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Reg. No
Third Semester B.E. Degree
Examination, January/February 2006
biO iecr%nology
Time: 3 hrs,)
Note: L Answer any FIVE full questions.
All question carry equal marks.
Put structures wherever necessary.

'ïi iuncîional group. Depict the

glucose with the help of experimental characterization of functional groups of
evidence. (10 Marks)
(b) What are änomers? Explain the
mechanism of mutarotation in glucose. (10
2. (a) Explain the structure and
properties of storage polysaccharide and
polysaccharlde. structural
(10 Marks)
(b) What are phospholipids? Write
and one srhinaoDhosoholioid. the structure of any three glycerophospho lipids

(a) What are ominoacids?

Classify the amino acids based on their side chain
(b) What are the secondary structures (10 Marks)
in proteins? Explain the - helix in proteins.
(10 Marks)
(a) Explain the pàThway of glucose
cátabolism in aerobic organisms.
(10 Marks)
(b) Explain in detail the regulation
of glycolysis at phosphofructokirtase
level and itc
5. (a) What are the biomolecules
serve as highly concentrated
the 3-oxidation of fatty acids. energy reservoir? Explain
(10 Marks)
(b) Explain the biosynthesis of
( O Marks)
& (a) Explain the pathway of
biosynthesis of argenine.
(10 Marks)
(b) Discuss the pathway of transformation
of praline to a-ketoglutarate. (10 MrirLci
7. (a) Explain the biosynthesis
of uracil.
(10 Marks)
(b) Define inborn errors of metabolism,
Discuss structurally
Andersons disease. phenylketonurea and
(10 Marks)
8. (a) Discuss in detail the
amphibolic nature of TCA cycle.
00 Marks)
(b) What are pace-making enzymes?
Fatty acid biosynthesis, Discuss the aclivity of such enzymes in glycolysis,
pyrimidine biosynthes)s and the cholesterol
(10 Marks)

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third Semester BE. Degree Examination, July 2007
Time: 3 hrs.} [Max. Marks:100
Note Answer any FIVE full questions.
i a. What is a Hydrogen bond? Explain the importance of Hydrogen bonds in
hinmc1tibir struchire ¡no
b. Identify the following functional groups present in biomolecules
i) -C O ii) - NH2 iii) - SH iv) NH2 . (04 Marks)
e. Explain the salient features of i) a - helix and ii) ¡3 - sheet structure of proteins.
(08 Marks)

2 a. What is a pH buffer? Mention three important biological buffers. Derive the

Henderson-Hasselbaich equation that relates the pH of a buffer to the concentration
of its components. (12 Marks)
b. Write structure of ionized form aspartate in an aqueous solution at pH 7.0 and
indicate the pKa of each ionizable group. (04 Marks)
e. A newly discovered insect squirts out formic acid (Ká = 1.8 x 10g) as a defensive
mechanism. An analysis of this liquid shows the concentration of formate ion to be
0.015M and the concentration of formic acid to be 1.435M. What is the pH of this
liquid? (04 Marks)

3 a. Write the Fischer projection of D-glucose and the Haworth structure of a - D-

glucose. (04 Marks)
How are the D and L - isomers of simple sugars distinguished? (04 Marks)
Write the structure of steroid nucleus label the rings. Give four examples of steroids.
(06 Marks)
Describe the double helical structure of DNA. (06 Marks)
4 a. Glycolysjs may be summarized by the overall reaction.
Glucose + 2ADP 2 Lactate +2 ATP
Describe the sequential reactions involved in this pathway. (12 Marks)
Give an account of the balance sheet for ATP generation in
i) aerobic glycolysis ii) anaerobic glycolysis (06 Marks)
Which is the first committed step of the glycolytic pathway? What is the name of the
enzyme which catalyzes this step? (02 Marks)
5 a. Describe the seauential stens involved in the biosynthesis nf íhn1etre frti-r
from Acetyl coA. (12 Marks)
b. What are lipoproteins? Mention four different types of lipoproteins. (04 Marks)
e. Write short notes Atherosclerosis (heart disease).
(04 Marks)
Contd. . .2

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Third Semester B.E Degree Examination, Dec. 07 / Jan. 08

Biochemistry I
lYlaA. kvJcU1. I JJ
Note Answer any FIVE full questions.
What is pH? Derive Henderson - Hasselbaich equation and add
a note on its significance.
What are buffers? Calculate the weight of sodium (10 Marks)
acetate (in gram) needed to prepare 2
liters of O.1M acetate buffer of pH 5.24 and the
volume of 1M acetic acid required to
prepare the buffer [Mol. Wt. Of anhydrous sodium
acetate = 82, pKa of acetic acid = 4.76]
(10 Marks)
Explain the classification of carbohydrates with
examples. Write the structure of D
Fructose, Lactose and Chitin.
Write a note on biologically important peptides. (10 Marks)
e. Explain the structure of (05 Marks)
glyceophorpholipids and sphingolipids. (05 Marks)
Discuss the light driven electron flow from H20
to NADP in plants. (10 Marks)
Substantiate the statement "standard Free
energy changes are additive" with two
e. What is Gibbs free energy? Calculate the actual free (05 Marks)
energy change [ G] for ATP
hydrolysis at 25°C in theintact erythrocytes where the concentrations of ATP, ADP and pi
are 2.25, 0.25 and 1.65 mM respectively [i G'° -30.5 kv/mol].
(05 Marks)
Give an account on any two types of transport AT
Pares. (10 Marks)
Write a note on voltage - gated ion channel and Ligand
- gated ion channel. (10 Marks)
u uçLall tue reaction sequence of aerobic oxidation of pyruvate, Add
total energy yield. a note on its
b. Discuss in detail Gluconeogenesis. Add a note on coordinated regulation of (10 Marks)
gluconeogenesis. glucolysis and
(10 Marks)
Give an account on pentose phosphate pathway and
its significance. (10 Marks)
Explain any two methods used for determining the
sequence of electron carriers of
mitochondrial respiratory chain.
(05 Marksì
a uuie on giyoxylate cycle.
(05 Marks)
What is 3 - oxidation? Describe 3 - oxidation of palmitic
acid and add a note on its total
energy yield.
Outline the pathway for the biosynthesis of cholesterol. (10 Marks)
(10 Marks)
a. Outline the pathway for the biosynthesis of
any two amino acids of Aspartate family. nc
u. (ill 14jTo.1,,\
Lì!seuss any iwo metabolic disorders of amino acid metabolism.
c. Write a note on Gout and Lesch - Nyhan syndrome. (05 Marks)
(05 Marks)

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Third Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Dcc. 07/ Jan. 08

Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 100
Note: Answer any FIVE full questions.

i Write short notes on:

Covalent bond
Optical activity
'..,. '.J UIIIÇ LI I.,cu LJIlfl.I .
d. SN2 substitution reaction. (20 Marks)

2 What are carbohydrates? How are they classified? Explain the structure and properties of
(10 Marks)
Explain in detail the double helicle structure of DNA proposed by Watson and Crick.
(08 Marks)
What is saponification value of a lipid? (02 Marks)

Describe different levels of organization of proteins. (12 Marks)

Write thé reaction of amino acid with
Phenyl thioisocyanate.

Write briefly about glycolysis and out line the steps involved in it.
(08 Marks)

(10 Marks)
Describe how glycogen is synthesized in liver from Glucose - I phosphate. (10 Marks)

Describe how fatty acids are activated in cytosol, transported to mitochondria and oxidized
through oxidation scheme. (15 Marks)

Write a note on prostaglandins and thromoxanes. (05 Marks)

Out line the biosynthesis of glycine from 3 - phosphor glycerate and cysteine from
homocysteine. (10 Marks)
What is meant by ureotelic and uricotelic animals? Describe how toxic ammonia is
(lfl 1Irk\

Out line the steps involved in the denovo synthesis of cytidine 5' triphosphate (CTP).
(12 Marks)
Describe the degradative path way of Purina nucleotides to uric acid in birds and primates.
(08 Marks)

a. Explain in detail the genetic defects Phenylketonuria and alkaptonuria caused due to errors
bi Ph thn1ism (12 Marks)
(08 Marks)
b. Write a note on Lesch - Nyhan syndrome and Gout.

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Third Semester B.E. Degree Examination, Jufle/Jy
Time: 3 urS.
Nntt Max. Marks:100
4»vwr any P11/P fiji! pçfi,uic' i J,,,,i ru/c)
-J---..-.-_-,------. ---- 1

Explain the different types of chemical reactions. (10 Marks)
Define pH and derive Henderson-Hasselbaich equation for weak acids. (06 Marks)
C. Calculate the p of lactic acid, given that when the concentration of free lactic acid is
0.0 10 M and lactate is 0.087 M, the pH is 4.80.
(04 Marks)
2 , Briefly explain the different levels of organization of proteins. (10 Marks)
.VExp1ain the different types of RNA. (06 Marks)
e. Describe the structure and importance of cholesterol.
(04 Marks)
3 a. Describe Calvin cycle. Explain the
stoichiometry of carbon. (10 Marks)
b. Give the structure of ATP and explain the chemical basis for the large free energy change
associated with ATP hydrolysis. (06 Marks)
aiujaIÇ Luc overall stanaara tree energy change tor the coupled reaction or glucose
Glucose + Pi - Glucose-6-Phosphate + H20 = 13.8 kJfmol
ATP+H20*ADP+Pi 30 kJ/rnol
Explain the nature of the overall reaction. (04 Marks)
4 a. Describe the fluid mosaic model of biological membrane.
(10 Marks)
b. Illustrate and explain Uniport, Symport and Antiport.
(06 Marks)
iicpiarn me voitage gatect ion channels. (04 Marks)

5 a. Describe in detail the Glycolytic pathway. (10 Marks)
b. Explain the biosynthesis of Glycogen. (06 Marks)
e. Give the energy balance sheet f6r
the complete oxidation of glucose. (04 Marks)

Describe the n-oxidation for fatty acids. Add a note on the energetics of palmiticacid
(10 Marks)
Explain the chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis. (06 Marks)
e. Describe the biosynthesis of any one phospholipid.
(04 Marks)
7 a. Explain urea cycle and its regulation.
(10 Marks)
b. Discuss any two disorders of amino acid metabolism.
(06 Marks)
Describe transamination reaction. (lizi !An ..I

Explain the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and its re gulation. (10 Marks)
Describe the recycling of nucleotides by salvage pathway. Add a note on Lesch-Nyhan
Syndrome. (06 Marks)
Bring out the significance of pentose phosphate pathway. (04 Marks)
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