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PROJECT REPORT

ON

“Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social Security
Measures Implemented in Western Coal Fields Ltd., Nagpur.”
for the period June-July 2009

In partial fulfillment

Of

MASTER’S DEGREE

In

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


R.T.M. NAGPUR UNIVERSITY, NAGPUR (M.S.)

Submitted by
SNEHAL GURLE (MB08027)

Under the Guidance of


Ms. Priyanka Dongre
Faculty (D.M.S.), K.I.T.S., RAMTEK
(2009 – 2010)

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

KAVIKULGURU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE,


RAMTEK – 441 106, DIST: NAGPUR (M.S.)
KAVIKULGURU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE,
RAMTEK – 441 106, DIST: NAGPUR (M.S.)

Ref No.- DMS/MB08027 Ph. No.(07114) 255309


Fax No. (07114) 255236
Reg No.- NU/A4/52399 Email. Kits_ngp@sancharnet.in

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this is a bonafide record of project work entitled

“Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social


Security Measures Implemented in Western Coal Fields Ltd.,
Nagpur.”
for the period June-July 2009.

SNEHAL GURLE
(MB08027)

Of The Final Year MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

During the academic year 2009-10


In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement Of The
Master Degree Of
MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Offered By The
R.T. M. Nagpur University, Nagpur.
Ms. Priyanka Dongre DR. BHASKAR PATEL
PROJECT GUIDE DIRECTOR
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
K.I.T.S., Ramtek- 441106
Ref No.- DMS/MB08027 Ph. No.(07114) 255309
Fax No. (07114) 255236
Reg No.- NU/A4/52399 Email. Kits_ngp@sancharnet.in

CERTIFICATE
I hereby declare that this project work titled

“Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social


Security Measures Implemented in Western Coal Fields Ltd.,
Nagpur.”
for the period June-July 2009

Is submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Embodies the result of the bonafide research carried out by

MS. SNEHAL GURLE


I find the work comprehensive, complete and of sufficiently high standard to warrant this

presentation for examination.

I further certify that the work has been carried out under my guidance and has not

been submitted earlier for any degree or diploma examination.

Place :KITS, Ramtek MS. PRIYANKA DONGRE


Date: (PROJECT GUIDE)
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
K.I.T.S., Ramtek- 441106

DECLARATION

I, Ms. SNEHAL GURLE, Hereby declare that the Project Report


entitled “Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare &
Social Security Measures Implemented in Western Coal Fields
Ltd., Nagpur.” for the period June-July 2009 is submitted by me for
the partial fulfillment of MBA at KaviKulguru Institute of
Technology & Science, Ramtek.
This report is an original work prepared/done by me and it has never

been submitted to any university/institution for the award of any

degree/diploma.

Place: KITS, Ramtek

Date: SNEHAL GURLE


PROPOSAL

ENROLLMENT NO. NU/A4/52399

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION Kavikulguru Institute of Technology & Science,


Ramtek

NAME Snehal Gurle

ADDRESS R2/1,Staff Quarters, Kits Campus


Ramtek, Distt. – Nagpur

TITLE OF THE PROJECT Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare
& Social Security Measures Implemented in Western
Coal Fields Ltd., Nagpur.” for the period June-July
2009”

SUBJECT AREA Human Resourse Management

NAME OF THE GUIDE Ms. Priyanka Dongre

Signature of the Student Signature of the Guide


Date:
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Approved
Dr. Bhaskar Patel
Date : Signature of Director

PREFACE
Student life is a constant process of learning. It aims at developing a student’s overall
personality, creativity and innovation. Learning includes both theoretical and practical aspects.
Theory can be understood only through practical work. This project is a practical fieldwork, which
has taught us many things including field study.

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have made employee dependent on capitalists.


Inflation has made their lot poor and they find it difficult to maintain their standard of life. In such
a situation. Employee welfare facilities enable employee to live a richer and more satisfactory life.

Employee welfare is in the interest of the employee, employer and the society as a whole.
For the employee, welfare measures help to counteract the negative effect of this board. These
measures enable the employee and his family to lead a good life. Welfare facilities like housing,
medical, and children’s education, recreation, etc help to improve the family life of employees. For
the employer, welfare measures lead to higher moral and productivity of labour. Employee welfare
is also in the interest of the larger society because the health, happiness and efficiency of each
individual represent the general well being of all. The project is entitled “Study & Understand
the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social Security Measures Implemented in Western Coal
Fields Ltd., Nagpur.” is undertaken to study the important aspect of Human Resources.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Every project big or small is successful largely due to the effort of a number of wonderful
people who have always given their valuable advice or lent a helping hand. I sincerely appreciate
the inspiration; support and guidance of all those people who have been instrumental in making
this project a success.

I, the student of K.I.T.S. Ramtek (Department Of Management Studies), am extremely


grateful to “Western Coalfields Ltd, Nagpur.” for the confidence bestowed in me and entrusting
my project entitled “Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social Security
Measures Implemented in Western Coal Fields Ltd., Nagpur, for the period June-July 2009”

with special reference to Western Coalfields Ltd, Nagpur.

At this juncture I feel deeply honored in expressing my sincere thanks to Mrs. Sandhya
Sinha (Personnel Manager) for making the resources available at right time and providing valuable
insights leading to the successful completion of my project.

I express my gratitude to Dr. Bhaskar Patel, Director, Kavikulguru Institute of


Technology and Science, Ramtek for arranging the summer training in good schedule. I also
extend my gratitude to my Project Guide Ms. Priyanka Dongre, & Co-Guide Mrs. Shilpi Bose,
Faculty D.M.S., KITS, RAMTEK who assisted me in compiling the project.

I would also like to thank all the faculty members of K.I.T.S. Ramtek for their critical
advice and guidance without which this project would not have been possible.

Last but not the least I place a deep sense of gratitude to my family members and my
friends who have been constant source of inspiration during the preparation of this project work.

DATE –
PLACE - Snehal Gurle
“Study & Understand

the Opinion of Labour

Welfare & Social

Security Measures

Implemented in

Western Coal Fields

Ltd., Nagpur.”
INDEX
Sr. Contents Page
no. no.
Executive Summary

1. Introduction
1.1 Objectives
1.2 Literature Review
2. Company Profile
3. Theoretical Background
4. Research Methodology
5. Data Analysis & Interpretation

6. Conclusion

7. Findings

8. Recommendation

9. Limitations
Bibliography
Annexure
Executive
Summary
Executive Summary

People are industry’s greatest assets and most important resource. Since most people use only a
percentage of their talents and abilities for them to realize their full potential is always profitable for
an organization.

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the labour welfare & social
security measures are also changing. The labour welfare & social security measures are now equally
important with that of other HR functions. Welfare Measures may be provided for matters
concerning employees which are not immediately connected generally with their place of work.
These matters will include individual services related to employees. This will also include the
Group services, which may include the provision of social and sporting activities, child care
facilities.

In any organization employee welfare rests mainly on the abstract grounds of social responsibility
of the organization for those who work in them. Simply it is mean that it is the realization that in
exchange for offering their services, employee are entitled to rather more than their pay, benefits,
healthy and safe system of work.

One of the main objectives of Nationalization of Coal Mines was to ameliorate the living
conditions of the workers engaged in Coal Industry. It is known that the coal mining is a war
during peace time. The workmen engaged in mining industry faces numerous hazards , since they
fight the natural balance of earth crust. While doing so the nature reacts and takes toll. It is,
therefore, necessary to keep the work force mentally and physically alert to win the war. The coal
industry after nationalization has undertaken the welfare of the workers as a task assigned to itself
and the attention paid is comparable to that of efforts put in for “ production” and “safety” .
Western Coalfield Ltd., has recognized that welfare of employees by improving quality of life of
the employees in particular and their family members in general will help to give thrust to the
objective of WCL of improving production and productivity. It is an axiom that contended
employees can only deliver the goods. It has got direct bearing on the production and productivity.
Constant and untiring efforts keeping in view the changing aspirations of the employees are
required to be made for not only providing more and more welfare measures/ amenities to the
employees but also to maintain them in perfect order.
With this philosophy, in mind the WCL management determinately and steadily adopted all-round
welfare of the employees as their own mission in keeping with CIL policy for implementing
various welfare measures for employees and their families, Western Coalfields Ltd., fully
committed not only to implement the welfare activities and schemes related to adequate drinking
water ,maintaining proper sanitation conditions in their residential areas , providing educational
facilities to the ward of the employees with due transport facilities and development of sports and
recreational facilities for proper growth and entertainment of the employees and families,
simultaneously we have recognized the responsibility to provide recreational and rehabilitation
facilities to the population affected due to Mining operations and living in and around coalfields.
With a view to achieve betterment in the welfare facilities and thereby attaining better quality of
life, every year, competition is held in all units to have participation of employees and union
representative which has indeed resulted in achieving much better status of welfare facilities
provided and thereby elevated quality of life of employees.
This research work is taken up with the intention of improving the welfare & social security
measures which was facing some labour problems in the past. The data is collected by
questionnaires survey, interviews with the different sectional heads, companies policies, records,
exit interviews files.
By studying above here it has been concluded that the welfare & social security measures are
adequate but still there is need of some improvement and some addition in their welfare measures.
During the study of welfare measures at WCL, it has been observed some of the short coming in
welfare measures & their implementations.
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Organizations provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. The
employee welfare schemes can be classified into two categories viz. statutory and non-statutory
welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an
organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include
provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and
welfare) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The non statutory schemes differ from organization to organization
and from industry to industry.

Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided
over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high
so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not be in monetary terms
only but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of
industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease,
accident and unemployment for the workers and their families.

Employee welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the
employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries.

Definitions

Employee Welfare
“Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities
offered to employees & by the employers. Through such generous fringe benefits the employer
makes life worth living for employees.”

Oxford dictionary defines labour welfare as “Efforts to make life worth living for workers.”

Chambers dictionary defines welfare as “State of doing well.”

Social Security
Social security is defined as the “Security that society furnishes through appropriate organizations,
against certain risks, to which its members are exposed.” These risks are essentially contingencies
against which the individual who has small means cannot protect himself. These contingencies
include employment injury, sickness, disablement, industrial disease, old age, burial, widowhood
& unemployment.

Social security is also defined as “Endeavour of the community as a whole to render help to the
utmost extent possible to any individual during periods of physical distress inevitable on illness
during economic distress on reduction or loss of earnings due to illness, disablement, maternity,
unemployment, old age or death of working member.”

The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines Social Security as "the security that
society furnishes through appropriate organization against certain risks to which its members are
perennially exposed. These risks are essentially contingencies against which an individual of small
means cannot effectively provide by his own ability or foresight alone or even in private
combination with his fellows.

Employee welfare has the following objectives:


1. To provide better life and health to the workers

2. To make the workers happy and satisfied.

3. To relieve workers from industrial fatigue and to improve intellectual, cultural and material
conditions of living of the workers

4. .To win employee loyalty and increase their moral..

5. To build up stable associate force, to reduce associate turnover and absenteeism.

6. .To develop efficiency and productivity among workers..

7. To reduce the threat of further government intervention.

8. To make recruitment more effective.

9. To improve the quality of life of employees and to discharge the corporate obligations to
society at large and the community around the coal fields in particular.

10. Undertake continuous efforts to inculcate safe mining practices and promote safety
management to achieve reduction in accidents in all mines.

11. Encourage and practice workers participation in management in letter and spirit at all
levels.

12. Provide welfare measures to maintain sound industrial relations and healthy environment.
The basic features of labor welfare measures are as follows:
1. Labor welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to
workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status.

2. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits
available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining

3. Labor welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are
added to the existing ones from time to time.

4. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or


by any social or charitable agency.

5. The purpose of labor welfare is to bring about the development of the whole
personality of the workers to make a better workforce.

The very logic behind providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and
satisfied labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their
work life better and also to raise their standard of living.

The important benefits of welfare measures can be summarized as follows:


1. They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a
healthy work environment.

2. Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation
facilities for workers’ families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to pay
more attention towards work and thus increases their productivity.

3. Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take
active interest in their jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation.

4. Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote


healthy industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace.

5. The social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are
reduced to a greater extent by the welfare policies.

Importance of welfare measures in Employee relation


Good industrial relations depend on a great variety of factors. Some of the more obvious ones are
listed below:

1. History of employee relations – No enterprise can escape its good and bad history of employee
relations. A good history is marked by harmonious relationship between management and workers.
A bad history by contrast is characterized by militant strikes and lockouts. Both types of history
have a tendency to perpetuate themselves. Once militancy is established as a mode of operations
there is a tendency for militancy to continue. Or once harmonious relationship is established there
is a tendency for harmony to continue.

2. Economic satisfaction of workers – Psychologists recognize that human needs have a certain
priority. Need number one is the basic survival need. Much of men conducted are dominated by
this need. Man works because he wants to survive. This is all the more for underdeveloped
countries where workers are still living under subsistence conditions. Hence economic satisfaction
of workers is another important prerequisite for good employee relations.

3. Social and Psychological satisfaction –

Identifying the social and psychological urges of workers is a very important step in the direction
of building good employee relations. A man does not live by bread alone. He has several other
needs besides his physical needs which should also be given due attention by the employer. An
organization is a joint venture involving a climate of human and social relationships wherein each
participant feels that he is fulfilling his needs and contributing to the needs of others. This
supportive climate requires economic rewards as well as social and psychological rewards such as
workers’ participation in management, job enrichment, suggestion schemes, re-dressal of
grievances etc.

4. Off-the-Job Conditions –
An employer employs a whole person rather than certain separate characteristics. A person’s traits
are all part of one system making up a whole man. His home life is not separable from his work
life and his emotional condition is not separate from his physical condition. Hence for good
employee relations it is not enough that the worker’s factory life alone should be taken care of his
off-the-job conditions should also be improved to make the employee relations better.

5.Enlightened Trade Unions –

The most important condition necessary for good employee relations is a strong and enlightened
labor movement which may help to promote the status of labor without harming the interests of
management, Unions should talk of employee contribution and responsibility. Unions should
exhort workers to produce more, persuade management to pay more, mobilize public opinion on
vital labor issues and help Government to enact progressive labor laws.

6.Negotiating skills and attitudes of management and workers

Both management and workers’ representation in the area of employee relations come from a
great variety of backgrounds in terms of training, education, experience and attitudes. These
varying backgrounds play a major role in shaping the character of employee relations. Generally
speaking, well-trained and experienced negotiators who are motivated by a desire for industrial
peace create a bargaining atmosphere conducive to the writing of a just and equitable collective
agreement.

On the other hand, ignorant, inexperienced and ill-trained persons fail because they do not
recognize that collective bargaining is a difficult human activity which deals as much in the
emotions of people as in their economic interests. It requires careful preparation and top –notch
executive competence. Parties must have trust and confidence in each other. They must possess
empathy, i.e. they should be able to perceive a problem from the opposite angle with an open
mind. They should put themselves in the shoes of the other party and then diagnose the problem.
Other factors which help to create mutual trust are respect for the law and breadth of the vision.
Both parties should show full respect for legal and voluntary obligations and should avoid the
tendency to make a mountain of a mole hill.

8. Better education: -
With rising skills and education workers’ expectations in respect of rewards increase. It is a
common knowledge that the industrial worker in India is generally illiterate and is misled by
outside trade union leaders who have their own axe to grind. Better workers’ education can be a
solution to this problem. This alone can provide worker with a proper sense of responsibility,
which they owe to the organization in particular, and to the community in general.

9. Nature of industry: -

In those industries where the costs constitute a major proportion of the total cast, lowering down
the labor costs become important when the product is not a necessity and therefore, there is a little
possibility to pass additional costs on to consumer. Such periods, level of employment and wages
rise in decline in employment and wages. This makes workers unhappy and destroys good
industrial relations.

Various benefit provided to the employees may be classified on different bases. One classification
may be in term of Statutory and Non-statutory welfare measures.

Types of Welfare measures


Types of
Welfare
measures

Non-Statutory
Statutory Welfare

Measures

S
tatutory Welfare Schemes:

Statutory Welfare Schemes are those which are mandatory provided under the provisions of
various Acts as given below:

1. Factory Act,1948
2. Mines Act,1952
3. The plantation labour Act, 1951
4. Employer’s state Insurance Act, 1948
5. Workers Compensation Act, 1923

1. Factory Act, 1948:

The factory Act, 1948, was conceived in 1881 when legislation was enacted to protect children and
to provide health and safety measures. In 1911, the hours of work were regulated and incorporated
in the Act. In 1934, following the recommendations of the Royal Commission of Labour, the act
was amended. A more Comprehensive legislation to regulate working conditions replaced the act
in 1948.

2. Mines Act,1952:

The Mines Act, 1952 is to regulate the working condition in mines and to provide for certain
amenities to workers employed therein. It extends to the whole of India .Section 1(3) of the Act
provides that the Act shall come into force on such date or dates as the Central Govt. may, by
notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different
provisions of the Act for different States but not later than 31st dec,1953.

3. The Plantation Labour Act, 1951:

The Act has been enacted to provide for the welfare of labour and to regulate the condition of work
in plantations. It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu& Kashmir. It came into
Force on 1st April, 1954. The Act was amended in 1960, 1961, 1981 and lastly in 1986.

4. Employers state Insurance Act, 1948:

The Act is a landmark in the history of social security in India and its object is to introduce social
insurance by providing for certain benefits to employees in case of sickness , maternity and
employment injury. The Act provide for medical care and treatment, payment of cash benefits
during sickness , maternity and employment injury , pension to the dependents on the death of a
worker due to employment injury and funeral expenses not exceeding Rs.1,000 towards
expenditure on funeral of an insured person.

5.Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923

In addition to safety and health measures, a provision for the payment of compensation has also
been made under this Act. The Act covers the employees whose wages are less than Rs.500 per
month. Amount of compensation depends on nature of injury and the monthly wages of employee.
In case of death of the employee, his dependents are eligible for compensation.
Non-Statutory welfare schemes:

1. Flexi-time:

The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with
flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by
management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs.
2. Employee Assistance Programs:

Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling service so that employees or
members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters

3. Harassment Policy:

To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for proper action
and also for protecting the aggrieved employee.

4. Maternity & Adoption Leave –

Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves Paternity leave.

5. Medic-claim Insurance Scheme:

This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to
hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy.

6. Employee Referral Scheme:

In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to encourage employees to refer


friends and relatives for employment in the organization. Injury policies have also been introduced
by various companies.
7. Wages and salary:

The main objective of wages and salary administration is to establish and maintain an equitable
wage and salary system. This is so because only a properly developed compensation system
enables an employer to attract , obtain and retain and motivate people of required caliber and
qualification in his/her organization.

8. Safety:

The Act provides 20 different sections on obligatory safety measures, e.g., the fencing and
covering of dangerous parts of machinery in operation prohibition of young persons and females
from handling cleaning and lubricating machines, provision of suitable striking gear, bolt, spindle
and pinion.

9. Canteen facilities:

Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to that they can work safely during
the night shifts.

10. Grievance procedure:

The Grievance procedure is one of more important means available for employees to express their
dissatisfaction. It is also a means available to management to keep a check on relevant diagnostic
data on the state of the organization health. There are other mean also for this, such as decline in
production/Output change in an individual’s work habit.

Non-Statutory welfare: A Model:

Although many non-statutory welfare activities either started as paternalism or on account of the
aggressiveness of union in India, the workers and unions today take them very seriously as an
important compensation for their work. In some cases they have almost become property rights
and any hint of eliminating them causes serious concern and frustration among the workers, often
leading to go slows, gheraos, and strikes. The management, thus, has to be concerned with the
efficacy and cost of non-statutory benefits.

Non-statutory welfare activities are more difficult to budget than salary. They often turn out to be
more expensive than had been visualized. Under such circumstances, the management becomes
extremely critical of this activity. On the one hand management has to consider the costs involved,
and on the other, the probable repercussions of not offering these benefits, i.e., the cost and the
benefit of these measures, to the organization.

The management has to consider the motivational has to consider the motivational effect such
activities on work and other productive behaviors. What sort of reaction do these benefits elicit?
Are they desirable from the point of view of management? Are non statutory benefits taken for
granted by workers or to do they mentally add it to their wages? These are some important
question that requires consideration. No study has been done in India, so far, to see the effect of
non statutory welfare on productivity, particularly because it is difficult to isolate the effect of such
benefits. But the growing cost of this activities warrants in depth studies to understand and
possibly predict, the effect of non- statutory welfare activity on productivity.

Finally, manager must keep in mind non-statutory welfare will result in sense of gratitude and
loyalty among employee and motivate them to work hard. Generous benefit might however, create
a sense of overdependence among workers. The manager has thus, to insure non-statutory welfare
help the organization to grow and not retard its growth by kicking back and defeating the very
purpose for which it was created. However, non-statutory welfare is comprised mainly of hygiene
factors and not of direct motivators, and the capacity of these factors by themselves to elicit
increased productivity is debatable.

Model

A new model is suggested to orient non-statutory welfare activities from a different perspective.
The purpose is to make such activities more meaningful for organizational productivity. It should
be clarified at the outset that management is concerned with productivity and not job satisfaction.
A general fallacy is that job satisfaction and productivity are synonymous, or that high job
satisfaction will lead high productivity. Evidence, in fact, points to contrary. The two are very
different and one does not necessarily determine the other. In fact, even the conditions that
determine the two are very different.

HAFEEZ has listed six broad categories of factors that determine job satisfaction of Indian
employees:

 Personal adjustment of workers

 Nature of work

 Relationship with other workers

 Nature of supervision

 Company set -up and its relationship with union

 The social status of his job in the community.

Productivity on the other hand has been formed to be determined largely by the quality of machine
and raw material, R&D, industrial relation, institutional set-up, ability and skills of work force,
incentive system, etc…

Individuals are motivated to achieve certain goals which result in satisfaction. Productivity in
seldom a goal itself but is more a means to goal attainment. In most cases, productivity and job
satisfaction are unrelated except when productivity is perceived as a path to certain important
goals. Thus job satisfaction is more broad-based and encompasses various condition and situation
and sometimes productivity is also included in it.

However, the bulk of the evidence suggests no relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity. Since productivity is of prime concern to an organization, we will deal here with
productivity and not with job satisfaction.

The model that is followed for non-statutory welfare is represented below:


Non-Statutory Company satisfaction Productivity
welfare

Company satisfaction is a state of positive feeling towards the company, feeling expressed in
loyalty, faith and an attitude that the company is concerned with the welfare of its employees. This
model maintains that welfare activities will generate company loyalties, and assumes that such
allegiance will lead to productivity. It is a paternalistic approach. The non-statutory welfare
provisions, thus, are made to generate a pride and satisfaction with the organization, an
organization which is generous enough to be concerned with the “care” and well-being of its
employees.

Although increased productivity is one of the objectives of non-statutory welfare in Indian


industry by and large, the motivation for such measures has been philanthropic; a feeling that
workers suffer from poverty and need to be cared for. It is Felt that if they are properly looked
after they will be loyal to the company

Thus, in the existing model, though it may be true that non-statutory welfare can lead to high
company satisfaction, it is doubtful if high company satisfaction will necessarily lead to high
productivity. Hence, if the concern is with increasing productivity, the existing model has to be
modified.

The models suggested here reverse the position of productivity and company satisfaction. The new
model is represented below:
Non-Statutory Customer
Productivity
welfare Satisfaction

The model suggests that non-statutory welfare will directly influence productivity. Once this
relationship is established, high productivity may lead to high satisfaction.

Non-statutory welfare, in addition to providing the usual social benefits, should be linked with such
concepts as workers’ participation and job enrichment. This calls for a shift in emphasis. Let an increase
in productivity be not the indirect function of welfare but a direct outcome of this measure. The concept
of welfare has to be delinked from social service. It has to be broad based to include job contents. Most
welfare measures have been concerned with job context activities. If organizations are genuinely
interested in the workers’ welfare, they have to provide meaning in their jobs by increased participation
and greater discretion and variety.

EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL SECURITIES:


Social security policies were political responses for the quest of stability as was introduced by
Germany’s Bismark as social insurance. A study on social security by ILO in 1984 describes three
stages. Initially employers had a paternalistic and poor relief approach although it was not entirely
accepted due to political reasons. Secondly insurance schemes based on compulsory premia in the
form of pensions and sick pay came into vogue. And on the third stage maintenance and
enhancement of quality of life was aimed at.

Among industrial countries the formal social security approaches differ depending upon the
perspective of the government. Nevertheless the considerable progress of social security schemes
in these various countries in recent years, is to be accredited to the strong efforts and activities of
the International Labour Organization. The International Labour organization was founded in
1919 with primary purposes of improving the working and living conditions and promoting social
justice throughout the world. The ILO drafted the standards of social insurance laws in 1920. A
convention on maternity benefits was adopted in 1919. On validity, old age and survivorship
insurance a convention was adopted in 1921, 1925, 1933 respectively. And in 1928 and 1934 a
convention was adopted in minimum wages and unemployment insurance respectively, until June,
1930, 29 out of 132 conventions and 27 out of 136 recommendations have helped in formulating
international standards regarding social security.

Apart from ILO, the United Nations, The Europian Economic Community ,The World Health
Organization and the League of Arab States, have worked jointly with the ILO to achieve a
comprehensive social security programme for workers . Furthermore the recommendations on
income security and medical care adopted in 1944 were the latest provisions of social security.
And in 1952 the social security (minimum standards) conventions divided social security measures
into components.

1. Sickness benefits

2. Unemployment benefits
3. Old age benefits

4. Medical care

5. Family benefits

6. Invalidity benefits

7. Maternity benefits

8. Employments injury benefits

9. Survivors benefits

Nevertheless, the origin of social security goes back to the nineteenth century when the individual
and urban way of life developed. People started leaving their own lands, in Europe in particular to
industrialized areas. This posed a new social problem in the society. People with similar problems
started growing up to drain the source of their problems in the form of trade and outs on guilds.
Missionaries and religious institution played an important role in curbing social problem when
hardships struck.

Classification Of Social Security Measures:

There are two classification of social security with different origins and revolutionary process and
approach but both of them serve the same ends. They are Social Insurance and Social Assistance.

Social Insurance:

Social insurance is what people get for what they have previously contributed without means test
or fulfillment of any criteria. In other words the benefits are in proportion to the premium paid.
Social insurance has the following principal features:

A person’s right of benefit is secured by his contribution but not by any kind of test.
Benefits are paid out of special funds from of accumulated contribution.
Participation in obligatory.
4. Social insurance is financed from by contributions which are shared by employers and workers.
In social insurance surplus funds which are not currently needed to cover benefits are usually
invested to earn further income. Social insurance is the largest social welfare system of most
countries.

Social assistance:

Social Assistance according to the definition of ILO is a “Service or scheme which provides
benefits to persons of small means as of right in amount sufficient to meet minimum standards of
need and financed from taxation.” Social Assistance is financed from general revenues but not
from individual contributions of participants of the scheme. People who are entitled for such
benefits are prescribed by statute and are required to have limited income and assets. Apart from
this other conditions may also be prescribed , for example, the people who are to be entitled to this
benefit may have to prove that they have no relatives to assists them financially. The assessment of
the claimant financial status is known as means test.

Social assistance have the following major feature:

1. Other incomes and resources are to be put into account during assessment of need.
2. The whole cost is to be covered by the government,
3. Benefits are paid as of legal rights in the prescribed categories of need.
OBJECTIVES
Title

“Study & Understand the Opinion of Labour Welfare & Social Security Measures
Implemented in Western Coal Fields Ltd., Nagpur.”

Aim

This research work aims at understanding the welfare & social security measures and provides
guidance in the future.

Objectives:

1. To study & understand the labour welfare &


social security measures.

2. To study & understand the labour welfare &


social security measures implemented in W.C.L, Nagpur.

3. Perceptions of employees towards welfare & social


security measures implemented in W.C.L, Nagpur.
LITERATURE
REVIEW
REVIEW
REVIEW
Literature Review

“Wellness in organizations” should focus on the well being of individual workers.


At a time when the wellness of individuals is increasingly being threatened in our workplaces, I
argue that one way wellness can be sought is through careful examination of routine
organizational practices. To make this point, I look to the problem of bullying in organizations
and, in particular, traditional organizational responses to bullying. The paradoxes of protective
legislation and protective workplace policies are explored, before numerous organizational masks
that serve to bolster these paradoxes are discussed: the mask of stereotypes; the mask of
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR); the mask of counseling; and the mask of training. The
way towards wellness in organizations lies with the recognition of unintended distortions and
limitations on existing legislation, policy and process, and the critical assessment of traditional
remedies. Margaret H. Vickers, (November 2006)

There persists a considerable amount of controversy in the economics literature as


to how to explain the large variation in wealth holdings at retirement. One aspect that has been
difficult to assess in empirical studies is the role of expectations regarding future retirement
income and how it influences saving behavior. In this paper the authors investigated the effect of
deviations between individuals’ anticipated and realized Social Security 20 benefits on several
measures of well-being in retirement, such as the change in consumption expenditures at
retirement, a self-assessed measure of how retirement years compare to the years before
retirement, and whether the individual is worried about having enough income to get by in
retirement. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, it was found clear
evidence that people who over estimated their Social Security benefits are worse off according to
several measures of well being in retirement. They tend to have larger negative consumption
expenditure changes at retirement than those who under estimated or correctly estimated their
benefits. Once retired, they have more worries about how to get by with the resources they have.
They also more often report that retirement years turned out worse than expected. In Multivariate
analyses, these conclusions remain valid, although significance levels are sometimes low. This
relationship seems to be more pronounced for respondents who claimed benefits earlier than
anticipated than for respondents who were simply misinformed. Susann Rohwedder, ( May
2006), Et.al
This study examines the effects of pay-as-you- social security programs in aging
economies when the middle-aged both educate their dependent children and subsidize the
retirement of the old. Using an overlapping generations framework in which agents are three-
period lived but timing of death in the third period is uncertain, we analyze the effects of social
security tax schemes, under various demographic assumptions, on capital accumulation, education
expenditures, social welfare, and economic growth. It has been found that in many cases social
security crowds out education, and reduces economic growth and social welfare.
Rowena A. Pecchenino (November 1999), Et.al

Staff spends at least half their waking time at work or in getting to it or leaving it. They
know they contribute to their organization when they are reasonably free from worry, and they
feel, perhaps in articulately, that when they are in trouble they are due to get something back from
the organization .People are entitled to be treated as full human being with personal needs, hopes
and anxieties; they are employed as people, they are employed as people, they bring themselves at
work, not just their hands, and they cannot readily leave their trouble at home. Martine (1957)

Adequate welfare facility should avail in the organization. As , Absenteeism is also due to
inadequate welfare facilities to workers, for a vast majority of industries lists in India still look
upon welfare work as a barren liability rather than a wise investment . The National Commission
on Labour observes. “The Statutory welfare amenities have not been properly and adequately
provided. In several cases, particularly in medium and small sized units, the standard are distinctly
poor. The studies made by some states in respect of the different components of welfare include
sanitation, washing and bathing facilities, first aid appliances, ambulance rooms, drinking water,
which strengthen the general impression that compliance with statutory welfare provision is half-
hearted and inadequate, “fed up with the absence of basic facilities, the worker often migrates to
his rural home. Mamoria C.B, Gankar S.V (2003)
The introduction of the factory system had a profound effect on social relationships and
living conditions. In earlier times the feudal lord and the guild master both had been expected to
take some responsibility for the welfare of the serfs, apprentices, and journeymen who worked
under them. By contrast, the factory owners were considered to have discharged their obligations
to employees with the payment of wages; thus, most owners took an impersonal attitude toward
those who worked in their factories. This was in part because no particular strength or skill was
required to operate many of the new factory machines. The owners of the early factories often
were more interested in hiring a worker cheaply than in any other qualification. Thus they
employed many women and children, who could be hired for lower wages than men. These low-
paid employees had to work for as long as 16 hours a day; they were subjected to pressure, and
even physical punishment, in an effort to make them speed up production. Since neither the
machines nor the methods of work were designed for safety, many fatal and maiming accidents
resulted. In 1802 the exploitation of pauper children led to the first factory legislation in England.
That law, which limited a child's workday to 12 hours, and other legislation that followed were not
strictly enforced. Bellesiles Michael .A (1998)

Welfare programs aimed at helping people unable to support themselves fully or earn a
living. Welfare recipients include elderly people, people with mental or physical disabilities, and
those needing help to support dependent children. People in the United States most commonly use
the term welfare to refer to government-funded programs that provide economic support, goods,
and services to unemployed or underemployed people. Professionals in the field of public policy
and social work use the term social welfare in a broader sense to describe any program, either
privately or publicly funded, that helps people to function more fully in society. Corbett
Thomas (2000)
COMPANY
PROFILE
W.C.L VISION

“TO EMERGE AS A KEY PLAYER IN THE PRIMARY ENERGY SECTOR TO THE


COUNTRY BY ATTAINING ENVIRONMENTALLY & SOCIALLY SUSTAINABLE
GROWTH THROUGH BEST PRACTICES FROM MINE TO MARKET.”

W.C.L CORPORATE MISSION

“THE MISSION OF WESTERN COALFIELDS LIMITED IS TO PRODUCE AND


MARKET THE PLANNED QUANTITY OF COAL EFFICIENTLY AND
ECONOMICALLY WITH DUE REGARD TO SAFETY, CONVERSATION AND
QUALITY.”

Branches Of Coal India Limited


• World’s largest coal mining company.

• Responsible for approximately 85% of total Indian production.


– 324 million tons in 2005.

Western coal field is a subsidiary of Coal India Ltd., with its headquarters situated at Nagpur. Till
the inception of seventies the non-working coal mines were under the public and private sectors.
The public sector mined governed by the National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC) with
its headquarters located at Ranchi. The year 1971 marked nationalization of cooking coal mines
and the management was entrusted to Bharat Cooking Coal ltd., (BCCL). The Nationalization of
non cooking coal mines took place by the presidential ordinance in Jan, 1973. The management of
non cooking coal mines was entrusted at Calcutta.
In 1973, the coal mines authority mines covered under the central government by a parliamentary
act and coal mines.

Authority was changed to coal mines. Authority Ltd(CMAL) a company incorporated under the
Indian Companies Act 1951. For the purpose of administration conversance the CMAL is divided
into 3 divisions.

a) Coal mines authority ltd., ( Eastern)

b) Coal mines authority Ltd., ( western)

c) Coal mines authority Ltd., (Central)

In 1975 , the government of India recognized the CMAL set up to give more autonomy to the
division and thus it changed the coal mines authority Ltd into coal india ltd (CIL) , which became
the holding company with effect from 29th October 1975. The western coal Field ltds., was one of
the subsidiary of coal india ltd has its own jurisdiction spread over in the states of M.P,
Maharashtra and Orissa (excluding Talchem). The main headquarters of this subsidiary is located
in Nagpur division.

This division is headed by an executive director, with headquarters at Nagpur.

1. Wardha valley area, Chandrapur District.

2. Nagpur area including congress nagar and


Nagpur

3. Patherkhera area, Ghorandangri, Betul District

4. Pench area, Chindwara District

5. Kanhan area (Junardeo)


ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF W.C.L:

The different levels of management in W.C.L are under :

1. Board of Director
2. Chairman cum managing Director functional directors.
3. Departmental Heads/ General managers in areas.
4. Agents/ sub-area managers at group level.
5. Manager at unit level.

The organizational structural of W.C.L comprises of tier- system.

a. The corporate level

b. Area level

c. Sub-area level

d. Unit level
ORGANISATION CHART OF WESTERN COALFIELDS LIMITED:
Objectives of Western Coal Fields Limited (WCL)
 To emerge as Flagship subsidiary company of Coal India Ltd by achieving all the
performance parameters of MOU by ensuring multidimensional growth on all counts

 Adoption of new mining technology, both in opencast and underground.

 To improve the quality of life of employees and to discharge the corporate obligations to
society at large and the community around the coal fields in particular.

 Undertake continuous efforts to inculcate safe mining practices and promote safety
management to achieve reduction in accidents in all mines.

 To lay more thrust on afforestation, protection of environment and control of pollution.

 Formulation and approval of new projects using the expertise of CMPDI to meet the future
coal demand.

 Strengthening of bondage of relationship and mutual trust with all stakeholders especially
Project Affected People (PAPs), consumers, suppliers and service providers. Etc.

 Encourage and practice workers participation in management in letter and spirit at all
levels.

 Skill development of employees through innovative training practices, on the job as well as
in the classroom.

 To give Philip to corporate image building, by maintaining transparency and adopting Best
Business Practices.
AWARDS WON BY WCL

W.C.L has won number of awards for environment, social responsibility, innovative HR
practices nationally & internationally such as

Awards Year Instituted/Presented by


Vanashree 1992 Maharashtra Government
Jawaharlal 1994 International
Nehru Memorial Greenland and Society
Indira 1994 National Wasteland
Priyadarshini Development Board,
Vrikshamitra MoEF
World 1997 International Association
Environment Congress of Educators for World
Peace
Social Forestry 1998 Govt. of Maharashtra
India 2000 Millenium 1999 Int.Association
of Educators for
World Peace
Jawaharlal 2001 International
Nehru Memorial Award Greenland Society
Indira Gandhi Memorial 2004 International Greenland
(National Award) Society
LOCATION OF COAL INDIA STATIONS ALL OVER INDIA
HIERACHY OF EXECUTIVES CATEGORY

E9 - Executive Director
E8 - General Manager
E7 - Additional General Manager/DGM
E6 - Senior Manager
E5 - Manager
E4 - Deputy Manager
E3 - Senior Account Officer
E2 - Sr. Asst. Account Officer
E1 - Asst. Account Officer

THE MAIN TASKS OF ESTABLISHMENT SECTION

 Salary
 Traveling Allowance
 Leave Travel/Concession
 Staff Advances
 Miscellaneous Payment
 Medical Allowance
 Provident Fund
 Pension
 Insurance
 Gratuity
SALARY

The first thing that comes while preparation of salary is absenteeism of the employee.. For the
calculation of absenteeism of the employee an absentee statement is prepared by HR which is
finalized with the approval of HOD of each department. This statement contains the details
regarding the presence and absence of employees, the type of leave taken by him and shift duty
done by him in a month. This statement is further sent to Finance department for updation &
validation.

Thus the salary automatically tallies the absentee data and goes into payroll. The establishment
department does the salary processing and prepares a pay slip.

The salaries of employees are given through bank. The bank-list is prepared which contains the
name, employees’ number, account number of an employees and this list has sent to bank. Thus, in
this way the salary reaches in employees account.

TRAVELING ALLOWANCE

This allowance is paid to employee for any traveling done in the benefits of the company. These
are three types of TA given to WCL employees which is mainly paid through cash payment
voucher:
 Official Tour
 Medical Tour
 Transfer Tour

It’s refers to the tour/ journey for official purposes, for which following expenses are provided.

 Conveyance fair as per entitlement.


 Local conveyance charges as per entitlement.
 Hotel charges as per entitlement.
 DA as per entitlement and according to city.
 Miscellaneous payment: telephone charges, reservation charges, extra day stay,
cancellation of ticket etc. as per entitlement.
 It refers to the tour/ journey made by the employees to any place for treatment, in case of
some diseases to him or any one of his dependent. For such kind of treatment, he must get
referred by the WCL doctor and get approved by the competent authority. The various
entitlements are:

- Conveyance fair as per entitlement.


- Local conveyance charges: from station to the hospital.
- Medical expenses.
THEORETICAL
BACKGROUND
LABOUR WELFARE & SOCIAL SECURITY

Man’s quest for solutions of various problems of the society especially that of the weaker section
of the society like prevention of destitution and poverty have always been undying. Though on the
other hand, the development and growth of industries along with the growing population cemented
the way for much more complicated social insecurities. These insecurities intensified to a large
extent.

Industrial workers mostly come from places that are far from industries. They leave their families
and relatives behind in search of work and livelihood. Apparently difficult is the environment to be
accustomed to workers needs to be paid regularly and adequately to meet their demands such as
food and clothing. In the absence of their regular wages, and in towns and cities where the
traditional social protection from deprivation and destitution are not in avail, their lives are
apparently at risk. There are numerous risks which necessitate the provision of welfare facilities
and social security.

These provisions entirely aim of providing safety and securities against unexpected contingencies
of life such as sickness, old age, invalidism unemployment, dependency and industrial accidents
against which the individual cannot be expected to protect himself and his family by his own
ability or foresight. Welfare and Social Security measures have a fundamental purpose to give
individuals and their families the confidence and assurance that their state and quality of lives will
not be eroded by only social or economic eventuality. And on the other hand welfare measures and
social securities should be provided so as to reduce turnover and absenteeism disputes, lockouts,
strikes etc.

Therefore, the state plays a leading role in accomplishing the goals which the welfare programs
and social security measures aim at and it has been believed by most states that, employers should
be required to provide maintenance and protection for their ill and injured workmen by passing
various legislation.
The two terms welfare and social security cover a wide range of area and are relative to the
situation and circumstances depending on the community status, the overall development of the
nation and scientific and technological advancement. This makes the concept differ from place to
place. Access to social security and welfare benefits has became a fundamental human right to
which everyone is entitled to.

This fundamental right has been included in the universal declaration of human rights adopted by
the United Nations General Assembly in 1984 which is also provided under various national
constitutions.

The entire concept of welfare and social security implies the availability of facilities which enable
the worker and his family to lead a sound life with maximum security by neutralizing the harmful
effects of industrialization. As the welfare measures try to solve the humanitarian, economic and
civic problems of the workmen, social security measures on the other hand aim at a the
compensation, which is nothing but the income security, restoration which implies the recovery
and cure of the risk and invalidity and prevention which strives to avoid the loss and reduction of
productive capacity due to sickness and invalidity which can undermine the productivity of an
establishment.

Welfare Measures may be provided for matters concerning employees which are not immediately
connected generally with their place of work. These matters will include individual services related
to employees. This will also include the Group services, which may include the provision of social
and sporting activities, child care facilities.

In any organization employee welfare rests mainly on the abstract grounds of social responsibility
of the organization for those who work in them. Simply it is mean that it is the realization that in
exchange for offering their services, employee are entitled to rather more than their pay, benefits,
healthy and safe system of work.

How much people need to save for retirement depends to a large extent on the amount of
retirement income they will receive, both from Social Security and in the form of employer
provided pensions. Therefore, successful retirement planning requires that individuals form
expectations about their retirement income and adjust their saving behavior accordingly. Failure to
do so will result in sub-optimal outcomes in that a household will save too much, or save too little,
depending on whether it under or overestimated retirement income.

In this paper we study how individuals’ expectations about future Social Security benefits compare
to their subsequently received Social Security benefits and whether deviations are associated with
systematic variation in well being in retirement.

Social Security is the most important source of income for about 65 percent of the elderly
population. If an individual approaches retirement with expectations about Social Security that are
very different from what he or she will actually receive, this will have consequences for the living
standard that the person will be able to maintain in retirement. Social Security benefits are
associated with measures of well-being in retirement, such as a self assessed evaluation of how
post-retirement years compare to pre-retirement years, whether retired respondents are worried
about having enough income to get by, and whether the household experienced unusually large
drops in consumption expenditures at retirement.

Individuals’ realized Social Security benefits differ from their expectations as a result of two main
mechanisms:

i) the person lacks sufficient information and could either be positively or negatively
surprised when finding out what retirement income turns out to be; or

ii) the person experiences an unforeseen event or “shock,” such as a health event, job loss, or
another change that affects the person’s earnings or retirement plans .

Therewith the person’s realized Social Security benefits, usually resulting in a negative surprise.
Several prior studies suggest that both mechanisms are likely to be important. For example,
Gustman and Steinmeier (2001, 2003) and Mitchell (1988) document workers’ lack of knowledge
about their Social Security and pension benefit.
Welfare Policy in WCL
WCL has recognized that Welfare of employees by improving quality of life of employees in
particular and their family members in general, will help to achieve the objective of the Company.
WCL, with determination, has adopted all-round Welfare Measures for employees as its mission.
In order to monitor the Welfare Activities, a Welfare Board has been formulated at the Company
Level, consisting of Representative from different Unions and Management. Welfare Committee
on similar line are constituted at the Area Level also for proper monitoring and smooth
implementation.
Every year, the Welfare Activities to be undertaken are discussed by the Welfare
Committee at the Area level and a budget proposal made out and sent to Head Quarters. At the
Company level, the same is examined and deliberated by the Welfare Board an approval accorded.
Implementation of the Revenue Welfare Budget is monitored by the Welfare Committee at
the Area level and Welfare Board at Company level. WCL. Welfare Board has been regularly
visiting the Areas for monitoring the progress of work and whatever assistance is required, is
extended to the Area. With a view to bring a competitive spirit in improving Welfare Facilities and
there by attaining better quality of life, every year, competition is held in all units with
participation of employees and Union Representatives. This has indeed given boost in achieving
better status of Welfare Amenities and thereby alleviated quality of life of the employees.

In order to ensure achievement of the mission, in addition to the statutory welfare measures, the
company has adopted a system of formulation of Revenue Welfare Budget every year, covering
the following items.
1. Medical Services,
2. School & Education
3. Residential / Colony Maintenance / upkeep
4. Sports & Recreation/ Cultural Activities
5. Water supply
6. Canteen – up keepment / maintenance.
7. Other Miscellaneous items / works.
1. Medical & Health Care Services
Sufficient infrastructure has been developed with a view to give a wide coverage of medical
facilities to its employees. At the time of nationalization, (1-5-1973) this company had 4 hospitals
with 159 beds & 19 dispensaries. Whereas as on date, (1.4.2009) company has 11 hospitals with
710 beds & 54 dispensaries. The patients requiring special medical attendance are referred to
hospitals. These hospitals have been geared up to meet the requirement of specialized treatment in
the field of Medicine, Surgery, ENT, Gynaec-Obstetrics, Orthopedic, Dental, Ophthalmology,
Pediatrics and Psychiatrics.

The Breakup of Medical Facilities are as follows:

At the time of
Nationalization As on 1.4.2009
(1-5-1973)
Hospital 4 11
Beds 159 710
Dispensaries 19 54
Ambulances 9 110
Total Doctors 18 193
Nursing Staff/ Other Para Medical Staff 120 602
Bed Ratio 1:250 1:90

2.Education Facilities
Education though a state subject, WCL management provides financial & infrastructural
assistance to both the State Govt. and private societies for running the Educational Institutions in
& around coalfields areas, 65,600 childrens of employees are receiving education in different
schools. The company has provided 85 school buses. After nationalization, WCL has constructed
74 school buildings.

The educational institutions available in the vicinity of operating areas are given below:

At the time of
Sr.No. Particulars Nationalization As on 1.4.2009
(1-5-1973)
1 Primary Schools 30 23

2 Middle Schools 18 20

3 Secondary.Schools 15 26

4 DAV School -- 1

5 Central Schools -- 4
Shishu Vidya Mandir
6 -- 29
& Other Schools
School Buses (run by
7 5
WCL) 112

3. Residential / Colony Maintenance / upkeep


At the time of nationalization, there were only 4390 standard houses against the manpower of
39,794 and non standard houses numbering to 9120 at the level of 11.3% satisfaction. Whereas on
01.04.2009 the total number of standard houses available are 42,315 for the manpower of 64,160
having percentage satisfaction of 65.95%

There are 62 established townships situated in the 10 areas of the company, including Nagpur
HQrs. Wardha & Chhindwara Institutes.

The colonies contain welfare buildings including dispensaries, schools, community halls, shopping
centres and vast network of well planned roads with necessary drainage. Adequate power as well
as water supply has been provided to each houses.

Number of houses constructed during the previous five years is given below:

Houses Permanent Manpower %age


Period
Available entitled for housing satisfaction
At the time of Nationalization
4390 39794 11.03
(1-5-1973)
As on 1-4-2005 41354 70515 58.64
As on 1-4-2006 41834 68938 60.68
As on 1-4-2007 41914 67378 60.20
As on 1-4-2008 42155 65599 64.26
As on 1-4-2009 42315 64160 65.95

4. Sports & Recreation/ Cultural Activities


After the hard days work, employees do require recreation to get over the physical & mental
fatigue. Suitable arrangement has been made by way of providing Stadium, Playground, Indoor
and Outdoor Badminton & Lawn Tennis , Court, Library etc.

Annual sports & cultural activities calendar is drawn by sports & cultural control board as per
master calendar of CIL. The management encourages employees as well as their wards to
participate in the National & International competitions by the way of providing necessary
coaching & sports equipment.

Recreational facilities available in the company are given below:

As on 1.4.2009
No. of Playgrounds 28
No. of Stadiums 6
No. of Children Parks 20
No. of Clubs 35
No. of Libraries 13

5. Water Supply

One of the major thrust areas in field of welfare has been to provide clean drinking water to
employees & families. In this direction, many short term & long term water supply schemes have
been taken up. Where the adequate natural water resources like tank, river etc. are not available,
the underground mine water is pumped out & after proper treatment same is supplied to the
population.
At the time of nationalization, the total available water supply capacity was 1.5 MGD
covering a population of 45,795. Since then, the company through its own efforts & resources has
increased the generation capacity of drinking water to the level of 14.26 MGD per day covering
population 2,93,579.There are 37 water treatment plants in various collieries.

The details are given below:

Total
Generation Capacity
Period Population
MGD
Coverage
At the time of Nationalization
45695 1.50
(1-5-1973)
As on 1-4-2005 317990 17.52
As on 1-4-2006 320390 17.52
As on 1-4-2007 320790 18.03
As on 1-4-2008 321995 18.68
As on 1-4-2009 322795 18.68

6. Canteen – up keepment / maintenance

Being a statuary welfare provisions, a special emphasis is made by the management for improving
the canteen facilities. Canteen has been provided by the in the premises of collieries & other
establishments. Necessary subsidy & infrastructural facilities are being provided to the canteen in
order to facilitate the employees to get the canteen services in a reasonable & subsided rates.
Year No. of Canteens
2004-05 64
2005-06 78
2006-07 85
2007-08 93
2008-09 93

SOCIAL SECURITY WELFARE IN W.C.L

Social security protects a man from hunger and want squalor, diseases, unemployment and
ignorance. Social insurance makes social security possible that is t creates and initiates a
mechanism which is “sine quanon” of the realization of social security. Thus, social insurance is an
important feature of social security as a matter of fact social security included social insurance.

The concept of social security is wider than that of social insurance and includes in it
besides social insurance social assistance programme. Social assistance is given grits while social
insurance is granted to those persons only who pay contributions.

Below are some of the social security measures taken by the management of WCL to improve the
welfare of the employees.

1.Workmen’s Compensation :
WCL management adopted the social security policy of workmen’s compensation. The 1923 act
required the employers to compensate the workers against occupational diseases and injuries
arising out of and in course of employment. The Act has prescribed separate scales of
compensation for death, permanent total disablement, permanent partial disablement and
temporary disablement amount of compensation.

a. In case of death : The company provides compensation to 40% of the monthly wages of the
deceased workmen multiplied by the relevant factors indicated in the schedule.

b.In case of permanent disablement : 50% of monthly wages of disabled work man multiplied by
the relevant factors indicated in the schedule.

c.In case of permanent disablement: Provides compensation according to the percentage of loss
of earning capacity.

d.In case of temporary disablement: 50% of monthly wages of the workmen in accordance of
the provisions of the act.

2..Coal Mines Provident Fund Act 1948:

It was initially introduced to the coal miners at Bengal, Bihar in 1947. Later on the act was made
applicable to all miners in state of Maharashtra, M.P., Assam, Orissa and Nagaland. At present the
act applies to all states of India except Jammu and Kashmir. Act covers all the coal mines in the
country. Provisions was made in the scheme in June 1963 where by members of the fund
contribute 8% of their total emoluments contributions is invested in central government securities.
The scheme provides for grant of non –recoverable advance on their accumulation for the purpose
of

a. Buying shares of consumer co-operative societies.

b. Purchases/ contribution of a dwelling house.

c. Meeting expenditure in connection with daughter’s marriage.

d. Meeting expenditure in connection with education of children.

e. Financing of life insurance policies.

3.Coal Mines Family Pension Scheme 1971:

This scheme applies to all those who are members of CMPF. Under this scheme it’s obligatory on
the part of the employer to contribute each 11.6% central government contributes to the fund each
3% family pension is payable to the dependants of the deceased workers if the member dies while
in reasonable service before attaining the age of 60 years and he or she contributed to the family
pension scheme for not less than 2 years.

The amount received as under:

Total emoluments drawn: Amount received as P/ Fund/Month Rs. 800 and above 12% of the pay
provided the amount is less than Rs. 150/- Rs. 200 and above 15% of the pay provided the amount
is less than Rs. 96/- below Rs. 200 30% of the pay provided the amount is less than Rs. 40/-.
Besides, family pension scheme, the dependant of the deceased are liable for compulsory life
insurance benefit of Rs.1000/-
4. Coal Mines (Attendance) Bonus:

To encourage regular attendance by coal mines workers, a bonus scheme was framed under the
coal mines provident fund and miscellaneous provisions Act, 1948. To being with those who had
put in specified days of attendance are paid quarterly bonus 10% of their basic earnings. From
January 1973, they are paid bonus for which they actually attend the mines.

5.Death Relief Fund:

The fund is administrated by a board of trustees, consisting of equal number of representative of


WCL Management, Employees and Government. The central office of the fund is situated at
Dhanbad with commissioner for coal mines provident fund as its chief executive.

A death relief fund was set up in January 1964 from the feature amount of the fund with a view to
ensure a minimum of Rs. 500 as financial help to the nominees of heirs of the deceased members
of attempted establishments. The limit was raised to Rs. 700 on August, 1,1969. The benefit has
been extended to cover nominees or heirs of such persons whose pay does not exceed Rs.1500
p.m. at a time of death.

6.Coal Mines Provident Fund Deposit –linked Insurance Scheme:

Deposit linked insurance has been introduced from 1st August 1976 for the employees of coal
industry. Under this scheme a person entitled to receive provident fund dues on the death of an
employee who was a member of a coal mines provident fund, is also entitled to get , in addition to
the amount of provident fund and amount equal to the average of balance in the account of the
deceased during the preceding 3 years (provided that such a balance is not less than Rs. 10000),
subject to a maximum of Rs. 1000. No contribution is to be paid by the employees.

The expenditure on the scheme and on its administration is to be contributed by the employees
and central government in the ratio of 2:1.

7.Gratuity Act 1972 :

This is an additional retirement benefit secured by employees in numerous circumstances either by


agreement or awards. It is considered as a provision for old age. The Act come into force in 1972.
Its applicable to

a. Every factory mine, oil, field, plantation, port and railway company.

b. Every shop or establishment under the meaning of any law for the time being in force in
any relations to shop and establishment in a state in which 10 to more persons are employed or
were working on any day of preceding 12 months.

c. Such other establishment in which 10 or more persons are working , or were working on
any day of the preceding 12 months as the central government may be notification specify in this
behalf.

Gratuity Payable Enhanced :

With effect from 24th September. 1997 the maximum amount of gratuity payable is enhanced from
Rs. 250,000 Rs. 3,50,000.
This is vide communication No. 2 (9) / 95 DPES WC dated 27 th September 98 revised by joint
secretary to government of India, Ministry of Industry, Department of public enterprise New
Delhi.
8.Health Programs :

The management of WCL has a positive health policy. It aims at maintaining good health of its
employees and got this purpose. It provides & promotes the under mentioned health programs.

-Carry out medical examination of new entrants in the company.


-Periodical check-up of workers in every 5 years or after a serious illness/accidents.
-Emergencies/ Causalities give top priority immediate treatment attendance.
-Special consultancy and treatment is made available in medicine.

Apart from these All India Coal Medical Conference takes place once in a year which represents
coal India and its 8 subsidiaries. Here the doctors are addressed how the comfort should be shared
equally and the benefit of good treatment to all irrespective of their places and position of work.
The doctors are urged who worked under difficulties situations to take home with them , the latest
therapies to soothe their patients.

9.Safety Program :

The Western Coal Fields Ltd. is quite conscious of the safety of its employees. To ensure safety in
the organization the company frequently organizes the “ Safety Week” every fort night.

Techno- gadgetory For Better Security :

To enhance the security in the environment the company will be installing electronic intruder
alarms system comprising alarm call and in built system of passing or instruction/ assistance
required taped messages connected to important authorities. An intruder system has already been
installed at Chandrapur, Nagpur area zones. At the Wani area, the installation process is under
way.
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be


understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is necessary for the
researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem
to problem.

WHAT IS RESEARCH? :

Research is scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
According to Clarifford Woody (1944) research comprises defining and redefining problems,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solution, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making
deductions and reaching conclusions and last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis.

Research, is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge, making for its
advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, compassion and
experiment. The researcher themselves a part and parcel of the object of the study. Our search for
definition of methodology would require us to know the nature of the course pursued by research
scholars in social sciences.” The procedures by which researchers go about their work of
describing, explaining, predicting, phenomenon are called methodology.”

All the methods used by the social research in their fact & finding mission constitute methodology.
Methodology is defined as “The study of methods by which gets knowledge ,it deals with the
cognitive processes imposed on research by problems arising from the nature of its subject matter.”
The motive of researcher is to uncover truth or fact method comprises the procedure used for
generating, collecting, and evaluating the data. Methods are ways of obtaining information for
assessing explanations .
Methodology thus prepares the investigator to adopt techniques to neutralize the scientist to
uncover truth, find the explanation for the assurance of a similar phenomenon .Research
methodology is the description, explanation and justification of various methods of conduct of
research.

Research Design

A descriptive research design is selected by the researcher as in the project of Welfare & Social
Security Measures descriptive study is undertaken in many circumstance .when researcher is
interested in knowledge the characteristics of the groups such as age, sex, educational level,
occupation or income, interested in knowing the proportion of a given population who have
behaved in a particular manner; making projection of a certain things ;or determining the
relationship between two or more variables , descriptive study may be necessary.

UNIVERSE
There are three categories of workers
♦ Highly skilled workers
♦ Skilled workers
♦ Semiskilled workers
The universe of research is skilled Workers. The total universe in W.C.L is 223 worker &
employees.

COVERAGE
This study covers the following items

1. Personal Information
2. Job History
3. Welfare Policies
4. Social Security Policies
5. Executive Summary
6. General Question
Type of Research

The research methodology is adopted for this research work is descriptive type wherein 20 workers
& 30 company executive of WCL were taken as sample unit.

Methods of data collection:


1. Primary Source
2. Secondary Source

Primary Data:-

It is the data which is collected for the first time by investigator to serve a particular purpose, such
a data is of original nature & is first hand information. The sources from where these data can be
collected are known as a primary source.

Methods of Primary Data Collection:-

1. Questionnaire
2. Interview
3. Observation method

Questionnaire:-

A questionnaire is a form of data collection instrument utilization a common set of questions about
a particular research area. This is made available to respondents who are expected to read,
understand & write the answer in the space. A questionnaire is set of in ordered & logical sequence
starting with simple factual questions progressively to more complex subjective questions. The
questionnaires were distributed among the eligible participant & their immediate superior & were
to be filled by them. The researcher explained the question to the participants who were unable
implications of the given questions & helped in filling up the questionnaire.
In other department the training coordinator assembled the participants at one place & the
researcher addressed the questionnaire to them. The questionnaires were collected later on further
analysis.
This research includes questionnaire having 20 questions which is distributed among 50
employees.

Interview:-

The interview is an important research technique in descriptive research. Personal interview


method require person asking questions in face to face interaction with the correspondents to know
his own personal opinion, attitude & reaction to the question. Interview provides either quantitative
or qualitative data.

Observation Method:-

In this method a good report establishment of respondent with researcher plays a very important
and major role. The researcher is present in the industry from where he makes observation and
from there he collects the relevant data according to the careful observation of respondents state of
mind, integrity of thought, emotional stigma attached, aggressive and other related tendencies and
the physical posture of the respondent forms the core of this observation method.

RESEARCH APPROACH-::
 Survey.
 Interview.
CONTACT METHOD-:
 Personal.

It’s a type of method through which the researchers is able to make contact with individual.
Personal contact method is used for the survey i.e. data collection. Apart from this the informal
discussion with the employees and workers of W.C.L, Nagpur also helped in collection of valuable
information.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS-:
 Questionnaire.

Preparation of Questionnaire

The Questionnaire was framed in such a fashion so that actual views of the workers can be
obtained. A number of statements reflecting different types of opinions are included. The
respondents are to indicate only how far they agree or disagree with a particular problem or
statement. A great care has been taken in framing the questionnaires so that the employees can
respond to them without an element of hurting their feelings.
After care full detailed study questioner was framed and included in the questionnaire. All the
questions are having five alternatives in the form of Strongly agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree &
Strongly Disagree. The questionnaire is framed on question related to health, safety, welfare &
social security of workers.

SAMPLING PLAN

Sample Unit :

A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before selecting sample. Sampling unit may
be a geographical one such as state, district, village, etc. Since the project is on Critical study of
welfare & Social Security measures in WCL So workers and company executives are taken as
sample unit and were interviewed.

Sample size : 20 workers, 30 Company Executives.

Sample Procedure : Non Probability Sampling Procedure


Non Probability Sampling

Sampling can be defined as a part of population. This sampling method involves deliberate
selection of particular units of universe for constituting a sample which represents the universe. In
this research study 50 respondents were studied to get the relevant information.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

• Convenience Sampling:

In this project convenience sampling has been used as sampling techniques because in this type,
population is not divided, whoever eligible from executive as well non executive level are
considered. For this project information are collected from skilled worker & Company Executive
by using Questionnaire method & interview.

Scope of Study

The scope of the study covers Western Coalfields Ltd., headquarters Nagpur. The study covered
employees from both executive as well as non executive level during the time period of June’09-
July’09.

Secondary data :
• Internet Sites

• Company Manual

• Monthly Magazine on W.C.L

• Employees Handbook

The researcher has use all the sources mentioned above for secondary data.
DATA ANALYSIS &
INTERPRETATION
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
Data Analysis:-

Data analysis is a process of gathering, modeling, and transforming data with the goal of
highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data
analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of
names, in different business, science, and social science domains.
Analysis of data in general way involves a number of closely related operations which are
performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing these in such a
manner that they answer the research question(s).

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is usually considered as the principal instrument in research .Its main function is to
carry out with the new experiments and observation.
Ordinarily, when one talks about hypothesis, one simply means a mere assumptions or some
supposition to be proved or disproved. But for a researcher, hypothesis is a formal question that he
intends to resolve. Thus hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition set forth
as explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena either asserted merely as
a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation or accepted as a highly probable in the light of
established facts.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Testing hypothesis consists of decision rules required for drawing probabilistic inferences about
the population parameters. The statement is tentative as it implies some assumption, which may or
may not be found valid on verification. The act of verification involve testing the validity of such
assumption which, when undertaken on the basis of sample evidence, is called testing hypothesis.
Null Hypothesis:-
A statistical hypothesis which is stated with a view to testing or verifying its validity is known as
the null hypothesis. Generally denoted as Ho, the null hypothesis is always tested on the basis of
sample information which may or may not be consistent with it.
If the sample information is found to be consistent with Ho, the null hypothesis is always rejected
and we conclude that it is false.
On the other hand, if the sample information is found to be consistent with Ho, it is accepted.

Alternative Hypothesis:-

Rejection of Ho implies that it is rejected in favor of some other hypothesis, which is accepted. A
hypothesis, which is accepted, is the event of Ho being rejected is called the alternative hypothesis,
denoted as H1.

Ho = Welfare measures in WCL are not effective.

Or, H1 = Welfare measures in WCL are effective.

Analysis Process:-
With the help of responses, which are getting from the Questionnaire calculate the average value
find out the central tendency measures with the help of SYSTAT soft ware.
SYSTAT is a high value, integrated desktop statistics and graphic software package for engineers
and statistician. It provides a vast selection of reliable statistics and high quality scientific and
technical graphing options at its price point.
SYSTAT is a comprehensive statistics and graphic package. It can be used to manipulation data,
display graphics summaries, calculate numeric summaries, and test the validity of hypothesis about
the data.

Average: - It is also referred to as arithmetic mean, or simply mean. It is the most important
measure of central tendency, as it satisfies some important mathematical properties. Whether a set
of data refers to a sample or a finite population, mean is computed by taking the sum of all
observations comprising the data set and dividing the sum by the number of observations in the set.
Let us assume that we have the following variables: 7, 2, 11, 2, 8, 3 and 2.

Mean = 7+2+11+2+8+3+2/7 = 35/7 = 5.

In this process one column is of no. of employees & there is another rows consisting response
given by employee for each question . For each employee the average has been taken by
For,
Strongly agree=5
Agree=4
Neutral=3
Disagree=2
Strongly disagree=1

HYPOTHESIS TESTING (One Sample Z-test):

One sample Z- Test :

Z-test is based on normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several
statistics measures, particularly the mean. The relevance test statistic, Z is worked out and
compared with its probable values at a specified level of significance for judging the significance
of the measure concerned. Z- test is also used for judging the significance of difference between
means of two independent samples in case of large samples, or when population variance is
known..z- Test is also used for comparing the sample proportion to a theoretical value of
population proportion or for judging the difference in proportion of two independents samples
when happen to be large.

Confidence level

Acceptance of H0 with the help of Z value:


When the z value fall between the values of +1.96 to -1.96 than the H0 accepted for the individual
parameters.
Rejection of H0 with the help of Z value:
When the z value is greater than +1.96 and less than -1.96, than the H0 rejected and alternative
hypothesis i.e. H1 is accepted.
So it is proved that the welfare & social security measures are effectively followed. Thus, by
testing of hypothesis the alternative hypothesis is accepted and hence rejecting Null
hypothesis.

Evaluation technique
The ordinal scale which is used for the preparation of questionnaire is Likert Scale which
consists of quantifying the options.

Likert Scales are developed by utilizing the item analysis approach wherein a particular item is
evaluated on basis of how well it discriminates between those persons whose total score is high
and those whose score is low. Those items or statements that best meet this sort of discrimination
test are included in the final statement.

These questions are evaluated through Weighted Mean Average Method & based on the result
conclusion is drawn.

1. Working condition of your Organization is better than the other organization(s)


………….
50

40
Count

30

20

10

0
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
WORKINGCONDITION

Inference:
According to this graph the researcher can say that employees are satisfied with the
working conditions that has been provided by the organization.

Hypothesis testing: One-sample z-test


One-sample z-Test of EQUALOPPORTUNITIES with 50 Cases
Ho: Mean = 3.000 vs Alternative = 'not equal to 3’

Mean : 4.700

95.00% Confidence Interval : 4.521 to 4.879

Assumed Standard Deviation : 0.647

Z : 18.579
:

Inference
In the above graph the statement of working conditions shows the greater response. Employees
are happy with the working conditions provided by the company. This graph represent the value of
Z is greater than +1.96, so that null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted by
the researcher. It can be inferred that company is providing all the basic facilities such as
Ventilation, Air Conditioner, Good Environment, Drinking water facility, Washrooms etc. which
is required for proper working condition.
2. Your Pay is enough to live on comfortably…

50

40
Count

30

20

10

0
2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
SALARY
Inference:
According to this graph the researcher can say that employees are satisfied with the salary
that has been provided to them by the organization.

Hypothesis testing: One-sample z-test


One-sample z-Test of EQUALOPPORTUNITIES with 50 Case
Ho: Mean = 3.000 vs Alternative = 'not equal.'

Mean : 4.700

95.00% Confidence Interval : 4.521 to 4.879

Assumed Standard Deviation : 0.647

Z : 18.579
Inference
In the above graph the statement of salary shows the greater response. Employees are
satisfied with the pay they receive from the organization. This graph represent the value of
Z is greater than +1.96, so that null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is
accepted by the researcher.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the salary & incentives
are enough to carry on their livelihood comfortably whereas some non executive level
workers do not agree with this as their salary is not enough comparatively to executive
class.
3. Retiral benefit provided by your organization is enough for your future
Consumption……...
35

30
Count

25

20

15

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
RETIRALBENEFIT

Inference:
According to this graph the researcher can say that employees are satisfied with
the retiral benefit that has been provided to them by the organization.

Hypothesis testing: One-sample z-test


One-sample z-Test of EQUALOPPORTUNITIES with 50 Case
Ho: Mean = 3.000 vs Alternative = 'not equal.'

Mean : 4.040

95.00% Confidence Interval : 3.625 to 4.455

Assumed Standard Deviation : 1.498

Z : 4.909
Inference

In the above graph the statement of retiral benefit shows the greater response. Employees are
satisfied with the retiral benefit they receive from the organization. This graph represent the value
of Z is greater than +1.96, so that null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted
by the researcher.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that after retirement the executives
get ample pensions, adequate PF & other after retirement benefits. Whereas few non executives are
not satisfied with the monetary benefits.

4. Social Security ensures protection to you as well as your family……


Count 35

30

25

20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
PROTECTION

Inference:
According to this graph the researcher can say that employees feel protected with the social
security measures that have been provided to them by the organization.

Hypothesis testing: One-sample z-test


One-sample z-Test of EQUALOPPORTUNITIES with 50 Case
Ho: Mean = 3.000 vs Alternative = 'not equal.'

Mean : 4.200

95.00% Confidence Interval : 3.873 to 4.527

Assumed Standard Deviation : 1.178

Z : 7.203
Inference

In the above graph the statement of protection shows the greater response. Employees are ensured
protection to them as well as their family with the social security benefits they receive from the
organization. This graph represent the value of Z is greater than +1.96, so that null hypothesis is
rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted by the researcher.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that the organization
provides social security at the time of accidents, daughter’s marriage, at the time of retirement etc,
which ensures safe future at time when required.
5. You are satisfied with the Role of UNION in Welfare Schemes………..

Roleof Union
50
45
40
35
30
25
T
tleA
x
is

20
15
10
5
0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Role of Union 45 5 0 0 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have


45*5+5*4 = 4.9
50

Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.9. It means maximum numbers of people of


sample size 50 are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the Role of Union of
organization.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the
organization is able to address the issues raised by union at proper time.
6. You receive excellent Medical facilities in time from your
Organization…

Medical Facilities
35

30

25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Medical Facilities 30 8 0 12 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

30*5+8*4+12*2 = 4.1
50
Inference
Therefore, the mean value is 4.1. It means maximum numbers of people of sample
size 50 are agreed that they are satisfied with the Medical Facilities provided by the
organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the medical
facilities provided are adequate supported by modern machineries but the facilities
provided must be quicker.

7. You have a very few complaints about your canteen facilities……..


CanteenFacilities
50
45
40
35
30
25
T
tleA
x
is

20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Canteen Facilities 47 2 0 1 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

47*5+2*4+1*2 = 4.9
50
Inference
Therefore, the mean value is 4.9. It means maximum numbers of people of
sample size 50 are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the Canteen Facilities
provided by the organization.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that proper hygiene
is maintained & food is available at subsidized rates.

8. You do not face any problem regarding your Insurance facilities……..


Insurance
35

30

25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Insurance 30 10 3 5 2

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

30*5+10*4+3*3+5*2+2*1 = 4.2
50
Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.2. It means maximum numbers of people of sample
size 50 are agreed that they are satisfied with the Insurance Facilities provided by the
organization.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that insurance
facility is such that it provides both retirement & endowment facility.

9. You are happy or satisfied with your leave facility by your


organization……
Leave
40
35
30
25
20
T
tleA
x
is

15
10
5
0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Leave 35 8 2 5 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

35*5+8*4+2*3+5*2 = 4.4
50

Inference

Therefore, the mean value is 4.5. It means maximum numbers of people of sample
size 50 are agreed that they are satisfied with the leave they get from the organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that employees get
ample no. of leaves according to the set norms apart from these there is weekly off on
Wednesday on shift basis.
10. Transport facility is provided regularly and in time by your organization…

TransportFacilities
35

30

25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Transport Facilities 30 0 0 20 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

30*5+20*2 = 3.8
50

Inference

Therefore, the mean value is 4. It means maximum numbers of people of sample


size 50 are agreed that they are satisfied with the Transport Facilities provided by the
organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the
organization is providing transport facilities for those who have to travel a long distance
but this facility is only for executive level employees.

11. you receive adequate Training for your needs……...


Training
45
40
35
30
25
20
T
tleA
x
is

15
10
5
0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Training 40 10 0 0 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have


40*5+10*4 = 4.8
50
Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the training provided by the organization.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that each and every
employee receives on the job training at the time of joining for the non executive class &
employees at executive level receive off the job training which helps in enhancing their
skills.

12. Safety Instrument is distributed regularly in your organization……..


SafetyInstrument
45
40
35
30
25
20
T
tleA
x
is

15
10
5
0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Safety Instrument 40 10 0 0 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

40*5+10*4 = 4.8
50
Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the Safety Instrument provided by the
organization
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that proper
measures are taken at mines to minimize the accidents.

13. There is regular DLC (departmental level committee) meeting held in your
Organization…….
DLC
35

30

25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
DLC 30 0 20 0 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have


30*5+20*3 = 4.2
50

Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.2. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are agreed that DLC meeting is held in the organization.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the
organization successfully carries DLC every month in each department where the issues
raised by the departments are solved.

14. Safety Instrument provided to you is of good quality……..


Qualityof SafetyInstrument
35

30

25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Quality of Safety Instrument 30 20 0 0 0

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

30*5+20*4 = 4.6
50

Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.6. It means maximum number of people of sample
size 50 are strongly agreed that the safety instrument is of good quality provided by the
organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfied respondents is that the instruments
which are provided to workers are of superior quality which is essential for safety of
workers.

15. Company has policy for prevention of discrimination like caste, creed
etc…………
Prevention
25

20

15
T
tleA
x
is

10

0
Strongly
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree
Disagree
Prevention 0 0 20 10 20

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

20*3+10*2+20*1 = 2
50
Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 2. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are disagreed that Company has policy for prevention of discrimination like caste, creed.
The reason for the maximum number of dissatisfaction of respondents is that the
organization has no such policy for prevention of discrimination like caste, creed.

16. . Issues raised in Union /association is addressed by management in


time………
UnionMgmnt
Union Mgmnt

25

10 10
5
0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

25*5+10*4+10*2+5*1 = 3.8
50

Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 3.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are agreed that the organization addresses issues raised by union in time.

The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that the
organization is able to solve the issues that are raised by the union at proper time.

17. Your Organization provides regular health check-up to whom working in


hazardous area…….
Health Checkup
Health Checkup

40

10
0 0 0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

40*5+10*4 = 4.8
50
Inference

Therefore, The mean value is 4.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the health check up provided by the
organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that the
organization carries out health check up of every employee & his family in every 5 years
which contributes to a good healthy life.

18. Welfare Measures of your organization motivates you for better


Performance……..
Motivation
Motivation

30

10 10

0 0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

30*5+10*4+10*2 = 4.2
50
Inference
Therefore, The mean value is 4.2. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are agreed that they are motivated by the organization
The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that
employees feel motivated because of adequate welfare measures provided by the
organization.

19. Your Organization provides Social Security benefits at time……


Social Security
Social Security

40

10
0 0 0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have

40*5+10*4 = 4.8
50

Inference
Therefore, The mean value is 4.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample
size 50 are strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the social security benefits provided
by the organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that the
organization provides social security at the time of accidents, daughters marriage, at the
time of retirement etc, which ensures safe future at time when required.
20. You feel your job is secured……

JobSecurity
Job Security

40

10
0 0 0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Analyzing the result by the help of weighted mean method, we have


40*5+10*4 = 4.8
50

Inference

Therefore, the mean value is 4.8. It means maximum numbers of people of sample size 50
are strongly agreed that they feel their job secured in the organization.
The reason for the maximum number of satisfaction of respondents is that
WCL is one of the subsidiary of Coal India Ltd., which is government undertaking. The
government job ensures job security & in case of death or permanent disablement
organization provides adequate compensation.
CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS

Based on the research the following conclusion has been made.

Welfare & social security measures in WCL have been given attention as in any other
establishment where enhancement of productivity is the major objective. Safe & suitable working
conditions for the worker stimulate the productivity of the worker.

WCL ( Western Coal Fields Limited) is a very big Public sector organization. The management
tries to provide each and every facility to the employee, but still there is a bit of dissatisfaction
among the employees because its fact that human wants can never be satisfied. As the needs
increases the demands for the various facilities also increases.

Although the management make efforts to satisfy the employees but still the efforts needs to be
done more efficiently.

Welfare schemes’ are such facilities, services and amenities, which may be established in or in a
vicinity of undertaking to enable the person employed in them to perform their work in healthy,
congenial surroundings and provided with amenities conductive to good health & high morale..
Regarding welfare measures following has been concluded

1. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the working conditions at their work
place.

2. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the role of union in their
organization.

3. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the pay they are provided.

4. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the canteen facilities.

5. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the Insurance facilities.

6. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the Training facilities.

7. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the Safety instruments that are
provided.

From the above analysis it can be concluded that the majority of the workers are satisfied with
the efforts that has been made by W.C.L.

Regarding Social Security measures following has been concluded.


Safety & protection of workers from various unfavorable eventualities is one of the key to unlock
the door towards productivity & efficiency. Workers should be protected from the hardships of
life. In western coalfields ltd. this has been given adequate attention. Some of the social security
measures taken by the management of WCL are the following.

1. Workmen’s Compensation.
2. Coal Mines Provident Fund Act
3. Coal Mines Family Pension Scheme
4. Coal Mines (Attendance) Bonus
5. Death Relief Fund

6. Coal Mines Provident Fund Deposit –linked Insurance Scheme

7. Gratuity Act 1972

8. Health Programs

These security measures provide various security benefits to the workers as well as to their family.
The western coalfields ltd., in its welfare & social security programmes has endeavored to achieve
the adjectives set towards the fulfillment of the programmes. More or less it has been satisfactory
as can be learnt from proceeding chapters. Apparently this is one of the reasons why its
productivity & efficiency has been increasing from time to time.
FINDINGS

1. Employees of WCL are totally satisfied with their pay.

2. Role of Union is good but still there are some employees who are against
the Union.

3. There is good co-operation between the employees.

4. Employees find it easy to put their views directly to management for any
issue.

5. There is motivation programme for employee and workers that’s why their
performance in their work in proper way.

Recommendations
The expectations of human wants are always high and when it is not fulfilled it gives birth to
dissatisfaction. Same problem is facing by the employees of WCL.

With the help of some changes in the environment of WCL the satisfaction level can be
increased.

Some changes to be done are given below:

1. There should be proper communication between the management


and the workers

2. The employers need to praise the employee from time to time.

3. There should be a feeling of trust in each other for other employees.

Though WCL management has implemented all the welfare measures and
maximum number of employees are satisfied but still there is need of some improvement
and some addition in their welfare measures.
During the study of welfare measures at WCL, it has been observed some of the
short coming in welfare measures & their implementations.

Following are the suggestion which can be useful for the improvement of the welfare
measures:
1. Medical Facilities: Although medical facilities provided are adequate but if treatment
provided should be much faster .

2. Canteen Facility: Should provide good quality of food.

3. Transport Facility: A common arrangement of transport could be availed to the employee.

4. There should be suggestion box in each department.

5. There should be DLC (departmental level committee) meeting twice in a month.

Some addition can be done in their welfare measures that are:

1. A week Foreign Tour

2. Varshik Saalah divas

3. Group activity work. Etc….

4. Employees should be rewarded for their performance.

LIMITATIONS
Following are the limitations:

1. WCL is a huge organization and its complete study is not possible in a limited time,
not even for a small topic.

2. Because of busy schedule of the employee they were not able to provide full
information.

3. Employees were scared to tell the negative aspects of welfare schemes.

4. It is not able to collect the information regarding the facilities especially, bonus
because of their heavy work load and busy work schedule.

ANNEXURES

QUESTIONNAIRE
A number of statements are given below describing the welfare schemes of your organization. So,
please answer the following question using the following point scale.

Options for each question are as follows:

5: Strongly Agree
4: Agree
3: Neutral
2: Disagree
1: Strongly Disagree.

1. Working condition of your Organization is better the other organization………….


2. You are satisfied with the Role of UNION in Welfare Schemes………..
3. Your Pay is enough to live on comfortably……….
4. You receive a excellent Medical facilities in time from your
Organization…………
5. You have a very few complaints about your canteen facilities……..
6. .You do not face any problem regarding your Insurance facilities……..
7. You are happy or satisfied with your leave facility by your organization….
8. Transport facility is provided regularly and in time by your organization……
9. You receive adequate Training for your needs……...
10. Retiral benefit provided by your organization is enough for your future
Consumption……..
11. Safety Instrument is distributed regularly in your organization……..
12. There is regular DLC (departmental level committee) meeting held in your
Organization…….
13. Safety Instrument provided to you is of good quality……..
14. Company has policy for prevention of discrimination like caste, creed
etc…………
15. Issues raised in Union /association is addressed by management in time………
16. Your Organization provides regular health check-up to whom working in
hazardous area…….
17. Welfare Measures of your organization motivates you for better
Performance……..
18. Your organization provides Social Security benefits at time…………
19. Social Security ensures protection to you as well as your family…………….
20. You feel your job is secured……
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