4 Water
8.4.1 Water is distributed on Earth as a solid, liquid and gas



Define the terms solute, solvent and solution Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Solute a substance that is dissolved in another substance or the component of a solution present in a lower amount. Solvent a substance which can dissolve another substance or the component of a solution present in a greater amount. Identify the importance of water as a solvent Water is essential as a reactant and a solvent in the cycling of C, O, N, P and S in nature. It also allows biological processes to occur in aqueous solutions and serves as a transport system for nutrients and waste products in living organisms. Compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere Biosphere 70% Liquid Lithosphere Variable Liquid Water of crystallisation Solid ice Hydrosphere 96-100% Liquid Solid ice Atmosphere 0-5% gas

Percentage of water State of water


Outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as: A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism Water is the predominant constituent of cells, functioning as:  A solvent for biochemical reactions that sustain life C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g)  Photosynthesis : 6CO2 (g) + 6H2 O (l)  Respiration : C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)  A raw material for metabolism (e.g. in plants)  A transport medium for nutrients and wastes  A thermal buffer that resists large temperature fluctuations A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats  Water serves as a natural habitat for many organisms  Major advantage: temperatures vary much less in water than on land  Therefore marine animals are protected from experiencing temperature extremes An agent of weathering of rocks  As water freezes and thaws repeatedly, the stress due to expansion and contraction can cause rocks to fragment  Rain, rivers and glaciers erode loose material, carving through mountains and shaping the landscape into its present form.  Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown and decay of rocks. 

SiF4 NH3. ammonia and h drogen sulfide to identif the distribution of electrons Water    ¨ © § § 5 6 rigonal bipyramidal octahedral 6 0     3 4 rigonal planar etrahedral 3 4 3 2 5 0 0 1 2 0 rigonal etrahedral Pyramidal Bent rigonal bipyramidal Octahedral  Total number of electron pairs 2     mmonia Hydrogen sulfide S Arrangement Bonding pairs 2 Lone pairs Shape of molecule Linear Examples Linear 0 Be l2. PCl3 H2O. washing clothes. bathing.rosion refers to the processes by which roc fragments are transporte by rivers. cleaning. CH2O CH4. Both as liquid and solid a natu al resource for hu ans and other organis s  Water is critical to the s rvival of humans and other organisms. sailing and other water sports ¢ ¤ ¦ ¡ ¤ ¥ £  8 4 2 The wide distribution and i portance of water on Earth is a consequence of its molecular structure and h drogen bonding y Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water. fishing.  Humans use water for drinking. BeF2 BCl2. oceans and wind. swimming. H2S PCl3 SF6 . HCN. agriculture and in industrial processes  Water also serves as a source of entertainment and enjoyment for many people (eg.

This enables the slightly positive hydrogen to be attracted to the slightly negative N. ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. This makes the oxygen slightly negative ( -) while the hydrogens are slightly positive ( +) Hence the water molecule is a polar molecule with a net dipole. there are 2 bonded electron pairs and 2 lone electron pairs There are dipole bonds between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms This is due to oxygen being more electronegative than hydrogen Hence the electrons being shared between the oxygen and hydrogens will be pulled more towards the nucleus of oxygen. Hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen proton and lone electron pairs.y Compare the molecular structure of water. O or F atom within the molecule.e. Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule In H2O. . the differences in their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points y y Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules Hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole bond only occurring between H with N. O or F of a neighbouring molecule. O or F. the positive hydrogen nucleus is left. or F of a neighbouring molecule Hydrogen bonding is the strongest out of the intermolecular forces As the electron from the hydrogen is drawn towards and N. O. The size of N. y Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces Covalent bonds in which the electrons are unequally shared are called polar covalent bonds and is due to the differing electronegativities of different atoms. has only 2 electron shells) for the bare positive hydrogen nucleus to interact with the lone electron pairs of a neighbouring molecule contain N. O and F is small enough (i.

the stronger the intermolecular forces. to particles and account for those changes when the following types of chemicals interact with water: o A soluble ionic compound such as sodium chloride .  Surface molecules are only attracted to others below and to the sides (anisotropic).  Water has high surface tension due to strong intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds).  The stronger the intermolecular forces between molecules the more resistance there is to flow.  Surface tension is a measure of energy needed to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount (units=j/m2).3 Water is an important solvent y Explain changes. they are able to line up so that the positive end of one molecule attracts the negative end of another molecule.  To increase surface area. the greater the liquid s surface tension. 8. molecules must move to the surface by breaking some interior attraction and this requires energy. hence accounting for its relatively higher melting and boiling points as compared to other liquids and solvents. Explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces: Surface tension  In water.  Water with its strong hydrogen bonding has a much higher resistance to flow than its small molecular size might suggest. if any. surface molecules experience a net attraction downward  This pulls the molecules inward and closer together. making the liquid surface behave like an elastic skin under tension (with minimised surface area).y A dipole is a polar molecule which have a net dipole (imbalance) As polar molecules have a slightly positive and negative end. This electrostatic attraction of polar molecules is called dipole-dipole forces. Boiling and melting points Due to the strong hydrogen bonds in between water molecules. greater energy input is required to break these bonds.4.  As a result. Viscosity  It is the resistance to flow  A liquid s viscosity depends on the size/shape of the molecules and strength of its intermolecular forces. it has low viscosity as compared to highly viscous liquids like motor oil.  As water has small and compact molecules that flow readily over each other. intermolecular forces exert different effects on a molecule at the surface compared to one in the interior.  Interior molecules are attracted equally by other molecules on all sides (isotropic).  In general.

(e. then the ionic solid dissolves in water. polyethylene) However. Generally the only molecular substances which dissolve in water are ones that have very polar molecules or ones that can form hydrogen bonds with water. there are many proteins (including enzymes) and some carbohydrates (amylase. it will dissolve substances which have polar molecules. As water is a polar solvent. paraffin wax and chloroform are insoluble in water. o A soluble molecular compound such as sucrose Most molecular substances such as hexane.g. some molecular substances like sucrose are soluble. so water is able to separate molecules and form solutions. o A substance with large molecules. cellulose. . However. These molecules are very complex structures and do not pack together neatly into crystals. the solubilities of such substances are quite low. The solvent-solute interactions are weak dispersion forces. glycogen) are soluble in water despite having large molecular weights. So a solution of sucrose in water consists of individual sucrose molecules dispersed throughout the solvent. When soluble molecular compounds are dissolved in water. the crystals of the solid break up and disperse throughout the solvent. kerosene. oxygen or hydrogen chloride Some non-polar molecular substance such as oxygen and nitrogen gases and iodine are slightly soluble in water. such as cellulose or polyethylene Some molecules of substances are so large and held to one another in such orderly fashions by hydrogen bonds that water is unable to separate them from one another. breaking right down to the molecular level.y If the attractive forces between water and the ions are stronger than the attractive forces between the positive and negative ions. o A covalent network structure substance such as silicon dioxide Covalent lattices are insoluble in water as the hydrogen bonds in water are not strong enough to break strong covalent bonds between the atoms in these covalent lattices. A molecular substance only dissolves in water if water can form stronger attachments to the molecules than the intermolecular forces in the molecular substance. o A soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine. As these interactions are weak. Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of the water molecule The most important factors for causing solubility in water are the highly polar nature of the water molecule and the ability of water to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. Polar substances dissolve in polar solvents and not in non-polar solvents while non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar solvents and don t dissolve polar ones.

(aq) AgCl (S) (AgCl (S) is a white precipitate) CuSO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) + Cu(OH)2 (s) Cu2+ (aq) + (OH).(aq) Cu(OH)2 (s) (Cu(OH)2 (s) is a blue precipitate) Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) 2KNO3 (aq) + PbI2 (s) Pb2+ (aq) + 2I.4 The concentration of salts in water will vary according to their solubility.(aq) PBI2 (s) (PBI2 (s) is a yellow precipitate) Na2So4 (aq) + Ba(NO3)2 (aq) 2NaNO3 (aq) + BaSO4 (s) (BaSO4 (s) is a white precipitate) Ba2+ (aq) + SO42.(aq) ) BaSO4 (s) .4.8.(aq) BaSO4 (s) (BaSO4 (s) is a white precipitate) AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s) Ag+ (aq) + Cl. and precipitation can occur when the ions of an insoluble salt are in solution together y Identify some combinations of solutions which will produce precipitates. using solubility data Ba(NO3)2 (aq)+ ZnSO4 (aq) ZN(NO3)2 (aq) +BaSO4 (S) Ba2+ (aq) + SO4 2.

As 2 ions break off the ionic crystal and dissolve in the solution. When mixed. then mass per unit volume is very convenient. Hence the precipitate AgCl is formed. a precipitate may form. Describe the molarity of a solution as the moles of solute per litre of solution using Molarity is one type of measurement for concentration. the electrostatic attraction between Ag+ (aq) and Cl.y Describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation occur y Before the two solutions are mixed. These processes occur at the same rate such that there is no net change in concentration. another 2 ions will precipitate out. The molarity of a solution is equal to the number of moles of solute per litre of solution. they remain as free moving electrons where the electrostatic attraction between the water molecules and the ions is greater than the electrostatic attraction between the ions. In the above diagram. Masses per unit volume or percent compositions generally lead to very small numbers so parts per million (ppm) gives more manageable numbers. In environmental contexts concentrations are usually very low. .(aq) ions is stronger than the electrostatic pull of the polar water molecules. In commerce and industry and in shopping where the main concern is with how much solute is present. y Explain why different measurements of concentration are important A variety of ways of expressing concentration is used because each method has advantages for particular situations. a dynamic equilibrium exists between dissolution and precipitation. A precipitation reaction only occurs when the force of attraction between two ions is stronger than the electrostatic attraction between the water molecules and the ions. Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution y Saturated solution: solution in which no more of a particular solute will dissolve in a particular solvent In a saturated solution.

in digress Celsius (°C) o If the temperature goes up (+ T).38 Acetone 2. H: change in heat energy. Since many chemical processes occur in water and due to water s high specific heat capacity.H) o If the temperature drops (.44 Ethylene glycol 2.96 Hexane 2. the energy change is considered negative (.18 Ethanol 2. in grams (g) C: specific heat capacity. Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents Liquid Specific heat capacity (J/°C/g) Water 4.8. Limitations of calorimeter: o It is assumed that the calorimeter itself does not absorb a significant amount of heat energy of the reaction o It is assumed that there is no heat lost or gained between the calorimeter and its surroundings.39 Glycerol 2.26 Mercury 0. the energy change is considered positive (+ H) y Explain how water s ability to absorb heat is used to measure energy changes in chemical reactions Calorimeter: equipment used to measure heat energy. in joules (J) m: mass of substance.5 Water has a higher heat capacity than many other liquids y y Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance by 1°C (or 1K). in J/°C/g T: temperature change.T).4.17 Chloroform 0. it is often used in calorimeters as the working fluid or the medium used to absorb the heat energy. .14 y Explain and use the equation This equation is used to measure heat energy changes.

soluble hydroxides like NaOH. the solubility of oxygen decreases as water temperature increases. Less dissolved oxygen causes stress to aquatic organisms. o Thermal pollution is the discharge of large quantities of hot water into a river or lake sufficient to cause a significant increase in the water s temperature (2-5°C). When the temperature rises. This means that aquatic organisms do not require complex temperature control mechanisms because their habitat remains quite stable. climate and life on Earth due to its high specific heat capacity. ammonium chloride NH4Cl (aq) Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples Exothermic reactions are reactions that produce and release energy When chemicals lose energy. evaporating liquid water Explain why water s ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on earth generally Water plays a significant role to weather. Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution o Many aquatic organisms rely on a fairly constant water temperature to aid proper metabolism. e. survival and reproduction. Hsol is negative if energy is released.y y y y It is assumed that the specific heat capacity of the solution reacting in the calorimeter is the same as water (i. the energy quantity is considered negative. o River or lake water is used in the industry for cooling and when generating electricity. the oceans absorb and transport huge quantities of heat from the tropics towards the poles via ocean currents. When the temperature drops. When chemicals absorb energy. o When the cooling water is discharged back into a body of water it has absorbed substantial amounts of heat energy.e. 4. e. the temperature in the calorimeter rises because the energy release heats up the water in the calorimeter. keeping water habitats at a very stable temperature. (endothermic: the calorimeter temperature falls) e.g. (exothermic: the calorimeter temperature rises) e.g. freezing water.g. KOH Hsol is positive if energy is absorbed. o Thermal pollution has adverse consequences for aquatic life.g. melting ice cubes. o In particular. o Other detrimental effects of rising water temperature:  Increased metabolic rates further demand of oxygen  Fish eggs do to develop properly or hatch with a sudden change in temperature  False temperature cues given to aquatic life o . More importantly. ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (aq). the temperature in the calorimeter drops because the energy absorbed from its surroundings cools down the water in the calorimeter. precipitation Describe dissolutions which absorb heat as endothermic and give examples Endothermic reactions are reactions that absorb energy where energy must be supplied in order to make the reaction occur. the energy quantity is considered positive. Water is able to absorb a large amount of energy from the Sun without much temperature change.18 J/°C/g) Heat of solution: energy change that occurs when 1 mole of solute dissolves in water.

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