundarycondition)
(7.2.841)
We shall illustrate using the rectangular coordinate problem posed in Equations (7.2.840) and (7.2.841). The usual analytic solution of this problem relies upon a two step process: (a) separation of variables, followed by (b) power series solution. First, we will dedimensionalize the differential equation and boundary conditions using the following dimensionlessvariables33
33 Note that this is a different dimensionless temperature that we used in the case of the semiinfinite slab. However, the two dimensionless variables are simply related:
TT,  TTi+TiT, Ti  T, Ti  T,

TTi T,Ti
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
639
dimensionless temperature
X
7\=
b
* (not a similarity variable: contains
only one independentvariable)
=#
dimensionless distance
?=
at
b2
dimensionless time (also known as the Fourier Number, Fo)
(7.2.842)
Transforming to the dimensionless form of the derivatives
(7.2.844)
Substituting in the equation
a2e a (T,  T,)  = a (T,  T,) ae b2 & b2 &12
(7.2.845)
The dimensional initial and boundary conditions map into dimensionless conditions as
(7.2.846)
which gives the dimensionless initial and boundary conditions as
640
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.847)
We now assume that the variables can be separated (we must verify this assumption later); that is, that we can ~ r i t e 3 ~
(% 7 ) =
c (rl) e ( 7 )
(7.2.848)
where 6 and 5 are functions, respectively, of only q and z. Applying this assumption to the differential equation, and noting that the partial derivative sign can be replaced by the ordinary derivative in the case of a function of only one variable (we write the independent variable in the first line to remind ourselves of this fact) yields
(7.2.849)
But here we have the lefthand side, a function only of equal to the righthand side, a function only of 6. The only way that this can be true if [ and 5 are free to take arbitrary values is if they are mutually equal to some constant. For convenience in later manipulation we choose to designate this constant as ( c2).
(7.2.850)
c,
This reduces our problem to the solution of two ordinary differential
MptiOnS
34 This is different from the case of a separable equation  that is, one where the variables can be separated, one to the lefthand side of the equation and the other to the righthand side.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
641
(7.2.85 1)
The initial condition applies to the first equation, the two boundary conditions to the second. The first equation is separableand therefore easily integrated
InklnK, = c2z
5 = K,ec27
(7.2.8  52)
The second equation is a linear, homogeneous, secondorder ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients and likewise can be integrated easily3s
(7.2.853)
The characteristic equation is h2+C2 = 0 which has the complex conjugate roots h = +_ic giving the solution
= K,cos(cq)+K,sin(cq)
(7.2.8 56) (7.2.855) (7.2.854)
For example, see Kreyszig, E. (1993). Advanced Engineering Mathematics. New York, NY,John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 74.
35
642
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The problem is symmetric in space, which means that 8 and therefore must be an even36 function of q. This implies that K3 = 0, since the sine is an odd function. This leaves37
= K,
COS (cq)
<
(7.2.85 7)
Application of the fifst boundary condition (the other could equally well be used) gives38
0 = K, COS (c)
(7.2.85 8)
We observe that K2 = 0 is not an admissible solution because we would lose all variation of temperature in space. Therefore,
0 = cos(c) (7.2.859)
c = (n++
enaninteger
which gives as a particular solution to our original partial differential equation
8 (n) = K (n) K, (n ) exp  (n +
[ 4)
lt2 T] cos
[ + 4) ]
(n
Rq
(7.2.860)
where the notation reminds us that K1, and thereby 8 may be functions of n. K2
If we now attempt to satisfy the initial condition using this solution we have, where we have replaced the product (K1K2)by &
1 = K,(n)cos[(n+l)rrq]
(7.2.861)
36 An even function of x, y(x), is one such that f(x) = f(x). Conversely, an odd function is one for which f(x) =  f(x). 37 The recognition of as an even function amounts to using one of the two boundary conditions. 38 8 = 0 implies that = 0, because the condition on 8 holds for arbitrary values of 7 > 0, and we are not interested in the trivial case for which 6 is identically zero.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
643
But since n is an integer and & a constant, we cannot satisfy this relationship for arbitrary q. In essence we are attempting to represent an arbitrary function with only one term of a (Fourier) series. Recognizing the fact that the sum of solutions is also a solution offers us a way around the difficulty. Adding all the solutions for  5 n 5
 
Using the fact that cos (p) = cos@), and defining K5 (n) = K4 (n) + K4 ([n+l I) we can change the range on the sum39
We can then apply the initial condition to obtain (now ceasing to write the reminder that K5 is a function of n)
1 = n=O , c o s [ ( n + $ ) n q ] ZK
(7.2.864)
where we recognize this as the Fourier cosine series representation. We now need to determine the coefficients. To do this we use the orthogonality of the cosine function. If we multiply both sides of the above relation by cos (m + 1/2) x q and integrate from q = 1 to q = +1
39 In
doing this we pair the terms
Note that since n is a dummy variable, we can continue to use the same symbol despite the change in range.
644
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
=
o=o
z .,~~~s[(m++)It.]cos[(n++)Itrl]d.
(7.2.865)
The lefthand side is in a form easily integrated sin (m +
j'cos[(m+S)rrq]d[(m+S)nll]
=
[ $1
(m++
4=+1
It q]
(In++
1
 (
1)"  (
l)"+l
(m++
 ( 1)" [ 1 (I)] (m++
4s 1
2 ( 1)" (m++)It (7.2.866)
Orthogonality of the cosine function over the interval (1, 1) implies that all the integrals on the righthand side vanish except for m = n
= 1
(7.2.867)
Substituting
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
645
(7.2.868)
and using this result in the expression for the solution
e = 2 g ( '1"
n=o(n++
exp 
[(
+
&r 1'
x2
cos
[( 3)'
+
(7.2.869)
which in terms of the original variables is
These solutions are plotted in Figure 7.2.83. Because of the large slope of the curves at short times, the graphical presentation is relatively of little use. However, the solution at very short times can be approximated quite well by the solution for the semiinfinite slab model for onedimensional unsteadystate conductive heat transfer, since the profiles have not "penetrated"very far into the slab; hence, the effect of the opposite wall is quite small and the first wall in essence "sees" an infinite medium.
646
Figure 7.2.83 Unsteadystate heat transfer in a finite slab with uniform initial temperature and constant, equal surface tempera tures40
t = 0, a temperature of
A brick wall 12 in. thick is initially at a uniform temperature of IOOOF. At 5000F is applied and maintained at both surfaces.
40
Carslaw, H. S. and J. C. Jaeger (1959). Conduction o Heuf in Solids, Oxford, p. f 200, as presented in Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 357.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
647
12 In.
Properties of the brick m a y be taken as independent of temperature and with the following values
€!Tf€!9
Btu/ hr ft O F lbm/ft3
a) Assuming that the wall is a semiinfinite slab, calculate and plot the temperature at 0.25inch intervals for a total distance of 7 inches from the lefthand face at times t = 10 s, 180 s, 900 s, and 9000 s. b) Treat the wall as a finite slab and using the graphical trigonometric series solution Figure 7.2.83 calculate the temperature at the following values of (t, z), where z is the distance from the lefthandface
(10, 0.25) (180, 1.0) (900, 2.0) (9000, 6.0)
Plot on the same graph constructed in (a). c) Calculate the value of temperature for the points (10, 0.25) and (9000, 6.0) using the analytical trigonometric series solution and plot the result vs. the number of terms used.
Solution
648
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.871) (7.2 872)
( I
T = (500 100)[oF]
1 erf
The calculations are readily carried out by a spreadsheet program. Results are plotted below.
6 e r f , t = m s 8 e r f , t = 9 0 0 s
At longer and longer times this solution becomes less and less useful. In particular, because of symmetry we know that the derivative must go to zero at
+
T = (T,T,)
(
l  e r f ( 4 4 4 ) Ti
i
(7.2.873)
4
erf, t = 1 8 0 s
+ erf,t=lOs
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
649
the centerline, which for this model it clearly does not at long times. At short times, since the influence of the other wall is minimal, the derivative goes essentially to zero by the time the center line is reached, so the model is valid.
For short times the graph (finite slab) is essentially useless because the slope of the solution is nearly vertical, making the temperature read extremely sensitive to the distance from the face. (The point at 10 s is for all practical purposes unreadable from the graph.) Fortunately, these are the times when the error function solution (semiinfinite slab) is the most useful. Additional results are plotted below together with the results of part (a).
1
A erf,t=!%lOS
0 erf,t=9oos
0 erf,t=180s 0 erf,t=lOs
+
A
0 1
graph, t = 180 s graph, t=WO graph, t = 9000
distance from lefl face, in.
2
3
4
5
6
7
At intermediate times the graph (finite slab) and the error function (semiinfinite slab) give essentially the Same answer.
For long times the graph (finite slab) gives a far superior answer because the error function solution (semiinfinite slab) does not take into account the al influence of the other (righthand) w l .This is reflected in the solution from the graph (finite slab) giving a higher temperature, since this model accounts for heat conducted into the slab from the righthand wall as well as from the lefthand wall.
(c) Using the solution
650
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.2.874)
For t = 10 s
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
For t = 9000 s last term 165.94 0.01 0.00 0.00
334.06 334.07 334.07 334.07
651
0
9000 9000
Notice the speed of convergence varies greatly with the time  at 10 s, about 40 terms were required to achieve the Same convergence as was obtained with only two terms at 9000 s. We also can apply numerical methods to the solution of these equations.
Infinite cylinder and sphere
We can perform similar solutions for the case of surfaces with T = constant in cylinctrical geometry and T = constant in spherical geometry. The difference is that following the separation of variables step in the cylindrical case, the secondorder ordinary differential equation obtained is solved by a series in Bessel functions,and in the spherical case, by Legendre polynomials. Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials m functions defined by infinite series just as the ordinary trigonometric functions (sines, cosines, etc.) can be defined by infinite series. They can be tabulated and plotted in the same manner as the trigonometric functions. The series forms are readily adaptable for use with numerical solutions via computers. We shall not go into the details of the series solutions here; rather, we present them in graphical form4*in Figures 7.2.84and 7.2.85.
For details of various other power series solutions see, for example, Ozisik, M. N. (1968). Boundary Value Problems of Heat Conduction, International Textbook Company, Crank, J. (1975). The Mathematics of Digusion, Oxford, or Carslaw, H. S. and J. C. Jaeger (1959). Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford.
41
652
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
sufface of cylindw\
Figure 7.2.84 Unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder with uniform initial temperature and constant surface tempera ture42
42Carslaw, H. S. and J. C. Jaeger (1959). Conduction o Heat in Solids, Oxford, p. f 200, as presented in Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 357.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
653
0
02
OA
T Ts T Ts i
0.6
D B
0
02
0.4
1 a , 6
oa
1
1.0
I
R
Figure 7.2.85 Unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere with uniform initial temperature and constant surface t e r n p e r a t ~ r e ~ ~
Numerical Methods for OneDimensional UnsteadyState Conduction The solution of unsteadystate heat conduction problems in one space dimension and one time dimension can be accomplished readily by numerical methods. Consider the unsteadystateheat transfer problem in one space variable aT p c  = k a2T p p at
43
(7.2.875)
Carslaw, H. S. and J. C. Jaeger (1959). Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford, p. 234, as presented in Bird, R. B., W.E. Stewart, et al. (1960). Transport Phenomena. New York, Wiley, p. 358.
654 aT k d2T  = at
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
pcp&2
a2T
(7.2.876)
ar = aa x 2
a T
(7.2.877)
Finite difference method
We approximate the conduction partial derivatives and the boundary conditions using the same technique based on Taylor series expansion as for steadystate conduction. Superscripts refer to the time step, subscripts to the space step. We now must defme a grid in both space and time. We show the grid in Figure 7.2.86 as square; this need not necessarily be so.
k+l
k
t
k1
i1
i
i+l
Figure 7.2.86 Finite difference grid for 1D unsteadystate conduction
Using the Taylor series approximations developed earlier with superscripts (k) to denote time steps (At) and subscripts (i) to denote space steps (Az), using the forward difference at the ith space step for the time derivative,gives
(72.878)
and the central difference at the kth time step for the space derivative
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
655
(7.2.879) We have used different orders of approximation for t and x, but will receive certain benefits in the form obtained. Substituting in the equation gives (7.2.880) In the above representation, unknown quantity is at the (k + 1)st time step, known quantities at the kth time step. Solving for the unknown in terms of the knowns (7.2.881) To simplify we define
(7.2.882)
and write T : "
= kT;+,+(12h)T:+hT:_,
(7.2.8 3) 8
This is an explicit form for the temperature at the ith space coordinate, (k+l)st time coordinate, in terns of the t r e values at the kth time coordinate as he shown in Figure 7.2.86. Using this fonn one can therefore calculate the values of temperature at the next time step onebyone, using the three known temperatures at the previous time step as indicated.
If one knows the initial temperature distribution [ O t time step], one can ()h onebyone calculate all the internal temperatures at the ftrst time step. The leftmost and the rightmost (surface, boundary) temperatures are known for all time steps because they constitute the Dirichlet conditions. After determining all the temperatures at the first time step, one can repeat the process for the second time step, and so forth.
656
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Unfortunately, the explicit method is both convergent and stable4 only for
Explicit form: both convergentand stable hs2 1 and may oscillate, although the emors will not grow IExplicit form: may oscillate with stable error1 1 2
(7.2.884)
; " S
(7.2.885)
1
The practical implication of these restrictions is that one does not have simultaneous free choice of the fineness of both the time and space grids. One normally wants as fine a space grid as possible, in order to get precise temperature profiles as a function of time. However, the finer the grid in space, the finer the time step must be in order to preserve convergence and stability. If temperature profiles at long times are required, an inconveniently large number of steps may have to be taken.
Unsteadystate heat tramfer bv e x h i t finite
..
Consider the case of a slab one foot in thickness, initial1 at a uniform temperature of 4 W F , whose thermal diffusivity is 1.82 x 10 in2/s. At time equal or greater than zero, the faces of the slab are raised to and maintained at 700OF.
J
a) Use a value of A t = 30 s and Ax = 1 inch in conjunction with the explicit method to plot the temperature history one inch from the face of the slab. with the explicit method to plot the temperature history one inch from the face of the slab.
b) Use a value of At = 300 s and Ax = i inch in conjunction
44 For a more detailed discussion, see Chapra, S. C. and R . P. Canale (1988). Numerical Methods for Engineers. New York, McCrawHill. Gerald, C. F. and P. 0. Wheatley (1994). Applied Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley, and Carnahan, B., H. A. Luther, et al. (1969). Applied Numerical Methods. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
657
Solution
We can easily adapt the explicit method for spreadsheet calculation. We do not show the calculation, which is straightforward. a) Note that for this case h = 0.05454, well within the range of convergence and stability.
b) Note that for this case h = 0.5454, outside of the range of convergence and stability.
Plots of the two cases are shown below for the first 1500 seconds. Note that the case AT = 100 s is converging smoothly toward the steadystate value of 7WF, while the case AT = 300 s is oscillating.
TIME, SECWDS
If we continue case (b) further in time, we see that it is indeed unstable, as shown in the following figure.
658
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
P
O 0~
'
.
2OOO . . 4000 . ! . !
. . .TIME, . . ! . . . I . . . ! . . . I I.
6OOO 8OOO SECONDS
loo00
I
12O00
14000
Implicit finite conduction difference methods can be used to overcome the stability problems of the explicit method. The CrankNicolson metbod, which is unconditionally stable for all values of h, uses for the approximation of the second derivative in the partial differential equation the arithmetic average of the derivative approximationsat the kth and (k+l)st time steps
(7.2.886)
It is therefore also secondorder accurate in both space and time, as opposed to the explicit method, which w s only frrstorder accurate in time. a Solving as before for the temperatures at the next time step
2 (1 + h) T:+' = h T : +
[
+ T + T:++,' + T:.+ll]+ 2 (1  h ) T : :
(7.2.889)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
659
 h T:++'' + 2 (1 + h)T:+'  h T_, = h T + 2 (1  h) T + h T :*' + : : :
(7.2.890) Notice that we now have three temperatures at the (k+l)st time step on the lefthand side of this equation. Assume a problem with N interior points (i = 1, 2, ... N). For cases where the value of the index i denotes a point n o t immediately adjacent to the boundary (surface), i.e., i = (2, 3, ..., N1), all three of these temperatures are unknown. For the two cases where the value of the index i denotes a point immediately adjacent to the boundary, i.e., i = 1 or i = N, one knows the temperature
T,L"
(7.2.891)
in the equation at T1 or the temperature (7.2.892) in the equation at TN. If we think of writing the CrankNicolson equation for points successively from left to right, this means that as we write the general equation  h T:++,' + 2 (1 + h) T:+'  h T:' f,
= h T+ :
+ 2 (1  h) T + h T : :
(7.2.893)
for points interior to the slab, we generate for the point
Tf"
(7.2.894)
only two unknowns (7.2.895) because we know the value of T,L" (7.2.896)
660
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
as a result of the Dirichlet boundary conditions.
As we continue to write equations for points not immediately adjacent to the boundary, each equation contains three unknowns, but two of these unknowns are common to previously written equations.
When we reach the equation for the point immediately adjacent to the rightband boundary, we generate no additional unknowns, because the values of (assuming N interior points) (7.2.897) have already appeared as unknowns in the previous equation and the Dirichlet condition furnishes the value for (7.2.898) Consequently, we generate a system of N linear equations in N unknowns at each time step, which system can be solved using a variety of wellknown techniques. Our solution therefore proceeds by solution of a system of equations at each time step, rather than a series of solutions of single equations within each time step as was the case for the explicit method. Writing the CrankNicolson algorithm for a general time step at each successive interior point, we have first for point 1
 h T t + ' +2 (1 + h) TF"  h Tic' = h Ti + 2 (1  h) T + h Ti F
(7.2.899) Rearranging so that variables are on the left, constants on the right, we have at point 1 AT;+'+2(1 +A)T:+' = A T ~ + 2 ( 1  A ) T : + k T t + h T ~ + I (7.2.8 100)
At point 2 we do not need any rearrangement to separate the variables and constants to opposite sides of the equation
 h T t + ' + 2 ( 1 +h)Tt"hT:+'
= AT:+2(1A)T,L+AT:
(7.2.8101)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
nor do we at point N1
661
hTk~:+2(1+h)Ti~:hT;;= hTi,+2(1h)Tk,+hT; " (7.2.8102)
but at point N we again must rearrange because of the known boundary condition
2(1 +h)Ti"XTi:;
= hT;+, + 2 ( 1  k ) T ~ + h T ;  , +AT;',:
(7.2.8103)
Assembling these equations, taking as an example the case of a grid of five elements in the xdirection (4 equations in 4 unknowns Tlk+l Tqk+l) ... gives in matrix form

I
I I 4
+
h 0 0
2[1+h) h h 2(1+h)
0
T,k
1
h
0
2 [ 4

h 0 0
h 0 0 2(1h) h 0 h 2(1h) h 0 h 2(1h)
a
h (T;+ T;+I)
+
0 0
(7.2.8 104)
x (T:
+,+I)
The matrices above are tridiagonal, a form suited to rapid machine computation.
This set of equations is of the form
662
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
[,ITk+' = [C]Tk+b
We can solve, for example, by multiplying by the inverse
(7.2.8105)
Tk+I [A]' Tk+' [A]'{[C]Tk b} = [A] = +
(7.2.8106)
Everything on the righthand side is known at step k. Setting k = 0 permits calculation of all unknown temperatures for k = 1. Repeating the procedure for the next time step does nothing more than increment the superscript of all temperatures by one. The temperatures at the first time step now become the knowns, and the temperatures at the second time step the unknowns. No new inversion of the A matrix is necessary for different k, since the A matrix is independent of k, as are the C matrix and the b vector. Extension to further time steps should be obvious.
.. inite slab unsteadvstate heat trguSfer bv
Consider unsteadystateconduction in a 2mm thick slab in which the initial temperature is 300 K, and both faces are instantly exposed to and maintained at a constant tem rature of 500 K for times 2 0. Assume the thermal diffusivity to be 9.6 x 10 cm2 / s, and use increments of Ax = 0.4 mm and At = 10 s to calculate the temperatures to t = 40 s. Plot the temperatures at each x grid point from x = 0 (lefthand face) to x = 5 vs. time.
Y
Solution
h=
(9.6 x 10')
(0.4)2nun2
$(10) s (10)' nun2 = 0.6
cm2
(7.2.8107)
Since h > 0.5, we cannot use an explicit method because of instability; therefore, we apply CrankNicolson. The general CrankNicolson algorithm is
(7.2.8108) With h = 0.6 (note this would give instability in an explicit solution) (7.2.8109)
(7.2.8110)
Numbering the grid as shown below
distance, mm
0
0.4
0.8 1.2 1.6 2 .o
T, K 300 300 300 300
Applying the CrankNicolson relation at point (0,l)  note that subscripts reflect [time, distance]
 0.6 T1, + 3.2 T1,l  0.6 T1.0 =
0.6 Toz
+ 0.8 To,l + 0.6 To,o
(7.2.8111)
Moving known quantities to the righthand side
 0.6 T1, +3.2 T1,I = 0.6 To2 + 0.8 To,1 + 0.6 To,o + 0.6 T1.o  0.6 T,,+ 3.2Tl,l = 0.6 Ta2 + 0.8 To,l + 0.6 (500) + 0.6 (500)
(7.2.81 12)
(7.2.8113)
664
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Notice that the last two terms remain constant for any value of the time subscript (Dirichlet boundary condition). Applying the CrankNicolsonrelation at point (0,2)
 0.6 TI, + 3.2 T l j  0.6 Tl,1 = 0.6 Tos + 0.8 To3 + 0.6 To,l
(7.2.8114)
Tbis time there are no known temperatures on the lefthand side. Applying the CrankNicolson relation at p i n t (0,3)
 0.6 T,,4+ 3.2 Ti.3 0.6 Ti, = 0.6 T . + 0.8 To,3 + 0.6 To2 O 4
Applying the CrankNicolsonrelation at point (0,4) 0.6T,,+ 3.2Ti,40.6T,,, = 0.6 To, + 0.8 To,4 + 0.6 T0,3 Moving known quantities to the righthand side
3.2 T,,4 0.6 Tlv3 = 0.6 To3 + 0.8 Top
(7.2.8115)
(7.2.8116)
+ 0.6 To.3 + 0.6 T1.5
(7.2.8117)
Again notice that two terms remain constant for any value of the time subscript (Dirichlet boundary condition)
3.2 Ti.4  0.6 T1.3 = 0.6 (500) + 0.8 T0.4+ 0.6 To.3 + 0.6 (500)
in matrix form
(7.2.8118)
Assembling these equations (4 equations in 4 unknowns: T1,1 ... T1,4) gives
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
66.5
 3.2 0.6 0
0 0.6 3.2 0.6 0 0 0.6 3.2 0.6 0 0 0.6 3.2
Tl,3
. I
T,,~
(7.2.8119)
This relationship can be written for a general time step because of the constant boundary conditions
[!
Tk+l*l 3.2 0.6 0 0 Tk+1,2  0.6 3.2  0.6 0 0.6 3.2 0.6 T k + 1 , 3 0 0.6 3.2 LTk+1,4
]
(7.2.8120)
The relationship is of the form
[A]x = [ C ] d + e
(7.2.8121)
We can solve by multiplying by the inverse
x = [A]'[A]x = [A]'{[C]d+e}[A]'[C]d+[A]'e
x = [A]" [C] d +[A]' e x = [D]d+[E]
(7.2.8122)
At each step everything on the righthand side is known.
666
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The inverse can be found using a spreadsheet program or other computer software, as can the results for the subsequent calculations.
A matrix
0.6
Inverse matrix
3.2 0.6
0.6
,
0.3243 0.0631 0,0123 0.0023
0.0631 0.3366
0.0654 0.0123
0.0123 0.0654 0.3366 0.0631
0.0023 0.0123 0.0631 0.3243
The results of this calculation are plotted in the following figure.
0
t=lOs
sB
t=ms
t=30s
A t = 40s
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
667
7.2.9 Multidimensional unsteadystate conduction
Analytical solution for regular geometries
We state without proof that the solution to multidimensionalunsteadystate conduction problems can be obtained by the method of separation of variables, and, further, that this separation of variables leads to the possibility of expressing the solution to the multidimensional problem in regular geometries as the product of the onedimensional solutions in each of the coordinate directions. We define notation for the onedimensional solutions as follows, where 0 is the dimensionless temperature, Ti is the initial temperature, and T is the , steadystate temperature (i.e., the surface temperature for Dirichlet boundary conditions) semiinfinite slab (7.2.91) finite slab (7.2.92) infinite cylinder (7.2.93)
We can then synthesize the solutions for a variety of regular solids by multiplying these solutions. All we have to decide for each coordinate direction is a) whether to use the rectangular or cylindrical form, and then b) if the rectangular form is cailed for, whether to use the semiinfinite or the finite form. For example, to obtain the solution for a semiinfinite cylinder, i.e., a cylinder bounded on one end, we observe that there are two coordinates of importance,r and z. In the rcoordinate direction we use the cylindrical form; in the zcoordinate the system rectangular, and further is semiinfinite; therefore, we obtain the solution by multiplying
(7.2.94) Figure 7.2.91 illustrates this procedure.
668
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.2.91 Multidimensional unsteadystate temperature profiles for conduction in regular geometries expressed as product of onedimensional solutions
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
669
Figure 7.2.91 (continued)
Numerical solution of twodimensional unsteadystate conduction
The solution of unsteadystate heat conduction problems in two space dimensions and one time dimension can be accomplished readily by numerical means. The form of the heat conduction equation is
(7.2.95)
Finite difference method
A common method is the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI)algorithm.
670
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The AD1 method breaks the time step in half, and alternates solution for unknown values of the dependent variable between the x and y directions as shown in Figure 7.2.92.
i1
i
i+l
i1
i
i+l
STEPA
Figure 7.2.92 Alternating direction implicit method

STEPB
For the first half of the time step (STEP A in Figure 7.2.92), using the subscripts i for the xdirection,j for the ydirection, and k for the time dimension
(7.2,96)
If we require that Ax* = Ay*, and rearrange so that the unknowns are on the le thand side and the knowns are on the righthand side, defining (7.2.97) we have
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
671
As is evident, this is a bidiagonal s s e of equations, with the unknown values ytm running in the xdirection shown in Figure 7.2.92 as solid dots, and the unknowns running in the ydirection as unfilled dots.
For the second half of the time step (STEP B in Figure 7.2.92), the algorithm becomes
c
(7.2.99) which reduces to
(7.2.910) another tridiagonal system, with the unknown values (now known) from the previous step running in the ydirection, and a new set of unknowns running in the xdirection. These alternate steps in calculation are followed to the desired time. Boundary conditions are treated in the usual manner. ”he tridiagonal character of the matrices makes them amenable to very efficient numerical solution.
Finite element method
We remark in passing that for certain problems the finite difference method is sometimes combined with the finite element approach. For example, in treatment of the twospacedimension, onetimedimension unsteadystate thermal energy equation with generation (7.2.911) one can approximate the time derivative with a finite difference and apply finite elements only to the spatial part of the problem (this is where irregular boundaries are most likely to give a problem). It is obviously less complicated to use an explicit formulation in time, if the step sizes required for stability pennit doing so.
672
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.3 Convection Heat Transfer Models
In this section we discuss heat transfer by convection. Convective heat transfer is caused by bulkfluid motion. For example, the fluid adjacent to a heated horizontal surface is increased in internal energy by conduction from the surface to the fluid. Fluid motion induced by density gradients caused by the temperature change carries the heated fluid away from the wall. The colder fluid in the mainstream is heated by mixing with and conduction from the warmer fluid.
Heat is transferred in laminar flow mainly by molecular interaction between adjacent fluid "layers." In turbulent flow heat is transferred on a macroscopic level due to physical mixing of the fluids. We generally consider the fluid motion, and therefore the resulting heat transfer, as (1) forced or ( 2 ) f r e e convection of the fluid. By forced convection we mean that the fluid is moved by an external force such as the water pump on a car engine supplying water to the radiator, or the fan on a hot a r furnace; byfree convection we mean the fluid i is moved by gravity acting on density differences resulting from temperature or concentration variations within the fluid (e.g., the layer of cold air that tumbles down the interior side of the pane of a window in winter).
Convective heat transfer is a somewhat inappropriate term  it should perhaps be convection with heat transfer, because the truly convective part of the mechanism primarily moves material (even though it is relatively hotter or colder material) and there is little or no heat transfer (energy crossing the boundary of the system not associated with mass) during this process. Almost all the energy remains associated with mass in this step (there is, of course, some minor conduction loss). The ultimate transfer of heat is always by conduction or radiation, when the material that has convected interacts with the ambient material, usually by mixing with it. A better term would probably be convective energy transfer.
Most problems in convection are too complicated to permit the kind of detailed analytical solution we discussed for conduction, so for many convective problems we adopt an individual heat transfer coefficient approach combined with empirical correlations as exemplified by the DittusBoelter relation shown in Equation 7.3.278. There are, however, situations where more elaborate models, such as the boundary layer model or even full solution of the continuum equations can be applied.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
673
7.3.1
The thermal boundary layer
If we consider steady laminar incompressible flow past a heated flat plate, and make microscopic (rather than macroscopic) balances of momentum and energy, we are led to differential equations; with suitable assumptions, these become the wellknown boundary layer equations of Prandtl. In each case, the resulting differential equation in dimensionless form is
d h + _____  K f ( q ) dsz
a2
2
a =o
(7.3.11)
with boundary conditions atq = 0,Q = 0 atq = ,a = 1 (7.3.12)
In this equation, 52 is a dimensionless velocity, temperature, or concentration depending on whether a momentum, energy, or mass balance was used to generate the equation. The coefficient K is dimensionless, and q (an example of a similarity variable) is a dimensionless distance45 which incorporates both y, the distance from the plate surface, and x, the distance from the nose of the plate:
(7.3.13)
where Re is the Reynolds number based on the distance from the front of the plate, x, and the freestream velocity, vo. The function f(q) is a known function (which cannot be expressed in closed form but can be expressed as a series). For momentum transfer one obtains
One way to develop the variable q is use of dimensional analysis techniques. One writes the variables upon which the velocity depends, and combines these variables to obtain dimensionless groups, one of which is q. For a discussion see A. G. Hansen, Similarity Analyses o Boundary Value Problems in Engineering, Prenticef Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1964.
45
674
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
d 2 ) : (
a2
+=() ):( f(q) d 2 d r \
(7.3.14)
For heat transfer one obtains
(7.3.15) where t e subscript 0 designates freestream conditions and S surface conditions. h
As we shall see later, for mass transfer one obtains
r Thus, K = 1 for momentum transfer, K = P for heat transfer, and K = Sc for mass transfer.
The boundary condition at q = 0 is at the surface of the plate, since y = 0 implies q = 0. Substituting in the appropriate form for Q we see that this yields either v = 0 or T= Ts, as desired, depending on whether momentum or heat transfer is being modeled. The boundary condition at q = incorporatesboth x = 0 and y = Substitution gives the fmstream values v = vo and T = To for the momentum transfer and the heat transfer case, respectively.
OQ.
We can solve the above equation, and without going into details of the solution method we present a plot of the solution in Figure 7.3.11. The plot gives profiles of either velocity or temperature. This can be seen by considering a point in a given fluid at a given distance, x, from the nose of the plate. This means that everything is fixed in q except y, and so the curves give dimensionless velocity or temperature as a function of y  the profile in the boundary layer. This profile is plotted in a slightly different manner than the usual orientation in which velocity is the ordinate and distance from the surface of the plate the abscissa.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
675
Notice that if Pr = 1, the dimensionless differential equation and boundary conditions are the same for both momentum and heat transfer. This means the solutions to the differential equation are identical and the profiles (and therefore the boundary layers) coincide. Equations (7.3.14) to (7.3.16) also illustrate the fact that dimensionless groups obtained in the dedimensionalization of a problem appear as the coefficients in the dimensionless differential equation describing the physical situation.
Pr z 1.0 or sc = 1.0
0.6
0.1
0.016
0
0.5
1
1:5
2
2.5
3
rl
Figure 7.3.11 Solution of Equation (7.3.11) [Parameter = K]
7.3.2
Heat transfer coefficients
In this section we discuss heat transfer coefficients, their correlation and use. The model adopted is4:
I heat flux = coefficientx drivingforce I
46 When
(7.3.21)
written in the form
Q = hAAT
the definition of the heat transfer coefficient is sometimes designated Newton’s “law” of cooling. This is obviously a definition, not a law.
676
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
This fonn of model equation is adopted for many types of heat transfer and the "'heat transfer coefficient"is calculated from this equation. We can relate this model to an Ohm's law form of model by noting driving force heatflowrate = resistance = conductancex driving force (7.3,22)
and that
heat flow rate = heat flux x area = coefficientx area x driving force so driving force coefficientx area x driving force = resistance 1  conductance coefficient = resistancex afea area (7.3.23)
(7.3.24)
Such transfer coefficients (here, convective heat transfer coefficients) are really conductance terms in a flux equation and are adopted for many kinds of mechanisms of transport,sometimes even including radiation heat transfer where the form of the model does not fit the fundamental mechanism. In the case of solids (conduction rather than convection) a coefficient could be assigned using this model, but this is usually not done.
A somewhat analogous relationship was used in defining the friction factor, which is proportional to a momentum transfer coefficient. (In the case of the friction factor as it is defined, f is a resistance rather than a conductance.)
This section discusses singlephase heat transfer coefficients based on the flux equation. We then introduce overall heat transfer coefficients, which permit us to treat heat transfer in terms of a driving force (temperature difference) over several phases. Finally, we present an extensive discussion of various graphical correlations and correlation equations which are used to estimate heat transfer coefficients for a variety of situations.
Singlephase heat transfer coeficients
The problem of theoretical prediction of convective heat transfer in both some larninar and all turbulent flows is very difficult. Since most commonly the
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
677
fluid phase is bounded by solid walls, usually one adopts the model (depending on whether Q is to be positive or negative for the system or control volume chosen
Q
= hA(T,T)
or
Q
= hA(TT,)
(7.3.25)
where T is defined in terms of the temperature field of the fluid (e.g., usually the freestream temperature for external flows; some average temperature such as the mixing cup temperature for internal flows) and Ts is the temperature at the interface (most commonly, a fluidkolid interface; however, liquidlgas and liquiaiquid interfaces are also important in some situations). It is frequently assumed that the temperature of a solid surface and the fluid immediately adjacent to the surface are identical; that is, that there is no discontinuity in temperature, which would lead to the prediction of infinite flux by Fourier's law. This means we must be careful when defining fouling factors and fouling coefficients, which account for resistance at the solidfluid interface caused by deposits. We can adopt such a model with moderate confidencebecause: a) we are quite certain that the heat flux depends linearly on the temperature difference  attempts47 have been made to detect a higher order, e.g., quadratic dependence, but they have not been successful. variables in the system  that is, that there is no between temperature difference and other system variables. We do not have such confidence for the variables in the system which depend on physical properties of the fluid: viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, heat capacity (these variables can, of course, be functions of temperature  sometimes we can neglect this effect and sometimes not); or the velocity, which depends on pressure andor density differences in the system.
b) temperature diflerence does not depend on the level of other
m48
V. and J. C. Slattery (1969). AIChEJ 15: 291. For example, see any text on statistics and/or experimental design, e.g., Box, G. E. P., W.G. Hunter, et al. (1978). Statisfics f o r Experimenters. New York, John Wiley and Sons. Interaction gives terms in the model where the variable in question is multiplied by other variables of the system.
48
47 Flumerfeld, R.
678
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
c) we are quite certain that the heat flux depends directly on the area by the very nature of its definition.
In essence, we lump all our ignorance into the coefficient, h. The value of the heat transfer coefficient, h, for a specific physical situation may be found empirically from measurement of heat transfer rate, temperature drop, and associated heat transfer area for that situation at full scale under the identical flow field. This amounts to a direct solution of the differential equations that describe the situation. Even when the measurements are made on the full scale model, however, the questions of reproducibility and experimental error remain. Consequently, most methods of prediction of heat transfer coefficients rely upon correlation of data from scaled experimental models or solution of more or less idealized mathematid models for the temperature field.49 Two separate cases may be distinguished for the temperature Tc internal flow external flow
An obvious temperature to use for external flow without phase change in the fluid is the freestream temperature. For internal flows without phase change in the fluid there are many possible choices, but we usually use the bulk temperature of the fluid, paralleling the way we treated momentum transfer. The major problem then is the prediction of h for any particular physical situation.
For convective heat transfer from the heated wall of a pipe to the fluid flowing inside, we use as Tf the mixingcup average temperature <T>:
Q
=
hA(T,(T))
(7.3.26)
(The temperature difference is conventionally written so as to make Q positive.) For external flow next to a heated surface we use the freestream temperature
TO
The value of the heat transfer coefficient can be predicted from the solutions of theoretical models (which usually take the form of the temperature field as a function of space and time) by differentiating to obtain the temperature gradient in the fluid phase at a solid surface and calculating the flux assuming pure conduction in the fluid (since under most circumstances the fluid may be modeled as sticking to the surface, so heat transfer is by conduction only in the absence of radiation effects).
49
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
679
Q = hA(TsTo)
(7.3.27)
To is the temperature "far from the surface"' (at or beyond the edge of the thennal bounday layer). The fonn of Equation (7.3.25) is also used for calculating heat transfer by boiling, condensation, and sometimes, even though the form is ill suited, radiation. The boiling coefficient is defined byS0
Q = h A (Ts  TsL)
(7.3.28)
The primary resistance to heat transfer in boiling is usually the resistance from the more or less continuous vapor film that forms immediately adjacent to the hot solid surface, and since this resistance is usually much larger than the other resistances, it is reasonable to use the temperature drop across this film as essentially equal to the overall temperature drop. The saturated liquid temperature T s exists on the liquid ~ surface side of the film, and on the solid surface side, the temperature is that of the surface, Ts. The condensing coefficientis defined by
Q = hA(T,
Ts)
(7.3.29)
w e e Tsv is the saturated vapor temperature. hr
Initially, boiling usually occurs by what is called the nucleate boiling mechanism, where individual nucleation sites give birth to a string of vapor bubbles which rise through the liquid. Bubbles are not normally nucleated in the liquid itself unless some small nucleation sites (small particles, for example) are present, because the surface force that a small bubble must overcome is tremendous. Instead, small pockets of gas trapped in pits and crevices of the solid usually serve as the nucleation sites in early stages of boiling. Initially these bubbles leave patches of the surface directly accessible to the liquid. At increased heat fluxes, however, the bubbles grow and coalesce with one another, giving a continuous film of vapor next to the surface; socalled film boiling. In film boiling, all the heat transferred to the liquid must first pass through the vapor film which slows the transfer rate markedly.
680
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models During condensation, the primary resistance to heat transfer usually is contributed by the liquid film that forms on the solid surface, and therefore we use the temperature drop across this film5' (assuming condensation of a pure vajxx). This may be invalid for cases of condensation of a liquid from a mixture of its vapor and a noncondensable gas, where diffusion of the vapor through the noncondensable gas to the liquidgas interface may become controlling. One sometimes sees a mdiation coefficient defined as
Q
=
h,A (Tl T2)
(7.3.210)
where T1 and T2 are the temperatures of the two surfaces between which the radiation is transferred. Since radiation transfer is actually proportional to the difference of the fourth powers of the absolute temperatures, the radiation coefficient hr defined as above is very sensitive to the temperature at which the process occurs. Figure 7.3.2 152 gives typical values of individual heat transfer coefficients for various situations. This figure gives the reader an idea of the relative magnitude of h under various conditions; it is not intended for use in calculations other t a extremely approximate ones. hn
51 Initially, condensation usually occurs by a dropwise mechanism, where individual drops form on the surface but leave patches of surface directly accessible to the vapor  socalled dropwise condensation. At higher transfer rates, however, these drops grow and coalesce to a continuous liquid film on the surface, socalled filmwise condensation. In an analogous fashion to f l boiling, here all the im heat transferred from the vapor must pass through the liquid film, which slows transfer rates. 52 Data from McAdams, W.H. (1954). Heat Transmission. New York, NY, McGrawHill.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
681
Air
i n
Steam (dry)Steam, filmwise condensatbnSteam, dropwise condensation
Water, heatingWater, boilingOils
I
I
Organic vapors. condensing


0.1

1
10 100 loo0 loo00 10( h, Btul(hr sq tt degree F)
Figure 7.3.21 Singlephase heat transfer coefficients 1 Btu/(hr ft2 O F ) = 5.678 W/(m2 K ) (for illustration only not for design calculations)

Correlationsfor prediction of heat transfer
Heat transfer coefficients can be evaluated based on models at several levels of sophistication and complexity. At perhaps the simplest level, dimensional analysis may be applied to a set of variables identified through experience with a given process, producing in turn a set of dimensionless products that (hopefully) completely describe the process. The dimensionless groups (at least one of which will contain the heat transfer coefficient) are then varied systematically in the laboratory and the statistical correlation of these dimensionless groups which makes some function of the groups equal to zero is determined. Note that when we speak of correlating the dimensionless groups, we mean performing a series of laboratory experiments which will give us the dependence of these groups on one another over a certain range of interest. What we are really doing is solving a physical model of the system rather than a mathematical model. Just as with the mathematical model, if the physical model (experimental setup) perfectly embodies the situation to be modeled, we will get the precise realworld answer  if we do our measurements without error  or will get the realworld answer on the average, if our measurements contain nonsystematicerror. It is important to recognize that in the laboratory, even without knowledge of the precise mathematical form of the differential equation(s) describing the process, we still can obtain the solution to
the differential equation(s) that describe our realworld process (the prototype). The solution is the data we measure in response to inputs to the prototypical physical situation (the fullscale, realworld model) or the laboratory physical
682
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
model. The best solution is always the answer obtained from the prototype; however, if tbe physical modeling has been done properly, the laboratory model should also give the same answer. For example, in a onedimensional case, we might be measuring the response y as a function of changes in input x for our laboratory physical model (y might be a dimensionless temperature and x a dimensionless velocity.) The relationship between y and x might be a very complicated differential equation because of the shape of the solid, turbulent flow, etc., but measurements on the actual system give the solution to the differential equation and boundary conditions governing that system. If our laboratory physical model is chosen well, it will respond according to the same equation as the prototype physical situation; so, given the same dimensionless velocity, it will yield the same dimensionless temperature.
If one has somewhat more insight into physical mechanism, the (continuum) differential equation(s) which describes the process may be derived and the variables therein made dimensionless. In this way the fundamental variables are not arbitrarily selected, but enter in a natural way because of their appearance in the differential equation(s) describing the fundamental physical mechanism. The mathematical solution of the differential equation(s) then should give the same result as the realworld situation being modeled. The appropriate dimensionless groups will appear as coefficients in the differential equation(s) and boundary condition(s).
The differential equation(s) can then sometimes be solved analytically, which is probably the most fundamental way of modeling; if not, perhaps solved numerically. Even if the differential equation(s) cannot be solved, however, the dimensionless groups which are obtained as coefficients in the dimensionless differential equation(s) and boundary condition(s) can be correlated using physical models in the laboratory with increased confidence that they will completely describe the process, because the variables in these groups were obtained by a more rigorous procedure than arbitrary selection based on anecdotal experience. Each of these levels of sophistication of models has its own particular advantages and disadvantagesdepending on the situation to be treated. Usually it is best to attempt to model the functional relation of the variables using a variety of these approaches (physical model solved in laboratory, mathematical model solved analytically, mathematical model solved numerically) before deciding how complex a model is needed for the accuracy and precision required in the answer. Since we have shown there are analogies (models in common) among momentum, heat, and mass transfer, we may use physical models, for example,
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
683
to solve a heat transfer problem by solving its corresponding physical momentum transfer model, or a mass transfer problem by solving a physical heat transfer model. The utility of this approach depends on the mechanism (the fundamental dimensionless differential equation) describing each of the two processes (e.g., mass transfer and heat transfer) being the same.
In this section, we are concerned primarily with application of correlating equations obtained over the years from physical modeling approaches. We elsewhere in the text emphasize solutions to mathematical models. For the engineer, however, applying models of appropriate degree of sophistication to practical problems is of primary importance.
To make the forms of our correlating equations (models) plausible, but certainly not to justify them in general, we consider an application involving the simplest level of model above  that is, the selection of a set of variables followed by dimensional analysis of this set to form dimensionlessgroups.
For heat transfer to a fluid in turbulent flow in a pipe, the pertinent variables are the pipe diameter, D; the thermal conductivity of the fluid, k; the velocity of the fluid, v; the density of the fluid, p; the viscosity of the fluid, p, . the specific heat of the fluid, Cp; and the heat transfer coefficient, h. Functionally
(7.3.211)
Forming dimensionless groups in the mass, length, temperature, time system gives the following groups (omitting the intermediatealgebra):
(7.3.212)
Nu
= Fl [Re, Pr ]
(7.3.21 3)
where Nu is the Nusselt number (the dimensionless temperature gradient at the surface), Re is the Reynolds number (the ratio of inertial to viscous forces), and Pr is the Prandtl number (the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity). Similarly, for a free (natural) convection problem the variables are
(7.3.214)
684
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
where the additional variables beyond those in Equation (7.3.211) are the acceleration due to gravity, g; the tbennal coefficient of volume expansion, ps3; the temperature difference between the heated surface and the fluid, AT;and the length of the heated section, L. Dimensional analysis of the set of variables gives as a complete set of dimensionlessgroups
(7.3.215)
For problems of interest here, the last two groups can be neglected. For example for an infinite heated horizontal flat plate in the absence of forced convection, Re = 0, and results do not depend on location on the plate, so L/D is not a significant variable, giving
L’ p2g AT P
k
ar
(7.3.216)
Nu = F2[Pr, Gr]
(7.3.217)
where Gr is the Grashof number (the ratio of buoyant to viscous forces).
53 The
thermal coefficient of volume expansion,
p, is defined as
For an ideal gas
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
68.5
We emphasize again that the design equations we will consider have been developed using various models, but all incorporate the groups obtainable by dimensional analysis. To show the model and solution method yielding each of the equations we present would be a long process indeed, so we shall simply point to the dimensional analysis as a rationale to make the form of the equations plausible to the reader, although we will not justify the specific form rigorously. We first will consider a simple example which shows in slightly more detail how the form of certain design equations originates. Many design equations have been developed by extension of a postulated analogy of momentum, heat, and mass transfer called the Reynolds analogy (model), developed for turbulent flow by the same Reynolds as was namesake of the Reynolds number. The Reynolds analogy assumes that momentum, heat, and mass are transferred by the same mechanism. By this we mean that the transfer in each case is described by the same dimensionless mathematical model, or, in other words, that the dimensionless profiles (solutions) for velocity, temperature, and concentration coincide, as they did at one condition in the boundary layer example. As we shall see, this model is subject to some severe limitations.
We can arbitrarily extend our models of transport via molecular processes to include transport via convection processes by writing a socalled eddy coefzcient to account for the convective part of the transport.
(7.3,218)
qy =  ( k t + k ) dT d Y
(7.3.219) (7.3.220)
The quantities with superscript t (for turbulence) are the e&y viscosity, the eddy thermal conductivity, and the e&y diffusivity, respectively. Remember that viscosity, the thermal conductivity, and the diffusivity (the original coefficients) were properties of only thefluid. The eddy coefficients, by their very nature, are properties of theflowfield as well.
686
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
We can take the ratio of any two of these equations. Since we are interested in heat transfer at the moment, let us divide Equation (7.3.218) by Equation (7.3.2 19)
(7.32  2 1)
Since we are interested in developing design equations, we consider Equation (7.3.211) as applied a a solid surface, e.g., the wall of a tube or the surface of a t plate. We designate this surface temperature by T,, and use a ycoordinate that has its origin at the surface. We replace the flux at the wall in terms of our design coefficients h and f (or CD), and for simplicity we restrict the discussion to fluids with constant density and heat capacity:
(Pt + P)
(kt+ k)
g
(7.3.222)
dY
(Here we have used f, a>, <T>, as we would for flow in a tube  CD, and v,, and Towould be used for external flows.) The Reynolds assumption is that the dimensionless temperature and velocity profiles will coincide. So, dedimensionalizing, we take the difference between the quantity and its value at the wall divided by the difference between its bulk value and the wall value. (We could dedimensionalize y, the distance from the surface, but since it is the same in each derivative we would accomplish nothing):
dv  = ((v)0) d Y
d Y
(7.3.223)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
687
dY
= ((T)  Ts)
(7.3.224)
Substituting
(7.3.225)
of
(3)p (4
h
(P' +P) (k' + k)
(7.3.226)
By the Reynolds assumption, the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles coincide;therefore, it follows that the slopes at the wall (and everywhere else as well) must be the same, so that
0 
= 1.0
(7.3.227)
Y= 0
688
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
giving
(4) (4 p
h
(P' +P)

(k' + k)
(7.3.228)
We now examine the righthand side of Equation (7.3.228) to see what conclusions we might draw. Our dimensional analysis has shown that the dimensionless group involving the mtio of viscosity and thermal conductivity is the Prandtl number:
=
V
a
(7.3.229)
where v is the momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) and a is the thermal diffusivity, so named because they represent the corresponding coefficients in the two differential equations whose solutions give, respectively, the velocity profile and the temperature profile as a function of time, and therefore describe the diffusion of momentum and thermal energy.54 We rewrite the righthand side of Equation (7.3.228) as follows:
(7.3.230)
54 It is plausible that v should measure the diffusion of momentum; for example, in a transient situation the more viscous a fluid is, the faster momentum transfers, but since the momentum involves both mass and velocity, a denser fluid will "soak up" more momentum rather than transferring it. A crude analogy is the diffusion of water in steel wool and a sponge: the sponge has a large capacity to absorb water and so it diffuses more slowly. The same comments hold for thermal energy: the lower the thermal conductivity the slower the diffusion; the denser and the higher the heat capacity, the more capacity for thermal energy.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
689
However, if momentum and thermal energy are transported in the same flow field by the same mechanism, it is reasonable to expect vt to equal at.(This would not be reasonable if there were, for example, form drag, for which there is no parallel mechanism in thermal energy transfer.) If in addition v = a ( r= l.O), P then Equation (7.3.230) becomes
(7.3.23 1)
(7.3.232)
Note that this equation is greatly restricted by the assumptions. Equation (7.3.232) is the Reynolds analogy. It is interesting not only because it suggests a way of correlating data but also because it shows that under certain circumstances the heat transfer coefficient can be found from friction factor measurements (and vice versa). We can also take the ratio of momentum transfer to mass transfer or heat transfer to mass transfer and arrive at analogous equations to Equation (7.3.232). We emphasize again that the transport mechanism must be the same for
the above procedure to be valid.
We define h/(Cp p CD) as the Stanton number (StH) for heat transfer
St, =
(F)
(?p)(Es)
  Nu 
Re P r
(7.3.233)
The Reynolds analogy modified by multiplying by the 2/3 power of the Prandtl number gives the ChiltonColburn analogy, often referred to as the jfactor
690
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.3.234)
which is applicable roughly over the range 0.6 < P < 60, as opposed to the r strict requirement of the Reynolds analogy that the Prandtl number be one. (The requirement of a zero dimensionlesspressure drop remains, but turbulent systems are relatively insensitive to this requirement.)
A corresponding development can be done for the case of mass transfer to yield a jfactorfor mass transfer, j M (see Chapter 8).
In the above paragraphs we showed how functional relations involving the variables associated with heat transfer can be developed for application to correlation of heat transfer d t .Many useful design equations are determined by aa applying dimensional analysis and the Reynolds analogy to experimentaldata. Some of the equations we will discuss have evolved from analytical solutions of the differential equations of change (microscopic balances) or from integral solutions of the boundary layer equations (simplified versions of the microscopic balances). Our emphasis at this point is on use of the design equations, t motivate the reader for further subsequent study of the development o of these equations.
Average heat transfer coeficients
over the heat transfer area involved. For example, for f o over a flat plate, the lw
local heat transfer coefficient may be described by
In many situations of interest, the local heat transfer coefficient will vary
Nu, = 0.332 Re:/* Pr1’3
(7.3.235)
x = distance from front of plate
which implies
(7.3.236)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
hx = 0.332 k (v, 
691
(e;P)"'
f
i
p
(7.3.237)
and the driving force to be used with b to calculate local beat flux for a plate is 4 l d = hx(T*T,)
(7.3.238)
where the temperatures are the surface and freestream temperahms, respectively. If we wish to calculate heat transfer across the entire surface of a flat plate with constant surface and freestream temperatures, however, it would be more convenient to have an average heat transfer coefficient to use in an equation of the form, where we use hL to designate this average coefficient
(7.3.239)
We can obtain such a coefficient by requiring that the average coefficient give us the same answer as that obtained by integrating the local coefficient over the surface of the plate
(7.3.240)
Since the temperature differenceis constant
(7.3.241)
and, using L for the length of the plate and W for the width
(7.3.242)
Substituting
692
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.3 243)
(7.3.244) (7.3.245) (7.3.246)
which is the explicit expression for the average coefficient. Putting this expression into the usual dimensionless form
(7.3.247)
(7.3248)
A similar approach can be adopted for other coefficients, although the result is not necessarily so neat.
mm
e 7.3.21
AV
heat transfer coefltcrents for ~b
..
In order to calculate heat transfer for flow internal to a length of pipe it is more convenient to use average heat transfer coefficients than local coefficients. Determine the average heat transfer coefficient for a pipe with constant wall temperature based on the local coefficient and average temperature difference given by
(7.3.249)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
693
where T, is the temperature of the wall and <Tin> and <Tout> are bulk temperatures.
Solution
Defining the average coefficient to be used with the arithmetic average driving force as h,,
Q=
[
2
(7.3.250)
(Ts(T*.,)+(Ts(TDyI))
Writing an energy balance for heat transferred over a differential length, dx, of the pipe
@ = h, (T,  (T)) (2 x R) dx
(7.3.251)
where h, is the local coefficient. Integrating the righthand side and summing the lefthand side, we obtain the total heat transfer rate as (7.3.252) and so we have
(7.3.253)
(7.3.254)
694
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
To obtain a numerical value for havgwe must know h, and ( , <T>) a T as function of x. In laminar flow, these functions can be determined from an analytical solution which gives T as a function of r and x as an infinite series, as outlined above. For turbulent flow,the functions would have to be determined from experimental measurement and the expression integrated numerically.
Design equations for convective heat transfer
To this point we have illustrated the utility of using heat transfer coefficients without concerning ourselves greatly with how a heat transfer coefficients may be predicted. In this section we will present some typical design equations for making such predictions. Once again, as in momentum transfer, it is convenient to distinguish two general classes of heat transfer problems: those involving flows (internal) through things and those involving flows (external) around things.
Ideally, one would like for a design equation to permit calculation of a single average coefficient which could be used to predict the heat transfer rate, much as a single friction factor could frequently be used to predict pressure drop in pipes. In heat transfer, however, several considerationsintrude:
1. Fluid properties
When thermal gradients are imposed on a liquid f o field, the lw assumption of constant physical properties frequently breaks down because viscosity is typically a fairly sensitive function of temperature. This, in turn, affects the velocity field. Usually less important than the viscosity change, but critical for certain problems, is the effect of temperature on heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and density (plus the associated induced natural convection).
2. Driving forces
unchanging velocity profile is frequently obtained for incompressible fluids, in the case of heat transfer the fluid temperature is continually increasing or decreasing except for cases of phase change such as boiling and condensation.
3. Entrance effects
As opposed to momentum transfer in a pipe, where an
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
695
We previously discussed an example in which the momentum and thermal boundary layers were assumed to coincide. This may or may not be the case,and also since the lengths of pipe or tube used for heat transfer are frequently relatively short, entrance effects may become very important. These and other considerationsfor heat transfer make it far more difficult to obtain design equations that possess wide applicability than was the case for momentum transfer. They also make mathematical solution of the fundamental differential equations and boundary conditions quite difficult if not impossible in a preponderanceof the realworld cases for which design calculations are required, forcing one to rely on the empirical results of careful experiments, argument using dimensional analysis, and various levels of approximation to obtain tractable fundamentalequations and accompanying boundary conditions. Dimensionless groups frequently used in correlating heat transfer data include the Prandtl number pr =  = momentumdiffusivity Pep k a = thermal energy diffusivity
(7.3.255)
the Nusselt number Nu = k = dimensionlesstemperaturegradient @ surface (7.3.256)
the Grashof number for heat transfer
Grh =
gPp2L3AT  temperatureinducedbuoyancy forces (7.3.257) P2 viscous forces
the Biot number for heat transfer internalresistance to conductivethennal energy transfer hL Bib = k = boundary layer resistance t convectivethermal energy transfer o (7.3.258) the Fourier number for heat transfer Fq, = = rate of thermal energy conduction L~ rate of thermal energy accumulation
(7.3.259)
696
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
the Peclet number for heat transfer (note the close relationship to the Graetz number following) _
bulk thermal = A = energy transport vLQ k rate of thermalenergy conduction
c
(7.3.260)
the Graetz number GZ = (v> k L CP = R e , P r rD Ap =
bulk thermal energy transport rate of thermal energy conduction (7.3.261)
the Brinkman number heating from viscous dissipation B r = p v = k AT heating from temperaturedifference the Eckert number
(7.3.262)
(7.3.263)
the Lewis number L e = % = thermal energy diffusivity P r mass diffusivity
(7.3.264)
Forced convection in laminarflow
For laminar flow forced convection in tubes it is possible to construct quite accurate mathematical models (in this case, partial differential equations) which can be solved for certain boundary conditions and that give results useful in predicting heat transfer in real systems. These models usually use an assumed, constant velocity profile, constant physical properties, and a wall condition of either constant wall temperature or constant heat flux through the wall. All these features of the model may or may not correspond to the true situations for a given realworld problem.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
697
The analytic solutions of the various differential equations by which the process is modeled are usually in the form of infinite series which, when evaluated, furnish a temperature profile in the tube at any given point? The details of the mathematics should not be permitted t obscure the purpose of the o calculation, which is to use design equations in the beatment of real problems. For example, for heat transfer purposes one can model the velocity profile for steadystate laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in a tube as being flat; that is, that the velocity is not a function of radius (even though we know from our momentum transfer studies that it is parabolic). Since, for a tube of uniform diameter, conservation of mass indicates that the velocity then is not a function of distance down the tube (zdirection), velocity will be constant. If we write Equation (3.2.316) for steady state by dropping the timedependent t r ,we em have (7.3.265) (7.3.266) (7.3.267) Solving this partial differentialequation with the boundary conditions of uniform entering temperature
v, (r, z) = v, (r, 0) = To
and uniform wall temperature
= v , ( ~ , z ) v,(R,z) = T~
(7.3.268)
(7.3.269)
gives a solution in Bessel functions (tabulated functions which in cylindrical geometry play a role corresponding to that of the trigonometric functions in rectangular geometry)
Graetz, L. (1883). Ann. Phys. 18: 79; Graetz, L. (1885). Ann. Phys. 25: 737; Drew, T. B. (1931). Trans. AIChE26: 26; Jacob, M . (1950). Heat Transfer. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Sellars, J. R., M. Tribus, et al. (1956). Trans. ASME 78: 441.
55
698
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.3.270)
where JO and J1 are Bessel functions of the zeroth and fust orders, respectively, and cn is the nth root of
Jo
(CO)
=0
(7.3.271)
Such mathematical models may be thought of as "black boxes" which take as input the conditions of the problem and yield as output temperature profiles, just as Newton's second law takes an initial position, a force, and a mass,and upon integration yields position versus time (a "position profile" in time rather than space).
A temperature profile from a model can easily be converted to a heat transfer coefficient. Using t e physical fact that fluid sticks to a wall, one concludes that b heat transfer through the fluid just at the wall surface is by conduction only (radiation effects neglected). All the heat transferred, however, must pass through this stagnant layer. This means that the heat flux calculated using conduction in the fluid just at the wall surface must equal the flux calculated using a convective heat transfer coefficient: for example, consider flow in a tube:
(7.3.272)
(7.3.273)
(7.3.274)
Nu =
[$]
r.11
(7.3.275)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
699
so it can be seen that the Nusselt number is a dimensionless temperature profile at the surface. The Nusselt number for laminar flow in ducts approaches a limiting value depending on the configuration of the enclosing walls and the boundary conditions applied. Selected values are given in Table 7.3.21?
Table 7.3.21 Nusselt number limit for laminar flow in ducts with various crosssections
Boundary condition
The bulk temperature, the wall temperature, and the slope of the temperature profile at the wall can all be obtained in a straightforward manner from the temperature profile, so a knowledge of the temperature profile is equivalent to a knowledge of the local beat transfer coefficient. The average coefficient is easier to use for many problems, and this is available for the constant walltemperature case for use with both arithmetic mean and logarithmic mean temperature difference (mean difference in fluid temperature and wall temperature for the end conditions of the tube). The viscosity frequently varies significantly, making the assumption of constant velocity profile a poor one. Sieder and Tares7empirically developed an equation incorporatinga viscosity correction to account for this variation
56 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, pp. 1015. 57 Sieder, E. N.and G. E. Tate (1936). Ind. Eng. Chem. 28: 1429.
700
Nu = 1.86Re1'Pr''(:)
It3
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(E)
0.14
(7.3.276) In this equation a) all properties are evaluated at the arithmetic mean bulk temperature except po, which is evaluated at the wall temperam, and
b) the Nusselt number contains as h the average coefficient for a tube of length L.
Coefficients in short tubes may be one or two orders of magnitude higher than predicted by Equation (7.3.276) because of entrance effects. Fortunately the prediction is conservative  that is, it leads to overdesign (more area than is actually required) rather than a design that will not meet specifications  because resistance to heat transfer in the entrance region is smaller relative to that of the downstream section, so the same temperature gradient produces more transfer.
A plot of Nusselt number for the entrance region of tubes may be found in Greenkorn, R. A. and D. P. Kessler (1972) Transfer Operations, McGrawHill, p. 381. The Nusselt number becomes more or less constant beyond about
Le  = 0.05 Re P to 0.15 RePr r D
(This is the point beyond which h becomes relatively constant.) Forced convection in turbulent floW5"
(7.3.277)
fluid in turbulent flow have been used by different investigators to correlate heat transfer data. The resulting equations usually bear the name of the investigator.
The results of dimensional analysis of the variables for heat transfer to a
In general, all the equations discussed are of the form of Equation (7.3.213). The differences in the equations usually are related to the temperature at which the fluid properties are evaluated and whether change in viscosity with temperature is important.
For a critical review of modeling efforts in this regime, see Churchill, S. W. (1996). A Critique of Predictive and Correlative Models for Turbulent Flow and Convection. Ind. Eng. Chern. Res. 35: 31223140.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
701
The DittusBoelterS9 equation for turbulent flow in tubes uses fluid properties evaluated at the arithmetic mean bulk temperature of the fluid, with the parameter a = 0.4 when the fluid is heated and a = 0.3 when the fluid is r cooled. (For most gases P is approximately equal to 1 and so this variation of the exponent is of little significancefor gases.)
 = 0.023 D(V> hD
k
(
Tr (vr
(7.3.278)
The DittusBoelterequation resulted fiom an attempt to fit the available data for both liquids and gases with a set of two curves. The Colburn equationa results from correlating data using fluid properties evaluated at the wall temperature, except for E,, which is evaluated at the arithmetic mean bulk fluid temperature (7.3.279)
To show the parallel both to the DittusBoelter equation and to our dimensional analysis results, the Colbm equation may be rearranged as
(7.3.280)
Nu = 0.023Re0.' RIn
(7.3.281)
The SiederTate equation for turbulent flow takes into account variation in the viscosity of the fluid near the wall because of thermal gradients. This equation is valid up to Pr = 104 The properties of the fluids are evaluated at the arithmetic average bulk temperature except for po, which is evaluated at the average wall temperature.
5 9 Dittus, F. W. and L. M. E. Boelter (1930) Engineering Publication 2:443, University of California. 6o Colburn, A. P. (1942) Purdue University.
702
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.3.282)
NU = 0.023 ReoB Prln
Examt.de 7.3.22
( ) i
0.14
(7.3.283)
gnd Sieder Tate eauations
Comparison of the DittusBoelter. Colburn,
Compare the DittusBoelterequation, the Colburn equation, and the SiederTate equation prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for 1) dry air and 2) water flowing at 1 bar and at a bulk velocity of 15 fds in a tube 1 inch in diameter a) being heated at an arithmetic mean bulk temperature of 8 0 9 , wall temperature of 98OF b) being cooled at an arithmetic mean bulk temperature of 80°F, wall temperature of 6 2 9
Solution
f
98
80
27 37
300 310
~
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
703
s Boglter;
(7.3.284)
61 Perry, R. H. and D. W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3237. 62 Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 128. 63 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3255. 64 Perry, R. H. and D. W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3254. 65 Perry, R. H. and D.W. Green, MS. (1984). Chemicul Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3253. 66 Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3254. 67 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3252. 68 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3250.
704
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
Properties evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk t m e a u e eprtr h = 0.023 k D(V)P
( (7)' 7 e p P)
0%
(7.3.285)
For w t r beating ae
(0.357)
h = (0.023)
[s]
Btu
Btu
(1.29 x 105)aa (5.69)'" = 2422hr ft2 "F (7.3.286)
For w t r cooling ae
h = (0.023)
(0.357)  ( 1 . 2 9 ~ (5.69)"' = 2035hrfi"F 10s)'s
Btu hr ft2 "F
(7.3.287)
For air heating
(2.62x lO') m K (0.578)
h = (0.023)
[1"
[
Btu  mK 
hrftT
w
1
(7.3.288)
x (7.81 x 103)0.*(0.705)0'4
Btu = 4.73 h f t 2s;
For air cooling
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
705
( 2 . 6 2 10*) ~
h = (0.023)
[ (0.578) K E hrftOF mw ] Btu mK
[
1
(7.3.289)
x (7.81 x 103)0'8 (0.705)03
= 4.09
Btu hr ft2 "F
(7.3.290)
Properties evaluated at wall temperature except for heat capacity, which is evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk temperature
For water hating
h = (0.023) (0.363) (1.54 x 10') 0.8 (4.67) 1 102 n
I 0
(+)
1I3
Btu = 2349hr ft2 "F
(7.3.292)
For water cooling
(0.352) (1.05 x
10')0.8 (8.00) In (k) 2034 102 l i 3 = Btu
hr ft2 "F
(7.3.293)
For air heating
706
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
h = (0.023) (2.70 x 10') (0.578) (7.35 x 103)01 (0.704) in 0.25
Btu = 4.75hrft2 "F
For air cooling
(&)
). .(
1I3
(7.3.294)
h = (0.023) (2.54 x 10") (0.578) (8.33 x 10')0*8 (0.708)in (025) 0.25
113
(A)
= 4.94
Btu hr ft2 "F
(7.3.295)
(7.3296)
Properties evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk temperature except for b,which is evaluated at the average wall temperature
0.14
h = 0 . 0 2 3 D(V)P ) U ( ~ ) " ( ~ ) k B(y
(7.3.297)
Note that this is the same as the Colburn equation except for a viscosity correction in place of the heat capacity correction.
For water heating
h = (0.023)(1.54x (0.363)
(A)
l O 5 Y ( 4 . 6 7 ) 0" ( ~ ) = 2433' 9 0'14
BtU hrft2"F
(7.3.298)
For water cooling
Chupter 7: Heat Transfer Models
707
(0.352) 0.8 i / ~09 h = (0.023)(1.05 x 10') (8.00)
(A)
Bhl (6) 1965 = hrft2 "F
OJ'
(7.3.299)
For air heating
h = (0.023) (2.70x 102)(0.578) (7.35 x 103)0.8 (0.704) (m)0'i4 IB 0.0175
= 4.73
Btu hr ft2 "F
(A)
(7.3.210)
For air cooling
h = (0.023) (2.54x 10*)(0.578)(8.33 x 10J)Os (0.708)in 0.0175
= 4.96
Btu
(A)
(m)'"'
(7.3.2101)
hrft2 "F
Tabulating the results to give a sidebyside comparison of the magnitude of the diffem
708
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Heat transfer in noncircular conduits and annular f o lw
equivalent diameter (four times the hydraulic radius) is commonly used in place of the tube diameter in equations for estimating heat transfer coefficients.
For annular flow, where D2is the larger diameter,
D,, = D,  D,
For flowing fluids heated in noncircular conduits or in annuli, the
(7.3.2102)
An equation developed specifically for the outer wall of the inside pipe of an annulus (12,000 c Re < 220,000) is69
Nu = 0.02
P' r"
(2)
0.45
(7.3.2103)
Fluid properties are evaluated at the arithmetic mean bulk temperature. For the inner wall of the outside pipe the heat transfer coefficient may be found from the SiederTateequation, Equation (7.3.276).
External flows, natural and forced convection
Heat transfer coefficients for fluid flowing normal to a cylinder depend on the configuration of the boundary layer. The formation of a large wake changes the heat transfer characteristics.For forced convection
hD = b(!$f)'
k
(7.3.2104)
where values of b and n depend on the Reynolds number, as shown in Table 7.3.22. The equation retains the functional form derived from the earlier dimensional analysis.
69 Monrad, C. C. and
J. F. Pelton (1942). Truns. ASME38: 593.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Table 7.3.22 Values70 of b and n for Equation (7.3.2104)
709
For natural convection71 with f o n o d to a horizontal surfaces lw
Nu = a(GrPr)"
(7.3.2105)
where the characteristic length is L for flat surfaces, D for cylindrical ones, and the values of the parameters can be found in Table 7.3.23.
Table 7.3.23 Values of a and m for use with Equation (7.3.2105)
~
~~~~~~
Hilpert, R. (1933). Forsch. Gebiete Ingenieur. 4: 215. 71 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1013.
70
710
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
vertical tubes or cylinders,72 1 < P < 40 r
For natural convection on the surface of vertical plates or outside NU = 0.138 Gro*M (R0*'75  0.55)
~ r 109 >
025
NU
= 0.683 GP
pro35
I[
P r
~r < 109
(7.3.2106)
For convection normal to the outside of pipes or tubes of diameter D arranged in successive rows, we need a modified equation since the heat transfer to or f o downstream tubes is affectedby the wake of tubes upstream: rm (7.3.2107)
Where
sectional area
Gma =r v v is the velocity at the point of minimum flow crossI
9
and the values of b and n depend on the tube arrangement. For a square grid with centertocenter spacing of the tubes equal to twice the tube diameter, b = 0.299 and n = 0.632. For a pattern of equilateral triangles with centertocenter spacing equal to twice the tube diameter, b = 0.482 and n = 0.556 The equation above was developed for gases. To use Equation (7.3.2107) for liquids multiply it by (1.1) (r". P')
Example 7.3.23 Heat transfer with flow normal to Diaes
Water is being heated by passing it across a bank of rows of 1 in., 16 BWG gauge copper tubes 10 ft long, five tubes per row. The tubes are spaced on a square grid with centertocenter spacing of twice the tube diameter. Assume the space between the outside tube and the containing shell is onehalf the tube diameter.
72
Kato, Nishiwaki, et al. (1968). Znt. J. Heat Mass Transfer 11: 1117.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
71I
The inside temperature of the tube walls is 2300F (neglect conduction resistance). If water flowing at 80 gpm enters the exchanger at W F and leaves at W F , find the mean heat m f e r coefficient for the water.
Solution
Modifying Equation (7.3.2107) as indicated previously for use with liquids (7.3.2108)
The minimum flow crosssectional area is
= 0.417 ft2
(7.3.2109)
Note that we are neglecting end effects. The Reynolds number is
Re =
(F)
= 4,805
= 4805
(7.3.2110)
712
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
and the Prandtl number is
LL 21.
(0.684) [cP] (6.72x 104)
= 4554
(7.3.21 11)
Then
h = l . l b ( ~ ) ( y ) LRX ” D .M’ G
Btu
= (1.1) (0.229)
= 386 Btu
hf ft2 T
T] (4805)0.632
(4554) In
(7.3.2112)
A useful design equation for ar flowing outside and at right angles to a bank i of finned tubes is73
h = O.l’7($)(&)
0.6
(7.3.2113) where v is the freestream velocity of the air in feet per minute, D is the outside diameter in inches of the bare tube (root diameter of fin), and L is the centertocenter spacing in inches of the tubes in a row. This equation is, unfortunately, dimensional, but the extreme complexity of the situation does not permit other than rough estimation from an overall design equation Obviously, to obtain more precise answers fin geometry must be considered, which further complicates the situation. The correlation of Froessling is useful for determining the heat transfer coefficient for spheres. In this case, a constant is added to the functional form involving the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers
73
Perry, R. H., C. H. Chilton, et al., Eds. (1963). Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p.1024.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
713
(7.3.2114) The constant term in Equation (7.3.2114) accounts for the fact that heat transfer continues (by conduction) even when the Reynolds number goes to zero (for example, zero flow velocity). The Froessling correlation is also used to correlate data for porous media, because one approach to modeling flow in a porous medium is to consider it as flow over a collection of submerged objects. For such a case, one replaces v, with (10.73)(vap) where Vap is the velocity of approach in the porous medium (see Section 6.9 on flow in porous media).
Heat transfer with phase change
The transfer of heat when phase change occurs, such as in boiling and condensation, is usually described by a heat transfer coefficient as defined in Equation (7.3.28) and Equation (7.3.29). Heat transfer which accompanies phase change usually occurs at a high rate. As we have seen in Table 7.3.21, coefficients for these cases can be very high. Boiling

mechanism
Boiling can occur by more than one mechanism. The two main classes which are usually distinguished are nucleate boiling film boiling The type of boiling one observes in heating water for a cup of tea or coffee, or in boiling an egg in a pan, is usually nucleate boiling. In this class of boiling, the vapor is evolved as a multitude of bubbles. As one increases heat flux, however, these bubbles grow large enough that they coalesce and form a continuous film of vapor at the surface, creating the regime known as film boiling.
An interesting illustration of f l boiling is the Leidenfrost phenomenon. If im one pours small amounts of water on the surface of a hot plate, the drops skitter about the surface and appear to bounce up and down. Leidenfrost explained this behavior by the mechanism that as the drop touches the hot surface, a film of vapor is formed between the drop and the surface which accelerates the drop in the upward direction. Since the film of vapor forms a relatively good insulator
714
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
between the drop and tbe surface,the heat transfer rate then begins to decrease and the fl thins until the drop again touches the surface, more water is evaporated, im the drop shoots upward once more,etc., until all the water in the drop has been evaporated. It is relatively obvious that, for heat transfer purposes, nucleate boiling is far preferable to f l boiling because of the direct contact of much of the liquid im phase with the heated surface as opposed to the separation of liquid from the surface by a gas film w t poor heat transmission characteristics found in fl ih im boiling. Much work has been done on the formation of bubbles during boiling, and explanation of nucleation phenomena is far from trivial. If one considers the problem of nucleating extremely small bubbles of vapor, one finds that the surface tension forces become very important since the ratio of surface area to volume of a sphere increases as the radius decreases. For this reason, it is easier to nucleate a bubble from a cavity which initially contains some trapped gas than to do so in the bulk of the liquid. The radius of curvature when tbe bubble begins to grow will then be relatively large, and less pressure will be required to overcome the surface tension force. There are motion pictures available which illustrate this type of bubble nucleation.74 We can illustrate the common mechanisms of boiling by considering the case of a platinum wire (immersed in water) througb which an electric cment is passed. If we conduct such an experiment, we will obtain results such as those shown in Figure 7.3.22, in which is plotted the heat flux versus the temperature of the wire. The heat flux as a function of wire temperature is readily obtained because
(1) we can determine the surface area of the wire, (2) we can measure the electrical power input, all of which crosses the wire surface as heat, and (3) we can determine the temperature of the wire by optical pyrometry or by using the fact that wire temperature is a function of the wire resistance (which we can determine via the power input and the voltage drop)
For example, see the PhD thesis of Roll (1962) The Effect of Surface Tension on Boiling Heat Transfer. School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (16 rnm B/W, 12 min.)
74
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
71.5
IJ
log(temperature difference)
Figure 7.3.22 Boiling Curve7
In region 1 of Figure 7.3.22, superheated liquid rises to the surface of the bulk liquid, where evaporation takes plaa. The mechanism observed in regions 2 (where bubbles of vapor condense befoR reaching the bulk liquid surface) and 3 (where bubbles break the bulk liquid surface) is nucleate boiling. Bubbles of vapor form at discrete sites on the heated surface and detach almost immediately. As the temperature of the surface increases through region 4, bubbles coalesce and the surface becomes covered by a continuous film of vapr. The continuous vapor fl substantially prevents the liquid from reaching im the surface. The mechanism then is called firm boiling. In film boiling,
vaporization takes place at the vaporliquid interface. The film causes the heat transfer coefficient to drop precipitously  an unstable situation because decrease in heat transfer coefficient requires further increase in temperature drop to maintain the required power dissipation, which then causes further decrease in heat transfer coefficient. This positive feedback cycle continues until the fl im thickness and temperature drop reach a stable situation in region 5. Region 4 is responsible for the phenomenon of "burnout" that can be experienced with resistance heaters if power input is maintained constant into region 4. The material in the resistance beater rod may melt before the stable fl boiling region is reached. This can occur quite abruptly, leaving one with a im heater that resembles a blown fuse with a gap of missing material that looks as if it had "burned," even though it is more likely that it simply melted.

In region 6, radiation begins to contribute substantially to the heat transfer.
75
Adapted by permission from Farber, E. A. and R. L. Scorah (1948). Heat Transfer to Water Boiling Under Pressure. Tmmcrctionr ufthe ASME 70:369.
716 Condensation
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models

mechanism
Condensation, like boiling, occurs by two distinct mechanisms. The mechanisms are analogous to those for boiling. They are called dropwise condensation and film condensation. For vertical surfaces, if the condensing liquid does not wet the surface readily, drops will form, and as soon as the drop is large enough that its weight overcomes the surface tension forces holding it to the surface, the drop runs rapidly down the surface, clearing the surface for more condensation. Large drops that run from the surface coalesce with small drops in their path and thus clear them from the surface. In the dropwise case, most of the heat transfer takes place directly between the vapor and the solid surface, and therefore the heat transfer coefficient is quite high.
If the condensing liquid wets the surface readily, however, one will obtain a continuous film of liquid over the heat transfer surface and heat transfer then becomes limited by conduction through this film of liquid. There has been a great deal of work done on additives or surface coatings which will promote dropwise rather than filmwise condensation, but process equipment usually runs in the film regime.
A third type of heat transfer with phase change is associated with freezing (or crystallization, adduction, inclusion, clathrate formation, etc.) processes, where a solid phase is formed directly from either a liquid phase or a gas phase. We normally distinguish only one mechanism for these processes (although there are probably many) because this simplistic view describes many processes adequately. This phase change regime, although extremely important for many processes, is less common than boiling and condensation, and so we will emphasize the latter two processes.
Boiling and condensation are both extremely interesting and extremely important processes in heat transfer; however, to discuss the theory necessary to develop these areas in detail would require a text in itself. Therefore, here we will simply present some of the more common design equations to illustrate their general form. In the solution of specific practical problems, one should always refer to the literature for data and theory, or to experiments which one develops oneself.
Boiling coefficients
heat transfer coefficientusing the equation
For fl boiling on the outer surface of a horizontal tube, one can predict a im
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
717
(7.3.2115)
where the convective film coefficient and the radiative coefficient are given by the equations
h, = 0.62
[
8 Pv (PL  Pv)
k3,
D CLV ( s T") T
1
I14
(7.3.2116)
h, =
E 0 (T:
T : )
(7.3.2117)
( s T') T
For film boiling on the surface of a vertical tube, one modifies the above correlation by calculating a Reynolds number defined by
4w Re = nDCLV
(7.3.2118)
and calculating the heat transfer coefficient from the equation76
h
[ '
gPv(P,Pv
hk3,
1'
= 0.0020Re'"
(7.3.2119)
For nucleate boiling one can use an equation not written explicitly in terms of a heat transfer coefficient as followsn
76
77
Bromley, A. (1950). Chem. Eng. Prog. 46: 221. Hsu, S . T . (1963). Engineering Heat Transfer,D.Van Nostrand.
718
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.3.2 120)
See Table 7.3.23 for values of C.
Table 7.3.23 Values of C for nucleate boiling
Condensing coefficients
For condensation on vertical tubes, for laminar flow the mean heat transfer coefficient is given by
h,
(&)
In
= 1.47 Re;"
(7.3.2121)
Where
Re, = 4xe (v) P c1
and xe is the film thickness. For turbulent flow, Rex > 2,000
(7.3.2122)
78
Rosenow, W.M.(1952). Tram. ASME 74: 969.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
719
ha
(&)
It3
= 0.0077Rey
(7.3.2 123)
For condensation on a row of horizontal tubes stacked vertically, where condensate flow is laminar, the mean coefficient for tbe entire bank of tubes is ha = 0.725
I
v N k 3 P g hT ) D (T*" s
I'"
(7.3.2124)
where N is the number of tubes in a row. The reader should be cautioned that condensing coefficients can be affected substantially by the presence of noncondensable gases. For example, if one has a heat exchanger in which ethanol condenses in the presence of nitrogen, a layer of nitrogen builds up at the condensing surface and changes the problem from one in heat transfer to one in mass transfer, since the limiting step becomes the diffusion of the ethanol across a stagnant nitrogen layer which accumulatesnext to the tube surface. This is, of course, an exaggeration  the gas will not remain in an undisturbed layer next to the tube wall but instead bubbles will rise to the top of the exchanger, eventually forming a large vapor space that may ultimately surround some of the tubes if it is not vented. For this reason, condensers on distillation columns are usually provided with some type of vent for noncondensablegases.
7.4 Conduction and Convection in Series
The general heat transfer problem involves both conduction and convection paths in both series and parallel.
r...............:
9,
i
R2
In a series heat transfer path all the heat goes through every segment of the path, as shown in the twosegment path above. It is often the case that a certain
720
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
segment of the series path in the problem will contain virtually all the resistance to heat transfer (in the illustration, segment 2, whose resistance is assumed far greater than the resistance of segment l), which is another way of stating that essentially all of the temperature drop will be across this segment, much as most of the voltage drop in a series electrical circuit79occurs across a resistance which is mucb larger than any other resistance path in the circuit. In sucb a case we can often neglect the segment with the small resistance, which would amount to eliminating the part of the path shown enclosed in the dashed lines, thereby assuming that T1 is applied directly to the lefthand side of the second segment.
In the case of parallel paths (illustrated above for a twosegment path), we have a similar situation; however, now the controlling path is the one of least resistance, in the same fashion that in touching a “hot” wire while grounded we discover to our chagrin that most of the current goes through our body rather than the circuit intended. In parallel paths the temperature (voltage) drop is the same across all segments of the path, but the heat transfer (current) varies from segment to segment. If one segment is significantly lower in resistance than any of the others, virtually all the heat (current) will be transferred via this segment (segment A above). Low resistance in the controlling segment will require a relatively low temperature drop (voltage) to produce the heat flow (current).This same low temperature drop (voltage) applied across the much higher resistances of the remaining segments (here, segment B, which acts in effect as an open
The reader is reminded that while the resistance of various segments is often considered to be a constant in the usual electrical circuit, in the case of heat transfer the thermal conductivity can be a function of temperature for conduction paths, and the heat transfer coefficient is frequently a strong function of the flow field for convective paths, so the analogy is not perfect.
79
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
721
circuit) will lead to negligible heat transfer (current) through these paths, so we can eliminate them (shown for this twosegment path by the dashed line). We can frequently exploit such controlling steps to simplify our heat transfer calculation requirements. In some cases, we eliminate the necessity of calculation of entire segments of the heat transfer paths. In other cases, we reduce the order of the differential equations we are required to solve; often, we can reduce a problem requiring solution of partial differential equations to one of solution of ordinary differential equations. We shall consider some cases in tbe following section.
7.4.1
Lumped capacitance models
Onedimensional unsteadystate energy transfer thorough a solid (for simplicity in illustration, with constant therma) conductivity, although this restriction is not necessary) is modeled by the partial differential equation which describes the microscopic energy balance at a point
(7.4.11)
If we integrate the equation over the volume of the solid
(7.4.12)
Sometimes we can model series heat transfer problems which include a solid segment by assuming tbat there is no spatial dependence of temperature (or density or heat capacity), for the illustration reducing the equation for the segment concerned to
=
v p C, % = constant
g
k &(O) A dx= constant
(7.4.13) (7.4.14)
Notice that this reduces the partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation because under our assumption the temperature depends only on time. This is referred to as lumping the (thermal) capacitance because we have in
722
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
essence "rolled up" the space dimensions into a single "lump" which contains no spatial variation. We have returned to the macroscopic viewpoint. This is equivalent to assuming that thermal energy instantly distributes itself uniformly throughout the interior of the solid, so tbere are no temperature gradients in space. For thermal energy to move instantaneously implies infinite thermal conductivity. The constant is not dimensionless, but carries dimensions f equivalent to those o the lefthand side, i.e.,
(7.4.15)
Although infinite thermal conductivity does not ordinarily occur, such a model furnishes a very good approximation to the case where the convective resistance to heat transfer at the surface of a solid is much greater than the conductive resistance within the material. The lumped model represents the two resistances in series the convective resistance at the surface of the object the conductive resistance within the object
all models, care must be taken that the model furnishes answers sufficiently
with the first being larger and therefore the controlling resistance. As with
close to the prototype.
For such models, to consider the problem in more than one space dimension we return to the macroscopic total energy balance to formulate the model equation. Consider a solid object of constant density at uniform initial temperature, Ti, to be instantly immersed in a colder liquid at constant temperature,T. The macroscopic energy balance applied to a system consisting , of the interior of the solid becomes, neglecting work terms and potential and kinetic energy terms, and recognizing that there are no convective terms (no inlets or outlets)
(7.4.16)
Because of our assumptions that both density and temperature remain uniform in space within the solid, the internal energy will likewise be uniform in space.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
723
(7.4.17)
With no inlets and outlets and constant density, the macroscopic total mass balance shows that volume is constant in time
(7.4.18)
But since
dT
=
cv
(7.4.19)
and for an incompressible material (which we will assume for our model)
cv= cp
we have
(7.4.1 10)
p v s=p
v g g = pvc,$f
=
pvc$
=
Q
(7.4.111)
is the rate at which heat crosses the surface of the object, and can be expressed in terms of a convective heat transfer coefficient, the temperature of the surroundings, and the surface temperature of the object (which by assumption is the same uniform temperature as the interior). At this point we are at the Same point as at the conclusion of the onedimensional example, and we can see that Q is the constant in the onedimensionalexample. As usual, we need to express Q in system parameters
Q = hA(TT,)
(7.4.1 12)
where h, the convective heat transfer coefficient, has units of [energy/(area time)], and A is the surface area of the object. The negative sign occurs because T > T by assumption, meaning that heat is flowing out of the system, so to , maintain our sign convention of heat into the system being positive and out being negative, we require the negative sign. Therefore
724
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
(7.4.1 13)
p V c , g = hA(TT,)
Integrating
(7.4.1 14)
(7.4.1 15)
The total temperature change (at infinite time) will be (T,  Tm),because as time approaches infinity, the temperature of the solid will approach T,. Therefore, the lefthand side of this relation can be defined as the (dimensionless) unaccomplished temperature change, T".
Notice the units on the coefficient of time
(7.4.1 16)
so if we designate
(7.4.1 17)
we can see that is the time constant of the process (when t = tc, the unaccomplished temperature change will have a value of l/e). We can then define a dimensionless timeso t*
8o
This can be written in terms o dimensionless groups f
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.4.1 18)
725
Equation (7.4.115) expresses the (dimensionless) unaccomplished temperature change, v,as a function of the dimensionlesstime, t*.
(7.4.1 19)
If we examine the components of
(7.4.120)
(7.4.12 1)
3
energy = thermalcapacity
we see that represents the product of the thermal resistance*' and the (lumped) thermal capacity of the system, The electrical analog of such a system is that of leakage of voltage charge on a capacitor through a resistor connected in parallel, as shown in Figure 7.4.1h 1. T e capacitor is initially charged by the battery; then the switch is opened and the charge allowed to decay through the resistor. Such a circuit could be used (and before the advent of digital computers frequently was used) to solve transient heat conduction models.
= Bi Fo =a hp&cl of two d j m e d a k u gwp, k e w Bi = Biot nnmbx (secbelow) and Fo = Fwricrnumbcr i a t
(amlhm dinrndooleaslmdif@dngby tk rrk f8ctor o tk Biot numb) i f
3
81
For this lumpedcapacitance model the resistance is only convective.
726
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
voltage at X
E,
T ,
Figure 7.4.11 RC circuit analog of unsteadystate lumpedcapacitance heat transfer
In the circuit shown in Figure 7.4.11, closing the switch the battery raises the voltage at point X to an initial voltage, Ei, which is analogous to the initial temperature difference Ti  T, (T, is analogous to the ground potential of 0). At time t = 0 the switch is opened and the voltage (accumulated charge on the capacitor) allowed to decay by current leaking through the resistor. The resistor represents the convective resistance, the capacitor the thermal capacitance of the system. The electrical current is analogous to the heat flow.
Criteria for use of lumped capacitance models
The use of the lumpedcapacitance assumption permitted us to reduce the partial differential equation describing unsteadystatebeat transfer to an ordinary differential equation that was easily solved. Obviously we would like to make the lumpedcapacitanceassumption whenever possible to simplify computation. In order to develop criteria for use of the assumption, for pedagogical reasons initially consider the case of onedimensional steadystate conduction in a solid with convective resistance at the interface using rectangular coordinates (Figure 7.4.12). A s s u m e that the lefthand face of the solid i s maintained at a constant temperature of T1, that the freestream , temperature is T in the fluid to the right of the solid, and that the interfacial temperature at the conjunction of the righthand face and the fluid is Ts.
A macroscopic energy balance about the conjunction of the righthand face and the fluid (an infinitesimally thin system) shows only two terms remaining in the equation: the heat conducted to the face and the heat convected from the face
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
727
0=
Qmdndion+Qmwim
(7.4.122)
Figure 7.4.12 Steadystate conduction through solid with convection at interface
These two terms, when replaced with their numerical values, will have opposite signs because of our sign convention that heat into the system is positive. Substituting using Fourier's law and the definition of the convective heat transfer coefficient
0 =  k A (TsT')hA(TsTw)
(XZ  X I )
(7.4.123)
The negative sign preceding the first term on the righthand side comes from Fourier's law (because the heat flow is in the opposite direction to the temperature gradient), not from the sign convention for heat. The negative sign preceding the second term on the righthand side is there because of our sign convention regarding heat. Since the gradient is negative for this example and k and A are both positive, the first term will have a net positive sign. Since the temperature difference is positive for this example and h and A are both positive, the second term will have a net negative sign. Examining the ratio of the temperature drop in the solid to that in the fluid by rearranging Equation (7.423)
728
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
We define this ratio as the Biot number Biot number = Bi
=hk L
I
(7.4.125)
where L is an appropriate characteristic length for the particular problem. As reiterated below, it is common to define the characteristic length to be the ratio of the volume of the solid to its surface area. Notice that the Biot number, although nominally containing the same variables as the Nusselt number, is not the same, because the Biot number contains the thermal conductivity and space dimension of the solid phase and the heat transfer coefficient for the fluid phase, while the Nusselt number is based entirely on properties of the same (fluid) phase. If the conductive resistance is small with respect to the convective resistance (therefore h is small relative to k, and the Biot number consequently small), the implication is that the temperature drop in the solid will be small with respect to that in the fluid; in other words, the temperature profile in the solid will be relatively constant, which suggests lumping all parts of the solid together as a single entity (this is analogous to the perfect mixing assumption for a fluid). This situation and its opposite extreme, very large h relative to k (large Biot number) are illustrated in Figure 7.4.13.
In the extreme case of very large Biot numbers, the surface temperature approaches that of the freestream, and the problem can be modeled as one with Dirichlet boundary conditions.
Now consider the a similar unsteadystate problem, still in onedimensional rectangular coordinates, with a slab initially a t uniform temperature being exposed to identical convective cooling at each of its faces. The derivative of the temperature with respect to x will be zero at the centerline, because otherwise there would have to be a thermal source or sink at the centerline.g2Because of symmetry, we therefore need show only half the
82 The problem is symmetric, so the derivative will be symmetric  a temperature gradient at the centerline would imply either thermal energy flowing into the center
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
729
slab. The temperature at the centerline (and throughout the slab) will continuously change until the slab reaches the temperature of the surroundings.
Figure 7.4.13 Steadystate conduction through solid with convection at interface, small vs. large Biot number
The temperature profile will no longer be linear because all the thermal energy transferred through a certain plane must be conducted also through any plane cut between that plane and the edge. There will be a steadily increasing thermal energy flux as one goes toward the edge of the slab (from the increasing thermal energy obtained from the cooling of the slab), so the temperature gradient must increase if the thermal conductivity and area are both constant. This is illustrated in Figure 7.4.14. The same general conclusions with respect to the Biot number still apply, however. We show the profile at some arbitrary time after the process starts.
plane from both directions and disappearing or flowing out of the center plane in both directions, implying a source.
730
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.4.14 Unsteadystate conduction through solid with convection at interface, small vs. large Biot number, T = initial j temperature, T = centerline temperature, T = surface , , temperature, T = freestream temperature ,
Although the appropriateness of a lumpedcapacitance model depends on many factors, a rule of thumb often used is Bi < 0.1
3
lumping appropriate
(7.4.126)
More conservative rules can, of course, be defined. Using the above constant for the rule of thumb, the characteristic length used (for both regular and irregular shapes) is typically the ratio of the volume of the solid to its surface area through which transfer occurs, which for typical regular shapes reduces to: For slabs with convection at both faces, the halfthickness For slabs with one insulated face, the thickness For long cylinders, half the radius For spheres, onethird the radius
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
731
Sometimes the more conservativevalue of L = radius is used for the cylinder and sphere. Note that the Biot number should be computed before formulation or solution of the model whenever possible, because it may lead to a considerable reduction in computational labor by justifying a simpler model.
ExamDle 7.4.11
Lumbed cabac itance models
A rectangular Pyrex wall at a uniform initial temperature of loooC is cooled O on each side by a gas at a freestream temperature of 2O C. Given the data below
Is lumping appropriate to use in the calculation of the temperature of the wall with time? How long will it take the midpoint of the wall to cool to 40T?
I
I
heat transfer coefficient
I
10 W / (m2 K)
1.4W/(mK) 2250 kg / m3 0.835k / (kp:K) T 0.74E06 m2 / s 20 mm
I
PYREX PROPERTIES83 thennal conductivity density heat capacity thermal diffusivity wall thickness
Solution
(7.4.127)
Therefore, lumping is appropriate.
TT, TiT, = exp[(&)
I] =
p ~ ~ w ~ (7.4.128) p )
1'
83Perry, R. H. and D. W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3263.
732
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
m = exp [ (p'."cJt] TTm [H,] =
(7.4.129)
\
(7.4.130)
[0.25] = exp[ (5.32 x lO") (t)] ln[0.25] = (5.32 x lo")(t) t = 2606s 43.4min
(7.4.131) (7.4.132)
7.4.2
Distributed capacitance models
Thus far we have considered two unsteadystate situations for conduction in solids: (1) Dirichlet boundary conditions, where we had known surface temperatures, and (2) lumped parameter models, where we considered convective resistance at the surface to dominate and therefore the temperature gradient in the solid was insignificant. We now wish to consider the case where significant gradients in temperature (i.e., thermal resistances) exist both at the surface and in the surrounding fluid. As we will see in Equation (7.4.25), this amounts to introducing a boundary condition of the third kind into our problem. Starting with the microscopic thermal energy balance
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
733
for constant k, a stationary medium, equality of heat capacities at constant pressure and volume, and no thermal energy generation, we have as before
(7.4.22)
Our initial condition remains for the moment as before (we could let the initial temperature vary in space by using our numerical techniques, or by analytical techniques not covered in this text)
att =
0: forL Ix IL; T = Ti
(7.4.23)
By recognizing the fact that all the energy transferred to the surface of the slab must be removed by convection into the surrounding fluid (there is no generation term in the equation), the boundary conditions may be written as
fort > 0
at x = +L;
k[glX h(T,T,) =
fL
(7.4.24)
Note that the quantities on the lefthand side of this equation pertain to the solid, those on the right to the fluid. If we rewrite the condition, we see that we have a mixed boundary condition  that is, one which incorporates both a Dirichlet and a Neumann condition
(7.4.25)
We can proceed to solve the equation using the techniques already introduced. We present the solution to this problem and to the corresponding problems in cylindrical and spherical coordinates in graphical form in Figures 7.4.21 through 7.4.26.
734
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.4.21
Midplane temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in a slab of finite thickness 2L with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfacesg4
~
~~~
64
Heisler, M. P. ( 1947). 'Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Tram ASME 69:227236.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
735
(kJhLj m Ei’l
Figure 7.4.22 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in a slab of finite thickness with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaces* x = distance from midplane; thickness = 2L
To = centerlinetemperature Ti = initial temperature T, = freestream temperature e = TT, ei = T~T, eo = T ~  T ,
85 Heisler, M. P. (1947). Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. T r a m ASME 69: 227236.
736
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.4.23 Centerline temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaces86
86
Heisler. M. P. ( 1947). Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Trons. .  I S . C E 69227236.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
737
Figure 7.4.24 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in an infinite cylinder of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfaceg7
In Figures 7.4.23 and 7.4.24:
as opposed to the lumpedcase where Bi
In Figures 7.4.25 and 7.4.24:
=
~
h(rO/2) k
as opposed to the lumped case where Bi = k
g7 Heisler, M. P. (1947).Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Tram. ASME 69: 227236.
h(r0/3)
738
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.4.25 Center temperature for unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surfacem
Heisler, M. P. ( 1 947). Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Tram. ASME 69:227236.
Chpter 7: Heat Transfer Models
739
Figure 7.4.26 Temperature profile for unsteadystate heat transfer in a sphere of radius ro with uniform initial temperature and convective resistance at surface89
Examde 7.4.21
series
Convective and conductive resistances in
We now reconsider Example 7.4.11 under conditions such that lumping is no longer appropriate. A rectangular Pyrex wall at a uniform initial temperature of l W C is cooled on each side by water at a freestream temperature of 2OOC. Given the data below Is lumping appropriate to use in the calculation of the temperature of the wall with time? How long will it take the midplane of the wall to cool to 4oOc? At this time what will be the temperature 4 mm from the face of the wall?
89 Heisler,
M. P. (1947). Temperature charts for induction and constant temperature heating. Trans. ASME 69: 227236.
740
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
heat transfer coefficient
300 W / (m2 K)
PYREX PROPERTIES9o
thermal conductivity density heat capacity thermal diffusivity wall thickness
1.4 W / (m K) 2250 kg / m3 0.835kJ/(k K) 0.74E06 m / s 20 mm
I
Solution
(7.4.26) Therefore, lumping is no longer appropriate. We calculate the ordinate of Figure 7.4.21 0.25 Using this together with the parameter on the graph (7.4.27)
[Bil' =
& = 2,14  0.47
(7.4.28)
gives an abscissa value of
t = 182s
(7.4.29)
To find the temperature at 4 m m from the face, we use Figure 7.4.22.The abscissa is
90 Perry,
R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3263.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
[Bi]' = 0.47
741
(7.4.210)
and the parameter is
= 0.6
(7.4.211)
These two values yield
  'R = TT, = 0.79
90
'
4F 7m
T 20
(7.4.212) (7.4.213)
T=36"F
7.5 Radiation Heat Transfer Models
Heat transfer by radiation occurs in a manner which does not parallel the mechanisms for transfer of mass or momentum, as was mentioned earlier. The transfer occurs without participation of an intervening medium (although at one time such a medium, the "ether," was postulated).
Thermal radiation  that is, the collective wavelengths of radiation that are the most important in heat transfer  is a relatively small part of the total electromagnetic spectrum as shown in Figure 7.51. The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum contains a s a l part of what we classify as thermal ml radiation.91
91 In an age of communications carried out in large part via electromagnetic waves, we can be grateful that our eyes are not sensitive to most of the spectrum  suppose that we had to see all the radio, television, microwave, etc. waves that surround us every day without having access to the o switch a radio or TV set possesses. There f might be some dubious advantage in viewing police radar, but in exchange we would have to see (even if we chose not to hear) some of the more obnoxious forms of MTV. We would also have the questionable benefits of simultaneous visual bombardment by Masterpiece meater and reruns of Gilligan's Island.
742
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.51 The electromagnetic spectrumg2
7.5.1
Interaction of radiation and matter
Matter can reflect and/or transmit incident (incoming) radiation with or without a change in direction. It can also absorb incident radiation, and emit radiation in various directions. The absorption and emission of radiation is accomplished by the transition of atoms and molecules among translational, rotational, vibrational, or electronic states which change the internal energy.
of a difise su$.xe:
L
One important assumption that we shall use frequently in our models is that
Diffuse surface: a surface with radiation properties independent of direction
Geometric description of radiation The geometry of radiation is described by solid angles measured in smadians.
'Steradian: The ratio of the area of the spherical surface which subtends the angle to the square of the radius length, as illustrated in Figure 7.5.11
92
Greenkorn, R. A. and D.P. Kessler (1972). Transfer Operations, McGrawHill, p. 324.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
743
(7.5.11)
Since the area of the surface of a spbere is 47cr2, the surface of a sphere subtends 4 c steradians 7
(7.5.12)
as opposed to the twodimensionalcase,where a circle subtends only 2x radians.
To describe directions in space, the two angle coordinates from the spherical coordinate system suffice, as shown in Figure 7.5.1 1.
Figure 7.5.11 Directions in spaceg
Intensity of radiation
Radiation may be characterized by its intensity, which is defined as the transmission rate of radiant energy
of a particular wavelength, in a particular direction, per unit area of the surface normal to this direction, per unit solid angle about this direction, and per unit wavelength interval.
93 Adapted from Sparrow, E. M. and R. Brooks/Cole.
D.Cess (1966). Radiation Heat Transfer,
744
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.13)
where we have used the fact that the projected area normal to the (0, +)direction of A1 (with outward normal in the 6 = 0 direction) i A, = A1 cos 6. s
Figure 7.5.12 Radiation leaving A1
We can see from Figure 7.5.12 that for A2 normal to r, p2 = 0, and
(7.5.14)
=0
1
I
so the radiant energy flux based on area A1 is
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
dQ*
745
=
a 1
= 1Le.r cos 8 sin 8 d8 dq
(7.5.15)
Where
(7.5.16) (7.5.17)
Lumping of quantities used in modeling radiaion In general, all interactions of matter and radiation are functions of not only direction but also of wavelength. Furthermore, wavelength is a function of temperature. We frequently simplify our models through the use of lumped quantities, that is, quantities in which all of a particular class of radiation is grouped togetber by integration.We shall also assume diffuse surfaces. The energy flux may be written for various types of radiation. Using a without specifying the nature of the typical intensity designated as IA,@,+,, radiation (incident, reflected, emitted etc.)
Integrating the energy flux over a hemisphere
(7.5.19)
(7.5.110)
This is defined as the spectral, hemispherical energy flux. Integrating over wavelength yields
(7.5.111)
746
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
(The lower limit on wavelength is zero since negative wavelengths are not physically realistic.) This is the total, bemispberical energy flux. Tbis is the lumping that we shall use for our introductory treatment. For a diffuse surface, I A , ~ , + not a function of 0 or $ (so we add the is subscript 6 to remind ourselves that we have assumed diffuse behavior) and can therefore be factor& out of the double integral in Equation (7.5.110).
r2n r O
(7.5.1 12)
It then follows directly that
(7.5.1 13)
Incident radiation
We will designate incident radiation by G, regardless of the source of that radiation (e.g., emission, reflection, transmission from another surface). In other words, we classify such radiation by its destination, not its origin. We define the irradiation to include incident radiation from all directions. If the incident radiation is diffuse (independent of direction)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.1 14)
747
When radiation is incident on matter, several things may happen, the first two of which involve changes only in the direction of the radiation. First, it may pass through the substance unaltered except perhaps in direction (refracted); that is, it may be
transmitted.
Second, it may be reflected from the surface of the object. Reflection can occur in any combination of the two extreme cases known as specular and diffuse reflection. For specular reflection the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection; for purely diffuse reflection the radiation is scattered with uniform intensity in all directions (see Figure 7.5.13). Third, the radiation may be absorbed, that is, converted into internal energy of the material. The absorption of photons can result in the direct change of electronic, vibrational, or rotational states of molecules, in the ionization of a molecule, or in the change in translationalenergy of a free electron.94 Absorption takes place near the surface for electrical conductors, but may take place up to several millimeters from the surface in nonconducting solids.g5 Liquids, solids, and many gases absorb significant amounts of thermal radiation. For example, monatomic and symmetric diatomic gases absorb little or no thermal radiation, but many polyatomic gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, longchain hydrocarbons, etc., do absorb significant amounts of radiation.
94
95
Sparrow, E. M.and R. D.Cess (1966). Radiation Heat Transfer, BrookdCole. Hsu, S. T . (1963). Engineering Heat Transfer, D,Van Nostrand, p. 426.
748
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
It should further be pointed out that gases and vapors do not absorb and emit radiation at all wavelengths. This characteristic is shared by liquids to a lesser extent. These materials are selectiveabsopbers.
Models used herein neglect the effects of absorbing andor radiating gases and vapors. Such models are useful but by no means universally applicable.
Incident ray
\
Figure 7.5.13 Extreme modes of reflection96
The absorptivity, a, the reflectivity, p, and the transmittivity, 2, describe the destination of incident radiation.
Absorptivity
The total hemispherical absorptivity is defined as
(7.5.1  16)
Reflectivity
Reflected radiation depends upon the direction of the incident ray. We will avoid this difficulty in our models by assuming diffuse reflection by our surfaces. The total hemispherical reflectivity i s
Greenkorn, R. A. and D.P. Kessler (1972). Transfer Operaions, McGrawHill, p. 325.
96
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
749
(7.5.1 17)
Transmit tivi ty Bodies with a transmittivity of zero are called opaque. Transmittivity poses the same difficulty that reflectivity does, in that incident radiation can be transmitted at various angles. In this introductory treatment we restrict our attention to materials that are opaque, but we will remark that the following correspondingdefinitions can be made. The total hemispherical transmittivity is defined as
(7.5.118)
Since absorption, reflection, and transmission account for all destinations of incident radiation, it follows that:
(7.5.1 19) (7.5.120) (7.5.121)
[GI,, + [Gldl + = 1.0 CGlms
G
G
G
a+p+z=l.O
Emitted radiation Thus far we have discussed interaction of radiation and matter only via absorption, transmission, and reflection. Matter also emits radiation by making transitions between the same energy states as listed for absorption (but in the opposite direction). The emission of radiation is quantified by defining the emissive power of a surface. We can make parallel definitions to those for incident radiation, but now using the emitted radiation. We define the spectral, hemispherical emissive power, E&,[W/(m*
W)l
75 .0
Chapter 7 Heot Transfer Models :
(7.5.122)
and the total, hemispherical emissive power, E , [W/m*] is defined as &
(7.5.123)
If intensity of the emitted radiation is diffuse (independent of direction)
1 EI
(7.5.124)
(7.5.1 25)
B lackbodies
A blackbody is an idealized body for which
(7.5.126)
for all wavelengths and directions  that is, all hcident radiation is absorbed. In addition, blackbodies are diffuse emitters, and furthermore, no surface can emit more energy than a blackbody at a given tempemcure and wavelengtb. In practice, true blackbodies do not exist, but the concept is valuable in tbeoretical considerationsTMostsubstances which are thought of as very "black"  carbonliack, black plush, black cats, tax collector's hearts, etc.  are really not very black by the standard of unit absorptivity. In the laboratory the 'best approximation to a blackbody is an enclosure with a very small opening. Radiation entering this small opening bounces about from wall to wall, with little pmbability of being reemitted by passing back through the entrance hole. At each reflection some of the radiation is absorbed, and so ultimately virtually all is zbsorbed.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Blackbody radiation
751
One of the early triumphs of quantum theory was the derivation of the spectral distribution of blackbody radiationg
(7.5.127)
where T must be in absolute temperature, and c, = 2.998 x 10s [m / s] = speed of light in a vacuum h = 6.6256 x 1034[J s] = Planck constant k = 1.3805 x 1023[J / K] = Boltzmann constant Because a blackbody is a diffuse emitter, its spectral emissive power is
(7.5.128)
Where
1
C1 = 3.742 x 108 [w pm4 / m2] = 2 7 t h ~ ~ ~ C2 = 1.439 x 104 [IIUXIK] = hc, / k
The total emissive power of a blackbody then is
eh hIr c : q 2
(7.5.129)
Evaluating the integral yields the StefanBoltzmann law.
97 Planck, M. (1959). The Theory of Heat Radiation. New York, NY, Dover Publications.
752
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.130)
o = StefanBoltzmannconstant
(7.5.131)
W o = 5.670~ 108 ~
m2 K4 o = 0.1713~ 10* Btu hr ft2R4
Emissivity
(7.5.132) (7.5.133)
The emissivity, E, is defined as tbe ratio of energy emitted at a given wavelength per unit area for the body in question to that of a blackbody at the same temperature. The total, hemispherical emissivity is defined as
(7.5.134)
Radiosity
All the radiation leaving a surface, i.e., the reflection plus the emission, is called the radiosity, J.
For diffuse surfaces (7.5.135) (7.5.136)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
753
Radiant heat exchange between two opaque bodies with no intervening medium
7.5.2
We now consider the problem of radiant heat exchange between surfaces. We will treat only fairly naive models analytically, but fortunately we can get fairly realistic approximationsfrom such models. Consider the case of two bodies:
1. that radiate and absorb in the same spectral range (frequency) 2. that are opaque 3. that are situated so that all the radiation emitted from body I strikes body 1 and vice versa (e.g., infinite parallel planes) 1
Calculate the energy exchanged by radiation between the two bodies. We can do this by considering a certain rate of emission of radiation by body I and subtracting from this amount
(1) the portion which is reflected back and forth and ultimately reabsorbed by body I, plus (2) the radiation emitted from body I1 that is absorbed by body I.
Upon reaching body 11, part of this radiation is absorbed and the remainder, since the body is opaque, is reflected back to body I. At body I, part of this reflected radiation is absorbed and the remainder reflected back again to body 11, and so on. In Table 7.5.21 the reflected radiation from the previous step is enclosed each time in square brackets.
754
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Table 7.5.21 History of radiation emitted
ABSORBED
Q*
If we continue the scheme shown, we can write that portion ofradiation 01 emitted by body I which is ultimately absorbed by body I as
Radiation ultimatelyabsorbedby I =
Qi (1 + K + K2+ K + ...) (1  all) ' a,
W e
(7.5.21)
K = (1a,,)( l  a i )
(7.5.22)
but the sum of the infinite series is
U
(7.5.23) and so Equation (7.5.21) reduces to
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(1 a,,) a,
( 1 4
755
Radiation ultimately absorbed by I =
QI
(7.5.24)
If we follow the same procedure to calculate the portion of an emission from body I1 that is ultimately absorbed by body I we get
Emission from I1 ultimatelyabsorbed by I =
QII a, 
(1K)
(7.5.25)
By subtracting (7.5.24) and (7.5.25) &om QI we get the net heat transferred
(7.5.26) Putting everything over a common denominator and substituting the definition of K yields (7.5.27) This equation is true at nonequilibrium conditions as well as at equilibrium.
7.5.3
Q=
Kirchhoff's law
At thermal equilibrium
o
(net)
(7 531)
Since the denominator of the righthand side of Equation (7.5.27) cannot become infinite (the upper limit to absorptivity is 1 .O) the numerator must vanish. Therefore
EIaI, I I a I= 0 E
(7.5.32)
756
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.33) This is Kirchhoffs law. In Equation (7.5.33) there is nothing to say that one of the bodies cannot be a blackbody. Considering tbe special case for body I1 being black (an 1.O): =
E1 
EII, b

aI
(7.5.34)
But by definition
1 E 
EII,b
 &I
(7.5.3 5)
Therefore, at thermal equilibrium
(7.5.36)
Figure 7.5.31 lists some total emissivities.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
757
WATER (32212 F) PAINT (212 F) RED BRICK (70 F) ASBESTOS BOARD (74 F)
OXIDIZED IRON (212 F)
POLISHED IRON (soOleoO F)
POLISHED COPPER (242 F)
POLISHED ALUMINUM (73F)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Figure 7.5.31 Total emissivity of some surfacesg *
7.5.4
View factors
Consider radiant heat exchange between two arbitrarily oriented surfaces as shown in Figure 7.5.41. The radiation from surface 1 that is intercepted by surface 2 m a y be written as
(7.5.4 1)
where:
I1 = total intensity for surface 1 (emitted plus reflected) dA1 cos p1 = projected a e in rdirection ra dA2 cos p2 / r2 = solid angle d o
by surface 1.
A similar equation is obtained for radiation from surface 2 that is intercepted
(7.5.42)
Assuming each surface reflects and emits diffusely with uniform radiosity
Data from H. C. Hottel as cited in McAdams, W.H. (1954). Hear Transmission. New York,NY, McGrawHill.
98
758
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Normal
/
Figure 7.5.41 Radiation between surfaces99
Ji = XI^+^
(7.5.43)
Substituting and integrating
(7.5.44)
We define the view factor, Fij, as the fraction of radiation leaving surface i that is intercepted by surface j. Notice that there exists a view factor between a surface and itself (i = j) because for concave surfaces radiation leaving one part of the surface can strike another part of the same surface.
Greenkom, R. A. and D.P. Kessler (1972). Transfer Operations, McGrawHill, p. 332.
99
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
759
For surfaces that reflect and emit diffusely, and have uniform radiosity, the is view factor d e f ~ t i o n expressed quantitatively as
(7.5.45)
Equation (7.5.45) must be integrated for each particular geometry. Since this is cumbersome, the results of this integration have been tabulated for common cases. Then
(7.5.46)
Developing a similar equation for radiant energy leaving surface 2 and intercepted by surface 1, we take the difference to obtain the net energy exchange as
Q12 = JlAlF12
 J2A2F21
(7.5.47)
Some view factors can be evaluated intuitively. For example, no radiation leaving either a plane surface or a surface that is everywhere convex can strike the surface itself directly, so the view factor between such a surface and itself is zero. Conversely, the interior surface of an empty, hollow sphere has unity view factor with itself, since all radiation leaving the surface strikes (another point on) the same surface. Reciprocity relation From the definition of the view factor we can wie rt
(7.5.48)
760
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.49)
but by symmetry the integrals are equal, so
(7.5.4 10)
which is the reciprocity relation.
Summation rule
If N surfaces form an enclosure  that is, all radiation is incident upon one of the surfaces (to use an incarceration analogy, none can "escape"), the definition of the view factor implies
(7.5.411)
This is the summation rule. In an enclosure of N surfaces, there are N2view factors to be determined
' I
Fll F 2 1
***
............ FN, ...... FNN
2
Fl F 2 2 2
*'.
FIN FN 2
(7.5.412)
However, N independent equations are supplied by the summation rule, leaving only (N2 N) view factors required in order to compute all view factors. Furthermore, the reciprocity relation says that only half of these remaining view factors are independent, so there are in fact only
("N)
2 2 .

N(N1)
(7.5.4 13)
independent view factors that need be determined in order to permit determination of all view factors.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
761
The utility of the reciprocity relation and the summation rule is that they can at times be used to infer view factors that would otherwise require complicated integrations.
Example 7.5.41 Integration to obtain view factor
Using the definition, determine the view factor F12 by integration for radiant heat exchange between a small circular disk of area A1 and a much larger, coaxial, parallel circular disk of area A2. The smaller disk may be assumed to have a radius so small that it is essentially a point.
Solution
The definition of the view factor is Fij =
7kliij
cos pi cos pj np2 dA,dA,
(7.5.4 14)
The surfaces are normal to each other, so p1 = p 2 = p. Since A1 is so small, the integrand is constant over Al. This leaves us with
(7.5.4 15)
762
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.4 16)
(7.5.4 17) (7.5.4 18)
We can write the differential area dA2 as
dA2 = [rdy] [dr] = r d r d y (7.5.4 19)
Using the fact that ( ~ + r2) = p2 we can write the cos’ as 2 ine
cos
p=v
L
=
L
(L2+r2)i’2
(7.5.420)
and the integral becomes
Fi2
=
Jo Jo
~t (L’
+ r2)
rdrdy
(7.5.421)
F,2
=
(7.5.422) 1: = 21
F,2
I’
~t L ~ r2) ( L2
+
2rdr
A
(7.5.423)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
763
F,,
=I”
L2 , 2 r d r (L’+ r2)
(L’ + r2)2
d(L’ +r2)
(7.5.424)
(7.5.425)
F,, = L2[ (L’ F,, = L2
I‘
’TZ) +
IL2
L2 + r22
= L’[(  1 L’ + r:)
=
] [=&I
(7.5.426)
L’)
+ (L’ + rf)
+ r:)
(L’) (L’
(L’ + r:)
f22
(7.5.427)
Where r;! is the radius of the upper disk.
View factors for more complicated geometries are obtained in a similar fashion (Table 7.5.41). View factors for many configurations are available in the literature.Im
loo For example, see Eckert, E. R. G. (1973). Radiation: Relations and Properties. Handbook of Heat Transfer. W.M. Rosenhow and J. P. Hartnett, eds. New York, NY, McGrawHill. Hamilton, D. C. and W. R. Morgan (1952). Radiant Interchange Configuration Factors, NACA. Howell, J. R. (1982). A Catalog of Radiation Configuration Factors. New York, NY, McGrawHill. Siegel, R . and J. R . Howell (1981). Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, McGrawHill.
764
Table 7.5.41 View Factors
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
VIEW FACTOR
PLANES COMMON MIDPLANE Separation = L Width = W k
Fij = ([(w:
+ w;)~
+4]
In
[(w;w:)2+4]’n)
+
w; =
Wk
(2
4)
I I
SEMIINFINITEPLANES COMMON EDGE Common width = W Interior angle = a PERPENDICULAR SEMII”ITEPLANES COMMON EDGE Width = Wk THREESIDEDPLANAR SEMIINFINITE ENCLOSURE Width = w, SEMIINFINITEPARALLEL CIRCULAR CYLINDERS Axial separation = L+rj+r, r+ = ri / L+ = L / rj, M = l+r3+L* C1 = M2  (r*+ 1)* C2 = M2  (r*  1)2 C 3 = r * / M 1 / M CA=r*/M+l/M
r e ,
1
Fij
=
+(a)[*)*I +($
2
I I2
o f recltprocitv relation and m m a t w rule to mfer n e w factor for concentrcc sb _
Determine the view factor F22 for the outermost of two concentric spheres. Designate the outer sphere with a subscript of 2 and the inner sphere with a subscript of 1. Solution
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
By inspection.
765
F,, = 1.0 F,,= 0
Reciprocity gives F2, = F , Ad = ,
(7.5.428)
2
(7.5.429)
and the summation rule gives
F21+ Fa = 1 F, = 1.0 + A2 A 4 Itr2 F, = 1 . 0  2 = 1 . 0  1 = l.O(Z), A2 4nr:
A
(7.5.430)
Note that to obtain this result by integration is far from trivial.
7.5.5 Radiant heat exchange between blackbodies
For two blackbodies forming an enclosure, there is no reflection and the emissive power is known from the StefanBoltzmannl w to be nib, so a
Q12
= J l AP12
 J2A2F21
(7.5.51)
(7.5.52)
or, using the StefanBoltzmann law and the reciprocity relation
(7.5.5 3)
766
which by symmetry is
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.5 4)
vle 7.5.51
Heat trgpSfer bv n
. . 
b
u
Rather than applying conventional insulation directly to the outside of a furnace, it has been suggested that we use insulating material which is somewhat heat sensitive and build a double wall with an air gap as shown t prevent direct o contact of the hot steel wall and the insulation. Given the data shown, what will be the inside temperature of the insulation? Neglect convection in the air gap.
Steel wall Imulalion
T, = j000.F
I
II
m
Solution
The heat transferred passes between I and I1 primarily by radiation (neglect natural convection),and through I1 by conduction. An energy balance shows
Q I 4 = QII
(7.5.55)
Furthermore (7.5.5 6)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
767
(7.53 7 )
Substituting Equations (7.5.56) and (7.5.57) in Equation (7.5.55)
oAF(T',T;)
=kA
0
(7.5.58)
Everything is known in the above relation except Ti
(0.1713 x 104)
[(1.0)(14604 Tf)[R4] a ] hr ft2 R4
(7.5* 59)
0.1713 x 10' Tf + 0.05 Ti  7 . 8 2 ~ = 0 103
(7.5.5 10)
or, solving by Newton's method,1o1 denoting
f (Ti) = 0.1713 x 10L8: T
f (Ti) = 6.86 x 109 : T
+ 0.05 Ti  7.82 x 103
+ 0.05
(7.5.511) (7.5.512) (7.5.5 1 3)
Newton's method converges very slowly for this problem.
T, E 1458R = 998°F (7.5.5 14)
Note that the air gap does little or no good  the inside temperature of the insulation remains almost the same as that of the steel wall.
~
~
~
~~
For example, see Gerald, C. F. and P. 0. Wheatley (1994). A p p l i e d Numerical Analysis. Reading, MA, AddisonWesley, p. 41.
lol
768
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Examale 7.5.52 Use of view factor tables with blackbody radiation exchange
be black. Surface temperatures are as shown.
Two walls meet at a right angle as shown. The surfaces can be considered to
(a) Calculate the rate of radiant heat transfer from wall A to wall B per unit area of wall A. (b) A third wall is constructed across the gap as shown. What is the net rate of heat transfer to wall B per square foot of B?
So1u tion
Qij =
CT
Ai Fij( T4 T: 1
J
(7.5.5 15 )
(a) The view factor relation from Table 7.5.41 is
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
769
(1 ++(1
FB = A (1 + FB = A Then
AA
+[$]')
2
112
I12
a) ( + [a]')
1
(7.5.516)
2
= 0.25
(7.5.517)
= (5.670 x 10*)
[1"m2K4 (0.25) (1oo04 3W4) [K4] (7.5.518)
(7.5.519)
QAB = ( 1 . 4 0 6 ~ m 104)[%] AA
(b) The transfer to B is the sum of the transfer from A to B and from C to B. The appropriate view factor relation from Figure 7.5.4 1 is now
Fij = Then
w1+
wj  w,
2 wi
(7.5.520)
(7.5.521) (7.5.522)
 = (5.670~ 0 3  (0.25) (30O4 loo04) K4 QBA 1 m4 K] ' AB
QBA  =  1 . 4 0 6 ~ 1 4    A B 0w  O AB m2 AB
[
(7.55 2 3 ) (7.5.524)
(7.5.525)
AB
= (5.670~ 03 1
[1"
m2K4
(0.75) (300'  2 0 4 ) K4
QBC  = 2 . 7 6 ~ 2w  10   QcB A B m2 AB
(7.5.526)
Therefore, the net rate of transfer t B per unit area of B is o
770
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
hae
AB
=AB
Qnam
+Qce
AB
= 1 . 4 0 6 ~ 14w 2 . 7 6 ~ 1 ZW 0y 0
m
= 1.378~ 7 10 m
4w
m2
(7.5.527)
7.5.6
Radiative exchange between gray bodies
We can relax our restrictive assumption of blackbody behavior slightly by considering the case of gray bodies.
A gray surface is one which absorbs a fixed fraction of incident radiation and emits the same fixed fraction that a blackbody emits at the same temperature.
We thus gain a degree of freedom in describing our physical situation but retain the independence of angle and wavelength we had with blackbody problems. This implies that gray bodies are diffuse surfaces  that emission and absorption do not depend upon difection.
By using our definition of emissivity we can therefore write for a gray body
I E, = E C J T1 ~
(7.5.6 1)
The net rate at which radiation leaves a gray surface, Q
difference between the radiosity and irradiation (i.e., outgoing and incoming radiant energy)
(7.5.62)
[
i3,
, is the
but the outgoing energy is made up of reflected energy plus emitted energy, so
(7.5.63)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
771
We can express emissive power for a gray body in terms of that of a blackbody, and since for a gray surface [pi], = 1  [&I, = 1  [ ~ i ] g ,it fOllOWS that
Ji
= (1 
[&,Ig) Gi + [&,Ig[&Ib
(7.5.64)
which gives
(7.5.65)
Substituting in EQuation (7.5.62), the net rate at which radiation leaves a gray surface, i, may be written as (we now drop the subscript g since we are discussing only gray surfaces)
= Ai
Qi
(
Ji
J i [El]
[E&
1 k i I
)
(7.5.66)
rearranging
=
Qi
()
([Eilb
 Ji)
(7.5.67)
This equation is in the form
flow =
potential difference resistance
(7.5.68)
analogous to tbe electrical circuit equation
I=B
The equation has the electrical circuit analog in Figure 7.5.61.
E
(7.5.69)
772
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Figure 7.5.61 Electrical analog of net radiation from a gray surface
The total incident radiation to surface i comes from all the surfaces in the enclosure, including a possible contribution from the surface i itself. We can write this radiation as the sum of all these contributions by using the view factors as
AiGi =
1'1
$ Fji A, J,
Ai~j
(7.5.610)
but using reciprocity
Ai Gi =
$
Fj i
(7.5.611)
so we can divide both sides by Ai, and substitute in our original expression for the net radiation leaving surface i
Qi = A, Ji  $ FijJ,
i=l
(
)
(7.5.612)
Multiplying the fust t r on the right by 1.0 expressed as the summation rule em gives (note the differing subscripts on J)
Combining this relation with our expression for the electrical analog and rearranging the righthand side to a parallel (driving force over resistance) form
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
773
(7.5.6 14)
This permits us to represent the exchange between surface i and the remaining surfaces in the enclosure as tbe network diagram in Figure 7.5.62. This diagram expresses the fact that the sum of the outflows to all surfaces from surface i is the outflow f?om surface i.
Figure 7.5.62 Network analog of radiation exchange with gray surfaces in an enclosure
Two wavbodv exchan pe in en c 1osu re

We wish to calculate from the general relationship the rate of radiative heat transfer between two gray surfaces that form an enclosure
(7.5.615)
This equation yields the following set of simultaneous equations (notice that one term on the righthand side of each equation vanishes because the numerator becomes of the form [Jj  Jj])
774
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.6 16)
The individual equations can be represented, respectively, by the equivalent circuit diagrams
Applying reciprocity in the second equation and multiplying both sides by (1)
(7.5.617)
yields a set of equations which correspond to the circuit diagrams
But, since Q 1 =  0 2 , the two circuits are both represented in the single circuit
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
775
which from the electrical analog for a series circuit is modeled by Current = Potential differens [Resistance]
(7.5.6 18)
e 7.5.62
Heat t r w f e r bv r
w
. .n 
prav bodj
0.4.
A 600 wedgeshaped surface, surface 1, is inserted into a long cylindrical duct, surface 2, of radius 15 m m as shown. The emissivity of the surface of the wedge is 0.73. The emissivity of the inside surface of the cylindrical section is
A fluid is run through the wedge crosssection in such a fashion that surface (1) temperature is maintained at 900 K. The cylindrical surface (2) is maintained at 750 K.
b) Calculate the heat transfer rate from the cylindrical surface to the surface of the wedge in W/mm2 based o n t h e cylindrical surface.
a) Without using tables, determine F21.
Solution
a) By inspection
776 F,, = 1.0
By reciprocity
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.5.619)
(7.5.620)
F2, = 0.382
b) This is a typical twobody enclosure. Therefore
(7.5.621)
(7.5.622)
Where
o (Ti4  T2') 1 1E2
Q =
m+mT2+m
Q
El
L E l
(7.5.623)
Adjusting to the basis specified
4 2 1
O ( T ~ T~') ~
T = &l = A2( e1)
A1
$=
I($#)
I
L
( 0 '  7504)K4 90 5.67 x 10* m2 K4
(0.73) (2) (15) mm (L) mm
+++
A,
(7.5.624)
(n)(30) mm (L) m m ( 1  0.73)
(7.5.625)
.
Q
= 3790W
m2
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
777
(7.5.626)
7.6 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
We previously considered the problem of resistances in series during our consideration of conductive heat transfer. Now consider adding convective resistances to the path, such as for the case of the insulated pipe in Figure 7.61.
Figure 7.61 Insulated pipe
Let the heat transfer coefficient for the fluid inside the pipe (inside coefficient) be denoted as hi, and the coefficient for the fluid outside of the insulation (outside coefficient) as ho, We would like to develop an equation of the same form as that which we had for the singlephase coefficients [Equation (7.3.26) and Equation (7.3.27)], where Q is equal to an overall conductance (which we will call the overall heut transfer coeficient) times an appropriate area times the overall temperature drop. In cases where the area changes as we go in the direction of heat transfer (such as in cylindrical or spherical geometries with radial heat transfer) we must choose an area on which to base the coefficient. We normally base the overall coefficient on either the inside heat transfer area or the outside heat transfer area for example, for an uninsulated pipe with
778
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
fluids on the inside and outside, we would normally use either the inside area of t e pipe or the outside area of the pipe. h
It is important to recognize that every overall heat transfer coefficient has associated with it a particular area. These two quantities (the overall heat transfer coefficient and its associated area) must be used together.
At steady state, the heat flow in the radial direction through the pipe wall is expressed by each of the following equations
Qf= hiAi (TI  T2) =  h,Ai (AT) =  hiA, (TZ  TI)
(7.61)
(7.63) (7.64) We could use any one of the above equations to calculate the heat flow, but tbe various temperature drops are usually not available. Only the overall temperature drop is ordinarily at our disposal.
To develop an equation in terms of overall temperature drop, we use exactly the same development as we did for a series of purely conductive resistances; that is, to determine the overall resistance we add all the individual temperature drops to get the overall temperature drop, and then substitute for the individual temperature drops using the heat flux equation
Writing Equation (7.61) to Equation (7.64) in terms of the appropriate t m e a u edifferences: eprtr (7.65) (7.66) (7.67)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
779
(7.68) Adding Equation (7.65) through Equation (7.68) gives (7.69)
h where CR represents t e sum of the thermal resistances.
First, let us develop the average coefficient associated with the inside area. If we multiply Equation (7.69) by the ratio of the inside area of the pipe to itself, Ai/Ai (multiplying by 1.0)
The term in brackets in Equation (7.610) is called the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inside area, Ui, and
(7.611) In a similar fashion we c n develop the overall coefficient associated with a the outside area. If we multiply Equation (7.69) by the ratio of outside area of the insulation to itself,
780
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The term in the brackets is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area, Uo,and
(7.613)
Typical values of U are shown in Figures 7.6.2a and b. They are only illustrative values and are not meant fop calculation purposes other than for very crude approximation. Heat transfer surfaces can increase in thermal resistance because of chemical transformations of the surface itself, such as rusting. Also, many fluids form deposits on heat transfer surfaces (e.g., by pyrolysis, precipitation, etc.) creating an additional thermal resistance. This resistance can become large enough that the exchanger must be periodically cleaned. Cleaning of the surface may be done chemically, or, for deposits on the inner wall of tubes, by removing the exchanger head and passing through a rod with a scraper or brush attached which mechanically abrades the deposits. Some exchangers are designed to be self cleaning through incorporation of balls or other configurations that are trapped in baskets at the end of the tubes and may be forced through the tubes by reversing flow. Other exchangers, such as spiral exchangers, offer somewhat easier disassembly for cleaning. Obviously, when designing an exchanger, to facilitate cleaning one must consider where the deposits will form. It is customary to assign a heat transfer coefficient to account for the resistance of deposits that progressively foul surfaces. This coefficient is called the fouling coefficient, hf. (Another quantity, the fouling factor = lOOO/hf, is sometimes used.) The area associated with the fouling coefficient is taken as the area of the surface on which the material is deposited. The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the insulation for an insulated pipe with fouling on the inside surface of the pipe is
I I
I
1
11
1
(7.614)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
SHELL SIDUTUBE SIDE SUBSTANCES
WATER OR BRINE/COMPRESSEDAIR WATER OR BRINE/AIR COMPRESSED AIRWATER OR BRINE AIWATER OR BRINE WATEFVCONDENSING STEAM ORGANIC SOLVENTWRGANIC SOLVENTS
781
OR
0
STEAMMATER STEAM/FEED WATER WATERWATER DEMINERALIZEDWATERMATER 1 10 100 loo0 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
Figure 7.6la Overall heat transfer coefficients, Btu/(h ft2 OF): tubular exchangerslo2
STEAM/WATER:STAINLESSSTEEL STEAW0RGANICS:STAINLESSSTEEL STEAWHEAW 0IL:STAINLESS STEEL BR1NEMlATER:STAINLESSSTEEL BRINV0RGANICS:STAINLESS STEEL BRINEMEAW0IL:STAINLESS STEEL STEAWATER:GLASSLINED CARBON STEEL STEAW0RGANICS:GLASS LINED CARBON STEEL STEAMRlEAW 0IL:GUSS LINED CARBONSTEEL BR1NWATER:GLASS LINED CARBON STEEL BRINVORGANICSGLASSLINED CARBONSTEEL BRINUHEAW 0IL:GLASS LINED CARBON STEEL
10
100
1tHx)
Figure 7.61b Overall heat transfer coefficients, Btu/(h ft2 O F ) : jacketed vessels103
Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1044. lo3 Perry, R. H. and D.W. Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1046.
782
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
where hf is the fouling coefficient. Fouling coefficients vary tremendously both in magnitude and time dependence, depending primarily on the particular fluids being used; typical values might be in the range 1001OOO Btu / (hr ft2 Sometimes the fluid used in heat exchange is not subject to change  for example, if it is one of the process streams. If, however, the fluid functions only as a heat exchange agent, one can select from a wide range of heat transfer fluids marketed commercially. U e of such fluids sometimes permits operation in more s desirable temperature/pressure ranges. Many of the fluids do, however, present significant health or environmental hazards. The procedure used above to develop overall heat transfer coefficients can be applied to a general problem with any number of conductive and convective resistances in series. The Same form of result is obtained; that is, the overall heat transfer coefficient is the reciprocal of the sum of thermal resistances, which can be written for conduction resistances as sum of conductionresistances = and for convection resistances as
(7.615)
sum of convectionresistances =
irl
5 1
hJi
(7.616)
where Ax is the appropriate thickness coordinate, Aj is the area upon which Uj is based, and Amean is the appropriate mean area for the conduction path, e.g., logarithmic for cylindrical geometry. In equation form, for rn conductive and n convective resistances:
U, =
(7.617)
This equation is for resistances in series, which is the most common case.
lo4 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1043.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
783
The above general approach can also easily be applied for parallel or seriesparallel resistances.
ExamFle 7.61 ControllinP resistance for heat transfer spherrcal container 0f lcaurd oxteststances rn serres

. .
The stirred, insulated [k = 0.002 W/(m K ] spherical copper container of ) liquid oxygen at 87 K shown in the sketch is in ambient air at 298 K. The external heat transfer coefficient may be taken to be 18 W/(m2 K). What is the leakage of heat into the container neglecting conduction of heat through any fittings passing through the insulation?
Solution
Since the problem is symmetrical, it is a onedimensional series heat transfer problem in spherical coordinates (the heat travels in the radial direction only). For very highly insulated systems, the assumption of neglect of heat conducted through fittings that pierce the insulating layer should be checked carefully. The path involves four resistances: the convective resistance in the internal fluid (liquid oxygen) the conductive resistance of the copper wall the conductive resistance of the insulation the convective resistance in the outer fluid (ambient air) The internal forced convection heat transfer coefficient for the liquid oxygen should be much larger that the external free convection heat transfer coefficient for the gas, air; hence, the internal convective resistance should be much less than the external convectiveresistance and we shall neglect it.
784
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
The resistance terms for conduction through the vessel wall and the insulation are of the form
(7.618)
The sketch, even though not to scale, shows the thickness of the insulation to be the same magnitude as the thickness of the vessel wall, if not larger. The areas are of the same order of magnitude. The thermal conductivity of copper is of the order of 400 W/(m K)Io5 at its maximum over the temperature range involved. Thus, the ratio of resistances is of the order of resistanceof insulation = resistance of vessel wall
= 200,000
[ kl i m ubt on
[hlinsulatim
[?im1
vcssclwall
(7.619)
so we will also neglect the thermal resistance of the vessel wall compared to that of the insulation.
(7.621)
lo5 Perry, R. H. and D.W.Green, Eds. (1984). Chemical EngineerS Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 3261.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
785
(7.622)
(7.623)
Qr
=
(298  87) K
f
(7.624) 1
(298  87) K
Qr
= (18.9) + (0.0361)
(7.625)
(7.626)
Qr = 11.12w
Notice that the first term in the denominator, the conduction resistance of the insulation, is much larger than the free convection resistance at the outside of the sphere. This is what we would expect, because insulation by its very nature is designed to be the controlling resistance in a system
C o n t r o l l i ~r e s i s m c e in reolacement of section on c o l u r n
A pilot plant distillation column is made of cylindrical sections of 10 in OD (outside diameter) glass 3/8 in. thick. It is proposed to replace one section of the column with an aluminum section with 0.37in. wall thickness to facilitate machining to adapt instruments to the column. The question is to what extent the aluminum will increase heat loss from the column, thus condensing more liquid and generating additional internal reflux which could upset column operation. Insulating the aluminum section is an alternative, but will make
786
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
changing the instrument taps more difficult as well as generally delaying the project and adding labor and some capital cost.
OF)
conductivities of the glass and the aluminurn are 7.5 Btu/@ ft2 [OF/in.J) and loo0 Btu/@ ft2 [OFh.]), respectively. Discuss the size of the change that results.
So1u t ion
The inside beat transfer coefficient is estimated to be about loo0 Btu/(hr ft2 and the outside coefficient to be about 1 Btu/(hr ft2 OF). Thermal
The equivalent resistance diagram is
that
Since the wall thickness is small compared to the radius, we will assume
(7.627)
A, = A, = A,
Calculating the relative convection resistances (without the area, which is the same for each resistance under the above assumption) (7.628)
1
hi
=1="F 0.001 hr ft2
loo0
~
Btu
(7.629)
The relative conduction resistance for the glass wall is
(7.630)
and the relative conduction resistance for the aluminurn wall is
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
787
I
I3tu
to the percent change in relative ~sistance
Therefore, the percent change in heat transfer will be inversely proportional
c (relative resistances) c
gl
dunurn
(relative resistances
(relative resistances
1
)I
('00)

[
(0.001 + 0.05 + 1)  (0.001 + 0.0037 + 1 (0.001 + 0.05 + 1)
= 5%
(increasein heat transfer rate)
(7.632)
Whether this is significant or not depends upon the sensitivity of the particular separation being conducted in the column. For a pilot plant column, the convenience of the aluminum section probably would override the moderate upset in column operation, particularly since the aluminum section could always be insulated after the fact if a problem arose. The external convection resistance is the dominant resistance in the transfer of heat, but not overwhelmingly controlling.
Overall heat t r w f e r coefficient with foA multipass heat exchanger has two passes on the tube side and four passes on the shell side. The tubes are 1in OD 16 BWG. Water on the shell side is used to cool oil on the tube side. Over time a fouling layer of scale has built up on the outside of the tubes from minerals in the cooling water.
Determine the overall heat transfer coefficientbased on the outside tube area and neglecting the thermal resistance of the tube wall. Heat transfer coefficients have been estimated as follows:
788
r
Btu/ hr ft2 O F
170
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
water
I
1
Solution
Heat exchanger tubes, like pipe, come in standard sizes. The wall thickness is usually specified in BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge). For 1in 16 BWG tubes
 A,
Ai
ft2 o.261 running ft = 1.15 ft2 0*2278running ft
(7.633)
The scale is on the water side of the tubes (outside) and so is associated with the outside area (this is not necessary, but is the logical area to employ). We assume that the inside surface, since it is in contact with oil, remains unfouled. The overall heat transfer coefficient is then (7.634)
U = ,
1
1
(7.635)
U = 31.2hr ft2
(7.636)
7 7 Heat Exchangers .
Many, but by no means all, of the applications of heat transfer occur in exchanging heat between process streams via items equipment known (given the penchant of engineers for high literary creativity) as heat exchangers. These can be of many different configurations, the most common of which, however, is the shellandtubeexchanger.
Chapter 7: Heat Trunsfer Models
789
The shellandtube exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes with their axes parallel  much in the manner of soda straws in a carton  but supported at various points by baffles at right angles to the tube axes, which serve to keep the tubes fured in space in a particular configuration, for example, with the axes spaced on equilateral triangles, or squares, etc. Fluid flows through groups of the tubes in parallel.
This tube bundle is encased in a shell, which confines the fluid which flows over the outside of the tubes in the tube bundle. The fluid which flows within the tubes (the tubeside fluid) may make a single pass through the exchanger or multiple passes, where the tubes are divided into groups via baffling at the ends of the exchangers and flow is reversed at the end of the exchanger and sent back and forth through different groups of tubes. Similarly, the fluid flowing external to the tubes (the shellside fluid) m a y also make one or more passes across the tube bundle, depending upon the configuration of the baffles.
There are many practical considerations to heat exchanger design  thermal expansion and contraction stresses, removal of scale or other material that builds up on surfaces, etc. These details are usually best addressed by the vendor of the equipment. For the average engineer, it is necessary to be able to treat two generic problems How to determine the area of an exchanger to be purchased for a particular heat exchange requirement  this is often referred to as the design problem
How to adapt an existing exchanger (that is, knowing the area) to operation with either altered flows or change in operating fluids  this is often referred to as the retrofit problem
These are the two problems we will emphasize here. Before we begin, however, first we must address driving forces which vary through the heat exchange process.
771 ..
Q
Average overall temperature difference
So far we have applied the equation
= UA(AT)
(7.7.11)
790
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
for constant U and (AT)over area In many cases of interest, however, AT varies as one moves about in tbe beat transfer area. It is convenient to retain tbis simple form of equation by defining appropriate average temperatures which pennit the heat transfer to be written as
(7.7.12)
profile changes, and therefore tbe driving force for heat transfer changes  for example, the case of two fluids at different temperatures in steady
The driving force for momentum transfer during fully developed flow of incompressible fluids in a uniform diameter pipe remains constant as we go down the pipe, because the velocity profile does not change. But in heat transfer, since the fluids involved change in internal energy, the temperature
concurrent flow, one within a tube and the other on the outside of the Same tube, with neither changing phase.
As sensible heat is transferred from one fluid to the other, each will change in temperature as a result of first law considerations
Q
=
w~C,AT~
(7.7.13)
and therefore the overall temperature difference, (AT)overall, between the two fluids in turn will vary. (As a secondorder effect this also affects the properties of the fluid and thence the heat transfer coefficient, but we are neglecting these effects here.) Consider the case where we use an overall heat transfer coefficient to describe heat transfer between a fluid, I, and another fluid, 11. We would like to be able to describe the heat transfer by an equation of the form
(7.7.14)
where Q is the total rate of heat transfer; U is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on a particular area; A is the prescribed area; and (AT)average is a driving force calculated in a prescribed manner.
lo6 Note that this implies that Q is positive for a positive temperature difference and vice versa. When applied to a thermal balance equation, this is the correct sign if the colder fluid is the system, but the negative of the proper quantity if Q is to be applied to the hotter fluid.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
791
We restrict ourselves to cases where U may be assumed to be constant (frequently an excellent assumption) to avoid having to define both an average AT and an average U. Otherwise we would be confronted with an emburras du choix in which we could choose any definition for one of the averages and use the other to compensate accordingly. This problem is very similar to the one of o defining an appropriate mean area t use with an overall AT in multilayer heat conduction problems. We define this average overall temperature difference by requiring that it satisfy Equation (7.7.14), which implies the definition
(7.7.15)
In the development we assume
The fluids flow at constant rate The fluids each have constant heat capacity U remains constant There is no phase change of either fluid (however, the case where a fluid absorbs or supplies heat only by phase change, i.e., its temperature remains constant, will also fit our ultimate definition) There is no heat exchange other than between the fluids  i.e., no heat losses from the exchanger to the surroundings There is no thermal energy source or sink in the system, or chemical reaction We would now like to develop, far the two specific cases of strictly concurrent or strictly countercurrent flow (which, of course, includes such flows internal and external to pipes and tubes), an average overall temperature difference that can be used when (AT) changes rather than being constant as we go from point to point in the heat transfer area. Our approach is to calculate the sum of the amounts of heat transferred across elemental areas, divide by UA, and write what remains in terms of temperature  this remnant, by definition, must be the required average AT. We begin by writing in terms of the sum of amounts of heat transferred across elemental areas, of which dA is typical. The relative direction of flow of the fluids is unimportant to the fmal solution as we will develop it.
792
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
(7.7.1 6)
but
6~ = U(AT)(AA)
and s o
Q = A lim0 A4
(7.7.17)
C
U (AT) (AA)
(7.7.18)
but this is Q = IAU(AT)dA
(7.7.1 9)
We now must evaluate the integral, but we face the problem of how AT varies with A (U is assumed constant and so causes no difficulty). We attack this problem by changing the independent variable in the integral. We know that
1. We here can write as an exact differential (the difference between heat and work is an exact differential, and there is no work):
d = UATdA Q
dA  = 
dQ
1 UAT
(7.7.110) (7.7.111)
This equation relates Q and A.
2. We also can relate
and AT by observing that
(7.7.1  12) (7.7.1 13)
= w~C,,~~T~
dQ = w,E,,dTI1
ad n
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
(7.7.1  14)
793
or, substituting,
d o WI e p 1
1
(7.7.1  15 )
1
(7.7.116)
wu C U P
which relates Q and AT. We change the independent variable by writing
(7.7.1  17) (7.7.118)
(7.7.1  19)
(7.7.120)
where AT1 and AT2 are the temperature differences at the ends of the tube. We have assumed heat capacity to be independent of T, and we have treated the heat capacity/flowrate products as constants since they do not change with AT as we go along the tube. To reduce the amount of writing required, we define
c = wcp
(7.7.121)
794
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
We now substitute for Q in Equation (7.7.15) using Equation (7.7.120), and solve for (AT& to obtain
=
AT2  AT, (7.7.122)
This is not yet what we want because we have much on the righthand side that is not temperature difference. Accordingly, we look for a way to eliminate those other things in terms of temperature difference. We observe that no single equation will do this, but a combination of Equations (7.7.110) and (7.7.115) to eliminate dQ will yield d(AT) = U(AT)dA(L+!) Cl Cll o r (7.7.123)
(7.7.124) (where we merely indicate the area integration rather than writing it explicitly in radius and length). This yields
I: [
In

=UA
+(t k)
(7.7.125)
and now we can substitute in Equation (7.7.122)to obtain AT2  AT1 (7.7.126)
In other words, for heat exchange with constant U in tubes with fully developed flow of fluids with constant properties, Equation (7.7.14) is correct if used with the logcarithmicmean temperature difference as the average temperature.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
795
If AT1 = AT2, the logarithmic mean becomes indeterminate. A simple application of I'Hopital's rule rescues the situation, however:
"(
(7.7.127)
(AT2/AT, 1) AT,
(7.7.128) (7.7.129)
but since AT1 = AT2, we can write for this case:
[*T)awap = AT
(7.7.130)
so for this case the appropriate form of Equation (7.7.12) is
Q = U A (Anlog
lIx?m
(7.7.131)
In the above development we assumed the heat transfer coefficient to be constant. If the heat transfer coefficient is not constant, there is an additional degree of freedom in the problem in that we can arbitrarily define (AT),,g and define the average coefficient accordingly. In the following section we consider the design procedure for using average heat transfer coefficients based on a variety of driving forces. Frequently the arithmetic mean is used in place of the logarithmic mean with sufficient accuracy. A discussion of the suitability of this approximation w s included in Chapter 1 as an example. a
796
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.7.2 Countercurrent vs. concurrent operation
One question that always faces the designer of an apparatus to exchange either energy or mass between two streams is whether to use concurrent (streams run in the same direction) or countercurrent (streams run in opposite directions) operation. Crossflow and other varieties of operation are also possible; however, at the moment we wish merely to contrast concurrent and countercurrent flow.
in a countercurrent double pipe heat exchanger). By sensible heat we mean that heat absorption results in a change in temperature of the stream (therefore, in principle the change can be sensed, as when one holds a hand in water
Consider the exchange of sensible heat between two streams (for example,
issuing from a newly opened hot water tap as the water warms), as opposed to latent heat, which produces a change in phase at constant temperature (therefore, there is no change in temperature to be sensed, as when one holds a melting piece of ice in one’s hand). Designate the two streams with subscripts h for hot, c for cold. Further designate inlet conditions of a stream by i and outlet conditions by 0.Let designate the amount of thermal energy transferred from the hot to the cold stream. If the cold stream is taken as the system, thermal energy will flow into will be positive; the system and, therefore, by our sign convention conversely, for the hot stream as the system, thermal energy will flow out of the system and, therefore, by our sign convention will be negative.
At steady state and in the absence of potential or kinetic energy changes or shaft work, the macroscopic energy balance (first law of thermodynamics) reduces to, for the hot stfeam as a system
(7.7.2 1)
and for the cold stream as a system
A,
 H, =
AH, =
(W
Cp)JTw T,) =
Q,
(7.7.22)
It follows that
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
797
(7.7.23) Only differences in enthalpy are significant in the above treatment, not the absolute value of enthalpies. This means that we can plot the temperature histories of the two streams on a TH diagram without worrying about where we are along the Haxis, so long as the appropriate difference in enthalpy is preserved. We cannot, however, move along the Taxis with impunity, and, further, if we wish the plot to represent the relationship of the two streams in the exchanger, the appropriate points must line up vertically  for example, the inlet and outlet temperatures. Such a plot is shown in Figure 7.7.21 for two streams in countercurrent flow, each of which has heat capacity independent of temperature, which implies from the definition
w c * = dT  dH
that the histories are straight lines.
(7.7.24)
I
Thi
I
Hc Hh H or distance along exchanger

Figure 7.7.21 TH diagram for countercurrent flow of two streams
We will align enthalpies according to their occurrence in space; that is, the enthalpy of the hot stream, Hh, at any point in the exchanger is to be plotted opposite the enthalpy of the cold stream, H,, at that same point in the exchanger. If we do this, then the difference on the temperature scale, Th  T,, will represent the driving force for heat transfer at that point in the exchanger.
798
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Although we shall continue to label the abscissa as H, because differences in enthalpy are directly related to the heat transfer, we need to remember that the abscissa really represents a space coordinate showing where we are in the exchanger, and that, therefore, in concurrent flow the scale for H will be reversed in direction for one of the fluids because as the space coordinate changes, both of the fluids are increasing in enthalpy (although the same interval on the scale will continue to represent the same difference in enthalpy for the hot and the cold fluid). Notice that the absolute value of the distance a must be the same for both streams, because the change in enthalpy is the same for both except for sign. Figure 7.7.21 is for countercurrent flow, since the inlet for the hot stream is matched with the outlet for the cold stream and vice versa. The match of the streams at constant H corresponds to the match in space in the actual exchanger. Concurrent operation is illustrated in Figure 7.7.22. Note that the direction of the arrows on the HT curves is now the same. The absolute value of the distance a still must be the same for both streams, Again, the match of the streams at constant H corresponds to the match in space in the actual exchanger. Now,however, notice that the enthalpy scale for the cold fluid increases from right to left, while that for the hot fluid increases from left to right.
T
hot stream
I*Hc
H or distance along exchanger
hl

'7
Figure 7.7.22 TH diagram for concurrent flow of two streams
There is, however, a restriction on this plot imposed by the second law of thermodynamics, which requires that the hot stream to be always warmer than the cold stream in order for heat to f o from hot to cold. This presented no lw difficulty in the previous cases, because the hot stream was everywhere wanner than the cold stream. Consider, however, the slightly different case shown in Figure 7.7.23.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
799
"c
Hh
H or distance along exchanger

Figure 7.7.23 TH diagram for countercurrent flow of two streams
Here we are heating a cold stream t an outlet temperature warmer than that o of the cold stream in the previous illusbation  the cold stream exit temperature is now above the hot stream exit temperature. As shown in Figure 7.7.23, we can still accomplish this with countercurrent operation without violating the second law of thermodynamics.
concurrent operation, as shown in Figure 7.7.24.
Now, however, let us consider attempting to accomplish the same task with
I
Hh
L a  
",
H o distance along exchanger r

I
Figure 7.7.24 TH diagram for concurrent flow of two streams
We have now tried to accomplish an impossibility  that portion of the cold stream and that portion of the hot stream that extend to the left beyond the point of intersection of the two streams cannot exist, because as soon as the cold stream and the hot stream reach the same temperature (pinch temperature),
800
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
transfer of heat ceases. There is enough energy in the hot stream to heat the cold stream (first law), but the energy is at so low a temperature that the transfer cannot be accomplished. In fact, if we tried to operate in this manner, it would require a heat exchanger of infinite area simply to get the streams to the same temperature. Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. It can be seen that the maximum driving force obtainable is larger for concurrent flow, but this driving force quickly dissipates. The driving force for countercurrent flow, although smaller initially, decreases less rapidly. Also notice that the maximum temperature to which the cool stream can be heated is larger for countercurrent than concurrent flow. Most heat exchangers are designed to operate in countercurrent flow.
Examble 7.7.21 Concurrent vs. countercurrent flow in a concentric tube exchanger
We have two process liquid streams in our plant, one of which, stream A, is to be heated and the other of which, stream B, is to be cooled. No phase change is involved. Properties of the streams are listed in the following table. The minimum temperature of approach is to be 15OF (in order to keep the required area, and thus the capital cost, to a reasonable magnitude) and the streams are not to be split.
The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the inner pipe may be taken to be constant at 100 Btu / (hr ft2 O F ) Investigate using a doublepipe heat exchanger in both concurrent and countercurrent flow.
Solution
Calculating the slopes on an TH diagram
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.7.25)
For the cold fluid
(0.7) Btu lbmass OF
O F = 8 . w 10~Btu
(7.7.26)
and for the hot fluid
1
(0.9) Btu lbmass OF
= 1 . 1 1 10~~ Btu
OF
(7.7.27)
CASE A: COUNTERCURRENT
A countercurrent exchanger w I therefore have the p x h at the cold end, i.e., using a 15OF minimum tekperature of approach That, out = 75OF.
Calculating the heat duty from the known temperatures of the hot fluid
=
 13,500Btu
mm
(7.7.28)
802
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Using the energy balance on the cold fluid
Tcdd,out
= 72°F
(7.7.29)
So we have
countercurrent flow
T
v
cold stream
H or distance along exchanger
Using the log mean for the average temperature difference
 (75 (%)OF  (90  72)’F

= 16.5”F
(7.7.210)
(7.7.211)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
803
A, = 491ft2
(7.7.212)
CASE B: CONCURRENT
In order t maintain a 15 degree minimum approach temperature o
(7.7.213) (7.7.214)
Tbt,oul = Tmld,oat + 15
Substituting
(1123) (Tcold,out60) 0.(,,+ = 924T,,
Tcold,out = 67 ThoLOu,67+ 15 = 82 =
1590)
(7.7.215) (7.7.216)
804
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
concurrent flow
1
t
15
I
which means that we can transfer only
[()Ie,, = 1123(6760)
= 7 8 6 min 0m
(7.7.217)
CASE C: ALTERED TEMPERATURE OF APPROACH; CONCURRENT
Suppose we relax the 15 degree minimum approach temperature requirement to (75  72) = 3 degrees, which would permit us to transfer the same amount of energy as the countercurrent exchanger with a 15 degree approach temperature.
T
75 72
=I,,
I
Q = UoAo(AnIog,,
man
>
concurrent flow
hot stream
0 0
cold stream
'
I
H or distance along exchanger
(75  72) (90  60)
In
= 11.7 "F
[;;: z
1
(7.7.218)
(7.7.219)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
805
(13,500)
[%](60)[$]
= ('00)
[*]
(Ao) [ff'] ( 1 1 4 %
A, = 692ft'
(7.7.220)
CASE D: CORRESPONDING TEMPERATURE OF APPROACH; COUNTERCURRENT
A countercurrent exchanger with a 3 degree approach temperature would transfer, calculating the heat duty from the known temperatures of the hot fluid
lbmass OF
(639F9OT) (7.7.221)
Using the energy balance on the cold fluid
Tcold,ou1
= 82°F
(7.7.222)
806
countercwrerrt flaw
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
I
Hordistanceabng exchanger

(63  60)'F  (90  82)'F
(7.7.223)
= 5.1T
In 190  82)'F]
This would require an area of
(7.7.224)
[
63  @)OF
(24,360)
[E] [e] [*] (60) = (100) (A,) [ft'] (5.1)v
(7.7.225)
A, = 2866ft'
All the above have assumed unconstrained supplies of streams A and B.
7.7.3 NTU method for design of heat exchangers
In the examples in the previous section, we used streams for which the energy available (enthalpy change of hot stream) from the hot stream exactly f equaled the energy required to heat the cold stream (enthalpy change o cold
SbtZiIn).
Consider now a particular example where we assume that we need to remove thermal energy from a hot stream with a high temperature, Thi (inlet), by transferring the energy to a cold stream with a low temperature, Tcj (inlet). The first law of thermodynamics says that energy removed from the hot stream must
Chapter 7: Heat TransferModels
807
be equal to that absorbed by the cold stream. The second law of thermodynamics requires that to transfer the energy from hot to cold, the hot stream must be at a higher temperature than the cold.
A typical situation is shown in Figures 7.7.31 and 7.7.32, for which the energy to t k the hot stream from TG to Th0 and the energy required to take the ae cold stream from Tci to Tc, do not necessarily coincide. The slope of the individual curves depends on the heat capacity of the particular stream (we consider for the moment transfer of only sensible heat, not latent heat).
Note the differing direction in which the enthalpy (abscissa) scale for the cold stream increases on the two figures, which indicate countercurrent and concurrent flow, respectively. We now consider the transfer of sensible heat from the hot stream to the cold by putting the streams in either concurrent or countercurrent flow in a double pipe exchanger (either fluid may be considered to flow in the inner pipe, the other in the annular space).
Tci
%
I’
I
“hi
hl
Hcl
H
Figure 7.7.31 TH diagram for two streams between which sensible heat is to be exchanged in countercurrent flow
Using the fact that only differences in enthalpy are important, not absolute values of enthalpy, we observe that we can slide either curve horizontally without affecting the first law balance, which involves only differences in enthalpy. (Moving the m e vertically, on the other hand, would represent a change in the temperatures of the stream.) The vertical distance between the two curves at any one point on the abscissa will then indicate the temperature differenceof the streams (driving force for heat transfer) at that point in the exchanger.
808
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
I
I
H
bHh
Hhi
Ib
Figure 7.7.32 TH diagram for two streams between which sensible heat is to be exchanged in concurrent flow
At any point where the curves intersect, the temperatures of the two streams become identical and the driving force for heat transfer becomes zero. Furthermore, to reach the point where the curves intersect (this point is called a pinch), we would need infinite area in our exchanger, so we obviously cannot go beyond the pinch.
other. Figure 7.7.33 and Figure 7.7.34 show the pinch situation for concurrent flow and countercurrent flow, respectively. Note that the horizontal distance a represents the enthalpy change for either stream (positive for the cold and negative for the hot), and, therefore, the heat transfer accomplished by the exchanger. The vertical distance, b, between the curves generally varies through the exchanger. The inlet driving force available for the concurrent case is larger than that at any point in the countercurrentexchanger.
For concurrent flow, the inlets of both streams are paired in space; for countercurrent flow the inlet of one stream is paired with the outlet of the
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
809
T
Tm
t
I b
f
Figure 7.7.33 Pinch with concurrent operation
I
Figure 7.7.34 Pinch with countercurrent operation
Notice two things about these latter two figures:
1) The pinch conditions shown represent the maximum heat transfer (infinite area) in each case.
2) The maximum heat transfer attainable is larger for the countercurrent case than for the concurrent case. In the countercurrent case, the outlet temperature of the hot stream
810
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
becomes the inlet temperature of the cold stream and vice Versa.
The conclusions of this ad hoc example may be extended to other cases. In particular, we will assume that countercurrent operation will always give a maximum heat transfer larger than concurrent. Since the flow rate and heat capacity of each stream are each assumed to be constant here, and their product (which represents the thermal capacity of the stream  that is, the amount of energy that the stream can absorb per degree of t m e a u e change) occurs repeatedly, we adopt the shorthand notation as we did eprtr in Section 7.3.2
(7.7.31)
We sort the possible cases for sensible heat exchange between two streams with constant flow rate and heat capacity by observing that for both the hot and the cold stream
A  @ = (wCp)(TT,) A  A , = C(TT,)
(7.7.32)
so we can classify pairs of TH curves by the reciprocal of their slopes as follows
l) 2, 3)
cb
c, = c,
c b
> cc < cc
(7.7.33) (7.7.34) (7.7.35)
The ad hoc example above was
(7.7.36) (7.7.37) (7.7.38) (7.7.39)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
therefore of case 2.
811
By extending the reasoning for the ad hoc case, we can w i e the maximum rt rate of heat transfer (which will be for countercurrent flow) as
(7.7.310) We then can define an effectiveness, e, as the ratio of the actual heat transfer rate to the maximum possible
& =
Q ,
Q
(7.7.311)
so
(7.7.312) If we define a quantity designated as NTU, the number of transfer units for heat transfer, as
1
(7.7.313) we can then develop functional relationships of the form
f
[
E , N T U , r
=o
(7.7.3 14)
for particular heat exchanger configurations. We define (7.7.315) Tables 7.7.31a and b give such relationships for selected configurations. More extensive tabulations are a~ailab1e.l~~
lo7 Kays, W. and A. L. London (1984). Compact Heat Exchangers. New York, NY, M. McGrawHill.
812
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Table 7.7.3la EffectivenesslNTU relationships
Table 7.7.31 b NTWeffectiveness relationships
Double pipe Countercurrent flow
I
~
I
Shell and tube One shell pass 2n tube passes
Given such a relationship among E, NTU, and the ratio of thermal capacities of the streams involved, one can readily find the heat transfer rate for the case where inlet temperatures of the streams are known, f o rates and heat capacities lw are known, and the area of the exchanger is known (one calculates U from the flow rate and type of exchanger). This is sometimes the situation when one is adapting an existing exchanger (therefore, the area is known) to use with
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
813
different fluids andor different entering temperatures (the retrofit problem). Such a situation can arise f o incorporating used equipment in a process rm r design, o fiom modifying a process to run with altered flow rates andor fluids. The NTU approach can also be adapted to the design problem; that of finding the area of exchanger required given, for example, the flow rate, inlet temperature and outlet temperature of one stream; and the inlet temperature and flow of the other stream. le 7.7.31 D e t e r w o n o f eflectiveness f o r
= Ccold.
. .
3
Consider a concurrent flow heat exchanger for which
It follows that
E =
(Tm  Tci)
p h i
 T,)
(7.7.3 16)
and, from energy balances on the hot and cold fluidslog
(7.7.317) (7.7.3 18)
which permits us to calculate
We omit the caret overscore on the enthalpy in order to avoid the notational awkwardness of a douhle overscore. Enthalpy per unit mass is understood.
814
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.7.319)
But
(7.7.320) (7.7.321) (7.7.322)
(7.7.323) (7.7.324) (7.7.325)
so
(7.7.326) (1.7.327)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
815
But dQ, = UATdA Substituting
(7.7.329) (7.7.328)
and integrating
(7.7.330) (7.7.331) (7.7.332) (7.7* 333)
Using the defmition of NTU
(7.7.334)
We can rewrite the lefthand side in terms of tbe effectiveness by adding and subtracting Tb and Tci in the numerator of the lefthand side
(7.7.335)
(Tbo  Tbi) + (Thi  T")+ (Td  Tw)
Thi
 Td
Thi
(7.7.336) (7.7.337)
Thi
 Td
+
+
('lt~~bi)
(TdTco)
 Td
816
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Using the definition of E
(7.7.338) (7.7.339)
(7.7.340)
(7.7.341)
Where
(7.7.342)
Then
()
E =
= 1E[l+C,]
(7.7.343)
Substituting in Equation (7.7.334) and solving for E
1 exp(NTU[C,+
l]}
(7.7.344)
(W
[cr+ 11
The same result is obtained starting with ( W c p ) m i n =
cp),,.
In a similar manner one can develop expressions for other types of heat exchangers.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models flxample 7.7.32 Calculation o f area using NTU a nd E f o r a qoncurrent flow exchanPe1
81 7
Four hundred pounds per minute of an oil is to be cooled from 2500F to 210°F in a concurrent doublepipe heat exchanger using 300 lbmass/min. of water that is available at 6PF. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the exchanger has been calculated to be 75 B tu/(hr fi2 OF) and may be assumed to be constant. The following physical properties can be assumed to be constant.
Solution
We note that we do not have the water outlet temperature, so we frrst must calculate it to make sure that the second law is not violated. Since this is concurrent flow, the outlet temperature of the water must be below the outlet temperature of the oil. Using the thermodynamicrelationshipsfor water
(7.7.345)
and for oil
(7.7.346)
and the energy balances with water and oil as the respective systems
( A q c=
(&)h
Qc
(7.7.347) (7.7.348)
=
Qb
and noting that
(7.7.349)
818
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
giving (7.7.350) Substituting known values
=  4000.7
(
lbB,t$)h(210 250) 9;
(7.7.351)
T = 97 "F ,
Since 97OF (the outlet temperature of the water) is less than 21WF (the outlet temperature of the oil) we are in conformance with the second law.
first must determine Cmin.and Cmx.
We will obtain the a e from NTU, which we will calculate using E, so we ra
Cb = Cd = (400)2(0.7)*
= 2 8 0 s = C,,
c c
Btu = Cwre = ( 3 o o ) Z ( 1 ) . F 9 lbm = 300 Btu = c, mn "F
(7.7.352)
(7.7.353)
Substituting in the relationship for E derived in the previous example
E =
(Tw T.)
(T,  T,)
 (97  60) = 0.195  (250  60)
(7.7.354)
but from the previous example
E
= 0.195 =
1  e x p {  W [ ~ , + I]}
[G + 11
(7.7.355)
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
819
(7.7.356)
(7.7.3 5 7)
Solving for NTU
m=
In 1  0.195 [ 1.71) = 0.237 1.7
{
(7.7.358)
But using the definition of NTU
(7.7.359) 0.237 = (75)
Btu
(A) ft2
mb 0.7 Im
min
lbm F
60 min hr
(7.7.360) (7.7.361)
A = 53 ft2
C a l d a t i o n o f exit temmratures usiug
d
E
f o r a heat em
of known
NTU
areg
Five hundred pounds per minute of an organic liquid is available at 290°F and is to be cooled using 300 lbmasshnin. of water that is available at 60OF.
An existing one shell pass, four tube pass heat exchanger with heat transfer area of 40 ft2 is available in the salvage yard. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the exchanger is estimated to be 25 Btu/(hr ft2 OF) with water on the shell side and the organic on the tube side, and may be assumed to be constant.
The following physical properties can be assumed to be constant.
820
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Determine
the heat that will be transferred using these two liquid streams with the existing exchanger and
the outlet temperature of each stream.
Solution
We first calculate
c, = C& = ( 5 0 0 )
c c
(0.8)
Btu = cwam = (300)=(1)i&79 lbm = 300 Btu = c,,
= 400 Btu = rmn ”F
c,,
*
(7.7.362) (7.7.363)
rmn S;
so
(7.7.364)
From the table
Chapter 7: Heat TransferModels
821
E
=2 ( 1 + c , + 4 m
I+exp[m
X
Jm
1
(7.7.366)
1 e x p [  m d m
(7.7.367)
E
= 0.658
(7.7.368)
so
Q
=
E
c~~ (T,
T~)
(250  60)O F
= (0.646) (300)
= 36,822p
But
Qc = c (TmTd) c 3 6 , 8 2f 2n = (300)&(Tm60) ih
(7.7.369)
OF
(7.7.370) (7.7.371)
TEo = 183 "F
Qh
=
ch(ThoT,)
 36,822
Th0
= (400)
&(Tb 290) OF
(7.7.372) (7.7.373)
= 198 "F
822
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
This problem would have required an iterative solution if treated by the Ffactor method that follows.
7.7.4 Ffactor method for design of heat exchangers
Unfortunately, most heat exchangers have a rather more complicated flow pattern than strictly concurrent or strictly countercurrent flow, e.g., double coaxial pipes with one fluid flowing within the innermost pipe and another fluid flowing in the annular space. Instead, to give just one counterexample, shell and tube heat exchangers usually utilize substantial crossflow components on the shell side. Engineers, however, in their desire for simple models, apply the form of Equation (7.7.131) to shell and tube exchangers by introduction of a correction factor, F, to the log mean temperature difference (7.7.41) The correction factor, which is (usually) presented in graphical form, is a result of integrating for the particular geometry and casting the result in the form of Equation (7.7.41).
In addition to the assumptions incorporated in the derivation of the log mean as the appropriate average, to wit
The fluids flow at constant rate The fluids each have constant heat capacity U remains constant There is no phase change of either fluid (the case where a fluid absorbs or supplies heat only by phase change, i.e., its temperature remains constant, will also fit our ultimate definition, however) There is no heat exchange other than between the fluids  i.e., no heat losses from the exchanger to the surroundings There is no thermal energy source or sink in the system, e.g., chemical reaction Two additional assumptions are used
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
823
The temperature of the shellside fluid is uniform across any crosssection in any shellside pass (perfect mixing on the shell side at any pass) .Each pass contains equal heat transfer a m The integrations to obtain the mean temperature difference are straightforward, although cumbersome. Considering the case of a two tubeside passes, one shellside pass exchanger leads to tbe following expressionlW the for average temperature differencerequirsd for Equation (7.7.42)
In I IT, +T,t,t,d(T,T
I I T. + T, ,
 t,  t, + J(Ti
\9
L,
I
\9
I (7.7.42)
.
' 7
Defining the dimensionless quantities
(7.7.43) (7.7.44)
where the temperaturesrefer to
T, = shellsideinlet T, = shellsideoutlet t, = tube side inlet t, = tubesideoutlet
(7.7.45)
and applying this mean temperature to the form of Equation (7.7.41)
(7.7.46)
gives a correction factor
log Underwood, A. J. V. (1934). The calculation of the mean temperature difference in multipass heat exchangers. Journal of Institute of Petroleum Technologists 20: 145.
824
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(7.7.47)
Figure 7.7.41 is a plot of this equation. This plot is also applicable (within the accuracy of the usual calculation) to one shell pass and 2n tube passes, n = 1, 2, 3, .... The indeterminate form for R = 1 can be removed by application of I'Hopital's rule to show that at this point
(7.7.48)
(7.7.4 10)
The steep slope of the curves shows that this is not a very satisfying approach to exchanger design, because it is extremely sensitive to the ordinate value, S, over much of the ranges involved. The plot in Figure 7.7.41 is merely typical. Corresponding figures for various configurations of exchangers (crossflow, multiple shell passes, odd numbers of tube passes, etc.) are
design problems; that is, where the area of the exchanger is to be determined. It
When applicable, the F correction factor technique is most convenient for
can, of course, be adapted to the retrofit problem  that is, adapting an existing
exchanger to use with different fluids andor different entering temperatures,but then requires an iterative solution.
l0 For example, see Perry, R. H. and D. W.Green, Eds. (1984).Chemical Engineer's Handbook. New York, McGrawHill, p. 1027.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
825

R=4
R=3
 R=2  R = 1.5 R=l  R = 0.8  R = 0.4
 R = 0.6  R = 0.2
0
0.1
0.2
0 3 0.4 .
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
S
Figure 7.7.41 Correction factor to log mean temperature difference one shell pass, 2" tube passes

Examble 7.7.4I Use o f F Factor combared to gffectiveness/NTU method A countercurrent heat exchanger is required to cool loo0 gpm of oil from a temperature of 250°F to a temperature of 2100F. The coolant to be used is 250 gpm of water at a temperature of 800F.
1
OF)
Oil property Specificgravity Heat capacity, Btu/(lbmass O' F)
I
Value 0.8 0.7
A
I
The overall heat transfer coefficient has been calculated to be 150 Btu/(hr ft2 Calculate the area required if an exchanger is used which has two tube passes and one shell pass, water on the tube side. U e both the Ffactor method and the s effectiveness/NTUmethod and compare.
Solution
A thermal energy balance on the oil gives the heat duty
826
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
(Tld  To&)
(0.7)
(250 210) O F
Q = wdl c,,
= (1OOO) gal (0.8) (8.33) mm = 1.87 x 10'
(7.7.411)
and an overall thermal energy balance (or one could use a balance on the w t r ae) gives the outlet t m e a u eof the w t r eprtr ae
Then
1  80)  (250  170)
~~
(7.7.413)
For the Ffactor method
R =
(TIT2)
(t2tl)
 (250210) (17080)
= 04 .4
(7.7.414) (7.7.415)
(t2 s==  t l )
Ti

(17080) = 05 .3 (250 80)
From Equation (7.7.47) andor from Figure 7.7.41, F = 0.94
Q = UAF(AT),
A =
Q
( 4 h
(7.7.416)
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
827
A =
(150)
&(0.94) (103) "F
(1.87 x 10')
$$
(60)min
hr
= 773ft2
(7.7.417)
To do the same calculation using the effectiveness/NTU approach
Find Cmin and C,,
c,
=w ,
Cp,d,
= (1OOO) gal (0.8) (8.33)
mm
= 4.66x 103
CHoH
&
9(0.7)
b: l$
"F
(7.7.418)
= ~ H o t CpHoH r = (250) gal (8.33) lbmass(1) lbmass OF Btu gal = 2.08x 103_Btu min "F
(7.7.419)
c, =
C,, 4 . 6 6 103 ~
culin
= 2.08 x 103 = 0.446
(7.7.420)
The effectiveness is
&==
Q
Q
Gdnphi
Qm

 Td)
1.87 x 105
2.08x 103 (250 80) "F min "F = 0.529
From Table 7.7.31, NTU = 1, from which
(7.7.421)
(7.7.422)
828
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
A = 832 ft2
(7.7.423)
Chapter 7 Problems
7.1 A composite furnace wall consists of 9 in. of firebrick [k = 0.96 Btu/(h ft OF)], 4 1/2 in. of insulating brick [k = 0. 183 Btu/(h ft OF)], and 4 1/2 in. of building brick [k = 0.40 Btu/(h ft OF)]
(a) Calculate the heat flux in Btu/(h ft2) when the inside surface temperature is 2400°F and the outside is 100°F. (b) What are the temperatures at the interfaces of each layer of brick? Is the temperature of the insulating brick below the maximum allowable value of 2 W F ?
7.2 A furnace wall consists of two layers of firebrick, kl = 0.8 Btu/(h ft OF) and k2 = 0.1 Btu/(h ft OF), and a steel plate k3 = 25 Btu/(h ft OF) as shown in the following illustration.
Calculate the heat flux [Btu/(h ft2)] and the interface temperatures between materials 1 and 2 , 2 and 3.
7.3 A cylindrical conduit carries a gas which keeps the inside surface of the conduit at 600OF. The conduit is insulated with 4 in. of rock wool, and the outer
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
829
surface of this insulation is at a temperature of 1WF. The thermal conductivity of the conduit is 0.88 Btu/@ft OF). The thermal conductivity of the rock wool is given by the empirical curve fit equation k = 0.025+0.05T
[T is in O and k is in Btu/(h ft OF)] F
If the conduit is 1/4in. thick with a 31/2 in. l ,find the rate of heat loss per D foot of conduit.
7.4 A standard 1 in. Schedule 40 iron pipe carries saturated steam at 250°F. The pipe is lagged (insulated) with a 2in. layer of 85 percent magnesia, and outside this magnesia layer there is a 3in. layer of cork.
The inside temperature of the pipe wall is 249OF, and the outside temperature of the cork is 90°F. Calculate (a) the rate of heat loss from 100 ft of pipe, in Btuh, and (b) the temperatures at the boundary between metal and magnesia and between magnesia and cork. 7.5 The thermal insulation on a steam pipe (2 in. OD) consists of magnesia (85% magnesia) 2in. thick with thermal conductivity k = 0.038 Btu/(h ft OF). Calculate the temperature at the midpoint of the insulation when the inside surface is at 250°F and the outside surface is at 50°F. 7.6 A 6in. nominal diameter (OD = 6.625 in.) pipe carrying vaporized heat transfer fluid at 750°F is covered with a 1.5in. layer of high temperature insulation @c = 0.09 Btu/(h ft OF+)] inside a 2in. layer of 85% magnesia F = 0.038 Btu/(h ft OF)].
If the outside surface of the outer layer has a temperature of 7OoF, find
(b) the temperature at the interface between the two insulating
(a) the heat loss in Btu/ h per linear foot of pipe, and
layers. What assumptionsare inherent in your model?
830
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.7 An empirical curve fit shows that the thermal conductivity of a solid plate
in
[&I
varies witb t m e a u ein OF eprtr as
k (T) = 10 (1 + 0.01 T + 2.4 x lO' T2)
The large surfaces of the plate are at 300°F and lWF, respectively. Assume 1D heat transfer.
Find the heat flow rate through a section of plate 2 ft by 3 ft by 2 in. thick.
7.8 Consider the trapezoidal brick shown in the following figure.
lnrulotrd
.
The brick is surrounded by insulation on its four lateral surfaces. The heat flow is from left to right in the figure, and we may consider the conduction of heat as being only in the xdirection to a good approximation.(The angle the sides make with the base of the trapezoid is smaller than is shown in the sketch.) (a) Find the temperature profile in the x direction. (b) What is the heat flux as a function of x?
(c) Starting with the Fourier equation, determine the correct mean area to use in the equation Q = k(T2T,)
7.9 The composite body shown in the following figure is 10 ft long in the direction perpendicular to the page.
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
831
kI = 0.1 Btu hft "F kn = 0.8 Btu h ft O F A I = (l)[ft]x(lO)[ft] = loft2 A2 = A, = (0.5) [ft] x (10) [ft] = 5 ft2
k
.
~Inrulotcd bottom
Considering heat flow to be only in the xdirection, find the temperature at x = x1 and the heat fluxes q2 and q3 through the right side of the body.
7.10 Shown is a large scale model (model larger than prototype) of a high temperature fastener to be used to connect materials that are essentially insulators.
The model has a circular crosssection of radius, r, which varies with axial position, x, according to the relation
832
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
rr 1
with r = ft x = ft
m
The model is constructed of two materials having thermal conductivities kland k2.During a recent test of our scale model, the temperature of the large end was measured as lOOO"F, while that of tbe small end was 1O0OF. Assuming heat conduction only in the axial (x) direction, determine for these end temperatures: (a) The temperature profile in material 1. (b) The temperature Ti where the two materials join. (c) The heat flux across the end at the position x = 6 ft. (d) The heat flow in Btulh across the junction at x = 3 ft. 7.11 A brass slab is cooled at steady state by water flow on the outside surface of its wall.
i
1 therefore, has units of fin to maintain dimensionalhomogeneity
J;;
i
water
flow
The brass has a thermal conductivity of 60 Btu/(h ft OF). The free stream water temperature is 60°F. If the temperature in the brass at point A is 2WF and at point B is l W F , what is the heat transfer coefficient on the outside surface?
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
833
7.12 A window consists of two layers of glass, each 1/4 in. thick, separated by a layer of dry, stagnant air,also 1/4 in. thick. If the outside surface to inside surface temperature drop over the composite system is 30°F, find the heat loss through such a window that is 10 ft wide and 4 ft high. The window is proposed to replace a single glass pane, 3/8 in. thick, at a difference in cost of $120. The thermal conductivity of the window glass is 0.5 Btu/@ ft OF). Fuel costs $0.75 per million Btu combustion energy obtained. The furnace efficiency can be assumed to be 60 percent. Find the number of days of operation under the specified temperature conditions to pay for the window. Determine the sensitivity of the number of days to the price of fuel. Is the assumption of stagnant air a good one? 7.13 Calculate the direct radiant heat transfer between two parallel refracting black surfaces 12 by 12 ft spaced 12 ft apart, if the surface temperatures are 1300°F and SWF, respectively. What would be the radiant heat transfer if the two plane walls were connected by nonconducting but reradiating walls? 7.14 Two rectangular plates, both 6 in. by 3 in., are placed directly opposite each another with a plate spacing of 2 in. The larger plate is at 240°F, and has an emissivity of 0.5. The other plate is at IlOoF, and has an emissivity of 0.33. If there are no other surfaces present, what is the heat flow rate? If refractory walls now connect the plates, what is the heat flow rate? 7.15 Calculate the direct radiant heat transfer between two parallel refractory surfaces 10 by 10 ft spaced 10 ft apart. Assume that the temperatures of the surfaces are 6000°F and 1200"F, respectively. What is the radiant heat transfer rate if the two surfaces are connected by nonconducting but reradiating walls?
834
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.16 Calculate the radiant heat loss from a 3in. nominal diameter wrought iron oxidized pipe at 200°F which passes through a room at temperature 76°F. What is the heat loss if the pipe is coated with aluminum paint? The emissivities for the oxidized and painted surfaces are 0.8 and 0.3, respectively. 7.17 A large plane, perfectly insulated on one face and maintained at a fixed temperature, T, on the bare face, which has an emissivity of 0.90, loses 200 Btu/(h ft2) when exposed to surroundings at absolute zero. A second plane has the same size as the fust, and is also perfectly insulated on one face, but its bare face has emissivity of 0.45. When the bare face of the second plane is maintained at a fixed temperature, T, and exposed to surroundings at absolute zero, it loses 100 Btu/(h ft2). Let these planes be brought close together, so that the parallel bare faces are only 1 in. apart, and the heat supply to each be so adjusted that their respective temperatures remain unchanged. What will be the net heat flux between the planes, expressed in B tu/(h ft2)? 7.18 Air is flowing steadily through a duct whose inner walls are at 800°F. A thermocouple housed in a 1in. OD steel well with rusty exterior indicates a i temperature of 4500F.The ar mass velocity is 3600 lbmassh ft2. Estimate the true temperature of the air. 7.19 A thermocouple inserted in a long duct reads 2WF. The duct runs through
coefficient to the thermocouple is 10 Btu/(h ft2 OF).
a furnace that maintains the duct walls at 3WF. Inside the duct a nonabsorbing gas is flowing at such a velocity that the average convective heat transfer
What is the gas temperature at the thermocouple in OF? (Assume that all surfaces are black and that no heat is conducted along the thermocouple leads.)
= 7.20 Calculate the heat loss per foot from a 3in. Schedule 40 pipe [D 3.07 in, OD = 3.50 in.; k = 25 Btu/(h ft OF)] covered with a 1 1/4 in. thickness of insulation F = 0.1 Btu/(h ft OF)].
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
835
The pipe transports a fluid with mixing cup temperature of 350°F. Inside heat transfer coefficient, hi, is 30 Btu/@ ft2OF). Outside heat transfer coefficient, ho, is of 2 Btu/@ ft2 OF). The pipe is exposed to air at an ambient temperature of 80°F. (a) Calculate the rate of heat loss per foot. (b) Calculate Ti, T1,T2.
7.21 Oil at a bulk temperature of 200°F is flowing in a 2in. Schedule 40 pipe [D 2.067 in., OD = 2.375 in.; k = 26 Btu/(h ft OF)] at a bulk velocity of 4 = ftls. The outside of the pipe is covered witb a 1/2in. thick layer of insulation F = 0.1 Btu/@ ft OF)]. The outside surface temperature of the insulation is 90°F. Find
(a) The inside heat transfer coefficient. (b) The rate of heat loss from the pipe per foot. (c) The temperature of the inside pipe surface. At 200°F for the oil k = 0.074 Btu h ft2 "F Pr = 62 Cp = 0.51 b: l &
p = 250 x 10~ p = 54 lbmass ft3
!$y
7.22 If you were to be standing in a house with inside air temperature 8WF, would the inside wall temperature be the coldest:
836
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models (a) when the outside air temperature is 0°F and there is a 4 mph wind blowing parallel to the wall, or (b) when the outside air temperature is lCPF and there is a 45 mph wind blowing parallel to the wall?
1 5 0 hft2 "F Thedresistanceof wall =  Area Btu NuL = 0.086 Re0** Pr'" Propertiesof air 0"I I10" T Pr = 0.73 k = 0.0133&
[
]
p = 1 . i i X 10"p =0 . 0 8 6 T
.
7.23 Consider the w l shown in the following sketch. al
Properties:
Chapter 7 Heat Transfer Models :
837
I
Brick
I
kc
I
0.38
I
If hinside = 2 Btu/(h ft2 O F ) and houbide = 12 Btu/(h ft2 OF), find
(a) the rate of heat loss per unit afea of the wall and (b) the inside wall temperature.
7.24 A single pane of glass @c = 0.50 Btu/(h ft OF)] 1/4in. thick separates the air in a room which is at a mixing cup temperature of 700F from the outdoors where the ambient atmospheric temperature is 0°F. A thermocouple covered with a bit of insulation is attached to the inside surface of the glass. Assume that both the inside and the outside heat transfer coefficients are constant at 1 Btu/(h ft2OF). About what temperature should this thermocouple indicate? 7.25 A jacketed kettle is used for concentrating 1 O lbmasdh of an aqueous , O O salt solution using steam at 250°F. The concentrated solution boils at 220°F and t has a latent heat of 965 Btuhbmass. The vessel is made of steel [k = 35 Btu/(h f OF)] and is 1/4 in. thick.
Determine the increase in capacity that might be expected if the kettle were replaced by one made of copper F = 220 Btu/(h ft OF)].
7.26 Two thermometers are placed in an air stream flowing through a circular duct. One of these thermometers, which has been silvered on the outside, reads 100°F. The other is a plain mercuryinglassthermometer and reads 150°F. The heat transfer coefficient for both thermometers is 2 Btu/(h ft2 OF). The emissivity for the silvered surface is 0.02 and that of the glass surface 0.94.
838
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
Assuming that the readings are correct, calculate the temperature of the duct walls and that of the gas. 7.27 A hot fluid is to be cooled in a doublepipe heat exchanger from 245°F to 225OF. The cold fluid is heated from 1 3 5 O F to 2200F.
Compare counterflow t parallel flow. o
7.28 Calculate the heat loss per lineal foot from a 3in. Schedule 40 steel p i p [3.07 in. ID, 3.500 in. OD, k = 25 Btu/(h ft O F ) ] covered with 1 in. thickness of insulation [k = 0.11 Btu/(h ft OF)]. The pipe transports a fluid at 300°F with an inner heat transfer coefficient of 40 Btu/(h ft OF), [hinside], and is exposed to ambient air at 80°F with an outside heat transfer coefficient of 3 Btu/(h ft2 O F ) ,
[houtsidel.
7.29 Hot light oil is to be cooled by water from 250°F to 170°F in a doublepipe heat exchanger. The water is to be heated from 900F to 150°F.
If the oil flow rate is 2.200 lbmassh and
[cp],i, 0.56 Btu/(lbmass OF), find =
the water flow rate. If U. = 45 Btu/(h ft2 OF), compare countercurrent and concurrent heat exchangers. Assuming a clean heat exchanger, which resistance  water side, metal, or oil side  would you expect to be the controlling resistance? 7.30 A hypothetical countercurrent heat exchanger having an infinite heat transfer area is used to cool 10,OOO lbmassh of water entering at 150°F. The coolant is 5,000 lbmass/h of water entering at 100°F. a) What are the exit temperatures of the streams? b) What is the rate of heat transferred? 7.31 A fluid is heated in a heat exchanger by condensing steam. Derive the log mean AT to use when
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
839
7.32 Determine the heat loss f o a bare, horizontal steam pipe, 150 ft long rm with 6 in. OD at 275OF. This pipe is located indoors where the temperature is 70°F. Calculate the loss in the same room after this pipe is covered with a 3in. layer of insulation F = 0.11 Btu/@ ft OF)]. 7.33 A composite wall is placed around a chemical reactor vessel. It is made up of concrete with steel beams centrally located for reinforcement and an outer wall of stainless steel. A typical crosssection is shown below.
Concrete
0 ;toinless steel
BhJ/hr
Assuming onedimensional heat transfer throughout (i.e., vertical temperature uniformity), derive the following expression
where x1 = xIA + X2A. Take a typical repeating section 1 ft wide (perpendicular to the plane of the sketch) and (yl + yz) high as the area. Next, calculate Q based on this area for the following cases:
840
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.34 Insulation placed on a smalldiameter pipe or electrical wire to prevent heat loss may actually increase the heat loss instead. This occurs because as the insulation radius rz increases, the insulation thermal resistance increases but the outside surface area is increased at the same time. The result is that the rate of heat loss will increase with increasing r2 until a maximum heat loss is reached, after which further increase in rz lowers rate of beat loss.
If the inside surface temperature of the insulation, T1, is known, and the surroundings are at TZ,find the value of rz for maximum rate of heat loss. Assume that T1,T2, k, h, and rl are constant. 7.35 Light oil enters the tube side of a heat exchanger (ID = 1.00 in.) at 150°F and exits at 300°F. The light oil flows at 1,200 gal/min. There are 60 tubes in the heat exchanger.
property
p, lbmass/ft3 p, lbmass/ft s k, B t u h ft OF
P r
150°F 54.3 530 x 105 0.075 122
300°F 51.8 83 x 105 0.073 22
,
Calculate the tubeside heat transfer coefficient.
7.36 Water is flowing in the shell side of a heat exchanger. The water may be modeled as flowing parallel to the tubes. The water enters at 80°F and leaves at 150°F. The inside diameter of the shell is 12 in., the outside tube diameter is 1.125 in., and there are 50 tubes in the heat exchanger. The water flow rate through the heat exchanger is 800 gal/min.
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
841
(a) Calculate the equivalent diameter for the flow on the shell side of the heat exchanger. (h) Calculate the average shellsideheat transfer coefficient. 7.37 Water is flowing in a thinwalled copper tube under conditions such that the coefficient of convective heat transfer from water to the tube is given by the obviously empirical equation
hi
[A] (' [a])
= 25 [hBtu slnF ] ft7" O
li3
Heat from the water flows through the tube wall to the surrounding atmosphere at a rate such that the convection coefficient from the outer surface of the tube to the atmosphere is given by another empirical equation h oh f[t e ] = O S [ h ft2 "FM](AT[oF])'" "F Btu Assume the heat transfer resistance of the tube wall to be negligible. Find the minimum water velocity necessary to keep ice from forming on the pipe wall when the bulk water temperature is 35°F and the atmosphere is at  25°F. 7.38 The coefficient on the shell side of an exchanger having 1.0 in. OD tubes is 200 Btu/(h ft2O ) for water in turbulent flow. Estimate the coefficient for a F similar exchanger constructed of 3/4in. OD tubes under identical service conditions (i.e., same fluids, flow rates, and entering temperatures). 7.39 If you were designing a condenser or feed water heater that would heat incoming water on the inside of tubes and using condensing steam on the outside, which orientation (vertical or horizontal) of the tubes would give better heat transfer? Assume saturated steam at 7 psia, and a 1 in. OD by 6 ft long tube with an average wall temperature of 1 2 5 9 .
842
Chapter 7: Heat Transfer Models
7.40 A 1/2in. OD by 6ftlong tube is to be used to condense steam at 6 psia. Assume that the average tube wall temperature is 1800F. Estimate the mean heat transfer coefficient for this tube in botb horizontal and vertical positions.
7.41 Water in turbulent flow is being heated in a concentric pipe exchanger by steam condensing in the annulus at 2200F.The water enters at 60°F and leaves at 80°F. If the water rate is doubled, estimate the new exit temperature. 7.42 In the production of salt from sea water, the sea water is being run into a large pond 100 ft long, 20 ft wide, and 2 ft deep. There the water is evaporated by exposure to the sun and dry air, leaving solid salt on the bottom of the pond.
At a certain point in this cycle of operations, the brine in the pond is 1 ft deep. On the evening of a clear day a workman finds that the sun has heated the brine to 90°F. During the following 10hour period of the night, the average air temperature is 70”F, and the average effective blackbody temperature of the sky is 1WF.
Model the properties of the brine as those of water, and model the brine temperature as uniform from top to bottom. The coefficient of heat transfer from the surface of the pond to air by natural convection may be taken as
Neglecting vaporization andor crystallization effects, and assuming negligible heat transfer between the brine and the earth, estimate the temperature of the brine at the end of the 10hour period. 7.43 A boiler is producing methanol vapor at 1 atm using hot oil flowing through a single 1in. OD x 0.134in. wall thickness 304 stainless tube as a source of heat. From one test of the equipment the following data are available inlet oil temperature = 210°F outlet oil temperature = 196°F inside heat transfer coefficient = 100 Btu / (h ft2 OF) Determine the boiling heat tmsfer coefficient and the approximate heat flux.
8 MASS TRANSFER MODELS
8.1 The Nature of Mass Transfer
Mass transfer is of concern in many areas of engineering and science, but it is probably more important in conjunction with chemical reactions than in any other single area. In many cases, for implementation of chemical reactions on a commercial basis the capital investment in mass transfer equipment by far exceeds the capital investment associated with the reaction as such.
Why is this so? For several reasons:
First, almost no chemical reaction is selective enough to produce only the desired product. Instead, a number of byproducts are also produced. Separation of the major product from the byproducts (which may also have considerable value) is a problem in mass transfer. Second, to implement a reaction the reacting molecules must somehow get together. Frequently the rate of reaction is exceedingly fast once the reactants "see" each other, and the limiting step reduces to one of transporting the reactants to the location where the reaction takes place (for example, a catalyst surface). In such cases the reaction is mass transfer limited rather than kinetically limited. Third, many chemicals are handled in solution (for convenience, temperature control, physical and chemical stability, etc.) and the creation of these solutions (mixing, dissolution) as well as the recovery of components from the solutions (absorption, desorption, distillation, extraction, precipitation, etc.) is a mass transfer problem.
843
844
Chapter 8: Mass Transfer Models
Fourth, much of the raw material for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry has its genesis in naturally occurring materials (air,natural gas, crude oil, coal, wood, various plant and animal products, etc.), and separation of desired constituents from these highly complex mixtures is again a mass transfer problem.
Many other examples could be listed, but it is to be hoped that the point has been established that a typical chemical engineer spends as much time moving and sorting molecules as he or she spends in assembling them into new structures.
Mass transfer is used here in a specialized sense. Mass is certainly transferred when bulk flow occurs, for example, when water flows in a pipe. This is not, however, what we mean by mass transfer. Mass transfer in the sense used here is:
the migration of a component in a mixture either within the same phase or from phase to phase because of a displacement from equilibrium.
A
An example of the difference is furnished by the respiratory system. Air is inhaled and a gas of slightly different composition is exhaled, processes which are primarily bulk flow  analogous to the transport of air through a duct by a blower. These steps would not be called mass transfer by our definition.
At the surface of the lung, however, one component of the air, oxygen, transfers to the bloodstream because the blood there is not saturated with oxygen  the air and blood are displaced from physicalkhemical equilibrium. Another mass transfer step simultaneouslyoccurs  the transfer of CO2 from the blood to the air, which is not saturated with CO2.' Both of these are mass transfer by our criterion.
Other components in the air  for example, the nitrogen  are largely left behind. (There is, of course, a saturation concentration of nitrogen in the blood, which is dependent on pressure  to which any diver who has ever contracted "the bends" from too quick an ascent can readily attest. In the absence of variation in ambient pressure, however, the nitrogen reaches saturation and then does not transfer.)
This analogy, like all analogies, is somewhat oversimplified as any physiologist well knows. We enter a standing apology to experts in disciplines external to engineering for all such excesses.
Chapter 8: Mass Transfer Models
845
Mass transfer can be treated in much the same way as heat transfer, in that we are able to speak of driving forces, resistanas, fluxes, boundary layers, etc. The important difference is that a transfer of mass, as opposed to transfer of heat, always involves motion of the medium (otherwise, no mass would be transferred). This means, for example, that the strict analog to heat conduction in a stagnant medium is found only by observing events from a coordinate frame moving in space rather than fixed in space. This complicates the mathematical manipulations somewhat, as we shall soon see.
8.2 Diffusive Mass Transfer Models
As a result of the second law of thermodynamics, systems displaced from equilibrium tend toward equilibrium (although perhaps very slowly) as time passes. The difference in the chemical potential of a component between one region in space and another is a measure of the displacement ("distance" in chemical potential coordinates) from equilibrium. There are a number of factors that can give rise to a difference in chemical potential:
concentration differences, pressure differences, temperature differences,and differences in forces caused by external fields (gravity, magnetic, etc.).
By way of example, industrial application has been made of mass transfer obtained by applying a temperature gradient to a mixture  the Soret effect. (Conversely, we can obtain a flow of hea