'VI' "'1

'"

. .,

•• ".... IIII!

X

,til

·Xl.

·XII.

TABLE ,O'F ,:CONTE_N'TS'

.; I: I .. .. .. !II 'III .. ..~ ii' 1II.· ... t:- .iI- !II • 'II • •

Ii ~ .. iI

......... . -

......... ~r,. uI! ... ~

•• !I! .... •• Ii • •.• ".:11 •

h

iii [!t ... I. .... .;. III".' ill III!!"~ ~'~' •• ,~,. II! !II iL,il'';'. '!il,JIIi . .Ii ~ ii, +..-:+ +:- ~ ,"!I.i +.

..... '.

- I I -

• ..... Ii .. iii ..

• "iii 4' ..

... • .' :.,.' ':i. ili ~

... -. iI I'

III' II! III !!II -l.j 'I • ,.' • Ii !II iii •

Homonym s ~. ',"' ~ ,.. ~ ,<i, ,_

~ ·iI· .•

" ill .. ,iI! .•

~ . .(,:... .. ..... '.. .

~ • .4;' :~ '." !II! • !II

.' ~ ..... ~

"_'~ .- !III!!

••. ~'. 'II!

_... '!II! ii!!l!!'" ~ '~',.

.. .,,-, .~

I, · ,_ · I':() 'V': ("·1)

, tu ' .. y' ", ' .' : : " • j.. ;. iii • ~ '",: '. ...;. iI; ;.,; .,. ;'J. ~. 1;' "" • .• ~ '"Ii i!' .' ;;;. • ~ ,~. '. II! i!' !" ,ii. • • , __ , '"

. . ' _- ... .

II! • !II!! '!II

- I I -

;. ~I 41! .!II

+ II! .t. ., ;. • • .. ,. II! .~~ •. , • • .. :. II! ,,~~ ,~, • ~. • .. ~. II! .". •. • -: Ii •

'Pr'Qgre:ssion,~ :S,uI1t from Sealewise.Root Movements 311,d

. Pn),gre:ssions, Built from Scalewise Bass Lines (Maj.or .K',c'y:J '~ .f

'". . .. . .- .

"~. .ii.:~ ... ,. • [~ .• ~:.. .~" ..

I vi u 'V and iii vi il V.

• .. _.' • --- - ;w -

A. S~h~o'r.t Ii! !II t t .... t: t • t '" 'I • I' ~ I ill "". ';:'.'"

B. Longer "! • • ~ t • ,~, ... ~ .4 .' '" ,+ • .. .;;j. .-i'. - ..

··C'. ~e'pelt:~ ed .~ ~ .;. ""~.' • '. ',. .~ 'iii":" t:., iii ,~, ',.

.. .. r ..

• • Ii •

• • II!! ~

Ii .,.. II! • •

.; ;. ~' ~, .

• .ri 'III!!

. ' ., ,

, ,pt' '.

rI. !III! '!I! III" !Ii' ill '. '~ iI. '~' •

• '!Ii',1IIi 1I!!i- iI,'~' •• '!Ii',1IIi ~ ~

• =-."'.',-=IIi!il.' •

Ii "iii ..

.. ii II

. D'Rt,;\·G, ·:R"E··· S' ~S· '[~O" 'N'S" u :8·' I'N,~' S· ~U' B· ':S' ·,T:I·TT. ;~'E' , ,C', 'H" on N.~ (··"M· 'J,: "0'· :R·:· ~u:'QY'~")'

.c:-:;-. ,,-.ti.#1'-;,;_,,_:_" -: .. ~ ",_ '" .. -,;,_ .. _. , ' __ ..: u " ,"',,, , __ .. ,.1 U..L', "" ':-_ "" - ~a, .f.' __ ,n...J."_ " " ;, ~. )0'

.. :. 'I I. ..~ ii' III"

III' ill ii' III,'. "Iii ~ l1li: 'il

• • • •

II! ~ =-.. 'II

iii7 ·Vi·7 IJ? V7, (and, I 'vi? IT7) V'7 .,' ~ . '. ',

: . . .

• '!Ii! ..

. .

II! !i- ill. !i!' , .. , .i. '!Ii' ..

III!!' '~ .. !i!!' •

IIt1 V.l.7 'It7 V7:

. '" '. _. '. -"." .

.,

2

.

5",

t,

.'

10~

1.2

... IIII!! •• '- ..

.' !I!I. 'it! " .1

~ .. ~.'. .. ...........

Iii • .' • II! iii :-.

• Iii" • • •

R .. '·e·; 'co'; m nm 'end,e'~: d' : , Boo <k:," '-,,'

, '_, .. .... . . ,S ~, •. ~' '!II 'ti· ill

.. '!II! ii !!Ii' iii.

•. !i!!' .A. .. ,~ .. !II! Ii ... ~. , .. , ',4: ..... ;I! .~ !II' .... ~ •• ~ .~

1.

• .1Ii, i! II! ,iI !II' ,ii, • • ,. 'III!! II! i!-

. .

II! ,~ ii, !i!' ,A, .i., '!I! .. ~, !i-

" • '" II!:' .,. '1' •• I: .• ..... • :1 .. t .. ~ I' III' t i!I it ~ 'I iii ...... ...... iIJ! • -=ti '. • • =- ~. ..... Ii !II .... ::. • "iii .... • Ii .... • ;. Ii ~... • !II 4- .!It ;. .,:.. '" ._iIi!' to • .. • • t.. ''!II, ,: ..... :. .. 4i ':II!

. .

ii, '!I!' ,iii

·2,···.:,4·."

!I!' !Ii'

49

5'9:,

, ..

7'4' .

-_"".".-._" ....

M·"D· .. ··:E··· ·,R·····'N· :': C········H··· Q··.:····'R·· :·,0····· ·P····R· ·O······ .. :··G:·: ··R······E:··S.···:S······(·O·· :·'N;· S··,,,,

.~. - . - _. ~ ,". - "'. - '- .. : '- '.. .. . _.- - .... ..'.. '- ' :'~ -.' '.... ..

I I

. I

,

1

.~

.j

I

INTRODUCTIO,N

I " ;

i

Whe·n 'I was ·first .', ~~e·amin.g to p~~y the guitar, 'm'Y': teacher would come to 'm:y' house and, -if.l recallcorreetly-the routine went something like' thl-s.:· He would enter the house, say hello, ask f:QC if I hadpracticed (1 would li~ and say, "yes" Dr 'be more truthful. and say "a.liftle"), and then sa.y "Let me see th~ box" (no kid.d-rttg·~thi·s is' what he said and, now that. I think of It, my first guitar did look. sornethinglike a box), .. Anyw.aYl 'he would take my guitar, tune: it, and then play a 'liftle -~ord ·p'~ogre.s$·ion wh·ich would just ·t10.0I :I1Je.. Needless tt,.;saY.~ 'the.chords and p·iog,re.ssi·on.$ he would ph!y' were 'quite' a few notches ebove the 'simple seunds like C to G1 thatI 'was struggling wtth, and I:~jusl figUred. that

the things. he was .do·in@··were,·light 'yet:1IS a:way for me, . .

Well, at some 'stage of the game I received Ol·y titst chord' book ·and.,. in. 'a' short time, J remember becomingvery d:isaPP'ointed: with .. it because, aI~<)u~:gh thebook 'was: teaching me some good. chord forms, ··t"h~r~ were no pice. chord .DrOsre·ssj·ons; there were .no little ~p~~ssages that sounded Iike music.'; instead, there were justexercises, ·where Y,QU "tp~¥. .the same chord form. and moved. it '1JP' one :fret at a .time, in orderto learn the names.of the form on the: diff~re'nt frets, 'While exercises 'can be vet;' helpful, most people also like to be able' to play something that so·un~s_.1ike music, to give 'them an' Incentive to practice; and: if that something can be ','he 'vehicle: by 'which they acquire agood portion of theft

m~$_~~al education ,as well, it. seems right to exposethem to such material, doesn't it?, . . .

. As :.YQu milht p;ther, .. 1. since'rely feel ~:hat this. book, and "the. succeeding volumes, ·9f(.er you the oP.p·ort.'-Inity to become .:{riel)ds' with just such sounds - sounds that will not .only ·d·elight your ears but will; when analyzedcarefully,

enrichyour 'undet$tan(l~ng of some of the. glories: of th"is phenomenon that we:' call music. .

It must b'e,: :p:ointe:d out that this ·boo~ is not for the complete beginner, .If yO\! fall into this, category, it. is to YO\l:·r great ad'vait~'qe to 'find ·.3 good teacher '(~a'$k: 'around but shop carefully, as 'Y~9'U 'would 'before anv major investmentj> he o~r .she will s.p~¢d up the learningprocess and help you 'to avoid the creation ':0..£ bad habits, .L:ater·;,.·.aft.e.r you are .. able. to playthe '~."~\':,?hQJd.s (Y~lJ .. w·p.11earrt the basic chords frotn almost. any' guitar teacher in the world), :yau willbe ready to 'tac,k)o· this.book, AlSQ.~. In Q'r'd:¢r to most fully understand this boo:k, 'you will have ,to have. 'a ·~no·wle..d.ge, of the fundsmentals of music theory (like scales, Intervals, keys, key signatures, .. triads, Inversions, :3'n'd seventh chords). 'This information can be .aoqtiireq, again, froma good teacher ·or from one of tfre many books. 011' the subject (see recommended list near the bat·k of this book). The reason that this information is not .inclu:d·ed In.' the present volume 18 that it really requires a: whole book ill Itself if. tile student wants t9 th·Orough·ly. know these fundamentals and, unfortu~ateJy.~ this Is 'the only w·ay· 't.fJ, ·go· :if YO'u Want to ·ttall:Y· un·de:rstruia music ,_. it is 'well'~orih the tim·e"·a.nd effor:t, so start as soon Q,S 'YQ~U 'can, and le.t it out of: the W·~y·.

One 'brtlht spot _. even j'f" you don it . understand what's ·gOitlg on as far .as the theory aspect .o.r this 'b:'o:ok is .. eoncerned.vou wijl"$till ben¢fIt in. quite a few. ways ·i(~Qu.,b.egii1·practicing_the examplesgiven while' YOu,. are simul taneously c.atChing· up on music theory, 'Some of these benefits 'are; 1.) ·you. 'will 'be training and d·e.ve1op:iia.g your Iingers, ~.l·Developing··Yyo·nr musical ear (py cominginto contact With m·wic·al':e~·ampl~s.), and 3) Sharpeningyour knowledge ot the guitar·' firilerb6~d, (at least learning '·wh:ere. all those weird chords like C' speckled '9th are, even If'Yo:u don't know why -scme ofthem have, say, .a ferll1e:nte:d' fifth yet). .Event4.311Y·1 ifyou keep w'orking' faithfo~ly at your study of music . theory.,. ~n.d~tan'd.in,8: wlllenter the picture, arid.-.y.o.u.;will.~~p·erien¢~'th:e joy .of kno·wing,.o:( Dot ·p·rily·b.e;Ing able to: see where· ~erythin.g is ·co .. ming· from but of being 'able to make ·U.P ',YOQt 'Q:wn variaticns 'usitJ~g the. principles involved.

2

j'

I

1

'i""

You' ·m·ay· be wondering what a "modern" chord. prO&~.ssiDn is. Ask 'ten tli_ffe.re·nt musicians and see what .they ~ay.

Probably the only' thing' that most ofthem 'Will ~gtee· about is that it's pretty hard tc define tbJs concept. .So w'hy' did.]'. use this"tl~le7 ;Well, the progressions i~ these books form the backbone for much 0'(: the music written in, the' 20th· ~e~tUry',.:··so it didn't seem too far off base to use the; Word, "modern", aowev(tr, I must confess tohavlngthrownin some examples in the: styles: of some earlier eras tn music; this was done, ·~quit~: fr~Jdy', ··witli J}I'e: hope of'inspiring you to delve more deeply into a :s,t~.c1y· of the wonderful sounds left ':lor us :by our musical ancestors, There 'IS 'tre'meiidous value, on :n;tany levels, in such a study, an!1YQU can be sure that the rewards wiii repay you many times over for the r.

necessary time andenergy spent. ;~

. '. 'I'

. Another good question that 'you 'ro'ay be askUtg is, "Wh~e does one 'use all these; progressions?" Altho~ this !':

depends to .. some' extent Oil the. individual .. there are certain: areas that most musicians are interested in; some of these I·'

, ., ., .. ~

ar-ea' .. is a' - re- .. i '

- '.' -_'. . .. !

1 ~ .I~ployisin~ ,_ Whe,the:r you. want to Improvise ·with .. others or b'y yourself; youwill probably find the going !~ q,ulte' a bit easier, in, almost l,n'Y' typ-e of music, if:y:ou have a, knowledge of chord progressions. :~

. ,

. : ..

2 ... C~onJ·'poSi'~8' ·---,While yo'u ~:IY' 'be .fo,rtun·at:e enough to be able 'to: w:rit:e songs' or pieces b¥' "ear"; the ear cannnly j'

.take you so far, There are' many sounds that you may' not have dreamed-even ·existed:·,ot, if' you did know ofthem, ,; . . maybe you didn't have the fp,ggic'$t idea about where to ,Ib-eik for' them orhow ~hey 'were derived, Once }!?OU uJ)_4~r" !,:. .stand the principles of 'chord . progressions, whole new worlds of" sound ¥(i,n' open up (ox YQU~ use and e.'njQy·me~nt .. !"

3~ ~"Rec'o'mposing" ,_. This deals with taking someone else's song or piece and working it.out.in your own style. As !' .Yo,u migh,t, guess, a knowledge of progressions is priceless here ·a],5O.

~4. AJT3~gi~g ,_ Very: similar to recomposing, but ,you. might also wish to arrange 'Y·Ql~.t own song 01. p.~e·~t Virtually ::evezy good arranger understands' about. progressions arid makes use 'qf' them :in Intreductions, "fllls", harmonizations of melodies, modulation ,.p,~ssages.,,:a,n4. endings,

Earlier it was mentio~dtD.at your musical eat will be sharpened if you practice the material in 'Ilus book; this i,$ :: true in at least a 'twofold way: Not .only will your ibillty. to-select and-hear sounds-for your ,own playingImprove, but i~ 'in, a li'k,e manner, }I'Ou.T ability to .recogmze what 'oth'ers ate: doing (tin . record S:3' tapes, live performances, radio, etc.), ~. ·will grow; slo'w}-y but surely, or if' you. work harder, even by Ieaps and 'b·o.undS~ :

There,' is' a strong emphasis Q~ melody 'throughout the entire book and if you..··study' all the examples, YOU canbe ; confident that your . fee I ing for rnelody ,in general, and ·.fo,t melodic variations' on chord progre~i,O~$:,. wj:li be in. pretty \. good shape ~ , :

'~any of' the examples can be appl.ie,d to different rhythms (such as Jazz .... waltz .. ,. swing, bossa-nova and others); If : .. '

'y.OIU 'have trouble In this area, a, ,good, teacher might .. ·b~ your best 'bet Q'ain~~ . . ~ , .'

Y:o,~" will probably' find that quite.a few' of the examples In this book will not be 'as' easy to play as 'you, would lIke, ; themto be - In fact, 'some ,may even seem Impossible '_I first, causlng y,oti to grace m'Y name with, a fe';w four-letter- ! '~.~les~ DON'T G.IVE U'PJ Remember how hard barre chords were a .. t first? How is, ,it that ,y,oU can ,p.t~:Y' th~m, ~owJ 'i', Dne. magic' word; P,RACTICE'~ 'You don't get something for nothingon the guitar, but ·N'ature has a 'w'ay c;f~tre_¢hh;tg: !. ;a~<.d reshaping your hands i"f' ¥,OU. .meet her :halfway. 'Even a person with small hands; wlt,~: is 'willing' to practiee, .will.,be I· able '1(; play these examples (don't be alarmed at cramps, calluses and otherassortedaches and pains ..•. tbey~reall part !

of the le~J!nJng process), . "

Key words: 'PA'T1ENCE' .and ,DETEIUIINATlON'~ >

,

, .If you encounter ·,any:' p,rogtession- t~at $OlIn,d$ at all strange" or una ttraetive to' .yotl, mllke sure you are ~,ealIy playing, j. ·all the ,ri8.ht, note's; and then "play' it' a couple of more times, Mkany· times :yollt ear. '~ill a4j.u~t. to something ,that~.:up.ott fitst 'hearing, sounded a 'little "out in the twinkles", and :YO\1, ma,y even begin to. really like. some of . these .sounds, (Some peaple 'who do "l1:0t. 'respond veO' ~:favorably to modern chords at first, acquire ·a· passionate love." for them" 'Wi~'h,

continued exposure.) '.

Actually, it is a good habir 1:0 repeat ,eve·nt, progresslon, no matter .wha,t your feelings.are toward, It, 'because, there

is a strong po'ssibilit:y' that you will hearnew things j:n lh·er~\:~'aclt time . (every chord progression 'is :reaUY:8 collection of" ' melodies being heard .simultaneously, and your ears might latch on to different ones of' these melo4ies a:tdjffeNllt !. times).. :'

. , ,

I. l

,3

It is: highly recommended that you" get through Ihis boo k iii· or.det_~. th"otou'gb_Iy absorbing the .. ptinc'iples .and ~at least some of the' examples rn each .s·e~Gtj·o(i b~fQfe·'"m(,.vin.g on to the ·n:~.x.t~ the book is laid OU.~ in ~~h .~ 'fashion that this :.i~ the only ~wa<y· to. get ~he' most out 'of it; if you s.~p around y·O.U. are "d:o-ing yourselfan iniustice.jhe reasons for this will

'only be" clear- after you ... have .gcne through · he. book 'in order ..

As you 'play through the progressions, «, Y·Q·U will probably wonder why many of them .are so short .. There Is-good reason to'! this" If YO"U were to .analyze the: chord progressions of .. many different songs or "classical' pieces, y,o·U would notice ·tha·t the' same .short progressions keep appearing over and over again hut· in, ·different CQm:bln~itioris- 'with each a the. r, "and these .. short chord pl'ogre's'~iofl combtnationsform much 'of the bulk of these songs 'or pieces. ;'1'0 be sure, there', "are g_091e' 'longer pr~gressi.o·l}s· th'at: .are commonly used '- and these: will be. covered as well (~rl~nly In Volumes "2 and ').), 8.l1t. even these longer progressions. are, eften derived ·'fr'Qm' the: ··5 horter pro gresslons, SQ' we can and should consider these .. common 'sl1'ort progressions, to be, our . e.ss~~n tial building .. blocks. Y ou may' be asking, "'H:ow ~il1, I learn how to' combine .. all these progressions?" Good question .. 'M~inly' by experimenting an.~/o'", using-the-principles tobe given ill .. Volumes ',2 ·and ,3., not to. mention learning b'Y cibservin·,g· how others have dealt pr are dealing with jhe sublect,

The shorr progressions are systematically arranged according to eertain concepts which .. wil:l become clear' as ,YOu: go; these progressions ulilize virtually all of' the most important chord forms and the' entire fingerboard, 'while offering enough variations so that, :in all likelihocd, y.Q'U. will. have,' little desire or need to create more, even though you will be tlJ.oro~ghJy able, to. The longer progressions are Iess -systernatic, while not being totally :Wit~·o·tlt logic that 'YOU '~ill be. ,a:b'~ to relate to'. In case you. are cu~·Q:us'~··:SYS.fetnatic variation techniques on these lengerprogressions Will 'be. given in; Volume ',2 ..

Finally, while It :1.$ absolutely -i.n· :YO'Uf best 'interest to play through all the exam ples given, don't feel as though .Y:·O:U 'have to: 'spend your time memorfzing all 'of . them .. ; ··this is. neither necessary nor desirable because yeur time is preeious and you-don't need to know, say; threehundred different ways to·:.play the: same progression befofe you can start work .. lng on another .. <You' will. narurallv want to memorize .sorne or your favorites .though and please remember ·that' the short progressions are eventually go.ing '1:0 Q.e combined with each other, as well as with Ionger progressions-and With

other . harm onic .' tools. .

Sincerely hop·in.g. that this book, and its, brothers to follow, will be, stimulating, rewardingand .et)_joya~b.t~~

• - .1 •

. '

[ .

H.OW TO' INTERPRET THE DIAGRAMS

. ..

The typ'e of diagrams used In this book are the standard ones used ror guitar .. The following points 'are: given 'with ::

the hope ·at· clearing :~p any confusion on' how to read' ~:h-e:m:

The. verticallinesare ·the striitg,~:;.,·~he horizontal.Iincs are ·the frets.

1

. - .

tttttt

sm_

3.t The dots (darkened-in circles) in the diagrams are the notes of the chord and only tn.ose -strings which contain notes are. to be played - 'in other words" you~ right hand should only .~pluc·k those particular strings thathave the dots,

. .

4. S~p~akifig, of pluck, the progressions in th-i.s book were geared. 't9 'be, played ,'with,Qut,a flat pick, that 'is, they Qt~

meant to 'be, played using only the thumb and (in'gCI;s of the right hand {hbwev·er,. if y.o·lJ·· arc, accustomed to' usinga thUrllb pick or fin:ger, picks or both, this book is also right ,U,P your alley] .. No\v maybe marry ofyou have neverplayed with 'YO'Uf' fingers ~.P till now and might be hesitant to learn' i. -, There is not~Jng, to fear ,_. sure it.will be awkward for-a week .,pr two 'but the benefits that follow soon after this, far outweigh the. initial period of dlscornfert. The two main, benefits .are: .1) the ability to' play' ail ·the. notes in ,3 chord at the s"a:me- tlm'e:; most people" find the sound produced by this technique to "i;l.,e, very. attractive; 2} the availability-of.many new chords 'that are veryimpraetical when approached willi. just a ,11;;1t pick, One bonusofplaying finger-styte: On.03 'YOli have gotten !U~~Q_' t.o it., r, the, sensation ofyour fingers grab'bing" the: strings on four -or five-note chords just-feels .great,

' .. - " . . .-

Okay, :,80 how do you go about gettlnginto this type, of right.hand technique if you are a, corn .. plete beginner at it?'

A few 'simple .gUJd'eJl~es are 'all you really' need: '. . '. . .

a, Your thumb (T) should ··stfik:e. :th~ lo'w,es:t (thic'k.e'$t) 'string involvedIn the chord; your other fingers just gel 'added on "in. order" (starting, Wjtll the Ist finger) . according to' how many 'other notes are' in. 'the-chord, Examples:

5

I

,

I:

,

r

L !"

1.

o •

. ,

"

i. ,.

o

, o

;

.:

. '~"U' ,-,,13

. ..

,Jt 3~ : t t . ':Jh~

. ~ .. ~..' i t·t ~ t II

T,t' •. I· or,..,':

~ .'

1"1~J. 5 .. ·",~·

. ".4'-. .... ' ..

T .. ·'U:

." I '. •

~'·.H .. : ...

T "U' ~<

"'r~;U r . AS l .. :~'-'." : .. ',

. ~".4"~

r: ".&1. ,

r·, . .-3 ,

.~

dJ .J ~

. ."
.. ' ],"
~'_It
- . Il ~. It
~ ..
: . •

s-
- j'j ~:4 ,.
"
,
~

'1'"

.' J •
~ •.
'0
.. ja 'f .. ~.... 5·'. : .],

• I· -

~4~t

O~~4~ .... U "

~.~ J.

:~ _" .'

,.

, :

~".~ ~
J~ . ! ·jl.
'.~

t .: " ..
..
-, ., , ".jtJ~t.
~, 4 ~. .
. _ -', ,. . ~.
1;.~

.- ~,. ']~I,
,t. - .

. ~. .~ '.'
.. ....
, ~'r: .I ~ 1.."
J. .~ ~ . 'H'
..
, "

,D·on.~t be 'alarmed i'f' you . can 't quite 'p:lay these examples yet; the, main thing ·rigltt: now is te understand how' yo'U willuse ,your right I13ild in

. .- .' "

plucking the strings.

b, Almest 'all gultarists who use ~'heir 'bare thumb and fingers torplucking have, (QUI:fd it, necessary 'to let their nails groW here '$0 as to- produce a clearer -and cleaner sound,

c. :Holding your n,gJ1t: wrist up away Croll) the g~ita.r 'puts your t'fngers into a positionwhere .. Itis e3$i,~r to achieve good tone, accuracy and speed, This 'posture may seem a little awkward 'at flrst (mainly because-it'snew ,to; you) but .gradually this· becomes an incredibly relaxed way' to play, .~ far as h'o~ 'high to' hold the wrist, just-start out 'wi.~11 a moderate height (about 2,: to 3 inches) .and gr.,atl'ually you will fi~~d yourself golng up higher ~:uto.'matically (although ~ .first,: you willprobablykeep tending' togo towe:f"' ff you don't keep. a pretty GO'n~~.i1t eye .on the situation). Incidentally, if you pla,y with a t·I)\I.ir,b piek .. 'you :.w,o:n~'t be.able to hold you.·, wrist u·p. as far and, In fact, you may not fin,d .it desirable to hold your 'wrist upat '~11; 'experiment and see, What you think ..

,d~~ ~ far as the actual 'plucki:ng~ of 'the strings goes, ali youneed 'to do 'is "squeeze" gently to .. produce a sound, 'Ex:ception;s to ~tllis~. arise w·h:en. :dealing' 'with ·a. chord that 'has six notes in it .. In sucha case, one recommended approach

Is ~~9.·)1;ISt use your thumb to strum ·.all. the .. strings, : '

4; optional noteswill be '8YmbQlized by .~ ...

If Op·titlQ:al notes ate g)vert~ it·,s worth ·yo.ur while to Investigate the subtle differences that

result troM.th,eir Inclusion .. If more than one.'

optional note is gjven·". try. aU 'pQssi.bl¢· combination's.

S. Open strings will be, ·symboliz~.p by a dot "·above'~';"the. diagram if the: diagramis onthe .1st fret (asat left). It .. a diagram wereon, say, ~tJJe ·4th fret arid' a note was-above the diagram, tlii·s·· note "would be' 0:0 the :~Jd fre,~,n:ot.open, unless otherwise in·dicate.(f,.

~ . ....... -

EX3n1'ple!

.I

). !.

6~ In .:many chords, more thart· :one .good· fi.ngerin·g is possible (referring to the left hand now); ·bu~t In certain !

progressions, some fincering$ are definitely more·.dvan~geous than others and SO in these cases, if there was a I reasonable degree of dou .. bt .as . to whether 0:' 'not you 'wou14· 'r.~._dily see the best fingering 1'. It was written 'bel0,w.·tbe ,I.' ..

diagram.. Ex'ain:ple: Sometimes the ~·best'''~ngering Will only prove. $0 in the long run

~i .. · ,._, ' . ..iIL..'. . .'.' and .you might think:l~ Is the worSt···:fmg,eri.ng at ru's~; causing.you to

;, '41 • ~ II "'""r .. ' ~, ,4' , j ., .'

J~ ............... :~ .... ~., .. ' jump to ,3!-1 erroneous assumption about the, marital -status of m,Y·

·~'jl~~- .' " .• , ' parents at the time of .11lY birth, But have faith, .the fm:gering is

there. for 'a .go.gd. reason and .' has 'been ·succ·essfuQy tested with· I:' j'

.. ~ ;.,.. ,. a. 3f I' .. ...... '.+1. 4 students. • ... 1if!II ~ ~.".; 1:

'By the, way" concerning lett hand fin,geritig.~ The. Index-flngeris considered ... ·~o be tlle first finge,r, the. :oUddle finger ;.

~,is ~the second, and so on'; if the thumb were to be us.,d,.lt_ would 'be indicated by 'a t~ . .' ~~

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7 ~ .tbj ... ·.·#·~Thil, syrn b,Q,1 between two r\:ot.es "of' two differen t "d~l,agt:ams' means that you' should 'bold the, npt~' a:;~t.t let it riag but not pluck, it. again inthe second 'diagfanl (ill .other w'tJt,ds:, .. .letthe.note S~U.S:T,AIN fram .on:e:-ch:c)rd to: the

~:xf; tms~ '~·1.1 make sense when you-encounter t~~. zy.pe of '~i.tu·~'Hpn).

;8:·. Y.lilen 'YQU see symbols. w..~th the '2n'd··~,or .l·r~. finger on two adjqQ.~.n;t strings, this is,ort;~,n ·SQin.g to require ,y:otJ to use.aspecial technique that We will c:~11 the ,dou',ble. s-t\Q'P'~ 'W~, 'can define the-double stop asa technique where youcome dow·u: 'with the: 'lip (If y'o'u:r. finger right b:etwee~n. two: :s.ttiftSS1 'so as to. sound them both, Unless you are luc~y en')ugh to ,Mve, ~:~d,e' :rm:~rs, 'alr~a.~y~:, {fils· is not ·goIng-.: ttl work out too well at first [sound r~Iniliar1) HO'Wf3ver:, (he;re he 'goes again), just 'keep' on ·pra'c-.ti'qih," .-: ~)4a·giG.an.y ~e:nough!, more skin ·will. appear on the 'ilps· ofyour :fl.,g:er·s, en ati·1in'g' you too gllc~elsfniiy ex-ecute these' double .Stops. Agc),odway to .Ccd up YQM;~ d~ve"op~~~tln' this ~ea is 10' prlldta.e. on a

.elassleal (hylon: string) .gpJt.aC";~ as you probably ,kilow',,' th,e fi,rtg.erb.o:atd, is much wider and thee, strings .are farther ,apart tJlt\1 on 'Dtli~r' ~pe;s 'of 'guit-~, This ":will' make-it even 'natder' to crop'¢ with double- ,slQ,ps~: b'ut somehow 'thisis good. Whatever it 'is th~at ~·p t educes more skin will produce jt~ ~fa.5"t~r' when. it.--k~.p'$, .t~:a'fdving~ signals t~-at you are In d):tre. need of ,help",; also there are some good psychologica! reasons, that need not be explained here, for ,oc-cQ$io;l)ully p'ra,riticing; Q'n: a

cl'.·caIglU.tar~ .. . . ..

There are ce,rt,:al'n typ~e:s' of cases where-you have the -'2n(l, 3·,rd Or ~'ve'il the 4tlj finger ,co.veritiil twa aqJ.a,Certt·;s'tri'il,p.~ but :,tn<'w'hi~'h Y',Q\l, will 'fi:nd that ,it is more, advantageous, to ·,nlltten your finger Ya·~.,.os'$:· both sttings instead of "trying, 't,o, come down between them In the 'manner of' the double stop,

Examples

AI,s'A gerieralguidehne. f'Oi deciding when toflatten and whe'n to double

. ' s'to'p, ,mjght be sometliing tik:e,~· " If the two .. adiacerrt notes are ;_t" the,

t.QP' of the ~h~o:rA (-i'n t-~T.p1S' of ]litc;h), ll;s,e, '1b:e~ .fl·~,tte.rii:pg: technique; if

. . . the y' are in the bass or to-wards the bottom of the chord, then .U~,

, ".:, '" " .. -' . .- the doublestop. However, to; help y'ou;1·dou,ble stop ,tin:g,erin:gs will

~"~1~ ./~' ;~:al;h~~a1.~~~i: :~~q!:~econneCtln8 line to distinguish them

. ···p,h :yes, dQ.n't bediscouragedifyou alway~.haye·troll.bled~bre.~toppiP8 on the, cla$sic:al .' guitar: it will' always 'b.e:"p:re.tty rnuch ofa 'b{a;ttle on the wlile' ,ne,ck~~ but it: win, serve-to

:. .. . 'make the' techniqu« 'surprisingly easy "OR t;ne' electric ~~ultat, which is,. quite fran.k1,y!, lb.,

. . '.s:: '.', ,<.'~.' .. " ". ·ms~rurn~n.t ·~ll:~l·~hIs.: book is most suited for, D-~ng all: '~~:S~· talk aJjo'~'~ double slo'p's' you

~:may ,bav~'~ asked y'o~~ -, ,~t;se.lf~, ~"Wlly does this nut '~ant me to use: these th.j·n,gS1 any.~~a,Y-?' n' qt· "<i~,f" good 'Will they d~ '~e1~tt

,Fair -enough; ,yqu deserve: s om 'e. answers to ··[h.ese. _' SOIJle~ ,6.[ the most impertant benefits 'Qf'the.·':.tlO'4ble $.t.~R t.e,chni,q,u·e,' are: 1) the ttbil.fty' to, ,play chords -, th"at could trot. be played any lith'er 'w~Y t ·2): the ability 'to -play some chords on :high.er rret~ ··th~~ would .ri orm ,ally' 'be practical, and '3) ·th:e, fte'eillg, .0.[ ·an extra :fing"t~'r~ which dan be 'use,d 'for certain melodic

<~,ff~c;ts. 'while; :ycip, 'S'l:J;s:t'~n, ·t4,e>c"llo'rd. (,tnQr,~ en thiS to ,c-~,nt~;). . .

9'~ It is: very Un portant. . to, ~:al.ways: sJrive, for', cl:e:an.fill'e:ss~· in. ail chords ; by" elean lin¢'ss,,~, :j~, i s; meant: 'that "all ,fI otes 'which,. are :sll,ppOsed to be so'ariding, !lho:uld be doing JUst that, 'Obvious." you 's:ay:?' M~ay'·b,~e, 5'0, but it. has .. been ttl¥ experience Ibal ·i:.t' ~s( 'easy to. de~c:t~ive- yourself on this' matter 'b:y, laking it .for Sian·t:~:~.. rot ihs~aJice'~ .suppcse y:OU ~e: 8iven the

fQl1o'v/ing chord; -A"" I~!'~' if~:. sUpp~o<~ th·a,f Y'Q,u 't:ty' and ,play It 'but, 'f\1lr som~: , ,", ":::' ,~',' "

, reason, :'Y"O'U, either ·miss or muffle ·th.e, note onthe ~fourth:~"· ..... " .............. string, thereby producing the following sound:

-.I:.: - I. - - •

N'oY(,~, this~:·cbord.ha,s_._a nice-sound t'o,tlle ear, but It is'. ,':"<:'i'

not. what was Intended; If ytlU, are-aware, ',as ')I.'Qu'·plaY thls' " " " . chord. that s.omet'hing is; not quite. ri~ti, then you Wihg9 back an4 wi.th a litd~>e~tn praetice, corre.d theplQb)em,

'But the' big ,d.ang·er-lic's ,in :nqt e:ve.n:,re,ajizi.hg:,·th,at an etrO·r e,X.ists .. (Y6u W'OIr-~t ',ev'er 'corret~:t.a p:ro.ble:r(t, if y'ou (J,QD,"t. ·knoW "that it ·i$'.·'i'fle·ie ,o,"'b'ejin, wit~ .. ·) lr·Y·Ouf ear t?ann,ot .dete,c~ ~e,se· :e·rrbIS,~yet1. ~,ry a~&eggiatin·g (,holding t'he chotd 'doWn, ,and

pllJQ)q~:1 :~'a:ch rtQ,~e" of th~, ch'~rd one' ·at:4 um,~J' 'cho:r'ds: ~d, pt,Q,gressipri$' to :~tie"c,k. 'y;o~ a£,~.r,a'cy.,. Ev~n'~UallY:J 'there' 'Will be" '1)1)- ne'e;d, ':fo~ t'~ls,~ IJS. 'Y'Q'U win 'p~ '~bJ,e,' to t~l.l wliet.he:'r "or ·~Qt. :yoU, .~~ :nl~,kln'g the, :intende,d /sOPJ:ld'$" '1)ut '~lil.tbi,~,

:,hap:p'ens,. m,ak'e lt~ a h~ab~t ·to. check' ··y..o:urs.e'lf ,q,l1'ite, ~o·rte·n,. .

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1.0. If you encounter-a diagram with indications for one finger on two different frets, don't 'be alarmed; {,hIs Is 'What

George 'Van .E·ps calls the :sth finger principle; and. you can be sure that 'itis practical, . Here is an example: ..,

. A:I 7 Toperform this technique, the tip of.your rmger gets. one noteyand the.side of the-'3rd

. gp' JOin t of the flnger gets. the' 'other: in the tase illustra ted. here, the tip of your 1 st finger g~l~' the bass note (A) while the .side. of the 3'r,d jo.lnt of your lst flnger gets the G#: no te on the 1st. ·s~irijg.~ Compared 'to- some of the' other techniques Y:QU have alreadylearned on the. guitar, this -one Is relatively easy,

1 I. In order to Indicate m ovin g -, melodiclines with ·8 sustained chord, thy: following symbols.are 'used: 'The symbol .x Indicates a 'note that . .is .. added to the chord, after the chord has been sounde -, d, .lW-U wl1ile ·th~, ch.Q:rd is still ringmg (trY

not. to muffle any .of'the ringing chord notes while you bring. in ·tl1is 'new' .notej, Exarrrple~ ". .

.... rr:» • ,,-r

s

.

.

..
4t· ~~4 ~.

~ (. In this diagram, vour right hand would pluck the 6th .. ~ '4th. and' 3rd strings together and, while. they. were stillrlnging, .y.O.1). would pluck the 5 th 'string ~,'7th.: fret (E). It would look

like ... this in music notation: . . .

I ! I.'

-._ ..

I~' . . ~ •.

: t. ,~t. , ·

, .~,

.. ,."

This,C: rrote ~ti¢:: the B noteIx) Iqigflt tend to elash (this' is a matter of personaltaste) ·to your ears, so .in placing the '4th finger on the B note, YO':~ may choose to: lightly' brush against the' 2'n'rl string, thereby .stoppirrg the sound of the 'C note.

. _. . '.

•• _: I

However in ~ situation Iike'the.following, you ;wilJ probably agree that the :C note and~' n:ote;:.,(:x) sound great, when ringing tOgC:t-hlit.. So experiment in. cases like these andjust

let your 'ears' be "fh~ final judge, . ' ..

4 f
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I • .~ ~, ' ,. '.' ,~.,

<,

...

i •.

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If more than one. x appears in a. diagram, hit all the ·x~s together (after the chord), Example: '~7sus·,

1

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...
j ,
~t, If' an x at>pe-a.rs -on top 'of a regular note ·X ... first include the' note ·.~S· part of the chord and then treat it 38 'an x,

Exarnplc; -

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The' ,gym,bol 0' indicates.a note: to' be ,pla]le:d ,af1tet an ~)(~ ,E:>';,atn:pte.:" (f-1

~~....-...t

As with x'~s.,. if.more than one 0 appears, pla:y tb,e.rn togeth,er (after ihe l('~.sl.

8E~:'IT"', 'E·:·R

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. ,"" ," - '--

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The' n:amirig, of ehords with, X"S is :teally debatable. 'For instance:

. . .-

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J" ••.

.. 1_

~ :i.it',,:*,~

~ =; ~:., - ~~:-"r~..,

J( .:." ..tA''''

_. ..- . -=- '.

BQ~'b. ,a'p.proa¢ltes, are fine and YQU. will ,se~: 'l?ot~, 'of"t~"e.m, used ':sQ don't expect

;. . .. • ... .~ •. "< • • - '.. • .. - - •

"CODslstl;:nCY' here. Wll~Y':'?~ Because 'as Y,:OU will see; the-re- are. '~~'111es 'V(~hel] -op.:e

ap·pr~oac.h. would be. ridiculous, and vice: versa.

"_ ) .

. Example;.

:POClR,

$',.... ........... t---I ':' •• ' "J I

"-_ . '_, .

, -" . , ' ~.

~'J, + ·.t:

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.., ~""" .. , ..... -.:"

.. . ~. . '.. ' .

.... "' .... ". ~ .. , .... .£'

' .. +'_~A ' .. , ......

12. You won't have-much trouble understanding the names of chords, but a few points should b!= me,IiUo.ned: a) a Slash through 'a number means major (Hx.ample~ .'1"= Major 7thl; ,1) + means sharped 5th unless it comes before 11 (+lO itt which case "it munssharpe4 1'1 th.;c) .sus.is art abbreviationfor the word sQ$pel'ld~a ~b.i.cli means thatthe :lTd 'hu. been fe.w~~edWi1h tbe 4th ·<~t also has .another meaning put yo.u needn'tworry about it. in tbi.s bQO,k).

_.. .. . .. _"

H"<O·"W''-·':.' T:O' . 'M~- ::"E'M' "O""'R": I :ZE CH' "O"'R'O"'S

. . ... '. ", '--",)'. '. "'. " .' :" :.' ': .. ::. ' , .. ' . " ' . " ~'

" ,.' ", -: ,:' " .'; . : '., '.',' '-' " ,:"" ',-';, ". , "/ ,.' - '-, . "

DUring the course of thisbook you.will pro.bablyenc;Quntel' J.}l)ite a few,chords that you have never playettbefnrei and YO\lrrligbt wonder if there i~.~ quick. w,,:¥ tomemorize them. Yes.and no, Wliile; the learning process ne}l~seelI'lS to go as qtifcldy '!ISWe: would like it to, there area fewthill$S that might speed it UP Q" bit fQr you:

1. Many .gtlil3f piayers learn new chotas Q.llic1dy by rela~inglh·emvis.uatlyt<J :~hor:dS' they al~ady knOW- Example;

Suppose, ~'ou .errcounterthe l'tl1lQW,ing chord fof the first thne-.. .tw. ".~", and,afterpJ.aYingit .. you,

, ....... ,'....... iIIII!Pt

,.,,~

;'(J~ ,.., """ 4' ... 0 ,'. ."

.. . ". •• ,1&.)

._.. "_

You can p,robabJy see that. this type; of operation will work well If you,alre?ldy know quite a few-chords. Now let', s!lPPQS&YOu' ~on~t;.hete is' a simplUieli version of fhe same thing (quite'R few"pJayers also use this approach):

2. DiYidp the'n~lt"up :mt~ ·five mainareas for an)' major or minor chord and use lh¢se seaS as (reference points ,fQJ' &}Jl)' choM that rou Jearn. FQf Instance, using:'the Alllajor chord as amodel, then"" areas would tie:

, . .. .

, .

& ,.,

A'

,

., .

Ii. .. , ...... ~.III .

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;Nb'w,'s:uppose 'Y'o,u, encounter this' ·,Chllr-d.;.for tht~ first ti rtft~f~

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,~ t ·:or.- Sup:pose, y.6U. eneounter 'the ',{O,U6:wi,rt[f: nus, can be: e:a$I'y. related to the first area (trans,p'os'e,d to: C)

. . .

A 'chord such as this.can be.related to one 'or' tWD areas.o , 'b'' ':', ,t:h' '. f "··t .. h ,_" tn ii"

'. "'" , . '" " ' . , " ,', '" or .. 0 0,_, em~

JI

11-+C~ :M ~~' ",. ~~~ I'~ -, , .:.' ~ .'

:I.-~ i' "

u lth

l._-,:·go:es wrtn

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'7't-t-+, " ~

:DintiniShed and augmented-ehotdsare rnoreeaslly leamedt!:y the tb:rrdtechnique (given below) 01' by .some other :.eth9'r;i o::f~ y:om own :dev:.iS:l'n·~

.11

The five ._main areas for minor chords are (using Am as a. model):

'-'

~-~. ~

~.

'~

~ . '. ~, ~

.~ .~ ..
- ,

t , ! ,:, ~ .•
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Ia.: :.~~ :. • • " - . . . ~,.:

:,' .• "it:

. , .~ .• -'. , .. t t

Another good technique forlearning chords is:

'~'4 Remember .the chord by where the root is; 'this way assumes that: a) 'there-is a roct in. the chord somewhere; 'b)y,oU are able ·to.J.o·cate. it;· and -c) y:01J 'know the names of :tn'e riotes ·on 'the ·O.ng~·rbo.al~Q. For instance, suppose you have never learned this chord:

.. " ' .. it . Jt b~t, ¥ou havedecided that Y?U '\Ii?Ul,d lik~ to sothat you ~al1 useit as a reference in the

·1' ,~~. .' - five-area' concept. The. root In. thIS chord . .rs on the 4th string.isoif 'you know the.names

, . . ·of your notes en the ·4~J1 string, you Will. be 'able to transpose it and memorize it 'fairly

.~ ~ . '. r: "1" . h . , . ' r- - • ' 'Till h ~ II, k t

, .",. ~ ,; easi, "Y by focuslna on the root '}S a visual an cho r 'p oin 1,_. .' .: . us technique 'ta ces practice

but it- works 'very' well, especially as a last resort, wh.~ the' otbcr techniques don't seem to be doing the jcb. But remember to' effectively use this, you· should know the nAte, names on the fingerboard, (To learn this, you might wish to' make' up 'drills' Iike: "Find the' A notes eneach string: likewise with B',. C" D"~ etc .. ; then Ab', Be, ·e·~~;.~. then .A~:, B·#,: etc." ·o.r any other drillyou 'can think up that seems effective: or you can work on your "note reading .. this too will. eventually teach you the note nam es o~ the .fmg·et .. board .. _- see recommended book list at end of this' volurne.)

Most players use a combination of ' all three methods 'outlined here, soexperiment with all ofthemand youwill find what works best (or 'YQu~

'H ,.,..··-M 0 N_;I V'MS'

:. · \:J' "_..., .' I' . " ' _.

Webster's dictionary defines the VI.Qrd homo.n~m; as "a word with the' same pronunciation as another butwith a. different meaning," In other words, . the two words soundthe.same 'hut come from different places (like-read and reed D:t p.ri·ri.~;~pal and. principle), In playing through this book, Y'90 are.going to . .encounter .9hard l)ornonY.m·s.t: t:ha.t is, chords that sound '(he same .but have different. origins and names. For instance:

...

1 ~~ •. 0: t . J

. , : U '.

S.O which name is right for this chord? It depends on' the situation.

.'
.~ 'd . ~. .:
-~ ~
i •
"
..
I: If y.QU are working with the: progression, sav, Em. Am, and you see this chord being used in pJa·~:e of Em, guess

what 1t;'8 going to be called (h.ow about 'Em6:?)~ -

Likewise, if you are working with .. :C#.m·' .F#:7· Bm .and you run into this chord being used in. 'place: of C".n.,-? ,. you, can expect it: to be named C#m.7b:·$.

Finally ifyou are working with Em? A;? D' and you find this chord being-used in. place-of A 7~ thenit will becalled

So, as you can see,.~ the naming.of homonyms will be determined ·b.y "what, is easiest" or just plain commonsense (However, it. must be mentioned that there are advantages.In sometimes going with 'a' name other th .. anthe onedictated by common sea .. se. These advantages' have to do with advanced chord "Substitution concepts and wandering into related keys, but ·th·e.y will have to be covered later.)

Memorizing a chord. form with. more than one name. -:(such as "file above) might be a little. confusing at nr~·t, but if you ap'ply . the principles given .in the section "How to Memorize Chords," you .. willdo.just fine.aftcr.awaile. You .will. 'have to know all the ~¢~.I .. names fot a chord . form. or you 'will just be making it hard for' yourselfin the longrun,

'1'2'

...

I

I

I

I 'j:

i

I

I.

t

I.

i" I·

I

I

SQ~r1)e or _'h.e:~~m,ost. cprilmp,n.vc,lt.o,r,(l,·:p~gre'~:on.s :are~~th~o~ u~ng. only chords derived from a. maior scale .. R~~Jlu.s.e' nf fh:eir ·beauty·· and ('he~ ·biight., happy SO:U'D.q they produce, thousands and thousands.of musicians ha~e~:be'~en attracted to'

th" '. . ,,' " . ~ . x " ,. . - A)' ' r , f" ", " ., ", h . ",it", 'I: .' , ' nd '. ,-j", , .h , , ',' , .. ' .. " ... ,,' , ." b.' ' . . , ., . . ' h - , ,~ " ' h' . ...~, da "it ,,'. f'"

. . ese :pJ:ogresslo:ns. .:' :,; .S01;· ",rom a. t _. .eoreticat stam ,pOln tJ, t, :e'Y ,are, 'very rtnportent.: '. :.e,ca·use t,· ;eYh',lorm. t ' ,e' 1 Q·un", ' ',ttons ,,·or

'many of the advanced sounds' that a'ri:s,e out of certain .substitution ·p'riri~'i,ples.

The following, Infcrruation is given. 'to make sure that y:q'u, first of all, ,k~l).o:w Just. what chords can be Q1J,il~ .. Jisi;n·g: o:nly, the notes of'a :.rnlljo~r~ scale. (the Kt:y pte C 'will be, used fer demonstration purposes but the -, information can be transposed ·to -all.other 'keys too), In 'other words, .ev.e~ry chord i'n ·tite ·follo·w;irt:g list contains only notes that are' found

". t'h'" 'C" ~, .. "]" 'Th' "h' d '''1 "'::,..1" b D' I""T'O"N'--IC-' h 1""" r·c("·· 'h';o, b . k d·" ...... . ... , '1'

In ., '.'·'e: c-:' major sea e, .' ",.·:e.:~e 'C' ··:O:f.·':$, are ,S8I:u. tobe ·,:,'n~. ':', '.'. ",".' to tne h,e·y' 0, c un t,,1:8 ,.,o,o,< __ ::·,-::~ iatcnte means: 'itstn:g:~:Qtt y

;.' .' f tfi . al ~) Y '·:11']' d k . ':- ''1,..;, f ~1...'''' • f' '... (0 b . 11"· b kai . th d' :' d

'nQt~.s: 0',. t ·e; ~sc ,.~".: .. ,. O:U '00:, .. a rea .:y , now muon ct ,u.llS _(n:,·:o,rtna~.o;n, .,'Te:ftlettf er t, 1-s~q:(l. assumes t ::~t 'you 'U.tl,,~·rstt~ap,< '.

the basic fundantentals of rn usic theorv ,_. see the Introduction if 'y: :O.U missed: this P' oint) ~ ·.but .ifthere 'are some, chords in:

I •• -. • ·1... .' .".. ":Y ·.7 .. · ~- ," . -:. '. . '. . ,_" • ..u" . ...,.',.. . '/" . -1'" • ..' • ._. •• :-.

this list that perplex -you .. as to their construction, rest assured that if you analyze th'e: .chord forms :(c:hord fOrm here

means tile same thi,flt as ~q~~.ord' ,diagram) you will meet in this, boek, 'you will understand the construction 'o:f"v-i'rtu:a!t,Y1 any' chord,

.' .'.

Analvze as used here me' '<Fans; to find 0' U' t ·";·ha' t tones of ··th', , e ch erd are prese nt an" d aeeou mte d for {many chord

' .. :_~ , " ~,_" .. , '.' __ :~ -, ·e., : .. " :.,...._. ... :t ... e- .... ..: :~_ .. _ ••.• ~tJ \, .. _, .... _".: .. ',..~ ',_ ....... ' .,;_' -._" '_' : ._. _:~ Vi .. · . .; .•. !IIi.(~" __ .. 'tt' .. '_'. ' .. ' ,_'_'. ,.W" .. ,. ' .. _.!'o • _ ..... y ;.", '"_ '~'J_: ..... _. ~ .... _',

f· 'y m '1 -, ,--" 5' 'h' v v , '" t . '" , 'th . 'toi < ~' .. , -»:» ., • t ~ ., e; ')

. 0[· : ,~s reave OU(:,'t" s, ,or roots or even ;0: rer ·.~on"e.s~ some" tmesj,

~/'

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. ,Given

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A": .. "1-- ".,1;., Ii

, ·na ,YS1S ' •. ;

The 3.td, and ·,51·th. are missing t I!-t' ..... ~~'JIA,

hfIi+io+-+-I ,', 1&

.,. ~o, :

, ... : ' ' . . ,. : ,~ ,.

II:"", " ....,..-

,~* ..........................

. . .

Two. questions ybu; ,migh .. t .have at fhis point: 1), "How do I :K.tlOW, what tones are supposed to' be ~i'il' an 1.1 th chord

, ''-(0·[ 3'Uy other chord, for that matter) to begin w'i'th?'·" and '2f) "How do .I know what 'tQn'es can be. Ole,ft', out of :any:'

.. ho d?"~ ,_-(; .' ... "

. C',ur .•. t

TO.e· answers to the. first question can begotten from y.OU. guessed 'It. .. fl' •. a good teacher: or-from my First. book, tHORD :CA.TA,STR.QPH.E (als,a known a's C'HO:RD ·C,.H'E,M.-lS;f'J;{,Y),7 amongst other books. 'H:ow:e'v'·er.., :if< you cannot ~affoid e·ithe:t of these alternatives at th·e .. mernentcjust remember that .chords are built in ·3:r.d.iJ]'t,etv:als {ifY"o,u,"are still: ._~~pg "What's a 3;rd Interval?", I'm afraid l~al '~(OU 'will h:ave re g;et a teacher a'n~dlQr' some basic t11eo'rY~ books, .~: ,~-x.pl~,.ned .. Jn the Intrcduction), .

CHORDS 'B'Y' "3;rd: INT,ERV·A.LS:

In ads ,_. t .3· ~r 1 Iths. ,_. .l '3 5 :7 "9 11

?tllS - 13 5' 7 l.3ths- 135 7 9 11 13 - Ve.zy ge~ner:al view

. ·9ths. '~l ,3 5"· 7: .·9'

Th~: ans,w:er :to: the~ s·e:·c:on,d ,Q,u'e$tio:n C:3n. be .fQ'un·d thto·u'gh :~s,lreer ,ohse'fV·atid·n,.o' ,As y:ou _rJtbg.ress throu,gh this brlocrk'-i y:ou. wi}') 'Se:·e ?~ma.n:·y· ch6:i:d~ with ·\tnissirl.g·~:'· lon~e·s'.~, ma:n'Y ch.otd's tliat have~ missHlg, tone's 'are 'Us'e~d to' efe'ate: smo'oth, VOle'E, L',EADrNG (vu:iee: le'~(lin,g: is, .trte: art of: c,onnec.ti't~~.g~ e,a6h n'ote~ of a. give'n ch(Jrd. ~w:il)1 'e~~h: 'n,ote .In a f.qJlo'Yl.i111 ·,c·ho~d~ Se·e C~HP.RD C'HE:M1ST'R:Y" ;-- .S~;c:tip'ra 1:3,~1

'EL :2-77,9,

13

Usually these n;tl$$iri:g tones are' either the ·5th, or-the root, as mentioned before, but don't be shocked if any' other tone .is left out .. The main .th~,.ng, to concern yourself with is learning good sounding chord forms, and learning how to

use them, and. these two points are ~ba'f this book' isabou ti '

AnywaY.I .on with the show. .. . ..

The diatonic triadsin tbc' key' of·~G··~e~ 'c·· Din Em, F' G ,Artl: :8°

Th'e diatonic ·7th. chords In ~h~ key -of C are: C.', ,D·m7' ,En!'7 F';t 07' ,.Ari1,7 :B'lli'7b:"5

A, complete list. ·or the most commonly used diatonic chords In the key of C: Including the EXT,ENS'IONS (extensions are chords that .add other diatonic: notes ijn to' the' diatonic" triads or diatonic 7th, chords) is: (capital

Roman numerals in4ic.~le, a major triad) ,

,"'.,l·~ C'; C7-~ .C'6,t C/g'" .C619:, ,0\, :C'-I4, (C'~/6, ·C,~usJ Cl9~,s)

ji: Dm, l?-ro,7,~ :Dm·7./ll,J. Dm/9:; ,Dm9~ .Om 1 ]., (Dm,116, 'Dm6.,. Dm sus) iii: "Ern., '·,E:m7.~ Ern.71.l·11 ·(~m7b:·9',.. 'Em'$~:, ~m,7+)

, ' .

. '-.1V,~ '~" F1~ .F6" F/9t,.·F6/-9.J. F~ 'F,~, F./9+l.L, f61?l+'I.J", F*JJ j' F~'I1.J: (F=f/6,.F/+l1" ·F+~1·1)

- . .-.

',V:r q~ G7:, G:7/6; 9-9> G.l.3:, .G·7su,s~ ,G,9sus: .(usuall¥ c 'all e.d' 61l)",~G13's·u.s,. ·G7/6sus·, Gsus, 'G'7/11" ,G6

vi! Am:J ,A,'m7, Am:7ll.l,~ Arri/9~ A:m9.,. Amll, (~'+J, Amsus, ,Aro{.9su·s", Arn.7+J

v'i"i-:' :80". :Bm7bS,t· Bm7bS/J 1, B'm7/1l (no Sth.l, (.B,m'7b:5'~5)

t.a1s0 called BYi diminished 7th and written like '$t/J'7 -"- both symbols will be used in this 'book,

~ These c'hgrds, can be and have 'been combined in countless, W~lYS; for instance, in. the Baroque period ofmusic

(rp~gb1y l'(iDa-t 7S,:(J)" mostly triads and "to 'a, lesser extent, 7th:c'hotds,] suspensions and added 9t"hs were used. Example:

'~

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I-n modern times, the 1t}Js and extensions are' used very often, with the triads ,pl~,ying a le .. sser role, Example:

". " .." '. .

W ~7

So, .I:~~ :3 ,_' ~I .

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'41"

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You may have. noticed in examining the Roman Numeralsymbols under these two progressions that th~ numbers [ vi it V· and IV V I ·a,pp~.a·,r in both; these are twa examples of what. we wiIl.c.all.lIARM.,O·NIC ,F'OltM·ULAS (meaning progressions, that because they are '$0 well liked, are, constantly used b,y musicians asa basis for j1tl,pto~i~a.~o,~~ 'co'~po,sition, ,arrapiQ.r;tg 'and what have you), As you can .. Imagine, it Is very important.to be' well acquainted with harmonic formulas, and .part of the function .of this book Wilt. be to. cover this aspect of the study -of chord progressions, -il" great detail. The first oneweare gomg to work 'with, is: I ill IV 'V'(I,). .. Onlytriad symbols .. will be .. used Ior diatonic. harmonic "Cannulas (in, other words, even if a progression uses, sa:)' 'C/.9· Em? F /9 G:7su.s,.'C~~ 'in a gell e-ra I , sense it is still I :iii IV V' 1, ~~~. ,th.·ough $,p:e.c.ifi,cally it is-1/9. iii?' IV 19 '¥7·su'$ J:r)~

. -_ "_ .

-14,

'Iheexamples in 'this bOOK willotlly be given In one key each: hut 'it is 'important to be aJ;!Je to play them i~ aU keys Lwhe:r.e this isphysicany possiblel:so it 'is a good idea toat. least ttml&p:ose your favorites into alf the' It~s.1WYlI"· ever~"some,chotds~ " especi alht some very' modern vOld~gg c"ming up later, sound pretty terrible io"low'regis'terSi:(ihal H~ on the lower frets) so le t your ears be 'the. i:g,ujd~, in determining how lQ.W to. take ,~y 'pro"gre,5sioI;1 (~f ]I.au don't under-

t d· f· hi ." J J' , "'=' }'1' ,. h'" " : - , ;-: .' " .' -"., te th' '~'" ", b'I' . )

stan ',. ". '8,_ you WI: 'W en 'y.ou.ve,nco'un.er 'u. e pro uem),

. ..' ._ -

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..... '':/ .. ,

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~AfJT'ltJiV : . Iris important to tHINK whenyou arefirst.learrring any'ohord progression to.get the. information to sink in. The two things to think. about when playingchord progressions.chord scalesfto be discussed belowjor what have Y'QU;, are: I) The-names of the c h ords, ~1),d"4:ftn:e '~~lIul1i:'be,s!~ (U ke ,1 iii i V' V], I~ 'W,Q n't be- easy ~J first, 'but in the ,Io.o-g run, you wi'll be able to do ~Q:re., be mo re cr.ea.t.iv e if' )rO.JJ c .. an p lay an,d, tbink t o get he r.

DIATONIC 'C.HORD SCALES .AND STRIN'C; TRANSFERENCE ~1C-

. c. ,J~,

:- - ... : ... ," .

. . '

S'; .,' ,t"· 1

,~

Play the following:

"4 .- .,

• r .
. I~' .,

J : I'
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~

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, .• ,.

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. , 7: .. ' ~'~ , ~,.: .,;

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.
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This is. what will be referred to as a ,DJArONJC,' Cll(l~:P SCAL,E ip a major 'key' ,(C in this case) - for short, w.e will just call it 1:1 CHO'R,D, SC,A'LE~,. t.h<-e:· diatonic: part b.:e1n,g understood, tiy.tl}e way, 'w:h'y is It.diatonic in (he flrstplace? Because only notes of the major 'scale are-used, tight? .Ifthis is :nat· cleat to you, don't go any further until you have

cleared it up, 'pyY yoursel f or with the help of someon e else. '.

Anyway .a chord scale can be built by .starting on a major chord .. and MOVJNG E·/\C,H N;OT,E· 'I~-THE- CHORD' UP TO 'THE:' NEJ(T ,NOTE IN' T,HE· :MAJO.R, ,S,CALE wHICH HAS. THE SAME: N'AME A.S TH',E, Cl-IORD. F·ot instance, in (he' above example, the: C .cJior·d contains the. following notes (froIh the bass up}! E C 'G C·;:to find the next diatonic chord, in, the chord scale, the E moves .. up 'to F, the :C to D." the, G to A" and the C'to :D,~ the'fe·by forming the, Dm chord, If you contirnre the same 'procedure, the- notes of the Dm would move 'u·p. (~11 the 'C major scalejto form the Em chord and these in turn would move up toform the P chord and .. ··sQ on. A,t this: stage of the. game you ... mightbe saying', "So, '~,h~~.~'s. the big: deal? I 'already knowthe diatonic triads ofthe C scale.' This may-very wei] be true, but this discussion is to make sure you J<:rtOW' how to build and play them ON 'THE ·G'U1TAR. Here is: another example:

17

'The princ .• ple is the. same as that describedabove for triads, that is, 'you, just moveall the notes in the C=f up to the next notes in the C· maier scale, thereby creating the other chords,

, Now elf)' the rO'lIo~ing: . ·CIf.. . Jj.1i! i£." .. 1 .,.... .."~ '"., 7... A-7

'.,' • ,~, I , j ~ • ~ d ' -e • •• ,. 0 - d ;dlU

:j '.' .~ " .~ , . '. ."" ~ • . 4 t . .

'Star-ting from thischord:

"_ ,~ ..
,
'It ,'~'"

,5

•• _. I~'
. ,
j~'
I '~O . "4".

'~

M .,...

c

t

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J_,

;3'.. i ,: j t. .'

J ~
.t ' ,
~. , .' , '.4 •
-.

a, 4 t·

. , • t·

example: Starting from this chord: :e~ "

You would getthe following: ~? "

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141 ,~ •.• ,. ~;.'

, .• :
.. ~I'·~.'
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7

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tl

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. . This chord' scale utilizes a ·t.ec'hni.q·u.e that 'will p·:e·, referred 'to as S~:RlNG :T·RA.N:S.FE·R·ENCE. Notice that this technique enables you to play a long.er chord scale. The' secret of: being able to 'utilize this technique .Iies In the' foJ1 ,Q .. win,g' .. ~~elin~~.!

1- .. To find the 'same chord voicing on the next, highet .. group of strings,

move ~:I the notes iii the. chord over to the. next higher group 0;'( strings; retain the

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move the' no~~.~. onefrettriow move 'the wholechord down' five frets (or up sevenil .. you want to' hear tlle.··S,am·e··qhor-~ an octave .high·et). N.ow .tlla~' '~you;re ·.pr.obatJly totally' lost (se:rio~~sly ,. -if.yo~ are, "read the directions :slo\!lly' once, mere):

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The string transference 'prin,ci:p]e~ can be' 'h:elpt';ul ;in~ situations where Y'O'U start to: "run out, ,pC- room ", For instance, 'while the fo.llowlng is theoretically 'possible:

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But 'using the stringtransference principle, you might 'play' any or the following instead:

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A knowledge of chord scales Will prove to. be most valuable for' the serious guitarist; many, many ideas ~pn:~g from.such knowledge,

··PRACTlC.E 'M'AlERIAL:

The folloYlin:g is a list of chord forms to start your chord 'scales from: the forms that would be derived from the, stQn/g' transference method are grouped together (if tpi,s ls not .clear, it 'will be. VI.hen: 'you practice b·\1i-lq,ing. the: chord scales (ro.m all :the forms), The forms are given, 'in the key of 'E, "but you should practice them in all 'key'S 6':v~ntuall.>:

;Y~CfU': will .notice 'that these ·ate· 1.St. inversions: t.-lreT·e.~ is a certain iJl'lgic 'in l:!rt Inversion chord :·s··c:ah~:s' that seams tn b.·~ve· ·qra·w~n. ·aoin:pog:e·f'~ and pl ayers to. use them more frequently than their root po·slr{on or :.2t1 d inversion brofhers, b:~t this is .;oJlly· true .as far '~S; 4:J)'Q.t~ lriu:d~s- :gQ;~ J19t '~~llot~· triads Qr '7tl~ chords.

'On e more point that 'Should h.~ mention ed .here ~. these t::h ord scaleswil I be .. more fUJ1 and willsoun d nlt1te interest .. r ing if 'you .d.:e:c~otate. ··tll·ellT;: By ~de':£b'r-atibIl?: I mean ~'''.b.fy:a.:k'il1g l .. hem up" in ~·c·erlain -w·a~ls .suoh as: 1.). d·eJayil1)4:.n',ote·s ....

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This technique involves findingtwo interesfing intervalsin a chord and .alternating them, This .ls what George 'Van

Eps calls .. th:e~- "team conoepr". .~\.ctllal1J~.~ I 'think 'G'eorge refers to .. it asthis only if"segarate ·.~··'te.ai1ts'· of fin.g·e.ts..~al:e. used in' '~·.h .. e left hand. For instarice, ,ge'~t"in;g two; notes with one tj"l1g~r would 'no:(b'e ~p.plj~i11g the '·~·re·grn ':'" concept.

-Mo~vhlg lines. are 1110re~' e:a.sily·,-p'h:ysicallY.111·qy·e.d. when 'w'\l,rl<il1,g with 3:: .. ncte.triads. .. H .. ere are some more chord forms (this~ time ._'. :3 note triads) for .ehord s'Gulc-~ arul Iollowing tJl«;:I)1, a Iew JJ):Qxe: ,e"x~,\l"~1:ples, ~.i.~lu,~,-tr~~~il~g the moving, Iine concept ..

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Notice that the moving effect is transferred to different voices alternately iiI this. example, Also notice .. that rhe patternstarts on IV. not I; patterns usingchord scares can start OJlany degree at' a scale, according to-taste; experiment,

An tip.doJI.l.irrg. book will list many patterns such as' these and also many more elaborateones, but y ou rnightenjoy making up some of your own . Ier now. Even just using the delay cone .. e.p,t (which is pretty ca's:y to 'work with once-you are used to 'ir), you will come 'up ·Wit·h lots of sounds.

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This section will deal '\yfth 'two 'types of progressions:

1.~ :P::a:O,GRE;,S$lQl'rS: .p,Ull/r F.·R(J~ :',S'C'AL'E;WIS'~~ "RO:QT MO\t.E,~~nN'T'~:.' (~~~j6t K·e.y:>. (will 'be abbreviated: .:SWRJ -Another ;narfle . f or these 'progressions might be "Progressions ":d erived from diatorric chor d, 'scales' ', i\n~aly.z,~ the examples give .. n and 'y.OU: Will' 7see why,

2~ :PR,O'~~RE"SSl~lN:S' B'[JI:L~r' ~;~Q'M, SCA.L,EW.l$,E 'B .. A$'S:. ,Ll~E,~ (~1ajo-t 'KI~!)/) (will be abbreviated: "S'\~~B]·

.M;'an:y pieces of music have been writtenusing these <'~'il~.d~, ,ot ;~~ll;P,S and ·'·O,l~ will probably find them to be 'v~,ry' ·at:tra.tttve,~ The logic behind them will tre<. clear if y\o'u understand ~~lQ'U.r fundamentals of. musie "'the'a,r.Y concerning.

inversions. If you don't, :e:rijo:S[' ·111e.ll1 anyway, but "if ·~tO,U want to rorrstruot similar vatiatiotts, -, you may have 'te gC',t

your IT;lUSIC lheoTy act to:gefh~er. .'

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Also, V:o:~um'l(2 'wi) l.go, in to. tll~i s subiect 0-( '~B:a$$ Pi::9g1;:e,s~,i0;.11~,~~~ very thoroughly. The f~'W"~Dri ef'<e:~'¥,~am ples presented

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.Another j·m,pat1a;n.t. diatonic harmonic formula 'is 1. 'Vi, ii 'V' (and the c19sely' .related :ili ,vi ii 'V)., This progression has been used: as much ;IS. probably any other ,in: the history of music, It,: .. is e'SP'epia)ly' common to find this progression used asan "opener", meaning the first progression in a :song' or piece ..

Y-QU Will. prO D,a bly: wonder' wh:y so 'marty examples of this progression are given· (~"Look M~abe·J,.lhis .guy Greene's

gone ct~y - more than twenty 'pagee .l?n. 'the same. progression."), . -; '

·M.ainly to show-just what can be done with a simpleharmonic formula, arid ·,ai.so fOr the purpose-of e·;xplorUlg-the. entire fingerboard from many different angles. .All . I ask.is that·you glv·e each example a. fair shake, meaning: 'play' each oneat least a 'couple" 'of' times 'with a.reasonable amount of continuity and 'smoothness before making ~y' value fu.dgment a.bou~ its worthiness .. As .. mentioned e·atlie~~:.yo·u may' run.into physical difficultiesat first which wII! preventyou fro.m 'being able to hear the Inrended sound of some Pt~gte':ssj.ons~ In these casea.continued practice' of'the examples 'which pose the, proelems Will help you In another w'ay: the pregressions theft become your friend·g· as far as· developing the necessary manual dexterity and coordination which are .essential to coping: with this. diffieult instrument ..

. Remember 'to pay' close attention to. .the left. hand. fingering where it is lntiicated,

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You may be curious as to how the many variations on. a .gi.v·en harmonic formula are 9.rgarrized~ Mainly b'Y ·melQdi:es ·(:m~10.dy. here refersto the highest. pitch in. the chords.in almost 'all eases) starting from 'differeQ~t f~nn~s (ch,ord ·.shapes). Whie·'piayittg through the 'e~xamplers"in:··order, you will become.aware ofthis, Remember, they' aremeant to be

:p~:~yea in Qrd.~r~ . '.' .

One .. more ~:g: You' should always try resolving the 'V ·to 1.. Some of the examples willgive YOll i~d:eas. on how to do thts, ~·p;malty in. the: first few pages, but .. after this, you're ·0"11 'your own, (Volume· 2 wlli.·hav:s complete charts on

the resolution or'v 'to I~J.· .

All examples urc given in the: :;k~e:ys of 'C: or ~E :~-t first, laterin various 'k'~ys, This-is done teavoid monotony 'wh.ich

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cap creep in if you s.t:~,y ip one key too- long. In fact, if anyfhing -in music ever sounds monotonous to Y'Q'u;, c,hB~gin.g

the ke:y can 'pe;, Jl~e a breath ,Q'f: fresh air, Try it and see, Say' you know a song in '1h:e, ke'~~' of G~ Changing il to E or 8' will makea lot ;of-'differen'c,e. (~~'Ye:ah,~/' y''()u~,r;e, sa,:Yirlg~ ~'~I won't be able. to v:1a'y it any rno'te,'})) Seriously do: trychangitt'a keys t,n allY': of'these if Y"ou g'" ,t b " ':' d" ,,", A ': ' .:» tl _ ,'. d b ,.,.:' " , " ··t' " all' ': sh·: .,-- uld t , . ." '.'" . ,·t '<1" st y"~o'ur" :

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referred '1'0. as the C'¥C.LE 'OF ,4ths" (or .. 5ths} meaning each chord root is····ct 4th higher (or Sth Iower) matt the previous

chord roor. Example: '11) tIle key of C, using 7th, chords, the diatonic cycle of 4t~:~ is 'c+ F:~n,tlJ7:b'5 .Em7 Am.7' QIl1/7

G.? 'C:~-'E'~ etc, ] IV viio' iii vr ii

V" I IV'

Looking.at the.rootnames of thechords, .y·'QU, will see that F is.a 4.tll aboveCj B is:'-a 4th (,·4th) aboveF, "[~>is a 4t~h,

above 'B ~ .. and ·so all. '

'Notice that ii! vi .ii 'V',~ with wh lch Y9~' are. already familiar; is GO·l1 tained fn the cycle of ,4f.hs.t AIsQ.:,Y()~ should know' thatIt is co m mon for the. cy-cle tobegin on otherchords than the J;' for instance, youmight encounter the cycle -111' a .. song inthe following form: IV' yiio' iii vi ii V L No-matter which chord it starts, OIJ_:.~ lIS long as each chord, is a 4th higher in .th·e· key, it i~ still the diatonic cycle. of 4tll'S::

Most cycles of .4tlls 'usc .a S:·EQ~UENCB· pattern (a sequence is: au exact repetition .of 3., musical .idea but using

Uiffcrcn.t: pitches, Example: _., ~ e.:~

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One triek to creatinga good cycle of' 4.ths: pattern Is to get. a good connection 'of the, first two chords, and then carry the pattern down, This. is where: your knowledge of chord .seales comes in ,4 IMPORTANT.: A cycle of :4tl)$. pattern as-illustrated .abcve can also. 'be viewed as. two chord, scales' descending, while they alternate With each other,

"Try ·pta·yins. just the first" third and fifth diagrams above; now 'play Just the. second, fourth and sixth diagrams. rh~ first, 'third and fifth diagrams belong to. one chord .scale and the second fourth. and sixth diagrams belong to. a11 at he r .

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. . This ·~J1P_rd Will be disc .. ussec .. ater. ·T'HI:r-tK··i.n Muman N.nm.erals,and

CH OR 0 ]t( AM ~S·· whH~. y<?tJ play: itt ~hc J.~nJ run, they. will sink In better with tnis te'¢ht:li:q~~'-,

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A.g<)in. notice thatonce 'l~elniti~ good connection of I and IV is made! it. is. just a matter or figuring put the deseending chord scales, from both chprds, and ~lterl\aiirlg them, The fingering enthe G,#Q-and F#m chord'S near the beginning, was, also changed to makt!; th;eplayin~,,~ little easier (4(11'1'1 laugh, in the long rub these fingerings will be

easier; Iikewise the fi'n@efing orr the C#tn arrd Bm near the end1. .. .

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OK~ sc how ;do, yo~ find allthese good 1 tu IV.conrfectiobs? Well, you can. tryand find them yourself 01' you can consult the foUQwing Iist, Only' the J !l:li.P IV chords 'will he given in this list, but youshould make 'them into cy-c:leol' 4thpaf.tems tif )\uu.ate gifmg to, work with them) 'by figuring' out the chord scales, most -of whicnyou alreadY' know if you have-done your homework. Occasionally the.Iv.and viio'~ll~d~wall;le.givenhistead of the (and IV, fbt the ,sake· of vatidiy,:. But the procedure -of figuring out the.cycle by the-two altcrnatmg, chord scales is still the same, whether

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'Here I.S, ,~n, example ,ot a diat. cycle Qf '4ttrs s·tartiit,g: from I·V';:

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Y QU: 'will see some of :yo.u'r old .. friends from the in Vi Ji V progressions cropping up as-you are playing these, which shouldbe helpful lnrrreruorizing.Ihem, se, it isnot as,if you 'an! starting from scratch on thissubjeet ~ you.already know many chord scales and someiil vih V 1 patterns, so it is ju~t a question of' putting the.In formation toge therin aSliihtlydiff ererlt 'light,

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Sometimes ,youw:iUhave to leavea note, out ora :chotd (ort}lange. a note). due to, th~, PAYsicru problem,

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, 0 1.;1 teaJiy'know'the whole' Instrumentvyou shouls; practice eachcycle in all 0ctaVes' ()uea.:ch s.tring set. FQ.f

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great, b1J;t the re~t Qt the chords in 'those t:yCles win 'm<~ 'the whole thingworth checking 'QJJJa;ny:w~Y.

Be prepared tf) see: sonre ainazing ihv.¢rse~lati()n~hips witb cycles f_not!iing .. to worry about, this will beclear, and 'you will ,p'ti:rba'bly ·g'et ~ ktck out Of th'e,m :,8;5, well),

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:Ma'n,Y chord progressions iYl maier keysuse chords-that ·are<,lJol"diatoriic. 'y'ou·l111ve already seen some-examples of il or V ch(l-td:s' 'that \\;f .. re not diatonic, Example: F:#',m7'+ and, B:7b.'9 -in the .key of E "~"~ 'tIle· ,F,#',m,"1'+ contains a 'D:' note

and 'S'1:b'9: :ctl,nt:ail1~s .. a 'C; note &:n~(l, ~as' 'y:o"u ]Cfl9;W' (X' hope), both of·:the.s~ notes are non-diatonic to t:h'e~ key ofE, C,ijot~ such :~S>. these are, what we will call :S.U.B~S:TITIJT:E :G~HORJ)S' andsoon, we ·wIlt work with some ne·w common harmonic formulas ·tlUit utilize such ct~tttures+. 'But first, one 'simpie, 'yet y,ety important, concept must be stated: A'NY' ,mi' ZY'PE, 'CH"Q,RD:, M.A,Y·· :ilE, ,REPLACE'D 'WITH ",A 'DOM1N'ANT ?lh, TYPE: C.H0 ruJ." A(],C':O:RDING' 'TQ~' 'PE,RSO,NAL TAST'E:. This principle ~s V:~fY commonly utilized ]:1"1;, almostall kinds ofmusic, For-instance, ~s.u'ppo,~~e:. Y'QUh at'e,·pla,Yi.ns' a sons in. the' :k.ehY· ott C' and vou see. the progression C: 'E'? 1\:I1l· there is the concept ,at w.ork ,_- 81: is replacing the normal .

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,E'm'i JI111 is.<:re·pla.cil~i~ iii?)..., If' vou .ke:~p' your eyes~ artd ears 'fi?"(~"fi.; you Will start noticing ~simllar applications of the. "d omirran t 'for minor ;.,. principle In much music that you ... alrea ely: hear.

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·.An·y 'way " 't~'~ 'tlT~t '11eW b~,rU1'qri:ic formula is- going. to: be-iii? 'V1'7 ii7 V7' whe·re :VI7:c~ be ,a~~{ dominant '7th, type ehord .(7·(11, chord :sY'Jl'Ib~Q]~' are going .to .beused from J10'W; orr, most of the time; to rnake sure 'we have 'o.J.J.r'~$~·nibp.l.s straight, vii in .·:C would be Am7 while 'VI? would be, :A1J.

:Oc;ca,$io~laJly.,~ l~ Will be' '~S(!'fJ for :iii7, You will :i1.oti¢c' that 'VI7 and.V? commonly use 'what are-usually referred to as A:L:TEaE'Il T.O,NBS:· (6am~ely b S~ #5., b·9 ot .#:9). 1~, fact, In, a iii? V1:7tIi7'V7 p:rog/cesslan, 'these arethe.nerm rather th 'f;len the excep ·t·:·'l'·.Q·. n, W:'-~h\} is thi ,r.:,I.:i? Because .. thev sound good, Arr~ whv "l'~"ij L' h 'l'~s:~i i' tried to work out a 'si-tn'rile' explanation for-

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thi·s, and :k~e.p,~f running 'up against a ,stlbj'e.c:t that .requires ,R' complex explanation to, 'do it jus,ti"c~~~ and also depends tc

$-,0 rn e: ~ex.rent @:JI' pefsonattaste, ~S,u rather than waste ytiU" timeand mine t: it: seemed more-reasonable to, j ust give many goo,Q examples of the ~pr~q,gr'e~~iott~,,~ and let ·'y·ou .. 'be 'yo,~ur <l~ teacher .Q'IJ., 'th'is .5'ij,bJ~ct::~ .if.you care 19 be. Actually, If you are, like 'most, players. ·w1to' ,{teal with tli:i.S: subiect, :Y'Q'U will make ,~tn'd' remember your uwn "rules" as Iaras what type of colors you.prefer On ;3. gfven degree, Example: You might s,ar to yourself, '~"1,b::~lt .ehords are great .on 'VI7,,~~,"';this i,-s, a

-"',r.u Ie 'H' you itii.~lt .remembet.. ():r you 'mi~t ,go further and :g}!ne:r~~.ize" in 'a, ·,s~:mi.I.'ar manner ''10 wbat 'was said befcre:

~"VI7' sounds .good with /Ja;n.;t altered tone when fhe 'VI? ·i·,s, used in -smooth connection with t~~~ chords Jp~,t preeedeor rqljow it 11 (the examples wil~ illustrate Ule wide rangeof ground 'that the termvsmooth connection" really cove,r~.

For the curious: There are reasons :fQr' most of the musical phenomena enJo'ye~d, by the human ear 'but don't be afraid l'o. admi] that s9'm.er·qu'~'s:tiol1:s, asto the 'i'Wny:~:"?-'" -may ·.leaj:j,. to. dead-ends .'or ~a.G,k, t:q t·he, same ~c,~'J3tr~ _q~~e,.s.,.i\?,n" th:e one.fundamentalquestion un .: d.crl,ying_ alllife. For example, let's follQ'W the chain .of questions.generated b'~' the .. question, UWh'y.~· does ,3 ·J'b 9',+, chord sound Jg'oo~d on, :VI?: (In, :dth,e~t words, If V/fJ .are 'in the key of C~1' why' does the ,A·7b~,9.~+

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::f(;iu'~(_j ~g'ou:a when used smoothly with. other c'h,orils?)t' Possible answer: ,M,ost ,uf' the' notesare diatonic to: the maier

'i' scale- of . the '~"~Y :Qf. the I ,c.l31).f:~;., Question :~ Wb 'I' does .~. major .scale sotm d, .goo:d,'?·· F'p'~.$:ihle: atisw er~'. ,B·e~au.'~e. it. js' Jj,a:s:ei1·· ,on' :tlle' lon¥.s o'r tJl~" lilujor c'ho·rd. whicf;t:is put.t Of li~~tu·re"'s' Qv,e;·rlone:. 8e'r±e:~~h ~Quys+io.rr~, /Why should' ',Nature'?'bas¥ i_s~:ove.·r ... i to:11e, .. fie.ties ·otl. th:e 'maj""o,r trl·a,d.?' "Or :evert :m,·ot,e' 'h:a:sic',~ 'why' fs ·Ih~ef.e. an, ~'o,v,e,rt():n~e. ·seri,e·s in th:e first p'Ia·c.e'1 {If you are'~not u~~are' oJ tile' o·vetto·ne.~~s~,ries,; it ':should j~.ro'v,e 've,r,Y; txtter.esting for :y.,Q·LJ· to, ··,cile.r;,k, it 'o~ut,} 'P,o:ssibl:e, answe·~, ,A:pparently:for'

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AlthQ.ugh ~a ·-tt u~$tio,ning, ruind~ is ,o~n:c ~of ·y'ou·r ,b,c-s:t .. fricn.ds, ~tn'd t·h:is· is in ~n:o w.:a~y' nt.cant to :d~:t"e..r. ·'S.'u~:h, a. s~pirit I' there

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. :que.stionJ '·"WJlY (Joe'S man: ,lj:a,ve·· .ont')'" five fin·gers·,on, 'each ,hJ~n{~, :in~Jcad of :six or 'ni.:riv.·. OJ ele'v·en ~ntl :a half!'''~' 'T'he~ p,e.rson' 'w:h{~, carr 'a.ns-vler t.h,is typ:e ... Q'f' questj'on. w'ilf p'rob~hlY' h,e~Jl u,~, an'$:w'et our 'mos~t 'm?t~slc qu,,~~~:ions ··,a,bou,f ,mus:i:~ 'a~, 'well~,

Th'e HI?· 'Y17: Il7 V'1 :pal;~'~J[n- .. hH.:~',·wi'tlliJl" !tstilf}Ule pot4:'n,{J:a.lJo·r~ many 'diffe}re,nt ·,cplorsan,d m:o:o,ds; in, .t:his:~s~e,cti:t)n: "(as, '\Y'ell, ~.S ,Q1h,t:T~) oJ J1L'j'b'o~ok,~ ~fO'U VldJl ,e·nc:o~U·!lt'e.:f-:s;ou-nds w:blch l\rete: us~e.,d, ,j'n. ·:differe:rtt .tim-e ·p'eTio,ds dllrin.g.-'the.liisto,ry·of

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The nexf harmonic formula to concern us.is going to be lil? vi 7"11.7 '1'1: (sometimes IT' w'ill be used in pJ.a'1'e, of Iii 7).

Thequickeat w~y fPI YQ~, to' corne. upwith somegood examples of this, progressienis to g:o.bac:~."t'Q. y'pu-r'iii7 ·vi? u,j V1 'p·rogres·sion:s and raise the 3:rd (0 n' e fret higher) In the lit. types, thereby m·ak:in·g them 1.]7·'~s- If there are ,tw'o 3'rds in. a,'

:tl'7 ',·y:'pe." try raiSi~' the 'J'rn th·i~ ,is the lo'W.er, in, pitch of ,th~" t~Q" and jU!i:t leave the tither one alone: 'this ·w.ill. create-a ll7;'#,9' chord .in many cases, If y,~u are dealing with a jjm·711.,~ 'w;~t~h l~tS' ll th in 'lh'e soprano (highest piteh) then none of these ideas :will work very well.

. You may be wonde,rin:s \1J,h:y we :::did'nl't derive the 11 i7 'V'17""1i'7-' 'V'7 progressions .. fr.o:J)1, th e, iii? vi? ,ii7 V7··s ·:il1. .. a similar

(""shioD, ,A',c~tUally some 'ortheth' wete~ (that is, tl'le 9:~rd was.raised in tbe."vi"7'~, tl1ereb:,Y' ,c.te'atin,g ~tlie 'V17)" but most ofthem we're derived in o'~lIe'r' ways, spe::clfically to produce rnore desirable sounds. However, if:~Y·ou $re' .c.:~.ti:Gi].s':" 'Y,QU, may ·wish to go ~ba:C:~ to. the Hi? vj7' it'7 'V1;'s and raise. the ·3·,rd ~o,n the v:i7 ,: as explained above, jus!' to see what you ,.JQID·e Jj,P with,

,Anyway:~ here are some other variations : on '],ii)'" 'vi?i I17 V"7.. Remember to tty' resolving the ,V'7":s> to 1, 'occ~lsi()'n,all;y;.

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~ .. ven because there" are many different attractive sounding chords ~hat fit togetheo well on t41S progression. These I:' examples are organized, .once .again, according to. which CHord: starts the. progression. ..

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approached in order; ,from the b.egjnning to· the ~'ndi!

Occasionally, you' rnay wish to try' using. iii 7: . types .111 place Q-{ IIJ7 types, -. Of vi7 tYIU~:S in. 'place of "VI? types, In' many cases, either ofthese chords would-sound very 'good ,_, experiment and see what you think, AJ~Q; .: you '·!jligJt.t fool around with I~ or 17 for III7 (these are all common sounds).

.Dori,~~t.·be alarmed ifyou getbored with lhi.s section though; this 'will probably bea normal reaction due to the fact that:" .]} there 'are an incredible number of variations, given, and '2) almost all of the-examples use altered dominant 7:th, types (altered dominants are those. with #9':st,. b 9.'s,~ #:5'~sr and ,b·5·~.sJ, which are Y.~rY "spicy" chords, A.'s mentioned earlier, given aIittle-time and. exposure, you willprobably learn ·to enjoy these sounds" even If you '.40 not upon flrst hearing. But there .. 'i.s· one .qualification ·t.o 'ttiis: ... Jusl as most :.p' eo ple. would.nothave a. meal .. made up almost totally at ·~i-ces,,:. there .is ,3: good chance that you would not: erijQY' 'a piece 'of music In which almost every chord was art altered dominant; and yet, unfortunately, in one, sense" this' is what you 'wilt be hearing (the "pieee" of music being one'

example after another) if y,otl 'play' throughthese examples for even. a Iewminutesin.a ,IJ).W.· The solution? l)lke this whole sectior; in: small doses and adU -some of your favorite' examples of these lIJ.~7, V111l7' V7'·i·S to .. some of the more "normal" progressions 'you 'have already studied; the ear will accept-altered chordsmoreeasily ·in·inost.·~case.s·:if they are prepared With, sounds 'ot a 'more normal, diatonic ',uP1a:j,9f .scaley" nature {lr~t"

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