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t '--
Forthmmrng issues feature:
Axis Subtnuines of World Vttu II
I Modem Naval SAlvls
Canier Aircraft of the 1960s

0t Supersonic Fighters
Modern Wheeled APCs (Pafi 2)
of we--
The dranratic rise in the power of aircraft between the wars
metny ateas formerly safe from battle come uttder tlueat.
The Battle of Britain encompassed all
the many varieties of air defences.
Eeneatfi fft e Spitfires and Hurricanes
While the major counter to high-altitade honbing was the of F ighter C ommand, thou s ands of
men andwomenlaboured to sewe
de fending fighter, ground forces also had a part to play,
the anti-aircraft batteries of Britain
notably centred arowrd the anti-aircraft gm. tor hours and even days at a time.
War II was both the heyday of and the sceae for the last large- Among the gmns drscussed here is one that has by now become almost
.':-e use of the heavy anti-aircraft gn:n. The weapon had been born a legend, namely the German '88'. This famous gun earned its reputation
: -:-rg World War I, but by 1939 the heavy anti-aircraft gnrn was basically outside its design spectrum as an antr-armour weapon, but all its details
.,-.= same as that used in 1918, along with the fire-control systems which are prbvided here along with accounts of its use in action, But as will be
.',::e little more advanced in 1939 than they had been in 1918, But seen, the '88' was not endowed with magical powers; nor did it have a
. :.:ugh the guns appeared to be similar to the World War I weapons specification that made it differ from many other weapons mentioned in
:.:,' had in fact been considerably advanced in performance: more thts book, It was simply the way it was used that attracted so much
: ,',','erful charges fired larger and more effective projectiles to greater notortety, Many other guns could have been used in a similar way
..=-;his than before and at much higher muzzle velocities. Their car- against armour but their owners were erther not so inclined or not
:.=;:s had also been updated. organrzed to use antr-aircraft gnrns against land targets, They were used
---ere and there some left-overs lrom World War I survived, especially instead for the role for which they were designed, namely the engage-
-:-,ng the French 75-mm (2 95-in) gmns, But by 1939 many olthe gnrns in ment of aircraft targets in defence of a localrty or installation, Most of
:=:.':ce were no longer the hasty improvisations of 1918 and earlter, but them were able to carry out this task more than adequately, and certain-
: -:icse-designed and purpose-buiit weapons of considerable power, ly as well as any German '88'.
',':,r them feil the brunt of the defence of cities and fleld armies against
=-: l:iack, and the same guns defended the rmportant centres of com-
:.-:.rcation and production. At many and diverse locations these guns A G erm an he avy b attery in action in N ovember I 9 39. The I 2. 8 - cm F lak 40
gans are tiring simultaneously to allow their heavy shells to'bracket their
s . - : C and waited for an enemy whrch often never arrived, but elsewhere
target. Later in thewar suchcombinationswereradar-directed, and as many
-.-.= enemy came rn droves and the heavy anti-aircraft gmns were in as 16 heavy weapons would concentrate their fire upon a single Juck/ess
=::-:n for as long as their crews could load them. bomber.

a i;;'{;{; }
'* : ,i;;
Cannone da 75/46 C.A. modello 34
Between the two world wars the Italian As always for the ltalian armaments
armaments industry produced many industry, the main problem with the
good designs, but not many got to the 75/46 was one of production, Despite
hardware stage for the Italian eco- ever-increasing demands from the
nomy was constrained, then as now, by field, production was slow and erratic.
an overall shortage of raw materials of Initially 240 equrpments were
every kind. Thus before any new ordered, but even by the end of 1942
weapon desiqn was rntroduced into only 226 had been delivered, Not a1l of
service it had to be vetted carefully to these were used primarily as anti-
ensure that rt was as good a design as aircraft gmns, some being emplaced as
possrble to justify the expenditure in- dual-purpose anti-aircraft and coastal
volved. So when Ansaldo produced a defence guns at selected points. Thts
new anti-aircraft gnrn in 1926 it was ex- meant that many of the rather anctent
amined over a long period before pro- AA weapons in use at the time had to
duction was authorized, and it was not be retained well past their planned
until 1934 that the gmn was actually in replacement dates, Things were not
helped greatly by the diversion of
The new gun was the Camone da some finrshed barrels for use in
?5/46 C.A. modello 34 (75/46 denoting semovente (tracked assault gun)
the calibre of 75 mm and the barrel mountings.
Iengrth of 46 calibres), in overall design Despite thrs dispersion of effoil, the
the 75/46 was a sound though unre- 75/46 was spread as thinly as possible
markable effort that owed much to the for home delence of the Italian main-
influence of the contemporary Vtckers land and the North African territories.
designs produced in the United King- When ltalian army units moved to
dom, This was especially apparent in serye on the Eastern Front they took a
the carriage design, with a central further 54 guns with them, leaving This Cannone da 75/46 C.A. Modello Srun,'it was used on all the I talian
pivot on which the gun saddle even fewer to defend ltaly. But even 34 is inaction againstAllied aircraft fronts and was a good all-round
swivelled and a folding cruciform plat- these gmns were destined to follow a flying over Libya. This Ansaldo grun performer, butcould not be supplied
form. On the move the platform legs varied sewice career, for in 1943 after was the standard Italian anti-aircraft in the quantities required.
were folded together, leaving the prvot the ltalian surrender the guns sttll
restrng on a two-wheeled carriage alound were taken over by German armies and eventually r.rsed in a coastal width 1,85 m (6 ft 0.8 rn); height
3 in);
arrangement, When the equipment occupation forces, The 74146 then be- defence role around such ports as Na- 2.l5 m (7 ft 0.6 in); lenqth ofbarrel
was ready for emplacement, the legs came the 7.5-cm Flak 264l3(i), but the ples 3,45 m(11 ft3.B in); lengthof rifling
were swung forward and the wheels type was not used by the Germans 2844m(9ft4in)
removed once the Ioad had been outside Italy other than in some of their Elevation: +90'/*2'
taken by the centre of the carnage anti-Yugoslav partisan operatlons. Specification Traverse:360"
The arrangement of the ordnance on Even this change ofhands did not mark Cannone da 75/46 C.A. modello 1934 Maximum effective ceiling: 8300 m
the carriage was very simple and the end of the ownership list for the Calibre:75 mm (2 95 rn) (27,230 ft)
straightforward, and the fire-control in- 75/46, for following the Allied tnvasion Weight: travellLnq kg (9,7 I I lb)
44OS Shell weight: 6.5 ks ( 14.33 Ib)
struments on the carriage were simple of the Italian mainland numbers were (7,275 Ib)
and firrns 3300 kq Muzzlevelocity:750 m (2,461 ft) per
but adequate. captured by the advancing Allied Dimensions: length overall 7.4 m (24 ft second

Cannone da 90/53
Of all the anti-aircraft guns In servlce superf,cral. The 90/53 had a pivot car-
wrth the Italian army from 1941 to 1943 rrage mounted on a cruciform plat- st
none was better than the Cannone da form, but on the carriage itself the fir
90/53, It was an excellent weapon that arrangement of the fire-control instru-
could stand comparison with any of its ments was qurte different from those of
contemporaries, and
sound and modern design.
it was a good.
lt was
the German guns and the banel was of
one-prece constructron instead of the
f; h.t
another product ofthe Ansaldo design multi-sectron arrangement of the later
team and the flrst examples were pro- German guns.
duced during 1939. Productron was au- The Italians used the 90/53 as a multi-
thorized in three marn versions purpose weapon on occasion, but
The most nurnerous version of the some were emplaced as dual-pwpose
90/53 was supposed to be the modello antr-aircrafvcoast defence weapons.
4IP intended for statrc emplacement At times they were used as long-range
only; 1.087 examples of ths verston field gmns and the performance of the
were ordered..A further 660 examples gmn was such that it could match the
of the towed modello 4lC were German 'BB' as an anti-armor[ weapon.
ordered, while another order was for a Numbers were also diverted to the lta-
flrther 57 guns to be mounted on a Iian nalry, The Germans valued the 90/
variety of heavy trucks (autocarnoni 53 so hiqhly that following the ltalian
da 90/53). A Iater order requested yet surrender of 1943 they impressed as
another batch ofbarrels (30) for mount- many 90/53s as they could find. Many of
ing o! self-propelled tracked mount- them were sent back to Germany for ,a.-\
rngs the defence of the Reich as the 9-cm {
Ordering these weapons was one nak 4l(D though the offrcial designa- *iz
thing, but producing them was quite tion was 9-cm Flak 309/1(i), and by De-
another, and the final production cember 1944 315 such equipments are
figures never reached the original mentioned in German records, thouQth
optrmistrc totals, By July 1943 only 539 many of these would no doubt have
weapons of all variants had been deli- been emplaced in Northern Italy, Weight: travellinqB9S0 kq (19,731 lb) This Cannone da 90/53 is rendered
vered, but by then the production line Numbers of 90/53s also fell into Allied and hrins 6240 ks (13,757 lb) mobileby mounting on aAutocarro
was rn German hands and conttnued hands during their advance north Dimensions: Ienqth 7,60 m (24 ft Pesante Lancio 3/RO heavy truck.
for German use alone. German forma- through ltaly and many of these were 11,2 in); width 2.30 m (7 ft 6,5 in); height Tfie gun is seen here fitted with a
tions in North Africa had already had impressed for the coast defence role 2.50 m (B ft 2.4 in); lengrth ofbarrel protective shield for the gan crew in
the 90u 53 rn therr servtce for some time, by British coastal batteries around the 4.736 m ( 15 ft 6,5 in); lengrth ofrifling action, andvery noticeable are the
for they recognized it as a very good main captured ports. 4.046 m (13 ft 3,3 in) outriggers used to stahilize the gun
gmn comparable with their own'BB'. At Elevation: +85'l-2" when firing. Only a few of these
first srght the 90/53 resembled the B.B- Traverse:360" com bin ations were made.
cm (3,465-in) Flak 18 and FIak 37 Specification Maximum effective ceiling: I 2000 m
weapons, but there were many differ- Carurone da 90/53 (39,370 ft) Muzzle velocity: 830 m (2,723 ft) per
ences and the similarities were only Calibre:90 mm (3.54 tn) Shellweisht: 10.33 kq (22.77 lb) second

I 182
Anti-Aircraft Fire Control on some form of clockwork, but later some electrical and even electronic timers
Itmay seem strange, considering tfi e resources devoted to were in service. For real technological wonder the best of all the anii-aircrati
fuses was the proximity fuse, foi which the body of ttre-iiel;;i; il;
ground-based defences duringWorldWar II, but thechances mrnrature radar transmitter.and.signals reflected from the target were detected
of an aircraft actually being hit by a heavy anti-aircraft shell by the fuse itself. lf these signals ieached a certain level the tErqet wasin ranqe
wereremote. Strenuous effortsweremade to alter this and the shell detonated. Ay the use of such fuses the V 1 f ly;"ng OomUs weie
situation, notably in the area of tire control and targeting. finally.defeated, but even without such fuses the V-1s form'ed"a pe*"-t anti
aircraft gunner's target. They flew along a fixed course at a constant altitude and
speed until the final moment before fa-iling. and were thus ideal candidates foi
the well-established predictor/rangefindei methods of fire controi
One of the most difficult of all artillery targets to hit is an aircraft in flight. There By the time the war ended both the Allies and the Gern ans were usino
are several reasons for this, not the least being that the aircraft is f ree tb move in various forms of radar for fire control. Radar took a lot of the guesswork out oT
any one of three planes as its pilot wishes. Another is that projectiles fired from target prediction as it could accurately track both course and a"ltitude. while the
any gun take time to reach their destination and by the time they anive at the advent of what we now know as the electronic computer made ored ction as
point at.which they are aimed the target may well have moved f rom its previous accurate as it could be. But by then the aircraft targets were f ty ng n,gner and
course in any direction. Thus the anti-aircraft gunner has to use a gredt deal of faster and no matter how high the muzzle velocity of'the gun beiarr"e ;ist it tool
special equipment in order to get his weapon, the projectile, as close to his an appreciable time for the shell to reach the taiget altiilde li was a problem
target as possible. that couh only be overcome in the usual mannerlthe applicat,or- o. r,-asses of
Much of what is contained here has now been rendered obsolete by the fire a.nd large projectrles that could carry as powerful an explos,ve pavioad as
advent of radar, the guided missile and the silicon chip, but the gunner of World possible.
War ll initially had none of these. ln their place they had to relybn a number of , lt was a,problem that was not solved until the advent of the guided rr ss,ie By
mechanical contrivances, all of which relied on one basic precept: that for the the time that the last anti-aircraft guns for large-scale defen6e were rer.oved
guns to have any sort of a chance of hitting anything the target had to remain during the 1960s there were large--calibre guns'that could fire massrve sheils to
flying on a set course at a constant speed. lt is very rare for ai-rcraft to fly in this unprecedented heights at the raie of at least one per second, but sorneno\.v the
fashion and even massed bomber formations tend to leave some leeway for attacker could still survive it all statisticallv.
ind ividual aircraft to bob and weave, but there was no alternative for the gu nhers
but to make this'constant path and speed'assumption.
-. Nearly all but the largest anti-aircraft guns had some form of on-carriage
fire-control system in the form of a simple 'cartwheel' sight for use when
operating in isolation or in an emergency. Under such conditions range informa-
iion was derived from a simple form of portable range-finder, buifor useful
accuracy the optical base of such an instrument has to be as wide as possible, so
even in the early days range data were usually derived from a wide-base
rangefinde_r located in the centre of a gun position and shouted or telephoned to
ihe guns. Once this central position was an accepted fact it then became easier
lo conceive the idea of using this central position to derive other gun-control
Cata. Thus i1 place of the on-carriage sight the predictor was developed. ln the
ea.rly days of World War ll this was a purely mechanical device into which target
nformation (range, heading, wind speeds etc) was fed manually. The resultant
frre-control data could then be read off from dials and fed to the guns by voic6,
either simple shouting or by telephone. As time went on the predictors 6ecame'
more complicated and cables were used to transmit the control data direct to
lhe guns. There it was initially read off from dials and then applied to the gun
controls but even this was eventually bypassed, first by a system of 'follow-the-
oointer' or the alignment of f lashing lamps, and then by a f ully automatic system
n which the gun layers had little to do other than supervize the operation. Again,
I time this data transmission was extended to other factors such as Tuse
setting. Most anti-aircraft projectiles were HE shells that relied on a time fuse to
set off the main charge when it was near the target, the chances of hitting an
aircraft target being too remote for anything else. But in the time it took to set
tnese time fuses manually the target information might well have changed, so
ihe 'dead time' it took to set the fuse and to load and fire had to be as short as
oossible. ln time this was reduced by the use of centrally-controlled or automatic
'use setting machines first on the gun carriage and then actually on the loading The Anterican l20-mm M I anti-airctaft gun had two gun aimers. One layer
tray so-that the fuse was set only as the round was fed into the gun breech. would be concerned with the elevation control (on tfie left in the photqiraph)
The fuses themselves were small wonders of manufacturing sklll and were and the other with the traverse (on the right). On some similar gruns an-othlr'
expensive to produce, even when mass produced. Early in the war most relied Iayer would be controlling the fuse setting machine.

The simple wiresigfi t, seen iere on a French 75-mm gNn, was standard on fipical oI many WorldWar II rangefinders is this Japanese example with a
most AA weapons, for use in emergency or when operating in kolation away two-metre optical base. This would be used by one pe$on, with another
from more sophisticated fue conhol equipment. With aircraft llying ever checkingreadings and transmitdng them verbally to a central frre control
faster and higher, new methods had to be developed. point. These expensive instrunentswere usually distributed one to a battery.

I 183

o Type 88 75-mm anti-aircraft grun

-re 75-mm (2.95-in) Type 88 Mobile maximum effective ceiling (the alti- Maximum effective ceiling: 7250 m
tude to which the projectiles could be (23,785 ft)
Field AA Gun was a Japanese armY
',',:apon introduced into service in fired to engaqe an aircraft target for a Shellweight:6.58 kg (14,5 lb)
- :28 At that period the Type 88 was as useful amount of time), For the Type BB Muzzlevelocity: 720 m (2,362 ft) pet
a gmn as any in service, and was this was about 7250 m (23,785 ft), and second
'.';ell capable of tackling the aerial on many occasions Boeing B-29 bom-
:argets then likely to be encountered. bers could operate at well above this
3ut rt was soon overtaken by increases altitude. But for the Japanese it was the
-n arrcraft performance, to the extent TYpe BB or nothing, for as always they
ihat it could at best be described as an lacked the larqe manufacturingr base
efficient but indifferent performer. and design experience to Produce
The Type BB design was chosen af- anything better in the time available
ter an examination ofother current and Instead they had to impress all manner
prospective anti-aircraft gnrns, and was of modified naval gmns for the home
an amalgam of some of the better defence role and even resorted to the
pornts of several weapons, The barrel use of simple mortars for low-level de-
was a single-piece design with a slid- fences in some areas,
ing breech and mounted on the then- The Type BB is mentioned in some
fashionable central pivot. The firing Allied intelligence reports as havingl
platform had five legs which folded an anti-armour role, but there appears
fore and aft for transport, and to assist to be little (if any) evidence of the Type
the overall balance on the move the BB being used in thrs role, A special
barrel was partially retracted, In ac- armour-piercing projectile known as
tron each outrigger legwas supported the Type 95 was produced for use bY
on an adjustable foot for levelling and the TVpe 88, but the usual high explo-
there was another adjustable foot sive projectile was the TYPe 90.
under the central pivot. A central pair
of wheels was used to tow the gun Specification Above : The mount of a caPtured
Type 88 TYpe 88 75-mm gntn is examined in
alonq roads, these being removed be-
Calibre: 75 mm (2.95 in) the Pacifrc. Notice the five legs oI the
fore flring,
Lrke so many other contemporary Weight: traveliing 2747 kg (6,056 lb) firing platform and the detached
andflrinqr2443 kq(5,386 lb) barrel at the bottom left of the
Japanese weapons, the TYPe BB was photograph.
difficult to produce as virtually every- Dimensions: lengrth travelling 4.542 m
thing on the gnln had to be hand-made (t4 ft 10,8 in); width 1.951 m (6 ft 4.8 in);
Left: An emplaced 7 5 - mm (2'9 5 -in)
It gradually became the standard height2.019 m(6 ft7.5 in); lengrthof
TYpe 8 8 anti- aircraf t grun. T his
Japanese army anti-aircraft gun and at barre]3.3i5 m(I0 ft i0,5 in); lenqrthof
rifling 2,578 m (8 ft 5,5 in) laoanese oun sft ould notbe
one time or another was used bY every 'c6nfused-with the German 88 , for the
army fieId formation, startinq in China Elevation: +85"/-0'
and Manchuria during the 1930s, It was Traverse:360' JapaneseTYpeSS
also widely used during the early referred to theyear ot
intr oduc tio n ac co r d ing
Japanese advances in the Pacific. totheJapanese
However, once the Japanese mainiand
came rncreasingly under threat of air
calendar and nottothe
attack from 1943 onwards the Type 8Bs
calibre, aswiththe
were gradually withdrawn from the Germangun;the two
more outlying island garrisons and hadverylittlein
sent to the home rslands. Their places
were taken by a motley arraY of di-
verse weapons, mainly ex-naval
pieces dug into improvrsed land em-
Back in Japan the Type BB soon de-
monstrated that it suffered from a low

fl ih" French 75-mm eruns

When the problem of antr-aircra-ft de- when World War II began for the sim-
fences arose during World War I the ple reason that there appeared to be
French army reacted in its usual man- no real need to replace them; moreov-
ner, takinq the ordnance ofthe famous er, funds for new eguipment for the
75', the mle 1897 field gnm, and placing French army were scant while the
rt onto a simple high-angle mounting Magnnot Line was being constructed
There were several of these mount- However, by the late l92Os it was
Ings. one being a simple arrangement apprecrated that the old mle 1897 fleld
oi the gun on a fixed turntable with the gun was being rapidly outmoded as an
carriage knocked uP from steel anti-aircraft weapon and that higher-
assemblies. This simple arranqement velocity weapons would soon be
was the Canon de 75 mm anti-aerien needed. Thus there started a desultory
mle 1915, but a better arangement progffamme of re-equipping the many
was produced by the Canon de 75 mm old batteries, Some of the first to be
anti-a6rien mle 1913, which was an updated were the fixed batteries
early attempt to produce a self- around such locations as Paris, where
propelled anti-aircraft gnrn by mounl the old fixed mle 1915 equiPments
ing a mle lB97 on a truck. Despite the simply had their barrels replaced with
eallv desion date this turned out to be a more powerfirl Schneider ordnance
a r6markably good anti-aircraft to produce the Canon de 75 mm contre
weapon but it was not the only use of aeionefs mle l7l34. Thts new barrel
the mle lB97 for the role. There was provided a much better performance
also a Canon de 75 mm contre wrth less time-of-flight and improved
aeronefs mle l9l7 which was a towed servrce ceiling. Similar barrels were
piece but one in which all the fire- olaced on the old mle l9l3 truck-
tontrol lnstruments were mounted on inounted equrpments and also on the
the carriage; this was a Schneider de- almost-as-old mle 1917 equipments'
but so slow was this grradual rebarrell- The Canon de 75 mm mle I 936 was a captured in N or th Africa from the
These three equipments were still ln inq proctramme that many guns still Sclrneider desrgrn produced only in VichyFrenchin 1943.
use in appreciable numbers in 1939 na-a iirerr oriqinal mle 1897 barrels in sma/Inumbers. This example was

The French 75-mm gruns (continued)

_ 940, the old mle IB97s, which were re-

Some completely new equipments moved from their carriages and were
',','ere produced dunng the I930s. Us- later used as beach defence weapons
-:ig the new Schneider barrel a com- in the Atlantic Wall. However, many of
pletely new antr-aircraft gnrn krown as the more modern Schneider guns
:re Canon de 75mm contre aeronefs were still in German use in 1944. The
mle 1933 was produced during the designations were 7.5-cm FK 97(f) for
rrd-1930s. This was an odd-looking the 75-mm anti-a6rien, 7.5-cm Flak
;ul mounted in action on a cruciform M.l7l34(f) for the mle 17, 7.5-cm Flak
:latform with the barrel trunnions M.33(f) for the mle 1933, and ?.S-cm
::rcunted well down the barrel near the Flak M.36(f) for the mle 36,
::eechi 192 equrpments were in ser-
'.':ce in 1940. Another totally new Specification
S:hneider weapon was produced in Canon de 75 mm contre aeronefs mle
:;o forms as the Canonde ?5 mmcon- 1932
tre aeronefs mle 1932 and 1936, which Calibre:75 mm (2,95 in)
:-fered only in detail, This was a thor- Weight: travelling 5300 kq (11,684 lb)
- -.rghly modern weapon designed and firins 3800 kg (8,377 Ib)
:rm the outset for mobility. The mle Dimensions: lengrth travelling 6.95 m
- 332 had a crew ofnine men and could (22 ft 9.6 in); width traveliing 1,5 m (4 ft
:re up to 25 rounds per minute. On the I I in); Iengrthof barrel4.05 m (13 ft
::ad it could be towed at speeds ofup 3,5 in); Iengrthof rifling3,25 m(I0 ft
:: 40 kn/tr (24,85 mph). 8 in)
When the Germans invaded in May Elevation: +70'l-5'
- 1,40, the French army was thus still in a Traverse:360'
s:ate of confusion regarding anti- Maximum ceiling: 8000 m (26,245 ft)
gmns. The planned progEaJnme Shell weisht: 6,44 ks ( 14.2 lb)
:: :eplacement of the old weapons was Muzzle velocity: 700 m (2,297 ft) per
.-:,Ll lar from complete, and many gnrns second
.-11 had their obsolete mle 1897 bar-
::s. There were really too many types
:: ;mns in sewice for logistical comfort TheGermans were always short of
::: rn the event the advances of May anti aircraft gant and used as many
::-.C June 1940 swept the French army ex-French guns as they could. This
:;ay before the anti-aircraft guns gun in German hands is a 7 5-mm mle
:: !d make any rmpact on the Iruftwaf- 1933formedbyplacinga
:: Huge amounts of French 75-mm modernized Schneider barrel onto a
: 33-in) anti-aircraft equipment were revised and updated World War I
:.:pnued by the Germans, who took carriage. At one tfune the Germans
:'.'er many for their own use - but not had 1 60 of these in service.

Bofors 75-mm and 80-mm Model 1929 and Model 1930

widely acknowledged success of some in BO-mm (3, 15-in) calibre. One of Specification Elevation:-:,'-j'
40-mm Bofors gmn has tended to the largrest customers was Hungary, 8-cm29M Traverse: :: -'
-'.':rshadow the fact that the Swedish which received 80 mm guns; these Calibre: B0 mm (3. l5 in) Maximum effective cerling: --- -! rn
::::rpany of Bofors also made a larger were used extensively during the Weight: travelling 4200 kg (9,259 lb) (32,810 ri)
--i quite successful 75-mm (2.95-in) period when the Hungtarian army was andfirins 3300 ks (7,275 lb) Shellweight: - ,
-.:i-aucraft gmn. The Bofors concern allied with the Germans alonq the Dimensions: barrel lengrth 4,0 m (13 ft Muzzie velocity
:,- always been insistent that thjs gmn Eastern Front from l94l to 1944, and 1,6 in) second
r','-evolved by the company alone, more were retained for home defence,
:*: rt cannot be overlooked that the In Hungary the Model29 was known as TheSwedish Bo[ors Model29 was
::srgn was berng formulated at a time the 8-cm 29 M. Another BO-mm (3, 15- sold to various counttes tn either 75-
','.':len Bofors was working in close in) customer was the Dutch East In- mm(2.95-in) and 8a-mm (3.],i-in)
=ssocration with the Krupp team resr- dies, but few of these weapons sur- calibres. Itwas a sound desrgm
::nt in Sweden as a means to avoid the vived after 1942. produced by Bofors whenGerman
:=:ms of the Versailles Tteaty, It now The Bofors gun was a sound but un- desiEmers were workng in Sweden
::ems almost certain that some form of spectacular performer. It used a cruci- on the 88, and so therewere many
::css-fertihzation occurred betureen form firing platform that was lowered design features common to the two.
--:.e two tearns, for almost at the same to the ground from two wheeled axles,
.--itant the Krupp team produced a 75- which were then completely removed
:-n (2,95-in) gmn that led eventually to before firing, A horizontal breech
:: famous German 'BB'and Bofors pro- block mechanism was fitted, and this
::ced its 75-mm (2,95-in) Model 1929, was virtually the same as that used on
The Model 29 differed in many de- the Krupp gnrn. However, the Bofors
:= ls from the Krupp 75-mm (2.95-rn) gnin did have one thing that the Krupp
:estgn, but the hvo weapons had a desigm iacked, namely an overall sim-
'.':ry similar performance. Other simi- plcity of design: the Bofors gmn had
.:rltres were that both used a cruciform Iittle of the complicated fire-control
:rrriage with a central traverse, and equipment that was used on the Krupp
::at both gmns used barrels of similar design and proved to be easy to oper-
-:nqth and construction. But whereas ate, even in the hands of relatively un-
:re Krupp gmn was rued in only Lmited trained personnel. Thus when the
:.rmbers by the German navy and a Bofors gmn was used in China it proved
:ew South American states, the Bofors to be remarkabiy effective, and the
::rodel was adopted by the Swedish type was chosen for its overall srmple
:rmed forces in two versions, approach by such armed forces as
There were two main models of the those in the Dutch East Indies, which
Sofors gnrn, the Model 29 and Model had to rely on a personnel force with
30 These difered only in detail, but to few technical assets. Overall, the
:cnfuse matters both were produced Bofors gun was a sound gnm but one
:cr export rn calibres of 75 mm and that was soon outperformed by later
:C mm (2.95 in and 3. 15 in). Export ver- designs.
sronswere sold to Argentina, China,
Frnland, Greece, Hungary, Iran and
Thailand, some in 75-mm (2.95-in) and

I 185
8.8-cm Flak 18 and Flak 37
The terms of the 1919 Versaille Treaty
laid down stdct gft]idelines as to what
artillery production could be be car-
\ t
ded out in Germany, so the largest
German armaments company, KruPP t (r

of Essen, sent a team to Sweden to

carry on research and development
outside the rmposed restrictions.
Working with Bofors the Krupps team
worked initially on a 75-mm (2.95-in)
anti-aircraft gun using clandestine
German army funds, but the armY was
not particularly happy with the result
and asked for something heavier. The fifi$il F
'Swedish' Krupp team accordinglY
produced a new and advanced BB-mm
(3 465-rn) qun that by 1933 was in series
production at Essen as the NSDAP €
came to power.
This new gmn was the 8.8-cm Flak I8
(Flak standing for Fliegerabwehr-
kanone, or antr-aircraft gun), and it was
an immediate success. It was a lonq-
barrelled gmn mounted on a plvoted
cruciform carnage which was in turn
carried on the move by twin axles that
allowed the gn-rn to be rapidly placed
into the firing position. The Flak lB had
a one-piece barrel but was later sup-
plemented by an improved version,
the 8.8-cm Flak 36, whrch had a multi-
section barrel on which only the worn
part nearest the chamber needed to
be changed after prolonged firing.
Then came the 8.8-cm Flak 37 which
was a Flak 36 with a revised system of
heavy projectile made the weaPon emplacement only were being pro- ThrsF/ak36 r's seen in action during
fire-control data transmission more
suited to stattc use than fleld use. ln ideal as a 'tank killer'. This became duced, but by then the B.B-cm Fiak the S oviet cam paign. A{ter the
practice the three models were inter- very evident during the earlY North series had been used on self- tribulations of the bitter winter ot
changeable to a high degree, and it Afrrcan and later Eastern Front cam- propelled platforms, rarlway mount- 1941, theGerman army had become
was not unusual to see a FIak iB barrel paiqns, but the B.B-cm Flak sertes was ings, coastal defence locations, ltght more familiar with sub-zero fighting,
on a Flak 37 carriagre. Several changes ieally too high and bulky for the antr- shippinq and in several expertmentai but 'General Winter' was still a
were introduced to the weapons once tank role and had to rely on ils range forms. potent contributor to the Sovietwar
they were in service, including a re- and power rather than concealment in The B.B-cm Flak guns were also effort.
vised twin-axle carriage arrangement, action. used by the Itahan army, and for a
and the B.B-cm FIak sertes was As antr-aircraft gnrns the B.B-cm Flak while rn late 1944 the type was even
adapted to be carried on a variety of senes was the mainstay of the German used operationally by the US Army and firins 5150 ks (l 1,354 lb)
self-propelled mountings, tncluding field armies and of the defence of the along the German borders when its Dimensions: length overall 7.62 m (25 :'
railway flatcars, Reich under Luftwaffe control. The own supply lines became overex- 0 in); width 2,305 m (7 ft 6,75 in); heish:
The B.B-cm Flak series became one type was never replaced by later mod- tended. Many were used by several 2.418 m(7 ft I i.2 in); lengrth of barrel
of the most celebrated weapons in the eG as had been planned, and in Augnxt armres post-war, and the Yugoslav I in); lengthofrifling
4.93 m (16 ft 2.
entire German army, for It went on to 1944 there were 10,704 of all three army uses the B.B-cm FIak as a coastal 4,124m(13ft64in)
be as famous as an anti-tank weapon as models in setvtce. Produclton was gun to this day. Elevation: +85"/-3"
it was as an anti-aircraft qnrn: following undertaken at several centres, and a Traverse:360"
the gmn's 'blooding' in Spain during the wide range of ammunition was Pro- Specification Maximum ceiling: 8000 m (26,245 ft)
Civil War and again rn France in 1940, duced for these weapons, includtng a 8.8-cmFlak 18 Shellweight: HE 9 24 ks (20.34 lb)
it was discovered that the high muzzie high proportion of armour-piercing. By Calibre:BB mm (3.465 rn) Muzzle velocity: 820 m (2,690 ft) per
velocity coupled with an efficient and the end of the war versions for stattc Weight: travellinq 686l kq (15, 126 lb) second

8.8-cm Flak 4t
By 1939 it was obvious to the long{erm for the design was full of 'bugs', some of necessary workshop facilities that they tion delays were imposed when an
German military planners that the ex- which were never entirely eliminated constantly demanded. But it should not attempt was made to switch some pro-
pected increases in aircraft perform- An example of this can be quoted as be thought that the FIak 4l was an un- duction to the Skoda Werke at Pilsen
ance then on the way would render the the ammunition, which in typical Ger- successful weapon, for when it worked but for all their efforts the most the
exrsting 8.8-cm (3,465-in) and 10.5-cm man style used a long and expensive it was an excellent anti-aircraft gmn. Germans could ever fleld was 318 and
(4.I3-in) FIak weapons obsolete, so cartridge case. These cases frequent- After the war it was generally re- that was in January 1945.
they initiated the development of a ly jammed on extraction after firing, to garded as the best of all the German
new 8,8-cm (3,465-in) weapon, Rhetn- the extent that special high-grade anti-aircraft guns from a technical
metail was given the contract for this brass cases had to be manufactured point of vrew, but one that required an Specification
new gmn, and the company according- speciically for some of the early exam- inordinate amount of maintenance and 8.8-cmFlak4I
ly attempted to integnate into the de- ples, Both three- and four-sectlon bar- repair time. When it did work properly Calibre:88 mm (3.465 in)
srgn all the various lessons learned rels were produced, and the weapon it had a rate of flre of up to 25 rounds Weight: travelling I 1240 kg (24,780 lb)
from the exlstingt B.B-cm Flak 18 and even had an automatic fuse setter on per minute and had a maxtmum effec- andtuing7840 kg(U,284 Ib)
Flak 37 series. Thus the new weapon, the loading mechanism. There were tive ceiling of 14700m (48,230ft). It Dimensions: length overall9.658 m
no fewer than three separate firing cu- flred a different round from the other (31 ft 8,2 in); width 2.4 m (7 ft 10.5 in);
known initially as the Gerat 37, was
rntended for use not only as an anti- cuits, and a powered rammer was B.B-cm (3,465-in) weapons. height 2.36 m (7 ft 8.9 in); lengrth of
aucraft gnrn but it also had to be suited fitted. Despite the technical promise of the barrel6,54B m(21 ft5,B in); Iengrthof
ror use as an anti-tank weaPon and The first production examPles were Flak 41, the type was never produced rifling5.411 m(17 ft9 in)
even a field or coastal artillery piece, sent to T\-rnisia during the latter staqes in anything but limited numbers. It Elevation: +90'/-3'
The result was that when develop- of the North African camPaign: here consumed a great deal of manufactur- Traverse:360'
i:lent of the Geriit 37 was completed in their technical troubles continued and ing potential and production was not Maximum effective ceiling: 14700 m
-341 a hrghly complicated weapon was thev were qiven little chance to shine assisted by the constant atlention (48,230 ft)
presented to the troops, The Gerdt 37 Thdreafter they were assigned to use given by the Allled air forces to the Shellweisht: HE 9,4 kq (20,7 lb)
'.','as adopted as the 8.8-cm F'lal< 41, but within the borders of the Reich only, weapon's main production centre at Muzzlevelocity: 1000 m (3,280 ft) per
risr-nce development took until i943 where they could be near the very Diisseldorl Further lengthy produc- second
The mostfamous of all anti-aircraftweapons inWorldWar II was thelegrendary officer took control ofan 88 that happened to be
German'88'.Thatfameresfsa/most entirelyon thefact thatthe Germanswerethe located handily nearby and opened fire on the
firstto realizethat thehigh-velocity, flattrajectory shellcouldbeeffective againstall attacking tanks, The results must have been
devastating. The light tanks of that period had
manner of fortified and armoured ground targets. thin armour proof only against steel shell frag-
ments and little else, so the effect of a high
veiocity 88-mm (3 465-in) projectile must have
been dreadflri. The 88 had the long barrel that
The German 88-mm (3.465-1n) guns were not (3.465-in) calibre, and the 8,8-cm Flak 18 was was needed to propel an anti-aircraft projectile
Lntended as anti-armour weapons, now their born. to its operationai altitude in a short a time as
most famous role. When they were first con- By that time the treaty restrictions were possible, and the projectile was accordingly
ceived during the late 1920s and mid-1930s, being ignored or were no ionger in force, so propelied by a powerful charge at a high muz-
ihey were intended to be anti-aircraft gmns production of the new gnrn began in Germany zle velocity, Even with a straightforward HE
only and were desigmed accordingly. Their rn 1932. The NSDAP under Hitler was well on its shell the 88 could guite simply punch its way
crigins have now passed rnto a form oflegend, way to power, and formed an administration in through any contemporary tank and the results
ior they were designed not in Germany but in the following year. Then the programme of of the rnrtral Spanish engagement were duly
Sweden, The large Krupp concern had sent a expansion of German military power that noted in higher command circles.
:eam there during the 1920s in an attempt to get marked the mid-1930s began in earnest and By 1939 the 88s were pouring off the produc-
around the restrictions of the I9l9 Treaty of the 88 was well to the lore in the equipping of tion lines. Krupp of Essen produced the buik of
Versailles, which Iaid down the limitations of the new German armed forces. them, but new production centres had by then
what the German armaments industry could The 88s were issued to all arms of the Ger- opened up elsewhere. Enough had been pro-
design and produce. The team from Essen man forces. The Luftwaffe used the 88 for the duced for the 88 to be rssued at a rate of one
;oined forces with the Bofors concern at Karls- home defence of the Reich, the German navy eight-gnrn battalion to nearly every Panzer,
aoga and there quietly worked on the finaiiza- foi the defence of naval facilities and coastal mechanized and rruantry divsron, With these
:ion of designs for the next generation of Ger- defence batteries, and the army for use in the formations the gruns r,'ere iowed by the 8{on
:nan weapons. field. Each army division had at least one com- Zugkraltwagen SdKz I haif-tracked tractor,
Aa anti-aircraft gnrn was high on the list of pany of 88s (and sometimes more), but in these which also carrred :-:te gurr crew and some
criorities and the design work was secretly early stages of rearmament the 88 was meant ammunition; more aJTlm'in:r3n 1,vas carried on
:unded by the German army back in Berlin. By as an anti-aircraft weapon onlY.
It was during the Spanish Civil War that the AFIak 18 is manhard,led across a pontoon bridge
1930 the team had produced a 75-mm (2.95-in) during theMay 1940 campaign inFrance.The river
Eun that met the army's requirements, but as 88 was first put into use as an anti-armour may be theMeuse, as 88s were used thete not only
early as that date it was realized that something weapon. The exact place and date have not tomake thecrossing possible but alsoto breakup
nore powerful would be required for the fu- been recorded, but it seems safe to assume isolated French fank a lla cks on ce a bridgehead
rre, so the Krupp team once more set to, en- that at a critical stage of a Republican waseslab/rshed. About eight gtuns were involved
-argrng the 75-mm (2 95-in) design to 88-mm armoured breakthrougth an enterprtsing in this operation.



The'88' in Action
Some GermEn 88s were handed over to the ltalia-
army inNorthAfrica andwere known then as the
Cannone Antiaero da 88 / 56 modello 36. These
examples are in action inNorth Atrica and are
firing from their cruciform platforms at aircraft
targets ; the wheel bogries are retained nearby for a
possible r apid withdraw al.

enemy. The barrel was carried on a ht;::.

pedestal mount in order to provide the g-:.
with 360" traverse for anti-aircraft use, and tL '
made the centre of gravity of the gun rathe:
high. The 88 was also a werghty weapon to us:
ona battiefield and the large half-tracked trac-
tor was very necessary to get the gnrn in and c';:
. of action.
The normal method of bringing the gnrn tn::
action was to use the tractor to race to the
desired emplacement point, where the tow ba:
.i* was disconnected to allow the departure of the
?.- ai!.' half{rack after dropping off the crew and some
ammunition. The crew then had the heavy job
of using the winches and pulleys on the gnrn's
other half{racks or on trucks, The basic gmn reducing the 'dead time' between fi-rse setting twin-axle carriage to remove the axles ani
crew in the field was six men, but more were and firing and thus increasing accuracy lrater iower the gnrn to the ground, The outriggers
usually added for ammunttion handling. the logical step of mounting the fuse setter next were then lowered, the gnrn was levelled and
Wh-en the 88 was deployed as an antr-aircraft to the loadlng tray was taken and the 'dead all was ready for action. On the early versions
information was relayed from a central
glr-rn, time' was reduced stlll further' Generally of the twin-axle carriage the gmnwas arranged
fire-control point. On the gnrn the layers could speaking the Flak 37 was gsed mainly on fixed so that the barrel would point forwards towards
encounter two types of fire-control apparatus sites for iechnical reasons but some were used the tractor. After experience in Poland and
On the 8.8-cm Flak i8 and the slightly later in the field, France this was altered so that the barrel would
8.8-cm Flak 36 the layer was faced by a dial point to the rear, i,e, towards the enemy as the
with a series of lamps around the circumfer- '88'inPoland iractor re-engaged the load. This enabled the
In 1939 the use of the 88 as an anti-armour gnrn to remain in action untii the last possible
encei as the lamps came on he moved a control
wheel to align another series of lamps with weapon began in earnest, and this was noted moment in the case of a hurried withdrawal
those on the outer ring. As he moved the con- by the Western nations at the time. The unior- There was a fixture for a telescopic sight by the
troi wheel the gmn moved in either elevation or tunate Poles had few modern tanks and what aimer's position and for long-range artiilery use
traverse. On the 8.8-cm FIak 37 two serles of thev had were quite simply blown away by the there was a fitting for an artillery dral sight on
pointers were used: the central fire-control 88s-as soon as they arrtved on the battlefield top of the recuperator cylinder over the gun
post data relay moved one pointer and the These Polish vehicles had little chance against When engaging ground targets range informa-
iayer the other until the two coincided, These the 88, for by then the gnrns had been issued tron came from a hand-held rangefinder'
were not the only instruments controlled by the with a new solid anti-tank armour-piercing pro- A captured Flak J 8 js seen wjti the early
central fire-control post, for there was also a jectile. Combrned wrth the power of the 881his
Sonderhanger 201 wheeled carriage; the later
fr:se setting machine carried on the gun car- shot could penetrate the thickest armour then Sonderhanger 202 had the barrel pointing to the
riage. Before each shell was loaded the nose in use, When used tn the anti-armow role the rear. The tractor is a half-tracked Sd Kfz 7, the
fl:se was inserted into the machine and once 88s were often frtted with a frontal shield to vehicle used wheneverpossible to tow the 88. The
releasedthe shellwas immediately }oaded and provlde some protection for the crew, for in the tractor also carried the crew and some
fired, This had the advantage of considerably field the 88 was a high and bulky target for the atnmunition, and all their gear.



*txf'.. '

.3 ,. '

I 188
Heavy Anti-Aircraft Guns of World War II



The 88 realiy made its mark on the Western out such tanks at rangies twice the ellective A German 8 .9-cm FIak I I in a typical emplacement
Allies during the May 1940 campaign in reach of such tank gnlns, so the destruction of and ready for action. The men on the right are
France, and especially during the crossing of tanks at ranges of 2000 m (2, I85 yards) in the holding rounds with thefu shells downwards,
the Meuse at Dinant on 13 May. There the river desert was a not uncommon occurrence, The rcady to place therrnose /uses dr'rectly into the
British tankies'did not help themselves, for on fuse-setfinErmachine - the layers on the left are
crossing by the assault boats of the leading watching their data transmr'ssion dr'als.
forces was held up by well-emplaced bunkers many occasions they were apt to indulge in
and some armour on the opposite bank. By what can only be described as cavalry charges
bringing up a battery of four 88s the Germans against well-defended German positions. One abled where they stood, It was possible to
were abie to knock out every one ofthe oppos- of these fatal charges was against a position conceal the guns by the usual process of dig-
trrg strong points one by one until the crossing known as Hill 208 in early June 1941, The Ger- ging in, but this took time and in the mobile and
could go ahead unopposed. Later in the same mans had used their time to good effect on that fluid warfare of the desert and steppe time was
campaigrn it was noted that the 88 was the only hill, for they had dug in I3 88s in such a way that not always available. Getting the 88 in and out
German weapon that could penetrate the only their barrels could be seen above ground, of action could not be carried out quickly un-
heavy frontal armour of the British 'Matilda' in- They were able to pick ofl the advancing Brit- less the gun crew was either well trained or
fantry support tanks, ish cruiser tanks with ease untll the ground in very strong, and both these assets were some-
Despite these successes the 88 had yet to front of Hill 208 was littered with hrilks. Thus the times lacking. The 88 only became the anti-
show one of its major attributes, namely its Battle of Sollum ended with yet another British armour par excellence when it was adapted to
range. It was rare on the battlefields of France retreat. a proper antr-tank gnrn carriage.
for actions to take place at more than about But even while still in the original FIak form
1000 m (1,095 yards) but the 88 was capable of Primetarget the 88 could often hrrn the result of a battle right
knocking out tanks at hvice that range. This was It should not be thought that the 88s always until the end of the war, A typical example of
to be repeatedly demonstrated on the wide had things their ovrn way, As has already been this occurred on the Bourgebus Ridge during
expanses of the North African deserts and the mentioned, the 88s were high and bulky the fighting in Normandy in July 1944. As part of
vast plains of the Soviet Union, where time and weapons that stood out against the flat terrain of Operation 'Goodwood' two British armoured
again the 88s were able to englage and larock North Africa and the Soviet Union. Both the divisions, the l lth and the 7th, were advancing
out enemy tanks at ranges greater than those of Allies and the Red Army came to recognize the up over the ridge through a maze of small
the tanks'main armament. This was particular- bulk of the 88 and treat it with respect, When localities defended by the Germans. The stub-
ly true in North Africa, where at first the British possible they engaged the 88s with field artil- born defence of these localities had already
tanks were armed with only a Z-pdr gnrn with a leryfire, andwhen subjected to such fire the 88 severely upset the British timetable when onto
limited effective range, The 88s could lcrock was often lost, usually by its crew betng dts- the scene came a Panzergnenadier colonel by

I t8g
The 8 .8-cm Flak 4 I was never really free
from problems in its sewice career, as a
result of its complicated construction.
Seen lrere dr'sm ounted from its
Sonderhanger carriage, the Flak 4 I was
usually retained tor service within the
Reich. In spite of operational difficulties,
it was widely regarded as the finest of
German heavy anti-aircraft weapons.
Although capable of firing 25 roundsper
minute, and with a muzzle velocity of
I 000 m (3,280 ft) per second giving a
maximum effedive ceiling of I 4700 m
( 4 8,2 30 f0, the complexity of
manufacture allowed only 3 I I pieces lo
see opera trona I deployment.

I 190
Heavy Anti-Aircraft Guns of World War II

Designed by a Krupp teatn in Sweden (in the name of von Luck. He was fresh from a few following armoured formations had joined in
order to circumvent the conditions of the days' leave in Paris, but once on the scene the jam, but by that time the Germans had been
Treaty of Versaillei), the 8.8-cm FIak I I showed a remarkable talent for summing up
entered production in 1933, and with the able to pour yet more defending troops and
National Socialist state was to become the tactical scene. He noted a force ofabout 60 weapons into the fight and Operation 'Good-
Iegendary. Originally made with a one- British tanks moving across the Bourgebus wood'came to an abrupt end, The Bourgebris
piece barrel, later models were Ridge to his front and he also noticed four Luft- Rid-qe qas not taken that day, as a result mainly
equ ippe d wi th mu lti - sec t ioned b ar r els waffe 88s, an 88-mm (3.465-in) anti-tank grun of the 88s and von Luck's timely intervention.
to allow replacement of worn sections. and a Tiger tank in the streets of nearby Cagny: The Bourgebus Ridge scrap was typical of
Seen lrere on ffi e Sonderhanger 20 I if these could be moved to the north east corner many in which the 88 was involved, but away
carriage (the later model 202 travelled of Cagrny, von Luck realized, they would be
with the banel to the rear), the Flak 18 from the anti-armour scene the l:uJtwaffe 88-s
able to take the advancing British tanks in the used ficr the defence of the Reich remained in
was usually towed by the eight-tonne
SdHz 7 half-track. flank. The Luftwaffe officer in charge ofthe 88s action right up to the end. Most home defence
was unwilling to make the move until his mind 88s retained their mobile carriages but were
was changed by the muzzle of von Luck's pistol, usually statically emplaced in prepared posi-
and in a very short time the five 88s were in tions with all the usual paraphernalia of pro-
action along with the Tiger, Within minutes 16 tected shelters, ammunition magazines and
British tanks had been immobilized and in the complicated communication nehvorks, Many
resultant confusion the British armoured coi- batteries operated under radar control as the
umn gnew into one gigantic traffic jam. Tanks war progressed, and several types of ammum-
milled about and blocked further progness to tion were introduced to boost performance.
the point wher6 the British advance-stalled Even before the war started there were sever-
with the five 88s still pouring shells into them. qlprcOos,als to supplement or replace the early
By the time things had been sorted out the 88s. The 8.8-cm Flak 41 proved io be an excel-
lent gnrn but it was dfficult to produce, prone to
all manner of technical troubles and so was
produced in small numbers only. The l0,5-cm
(4, I3-in) Flak grrins proved to be too bulky lcr
the field army and the massive l2.8-cm Flak 40s
V were reserved for home defence in small num-
bers only. So the 88s had to bear the brunt of the
A.llied aerial onslaught that came by night and
day from 194I onwards.
The Allied bombardments tended to con-
centrate on one target at a time, retuming night
and day until the target was flattened. Ham-
purg wqs a typical example of this, the city
being destroyed as the local defences were
overwhelmed. In order to concentrate some
form of mobile resewe the Luftwalle took to
mounting 88s on railway flatcars, the resultant
trains being towed around the Reich wherever
they might be needed. By the time the war
ended there were many such trains on which
the guas and their crews remained for weeks
at a time, Once near a likely or actual target
they were deployed in marshalling yards and
along convenient stretches of track along with
their ammunition trucks and centralized fire-
control equipments. In the Soviet Union single
88s were sometimes added to ordinary trains
for protection against air attack or partisan acti-

ffi Tliil"* Flak 38 and Flak 3e
As far back as 1933 the German milit-
ary planners saw a need for an anti-
aircraft gn:n heavier than the 8,8-cm
(3.465-in) FIak series, and both Rhern-
metall and Krupp were invited to sub-
mit desigms for a 'shoot-off contest for
i0.S-cm (4. 13-in) weapons held ir 1935.
Rheinmetall won the contract with its
Gerat 38, which duly went into produc-
The 1 0.5-cm (4. I 3-in) FIak 38 and 39
tion as the 10.5-cm Flak 38, Thrs model
resemb,led sca led-up versions of the
had an electrical control system and a
powered loading mechanism, but was 8.9-cmFlak 18 sert'es, bulusedan
soon replaced in productlon bY the all-electrical control system and a
10.5-cm Ftak 39 vnth a revrsed electrtc-
revised loading system. I ntended tor
use by field units, many were later
al and ire-control data system. diverted to the Luftwaffe for the
Both 10.5-cm (4,13-in) Flak guns defence of the Reich and many were
were intended for use by the German used on railway mountings.
field armies, but m the event they were
almost all employed in the home de-
fence ofthe Reich. In appearance the
FIak 38 and Fiak 39 resembled scaled-
up Flak 18 gnrns, but there were many
detail drfferences and proportionally
the Flak 38 and Flak 39 were much
heavier and bulkier weapons. In over-
all terms the Flak 38 and Flak 39 were were slow and awkward to emPlace steadrly ahead at several centres until
complex weapons and were made Many were subsequently assigmed to the war ended.
more complex to manufacture bY the statiC emplacements, and il6 were
use of a sectional barrel (for rapid mounted on special FIak railwaY Specification
changre of the worn portion only after trucks that rumbled around the Reich 10.S-cmFlak39
firing) on the Flak 39. Unforh:nately, in wherever they were needed. Each Calibre: 105 mm (4.13 in)
action they proved to be little better model needed a crew ofa commander Weight:travellrng 14600 kg (32, 187 lb)
than the 8.8-cm (3.465-in) Flak series as and nine men, thouqh use of the manu- and firlng 10240 kg (22,575 lb)
far as overall performance was con- al loading system required a further Dimensions: lengrth overall 10,31 m
two men. (33 ft 9.9 in); width 2.45 m (B ft 0.5 in);
cerned, and at one point it was even
intended to replace them in produc- The 10.5-cm (4.13-in) Flak series heiqht 2.9 m (9 ft 6 in); length of barrel
tion by the B.B-cm (3.465-in) Flak 4l never acquued the fame of the B 8-cm 6,648 m(21 ft9.7 in); lengrthofnfltng
though ths never happened: Produc- (3.465-in) Flak series, mainly because 5.531 m (18 ft 1,9 in)
tion of the Flak 4I was so slow that the it was not wrdely used in the field and Elevation: +85"/-3"
10,S-cm (4,13-in) Flak gmns were kept because its bulkandweight meant that Traverse:360'
on the production iines, When the war it was only rarely used as an anti- Manimumceiling: 12800 m (41,995 ft)
ended there were still 1,850 in service, arrnour weapon. Overall its perform- shellweight: 15. I kq (33,3 lb)
most of these wrthin the borders of the ance was not as giood as had been Muzzle velocity: BB0 m (2,887 ft) per
Reich, onginally hoped, and despite a Qrreat second
Although intended as a fleld deal ofdevelopment work on a project
weapon, the Flak 38 and FIak 39 were known as the 10.5-cm FIak 40, which A I 0.5-cm Flak 39 in action on a
really too heavy for the role. They used was to have had a lonqer barrel to fire a special railway truck mounting, here
a scaled-up version of the mobile hvin- heavier projectile, the 10.5-cm (4.13- being used tor harbour defence.
axle carriage of the 8,8-cm (3.465-in) in) Flak gnrns were never 'stretched'to These railway mountings were
Flak series, but even with the aid of the same extent as the other German moved around the ocanpied
integnal winches and pulleys the gnrns FIak quns. Instead productlon wenl territories and the Reich itselt.


I2.8-cm Flak 40
The idea of producing a German I28- of the prototype they decrded that the tem was rnitially employed, Even this these guns, and there was also a spe-
mm (5 04-in) anti-arrcraft grLrn was first weapon would be produced for static proved to be too cumbersome, and cial railcar version to provlde the gmns
mooted in 1936 when Rheinmetall was use only. The weaPon was ordered was later revrsed to a singtle load once wrth some sort of mobllity.
requested to produce a desiSn lctory.n into production as the 12.8-cm Flak 40, agaln, Later versions were produced Production of the static version be-
By that trme Plans had alreadY been for static use only, and such was the gan in 1942, but it was a costlY and
theh as the Gerat 40. Progness on this
made for a production-line mobile ver- overall performance ofthe Flak 40 that complex gnrn so by January 1945 there
desigm was not placed at a very high
priority, so it was not until 1940 that the sion, so the first sx were produced on itwas carefully emplaced around were onlv 570 in service, all of them
first prototype was ready, At that tlrne mobrle carriaqes. The Flak 40 was so some of the main production and based inside the borders of the Reich.
large that it proved impossible to carry popuiation centres such as Berlin and Soon after full-scale productron be-
it was intended that the Gerat 40 would
the qun in one load over other than Vrenna. Special Flak towers were built gan, the Flak 40 was joined bY a hvrn
be a weapon for the field armY, but
whenthe miiitarysawthe sue and bulk very short distances, so a two-load sys- in some locations to make best use of version of the same gun known as the

Only six mobile versions of the I 2.8'

cm Flak 40 were produced before
productionwas switched to static
versions only. This gun is canied on
aSonderhanger 220 inone load, but
some giuns were carried as two
_l loads.
I i*:

i 192
I2.8-cm Flak 40 (continued) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Guns of Worid V/u Il
I2.8-cm Flakzwilling 40, Thrs consrsted an attempt to produce at least some 2.6 in); height3.965 m(13 ft); lenslhof
of two I2,B-cm (5,04-in) Flak guns form ofincreased flrepower to counter barrel7.835 m (25 ft 8,5 in); lengthof
mounted side-by-side on the same the Allied heavy bombers, and in the rriling6.478 m(21 ft3 in)
mounting and provided wrth 'mirror' event rt turned out to be an excellent Elevation: +87"1-3"
Ioading aranqements. These power- anti-aircraft weapon, Traverse:360'
ful gnrn combinatiors were used only As the war ended the original Maximum effective ceiling: 14800 m
on special Flak towers around the mobile Flak 40s were still in use, many (4B,5ss ft)
marn centres of population within the more were in use on special Flak Shellweight: 26 ks (57 3 lb)
Rerch, and were so costly and difhcult trains. A new 12.8-cm Flak 45 gnrn was Muzzle velocity: BB0 m (2,887 ft) per
to produce that there were never under development as the war ended, second
many of them; even by February 1945 and this would have been an even
there were only 33 rn service. The more powerful weapon than the ort-
Flakzwilling Qwilling, or twin) was in- ginal. Only a singrle prototype was
troduced as it was realized that ever completed.
:eavier anti-aircraft gnrns would be This photograph of I 2.8-ctn Flak 40s
:reeded to counter the increasing per- Specification in the field was taken in I 940 in order
:ormance of Allied bombers, and de- 12.8-cmFlak40 to s how the' might' of the G erm an
spite strenuous efforts to develop gnrns Calibre: 128 mm (5.04 in) army's anti-aircraft field detences. In
',lrth calibres of 150 mm (5.9 in) and Weight: travellinq (mobile) 27000 kg fact only one battery was so used
even 240 mm (9,45 in), none got past (59,524 kg), firing (mobile) 17000 kg before all production of the gan was
:he prototype stage at best and some (37,478 1b), and flrinq (statrc) 13000 kq switched to the home defence of the
:arled to set even that far, Thus the tvvin (28,6601b) Reich. This one battery was also
arrangement of the Flaknrvilling 40 was Dimensions:lengrthoverall 15 m (49 ft movedoutof thefield.

>K brdnance, QF, 3 in 20 cwt

lhe Britrsh 76.Z-mm (3-rn) anti-aircraft
iun had the distinction of beinq one of
::le very frrst, if not the first gun to be
iesigned specifically for the anti-
-rrcraft role, the initial examples being
-r sewice as early as ]914, From that
:rne the basic design was gradually
:odrfied and generally updated, and
.:. 1940 there were still many in service
:s the Ordnance, QF, 3 in 20 cwt, The The British 3-in (76.2-mm) was one of
:pdating meant that the gnrn was strll a ffief'rst for anti-aircraftuse
desigm ed
'.rable weapon for its role, but its over- during World War I and was still in
:ll performance was such that it lacked widespread use in I 939-40. They had
:re power of later designs and it was been progressive ly modernized, and
.rtended rn 1939 that most of them many wnners preferred them to the
','.'ould be replaced by more modern new3.7-in(94-mm) guns as they
:quipments (mainly the 94-mm/3,7-in were so much handier. Many were
',','eapon) by 1941. IostatDunkirk.
In 1939 there were no fewer than
-rght marks of gmn rn service, some
','nth sliding breech blocks, some wrth
.rterupted thread blocks, some with
-rose barrel liners, and so on, There
',','as in the United Kingdom other than the
an equally formidable array of car-
:tages in use as well: some of these had few static rnstallations, but grradually
:rur wheels, others had but tlvo and even they were soon phased out as
stlll more were statically emplaced rn ftont-line weapons and many of the
loncrele. By 1940 nearly all rn-servrce mobile platform carriages were con-
.nti-aircraft (ack-ack) gunners had verted to rocket-launching platforms,
been trained on the 76.2-mm (3-in) gmn About 100 platforms were eventually
:rr not only was it the standard weapon converted for thts rocket role, and of
:f the small regnrlar forces but it was the barrels removed some were used
also the marn equrpment of the gtrow- as the main armament for a tank des-
-ng number of Territorial Army batter- troyer using a Churchill tank chassis.
-es that were formed during the late That project eventually came to no-
,930s. thing, and mystery still swrounds a
The gnrr was of srmple desigrn, being project to place 50 old 76,2-mm (3-in)
irttle more than a barrel and recuper- gnrns onto surplus l7-pounder anti-tank
ator/recoil mechanism slung between gmn carriages for home defence dur-
:ro side mounting plates carried on a inq1944. There were few, if any, 76.2-
:urntable, The turntable could be mm (3-in) antr-aircraft gnrns left in ser-
erther mounted on a heavy cruciform vice by 1945.
nring platform or carried on a fow-
wheeled platform, the field army pre- Specification
ferring the latter by 1939, The gn:n was Ordnance, QF,3 in20 cwt(onfour-
the mainstay of the antr-aircraft batter- wheelplatform)
Les with the BEF, for although some Calibre: 76.2 mm(3 in)
batteries had been rssued with the 94- Weight: travelling and complete
mm (3,7-in) gun by 1940, they by far 7976 ks ( 17,584 lb)
preferred the much lighter and hand- Dimensions: Iengrth travelling 7.468 m
rer 76,2-mm (3-in) gnrn with which they (24 ft6 in); widthtravelling2.3ll m(7 ft
were familiar. However, the Dunkrk 7 in); heiqht2.794 m(9 ftZ in); lengrthof
epsode put pard to that souce of dls- barrel 3.551 m ( 1 I ft 7.8 in); lenerth of
sent for most of the 76,2-mm (3-in) gnrns riflins 2.977 m (9 ft 9.2 in)
with the BEF were either destroyed or Elevation: +90"/- 10"
captured by the Germans (they later Traverse:360'
took over the type for their own use by Maximumceiling:7163 m (23,500 ft) The usual model of the 3- in (7 6. 2 - outrtggers *' :e.: a--:-: l: : - : .--'
units in France under the designation Shell weight: 7,26 kq ( 16 lb) mm) wn in use with the in I 940
BEF for these ca:. ce s--: ---- -:: ----
7.5-cm Flak Vickers (e)). There were Muzzle velocity: 610 m (2,000 ft) per was this plattorm version, complete 7-c rr-- t' :-''--.
few sewicable 76.2-mm (3-in) gmns left second with twin axles. The platlorm used - --i.:- - ----
DK 6rdnance, QF, 3.7 in
j'-:,-- World War I ended it was
.-;;:sied that something heavier and
:-::: ':-rn)
powerful than the exrsting 76.2-
:-::. antt-aircraft gnrn would be
:=:'-:ed by the UK to meet antici
:=::j increases rn aircraft Perform- Right:The static version of the.Britkh
--.:: but at that time (1920) the report 3.7 -in (94-mm) anti-afucratt gqn was
smply shelved as there was then the M k I I, of which there were' three
.=.: prospect of any funding for even slightly different versions. T his
-:* research into such a project. In- veision had a power rammer and
.:=aC lt was not until 1936 that Vickers had a characteristic counterbalance
:::Cuced a prototype of a new gnrn weioht over the breech to
.,',--:: coipensate for the long barrel.
a calibre of 94mm (3,7in). The
r:srliri was approved for production
=. :ie Ordnance, QF, 3.7 in, but initial Below: A 3'7-in (94-mm) grun sited in a
:l::[ess towards thts goal was so slow desert sangar formedbY filling old
::.1: rt was not until 1938 that the pilot Italian ammunition boxes with
:::duction models were issued for de- slones. flre ba rrel is fitted with
:.-:looment trials, makeslri/tsrglr ts as theguwas no
The main reason for this slow Pro- doubt operating awaY trom its
ll:ss was the gRln's carriage While normalposition.
::-e Eun was a fairly straightforward but
:--: dern component, the carriage was
::mplex to what seemed an extreme.
l:e qun was intended for use ln the
-eld by the army and thus had to be
:lly mobile, but the final assembly was
'.';:lat can only be classed as 'semt-
:::brie' The gmn and its cradle and
:.:Cdle rested on a largTe flringiplatform
',';:Lch rn action rested on four outrig-
;:rs The front wheels were raised off
::: g,round rn actron in order to Pro-
'.'rle some counter-balance for the
','.:rght of the gn-rn mass, and the rear
::',','rng end) axle was removed, Pro-
:::tLon of the carriage soon Proved to
:: a time-consuming bottleneck, to the
:..ent that production began of what
,'.'is to be a purely statlc carriage for
=::clacement in conctete, As time
'.'.'ent on the carriage was re-
::.crneered to a more manageable
::lm Thus the fust production car-
r. :le was the Mk I, the static carriage
:.: Mk II and the fina1 production ver-
s:::. the Mk lll; there were sub-marks
-: ',Yhen
ail of these.
the equrpment was first
gunners did not take kindly
-.s:ed the
:- :i as they by far preferred the hand-
-:: and familiar 76,2-mm (3-in) gnrn, but
:','ar they came to appreciate that the
::::crmance of the 94-mm (3,7-in)
::r:ance by far exceeded that of the
-.ier qn:a. In fact the 94-mm (37-in)
:.:i an excellent all-round perform-
::-:e even if emplacing and moving it much that they even went to the trou-
','.':s sometrmes less than easy, As more b1e of manufacturtng their own
ammunitton for them for both the Flak
=l-ipments entered service theY
-,':=:e gnadually fitted with improved and the coastal defence roles, In the
:--.j centrahzed fire-control systems latter they were particularly effective
-:-.i such extras as Power ralnmers at Walcheren, where 94-mm (3 7-in)
guns sank several Allied landingcraft,
=:-j ruse setters, By 1941 the tYPe The gnrn soldiered on in British use
--::::ed the matnstay of the army's anti-
until Antr-Aircraft Command was dls-
=-:::aft defences, and went on throuqlh
::-= :3st of the war to prove itself to be banded during the 1950s. ManY were
--. ::<:ellent weapon. sold or handed over to other nations,
-.-.: 94-mm (3 7-in) gun was im- and some strll suwive in use in such
:::sseC rnto use as an anti-armour locations as South Alrica and Burma
i'..::.3:r rn the Western Desed cam-
: =-1s but its weight and bulk made it Specification
,::s ::an effective in this role although Ordnance, QF,3.7 inMk IIIon
- :::lj strll knock out any tank set CarriageMkIII
:rr-i::i .i Instead it was retained for Calibre: 94 mm (3,7 in)
-:'.';as best suited, the anti-alrcraft Weight: complete 93 17 kg (20,54 1 ]b)
:- -= the 94-mm (3,7-tn) never Dimensions: lengrth overall travelling
:=--',' ;:: a Chance tO Plove itSelf as 8,68? m (28 ft 6 in); width 2.438 m (B ft);
:,-= l:-:s: equtvalent of the German heiqht 2.502 m (B ft 2.5 in); lenqth of
i i -:',';.s r-rsed on occasion as a longt- bariel4.7 m (15 ft 5 in); lenqthof rifling
: .:-;: :-:ri pLece and was even at one 3,982 m(13 ft0.95 in)
.-=:= :: ::e war used as a Coastal de- Elevation: +80"/-5"
:=,-.--: ::-- i-lo'uvever, tts use in this role Traverse:360'
' :. ::: :,ands of the Germans, who
- :.:::r:d Maxirnum effective ceiling: 9754 m
Avictory saluteisfired inMaY These g]uns were onlvjust entefing
some of the tYPe at (32,000 ft) 1945
by a complete battery ot I 2 3.7 -in production when the war began, but
-!'!. -:ei' aoprectated the effec- Shellweight:HE 12.96 kg(28.56 lb)
-..::.a:s Muzzle velocity: 792 m (2,600 ft) per (94-mm) wns, probably on the they remained in British sewice until
:: ::.: 'n'eaPon they telmed thelate 1950s.
'-= 3 4-cm Flak Vickers M.39(e) so second Larkhill ranges on Salisbury Plain.
Ack-Ack in the Bcftle of Britain
The long, hot summer of 1940 saw the air defences of Britain straining under the massed formations winged their way towards
weight of air attacks of unpreceden fed sca Ie. The parts played by the RAF and by London the battery was frequently in action,
radar were well known, but the contribution made hy the thousands of anti-aircraft firing away as targets presented themselves.
grun crews labouring long hours under spartan conditions was also important, At times the battery itself became the focus oi
although less glamorous, and has often beenoverlooked. attention, German fighters swooping down to
deliver a few bursts of machine-gnrn and can-
non fire. The guns were virtually useless
against such low-flying and fleeting targets so
'rfe on an ack-ack (ack-ack for AA or anti- When the battery arrived there everything the battery had asked for and received two
arrcraft) site was never a pleasure in i940, for was under a sea of mud. The electrical supply Lewis gun installations, each with four old
ie sites were seemingly set in remote areas was prone to breakdown, so the men usually Lewis gn:ns mounted on a singie pivot. These
:ar from civilization, There were few amenities had to rely upon their ovrn battery generators had been empiaced in their own special pits on
:c hand, and there was at all times the prospect for lighting, and fuel was scarce llcr the stoves each extreme edge of the site and competrtion
cf imminent action with all the dangers it could that signally failed to warm the stark interiors of to man them was intense,
entail. On one particular site in north Kent it the Nissen huts rn which the gmnners had to The battery had been in action on nearly
',vas even iess pleasant than usual, for this was live, In some ways the personnel considered every day since June 1940. The early days of
situated among the mud flats on the southern themselves fortunate, for their site did at least boredom and cold on the site had turned into
edge of the Thames estuary. Not only was the have Nissen huts. Some batteries had to survive periods of frantic activity or standing by the
sihration bleak and desolate, but it was also the winter of 1939-40 under canvas. gnrns. Sometimes the gmnners never saw tlie
niles from the nearest centre of habitation and Over the nine months since it moved in, the targets they were engaging as fire-control da:a
:acilities on the site were basic to an extreme. battery had managed to clear the place up a were issued from a remote location away in ihe
The battery had moved there during the bit. The long summer days had dried up much Medway tovrns to the south. On other days the',-
previous winter, which had turned out to be of the mud, but even a shower could turn ev- could see their targets only too clearly as 'ie
rne of the coldest and most severe in living erything soggry again. The gn:n pits remained huge formatrons of German bombers weavej
:nemory, The bulk of the battery personnel dry by the constant efforts of the gmnners, while their way through clear skies towards the:
,vere ex-Territorials who had trained for years the precious ammunltion was always kept maln target of l:ondon, If they ever had trme ::
oefore i939 on the old 76-mm (3-in) anti-aircraft ciean and dry in the specrally-erected comr- watch, the gunners could see the delicate c::--
gnm, a weapon they had come to lqow and gated iron and sandbag shelters, Each pit was trarls of the delending Supermarine Spt:le.
'.mderstand intimately. Unfortunately once it surrounded by a bank of extra sandbags set and Hawker Hurricanes as they wove theu',';:-.'
had been mobilized the battery's oificers and upon the concrete walls, and slit trenches,
NCOs had been supplemented by a leavening often full of water, were situated by each gnrn
cf regular officers and NCOs and their old gn:ns pit in case of sudden attack emergencies, The An AA battery in action during the Blitz on London.
To the right canbe seen fie all canvas, s andfu J
nad been taken away. In their place the battery battery had had its share oi those, for on many and corrugated iron ammunition shelter, with
had been given four of the new 94-mm (3 7-in) occasions the Luftwaffe had used the outline of ready-usesfie/Is gleaming in the grun flash. Later ::
3n:ns, and these it had taken to the new site on the Thames estuary as a convenient navigation- the war, the advent of radar control would make
te mud flats. ai mark to point the way to London. As the night firing much more ef{ective.

Ack-Ack inthe Battle of Britain
The gnrnners could see him coming from miles
offacross the muddy wastes of the estuary and
when he actually attacked every man who
could grab a rifle fired away along with the
Lewis gnrns. The Bf I i0 made only one attack-
ing pass and did no damage, but he flew away
with smoke coming from one engine. The bat-
tery personnel never knew if they hit him or
not, but they aii feit a lot better after that epi-
During the middle of August the enemy ac-
tion reached a crescendo. Wave after wave of
bombers moved up the estr:ary only to fly back
in smaller and more disorganized formations
after the fighters had been among them, The
battery remained in action for hours at a time
and reguired a constant stream of ammunition
supply trucks filing along the singie narrow
road that had been built to the site. After the
middle of Augn:st the pace slackened a bit, but
the raids continued to forge their way up the
Thames, The peak had passed but the battery
knew it not and laboured on in the fine sunny
through the massed bombers, Sometime they The early stages of the Battle of Britain saw a
could see an aircraft falling out of the sky, at determined German assau/t on lft e British Nightblitz
times followed by a parachute or two and at defences, and anti-aircraft positlbnssucfi as fhis Then came a change. There were a few days
battery in Kent had to do their best to camouflage at the beginning of September when no raids
times not, But only rarely had they time to stand theirequipment.
and watch. came. Time was spent on malntenance for the
Most of the gmnners' trme was taken up in gmns, and yet more ammunition was stock-
serving the gn:ns. The gn:ns had to be laid, were later to recall. Although they did not piled. But suddeniy the tempo and nature of the
watching the pointer of the fire-control instru- know it at the time, the Battle of Britain was gunners' battle changed, The Luftwaffe attack-
ments and awaiting the signal to fire that came being fought and won over their heads as they ed at night. They had done this before at odd
over the Tannoy loudspeaker or through the laboured away feeding shells into the ever- trmes, but the new night attacks were on a
headset earphones. Ammunition had to be fed hungry gnrns. From time to time there was some much larger scale. The gunners had to fire
constantly into the gnrn, for every time the gnrn light reliei such as the day when a Hwricane blind. A11 they cor:ld do was iay the gn:ns along
fired and recoiled, a new round had to be pilot from Biggin Hi[ dropped into the middle fixed lines down which they hoped the enemy
ready for ioading as soon as the barrel ran back of the site on his parachute oniy to alight smack bombers would fly and they simply fired the
into the home position. The sheer handling of on top of the fire-control centre. Later in the en-ms as soon as they could be loaded. They
the bulky and heavy rounds soon reduced day he flew past the site at low ievei in a new rarely saw the enemy, despite the frantic acti-
even the strongest men to shattered heaps and Hurricane waggling his wings in thanks. Then vities of the searchlight batteries, and even if a
relays had to stand by to take over when any- there was the day when a Messerschmitt Bf I l0 target was suddenly caught in a beam it re-
one tired. And as if actually loading the gn:n decided to make a low-level attack when the mained there for a short while only before
were not in itself arduous enough, the ammuni- gun crews were not actively engaging a target. weaving away from its attentions.
tion still had to be carried from the magazines These night raids then started to come every
and dumps to the gnms. This involved anyone night. Away to the west the fires started by the
A permanent battery on the fringes of London. raids lit the sky and all through most days a pall
who was to hand, from cooks to clerks. Even Visible in the nearer emplacements are
when action ended the magazines and ready- of smoke hung over where London was burn-
rangefinder and height finder , while in the
use ammunition dumps had to be replenished background one of the gans awaits target data. In ing. But the days brought no respite llcr the
ready forthe next actioncallwhich might come a site sucft as ti is, the four gruns oI the battery
qunners. Small raids, sometimes of only two or
any moment. would be linked to the central fire control point hy three aircraft continued to sweep up the estu-
It was this constant labour that the gmnners Tannoy or telephone. ary, and these were engaged whenever they
ventured into range. At all times the guns were
kept manned in case of sneak or iow-level
attacks, and from time to time a solitary aircraft
winged its way over following an attack on one
of the Medway tovms. Sleep became one of the
qunners' major preoccupations. Neariy every
nigrht they had to work the gnins and every day
there were constant alarms and periods of ac-
tion, to say nothing of the day{o-day routine of
running the site and attending to everyday
But although they did not yet krow it, the
gn:nners on that remote site had already played
their part in winning the Battle of Britain. The
Luftwaffe had been forced away from its
chosen policy of massed daylight raids into the
far more inaccurate and less effective night
raids. All they could now hope to do was hit
London, and London was a large city capable
of absorbing a great deal of damage and
casualties. The nights that followed that
September were lrequently fi-rll of danger and
death but the worst was already past. After the
winter of 1940-l Hitler hxned his attention to
the east and the night raids simply faded away.
The gmnners had done their bit.
\. Heavy Anti-Aircraft Guns of World War II

b' t'

London had become the major Luttwaffe target

during the lattersfages of llreBa ttle of Britain, and
anti-aircraft batteries along the Kentcoast and
Thatnes estuary were presented with hundreds of
targets. At such times seling the gruns became
automatic, andwith actions lastingfor hours
physical exhaustion could become a serrbus


\ WtrTr-
;/ ,
1: -F

ZIN Ordnance, QF, 4.5 in, AA Mk II

The British 4.i-in anti- aircraft gan

was not meant to be an easilY
transportable weapon, as it was
originally a naval gun.ln order to
move these gruns across the country a
special transporting catiage was
produced, but even so moving the
grunwas slow and awlaryard.

The gmn that was to become the Britrsh nel, but was welcome on some of the
army's 4,5-inch anti-atrcraft gmn had a bleak gnrn-sites at which the weapons
rather muddled provenance, for it was were located.
actually a naval gun intended for use The qnrn had a1l the usual naval attri-
on board heavy vessels, It was under- butes, namely items such as a Power
gToing acceptance trials in 1936 when it rammer, a healry counter-welght over
was decided that it would make an the breech and. a firse setter on the
rdeal anti-atrcraft weapon for the army, Ioading tray. The ammunition handling
and after some tnter-service discus- equipment was very necessarY, for
sion the Admiralty agrreed to divert each complete round weighed
some of its anticipated production to 38.98 kq (85.94 lb) and the movement
the army, but only on the understand- of such weights over even a short
ing that the gmns would be emplaced period would soon have exhausted the
for the local defence of naval dock- ammunition handlers.
yards and other such installations. By 1941 the need to locate the gflrns
More muddle ensued when rt was dis- around Admiralty-signiflcant areas
covered by the army that the naval had been relaxed somewhat, allowing
gmns (actual cahbre l13mm/4.45in) some of the guns to be relocated on
were intended for mounting tn pairs. stretches of coastline. There they
The army wanted single mountings, so could be used in a dual antt-aircrafV
time was lost while the necessary coastal defence role, but the numbers
changes were made and tested. involved were never large as most of
When the type did eventually get the gmns remained in therr stattc em-
rnto service (as the Ordnance, QF, placements, These gn-rns were issued
4.5 in AA Mk II) in time for the difftcult wrth a special armour-Piercing
days of 1940, it was emplaced as a ammunrtion, but the projectiles gener-
statlc weapon only, Some measure of ally fired were of the HE type, although
mobility could be provrded by ustng a there was a special but little-used Specification Originally produced as secondary
special heavy transporter trailer but shrapnel projectile intended for local Ordnance, QF, 4.5 in, AA Mk II armament for maj or warships, the
such moves were diffrcult and lengthy, defence against low-flyinq aircraft Calibre: 113 mm (4 45 rn) 4.i-in retained some naval
and required a grreat deal of prepara- By 1944 rt was intended that the qun Weight:emplaced 16841 kq(37, 128 Ib) characteristics.
tion, Once emplaced, the gmns demon- should be phased out in favour of the Dimensions: heiQlht of muzzle above
strated their naval origins by the reten- more powerful i33-mm (5.25-tn) ground emplaced (0' elevatton)
tion of a turret-type mountlng that weapon, but this never haPPened and 2,438 m (B ft) or (80'elevatron) 7.163 m Traverse:360"
rested on a base of heavy steel plate. some I l3-mm (4.45-in) weapons were (23 ft 6 rn)i lengrth ofbarrel 5 086 m Maximum ceiling: 12984 m (42,600 ft)
The turret-type shelter over the gnrn still in their static emplacements as late (16 ft8 25 in); Iengthof nflrngi4.341 m Shell weight: 24.7 kq (54.43 lb)
had only limited protectlve value as 1951. ( 14 ft 2.9 rn) Mruzle velocity: 732 m (2,400 ft) Per
against steel splinters or fallinq shrap- Elevation: +801-0" second

ffil Slin nr,,iaircraft Gun M3

with a number of long outrigger leqs still rn use in the Philtppine Islands,
When the USA decided to adopt an The rifling had been changed and
anti-aircraft gn:n during World War 1it practrcally every other item on the gmn over which a thrck mesh platform was where the weapons were used as long
saved a great deal of development was altered to some degree as well. lard for the gun crew. The arrange- as the islands held out. Some ltngered
trme by taking a couple of 76,2-mm The main trouble was that the qnrn itself ment was certainly practical but the on for a while in other Pactfic areas,
(3-in) coast defence guns and adapttng proved to be far too difficult to make long outrigger legs, which folded up- and dunng early 1942 some were Pa-
them for the new task. T\ruo main ver- and required a qreat deal ofmachining wards to the centre, took up a great raded through US west coast towns
srons emerged from this oPeration, to very close tolerances, Some rede- deal of ground space. and crttes in a progrramme to boost
one a static gnln and the other a mobtle sign resulted in the 3-in Antiaircraft By the mid-1930s it was obvrous that civilian morale. These west coast guns
gun using a basic form of Platform gun M3, whtch also had a semi- the days of the M3 were comlng lo an were culled matnly from training
mounting. In time the mobile mounting automattc breech block, It was this gnrn end, and the basic design was once stocks, for by early 1942 the M3 was tn
was used as the basrs for a more mod- that was standardized for use wtth the again revamped tn an effort to secure use as a training gnrn only. Many of the
new mobrle platform, itself the result of better performance. An entirely new gunners who subsequently went on to
ern mobile equipment, and starting ln
the mid-1920s a Qlreat deal of ex- a great deal ofdevelopment. The ori- 90-mm (3,54-in) design was already on man the 90-mm (3,54-mm) guns started
perlmental and develoPment work ginal World War I platform had been the way, however, and thus the re- their servrce training using up the ex-
was carried out, the original M1918 very much a 'mshed' job, and as such vamped M3 did not prosper. lnstead isting ammunition stocks for the M3
left much to be desired in the eyes of the existing equipments were gradual- gnrns. Once this traininq role had been
coastal defence gnrns still being used
as the basis. the US fumy, whrch sought an ideal ly withdrawn from front-line use as the completed the old guns still found a
solution, In time this emerged as the new 90-mm (3.54-in) gmns appeared. use, lor many were removed from thelr
By the time that this development
work had been completed, the origin- carriaqe known as the M2 or 'SPider This took trme, and when the USA en- Spider Mountings and renovated for
Mount: this was a pedeslal mounting tered the war in 1941 the olcl M3 was use as the barrels for the MS antl-tank
al gmn was virtually unrecognlzable
1_.- I--:.--=g /:,-- t.f : -.----..-:
tleavy Anu-Ausraft Gurs of World War II
;-:- a:: '--j : : .: '1.= rt
-- , : -
'-: - -.. -

- At one pon: -i-.::: a:r's j:j:.::::+.'.'

1:er Dunl<uk there '.'.'::3 :;a:i :: sell
numbers of M3 guns io the United
Krngdom to replenrsh AA guns lost at (25 ft 0 rn); mdth 2, l0B m (6 ft 1 I in);
Dunhrk, but in the event none made height2,87 m(9 ft5 in); lengrthofbarrel
the Atlantrc crossing. 3.81 m (12 ft 6 in); lengrthof rilling
3, i96 m (i0 ft 5.83 in)
Specification Elevation: +80'/- i"
3-in Antiaircraft Gun M3 on Mount Traverse:360'
M2A2 Maximum ceiling:9510 m (31,200 ft)
Calibre:76.2 mm (3 tn) Shell weisht: 5.8 kq ( I2,B lb)
weight: complete 7620 kg (16,800 lb) Muzzle velocity: HE 853 m (2,800 ft) per
Dimensions: lenQrth travelling 7.62 m second


Above: In 1941 the Ame-:a: i-=

Left: The M3 was by I 94 I largely (76.2-mm) gan was saj:: se.r:e::
relegated to home defence, as many s eve r a I f o rm s. s !a ! c ;'e--= ::
of the gans dated back to World the 3-in Gun M4 on Mol:r.: J! 3
War L Some did see action in the Far uras usedln suci,loca:o:'s * :-:e
E as t during I I 42, however. Philippines and the Cana- Zo:.e.

E iib-** Gun MI
Once it was realized that the old 76.2-
mm (3-in) anti-aircraft gnrns were com-
ing to the end of their service life dw-
ing the late 1930s, it was decided by
the US Army to produce a weapon not
only with a better performance but one Right: The 90-mm Antiaircraft Gun
capable of firing a heavier projectrle. M2 was a much revised versionof the
Since a 90-mm (3,54-in) pro;ectile was earlier M I but used a new carriage
considered the upper weight limit of with aturntable, a powerramme4
what a soldier could handle manually fuse setter ard other changes. This
this was fixed as the new calibre, and resulted in an excellentgrun but one
designworkbeganin 1938 By 1940the thatwas slow andexpensive to
prototypes were approved for service produce.

use as the 90-mm Gun MI on Antiair- and rn actron rt stc:d ::.: --:-r-::r-
craft Mount MIAI, and production mounting wrth the :r:.'. :'::.:.- -
commenced with a high priority around the grun on a::. j:.;:.=::-.
cachet, The problem was i: l=' :--:-: ::i.
The Ml was a handsome but a rather rtage and platiolr:. : . .:= : - :.-- ---.=
compiex weapon which proved dif- sinqle axle The:=.--.: r::.:= ::.
flcult to produce, The gmn assembly scrrbed only m ::r,-.: - :':::
itself was strarghtforward, but the car- Soon after the Nl - ;-:- '.','- : .: - : : .'
riage was another matter, It was de- productron lt ras s:!!.::-:--,::: :1'
signed to be towed on a srngle axle the MIAI wL:ci. :.=::::'.-.-::. :-: '.-.+
wrth two pneumatic tyres on each side, fitting of a sprL:rqr :ai:j:.:: -:- ::::--::
ths rammer pr:i'ei :: := :::= -: - -:.=
This 90-mm M 1 anti-aircraft gun is than rt was ,','::::. r-.1 ,'. 1: i-:--.' ::'
dug in to take part in beach defences. moved. but an3t:er ::,1:.;: ;'.'- :-=- ::--:
Other emplacemen fs can be seen, way. In Julv 1li- -:',',':-. :=1.:=::.-.i: --.
including one at the left rear future the j--r..r. : :=-..-. ;-:. J.: :::'
containing the battery's r angefinder rLage wo'Jo :a','= :: :: :i:: - : -: - - '
and othet tirc control equipment. gaeflng sea a:j ]-.j :-;:- - '.'.=-
The mount is the M I A I ; the later M2 r ltD Iltgdl-t : :9. i-- -. -i-:- - -
mounl useda turntable. on the lv1- ::i:-il: -.a.: :-:. l: -: :.:'
3- -:rm Gun M I (continued)

:= ::pressed below 0', and the one of the flrst weapons on land to fire indeed used around the coasts of the Specification
-::':::ii]]ty was taken to incorporate a the new proximity-fused round, one of continental USA in a dual anti-aircraiV 90-mmGunM2onMountM2
::-':al redesign, The M2 carnage had the most advanced weapon develop- coastal role, Calibre:90 mm (3.54 in)
- :::a11y different design with a low ments of the war years, Using thts fuse The 90-mm (3.54-rn) gmn was also Weight: complete 14651 kg (32,300 lb)
:-::.g platform carried on four outrtg- one gunner managed to shoot down a used rn a ptreiy coast defence mount- Dimensions: lengrth travelling 9.02 I m
;:: Iegs when firing. It was much Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter with a sing- rng in a special armoured turret, and at
one stage it was proposed that these
(29 ft 7. 15 rn); height 3.073 m (10 ft I in);
wheelbase 4,166 m (I3 ft 8 in); lengrthof
:.::-Crer and quicker to get into action, Ie shot as the unfortunate aircraft
rd some versions also had a small attempted to intewene in the Arden- turrets would even have their own barrel4.50 m (14 ft 9,2 in)
s.:Leld The main change, however, nes campaigin, The 90-mm (3.54-in) automatic loaders, thus removing the Elevation: +80'/- 10"
to the gun, which became the M2 gmn and the proximity fuse were also need for men to crew them in action as Traverse:360"
ln which the ammunttion feed for a new instrumental in the defeat of the V-l they would be aimed and fired by re- Maximumceiling: 12040 m (39,500 ft)
ruse setter and rammer was added, flying bombs over southern England. mote control. The 90-mm (3,54-in) gun Shellweisht: 10.6 kg (23.4 lb)
ths making fuse settinq much more The 9o-mm (3 54-in) gnrn in all its was also used in M36 tank destroyers Muzzle velocity: 823 m (2,700 ft) per
rapid and accurate, and also raisingr forms was manufactured in larqte num- mounted on Sherman chassis, and second
the rate of flre to a possible 27 rounds bers, By August 1945 a total of7,B3l of there were several advanced desiqns
per minute. Yet more accuracy and all types had been produced, This in- rnvolved in the production of a towed
Iethality was added in late 1944 when cluded some gnrns intended for static 90-mm (3.54-in) anti-tank gnrn, but none
the 90-mm (3,54-in) gun was used as mountingT only, and some gmns were of these saw sewice.

f [i" Soviet 85-mm suns

By the late 1930s the Soviet armed
forces, in common vflth many other
armed forces of the trme, decided that
the anticipated increases in aircraft
performance over the next few years
would soon render their curent anti-
aircraft weapors obsolete, According-
ly they set about looking for a more
modern anti-aucraft gnrn with a better
all-round performance, but, in typical
Soviet fashion, instead of designing a
new weapon they used an old design
as the basis for a new weapon, They
simply took the 76.2-mm (3-in) Model
1938 and enlarqed it all round to be-
come an 85-mm (3.346-in) gnrn. The
new qun was desigmated the B5-mm
Anti-Aircraft Gun Model 1919, and is
sometimes lanown as the KS-12.
The Model 1939 was very similar to
the 76.2-mm (3-in) Model 1938, but
could be easily recognized by its mul-
ti-baffle muzzle brake, a feature lacked
by the 76,2-mm (3-in) gun. A shieldwas
an optional extra. Production of the bers are still in servtce with some of T he 8 5 - mm anti- afu craft gun w as
Model 1939 was just getting under way
at Kaliningrad, near Moscow, when
the Warsaw Pact nations (but not the
Soviet Union itself) and they are likely
developed from the successful 76.2-
mm serr'eg and proved highly I
the Germans invaded in 1941, so the
entire plant was moved to the Urals for
to be encountered in countries as dr
verse as the Sudan and Vretnam, Large
effective in sewice. Much prized by
the G erm ans, captured equipment
the rest of the war, Once back in pro- numbers were active during the Viet- was usedalongrside the famous'88'.
duction the Model 1939 became the nam conflict against the US At Force. Many were used in the detence of J
standard heavy anti-aircraft gmn of the These 'modern' guns now usually rely Germany from the AIIied bombing 4
Red Army, though it was replaced in on some form of centralized fire- campaign.
production during 1944 by the more control system, usually radar-based,
powerful 85-mm Anti-Aircraft Gun and the origdnal on-carrier fire controls
Model 1944 or 16-18. This was vLtually are now either removed or little used
the same weapon as the Model 1939, The B5-mm (3 346-in) Snrn itself was
but could use a more powerfirl charge r:sed as the basts for a number of other
to boost ail-round performance with Soviet weapon projects. it was
the same projectile as that of the Model adopted to become the main arma-
1939, ment ofthe SU-85 assault gmn/tank des- The Soviet 85-mm (3.346-in) Model
Both the Model 1939 and the Model troyer, and was even adapted for use 1939 was sogood thatsomewere still
1944 were designed from the outset to on a towed anti-tank gnrn mounting. in use inVietnam during the early
be used as anti-armour weapons in the I 970s. The Wn was also known as the
same manner as the German '88'. They Specification KS - I 2, and was much used by the
were so successful in this roie that the 85-mm Anti-Aircraft Gun Model I 939 Germans after I 94 l, many being re-
Germars prized them as war booty Calibre: 85 mm (3.346 in) bored to take 88-mm (3.465-in)
and used any captured examples Weight: travelling 4220 kg (9,303 lb) German ammunition.
alongside their own BBs under the de- and fring 3057 kg (6,739 Ib)
srgmations 8.S-cm Flak M.39(r) and 8.5- Dimensions: lengrth travelling 7.049 m
cm Fla-k M.44(r), As with the Soviet (23 ft 1.5 in); width 2, i5 m (7 ft 0.65 in);
76 Z-mm (3-in) quns, captwed exam- height2,25 m(7 ft4,6 in); lengrthof
ples were also shipped back to the barrei 4,693 m ( l5 ft 4.76 in); length of
P.eLch for home defence, where they rifling3,494 m (I I ft 5,54 tn)
',';ere rebored to the standard German Elevation: +82"/-2"
:8 mm (3.465 in) once all captured Traverse:360'
-nnunition stocks had been ex- Ma:<imum ceiling: 10500 m (34,450 ft)
p:i:ded Most of the gnrns used in this Shell weight: 9,2 kq (20.29 lb)
'.'.'al by the Germans were Model Muzzle velocity: 800 m (2,625 ft) per
-::9s rvhrch became 8.5/8.8-cm Flak second
M.39(r) g'uns.
Tne Model 1939 and the Model 1944
;e:e both good anti-aircraft gmns, and
:: < ls atlested by the fact that many are
s::rl :n actLve service to this day, Num-
Armed Forces of the World

US ila tne
Part 4

US Marine Corps Order of Battle


I ('


rI*r I
Aircraft Wings, Support Groups and M arine CAMP H.M. SMITH, HI CENTER (MCAGCC), TWENTY-NI N E PA_\'S
brigades to form fleet amphibious forces,. I Marine Amphibious Force
combined arms units ready for battle anywhere in CA
lll Marine Amphibious Force 7th Marine Amphibious Brigade
theworld. 31st Marine Amphibious Unit 27th Marine Regiment
37th Marine Amphibious Unit 1 st Battalion, 4th Marines


1 st Light Armoured Vehicte Bariat :-
lst Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, Ca
1st Marlnes
5th l\,4arines
7th Marines
1th Marines {Artillery)
ll Marine Amphibious Force. Norfolk, Va 3rdAssaultAmphibian Battalion, Camp Pendleton. Ca
4th Marine Amphibious Brigade 1 st Combat Engineer Division
22nd lvlarine Amphibious Unit. Camp Lejeune, NC 1 st Reconnaissance Battalion
26th Marine Amphibious Unit, Camp Lejeune, NC 1 st Tank Battalion

28th lvlarine Amphibious Unit, Camp Lejeune, NC lst Field Service Support Group
2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, NG 1st Marine Brigade, Kaneohe, Hl
6th Marine Amphibious Brigade 3rd Marines
2nd Marines Brigade Service Support Group
6th Marines 3rd Marine Division, Okinawa, Japan
8th Marines 4th Marines
'l oth Marines (Artillery)
gth Marines
2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion 1 2th N,4arines (Artillery)
2nd Combat Engineer Battalion 3rd Combat Engineer Battalion
2nd Reconnaissnce Battalion 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion
2nd Tank Battalion 1 st Tracked Vehicle Battalion
2nd Force Service SupportGroup 7th Communication Battalion
4th Marine Division (Reservel, NewOrleans,La 3rd Field Service Support Group
Armed Forces of the World
US Marine Corps Orderof Battle -

Marine Aircraft Groups Beginning Life as aTA-4F trainer, thisMcDonnellDouglas OA-4M Skyhawkis r'ssued as a 'fast-mover'FAC
MCCRTG'10 Yuma, Az f ighter/attack training (Forward Air Control) aircraft, flying over the battlefield controlling and marking targets for the main
MAG'I 1 El Toro, Ca VMFA/VMFP aerial strike force.
MAG-1 2 lwakuni, Japan VMA,,iVN4A(AWyVMAO
MAG-14 Cherry Point. NC VMA(AW) VMFA.l 15 (F 45) VMA 5]3 (AV 8) HMM ]62 lCH 46) HMA 269 (AH 1T)
MAG''1 5 lwakuni, Japan VMFA/VlvlFP VMFA 122 {F 45) VMA 542 (AV 8) t\4M,r 63 (CH 46) HMA 369 (Ar] 1T)
MAG-1 6 Tustin. Ca HMA/HMH/HMM/HlvlWMO vMFA.212 (f ,4S) vMA(AW),121 (4-6E) HMM,,64 (CH 46) HML 167 (rJH,rN)
MAG-24 Kaneohe Bay, Hl composite helicopter/fighter- VMFA 232 (F-4S) VMA(AW) 224 \A.6EI Hl\,1\1-165 (CH 46) HML-267 (UH'1N)
attack vMtA 235 il 45) VMA(AW) 242 \4,6E) HN4l\/ 261 (CH-46) HML.268 (UH.1N)
MAG-26 New River, NC HMH/HMM VMFA 251 (F 45) VMA(AW) 332 (A-6E) HN4M 262 rCH46) HMX I (CH 46, CH 53 UH 1N)
VMA(AW) 533 (4,6E) lN4ivl 26:1 iCH46) (sce nole)
MWSG-27 Cherry Point, NC VMGR vMI'A 25',] (F-4S)
MAG-29 New River, NC HMA/HMWMO VMFA-312 (F.4S) vMo r (ov loA,D) N\1M 264 lCH-46) HMT-201 (AH,IJ/T)
MAG-31 Beaufort, SC VMFA VMFA-314 (F ]BA) vMo 2 (ov 1oAD) 'll!1M 265 iCH,46) HMT 204 (CH-46/53)
MAG-32 Cherry Point, NC VMA VMFA 323 (F,]BA) vMGR,152 (KC-130F) -liYl\1-365 lCH 46) HMT 30',r (CH 46/53)
MAG-36 Futenma. Okinawa composite helicopter vMt A 333 (F-4S) vMGR 252 (KC-1 30FrR) !t\lt _t6r cFl-53D)
NWSG-37 El Toro, Ca VMGR VMFA 451 (F 4S) vN,4CR 352 (KC 1 30R) Fl\4r 362 CH'53D) Note: HMX- I a so maintains
../MFP H\44 363 CH-53D) an Executivo Fl ght
1st MAW VMFA 531 (F 18A) 3 (RF,4B)
vMA-2r 1 (A 4M) VMAO.2 (EA-68) !",,1r'36.1 'CH 53E) Detachment wrth the VH T N,
MAG.1 2, MAG-1 5, I\'AG'36
VMA 2]4 {A,4M) \,,r\,4FAT 101 (F4J,S) r\.1r.j6 ct 53D) VH 34, VH 46 and VH 53D
2nd MAW VMA 223 (A-4M) ..,MAT. J 02 (A4M, TA-4J) t.!1-l 162 C..1,53D) for use by the Prcs dent of
MAG-14, MAG-26, MWSG-27, MAG.29, MAG 31, MAG- (AV 8) ,'[,1AT1AW) 202 1A-6E IC-4C r.,1-r 16:r CH-53D) the Un led States
vMA-311 (A-4M) .',1AT 203 rAV 8A TAV 8Ar i.,1r j6i cf].53L)
3rd MAW VMA 331 (A-4M) .lf\'11'v1 I61 CH 46r i\.ri "69 AH.rT)
MCCRTG-10, MAG'1I, MAG-'I3, MAG-16, MWSG-37
1st MB The MarineCorps have procured the McDonnell Douglas FtA-18 Hornet to augment and finaL[y reppce
MAG 24 theVoughtA-7 Corsair il andMcDonnellDouglasF-4 Phantom II.HereanF/A-lSAwithpracticeAIM-9L
Sidewinders approaches the ramp of a carrier.