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PMBOK 2000 based, Version 6
In Preparation For PMP® Certification Exam
IBM Education and Training Worldwide Certified Material
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Know the four major communication styles: concrete-sequential. and non-verbal including body language) Be familiar with the barriers to successful communication. and Outputs for each phase) Know the difference between the general management skill of communicating and Project Communications Management. 1996. Inc. presentation techniques. 4th Edition. (sender-receiver model) Know the different methods of communication. J. Tools and Techniques. © Copyright IBM Corp. Understand how interpersonal communication works. Rita. 2001 What to Study? The PMBOK® phases of Project Communications Management: Communications Planning. 2001 PMP® Exam Prep. The general management skill of communicating is the broader subject and involves knowledge such as: sender-receiver models. Chapter 1 PMP® Exam Practice Test and Study Guide. PMP®. Be familiar with the barriers to effective listening and the guidelines for active listening. Chapters 2 and 10 (2000 edition) Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. 7-3 . Verma. Know the amount of time project managers spend communicating "PMBOK" is a trademark of the Project Management Institute. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. “PMI” is a service and trademark of the Project Management Institute. by Ward. and meeting management techniques. 2001 ESI PMP® Challenge!. by Mulcahy. which is registered in the United States and other nations. Be familiar with communication channels and links. Vijay K. and abstract-random. (written.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Study Notes Reference Material to study: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). writing style. Inc. LeRoy. PMP®. which is registered in the United States and other nations. Communications Section. LeRoy. J. Know the formula for communications channels: (N*(N-1))/2 Be familiar with effective listening techniques. choice of media. verbal. Ward. abstract-sequential. 3rd Edition. concrete-random. and Administrative Closure (Be familiar with Inputs. 3rd Edition. Performance Reporting. Information Distribution.. Be familiar with the goals of interpersonal communication.
manipulation (hidden agenda). knowledge base. etc. organizational climate. 2002 . Note: Active Listening is a part of Effective Listening The medium by which information is transmitted. and good working relationships thus improving the overall performance of the team. cultural differences. Information on how well the message was received. It requires patience. distance. Is the ability to recognize the importance of verbal and nonverbal listening behaviors including body language. © Copyright IBM Corp. semantics. Also known as the Sender. Obstacles that impede communications. Noise: Any interference or disturbance that confuses the message. and a willingness to understand the other person’s perspective. etc. Refers to bringing together all the project team members into one location or in close proximity.Project Communications Management “PMP” and the PMP logo are certification marks of the Project Management Institute which are registered in the United States and other nations. culture. limited information. perceptions. empathy. Sensory data that is encoded by the communicator (sender) and decoded by the receiver (recipient). noise. The source of the communication. Filtering can be deliberate and positive as in the case of upward communications where the subordinate “filters” information that the superior does not need or want to know. For example: limited communication channels. Helps facilitate the development of mutual trust. Generally caused by problems of language. Key Definitions Active Listening Is engaged listening. withholding of information. Occurs when a large portion of the message is lost from the sender to the receiver. The person for whom the message is intended. It’s also the ability to utilize gestures and body language consciously (with consideration for cultural differences) to put people at ease and enhance communication. number of communication links. respect. Communications requirements are the sum of the information requirements of the project stakeholders. The originator of the message. Channel Communication Barriers Communications Requirements Communicator Effective Listening Feedback Filtering Message Noise Receiver (Recipient) Tight Matrix 7-4 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. self-control. terminology.
The general management skill of communicating is related to. etc. word choice. Communicating includes: Sender-receiver models: feedback loops. collection. dealing with conflict. © Copyright IBM Corp. etc. Meeting management techniques: preparing an agenda. however. Presentation techniques: non-verbal communication (including body language). dissemination. The project team must understand how the communications in which they are involved as individuals affect the project as a whole.1): (Process Group: Planning) The process of determining the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders: Who needs what information? When will they need it? How will it be given to them? Who will give it to them? While all projects share the need to communicate project information. when to communicate orally. and information that are necessary for success. the process results should be regularly reviewed and revised as appropriate. barriers to communications. and ultimate disposition of project information. Writing style: active versus passive voice. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. etc. Choice of media: when to communicate in writing. etc. storage. project communications management. Provides the critical links among people. the needs and methods of distribution can vary. 7-5 . but not the same as. Communications planning is often tightly linked with organizational planning since the organizational structure will have a major effect on the project’s communications requirements. The majority of communications planning is usually done in the early phases of the project. sentence structure. etc. design of visual aids. Communications Planning (10. Identifying the informational needs of the stakeholders and determining a suitable means of meeting those needs is an important factor for project success. ideas.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Processes Project Communications Management: Includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation. when to write an informal memo versus formal report. Communicating is the broader subject and involves a substantial body of knowledge that is not unique to projects.
Schedules showing when each type of communication will be produced.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Processes. cont. Communications technology: – The technologies or methods used to transfer information back and forth among stakeholders can vary significantly: from brief conversations to extended meetings. Who should receive the information and how will it be sent. content. involved disciplines. Constraints: factors that will limit the project management team’s options. from simple written documents to online accessible schedules and databases. Includes: What methods will be used for gathering and storing various information. – Information used to determine communication requirements includes: project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships. and specialties. real. highly detailed or broadly framed depending on project needs. It may be formal/informal. Is done to obtain the information needs of the various project stakeholders. – Requirements are defined by combining the type and format of required information with an analysis of the value of that information. Care should be taken to avoid wasting resources on unnecessary information or inappropriate technology. – Project resources should be expended only on communicating information that contributes to success or where a lack of communication can lead to failure. available technology. The Communications Management Plan is a subsidiary element of the overall project plan. logistics related to project team size and location(s). A description of the information to be distributed including formats. and conventions/definitions to be used. Inputs include: Communications requirements: – Sum of the information requirements of the project stakeholders. 2002 . Methods used during communications planning: Stakeholder analysis. Should consider methods and technologies suited to the project that will provide the information needed. expected project staffing. or certain for planning purposes. external information needs such as the media. departments. © Copyright IBM Corp. A method for updating the communications plan. level of detail. 7-6 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Outputs include: Communications management plan. Assumptions: factors that will be considered true. and length of the project. – Factors that may affect the project include: frequency need of the information.
internal and external to the organization. It includes implementing the communications management plan. and for ensuring that the message is understood. project plan. The receiver is responsible for ensuring the information is received in its entirety and correctly understood. Project presentations: – Information distributed formally or informally to any or all of the project stakeholders. Methods used during information distribution are: Communication skills: – Used to exchange information. test plans. – Project team members may often maintain personal records in a project notebook. formal and informal. drawings. completeness of information. Project reports: formal reports on project status and/or issues. vertical and horizontal. as well as responding to unexpected requests for information. memos. Information retrieval systems: Methods for sharing information include: – Manual filing systems – Electronic databases – Project management software – Systems allowing access to technical documentation such as specifications. – Should be appropriately maintained in an organized fashion. 7-7 . cont.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Processes. listening and speaking. Information distribution systems: Methods for distributing project information include: – Hard copy documents – Shared access to networked. Information Distribution (10. etc. – The many dimensions of communication include: written and oral. electronic databases – Fax – Electronic mail – Voice mail – Video-conferencing – Project intranet Outputs include: Project records: – Includes correspondence. The sender is responsible for clarity.2): (Process Group: Executing) The process of making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner. Inputs include: work results. communications management plan. and documents describing the project. accuracy. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.
– The Earned Value (EV) is the value of the work actually completed. It integrates scope. 7-8 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Project Communications Management – The information is relevant to the needs of the audience and the method of presentation is appropriate. The cummulative CPI (the sum of all individual EV budgets divided by the sum of all individual AC’s) is widely used to forecast project costs at completion. Inputs include: Project plan: Contains various baselines used to access project performance. Trend analysis: examining project results over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating. Performance Reporting (10. Methods used during performance reporting include: Performance reviews: reviews held to assess project status and progress. but variances from the plan in scope. Variance analysis: comparing actual project results to planned or expected results. – The most commonly used cost-efficiency indicator is the Cost Performance Index (CPI = EV/AC). quality. © Copyright IBM Corp. and risk are often of equal or greater importance. respectively) can be converted to efficiency indicators to reflect the cost and schedule performance of any project. – The above three values are used in combination to provide measures of whether or not work is being accomplished as planned. Work results: Which deliverables have been fully or partially completed. and schedule to help the project management team assess project performance.3): (Process Group: Controlling) The process of collecting and disseminating performance information to provide stakeholders with knowledge of how resources are being used to achieve project objectives. resource. and/or earned value analysis. trend. Earned value (EV) involves calculating three key values for each activity: – The Planned Value (PV) is that portion of the approved cost estimate planned to be spent on the activity during a given period. Typically used in conjunction with one or more of the performance-reporting techniques such as variance. cost (or resource). 2002 . Cost and schedule variances are the most frequently analyzed. This includes: Status reporting: where the project currently stands Progress reporting: what has been accomplished versus what is in process Forecasting: where the project is going. These include the Cost Variance (CV=EV-AC) and the Schedule Variance (SV=EV-PV). what costs (and/or resources) have been incurred or committed Other project records. – The cost and schedule variances (CV and SV. – The Actual Cost (AC) is the total of costs incurred in accomplishing work on the activity during a given period. Earned value analysis: The most commonly used method of performance measurement in its various forms.
2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. client. Lessons learned © Copyright IBM Corp. gathering. technical documentation. drawings. Outputs from administrative closure: Project archives: A complete set of indexed project records should be prepared for archiving by the appropriate parties. When project are done under contract or involve significant procurement. or customer Should not be delayed until the end of the project. Change requests – Administrative Closure (10. Other project records The methods used during administrative closure: performance reporting tools and techniques. Any project-specific or program-wide historical databases should be updated. and project presentations. histograms. These may include plans. s-curves. 7-9 .4): (Process Group: Closing) The process of generating. Consists of verifying and documenting project results to formalize acceptance of the product of the project by the sponsor. each phase should be properly closed to ensure that important and useful information is not lost Employee skills in the staff pool database should be updated to reflect new skills and proficiency increases. etc. Project closure: Confirmation that the project has met all customer requirements for the product of the project.Project Communications Management The Schedule Performance Index (SPI = EV/PV) is sometimes used in conjunction with the CPI to forecast the project completion estimates. Product documentation: Documents produced to describe the product of the project must be available for review during closure. and tables. including the planning documents that established the framework for performance measurement. must be available for review during closure. electronic files. particular attention must be paid to the archiving of financial records. Inputs include: Performance measurement documentation: All documentation produced to record and analyze project performance. and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion. project reports. Information distribution tools and techniques Outputs include: Performance reports: gantt charts. specifications.
the sender anticipates how the message will be decoded and encodes the message. © Copyright IBM Corp. Goals of Interpersonal Communication: Understanding the exact meaning and intent of others. Peter Drucker states that the communicating ability is essential for success and is perhaps the most important of all the skills an individual should possess. The signal or the message. Gaining acceptance for yourself and/or your ideas. Utilizing experience. When communicating in a project environment. The receiver (or decoder) of the message. frustrations and inefficiencies in working relationships are traceable to poor communication. accordingly. Sender transmits the message as a signal to the receiver. The receiver receives the message. Interpersonal Communication: To ensure messages are received and understood. 7-10 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. This is accomplished through feedback. Process of interpersonal communication: (Wilbur Schramm) Sender determines what information to share and with whom and encodes the message. The receiver decodes the message to determine its meaning and then responds accordingly. Three basic elements of interpersonal communication: The sender (or encoder) of the message. and coordinate their operations throughout the project life cycle. Sievert emphasizes the importance of communication by stating that a high percentage of the friction. project managers help to plan. Communication is successful if the decoded message is the same as the sender intended.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Importance of communication: By using communication skills. both the sender and receiver have a duty to understand and to be understood. In project management. control. Interpersonal communication is the process of sharing information with others. direct. 2002 . Producing action or change. Being understood by others. two-way communication is necessary.
and direct. legal documents. vocal tones. written communication includes reports. – Collect and organize material. Non-verbal: Encoding a message without using words. a receiver’s interpretation of a message is based not only on the words in the message. clear. and body language. Three forms are: Verbal: Advantages: – Timely exchange of information – Rapid feedback – Immediate synthesis of message – Timely closure Disadvantages: – Technical jargon especially in complex projects may make verbal communication difficult for non-technical people and other stakeholders. The main aim of business writing is that it should be understood clearly when read quickly. and other forms of information to be transmitted. The message should be well planned. Project managers should avoid sending ambiguous messages by “walking the talk” (mean what you say and say what you mean). 7-11 . plans. environmental settings. Generally. but also on the nonverbal behaviors of the sender. standards. proposals. manner of dress. – The explanation: Tell them.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. Written communication (or graphic): In a project environment. – Prepare draft. procedures. letters. simple. memoranda. nonverbal factors generally have more influence on the total impact of a message than verbal factors. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. In an interpersonal communication situation in projects. © Copyright IBM Corp. Three stages of effective verbal communication and presentation: – The introduction: Tell them what you’re going to tell them. facial expressions. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Methods of Interpersonal Communication: Project managers must have the ability to think logically and communicate effectively. – No paper trail. Includes gestures. policies. Total Message Impact = Words (7%) + Vocal tones (38%) + Facial expressions (55%) (Albert Meharabian) Project managers may use nonverbal ingredients to complement verbal message ingredients whenever possible but must be careful that contradictory messages are not presented. – The summary: Tell them what you just told them. Major steps to writing: – Establish the basic purpose of the message. cont.
Be aware of entrophy. bid proposals. (from PMI) 7-12 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Lack of subject knowledge: Must have sufficient knowledge to send message. the more opportunity for distortion in the message. – Front-load the message – Use concise language and stick to the point – Use powerful visual language and persuasive language – Own the message and display confidence Macro-Barriers to Successful Communication: Macro-barriers are elements of the communication environment that hinder successful communication in a general sense. – Send the message. – When conveying a message that could be misunderstood either accidentally or intentionally. Must know level of understanding of receiver. Create an atmosphere of openness and trust by talking with people. marketing strategies. Number of links: Reduce the number of transmission links. – When communicating company policies or changes to policies.keep it simple and short. Written communication is effective in the following cases: – When conveying complex information or data. Make messages easy to read. – When it is the receiver’s preferred communication style. Information overload: Keep messages simple and direct. 2002 . Determine when to put the message in writing. cover letters. Avoid talking down to people. cont. The more links.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. 23-27% of message is lost in upward communication. Project managers and others can increase their personal power or influence by developing a “power” vocabulary when writing executive summaries. Organizational climate: Minimize the differences associated with status and ego within the organization. – When requiring future action from team members. etc. presentations. project reports. Provide sufficient information . Cultural differences: Meanings and interpretations may vary among different cultures. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) – Check the overall structure. © Copyright IBM Corp. Encourage team members to learn each other’s cultures.
procedures. social status. May involve public speaking. and producing written publicity or PR materials. Perceptions: Sender’s view of the receiver: senders communicate differently depending on how they perceive the receiver’s level of knowledge and ability to understand the message. these feelings may cause the receiver to ignore the message. Formal communication: Is carried out through traditional responsibility and relationship channels. project planning systems. If overly positive. enhance public understanding of the project. Project managers must identify the strengths and limitations of informal communications and explore strategies to increase overall project effectiveness through informal communications. Necessary skills for interacting with the project team and with the client on a daily basis. proposals. Message competition: Communicate only when you have the total attention of the recipient. Includes strategic plans. Be aware of the use of project terminology and the intended audience. hobbies. standards. gain acceptance. Project jargon and terminology: Define project terminology used in messages. kinship.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. decision making. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. etc. and be a project spokesperson. policies. Senders should be careful not to imply any negative attitudes towards the receiver through communication behavior. making presentations. these feelings may inhibit the receiver’s judgment. Informal communication: Done through informal groups in which relationships are dependent upon common ties such as interests. Communication with public and community: Includes all public relations efforts necessary to encourage community involvement. dealing with media representatives. letters. cont. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Micro-Barriers to Successful Communication: Micro-barriers are elements of the communication environment that obstruct successful communication in a specific sense. 7-13 . If negative. © Copyright IBM Corp. self-presentation. Try to minimize noise or other factors contributing to message interference. Most effectively done in written form. friendship. problem solving. break down resistance. Receiver’s view of the sender: How the receiver personally feels about the sender may influence how carefully the receiver listens. and conflict management. negotiating. Types of Project Communications: Interpersonal communication: Listening. etc.
distribute concise minutes and use the minutes at the next meeting to measure results. – Contains job-related information focusing on scope and definition. Meetings should not take the place of project managers resolving problems and issues by working individually with the team members via the telephone. Avoid calling a meeting just for the sake of calling a meeting. Downward communication (vertically or diagonally): – Provides direction and control for project team members and other employees. set ground rules for discussion. After the meeting: Follow up on individual action items. and constraints. cont. – Project managers may use the “by exception” format for project status. schedules. or e-mail. position descriptions and other written information relating to the importance. 7-14 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. implementation. policies. Communication Channels and Links: The project manager must recognize and understand the project’s formal communication channels. project objectives. notify participants in advance of location and agenda. periodically summarize the results of the discussion. ideas and information. personal discussion.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. budgets. Meetings should be productive. Three basic channels of communication in the project environment: Upward communication (vertically or diagonally): – Information provided to upper management for their purposes of evaluating the overall performance of the projects for which they are responsible. quality. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Managing Meetings Effectively: Meetings provide a means to exchange and share messages. stick to the agenda. and stick to the specified time limit. use visual aids to illustrate points. start and end on time. – May include statements of organizational philosophy. determine necessary attendees. This feedback helps top management assess priorities and make organizational modifications to effectively meet project goals and objectives and be more effective in the future. assign action items as appropriate. and jobs in an organization. Meetings require a great deal of time and effort and therefore should be called only when necessary. or to refine organizational strategy. Guidelines for effective meetings: Before the meeting: Determine purpose. During the meeting: Identify the specific objectives of the meeting. schedule. gather input from participants. and evaluation and feedback. 2002 . rationale and interrelationships and interactions of various departments projects. © Copyright IBM Corp.
– Is vital to the success of a project and is also the most important factor for survival and growth in a highly competitive and turbulent environment. (“George can best help you with that. The project manager achieves project objectives by using effective communication to inspire high team performance. – If managed properly. just listen if the person needs to let off steam. it creates a harmonious. implementing. coordinating activities between groups.”) Or. integrating. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. (“You seem angry. cont. Questions should be probing and constructive.”) Directing the speaker to the most appropriate listener. Ascertaining the speaker’s feelings and acknowledging them. other project managers. Improves communication and helps develop mutual respect. Self-awareness is key. Verbal listening behaviors: Asking questions to clarify and gather more information. blame. High Performance Communication: A project manager’s performance depends upon how well he/she works with the project team in planning. Summarizing at intervals what the speaker has said to confirm what you have understood. interfacing. © Copyright IBM Corp. schedules. and trust among project participants. 7-15 . coordinating. and failure to meet project objectives. – Involves negotiating resources. Asking the speaker for examples. and budgets. as well as developing plans for future operating periods. staff personnel. contractors. it may lead to conflict. Key requirements for achieving high team performance include: Openness in communication Development of trust (so that accuracy of communication is achieved) Continuous support and counseling Effective Listening: Effective listening is one of the most important skills for a project manager to acquire and practice. cooperative environment based on trust and respect for one another. – Requires diplomacy and experience. rapport. It is essential for successful project management. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Lateral communication (horizontally): – Information exchange between the project manager and his/her peers: functional managers. Project managers must be aware of their own communication strengths and weaknesses. – If poorly managed.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. Paraphrasing what the speaker has said. and controlling the project. etc.
Physical distractions: telephone calls. 2002 . 7-16 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. cont. use of time. (sometimes the real message is not what’s said. Also. but how it is said) Facial expressions. Some of the personal and environmental barriers that influence the overall effectiveness of communication include: Poor listeners: People do not talk freely when they know the audience isn’t listening. © Copyright IBM Corp. For example. Use of “I” messages instead of “you” messages assists the speaker with delivery of a nonjudgmental. Checking perceptions and asking for clarification from speaker of intended message helps facilitate effective communications. 600 words per minute) makes effective listening tough. and body positioning. Resistance to the message: People don’t like to listen to something that is contrary to their preconceived ideas. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Non-verbal listening behaviors: Actions that reinforce the message or undermine it. people tend to: – Jump to conclusions – Confuse facts with opinions – Make frozen evaluations (those that cannot be easily changed) Project managers must be aware of these barriers to effective listening that might be caused by interpersonal conflict. Perceptual differences: Can influence the behavior of people which in turn can affect communications. etc. Body language (a subset of non-verbal) accounts for 55 percent of communication) It includes facial expressions. touching. (indicates honesty and openness) Being expressive and alert. use of personal space. management response to new ideas or the overall project climate. distractions. This inhibits effective communications. (indicates interest . Includes: Making eye contact. Barriers to Effective Listening: The mismatch between our speed of talking (100-400 words per minute) and our speed of thinking (approx. touching. when perceptual differences occur. non-critical message while still conveying the speaker’s points. instead. (establishes friendly environment) Listening for the intention behind the speaker’s communication. When they should be listening. Project managers should try to minimize barriers by nurturing better understanding and good working relationships necessary to effective communication among project participants. environments that create feelings of inequality in status discourage effective listening. they are concentrating on their response or defense. people coming in and out of office/meetings.motivates speaker to be open) Moving closer to the speaker.
relationship and environmental dimensions of communication. etc. – A receptive attitude: empathize with the speaker’s point of view. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Guidelines for Active Listening: (part of effective listening) Effective listening requires paying attention to the task. Communication Styles: The project manager uses communication more than any other skill set to manage the project throughout its life cycle and to ensure that team members are working cohesively and resolving problems. Active listeners empathize with the speaker. Active listeners are equally aware of the influence of vocal tones. – Person wants to complete tasks and minimize change. refrain from impatient mannerisms. mutual trust and respect. put the phone on hold. Two dimensions of thinking and action include: The thinking and decision-making approach which varies from logical (sequential) to intuitive (random) The action style which varies from hands-on (concrete) to research based (abstract) When the two dimensions are combined. thinks systematically and predictably. Listen for total meaning. Fix-it) – Person likes to focus on ideas and tasks. ask questions to clarify the message. cont. The styles are: Concrete-sequential: (Mr. © Copyright IBM Corp. Some practical guidelines for active listening include: Stop talking! Show the speaker you are ready to listen: – Silence: signals you are ready to listen./Ms. facial expressions and other nonverbal components in addition to the verbal component of communications. It requires patience. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. practicing neutrality.Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts. the results are four major communication styles all of which are applicable at various times in the project life cycle. and taking an objective approach. and provide frequent feedback so that the sender can evaluate the accuracy of his or her message. – Few distractions: shut the door. Effective listening requires being genuinely concerned for the individual as a person. 7-17 . not just for points of opposition.
© Copyright IBM Corp. (From Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager) Abstract-sequential: (Organizer) – Person who relies on logical analysis and systematic planning to solve problems. approximately 45% is spent listening. Project managers spend 50% of their time in meetings. Abstract-random: (Intuitive free thinker) – Person views experiences from different perspectives and sees the big picture and the long-term vision. and changes. Concrete-random: (Explorer/entrepreneur) – Person relies on people and technology. another 10% writing. 7-18 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and they know how to control resources and information. Approximately 10% is spent reading. which makes them effect team builders. – These communicators make decisions after thorough analysis and evaluation and excel at facilitating planning sessions. – These communicators are people and task-oriented. discussions. cont. – These communicators make good brainstormers because they can listen actively and enjoy the process of generating new ideas. finds practical use for theories and models. and 5% other. Another 30% is spent speaking. How Project Managers Spend their Time: (from PMI) Approximately 75-90% of project manager’s time is spend communicating. Of the PM’s time spend communicating. – These communicators prefer to have all information before making a decision. 2002 .Project Communications Management Project Communications Management Concepts.
(21-6) © Copyright IBM Corp. of channels for a 7 person team: (7*6)/2 = 21 Therefore. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. adding 3 people to a 4 person team increases the no. 7-19 . of channels for a 4 person team: (n*(n-1))/2 (4*3)/2 = 6 No. How many communication channels are added when three additional people are assigned to a four person team? Answer: 15 communication channels are added. No.Project Communications Management Sample Problem 1. of communication channels by 15.
75-90% 5. 60-80% D. B. The sending or conveying of information from one place to another is the process of: A. In the general management skill of communicating. Project records B. Referring to the process of interpersonal communication as defined by Wilbur Schramm which of the following statements is false? A. Comprehending D. 4. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 . to assimilate through the mind or senses is the process of: A. Networking B. Conflict Resolution D. Formal acceptance 3. Performance reports D. Communications Planning 2.Project Communications Management Sample Questions 1. Receiving B. 40-60% B. C. Transmitting C. Which of the following is an output of the Communications Planning process? A. Promoting 7-20 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Communication is considered successful if the message decoded is the same as the sender intended. Decoding C. The process of encapsulating information into a message and then transmitting the message is called decoding. Understanding 6. Perceptual differences can influence the way the message is decoded. 50-70% C. Encrypting D. How much time does the typical project manager spend communicating both formally and informally? A. Communications management plan C. D. Performance Reporting C. The destination decodes the message to determine its meaning and then responds accordingly. Administrative Closure B. Which of the following is not a process of Project Communications Management? A.
“S” curves. Seeking facts. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. histograms. Concrete-random 12. Sighing B. C. Avoiding voting. In Albert Meharabian’s interpersonal communication dynamics formula of Total Message Impact = Words + Vocal tones + Facial expressions.Project Communications Management Sample Questions. B. Crossed arms 8. Which of the following types of body signals is generally associated with a person feeling uncertainty? A. Concealing mouth with hands D. but prefers the conceptual phase over the implementing phase is most likely to have a preference for which communication style? (choose the best answer) A. bar charts. D. Abstract-random D. A person who is visionary and enjoys being a catalyst for organizational change. D. 7% D. B. 11. and tables C. 7-21 . trading. Acknowledging the speaker’s feelings 13. a and c © Copyright IBM Corp. Use of personal space D. Bending forward C. words make up what percentage of the total message impact? A. Trend analysis B. cont. 55% C. Where all team members are brought together in one location. 20% B. or averaging. 38% 9. Maintaining a focus on the problem. Where functional managers operate in a dual reporting structure reporting to both their own departments and to the project manager. Which of the following is not an example of an effective verbal listening behavior? A. A balanced matrix organization. not each other. Paraphrasing what the speaker has said B. All of the following aid in achieving consensus EXCEPT: A. A tight matrix is: A. Concrete-sequential B. Abstract-sequential C. Asking the speaker for examples C. Avoiding conflict. Performance reports D. 7. All of the following are outputs from the Performance Reporting process EXCEPT: A. Change Requests 10. C.
Confirming the message is understood. The sender is responsible for: A. Ensuring the receiver agrees with the message. A cell phone ringing during a meeting is an example of: (choose the best answer) A.Project Communications Management Sample Questions. Autocratic B. Transmitting. © Copyright IBM Corp. Receiving. Communications Planning D. Scheduling communication exchange. Decoding. cont. Sender. Medium. Communicating. Communicator. Functional C. D. Organizational Planning D. Consensus D. Poor listening D. Comprehending 16. Sending. 14. A perpetual difference B. Consultation in a group C. Which of the following communications management processes is considered core and controlling? A. Message. Performance Reporting B. 2002 . Information Distribution 18. B. Performance Reporting 20. Decoder D. Balanced matrix D. Weak matrix B. Administrative Close-out C. Administrative Closure C. Receiver. Receiver C. and Comprehending B. What are the four parts of the communications model? A. C. Formal acceptance by the client or sponsor of the project should be prepared and distributed during which process? A. A leadership style in which the project manager shares problems with team members and formulates solutions as a group is called: A. a and b 7-22 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Resistance to the message C. A physical distraction 19. Presenting the message in the most agreeable manner 15. One-to-one consultation 17. Receiving. In which of the following organizations is the project manager role likely to be part-time? A. Information Distribution B. Message.
A communication plan details all of the following except: A. C. Not considering the position of the receiver C. Among the most common pitfalls in effective communication is: A. it has been received in the same form it was sent D. Stakeholder analysis Executive interviews PMIS analysis Channel evaluation © Copyright IBM Corp. Not selecting the correct medium B. The contract file is an input to both processes D. Which of the following is not an output of a projects administrative closure? A. Being overly judgmental in communicating. D. Which of the following statements regarding contract close-out and administrative closure is true ? A. B. cont. B. 22. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Assuming that because a message is sent. Methods for accessing information D. D. Administrative closure is synonymous with contract close-out 25. E. To whom information will flow and what methods will be used to distribute various types of information W hat information will be gathered. 7-23 . All memos. reports and documents related to the project from all personnel. C. correspondence. All of the above 24. Project archives Formal acceptance Lessons learned Contract file 23. Contract Close-out is similar to administrative closure because both processes involve product verification C. 21.Project Communications Management Sample Questions. Which of the following techniques is used in the communications planning process? A. Administrative closure is part of Procurement Management and Contract Close-out is part of Communications Management B. B. how it will be gathered and how often it will be gathered C.
B. Trust and cooperation among the project team members High levels of conflict A more enjoyable work environment for the project manager Projects that are completed on time and within budget 27. 5 6 8 10 30. B. a or b 7-24 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Time for a team celebration. you should ____________. D. Smooth conflict by telling attendees which alternative to take 28. A formal written response is most suitable when _________. Conclude meeting because more discussion is a waste time B. C. Communication barriers may result in: A. D. D. Choose the best answer. © Copyright IBM Corp. A. Discussing work assignments Directing the contractor to make changes The interpreter has a short memory Contacting the client is necessary 29. 2002 . C. Allow people who are anxious for closure to leave meeting and continue meeting with remaining team members C. C. A conflict has arisen between some team members who are anxious for closure and others who wish to consider more alternatives. Facilitate continued discussion of alternatives while being cognizant of the impact of delays D. B.Project Communications Management Sample Questions. As project manager and meeting chairperson. Five people are involved on a project that requires significant communication between all project participants. Choose the best answer. How many lines of communication exist on this project ? A. A cumulative SPI of less than one most likely indicates: A. You are chairing a meeting in which you are using experts to identify the best solution to a very critical problem facing your project. B. A. D. 26. C. cont. The project is behind schedule. The project is ahead of schedule.
12. 18. 7-25 . 23. 9. 11. 24. 10. 19. 13. 29. 3. 22. 27. 2. 28. 25.Project Communications Management Answer Sheet 1. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 16. 8. 15. 6. 7. 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 14. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d © Copyright IBM Corp. 4. 30. 26. 20. 21. 17. 5.
SPI = EV/PV. general reading and experience The formula used to compute the total number of communications channels between N persons is: N(N-1))/2. In the modern view. “Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager”. 17-18 Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. “Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager”. “Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager”. 159 PMBOK®. 2002 . The receiver may very well be listening to the sender but the communication link is interrupted with a physical occurrence such as a ringing phone. pgs. Option B provides examples of the formats for performance reports. Performance Reporting is usually done regularly and consistently. If managed properly. pg. 43 Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. Project Communications Management and Project Procurement Management PMBOK® p 118 Reference Verma. pgs. An SPI < 1 would indicate that planned value is greater than earned value which would be an indicator that the project is behind schedule. etc. PMBOK® p 123 and Project Cost Management. pgs. Chapter 1 PMBOK®. pg. pgs. pg 118 Verma’s Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. Chapter 1 Reference Verma. pg. Withdrawal tends to minimize conflict but also fails to resolve the issue. Physical distraction is the best answer. pg. The outputs are change requests and performance reports. pg 117 PMBOK®. In this case the answer is 10. Use of personal space is a non-verbal listening behavior 10 B 11 C 12 13 14 15 16 17 C B A B C A 18 D 19 B 20 D 21 D Reference Verma. “Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager”. conflict is inevitable and is a natural result of change. 38.Project Communications Management Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C B A D A B C C A PMBOK®. 19 PMBOK®. pg. 123-124. general reading and experience PMBOK®. Reference Verma. 17-18 PMI Decoding is deciphering a message once assimilated. 125-126 PMBOK®. 22 D 23 E 24 B 25 26 27 28 29 A B C B D 30 C 7-26 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. documents. pg. 49 The abstract-random communicator is a brainstormer and visionary. © Copyright IBM Corp. PMBOK®. related to the project. PMBOK®. pg 120 The communications plan details a plan for storing important memos. 218 PMBOK®. conflict is frequently beneficial. but does not contain the actual documents itself. Trend analysis is a tool and technique of performance reporting.
Read ALL the answers before answering the question 4. 1. Read the answer properly and identified the keywords 3. Read the question properly and identified the keywords 2. Used a strategy of elimination 5. Reviewed my answer after reading the other questions 10.Project Communications Management PMP® Certification Exam Preparation What did I do wrong ? I would have answered a larger number of questions correctly if I had ___________. Known the PMBOK® definition 7. NOT rushed to finish Total Number _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ © Copyright IBM Corp. Checked the mathematics 8 Used the PMI® rather than my own perspective 9. 7-27 . 2002 Project Communications Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Known the formula 6.
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