Basic communication engineering


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The number of pulses , or cycles per second is called frequency. A large range of frequency is called spectrum.

The call number for AM & FM radio station are actually the station allocated range of broadcast frequency (bandwidth) . An AM station with a call number of 89 has an assigned frequency of 890khz . An FM station with a call number of 99.8 MHz . The spectrum of usable frequency of broadcast radio is subdivided in this fashion so that two station don’t attempt to send signals on the same bandwidth Television stations use a channel identification number that corresponding to their assigned frequency range. Common TV channel numbers are two though 12 channels 2 , 3 and 4 use the frequency range of 54 to 72 mhz, which falls in the very high frequency range (VHF) . Channels 5 & 6 use frequency
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ranging from 76 to 88 mhz. The frequency range of 174 to 216 is used for channels 7 to 13. Bandwidth is allocated in 6 mhz increment required by all television

signals. The VHF range does not provide adequate frequency allocations,so that UHF or ultra high frequency range is also used.Channels 14 to 83 make use of frequencies of 470 through 890 MHz. Another method of identifying a part of the frequency spectrum is by signal wave length we offers hear the term microwave, which identifies a part of the frequency spectrum by its wavelength rather than by its frequency. Broadband is used to describe transmission equipment or a form of medium that uses a wide range of electromagnetic frequencies. Broadband is typically any channel that can support bandwidth greater than a common voice. grade telecommunication channel(4000Hz), also called wide band. Name Symbol Frequency Wavelength Applications Directly audible when converted to sound, communication with submarines

Extremely low ELF frequency

3–30 Hz

10,000– 100,000 km


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S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally, Kanjirappally)



Super low SLF frequency

30–300 Hz

1,000– 10,000 km

Directly audible when converted to sound, AC power grids (50–60 Hz)

Ultra low frequency


Directly audible when 300–3000 Hz 100–1,000 km converted to sound, communication with mines Directly audible when converted to sound (below ca. 20 kHz; or ultrasound otherwise) AM broadcasting, navigational beacons, lowFER Navigational beacons, AM broadcasting, maritime and aviation communication Shortwave, amateur radio, citizens' band radio, skywave propagation FM broadcasting, amateur radio, broadcast television, aviation, GPR, MRI Broadcast television, amateur radio, mobile telephones, cordless telephones, wireless networking, remote keyless entry for automobiles, microwave ovens, GPR Wireless networking, satellite links, microwave links, satellite television, door openers

Very low frequency


3–30 kHz

10–100 km

Low frequency


30–300 kHz

1–10 km

Medium frequency


300– 3000 kHz

100–1000 m

High frequency


3–30 MHz

10–100 m

Very high frequency


30–300 MHz 1–10 m

Ultra high UHF frequency

300– 3000 MHz

10–100 cm

Super high SHF frequency

3–30 GHz

1–10 cm


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These carrier wave needs reasonably sized antenna can be reduced .modulation enables a low frequency signal transmission over long distances through space with the help of a high frequency carrier wave.Audio signals having small frequency cannot be transmitted over long distances directly in to the space . 2) Poor radiation efficiency :. 3) Mutual interferences :. Modulation may also be defined as the process of altering some characteristics of carrier wave in accordance with the instantaneous value of some other wave calling modulating wave. 4) Huge antenna requirement :. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 5 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Extremely EHF high frequency 30–300 GHz 1–10 mm MODULATION Any wave has 3 significant characteristics viz • • • Amplitude Frequency Phase Modulation is a process of impressing information to be transmitted on a high frequency wave called carrier wave. However modulated signal can be transmitted over long distance .If low frequency signals are transmitted directly from different sources all of them would be mixed up . by modulation message of different frequency levels can be transmitted. by changing its one of the characteristics. Kanjirappally) . Need for modulation:1) Short operating range :.At audio frequencies radiation is not practicable as efficiency of radiation is poor .

Modulation index – ratio of peak values of modulating and carrier The instantaneous values AM wave is given by the following equations . ANALISIS AND FREQUENCY SPRECTRAM OF AM CARRIER WAVE: Let carrier wave and modulated voltage wave Vc=Vcsin ct mt Vm=Vmsin The amplitude of carrier wave varies at a modulating signal frequency FM. Kanjirappally) . Page 6 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. V = Asin = Vc sin = Vcsin ct = VC (1+ sin mt) mt sin ct ct ct + mVc (sin + cos ( sin m)t ct) c- - cos ( c+ m) The inspection of equation reveals that the AM wave is equivalent to summation of three sinusoid .BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEFINITION: The process of varying amplitude of the high frequency or carrier wave in accordance with the message signal . sin sin .keeping the frequency and phase of carrier wave unchanged is known as amplitude modulation . A = = Vc+Vm Vc+ Vmsin mt mt] mt] = Vc[1 = Vc[1 Where signal . The amplitude of modulated wave is given as. One having amplitude Vc and frequency Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL .

wc > wm . to MODULATION INDEX (m): The extend by which the amplitude of carrier wave is varied by modulating signal is called the degree of amplitude modulation or modulation index (m) .Thus the ratio of change in amplitude of carrier wave to amplitude of normal carrier wave is called modulation index (m) m= Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 7 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. known as side band frequencies are produced. or twice the signal frequency. iii. is called the lower side is called the upper side During the process of amplitude modulation :i. In amplitude modulated wave . This frequencies can be represented graphically on a frequency spectrum spot. But two new frequencies (USB) and (LSB) . band width is from ie. The upper frequency component frequency. The original carrier frequency is not offered. In practical radio transmission . Kanjirappally) .BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 second having amplitude amplitude and frequency and frequency and third term having . Carrier voltage component does not transmit any information because the signal frequency is contained in side bands. ii. Hence the frequency of second and third term on right hand side of equation is generally close to carrier frequency. FREQUENCY SPECTRUM: • • The lower frequency component frequency.

transmitters employing the AM have small operating range. The deviation of the frequency of the carrier is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The rate at which carrier frequency shift from its normal value to a changed value is determined by the frequency of the modulating signal and this shift in carrier frequency from its normal value compared to the amplitude of the modulating signal is called deviation ratio. This is because a radio receiver cannot distinguish amplitude variation that represent noise and those contained desired signal. the useful power that lies in side hands. 2. Kanjirappally) . the reception is generally noisy. 3. FREQUENCY MODULATION The frequency modulation is produced by varying the frequency of the carrier waves keeping the amplitude of it constant. Hence information cannot be transmitted over long distances. all audio frequency up to 15KHz must be reproduced and this necessities the band width of 30KHz while AM broadcasting stations are assigned band width of only 10KHz to minimize the inference from adjacent broadcasting station. quite small. so the efficiency of AM system is low.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 LIMITATIONS:1. Poor audio quality:. Noisy reception:. This is due to low efficiency. Limited operating case of AM . Low efficiency:.In order to obtain high facility reception. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 8 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.In AM . 4.

f = = fc + Kf x Em /2 cos ( mt) fmax =fc + Kf Em/2 fmin = fc+ Kf Em/2 Frequency deviation = fmax – fc = fc – fmin = Kf Em/ The modulation index Mf = ct The expression for frequency modulated carrier is given by Ec = Ec sin[ sin( mt)] + f Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 9 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.(3) c = angular frequency = …………….(4) After frequency modulation. The instantaneous frequency . Ec = Ec sin ………………. Kanjirappally) . c + Kf c em mt) = + KF x Emcos ( Where K is the constant of proportionality.(1) Let the modulating signal be Em = Emcos ( Let = wt + mt)……………(2) = instantaneous phase angle of carrier signal ie. On integrating eqn (4) = = = Where c + Kf x Em cos ( Kf x Em/ mx mt)dt c+ sin ( mt) + 1 1 is constant of proportionality.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 EXPRESSION FOR FM WAVE Let the carrier voltage be Ec = Ecsin( ct + …………. the frequency = Ie.

BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 In frequency modulated signal. Vc = E. the information is contained in the side bands. Since the information contained in the side bands. FM transmission is highly efficiency as compared to AM .sin mt) Mp= = modulating index for phase modulation Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 10 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.sin ( ct + p. Kanjirappally) .sin mt) -maximum value of the phase change introduced by the particular modulating signal and is proportional to maximum amplitude of the modulating signal. Due to a large number of sidebands it can be used for strew sound transmission. Vc = E. in the equation Vc =Ec sin( ct + ) is varied so that the magnitude of the phase change is proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of modulating voltage. does not harm the message signals. Since the side bands are seperated from each other by the frequency of modulating signal (fm) Bandwidth = 2n fm Where n is the number of significant sideband pairs in FM transmission the message is in the form of frequency variation of carrier wave therefore the noise gets amplitude modulated.sin ( ct + . the reception is of much better quality. PHASE MODULATION a Phase modulation is not used in practical analog transmission system If the phase. As a result in FM broadcast . the resulting wave is phase modulated.

Pulse time modulation is sub divided in to two as . Here amplitude of pulse train remains unaltered . 1. In PM . instantaneous phase of the output wave is varied in accordance with the magnitude of the modulating signal. Kanjirappally) . Pulse amplitude modulation 2. Two types of pulse modulation: 1. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION The width of the pulse train is varied in accordance with the instantaneous message signal. the frequency of the modulated wave differs from the carries frequency only. ie .BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 The modulation index of a phase modulated wave is the phase shift in radians produced by the modulation. only when the magnitude of the modulating voltage varies. In phase modulation. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 11 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Pulse time modulation These two come under the category of analog pulse modulation. PULSE POSITION MODULATION The amplitude and width of the pulse remains unaltered but the position of the pulses in given time slot will vary in accordance with the amplitude of modulating signal. Pulse width modulation 2. The instantaneous rate at which the phase variations occur depends on the instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal. In phase modulation. Another type of pulse modulation is pulse code modulation . Phase modulation is accompanied by frequency modulation. Both are proportional to the change of modulating voltage . the modulation index is independent of modulation frequency PULSE MODULATION The carrier wave is not a continuous signal instead it is a train of pulses . while the phase is actually varying . Pulse position modulation PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION The amplitude of a pulse train is changed in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal keeping the duration of the pulse unaltered.

(iii)RF carrier generator. In AM transmission.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 PULSE CODE MODULATION DIGITAL MODULATION METHOD Analog signal is converted in to pulses by process of sampling. Then this process is termed as encoding. reprocess and retrieve the original data. modulation of the carrier can be effected on two ways. The encoded output is then transmitted . (iv) Transmitter. (v) A channel through which the carrier travels. Then each sample is quantized. (vi) A receiver to receive. The quantized samples are then represented as a binary numbers. all communication systems consists of (i) Source of signal or information to be transmitted. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 12 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. (ii) Input signal conditioner or input processor and amplifier. Kanjirappally) . AM AUDIO TRANSMITTER Generally.

(i) Audio section (ii) RF section (iii)Modulation section Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 13 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. the modulated signal in amplified to the required level and transmitted. Kanjirappally) . (i) In the second case modulation process is done at low power levels and the modulated carrier is amplified to the required power level and then transmitted. In Am transmission techniques. This is called ‘low level modulation’.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Both carrier and modulating signals are amplified to the required power level using amplifiers and modulation process is done at the high power level. This is called “high level modulation’. Basically these are classified into three sections. the modulation techniques can be done in two ways. (i) High-level modulation (ii) Low level modulation In high level modulation In high level modulation both the carrier signal and modulating signal are amplified to a high power level modulation is done after the amplification process and then transmitted. But in low level modulation. AM TRANSMITTER – BLOCK SCHEMATIC The block diagram a shown above represents a high level AM modulation circuit.

called audio frequency signal. Kanjirappally) . This may be speech or sound signal or electrical signal from a magnetic tape or other instrument. The input AF signal is initially processed and is preamplified in the signal conditioning systems. For AM broadcast the AF input is limited to a frequency of 50Hz. This amplified output is the modulating signal. Audio Amplifier A series of audio amplifiers are used to amplify the amplitude of the signal to be transmitted. Both AF voltage and power amplifiers are used. A microphone may be used to convert the sound waves into electrical signal. It is two types Radiotelegraphy Radiotelephony Radiotelegraph – message transmitter through telegraphic code Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 14 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 (i) Audio section Audio section consists of AF source. Radio communication is an application of electronics.

reproducing the information. A telegraphic key or microphone that controls the radio waves in accordance with information. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR The resonant frequencies of some naturally available crystals like quartz are relatively constant. 4. which is done by radio waves. Crystal oscillators use conveniently cut quartz crystals. Kanjirappally) . Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 15 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. 6. 1. 2. Such oscillators are referred to as crystal oscillators. the cross-section of such a crystal is hexagonal. 3. Receiving antenna to receive a part of the radiated message. Transmitter to produce radio waves. The mechanical stress is applied along the crystal faces and the electric potential appears along the edges. Receiver that selects amplifier and detects the desired signal. 5. When complete. So far a high frequency stability. Radio communication is also known as wireless communication since wires are not necessary in transmission of message. The property inter connecting the mechanical and the electrical behaviors of a crystal is referred to as the piezo-electric effect. Key elements of radio communication.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Radiotelephony – message signal (music / speech) broadcast with the help of radio wave modulated by the message. Headphone/ loudspeaker that converts detected electrical signal into sound waves. Transmitting antenna that radio waves in specified directions. a crystal is emblayed as the frequency determining element in an oscillator.

High power amplifiers are the last amplifier a signal goes through before it flies out the antenna in a transmitter. BUFFER AMPLIFIER It is nothing but an amplifier and it provides impedance matching between the crystal oscillator and frequency translator (Multiplier). The RF signals entering as a small signal into the amplifier leaves as a bigger one. Circuit of a crystal Oscillator The high values quality factor Q and the stability of the quartz characteristics with respect time and temperature account for the remarkably high frequency stability of the crystal oscillator in the range from a few KHz to several MHz. RF AMPLIFIERS RF signals constantly need to be made bigger as they move from place to place. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 16 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. A low noise amplifier is the very first amplifier a signal encounters after it comes through the antenna in a receiver.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 When a proper alternating potential is impressed on a peizo-electric crystal. the latter vibrates mechanically. For lower frequencies. An amplifier is a filling station for RF signals. A measure of LNA’s quietness is called noise figure (NF). These are the distinct advantages of the crystal oscillator. If the frequency of the applied alternating voltage and the natural frequency of the crystal are equal. high power and others. RF amplifiers fall into these main categories: low noise. the thickness of the crystal is so small that it becomes fragile. HPA boost the RF signal as big as possible just before it’s shout out of the antenna. Kanjirappally) . the size of the quartz is inconveniently large. Crystal oscillators are generally used in the frequency range from about 15KHz to 10MHz. the amplitude of the mechanical oscillations attains a maximum value. At higher frequencies.

which the signal goes through. Noise Figure:Low noise amplifiers listen for very small RF signals so they must be very quiet. any amplifier. Output Power: A high power amplifier amplifies the RF signal to the needed amplitude just before releasing from the antenna. must be linear.It’s a different amplifier design in which there are two amplifiers in parallel. Kanjirappally) . This type of amplifier is used in places where the component which follows will be damaged if its input power is too high. A measure of an LNA’s quietness is called noise figure. better the signal. Linearity:One of the implications of digital wireless communications is that when a digital signal rides on the top of an RF carrier.Most amplifiers have fixed gain. measured in Watts.It limits the output power. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 17 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Balanced Amplifiers:. A fundamental property of an HPA is output power. Fundamental Properties Gain:Gain is a measure of how much bigger the output signal is than the input signal. Higher the power. Linearity is a measure of how much the amplifiers distort the shape of the signal. Variable gain amplifiers have an external control which allows the user to vary the gain over some predefined range. Variable Gain Amplifiers:.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 SPECIAL AMPLIFIERS Limiting amplifiers:.

It will be s a sub multiple of the carrier. RF carrier from the carrier section and fed to the modulator. In the modulator. This is essential for getting maximum power transfer and high efficiency. This modulated carrier is picked up by the antenna of the radio receiver. Antenna matching network provides the required impedance matching between the antenna and output of the moderator. AM RECEIVERS A radio transmitter transmits or radiates a modulated carrier wave. Antenna An antenna is device designed to accommodate RF signal usually in the form of standing waves or it is a structure that transform the energy contained in a guided wave to that of free space or on the receiving end. Which will be at predetermined value. The modulated carrier is fed to the transmitting antenna for transmission into free space. The height of the antenna shall be at-least one fourth of the wavelength of the carrier. free space to guided wave. This signal so received is very weak.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 FREQUENCY TRANSLATOR Usually the crystal oscillator frequency may not be same as the required carrier frequency assigned for that particular station. High-level modulation takes place. Further since the signal Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 18 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Kanjirappally) . Hence generally this signal is first amplified in an RF amplifier stage of the radio receiver. Hence a frequency multiplier (harmonic generator) is used to multiply the crystal oscillator frequency the required carrier. the modulating signal modulates the RF carrier to the required depth of modulation. Usually this may be “Collector modulation”. Modulator The amplifier AF signal from the carrier section and high power.

Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 19 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Also since the detected signal is usually weak. IV. Amplify the modulation frequency voltage. it must be seated and the noise be rejected. II. Select the desired signal and reject the unwanted signal. Interrupt the electro magnetic wave in the receiving antenna to produce the desired RF modulated carrier. V. Amplify the RF signal. Thus the following are the main functions of a radio receiver: I. Kanjirappally) .BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 accompanied by lots of unwanted signals at adjacent frequencies. it has got to be amplified is one or more stages of audio amplifiers. III. Detect the RF carrier to get back the original modulation frequency voltage. Finally the RF carrier must be demodulated to get back the original modulating signal.

(II) FM Broadcast Receiver These are used for receiving broadcast programmes from FM broadcast transmitters operating in VHF or in UHF bands. noise limiters or noise Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 20 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Kanjirappally) .V Receiver These receivers are used for receiving television broadcast in VHF ot in UHF bands.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 VI. medium wave or short wave bands. (IV) Communication Receivers These are super heterodyne receivers used for reception of code and short wave telephone signals and include circuit refinements such as IF beating oscillator for code reception. (III) T. (I) AM Broadcast Receiver These are meant for listening to broadcast of speech or music radiated from amplitude modulation broadcast transmitter operating on long wave.

There should have good electrical fidelity ie: a reasonably large and uniform frequency response over almost the entire audio frequency bond.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 suppressors. there fore more costly and complicated and their operation involves some technical knowledge and skill as possessed by radio operators. inter channel noise suppressor. (c) Good Selectivity:. tuning indicator etc. (b) Good Facility:.These receivers are required to be handled by listeners who have little technical knowledge and hence simplicity of operation is essential. (V) Code receivers These are in general. These communication receivers are . crystal filter for high and adjustable selectivity. Other code receivers are meant for receiving code signals.By selectivity of a radio receiver is meant its ability to discriminate the desired signal from other frequencies. radio telegraph signals and consist of an oscillating detector with amplifier stages. (VI) Radar receivers These are receivers used for receiving Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging signals). band spread for fine tuning. notably the side band of adjacent channels in the frequency spectrum.Broadcast receivers should have reasonably high sensitivity. (d) Average Sensitivity:. ie. Salient features of Broadcast Receivers (a) Simplicity of Operation:. So that it may have good response to the desired signal of medium and long strengths but should not have excessively high Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 21 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. simple super heterodyne receivers with the addition of IF beating oscillator to produce audio beat note with IF signal.Since these broadcast receivers are primarily designed for entertainment purpose. Kanjirappally) . sensitivity control. volume expander.

The selector circuit or tuner in the form of a parallel tuned circuit responds to the desired signal only and rejects all other signals. (ii) Selection: This consists in selecting or responding to desired radio wave with the exclusion of all others.A broadcast receivers should be designed to operate satisfactory with any type of Aerial. When EM wave strikes the antenna. (iv) Reproduction: This consists in feeding the detected signal to a loudspeaker or headphones to reproduce the sound wave giving the original programme. a large number of EM waveform of different radio stations at different frequencies are intercepted by the antenna and each of these induces a voltage in the antenna. Based on the technique of operation. (i) Straight receivers: The receivers which operate in straight forward manner without frequency conversion.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 (e) sensitivity otherwise it will pick up all the undesired electrical disturbances produced in incinity (f) Adaptability to different types of Aerials:. Basic Functions AM Receivers A radio receiver in its most elementary form performs the following four essential functions: (i) Reception: This consists in receiving or picking up energy from the various electro magnetic waves radiated by the radio transmitter. Thus at any instant of time. Kanjirappally) . This function is performed by the receiving antenna. radio receivers may be put into two categories. a voltage of the wave frequency is induced in the antenna. (iii) Detection or Demodulation: The desired signal in the form of a modulated carrier voltage is detected in a detector circuit to recover the original modulating voltage. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 22 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

these super heterodyne are most properly use in almost all radio Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 23 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Super heterodyne receivers: The receivers in which incoming RF signal is converted to standard Intermediate Frequency (IF) before detection takes place. These receivers were extensively used earlier but are not used in these days. The modulation frequency is further amplified in one or more stages of audio frequency amplifiers before being fed to the loudspeaker. TRF Receivers It is a straight receiver in which the incoming signal is first amplified in one or more tuned RF amplifier stage. Principle of Super Heterodyne Receiver Heterodyne reception stands for the radio reception after converting the modulated carrier voltage into similarly modulated voltage at a different carrier frequency. This change in carrier frequency is achieved by heterodyning or mixing the modulated carrier voltage with a locally generated high frequency voltage in a non-linear device to obtain at the output a similarly modulated carrier voltage at the difference carrier frequency called intermediate frequency. This increases the magnitude of the signal and hence improves the sensitivity of the receiver. In practice. Super heterodyne reception is a form of heterodyne reception in which frequency conversion takes place one or more times before the modulated carrier voltage is fed to the detector to recover the original modulation frequency voltage. Because of the various merits of super heterodyne receivers over TRF receivers. Kanjirappally) . however the name super heterodyne is applied to receivers in which only one frequency conversion takes place before detection. Thus the heterodyning process involves a simple change or translation of carrier frequency. The amplifier signal is then fed to the detector to re-obtain the original modulation frequency signal.

This difference frequency is called the intermediate frequency the value of which is constant for a receiver. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 24 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. (ii) To provide discrimination or selectivity against image frequency signal and intermediate frequency signal. AM communication receivers. Thus with the help of frequency converter stage. Frequency converter stage This consists of a local oscillator and frequency mixer. The difference frequency voltage is picked-up by the tuned circuit in the output circuit of the mixer. RF signal of any carrier frequency is converted into similarly modulated fixed frequency IF signal. Constituent Stages of a Super heterodyne Receiver Antenna or Aerial It intercepts the EM waves. Thu signal / noise ratio is improved. Kanjirappally) . The voltage so picked up is fed to the input of the RF amplifier stage. To the frequency mixer are fed both the local oscillator voltage as well as signal voltage. The chief functions of RF amplifier stages are: (i) To amplify the input signal voltage to a suitably high level before feeding it to the frequency mixer which contributes large noise. being a non-linear device produces at its output the various inter modulation terms. FM receivers. voltages induced in the antenna are communicated to the receiver input circuit by means of a feeder wire or lead in wire. Sometimes two separate transistors are used as local oscillator and frequency mixer but more often only one transistor functions both local oscillator and frequency mixer. A parallel tuned circuit at the input of the receiver responds only to voltage at the desired carrier frequency and rejects voltages at all other frequencies. TV receiver. RF Amplifier This stage is generally a tuned voltage amplifier tuned to the desired carrier frequency.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 receiver applications such AM broadcast receivers. The mixer. SSB receivers. RADAR receiver etc.

This IF amplifier provides most of the receiver application and selectivity. Output of this is the original modulation frequency voltage. Second Detector Output of the last IF amplifier stage is fed to this second detector.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 IF Amplifier Stage It consists of two or more stages of fixed frequency voltage amplifier having a 3-dB bandwidth of 10KHz for AM broadcast. Usually one stage of audio voltage amplifier is used followed by one or more stages of audio power amplifier. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 25 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. which is generally a linear diode detector. Kanjirappally) . Audio Frequency Amplifier Audio frequency output from second detector is fed to the AF amplifier which provides additional amplification. The loudspeaker reproduces the original programme. Loudspeaker Amplified audio output voltage of audio power amplifier is fed to loudspeaker through impedance matching transformers.

For colour TV systems. It have good TV system. A TV ration radiate two separate RF carriers by a single antenna.V Television means vision at a distance. the total bandwidth required for a particular ration about 7 MHz. This amplitude to the required levels using AF amplifier. the picture or image of the object is converted in to electrical signals using a carrier wave. One carriers is frequency modulated by audio signal and the other is amplitude modulated by video signal.5 MHz higher than the video carrier frequency.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Basic Principles of T. Both there carriers are transmitted simultaneously through TV transmitters. The round of the object is recorded by a microphone. Kanjirappally) . a transducers by a video camera. the television system has to reproduce faithfully the following. The audio carriers frequency is 5. Shape of the object Relative brightness of the subject Motion Sound Colour Perspective In TV system. Their audio signal is frequency modulated by a separate carrier wave. Video signal obtained has a frequency rang of about 5 Mhz is amplitude modulated with Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 26 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

etc ….BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 After incorporating special signals like synchronizing pulses. (In exam explain about each block with its figure on the right side) At the receiver on antenna is used to receive the TV signals. There are for deflecting the election beam in picture tube in horizontal as well as vertical direction. the composite video signal is obtained. blanking pulses. The composite video signal received is selected using a tuner. Detectors separate video and audio signals. The tuned stage is a mixer which mix the received signal with the local oscillator. Video signals obtained is amplified and applied to TV Picture tube for reproduction. Audio signal obtained is applied to loud separate after proper amplification Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 27 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Kanjirappally) . For initiating various operations of the receiver. And produce two intermediate frequencies viz Picture IF and sound IF) In various triggering pulses like horizosntal and vertical synchronizing pulse are separated for triggering various circuits in the receiver.

Focusing System iii. Display system – screen etc… A amplified arrangement of a monochrome picture tube is given below: (i) Electron Gun It units and control electron beam which are liberated from the cathode when heated. or image on a phosphorescent screen. In the cathode ray tube (CRT). Electron gun ii.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Monochrome Picture tube The picture tube is a special kind of cathode ray tube. A monochrome Picture tube consists of i. Kanjirappally) . the electrical or the video signals are translated in to a visible picture. Deflection system iv. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 28 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

Kanjirappally) . There First Anode Accelerate electrons towards the screen. Two pairs of deflection coils are mounted externally to picture tube called deflection “YOKE” Yoke contains two separates coils called horizontal and vertical winding which produce separate magnetic fields to produce a raster Horizontal deflection coil helps to move the beam from left to right.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Intensity of the beam at any instant is controlled by the control grid. Deflection System Electromagnetic deflection is used for deflecting the electron beam such that beam traverses the screen from top left corner to bottom right corner. Anode is connected to the inside to the tube at a special waiting called aquadag coating (conducting granules of graphite) are two anodes Focusing System Focusing of the beam is done by employing electrostatic focusing techniques. Applied potential is about 250-450v Second Anode Provide grater acceleration to the beam. Applied potential is around 8-20 kv. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 29 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

Co. Electrons are detected using electromagnetic schemes by deflection “YOKE” Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 30 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. screen behaves as a miners that reflect electrons out of the tube towards the viricer ) Face plats Rectangular face plates with a breadth to right ratio of 4:3 are commonly used in picture tubes. Before that it has to be focused and accelerated by electrostatic methods. To present this. etc. tube is ‘aluminized’ (Screen is coated with a very fine thin layer of aluminium) So. Cd. All light produced by screen material is emitter outward but a great amount of light to reflected book into tube there by reducing brightness. Display System Screen At is composed of a fluorescent material made of a compound containing Zn. Kanjirappally) . (A 54 cm picture tube means that the distance between the two diagonal ratio of the face of the picture take of 54cm) Working Electron gun produces electron beam which is accelerate towards screen.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Vertical deflection coil makes movement of beam from top to bottom.

The program scan at the studio is projected on to a screen inside the camera to form an image. Electrons that are accelerated under this high voltage attain high velocities and more straight to the screen and are not collected by higher positive potential because its circular structure provides a symmetrical according field around all ride of the beam. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 31 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. The scanning system deciding narrow called has the the effect in line of to is scene Each horizontal lines. the picture or image is scanned by the pick up tube or video camera. Final anode is connected to tube at aquadag.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Electrons hit the inner rids of glass face plate coaked with luminescent material and procedure light. Scanning To obtain composite video signal or picture signal. Final anode held at 18Kv is employed in order to give the electrons sufficient energy to produce Florence. Received video signal derives electron gun and controls intensity of beam. strips scanned from left to right by the scanning beam in the camera tube. Kanjirappally) . The resulting brightness variations of raster generators black and white pictures. Due to high velocity of ě beam there will be secondary mission and conducting coating near the screen collect there secondary electron.

During the motion of the beam from left to right. odd field & even field. the picture information in concentrated in to electrical signal. The amount of light intensity encountered by this beam at any particular instant determines the camera current and hence a cottage proportional to this light intensively appears at the output of camera take. Even fields are placed in between the odd field.5 lines are scanned in the first field.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 There are two scanning procedures taking place simultaneously: Moving the beam horizontally from left to right at a fast rate. Here the are two fields. The electrical signal so obtained at the camera output will be at video frequency 312. In odd field the electron initially an beam scans as The left the to be the line a-b at angle shown. There is a small space ‘s’ between the line a-b& c-d equal to the diameter of the scan beam. This is the video signal. Interlaced Scanning Generally to avoid flickering interlaced scanning is used. Kanjirappally) . from end picture the of first line starts scanned. Moving the beam vertically downwards at a slower rate. After reaching right and it returns to the left ends directly and starts the line c-d. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 32 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

Complete picture information is obtained only with two fields taken together . Two fields constitute a ‘frame’. another 312. which are placed in between the line of odd lines. The audio and RF signal are amplified by the suitable stage and then they heterodyne with local oscillator to generate the intermediate frequency IF. A unit called linear stretch the required channel.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 (50/second in india) While reaching the bottom middle the odd field has converted 312. The scan line of this field lie in between the odd field lines.5 lines of pictures in to information electrical signal now the beam is shifted vertically to the top middle and starts scanning the second field (even field). the After second completing field it again goes to the top end to start a new odd field. Kanjirappally) . To audio flickering effect.5 lines are scanned there toe fields constitute one full picture. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 33 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. In even fields. In odd field 312. today 50 fields are taken per second.5 lines are scanned. each field is repeated 25 times ie. At the receiver the same antenna collects the audio and video RF signals. The two fields are interlaced.

The demodulated CVS is fed to video. Amplifier and Sign Separator Circuit. The audio IF is amplified and the demodulated and further amplified so that it can drive a loud speaker. the video signals interact with an electron beam to form a visible image on the face of the picture tube the sign pulses and they are used to respectively. Kanjirappally) .BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 This IF is then amplified and is fed to a video detector. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 34 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. The find accelerating anode voltage 18KV is generated with the help of horizontal deflection pulse and a special transformer called line output Transformer (LDT). which demodulates the composite video signals and separates the audio If from CVS.

The service provider must be able to locate the subscriber & thus assign a channel frequency for communication. the whole area of service is divided into small regions called cells. MTSO is Mobile (Telephone) Telecommunication Switching office. The Cells In the system.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Mobile Communication System In mobile communication system the subscribers maybe fixed or mobile. There need be only one MTSO for a state like Kerala. the system has to track continuously & maintain communication link with the moving subscriber. Each cell contains an antenna and is controlled by a small office within the cell called cell office.. MTSO controls the whole traffic in the region. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 35 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. If the called subscriber is in motion. The area of each cell will depend on the number of subscribers. & the data is passed on to the central office [MTSO]. nature of the terrain of the cell density of buildings etc. All the subscribers inside a particular cell are monitored & tracked continuously by the base station system [BTS]. Kanjirappally) .

The MTSO then verifies the details of the called subscriber regarding the genuineness. The call is routed to MTSO of that particular mobile service provider. MTSO sends the called number to that cell. Transmitter at that cell transmits this to all directions. This data is available at MTSO which are obtained from the BTS of that particular cell. Then the ring tone is activated. the local exchange knows the called party is a mobile user. This number is transmitted along with some data from the handset to all the directions. (2) Mobile To Mobile [With Same Service Provider] The calling subscriber enter the number of the called subscriber & presses the send/called key on his hand set. The called subscriber's number is transmitted to the particular BTS & is retransmitted from the antenna there. This data will be continuously updated. It then tracks the cell in which the called party is currently located. This is received by the subscriber handset. Getting the mobile subscriber number. The nearest base stations receiving antenna within the cell capture this & sends this to MTSO. inside the cell. At MTSO after verifying the authenticity of both numbers the current location of the called number is traced. Kanjirappally) . Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 36 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Working Of Mobile Telephony (1) Call From Fixed Phone To Mobile Phone Let the call from a fixed land line is originated in the normal manner.

used in one geographic zone to call a cell called C1 with a coverage radius R can be used in another cell with a same coverage radius at a distance D away. Good reliability & large transmission bandwidth. Different techniques like frequency & phase modulation. Line of Sight (LOS) communication is limited by the earth's curvature. The microwave signal requires an obstruction free line of sight communication between sending & receiving locations.e. Frequency reuse is the core concept of a cellular mobile radio system. But we know that each cell has different frequencies for transmission. When mobile units move away from a particular cell antenna the strengths of the received signal reduces.. The useful frequency range is between 3000 Mhz to 150 Mhz. 2. The MTSO shifts the operation to a new channel having highest strength. During conversation the parties may move from one cell to another. TDMA etc. 4.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 (3) Hand Off Sometimes both calling & called subscribers may be in motion. Frequency is reused. A particular channel. the military & publicity. MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Initially microwave radio transmission was exclusively by long distance communication carriers. Kanjirappally) . repeater stations are required at both 50Km intervals. This is called “Hand Off”. spread spectrum. Main characters of microwave communication system: 1. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 37 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. i. 3. Frequency Reuse A radio channel consists of a pair of frequencies. one for each direction of transmission. say F1. This will naturally be the frequency of a cell nearest to the subscribers. The change overtakes smoothly without the knowledge of calling & called parties. If a service provider has a 24 channel frequencies. Both digital & analog communication systems are in use. Due to free space attenuation of signal. used for full duplex operation. are used. 5. the whole region cannot be served.

Heating property of microwave power is useful in a wide variety of commercial and industrial applications. The movement of microwaves between the transmitter and receiver is called propagation. At a LOS distance & about 50Km there will be an Intermediate receiving station called repeater.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Simplified Microwave Communication System The input data to be transmitted in applied to the microwave transmitter after processing & modulation. The receiver can see only a portion of the signal being radiated. the signal is received. Differences in frequency. They are used to detect aircrafts guided missiles. At the end or receiving station. Depending upon the distance of destination there can be several repeater stations. Kanjirappally) . The analysis and interpretation of molecular resonance called microwave spectroscopy. It's transmitted through the microwave antenna in a particular direction. In medical applications the possibility of exposing malignant cells to microwaves heat is being investigated as method for treating cancer.V and radio bands. For example the microwave signal expands as it moves from the transmitter to the receiver. is an important vehicle in the scientific effort to understand the fundamental nature of solids. demodulated and processed and send to various destination points. control of flight traffic etc. At the repeaters. Microwave oven is an example. liquids and gases. This is called free space Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 38 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Applications Of Microwaves The advantage of the microwave spectrum is that it can accommodate many more channels than the T. RADAR systems represent other major applications of microwaves. transmitter power and antenna design results in varying degrees of signal loss. the received signal is amplified and retransmitted in the desired direction using the microwave antenna. observe and predict weather conditions.

The base band signal is then demultiplexed using frequency division technique to receive the individual telephone channel or TV channel signals. One for receiving and the other for transmission. The amplified signal is then demodulated to recover the original base band signal transmitted from the terminal transmitting station. Kanjirappally) . Repeater Stations A repeater station is characterized by two antennas in two directions. These are to be multiplexed. Satellite Communication Defintion: A satellite communication is a microwave repeats in the sky that Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 39 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. data channels and video channels. Microwave Transmitter The signal to be transmitted consists of telephone channels. The repeater will receive. Then it is modulated with a carrier frequency. This modulated signal is again frequency translated to that of transmission frequency in GHz range. It is down converted to IF by adding local oscillator signal and demodulated to receive the base band signals several microwave amplifiers are used to amplify the signal to the desired level. At greater distances the receiver would not get enough of the signal for and accurate transmission.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 attenuation and it is one reason why microwave transmission systems are limited to 30 miles. For this FOM is used. the signal is received through the directional receiving antenna. amplify and retransmit the signals to the next repeater station on the link Microwave Receiving Station At the receiving station.

BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 consists of diverse combination of one or more of the following: Receiver. amplifier. A) Earth station B) Satellite Earth station: Both transmit and receive the signals Satellite: It is classified as Domestic Regional Global They can also be classified in terms of the type of services allowed as 1. onboard computer. Kanjirappally) . filter. transmitter. Fixed Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 40 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Basic Concept Of Satellite Communication Link The basic components of a satellite communication are. regenerator. antenna. waveguide and about any other electronic communication system ever developed.

Using the eq. Broadcasting Orbit 1. Geo's are ideal for TV and radio broadcasting. Geo's don’t exhibit any droplet shift becoz the relative movement is zero. the Russian “MOLNIYA” series of satellites are highly inclined orbits. Aeronautical 5. Kanjirappally) . Life time expectation is rather high at about 15 yrs. Experimental 6.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 2. Inclined Elliptical Orbits Used where communication is desired for regions of high altitude. For the distance between earth and the satellite r = ( gR2 /2πf2)13 and perio0d should be 24 hrs. Advantages Senders and receivers can use fixed antenna positions. The resulting distance is 35786km. Uses – observational. survey lens. navigational purposes 2. Limited transmission quality transmit power needed is relatively high Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 41 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE Geostationary satellites should appear fixed in the sky. Disadvantages Larger antennas are needed. it requires a period of 24 hrs. Maritime 4. Mobile 3. no adjusting is needed. Polar Circular Orbit These are closer or the earth and passes over the poles Average height – 800 to 10000 km above the earth.

For thin traffic remote areas like NE regions in Himachal Pradesh. Having installed the satellite in its proper position. transmission of signals Coverage gain. earth station can be installed and communication established in a day or so. Merits Of Satellites Satellite relays are inherently wide area broadcast where as all the terrestrial relays are point-to-point. ladakh. Compared to the fibre optical cable communication. For search rescue and navigation. Mobile communication can be easily communication since it has a high interconnecting mobile vehicles. Satellite circuit can be installed quickly. established by satellite degree of flexibility in Satellite communication is economical compared with terrestrial communication particularly where long distances are involved.etc. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 42 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. Kanjirappally) . quality remains the same when the distance between the transmitting stations increases from say 50 to 2000 km. satellite communication has the advantage that quality of transmitted signal and the locations of sending and receiving stations are independent of distance.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 transferring a geo into orbit is very expensive Communication Subsystems SUBSYSTEM 1) Repeaters 2) Antennas FUNCTIONS Signal amplification IMPORTANT PARAMETERS Noise figure. satellite communication is far superior and economical compared to other systems. Cost of satellite communication is independent of distance whereas cost of terrestrial network increases in proportion to the distance. Reception of signals. Satellite communication is most cost effective. Thus using satellite communication. Linearly output RF power.

5 secs also reduces the efficiency of satellite in data transmission. Hence between talks there is time gap of o. Kanjirappally) .25 secs between transmission and reception.25 seconds. the forecasting of hurricanes would be impossible. Echo suppression has to be used. 4. Time delay of . 2. 3. further the satellite is subjected to extreme environmental stresses. Imperfect impedance may cause echo received back after delay of . Once it has been launched.5 secs. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 43 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. communication path length between terrestrial transmitter and the receiver is about 75000 km with velocity of electromagnetic waves of the transmission delay corresponding to 75000km amounts to 0. Weather Forecasting Several satellites deliver pictures of the earth using eg. Applications 1. the global positioning system is now a days well known and available for everyone. Infrared or visible light without the help of satellite.5 secs and this gap may become annoying. Satellites For Navigation Even though it was only used for military purposes in the beginning. Hundreds of TV and radio programmes are available via satellite. Radio And TV Broadcast Satellites. Repair of satellite is almost impossible. Military Satellites One of the earliest applications. Thus there is this delay of 0.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 Drawbacks Of Satellite Communication With satellite having been installed.

Kanjirappally) . The IF modulator converts the input base band signals to either an FM. They are: 1) Up Link (Transmitter) 2) Transponder (repeater) 3) Down Link (Receiver) Up Link A satellite uplink model is given above. The UP converter converts the IF to an appropriate RF carrier frequency.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 SATELLITE LINK MODELS A satellite system consists of three basic sections. the main component on up link is the earth station transmitter. The transmitter consist of an IF modulator and an IF-to-RF converter. a PSK (phase shift keying) or a QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) modulated intermediate frequency. a high amplifier(HPA) and finally a band pass filter. The HPA Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 44 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally.

The BPF limits the input noise to LNA. Down Link An earth station receiver includes an input band pass filter. Multiple accesses allow the communication capacity of the satellite to be shared among a large number of earth stations. Multiplexing is the process of combining a number of signals into a single signal so that it can processed by a single amplifier or transmitted over a single radio channel. video. THE demodulator output gives the original base band signal. allowing many separate communications link to be established through the satellite transponders. The LNA is highly sensitive low noise device such as tunnel diode amplifier or a parametric amplifier. data. and to accommodate the different mixes of communication traffic that are transmitted by the earth stations. The RF-to-IF down converter is amine or band pass filter combinations which converts the received RF signals to the desired IF frequency.BASIC ELECTRONICS M#3 provides the necessary sensitivity and output power to propagate the signal to the satellite transponder. The ability of the satellite to carry many signals at the same time is known as multiple accesses. Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL Page 45 of 45 S1S2 2008 (AJCE Koovappally. facsimile-but they can be send through the same satellite using multiple accesses and multiplexing techniques. Note: Satellites are always built with the intention that many users will share the band width allocated to the satellites. a low noise amplifier and an RF-to-IF down converter. The signals that earth station transmit to a satellite may differ widely entire character voice. Kanjirappally) .

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