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07-03ChapGere

07-03ChapGere

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Problem 7.

4-7 An element in pure shear is subjected to stresses

xy
ϭ3000 psi, as shown in the figure.
Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the stresses acting on an
element oriented at a counterclockwise angle ␪ ϭ70° from the
x axis and (b) the principal stresses. Show all results on sketches
of properly oriented elements.
Solution 7.4-7 Pure shear
452 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
y
x
O
3000 psi

x
ϭ 0 ␴
y
ϭ 0 ␶
xy
ϭ 3000 psi
(a) ELEMENT AT ␪ ϭ 70Њ
(All stresses in psi)
2␪ ϭ 140Њ ␪ ϭ 70Њ R ϭ 3000 psi
Origin O is at center of circle.
Point D:
Point DЈ:
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin 50Њ ϭ2298 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪR cos 50Њ ϭϪ1928 psi
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin 50Њ ϭϪ2298 psi
s
x
1
ϭR cos 50Њ ϭ1928 psi
(b) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
:

1
ϭ R ϭ 3000 psi
Point P
2
:

2
ϭ ϪR ϭ Ϫ3000 psi
u
p
2
ϭϪ45Њ 2u
p
2
ϭϪ90Њ
u
p
1
ϭ45Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ90Њ
D'
D
A (␪ ϭ 0)
3000 psi
2␪
p
1

2␪ =
140Њ
P
1
P
2 R
R
O

x
1
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1
y
1
50Њ
x
O
2300 psi
␪ ϭ 70Њ
1930 psi
1930 psi
y
D
D'
x O

p
1
ϭ 45Њ
3000 psi
3000 psi
y
P
2
P
1
Problem 7.4-8 An element in pure shear is subjected to stresses

xy
ϭϪ16 MPa, as shown in the figure.
Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the stresses acting on an element
oriented at a counterclockwise angle ␪ ϭ20° from the x axis and (b)
the principal stresses. Show all results on sketches of properly oriented
elements.
y
x
O
16 MPa
Solution 7.4-8 Pure shear
SECTION 7.4 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 453

x
ϭ 0 ␴
y
ϭ 0 ␶
xy
ϭ Ϫ16 MPa
(a) ELEMENT AT ␪ ϭ 20Њ
(All stresses in MPa)
2␪ ϭ 40Њ ␪ ϭ 20Њ R ϭ 16 MPa
Origin O is at center of circle.
Point D:
Point DЈ:
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR cos 2u ϭ12.26 MPa
s
x
1
ϭR sin 2u ϭ10.28 MPa
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR cos 2u ϭϪ12.26 MPa
s
x
1
ϭϪR sin 2u ϭϪ10.28 MPa
(b) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
:

1
ϭ R ϭ 16 MPa
Point P
2
:

2
ϭ ϪR ϭ Ϫ16 MPa
u
p
2
ϭ45Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ90Њ
u
p
1
ϭ135Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ270Њ
D'
D
A (␪ ϭ 0)
2␪
2␪
p
2

2␪
p
1

P
1
P
2 R
R
O

x
1
(␪ ϭ 20Њ)
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1
y
1
16
x
O
12.3 MPa
␪ ϭ 20Њ
10.3 MPa
10.3 MPa
y
D
D'
x
O

p
2
ϭ 45Њ
16 MPa
16 MPa
y
P
2
P
1
Problem 7.4-9 An element in pure shear is subjected to stresses

xy
ϭ4000 psi, as shown in the figure.
Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the stresses acting on an element
oriented at a slope of 3 on 4 (see figure) and (b) the principal stresses.
Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements.
O
3
4
y
x
4000 psi
Solution 7.4-9 Pure shear

x
ϭ 0 ␴
y
ϭ 0 ␶
xy
ϭ 4000 psi
(a) ELEMENT AT A SLOPE OF 3 ON 4
(All stresses in psi)
2␪ ϭ 73.740Њ ␪ ϭ 36.870Њ
R ϭ 4000 psi
Origin O is at center of circle.
u ϭarctan
3
4
ϭ36.870Њ

3
4
D'
D
A (␪ ϭ 0)
2␪
2␪
p
1

P
1
P
2
R
R
O

x
1
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1
y
1
4000
16.260Њ
R
454 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
Point D:
Point DЈ:
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin 16.260Њ ϭϪ1120 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪR cos 16.260Њ ϭϪ3840 psi
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin 16.260Њ ϭ1120 psi
s
x
1
ϭR cos 16.260Њ ϭ3840 psi (b) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
:

1
ϭ R ϭ 4000 psi
Point P
2
:

2
ϭ ϪR ϭ Ϫ4000 psi
u
p
2
ϭϪ45Њ 2u
p
2
ϭϪ90Њ
u
p
1
ϭ45Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ90Њ
x
O
1120 psi
␪ ϭ 36.87Њ
3840 psi
3840 psi
y
D
D'
x O

p
1
ϭ 45Њ
4000 psi
4000 psi
y
P
2
P
1
Problems 7.4-10 through 7.4-15 An element in plane stress is subjected
to stresses ␴
x
, ␴
y
, and ␶
xy
(see figure).
Using Mohr’s circle, determine the stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle ␪ from the x axis. Show these stresses on a sketch
of an element oriented at the angle ␪. (Note: The angle ␪ is positive
when counterclockwise and negative when clockwise.)
y
x
O

xy

x

y
Solution 7.4-10 Plane stress (angle ␪)

x
ϭ 21 MPa ␴
y
ϭ 11 MPa

xy
ϭ 8 MPa ␪ ϭ 50Њ
(All stresses in MPa)
␣ ϭarctan
8
5
ϭ57.99Њ
R ϭ ͙(5)
2
ϩ(8)
2
ϭ9.4340 MPa
␤ ϭ 2␪ Ϫ ␣ ϭ 100Њ Ϫ ␣ ϭ 42.01Њ
Point D (␪ ϭ 50Њ):
Point DЈ (␪ ϭ Ϫ40Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ6.31 MPa
s
x
1
ϭ16 ϪR cos b ϭ8.99 MPa
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ6.31 MPa
s
x
1
ϭ16 ϩR cos b ϭ23.01 MPa
Data for 7.4-10 ␴
x
ϭ21 MPa, ␴
y
ϭ11 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭ8 MPa, ␪ ϭ50°
D'
D
A (␪ ϭ 0)
2␪ ϭ
100Њ
R
R R

x
1
(␪ ϭ 90Њ)
(␪ ϭ 50Њ)

x
1
y
1
8
8
80Њ

B
16
11
21
C
5
O

x
O
23.01 MPa
␪ ϭ 50Њ
6.31 MPa
8.99 MPa
y
D'
D
SECTION 7.4 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 455
Data for 7.4-11 ␴
x
ϭ4500 psi, ␴
y
ϭ14,100 psi, ␶
xy
ϭϪ3100 psi, ␪ ϭϪ55°
Solution 7.4-11 Plane stress (angle ␪)

x
ϭ 4500 psi ␴
y
ϭ 14,100 psi

xy
ϭ Ϫ3100 psi ␪ ϭ Ϫ55Њ
(All stresses in psi)
␣ ϭarctan
3100
4800
ϭ32.86Њ
R ϭ ͙(4800)
2
ϩ(3100)
2
ϭ5714 psi
␤ ϭ 180Њ Ϫ 110Њ Ϫ ␣ ϭ 37.14Њ
Point D (␪ ϭ Ϫ55Њ):
Point DЈ(␪ ϭ 35Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ3450 psi
s
x
1
ϭ9300 ϪR cos b ϭ4750 psi
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ3450 psi
s
x
1
ϭ9300 ϩR cos b ϭ13,850 psi
D'
D
(␪ ϭ 0)
A
2␪ ϭ ᎐110Њ
R
R R

x
1
(␪ ϭ 90Њ)
(␪ ϭ ᎐55Њ)

x
1
y
1
3100
B
9300
4500
14,100
C
O
4800


3100
x
O
13,850 psi
␪ ϭ ᎐55Њ
3450 psi
4750 psi
y
D
D'
Data for 7.4-12 ␴
x
ϭϪ44 MPa, ␴
y
ϭϪ194 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭϪ36 MPa, ␪ ϭϪ35°
Solution 7.4-12 Plane stress (angle ␪)

x
ϭ Ϫ44 MPa ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ194 MPa

xy
ϭ Ϫ36 MPa ␪ ϭ Ϫ35Њ
(All stresses in MPa)
␤ ϭ 70Њ Ϫ ␣ ϭ 44.36Њ
␣ ϭarctan
36
75
ϭ25.64Њ
R ϭ ͙(75)
2
ϩ(36)
2
ϭ83.19 MPa
Point D (␪ ϭ Ϫ35Њ):
Point DЈ(␪ ϭ 55Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ58.2 MPa
s
x
1
ϭϪ119 ϪR cos b ϭϪ178.5 MPa
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ58.2 MPa
s
x
1
ϭϪ119 ϩR cos b ϭϪ59.5 MPa
D'
D
A (␪ ϭ 0)
2␪ ϭ
᎐70Њ
R
R
R

x
1
(␪ ϭ 90Њ)
(␪ ϭ ᎐35Њ)

x
1
y
1
36
36

B
119
194
C
75 O
44

x
O
59.5 MPa
␪ ϭ ᎐35Њ
58.2 MPa
178.5 MPa
y
D'
D
Data for 7.4-13 ␴
x
ϭϪ1520 psi, ␴
y
ϭϪ480 psi, ␶
xy
ϭ280 psi, ␪ ϭ18°
456 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain

x
ϭ Ϫ1520 psi ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ480 psi

xy
ϭ 280 psi ␪ ϭ 18Њ
(All stresses in psi)
␣ ϭarctan
280
520
ϭ28.30Њ
R ϭ ͙(520)
2
ϩ(280)
2
ϭ590.6 psi
␤ ϭ ␣ ϩ 36Њ ϭ 64.30Њ
Point D (␪ ϭ 18Њ):
Point DЈ(␪ ϭ 108Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ532 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪ1000 ϩR cos b ϭϪ744 psi
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ532 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪ1000 ϪR cos b ϭϪ1256 psi
Solution 7.4-13 Plane stress (angle ␪)
D'
D
A
(␪ ϭ 0)
2␪
ϭ 36Њ
R
R

x
1
(␪ ϭ 90°)
(␪ ϭ 18Њ)

x
1
y
1
280
280
280 ␤
B
1000
1520
C O
480

520
x
O
1256 psi
␪ ϭ 18Њ
744 psi
532 psi
y
D
D'
Data for 7.4-14 ␴
x
ϭ31 MPa, ␴
y
ϭϪ5 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭ33 MPa, ␪ ϭ45°
Solution 7.4-14 Plane stress (angle ␪)

x
ϭ 31 MPa ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ5 MPa

xy
ϭ 33 MPa ␪ ϭ 45Њ
(All stresses in MPa)
␤ ϭ 90Њ Ϫ ␣ ϭ 28.610Њ
␣ ϭarctan
33
18
ϭ61.390Њ
R ϭ ͙(18)
2
ϩ(33)
2
ϭ37.590 MPa
Point D (␪ ϭ 45Њ):
Point DЈ(␪ ϭ 135Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ18.0 MPa
s
x
1
ϭ13 ϪR cos b ϭϪ20.0 MPa
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ18.0 MPa
s
x
1
ϭ13 ϩR cos b ϭ46.0 MPa
(␪ ϭ 90°)
B
5
33
C
O
R

D (␪ ϭ 45°)

x
1
33 33
13
18

31
A (␪ ϭ 0)

x
1
y
1
D'
R
D'
␪ ϭ 45Њ
x
18.0 MPa O
D
y
20 MPa 46.0 MPa
Data for 7.4-15 ␴
x
ϭϪ5750 psi, ␴
y
ϭ750 psi, ␶
xy
ϭϪ2100 psi, ␪ ϭ75°
SECTION 7.4 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 457
Solution 7.4-15 Plane stress (angle ␪))

x
ϭ Ϫ5750 psi ␴
y
ϭ 750 psi

xy
ϭ Ϫ2100 psi ␪ ϭ 75Њ
(All stresses in psi)
␤ ϭ ␣ ϩ 30Њ ϭ 62.87Њ
Point D (␪ ϭ 75Њ):
Point DЈ(␪ ϭ Ϫ15Њ):
t
x
1
y
1
ϭϪR sin b ϭϪ3444 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪ2500 ϪR cos b ϭϪ4265 psi
t
x
1
y
1
ϭR sin b ϭ3444 psi
s
x
1
ϭϪ2500 ϩR cos b ϭϪ735 psi
␣ ϭarctan
2100
3250
ϭ32.87Њ
R ϭ ͙(3250)
2
ϩ(2100)
2
ϭ3869 psi
(␪ ϭ 0)
30Њ
C O
R

B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1

2500

x
1
y
1
D'
(␪ ϭ Ϫ15Њ)
2100
A
3250
2␪
ϭ 150Њ
2100
R
750
Point D:
␪ ϭ 75Њ
5750
D
y
x
D'
D
O
3444 psi
735 psi
4265 psi
␪ ϭ 75°
Problems 7.4-16 through 7.4-23 An element in plane stress is
subjected to stresses ␴
x
, ␴
y
, and ␶
xy
(see figure).
Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the principal stresses and
(b) the maximum shear stresses and associated normal stresses.
Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements.
y
x
O

xy

x

y
Data for 7.4-16 ␴
x
ϭϪ31.5 MPa, ␴
y
ϭ31.5 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭ30 MPa
Solution 7.4-16 Principal stresses

x
ϭ Ϫ31.5 MPa ␴
y
ϭ 31.5 MPa

xy
ϭ 30 MPa
(All stresses in MPa)
␣ ϭarctan
30
31.5
ϭ43.60Њ
R ϭ ͙(31.5)
2
ϩ(30.0)
2
ϭ43.5 MPa
30
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)
30
30
31.5
(␪ ϭ 0)
A
S
2
R
O 31.5

2␪
P
1

x
1

x
1
y
1
2␪
s
1
S
1
P
1
31.5
P
2
458 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ R ϭ 43.5 MPa
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ ϪR ϭ Ϫ43.5 MPa
u
p
2
ϭϪ21.80Њ 2u
p
2
ϭϪ␣ ϭϪ43.60Њ
u
p
1
ϭ68.20Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ180Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ136.40Њ
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ 0 ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 43.5 MPa
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ 0 ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ43.5 MPa
u
s
2
ϭ113.20Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ2u
s
1
ϩ180Њ ϭ226.40Њ
u
s
1
ϭ23.20Њ 2u
s
1
ϭ90Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ46.40Њ
O

p
1
ϭ 68.20Њ
43.5 MPa
43.5 MPa
y
x
P
1
P
2

s
1
ϭ 23.20Њ
S
1
S
2
O
y
x
43.5 MPa
Data for 7.4-17 ␴
x
ϭ8400 psi, ␴
y
ϭ0, ␶
xy
ϭ1440 psi
Solution 7.4-17 Principal stresses

x
ϭ 8400 psi ␴
y
ϭ 0 ␶
xy
ϭ 1440 psi
(All stresses in psi)
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ 4200 ϩ R ϭ 8640 psi
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ 4200 Ϫ R ϭ Ϫ240 psi
u
p
2
ϭ99.46Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ180Њ ϩ␣ ϭ198.92Њ
u
p
1
ϭ9.46Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ␣ ϭ18.92Њ
␣ ϭarctan
1440
4200
ϭ18.92Њ
R ϭ ͙(4200)
2
ϩ(1440)
2
ϭ4440 psi
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ 4200 psi ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 4440 psi
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ 4200 psi ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ4440 psi
u
s
2
ϭ54.46Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ90Њ ϩ␣ ϭ108.92Њ
u
s
1
ϭϪ35.54Њ 2u
s
1
ϭϪ(90Њ Ϫ␣) ϭϪ71.08Њ
(␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1
y
1
R
R B
R
S
2
P
2
S
1
P
1
1440
4200
4200
8400
A (␪ ϭ 0)
2␪
s
1

x
1
O C
␣ O

p
1
ϭ 9.46Њ
y
x
P
2
240 psi
P
1
8640 psi
4440 psi
y
4200 psi
S
1
S
2
4200 psi
x
O

s
1
ϭ 54.46Њ
Data for 7.4-18 ␴
x
ϭ0, ␴
y
ϭϪ22.4 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭϪ6.6 MPa
SECTION 7.4 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 459
Solution 7.4-18 Principal stresses

x
ϭ 0 ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ22.4 MPa

xy
ϭ Ϫ6.6 MPa
(All stresses in MPa)
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ R Ϫ 11.2 ϭ 1.8 MPa
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ Ϫ11.2Ϫ R ϭ Ϫ24.2 MPa
u
p
2
ϭ74.74Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ180Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ149.49Њ
u
p
1
ϭϪ15.26Њ 2u
p
1
ϭϪ␣ ϭϪ30.51Њ
␣ ϭarctan
6.6
11.2
ϭ30.51Њ
R ϭ ͙(11.2)
2
ϩ(6.6)
2
ϭ13.0 MPa
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ11.2 MPa ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 13.0 MPa
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ11.2 MPa ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ13.0 MPa
u
s
2
ϭ29.74Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ90Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ59.49Њ
u
s
1
ϭϪ60.26Њ 2u
s
1
ϭϪ␣ Ϫ90Њ ϭϪ120.51Њ
(␪ ϭ 90Њ)

x
1

x
1
y
1
P
2
S
2
R
C O
S
1
2␪
p
2
A (␪ ϭ 0)
R
6.6
P
1
B
6.6
11.2

R
11.2
22.4
O

p
2
ϭ 74.74Њ
1.8 MPa
24.2 MPa
y
x
P
1
P
2
S
1
x
13.0 MPa
O
S
2
y
11.2 MPa
11.2 MPa

s
2
ϭ 29.74Њ
Data for 7.4-19 ␴
x
ϭ1850 psi, ␴
y
ϭ6350 psi, ␶
xy
ϭ3000 psi
Solution 7.4-19 Principal stresses

x
ϭ 1850 psi ␴
y
ϭ 6350 psi ␶
xy
ϭ 3000 psi
(All stresses in psi)
␣ ϭarctan
3000
2260
ϭ53.13Њ
R ϭ ͙(2250)
2
ϩ(3000)
2
ϭ3750 psi
O
R R
A
2250
3
0
0
0
3000
1850
4100
6350
S
2
P
2
P
1
S
1
(␪ ϭ 0)

2␪
s
1
2␪
p
1
C

x
1
y
1

x
1
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

R
460 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ 4100 ϩ R ϭ 7850 psi
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ 4100 Ϫ R ϭ 350 psi
u
p
2
ϭϪ26.57Њ 2u
p
2
ϭϪ␣ ϭϪ53.13Њ
u
p
1
ϭ63.43Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ180Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ126.87Њ
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ 4100 psi ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 3750 psi
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ 4100 psi ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ3750 psi
u
s
2
ϭ108.43Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ270Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ216.87Њ
u
s
1
ϭ18.43Њ 2u
s
1
ϭ90Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ36.87Њ
O

P
1
ϭ 63.43Њ
7850 psi
y
x
P
2
P
1
350 psi
S
2
x
O
S
1
y
4100 psi

s
1
ϭ 18.43Њ
3750 psi
4100 psi
Data for 7.4-20 ␴
x
ϭ3100 kPa, ␴
y
ϭ8700 kPa, ␶
xy
ϭϪ4500 kPa
Solution 7.4-20 Principal stresses

x
ϭ 3100 kPa ␴
y
ϭ 8700 kPa

xy
ϭ Ϫ4500 kPa
(All stresses in kPa)
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ 5900 ϩ R ϭ 11,200 kPa
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ 5900 Ϫ R ϭ 600 kPa
u
p
2
ϭ29.05Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ␣ ϭ58.11Њ
u
p
1
ϭ119.05Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ␣ ϩ180Њ ϭ238.11Њ
␣ ϭarctan
4500
2800
ϭ58.11Њ
R ϭ ͙(2800)
2
ϩ(4500)
2
ϭ5300 kPa
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ 5900 kPa ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 5300 kPa
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ 5900 kPa ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ5300 kPa
u
s
2
ϭ164.05Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ270Њ ϩ␣ ϭ328.11Њ
u
s
1
ϭ74.05Њ 2u
s
1
ϭ90Њ ϩ␣ ϭ148.11Њ
O
A
S
2
R
P
2
S
1
P
1
C
R
R
2800
4500
4
5
0
0
3100
5900
8700

x
1
y
1

x
1
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)

2␪
p
2
(␪ ϭ 0)
4500
O

p
2
ϭ 29.05Њ
600 kPa
y
x
P
2
P
1
11,200 kPa
S
2
x
O
S
1
y
5900 kPa

s
1
ϭ 74.05Њ
5900 kPa
5300 kPa
Data for 7.4-21 ␴
x
ϭϪ12,300 psi, ␴
y
ϭϪ19,500 psi, ␶
xy
ϭϪ7700 psi
SECTION 7.4 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 461
Solution 7.4-21 Principal stresses

x
ϭ Ϫ12,300 psi ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ19,500 psi

xy
ϭ Ϫ7700 psi
(All stresses in psi)
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ Ϫ15,900 ϩ R ϭ Ϫ7400 psi
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ Ϫ15,900 Ϫ R ϭ Ϫ24,400 psi
u
p
2
ϭ57.53Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ180Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ115.06Њ
u
p
1
ϭϪ32.47Њ 2u
p
1
ϭϪ␣ ϭϪ64.94Њ
␣ ϭarctan
7700
3600
ϭ64.94Њ
R ϭ ͙(3600)
2
ϩ(7700)
2
ϭ8500 psi
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ15,900 psi ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 8500 psi
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ15,900 psi ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ8500 psi
u
s
2
ϭ12.53Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ90Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ25.06Њ
u
s
1
ϭ102.53Њ 2u
s
1
ϭ270Њ Ϫ␣ ϭ205.06Њ
7700
7700
3600
12,300
15,900
19,500
P
2
S
2
S
1
P
1
C
B
O
2␪
s
2

x
1
A (␪ ϭ 0)
R
2␪
p
2


x
1
y
1
O

p
2
ϭ 57.53Њ
7400 psi
y
x
P
2
P
1
24,400 psi
S
2
x
O
S
1
y

s
2
ϭ 12.53Њ
8500 psi
15,900 psi
15,900 psi
Data for 7.4-22 ␴
x
ϭϪ3.1 MPa, ␴
y
ϭ7.9 MPa, ␶
xy
ϭϪ13.2 MPa
Solution 7.4-22 Principal stresses

x
ϭ Ϫ3.1 MPa ␴
y
ϭ 7.9 MPa

xy
ϭ Ϫ13.2 MPa
(All stresses in MPa)
␣ ϭarctan
13.2
5.5
ϭ67.38Њ
R ϭ ͙(5.5)
2
ϩ(13.2)
2
ϭ14.3 MPa
O
R
C
R
S
2

x
1

x
1
y
1
B (␪ ϭ 90Њ)
(␪ ϭ 0) A
13.2

P
2
2.4
7.9
3.1
5.5
13.2
S
1
P
1
462 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ 2.4 ϩ R ϭ 16.7 MPa
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ ϪR ϩ 2.4 ϭ Ϫ11.9 MPa
u
p
2
ϭ33.69Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ␣ ϭ67.38Њ
u
p
1
ϭ123.69Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ180Њ ϩ␣ ϭ247.38Њ
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ 2.4 MPa ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 14.3 MPa
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ 2.4 MPa ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ14.3 MPa
u
s
2
ϭϪ11.31Њ 2u
s
2
ϭϪ90Њ ϩ␣ ϭϪ22.62Њ
u
s
1
ϭ78.69Њ 2u
s
1
ϭ␣ ϩ90Њ ϭ157.38Њ
O

p
2
ϭ 33.69Њ
16.7 MPa
y
x
P
2
P
1
11.9 MPa
S
2
x
O
S
1
y

s
1
ϭ 78.69Њ
2.4 MPa
14.3 MPa
2.4 MPa
Data for 7.4-23 ␴
x
ϭ700 psi, ␴
y
ϭϪ2500 psi, ␶
xy
ϭ3000 psi
Solution 7.4-23 Principal stresses

x
ϭ 700 psi ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ2500 psi

xy
ϭ 3000 psi
(All stresses in psi)
(a) PRINCIPAL STRESSES
Point P
1
: ␴
1
ϭ Ϫ900 ϩ R ϭ 2500 psi
Point P
2
: ␴
2
ϭ Ϫ900 Ϫ R ϭ Ϫ4300 psi
u
p
2
ϭ120.96Њ 2u
p
2
ϭ180Њ ϩ␣ ϭ241.93Њ
u
p
1
ϭ30.96Њ 2u
p
1
ϭ␣ ϭ61.93Њ
␣ ϭarctan
3000
1600
ϭ61.93Њ
R ϭ ͙(1600)
2
ϩ(3000)
2
ϭ3400 psi
(b) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES
Point S
1
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ900 psi ␶
max
ϭ R ϭ 3400 psi
Point S
2
: ␴
aver
ϭ Ϫ900 psi ␶
min
ϭ Ϫ3400 psi
u
s
2
ϭ75.96Њ 2u
s
2
ϭ90Њ ϩ␣ ϭ151.93Њ
u
s
1
ϭϪ14.04Њ 2u
s
1
ϭϪ90Њ ϩ␣ ϭϪ28.07Њ

x
1
y
1
(␪ ϭ 90Њ) B
2500
3000
1600
3000
700
900
O
R
C
R
S
2
S
1
A (␪ ϭ 0)
P
2

P
1

x
1
O

p
1
ϭ 30.96Њ
4300 psi
y
x
S
1
s
2
2500 psi
S
2
x
O
S
1
y

s
2
ϭ 75.96Њ
900 psi
900 psi
3400 psi
Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress
When solving the problems for Section 7.5, assume that the material
is linearly elastic with modulus of elasticity E and Poisson’s ratio ␯.
Problem 7.5-1 A rectangular steel plate with thickness t ϭ0.25 in. is
subjected to uniform normal stresses ␴
x
and ␴
y
, as shown in the figure.
Strain gages A and B, oriented in the x and y directions, respectively, are
attached to the plate. The gage readings give normal strains ⑀
x
ϭ0.0010
(elongation) and ⑀
y
ϭϪ0.0007 (shortening).
Knowing that E ϭ30 ϫ10
6
psi and ␯ ϭ0.3, determine the stresses

x
and ␴
y
and the change ⌬t in the thickness of the plate.
Solution 7.5-1 Rectangular plate in biaxial stress
SECTION 7.5 Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress 463

y

x
y
x
O
B
A
t ϭ 0.25 in. ␧
x
ϭ 0.0010 ␧
y
ϭ Ϫ0.0007
E ϭ 30 ϫ 10
6
psi ␯ ϭ 0.3
Substitute numerical values:
Eq. (7-40a):
s
x
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
x
ϩne
y
) ϭ26,040 psi
Eq. (7-40b):
Eq. (7-39c):
⌬t ϭ ␧
z
t ϭ Ϫ32.1 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
in.
(Decrease in thickness)
e
z
ϭϪ
n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭϪ128.5 ϫ10
Ϫ6
s
y
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
y
ϩne
x
) ϭϪ13,190 psi
Problem 7.5-2 Solve the preceding problem if the thickness of the steel
plate is t ϭ10 mm, the gage readings are ⑀
x
ϭ480 ϫ10
Ϫ6
(elongation)
and ⑀
y
ϭ130 ϫ10
Ϫ6
(elongation), the modulus is E ϭ200 GPa, and
Poisson’s ratio is ␯ ϭ0.30.
Solution 7.5-2 Rectangular plate in biaxial stress
t ϭ 10 mm ␧
x
ϭ 480 ϫ 10
Ϫ6

y
ϭ 130 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
E ϭ 200 GPa ␯ ϭ 0.3
Substitute numerical values:
Eq. (7-40a):
s
x
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
x
ϩne
y
) ϭ114.1 MPa
Eq. (7-40b):
Eq. (7-39c):
⌬t ϭ ␧
z
t ϭ Ϫ2610 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
mm
(Decrease in thickness)
e
z
ϭϪ
n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭϪ261.4 ϫ10
Ϫ6
s
y
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
y
ϩne
x
) ϭ60.2 MPa
Problem 7.5-3 Assume that the normal strains ⑀
x
and ⑀
y
for an
element in plane stress (see figure) are measured with strain gages.
(a) Obtain a formula for the normal strain ⑀
z
in the z direction
in terms of ⑀
x
, ⑀
y
, and Poisson’s ratio ␯.
(b) Obtain a formula for the dilatation e in terms of ⑀
x
, ⑀
y
,
and Poisson’s ratio ␯.
y
x
z
O

x

xy

y
Probs. 7.5-1 and 7.5-2
Solution 7.5-3 Plane stress
464 CHAPTER 7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
Given: ␧
x
, ␧
y
, ␯
(a) NORMAL STRAIN ␧
z
Eq. (7-34c):
Eq. (7-36a):
Eq. (7-36b):
Substitute ␴
x
and ␴
y
into the first equation and
simplify:
e
z
ϭϪ
n
1 Ϫn
(e
x
ϩe
y
)
s
y
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
y
ϩne
x
)
s
x
ϭ
E
(1 Ϫn
2
)
(e
x
ϩne
y
)
e
z
ϭϪ
n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
)
(b) DILATATION
Eq. (7-47):
Substitute ␴
x
and ␴
y
from above and simplify:
e ϭ
1 Ϫ2n
1 Ϫn
(e
x
ϩe
y
)
e ϭ
1 Ϫ2n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
)
Problem 7.5-4 A magnesium plate in biaxial stress is subjected
to tensile stresses ␴
x
ϭ24 MPa and ␴
y
ϭ12 MPa (see figure).
The corresponding strains in the plate are ⑀
x
ϭ440 ϫ10
Ϫ6
and

y
ϭ80 ϫ10
Ϫ6
.
Determine Poisson’s ratio ␯ and the modulus of elasticity E
for the material.

y

x
y
x
O
Solution 7.5-4 Biaxial stress

x
ϭ 24 MPa ␴
y
ϭ 12 MPa

x
ϭ 440 ϫ 10
Ϫ6

y
ϭ 80 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
POISSON’S RATIO AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Eq. (7-39a):
Eq. (7-39b): e
y
ϭ
1
E
(s
y
Ϫns
x
)
e
x
ϭ
1
E
(s
x
Ϫns
y
)
Substitute numerical values:
E (440 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
) ϭ 24 MPa Ϫ ␯ (12 MPa)
E (80 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
) ϭ 12 MPa Ϫ ␯ (24 MPa)
Solve simultaneously:
␯ ϭ 0.35 E ϭ 45 GPa
Problem 7.5-5 Solve the preceding problem for a steel plate
with ␴
x
ϭ10,800 psi (tension), ␴
y
ϭϪ5400 psi (compression),

x
ϭ420 ϫ10
Ϫ6
(elongation), and ⑀
y
ϭϪ300 ϫ10
Ϫ6
(shortening).
Solution 7.5-5 Biaxial stress

x
ϭ 10,800 psi ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ5400 psi

x
ϭ 420 ϫ 10
Ϫ6

y
ϭ Ϫ300 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
POISSON’S RATIO AND MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Eq. (7-39a):
Eq. (7-39b): e
y
ϭ
1
E
(s
y
Ϫns
x
)
e
x
ϭ
1
E
(s
x
Ϫns
y
)
Substitute numerical values:
E (420 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
) ϭ 10,800 psi Ϫ ␯ (Ϫ5400 psi)
E (Ϫ300 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
) ϭ Ϫ5400 psi Ϫ ␯ (10,800 psi)
Solve simultaneously:
␯ ϭ 1/3 E ϭ 30 ϫ 10
6
psi
Probs. 7.5-4 through 7.5-7
Problem 7.5-6 A rectangular plate in biaxial stress (see figure) is
subjected to normal stresses ␴
x
ϭ90 MPa (tension) and ␴
y
ϭϪ20 MPa
(compression). The plate has dimensions 400 ϫ800 ϫ20 mm and is
made of steel with E ϭ200 GPa and ␯ ϭ0.30.
(a) Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain ␥
max
in the plate.
(b) Determine the change ⌬t in the thickness of the plate.
(c) Determine the change ⌬V in the volume of the plate.
SECTION 7.5 Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress 465
Solution 7.5-6 Biaxial stress

x
ϭ 90 MPa ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ20 MPa
E ϭ 200 GPa ␯ ϭ 0.30
Dimensions of Plate: 400 mm ϫ 800 mm ϫ 20 mm
Shear Modulus (Eq. 7-38):
(a) MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRAIN
Principal stresses: ␴
1
ϭ 90 MPa ␴
2
ϭ Ϫ20 MPa
Eq. (7-26):
Eq. (7-35): g
max
ϭ
t
max
G
ϭ715 ϫ10
Ϫ6
t
max
ϭ
s
1
Ϫs
2
2
ϭ55.0 MPa

E
2(1 ϩn)
ϭ76.923 GPa
(b) CHANGE IN THICKNESS
Eq. (7-39c):
⌬t ϭ ␧
z
t ϭ Ϫ2100 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
mm
(Decrease in thickness)
(c) CHANGE IN VOLUME
From Eq. (7-47):
V
0
ϭ (400)(800)(20) ϭ 6.4 ϫ 10
6
mm
3
Also,
І ⌬V ϭ (6.4 ϫ 10
6
mm
3
)(140 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
)
ϭ 896 mm
3
(Increase in volume)
¢
1 Ϫ2n
E
≤(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭ140 ϫ10
Ϫ6
¢V ϭV
0
¢
1 Ϫ2n
E
≤(s
x
ϩs
y
)
e
z
ϭϪ
n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭϪ105 ϫ10
Ϫ6
Problem 7.5-7 Solve the preceding problem for an aluminum plate
with ␴
x
ϭ12,000 psi (tension), ␴
y
ϭϪ3,000 psi (compression),
dimensions 20 ϫ30 ϫ0.5 in., E ϭ10.5 ϫ10
6
psi, and ␯ ϭ0.33.
Solution 7.5-7 Biaxial stress

x
ϭ 12,000 psi ␴
y
ϭ Ϫ3,000 psi
E ϭ 10.5 ϫ 10
6
psi ␯ ϭ 0.33
Dimensions of Plate: 20 in. ϫ 30 in. ϫ 0.5 in.
Shear Modulus (Eq. 7-38):
(a) MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRAIN
Principal stresses: ␴
1
ϭ 12,000 psi

2
ϭ Ϫ3,000 psi
Eq. (7-26):
Eq. (7-35): g
max
ϭ
t
max
G
ϭ1,900 ϫ10
Ϫ6
t
max
ϭ
s
1
Ϫs
2
2
ϭ7,500 psi

E
2(1 ϩn)
ϭ3.9474 ϫ10
6
psi
(b) CHANGE IN THICKNESS
Eq. (7-39c):
⌬t ϭ ␧
z
t ϭ Ϫ141 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
in.
(Decrease in thickness)
(c) CHANGE IN VOLUME
From Eq. (7-47):
V
0
ϭ (20)(30)(0.5) ϭ 300 in.
3
Also,
І ⌬V ϭ (300 in.
3
)(291.4 ϫ 10
Ϫ6
)
ϭ 0.0874 in.
3
(Increase in volume)
¢
1 Ϫ2n
E
≤(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭ291.4 ϫ10
Ϫ6
¢V ϭV
0
¢
1 Ϫ2n
E
≤(s
x
ϩs
y
)
e
z
ϭϪ
n
E
(s
x
ϩs
y
) ϭϪ282.9 ϫ10
Ϫ6

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