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War Machine 2

War Machine 2

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Orbis Publication War Machine issue 2 1983,
Guide to surface to surface missiles
Orbis Publication War Machine issue 2 1983,
Guide to surface to surface missiles

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Published by: wfrad on Aug 31, 2010
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The world's most comprehensive encyclopedia of the military weapons of the 20th cenrur-.


with IssuE




Ground-launched Cruise in Actioi^

i:* The Strategic Missile Balance ''*,

fumed Forces
of the








CONTENTS Sruface to Surfase Missiles
The Land Based Strate$c Missile Balurce Pluton Short

Ruqe Battlefield Tactical Support Missile Sy$em

24 24 25

French IRBM Missile Systems
Chinese MRB}1/IRBII4/ICBM Missile Sy$ems Lance Short Range Battlefreld Tactical Support Missile System Honest john Short Range Tactical Battlefield Support Mssile Sy$em Persh:ng Short Range Battlefield Support Missile System



Tttar II Heavy ICBM Missile System



(l\,0() Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System

Minuteman Lightweight ICBM Missile Sy$em

29 30 32 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 39 39 40

Americur Ground.larrnched Cruise Missile System Grormd-Lauched Cruise in Action
S$ I 'ScudTSS-X-23 Short Rurge Balli$ic Missile Sy$ems S$ 12 'ScaleboudTSS-2 Short Ranqe Ballistic Missile Sy$ems
FROG series/SS.2 I Tactical Surface-to-Surface Missile Systems Sovret Cruise

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Lightweiqht ICBM Missile Systems

SS- 17

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Heavy ICBM Missile Sy$em

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rface to Surface lvlisstle
Ever since the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan in 1945 the defence of the bigpowers hasbeenbased onthemutual

ar o f nucl e ar w arfare, and missile forc e s hav e he e n t h e main aqents of those in command. Deterrence seemed absolute. but the emergence of smaller mobilebattlefield nuclear weapons has destabilized the once-simple equation. Do these weaponsmaintain our security or produce a dangerous and potentially deadly insecurity?
:,-:Lcai. Strategrc normally refers to those missrles which have lntercon 3 350 miles/5400 km), and as such are termed -:.::r Contrnental Balhstrc Mrssrles (lCBMs) Only thr--e countrtes pos-.=ss this class of mrssrle, the USA the USSR and Chrna In the case of lhe ..:-.: two, each deploys over 1,000 ICBMs of vartous types lhat are j.'..rCed rnto either the heavy or hghtweiqht varlants dependrng on thetr :-:: thror,v-werght and performance capabrlrtres. ChLna has only de :-,-red L4 ICBMs to date, and is rnvolved tn a acttve research and r=;elopment programme to rncrease thts force level tn order to provrde

Lance is the only battlefield guided missile of NATO armies. anditis a relatively small weapon. At launch the dense smoke from its on-board gas

--:d-based mrssile systems are usually classed as strategtc, theatre, or

'-:,:ntal ranges (more than

generator is expelled through tangential ports fo spin fie mrssr/e, adding stability. One of Lance's good features is that it can be fitted with a v ariety of different w arhe ad s, including nuclear.

marntalns a small 18 rrtuncl IRBM force

a,s Lis



. ,:.. -

contributron 'fhe tactrcal mrssrles .rre class,od :rs ihose ::,...,:..=. those whLch can be used rn the dLrect-sur-.L-, r ,: fronl-hne troops (and as such ar-o known as i-r-::r=:,., and those whrch are capable ol strrkrnq iijro!-: allowable range under the system classrfrcalir,r- .,- . . termedShortRangeBa]lrstlcMtsst]es,orSRBiv1: to the rnventories oi the USA USSR and Lrbya ."', r,-, , misstles can be found rn practrcally all the li,-- - . armres and also rn lhe armres of the two SLLr:n '.:,

than 700 mLk:s (l'l25 km) These systenrs carr

r:. ,r


:redrble deterrent agarnst the


Theatre area missrles are those mrsstles that have ranges restrrcted to -r,:crfic geo,3raphrcal areas, such as West and East Europe. They can be ,:lled erther Medrum-RangJe Ballistic Missrles (MRBMs) wtth ranges ::.:'l,/een 700 and I 725 mrles ( I 125 and 2775 km) or interm-odtate Range :,--hstrc Missiles (lRBMs) wrth ranges between 1725 and 3,350 mtles -175 and 5400 km) The USA did at one trme deploy IRBMs but wtth l:ew them as her ICBM programmes matured. The greatest operator of :--. two systems is the USSR, whrch created a peak lorce ol some 700 :---ssrles in the 1960s for use against possible tarqets rn Europe, the l.llcldle East and Chrna The USSR has also pLoneered the use of the .:-,,brle IRBM system. The second major operator rs Chrna wrth some 100 l. ?BMs and IRBMs currently deployed aoarnsl S.'"'re: iar.i-ots France




LookingdownintoaMinutemanICBMsilo.Thesilotsexre:-'.-e.-,,.:r:.:J; bu;,'l towithstand nuclear attack, but Large enough Ior the giar.i !,:::.s :::::. :.:e
numerous Soviet ICBMs.

first-stage motor to escape past the missilewithout dama;:n;.:. .".':.::;:1.:a.i ls over 20 years old and a very small missile compared w'rli ;.le .': ;:-r --: cjs


Ihe [cnC Based Strcffegic



A Minuteman ICBM rockets up from its silo in a practice

,:.: :;rerrt strategrc weapons of the two major superpowers are deployed on ':-::: :i'pes of delivery system that are collectively known as the Trrad. These
:'.'s::nr are the land-based ICBM, the long-range bomber carrying the gravrty
ancVor nuclear missile and the missrle-carryrnq submarine. In each case ::-;re are two essential factors to be considered in assessrng the value to the Triad :: :ne dehvery platform. They are penetratlon to the target, and survLvabrlrty. In the :-rst case the need is for the majority of the attackrng systems to avoid destructton b-r' the enemy defences, and rn the second case the need is for a sLgtntficant lercentage olsystems to survive a pre-emptive strtke before therr own launch. It ts ::.ris second factor whrch rs causing the most concern at present to US strateqfic '.'.'arfare planners

launch from Vandenberg ForceBase, California. llousrngrin srTos was


r?ussian mrssrJe warhead yield and accuracy have eroded that security, creating anxiety in the minds of theAmerican

supposed foprolect US mrssr7es from a Soviet first strike, but improvements in

defence es tablis hment.



The US Minuteman and Titan II ICBM force is housed rn spectally hardened -nderground missile silos burlt to suwive nuclear blast over-pressures of between
33 and up to 70 kg/cm2 (500 and up


10 000

lb/sq rn). The srlos are also proofed to

crovide protectron against the radtation and other electro-magnetrc waves that :nq[nate from the explosions. The flxed-location stlo allows for better missile ;.udance accuracy as the missile will be fired from a pre-surveyed stte to a orecisely known target location, thus ensulng that the onboard inerttal navtgation
system has exact sets of co-ordinates to Lrse In rts calculattons. However, when the :pposlng side increases its missrle performance to the level where a comblnatlon :f warhead yield and accuracy overcomes the advantage of the srlo anti-blast :ardenrng features then the fixed-location basrng concept makes the ICBM tnierently vulnerable The Amencans have now conceded that this is the case wlth :ierr ICBM forces as the present Soviet force of SS-18 Model 4 and SS-19 Model 3 iCBMs can destroy the majority of the US mrssrles and assocrated command, :cntrol and communications centres tn a flrst-strlke attack. This, coupled wtth the :ontingency planning the Soviets have for reloading launch silos that have already been used to fue an inrtial round of SS-l7s and SS-18s, and the fact that they have buLlt some l, 175 ICBMs since l978 (compared with none by America) tndicates that the Sovlets are preparrnq for protracted nuclear war The level of ICBM production srnce 1972 (some 2 000 rounds) rs assessed as beinq far above the normal requirement for the Soviets to maintarn a credrble deterrent force The net result of thts, tn conjunction wlth the previor-s data, is that both the numertcal and technological balances have shifted signifrcantly towards the Soviets so that they are effecttvely at the point of being able to carry out therr hvofold strateqlc strategry, which is first to capitalize 1n peacetrme on the coercive leverage rnherent rn such a force so as to exert political rnfluence on free-world socletLes, and second to employ the force in wartlme rn a war-wrnning role by ensurLng the homeland's survrval by destroytng

anxiety has now manifested itsel{ in the production of the MX, but US poiiljcjans seem lo be hopelessly confusedas to its adoption and method of deployment. The latest scleme is lo house tfiem rn lie supposedly vulnerable


both the majority of Western nuclear forces (either on the qround or in flight) a:: the American capabihty to flght beyond its own shores. The American (and hence the Western natlons) rulnerabtlity to such a strategl- . readrly apparent because of the letharEnc and erratic policy decisions that ha..': consistently plagmed AmerLcan strategtc weapon development prognammes ovel the last decade or so The MX basLnq controversy the delayed Trrdent mrssrl: submanne progrranme and the cancelled then reinstated B-] bomber are but :

Theatre nucle.u missiles
Hitherto there seemed to be n\,'o drstrnct famLhes of mrssrle systems, the strateq. and the tactrcal. The tacncal v,'eapons'lvere to an extent discounted in arms contrcdiscussions, because theLr rang:es .,';ere so short and therr warheads so comparatively small - thougth thts dtsttnciLo: mrght have been lost on the hapless citizens c: the territory (probably West Gelmanv) over whrch a battle was fought. But latel'; gffeat stndes have been made -: as.uracy range and warhead capability and wrtf. the rntroduction of new qreneralio:. :actLcal weapons such as Pershingr 11, Crurse and SS-20, theatre weapons ha',': :,i-sei rnto the realms of the strateglc and thrs has greatly enlarged the scope ol arn:s i-scr-sstcns Some argnre that thts is a destabihzing factor but it also seems i. r:ake the decLsrcn to Ltse the flrst albert smallest battlefield nuclear weapon :ia: i:jl: nore Lmpossrble


Cold launch Propellant capability No, deployed

Warhead type SRV SRV

Number and

CEP {m) (kg)

Missile Titan ll Nlinuteman ll lvlinuteman lll Minuteman lll



yield ,



1st 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th

962 966 1 970
1 1






13CC 370

f; 14

440 2aa 300 none

berng ret red



late 1980s

light light heavy




0x 335k1

22C 6C 9C




under development, at leasl T 00 planned

ICBM Range lOC date

(cEP) (m)

and yield SRV SRV SRV

launch Propellant capability

Missile SS.7 SADDTER




ss.8 sAstN ss-g scARP ss.g scARP ss-1r sEGo



ss-17 ss-17 ss-17


Mod 4 Mod 1 Mod 3


2nd 2nd 3rd 3rd 3rd 3rd 3rd

4th Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3 Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3
Nlod 4 4rh

4th 4th


4th 4th 4th 4th 4th


ss.19 ss.19 ss.19

Mod 1 Mod 2 Mod 3

962 963 1 965 1971 1 966 1 973 1 969 1 978 1 975 1977 1 980 1974 T 976 1911 I 979 1 975 191A 1 980

heavy heavy heavy heavy



x 3.5N/1






l x2Mt I x20Mt 3x3.5M]
x950kt 3x200kr

850 850

850 400 1110 1 850 480 480 425 350
1 1


1824 1 590 5000 5680 1 000

llqu d






0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

lrqurd lrquid

)970 40

)308 )970 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0

)298 )208 )68 )960 )8s0
60 0



light lrght

ght I ght

light light heavy heavy heavy heavy ight ight ight

9600 8000 8750 I 0000 1T000 I 0000 r 2000 l] 000 r 6000 r 1000 9600 1 0000 1 0000




x 600kt

x 650kt 4 x 750kt

680 980

4A 4A


I x6Mt
4 x

t1 1i



solld solid liquid iiquid iquid
rquid rquid

60 0

!u I but not depoyed ''

0 0 0 0 0 0 0


425 350 260 390 264


8 x 900k1


7560 7590 7500 7590

rqu d rqu d

yes yes yes yes

0 0

0 0


-f gures for Mod 1 & Mod
ou.es for Mod 1 & Mod -'_:u.es for Mod 1 & Mod


3 3



-'ou.es for Mod


& Mod 3




ou d



34r 0






Operallonal Capability SRV: Srng e Re-entry Vehic e.


MRVr Multrp e Re-entrv Vehicle counts as s ng e warhead) MIRV: Multiple ndependent Re-e.lrv Veh cle lscparale warhea.s CEP: Crcuar Error Probab1lv LcTcuara'ea around larQel ! ih-

'1'r.cA-i!eight r: .:':be :^


--::: -:: ii',

::: ::
a'a- a-:


: t: :r_ah

payload of ICBM rn az muth, re-entry

Nuclear Users other than Propellant Launcher
US '16





lOC date

Range (km)
3T 50

Warhead Type SRV

Number Yield
CEP (m)



No, deployed Notes


SSBS-S3 IRBM Pluton SRBM ] sngv Lance
Honest John Pershing la Pershing

980 1314 1912
1 1


10-124 5-121 8-37

1x1okt or 1x'l00kt

830 330 460 830

solid 212 680 c.750 c.750 123
liqu d

sllo tracked tracked


France Belgium, Netherlands Greece, Turkey


French RBM system French tactical SRBM system alternative conventonal warheads available


953 969 984 983

xskt or I x25kt
60kt or 1 x400kt

sol d

whee ed wheeled whecled

30 72




12 36




I x20kt or 1 x200kt

solid turbofan


x 200kt



alternative conventional warheads availab e to be replaced in US serv ce by Pershing to replace l0B Pershing la in Europe total of 454 to be deployed in Europe

Nuclear Range Missile Type Warhead Type SRV SRV SRV Number Yield
CEP {m}

Payload {ks)


lo0 date


ss.4 ss.s ss.20






not available not avarlable not avallable



I x650kt or


d lqu d I

| | llauncherl I.-.-l

l |

warPac users other than

No. deployed by usets other

than USSR c.200







5000 or 7000km {50kr





x50kt or


3x 1 50kt





x 200kt 1 x'lokt or 1 x l00k1




tt tt
| *i

tauncn oao


expected to be phased out by late 1 980s expected to be replaced by end 1983 tota of 400 expected to be

| *nee,eo

I wrreetca


erq.'u. rc,

c 670


ternative conventional
warheads avai able. FROG 3 a so in use eventual y to replace FROG

Polaro Ronaria c40 a,rqu,ir.




976 965

B0-1 B0


280 930

not aval ab e




rqu'd | *.""r"0
so so




980 969

B0-444 20 800



not avallab c 1250 notavai able









C/ech. Hulsal Poland Roranra

some Scud-A w th WarPac. Scud-C rry th Sov ets on y

c 4a c la

I snev I









| -r,"","0

lr v reo ac ng Scud-B C . Scv e: Se-, !e r: _: chasa! tr: 'a!: ! -aa n: -r S:a eboa'd


Titan ll
Davrs-Monthan AFB





Francis E- Warren AFB

/' Mcconnell

Tifan ll

i' ,l

Minuteman ll /r, Ellsworrh AFB ,ry'


/j /Minuteman r / Minot AFB


Minuteman ll ,ij Whiteman AFB Titan ll Little Rock AFB


tt ana ttt Malmstrom AFB












ij, \l/fj.;fl"^""" ,inJE@q;Derazhnva ssBs.s3 . ...-,i-*..-.i,-,.--*rr"::'-1, B!-'"'-","n -i'-' ;iI _ il F;;l'-"v"k \ prareau dArbion ,"''''0",-"i,







''._. ii 'l-.,r-'-.)'--. '--*(.,., '\ t')r._, I i

iri, ,) t)..


*.-...,-.-.,,.-. '/'-'







Pluton Short Range Battlefield Tactical Support Missile System

r: :-:- ,-,:t- t---:-::. iunng 1972. - :- t-,.. -:.:: .: ::: F:ench army :: : := =.-:,'.- -:-= :l::Ce then the . ... : :. .=:.,'eregiments '. - -.-:..-:-: : :::'.'-ie 'iactrcal nu: -. -:_-. , L ., :::-: ield armies. :: a: l = 1,::-,:::S :,aS SUt laUnCher : r :i ::.:ir ::- :he AMX-30 main

:.-.: ':L:. l:-::S-S

Se'nelal COmmand tota.l of 42 rruer- pfOdUCed


:.'-::.., :=t:-lns A ..L^^*
-. - - ^:^^ :-15

.:: :perattonal units, The ,.--:::;: dual-lhrust solrd.-..,:.- :.r:::- rs flrted \ rth a slm-- .:.=::--l r.udance package that i ::-r ::- = SFENA semr-strapdown ,'-:. ,-.'.': -.','alheads have been de-. : - I : i ::: nrssrle: one is the AN' . -.= :J1-:si rear-area targets and ..':.:--:.1 ::: same 25-kiloton MR50 . r:: ','.'=rlon as ' -. .:.:::- -ac:rcal the French air nuclear gravlty . ':.i- ::.: ::her rs a lS-kiloton war- .: :=:.::-=d as an aLr-burst weapon . .i: -:. :.= maLn battle zone area. As ..:: :=::. ::3 case wtth most French



. ...-::--= r::','.'arhead are supplied
.: .-'=,'.' :

Carried on a modifiedAMX-30 MBTchassis,
Plutonis amodern
and effective

' -, ^, - the l^^i-'^^ri-^ ::r '.'.':aocns +L^ destgn, testlng :, : - :-::.cn of the systems was car, r ::::li; by the French them-


,..::'..i-i317 the French defence

servicewith the French army
in 1974.
turn towards the development of their own mobile land-based cruise missile, Designated Hades by A6rospatrale, the mrssrle (7rn/23t1 long) will probably have an integral booster/ramjet propulsron system, a Tercom (Terrain Contour Matching) gnldance system and a range in the order of 350 km (2 17 miles), Warhead options may include an enhanced-radiation (neutron) device as the French have shown some


: :--r:--n

-i :-.- Crsclosed that consideration ,, Super Pluton' tactical missile was



hand for deployment rn the :'= This missile would have a - ... r:rably rmproved performance :. '=::-s of accuracy and rangre as well

rnterest in developing this class of


Lengrth: 7,64m (25 ft 0% in) Diameter: 0.55 m (1ft 9% rn)

.,:'.'-nq an improved warhead. By

kiloton nuclear, or tratningr Minimum range: 10 lcn (6.2 miles) Maximum range: i20 km (75 miles) CEP:330m (360 yards) Launch vehicle: tracked AMX-30 MBT

l9B0s, however, an A6rospa' ..==-rl.r of the 'Super Pluton' and the s: -rdy generated in mllitary circles ... :r:si

: . ':.= Amerrcan cruise missile progr:.:',::e had persuaded the French to

weight: 2350 kq (5, lBl lb) Warhead weight: 350-500 kg (772lb)
Warhead type: iS-kiloton nuclear, 25-

Propellant type/gruidance: solid/ inertial.

r :=



French IRBM Missile Systems
tial 53 deployment began in l9B0 and by l9B2 the missile had completely replaced the SZ in the two IRBM squadrons. During the deployment the ground facilities of the silo complexes were improved to allow modetnization of some systems and to rncrease mrssile reliability whrle reducing maintenance costs, Reactron time of the 53 is said to be around 200 seconds from the

.;-=iron in 1971,

: : ,::. rhe deployment of the first
the main land-based :.Donent of France's Force de Frap-



:-.red solid-propellant missile wrth

cecame lB SSBS 52 IRBMs. The was a two-stage inertiallya

value of 900m (985 yards) and -s deployed in two squadrons each

-:lbron east of Avrgnon in Haute :::-,'ence rn hardened underground



mrssiles. lrocated on the Plateau

..rs the

order to fire.

hre-control centres that had spe-.1 communicatrons links direct to the r:rch strateqic air force headquar:s The 14.8 m (48 ft 7 rn) Ionq and -:. '4 ft I I ln) dramelcr missile had a .-:.:n werght of 31900 kg (70,325 Ib) .:, a maximum range of 2750 km - -18 miles), and carried a 1SO-kiloton .'-=.i nuclear warhead, 1973 a new IRBM development ::l ;lramme was initrated to produce a .=,-,-:nd-generation missile to replace :---: S2 The new mrssile, the SSBS 53, '.'.':s developed by A6rospatiale under :--.': contracts spannrng the years 1974and uses the same first stage as the


squadrons were controlled ',' iwo heavily protected subterra-

ssBs s3



m (4 ft l1 in) kq (56,880 lb) Warhead: single 1.2-megaton thermonuclear RV Range: 3150 km (1.957 miles) CEP: 830 m (908 yards) Launch facility: hardened silo Diameter:

Lengrth: 13.8 m (45 ft 37: in)




$ .i

Launch: hot type Propellant ty?e/gruidance: solid/ rnertial traunclr of an SSBS, probably of the newS-3 typewhichis now replacing the S-2 in the same silos on the Plateau d'Albion in southern France. S-3 ias a range of 3500 km (2,175 miles)with a single large Aerospatiale warhead with a yield of I .2 megatons. The entire silo and missile are hardened aErarnsf nuclear attack.


ril ir



:.,:her performance with a warhead
:.-.a: rncludes

The second slage is, however, of a hardened thermonuc-



-=ar charge and advanced penetratlon .-is to counter anti-ballistic missrle de:=::es. The flrst test launch was in De:=:rber 1976, the test firing trials being



,-:::rpleted in the summer of 1979. Ini-



MRBVI/IRBVI/ICBM Missile Systems
css-2 Type: IRBM
Lengrth: 20.5 m (67 ft 3 rn)

sile development proqramme under way srnce the early I96Os. The first missile to become operational was a modified and Iengthened version of
the Soviet SS-3 'Shyster' MRBM, This single-stage liquid-fuel missile, coded
CSS-I by the Americans and called

The Chinese have had

strateglc mls-

Type: ICBM
Lengrth: 32.5 m (106 ft 772 tn)



Diameter: 2,44 m

ft 0 in)

Diameter: 3 0 m (9




Weisht: 28000 ks (61,730 lb) Range: 3200km (1,990 miles)

Weisht: I50000 kq

(330,690 Ib)

Tong Feng (East Wind) by the Chinese, is fired from an above-


gnound launch pad. The missile was rnitially deployed from 1966 onwards rn the north eastem and nofih western

Warhead: 200 kilotons or I megaton Launch facility: pad Launch: hot type Propellant tlpe/gruidance: liqutd/ rnertral

Range: 8000 km (4,970 miies) Warhead: 5 megatons



Launch facility: stlo or pad Launch: hot type Propellant type/gn:idance: hqurd./

t L

inertial css-5 Type: ICBM

areas of China. With a ranqe of
1200 km (745 miles) and an estimated warhead yield of 20 kilotons, the missrle has maintained a useful threat value against Soviet Far Eastern targets whilst more capable systems are deployed, A full scale test of the CSS-I was conducted in 1966 and included the use of a fully armed warhead, The number of CSS-ls operated by the Second Artillery offensive strategic forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army has remained at a relatively constant 50 for some hme

css-3 Type: ICBM
Lengrth: 25.5 m (83 ft


Diameter: 2.4 m



Weisht: 50000 kq (110,230 lb) Range: 6960 km (4,325 miles) Warhead: 2 megatons Launch facility: stlo
Launch: hot type Propellant type/gnridance: liquid/ rnertral

Length: not avatlable Diameter: not available Weight: not available Range: 13800 km (8,575 miles) Warhead: 5 megatons Launch facility: srlo r L Launch: hot type Propellant typeigmidance liqurd/rnertral



The second missile to be depioyed was the CSS-2 (or T2) IRBM, Achtev1971, this singrle-staqe storable ltqutd-

rng initial operational capabrlLty tn
propellant missile is fired from fuxed
(1,990 miles)

above-ground launch pads WLth a maxrmum range of around 320C km

it can engage tarqrets tn Soviet Central and Eastern AsLa The Iaunch facilitres can rf requtred be relocated in a shofi trme The number of CSS-2s deployed rs belteveci to be Ln the region of 50 and the tyoe ls eqilLp'


ped with either a 2OO-kLlclon or lmeqaton warhead Both i,:e N'lRBIv{

and IRBM forces a:e bel.:'.'ec -c :.a'. e a reload capabLlrti' The first Chrnese ICBM :le CSS-3 (or T3), was not deployed ur:Ll t.:e nLi1970s. Based Ln harder.ec -r.:=:ground srlos, the rnerually gut i+: : .'. : stage storable liquLd-propellant CSS has an estimated range of 700i kn (4.350 mrles). Only l0 CSS-ls .-.a-.'= been deployed by eariy l9B3 The n:s-


sile rs thought to carry a 2-mega::i:
yield warhead.

X-4 (or T4), which was successfully test-fued in I9B0 from the Shuangtchengzi missile test site in the GobL
desert. The CSS-X-4 also formed the basrs of the marn Chrnese satelllte

The next ICBM model was the CSS-

Iaunch vehicle, the CSL-Z (or FBI). It is believed that the further development of this mrssile resulted the operational CSS-S (or TS) ICBM. This is estimated
13800 km (8,575 miles) and to carry a S-megaton warhead. By 1982 four CSS5 missiles had been deployed in silos to threaten both the USSR and the USA. The total lCBM force is not expected to

to have an operational range of

expand very much from tts present numbers for the foreseeable future,


Type: MRBM
Lengrth: 22.8 m (74 ft 9 in)

Diameter: 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in) Weisht: 22A00kg (48,500 lb) Range: 1200 km (745 mrles)
Warhead: 20 kilotons Launch facility: pad Launch: hot type Propellant tlpe/guidance: Iiquid/





ffi *:


Lance Short Range Battlefield Tactical Support Missile System
srnqle-ra;l :.::.": = ;:-: launcher has also been ::'.'=.-:-= j lcr dehvery by
hehcopte: :r::.r:-r:.-ie rnto the battie

The MGM-52 Lance battlefield support mrssile was first concerved of in i962 when the Voughl Corporalion
was chosen as the prtme contractor for

the proeramme In 1963 the research and development contract was placed and in March 1965 the first test firrng of a trials mrssrle was conducted. After prob)ems wirh lhe propulston sys'em

The warnea: :: -::s for the Lance rnclude the l'.-:.-, s:andard 212-kg

and rocket engine had been overcome, the first production models

al yreld weap::, -:.: US ArmY n replacrng son= : :.. -' wt-h a verslon ',','- -- '''reapon that has based on the

M2-- . - -.

krloton option'

Lance is a mobile f tiefei d miss ile with a range of up to I 20 km (75 miles), with a nuclear warhead. This Lance of the
US Army is mounted on the lightweight launcher which can be carried by helicopter or dropped by

were dehvered to the US Army in 1971 for sewrce trrals. The missiie was type' classrfied as'standard in 1972, wlth the frrst trarning battalion belng actlvated rn Aprrl of that year The mrsstle provides nuclear flre support at the corps 1evel. The US Army has elght battaIions in service at present. The Lance has also replaced most of the Honest John short-range msstles In servlce with various NATO armres. Current operators of the Lance are: USA (65 M752 launchers) UK (18 M572 launchers), West Germany (24 M572 launchers), Netherlands (nine M572 launchers), Italy (nine M572 launchers), Belgrum (nine M572 launchers) and Israel (18 M572 launchers) The Lance has a two-Part Rocketdyne concentrLc pre-packed storable hqurd-propellant motor, the outer secILon of which provldes the thrust during the Lnrtral boost phase of the flrght when the mrsstle ts under the control of

as a 7z-krlc:::, --','.' ,'ield enhancedradration (rie...:::. ievlce that minlmizes blast d::.::e and restdual radiatron bu: r.a::-:-,zes the output of
fast radratLon a:

featul:: :,-:



to operate

parachute. Lance js a,lso amphibious vehicle.

fired from a tacked

to rncrease

::,: ::rne of detonation pe:s::.:.:l casualhes ThLs effect Ls of cc:.s-i::able use when large concer:ra:-::.s of tanks and bY nuclear APCs are el;:;:d

weapons. Ali t:: lr.:.TO nuclear warheads for Lance tt: :-:lc bY the Amerrcans undet a i:-.-kE-" arrangement Israel does noI i:1.': ari' nucleat warheads for Lanc: c-t uses the M25i cluster munLtLo:'.'.'at:ead lnstead The M25i rs also usec'c'; :re US ArmY and

the Netherlands lhls atr burst war

! l€ C 43-kg (0.95-lb) Ls filled 'n;il:. sphere-shape: a:t,-personneYantl-

matenel fraome:.:a:ton bomblets that can saturate a EZi-m (900 Yard) dra

the onboard srmplLfled inertral qur dance system, once this system de

tects that the crulse veloclty has been ot-orFpd. the innet propellanl secllon ls rqfnlted to take over the propulslon uniLl the gurdance unit commands it to shut down so as to leave the mtsstle Ln free flight lor the termlnal phase of tts

'ralectory. I he mrssrle ls sPln stabllized rn flight by the expulsion of
propellant qases throuqh canted vents Ln the mrsstle body. The Lance system rs normally carrLed on two tracked denvatrves of the 11113 APC famlly: the M752 self-propelled erector-launcher 'rehicle carries one ready-to-fire mts

lethal fragments. "'.'::i This is of partlci-lar use to Israel as a possible arr-ciefe:-ce suppresslon sys tem that does nct rtsk any personnel casualtres ln Lts LSe Vought ls c.trrer-ltly developLng an Improved Lance to meet the US ArmY s Corps Support Si'stem programme re qulrement. The ne',ri missrle wrll be compatrble wLth the current lance systems and will be effecttve Into the

meter ctrcle

1990s. Improved Lance wlll have three times the range. stx tlmes the accuracy and a 30 per cent Increase Ln payload when compared to the present misstle

MGM-S2C Lance

srle and the MOBB loader-transporter vehrcle carrles two reload mrssiles

mrnus therr flns) and a loadtnq hoLst. A

Diameter: 0.56 m (1 ft 10 in) Weight: 1530 kg (3 373 lb) with nuclear

l7 m (20 ft 3 rn)

ry iLn"r, John Short Range Tactical Battlefield Support Missile System
lhe MGR-I Honest

:ntered service in rts MGR-IA form tn 1353 In 1960 the Lmproved MGR-IB
rntroduced, and thls has now been

John mtsstle first

rhased out of servtce with most NATO :ountrres except Greece and TurkeY
-:l favour
-.'.'Lth 12

:urrently employs three battaltons
battallons wlth a total of 18 iaun :hers The only other country that stLll :. ,s Honest John tn acttve serulce LS S.uth Korea, whrch has two battaltons '.'.'1th a total of l2 launchers. Honest John aiso served wtth the armies ol Belgtum, lenmark, France, ItalY, JaPan the l.ietherlands, the UK, the USA and Getmany. France repiaced her Hcnest "Vest Johns wtth Pluton, whilst Den:. rrk and Japan dtd nor bo'her -o Inrro:;ce any replacement system. The Honesr iohn rs rndrvrdualJy laun:hed from a raLl on lts own truck laun-

ofthe Lance sYstem Greece


launchers whtlst Turkey has

type. An alternattve cluster munlt-c:.
warhead has also been develoPed an: rs known to have been sold to SoJ.::Korea as recently as 1977 Both Greec: and Thrkey have access to NATO nu;Iear warheads for Honest Jon:ahhough these are tn American 'i:tody under a dual-key arrangemenl I:

+: 'd


Now obsolete, HonestJohn is still tound in some NATO armies, this example being used bYWest Germany. A clumsy artillery rocket, it is carried singly on a truckwhich has to be aimed at the target, range being determined by the elevation of

:1er-transporter. The Mach 1.5 mis:-le rs powered by a soltd'propellant :'otor and rs unqrurded beinq balhstr:aLly aimed at tts target The warhead

CEP: 830 m (910 Yards)

rs probable that both countrles '/"-ll phase out the mEslle durlng the mlailg8Os as a result ol the sYstems l:lcreasrng obsolescence.

:an erther be a 680-kg (1,500-lb) HE ot ( S/25-krloton nuclear = 580 kq i,500-lb)

kn (1 n.lesl ;7 kn (23 mtlesl

Launch velucle: wheeled truck launcher-transporter Propellant type/gnridance: solld/none

3i Pershing I missile was flrst de:.:-,':i in 1962, and the entire system ',',':arned on four XM474 tracked -.-=:.::les The flrst deployment to


Fershing Short Range Battlefield Support Missile System
e solid-propellant MGM-

:--= :.',-: -stagf


:,ss-le served in the Quick Reaction -:-:l role for the Central European
-:.:arre of operations and as a gteneral

occurred in 1964 when the

Large and cumbersome, theUS Army Pershing nevertheless brought anewlevelof rangeof upto740 km (460 miles)when it entered sewice in 1962. Pershingla, seen at launch, is soon to be replaced by Pershing II which has super-accurate radar
gruidance and thus doesnofneed such a hig h-yield w ar head.

:.*:lear delivery system for f,eld
:::::Les. The Pershing was grouped
battairons comprisrng a headquar-


.::s battery, a service battery and four

-::g ::::e

batterres. The West German arr also adopted the Pershing i, re:::'ilng a total of72 launchers. Because

::: tracked vehicles, ln 1966 a de'.':icpment
In November
1967 production

:he poor mobility characteristics of

contract was placed with

krloton earth-penetrator warhead of the Pershing IL Thus targets which might have to be attacked by two or three of the older missiles need only one Pershrng II, the earth penetrator warhead being of particular importance as before detonation it can penetrate the overlying 30 m (1000 ft) or so ofsoil and concrete that conceal Soviet rear zone command, control and communications facilities. The older Pershing Ia will stay in the West German air force's inventory for some time to come, the nuclear warheads for these being held under a dual-key aqreement,

l.lartrn-Marietta to improve the system ::.C the mrssile's capabilities, s:arted of the improved Pershing Ia to ::place the Pershing I in both the US irny and West German air force, The ilst operational Pershing Ia was deployed in 1969. The most obvious improvement was the replacement of the XM474 tracked vehicles by wheeled '.'ehrcles derived from the M656 S{on :ruck chassis. This grreatly enhanced :he system's mobility over paved roads and across country. It also allowed the '.varhead to be carrred with the mrssile rather than on its own vehrcle as had been the case with the Pershing L The system's firing unit now consisted of an aniculated truck and trailer combina-

MGM-3IA Pershing Ia Lengrth: 10,6 m (34 ft 972 in) Diameter: L0 m (3 ft 37r tn) Weight:4600 ks (10, 141 ]b) Warhead weight: about 748 kq (1,650 lb) Warhead types: 60-kiloton nucleat, 400-kiloton nuclear and training Minimum range: 161 km (100 miles) Maximum range: 740 km (460 miles) CEP: 365 m (400 yards) taunch vehicle: wheeled M656 truck and trailer combination Propellant type/gnridance: solid/ inertial

Iauncher, a transpofier for the pro:ffamme tester and generator units, a firing battery control centre vehicle
and a radio terminal set vehicle with an

tion that served as the erector-

A series of subsequent system improvements has allowed the reaction time to be reLnflatable aerial, duced still further, and the rntroduction of an automatic reference system and

sequential launch adapter



allows the Pershing unit commander to fire up to three missiles from a single

control statlon at previously unsurveyed launch sites, The current US
Army inventory of Pershrng systems is 164 launchers, of which l0B are in Westem Europe, The West Germans replaced their Pershing I systems on a one-for-one basrs by the Pershinq Ia. In 1978 the advanced development proe[amme of the Pershing II system was successfully completed, Thrs missrle, which has a range of more than 1490 kn (925 miles), is a modular modernization of the Pershing Ia with a consrderably enhanced accuracy and range. The Pershing II is expected to achieve an initial operational capabilrty date of l9B4 to replace the Pershing la in Europe and then presumably in the continental United States, The European deployment is to improve

The replacement


NATO's intermediate-range theatre ruclear weapons stockpile and is a

dlrect response to the Russran deployment of the SS-20 IRBM system. The Pershing IIs terminal gn-ridance system utilizes an all-weather radar


greatmilitary and pol itic al s ignifi c ance. With

Pershing I withPershing


:orrelation unit in its ceramic nose

its maximum range


rvrth a pre-recorded onboard radar proflle of the target, This RADAG sys:em allows CEP values of beftveen 12
and 36 m (40 and 120 ft) to be achieved.

Jone that compares the radar returns

2500 km (1,550 miles), the highly - ac cur ate e ar th -

In turn this allows the higher yield 60-

and 4OO-krloton au-burst versions of
:ne W50 warhead of the Pershing Ia to be replaced by the WBS 20O-kiloton

destroy anything it is fired at, inclu ding s pecially hardened targefs. Eased jn

penetrator warhead as a payload, the mr'ssiJe can

Germany, the tange of targrets rncludes M os cow.

arr-burst warhead and the WB6 20-




fi,"n II Heavy ICBM Missile System
by Martin Manetta, the LGM-2SC II rs an rmproved verston oi the

thermonuclear warhead, elaborate

De clcved orLgrnally rn i962 the mrssrle rs ine last survrvor of the Amencan first-


HGM-254 Titan


puter wrth a three-target selectLon
capabLhty The two-stage mrssrle has a maxrmum burn out speed ol more than 24000kn/h (14900 mph) and a maxlmum range tn excess of 15000km (9 325 mrles). The maxrmum cerhng attarned dunng Lts flrght rs around l50O km (930 miles) The propulsron


and an onboard com-

A toial of 54 of the mrssrles was deployed in sLx nLne-missrle squadrons

jeneratlon hqurd propellant missiles
However. rn l97B and


were destroyed rn Broken Arrow

1980 two mrssrles

classrflcation nuclear accLdents that occurred in therr srlos. These have not been replaced. ln l9B1 lt was tentatrvely announced that the remarnrng

system comprlses two Aero;et LRBTAj 5 gtmballed rocket motors each
rated at 97975 kq (216,000-lb) thrust on

missLles were to be progressLvely wrthdrawn between l9B3 and 1987 due to thelr age anci dechnrng mrLrtary eflectrveness and rn order to make
way for the new MX mrssrle However the MX basrng problems have resulted tn thLs rdea berng grven a lower prrorrty for the present By mLd 1983 only 43 Trtan IIs wrll be tn service. ln early l9B0 Lt was learnt that the Trtan il force


the first stage and an Aerolet LR91AHS rocket motor rated at 45360 kq
(100 000-1b)

thrust for the second




LGM-2SC Titan II

Diameter: 3

was havrng rts AC/IBM inertrai gur dance systems updated to remaLn effectLve throughout the mrssrles remaLnrng hfetrme. The work was com-

314m (l03ft 0rn) 5 m (10 lt 0 rn) Weight: 149690 kq (330 000 lb)
Titanwas developed by Martin as the fir st tand e m two- s tage I C B M, the photograph showing a test launch from Cape Canaveral of a Titan I. From this was developed the larger
Titan II, shown in the profile.

pleted 1n 198l As the heavrest AmerLcan ICBM deployed, the Trtan rs fitted with a General Electrrc Mk 6 re-entry vehrcle carryrng a 9-meqaton W53

Warhead: srngle 9 megaton thermo nuclear RV Range: 15000 km (9 325 mrles) CEP: 1300 m (1,420 yards) Launch facility: hardened srlo
Launch: hot type Propellant type/grLridance: lLqutd/

rF ro






iWCnn-I 18 (MX) Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System _of the Martin1974

SerLous development

ffi ffi

Marietta MX mLssrle began Ln

under Ptesrdont Foro s aorilntsttdl.on and has progressed well despLte all the problems assocrated wrth rts bas

tng The first of 20 test rounds are due
ployed rn the late I 9BOs. The four-staqe sohd propellant mrssrle has been deslgned to have consrderably rmproved accuracy range and payload features

lor hrrnqi Ln 1983 and the first produc tron rounds wrll be operatronally de-


when compared wrth current ICBMs.
The mrssrle rs encased at the tlme of lts assembly rn a protective launch canrster compatrble wlth a vanety of basLng


o! a

optlons. When the mrssrle rs fired




soLrd-propellant Lrnlt rn the base of the canlster rs lgnrted to elect the mLssLle Ln a cold launch clear ol the protectrve

casLng The flrst-stage propulsron

motor system ls then fired automatrcai ly once the mrssrle rs some 24-30 m (80-100ft) clear A protectrve shroud over the nose assembly and a 6 mm (% rn) thick rubber-hke skrn over the missrle's surface protects lt fuom dust and debrrs.

r0 .R *-G


The flrst stage ts powered by Throkol rockets and burns out at an altrtude about 24385 m (BO,O00 ft) The second stage Aerolet propulsron unit
over Thts stage burns

then takes

about 85345

the final sohd propellant Hercules
Aerospace motor Lgnltes The nose


out at (280,000 ft), whereupon



shroud rs then lettlsoned at around 97km (60-mrle) altrtude to uncover the MIRV payload. Frnal thrrd stage burn out occurs around I 16 km (72 mrle) altrtude when the luel load has been totally exhausted Dunnq all three powered flrght stages the gurdance sys

The first completely assembled eace keeper I C BM photogr ap hed on slafic fesf jn 1 98 2. Former ly

as MX (missile X), the Peacekeeper ICBM has been planned for over I 2 years. I t weighs 95 siort tons al lift- of{, compared with 38 for Minuteman III.

known only

MX Peacekeeper


MGM-118 Peacekeeper Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)

Surface-to-Surface Mis s -e s
repeated unttl all l0 MIRVs ha'.': :==:. launched The ,ndrv,crual Ll.li.. := entry vehlcle most favoured as :lr: ).1-.payload ts rhe Ctrrtrtd. Flr t-:. l.:,. 12 A (1 Bi3 m/6 ft I I ,,.: Ln lonc -:.i 0.542 n/I ft 9 . rn base otameler t.:


has constantly modrfied the flrght riath so lhat ali the solLd fuel aboard rs ::nsumed, thrs meanrnq that no proprlsron cut-olf system ts requtred on the :hrrd sraqe. The fourth-staqe Rockwell Interna :ronai RS-34 assembly rs then released

systems, and the Avco re-entry package of 10 MIRVs wtth penetratlon ards The rocket motor rs used to target the

MCMT.an m !!119rrr. h


ic;. Fea::.::=:=:

Thrs carries a post-boost lrqurd-

cropellant propulsron motor wrth mul:.ple burn capabllrty, the Northrop rdvanced rnertrai reference sphere -rurdance system attltude-reference

newly released MiRV ls then spln stabrlized by the two smali rockets lt
carnes As soon as the warhead ts well clear of the RS-34 the moror re rgnrtes and the assembly changes course to

MIRVs. Once the course of the drs pensrnq bus ts set a warhead rs released and the RS-34 backs away The

Diamete: :: .. . -:

ryrnq a W78 3J5-krloron vtelo

anqaqe lhe naxt target. The process

Advanced Balhsttc Re-entrv Vehrcle (ABRV) programme. The MX rs nov..
desrgnated MGM

RV berng developed as part of the

nead Another possrorlrV ts rne



::--..,: Walheac '
D^--^ r\ilruE -:





llBA Peacekeeper

CEP:-: iac :-' :t :: : Launch: ,-.: j.Propellar.: r.,-r€ :--:r- ::



iitinuteman Lightweight ICBM Missile System
warheads wrth chaff and decoy
have the Mk 12 re-entry vehrcle con tarnrng three W62 165-kLloton yreld

The Minuteman famrly of ICBMs comcrrsed four variants, of whrch oniy the Minuteman II and Minuteman III remarn in service. The ongrnai LGM-30A Minuteman I equrpped one Strategrc Arr Command mnsrle wrng rn 1963. An lmproved LGM-308 Minuteman I wlth rncreased range and of longer length 'rias then brouqtht rnto servlce wrth the next four wrngs formed, whtlst the sxth was equrpped Ln i966 with the LGM30F Minuteman II. Both the Minuteman ll and the LGM-3OG Minuteman III, rntroduced rn 1970 then replaced the two Mlnuteman I variants. The sLx deployed strategrc mrssrle wrngs are currently the 34lst at Malmstrom, Monta 44th at Ellsworth, South Dakota wlth 150 MMII the 9lst at Minot, North Dakota, wrth I50 MMIII the 35lst at Whrteman, Mrssourr, wrth 150 MMIIT the 9Oth at F.E Warren, Wyomrnq, wLth 200 MMIII; and the 32lst at Grand Forks North Dakota, wrth 150 MMIII. The wrngs are drspersed over wrde qeographrcal areas and are organrzed tn squadrons offive flrghts each wLth 10 hardened mrssLle srlos and an underground launch control centre If the control centre rs rncapacitated for any reason iaunch controi rs passed erther to one of two control centres wrthtn the

LGM-30F Minuteman II and LGM-3OG Minuteman III Length: lB 20 m (59 lt B/: in) Diameter: LGM-3OF I 83 m (6 fr 0 rn); LGM-30G I BS m (6 ft 0% rn) weight: LGM-3OF 31750 kq (70,000 lb)

=::. : , :. r. : : :: MIR\'S Range: -:l.l: : -: mrles) ,l:.:':. j three -::' -:




vehtcle rs fitted. Thls rs about 16 kg (35 lb) heavier than the Mk l2 but as a
result of the minlaturizatron of certarn
componenls remalns tdenttcal In stze. It is able to carry three W7B 335-kLloton

penetration atds. On the remarnrng 300 mrssrles and presumably on the further 50 mrssrles that wrll replace 50 Mrnuteman IIs by the mid-l98Os, the Mk l2A re-entry

CEP: LCI'.1-:,:
^fca^^ :

:, :: LGM-3CCi:-:.:: -:: _.-,,-:.

LGM 30G 34500 kq (76,0s8 lb) Warhead type: LGM-3OF sinqle



Launch facility: :.:tt: Launch: hc: :-.':= Propellant type qfuaa:. rnertral

na wrth 150 MMII and


MMIII; the

srderable effort Ls betng cievotecl to sustain lhe Minuteman forees operational capabrlrtres and survrvabLLrty

yteld warheads wtth shghtly better CEP capabrlrty The assocrated penetratlon aids also remarn Con

prospects durrng any nuclearexchange scenano

Minutemanlllwas theultimate
developmentof the neatMinuteman propellant(CBM. Among its new features were

developedin 1958-60 as the first solid-

squadron that can also serve as

multiple independently


squadron control centre or, in the case of some 200 or so mrssiies, to a specral1y configured Strateglc Arr Command aLrborne command post arrcraft that .arrres an airborne launch control and

targeted warheads (up to three 335kiloton units) and a Command Buffer
System for

retargeting system.

The three-stage solid propellant an upgraded Minuteman I wrth rn:reased range and a more sophLstr
rated gurdance system The latter has
capabrlrty ;Lvrng increased accuracy and a srng le Mk 11G thermonuclear RV with Tra:cr Mk lA chaff-dispenser penetratron ards. Severai of the Mrnuteman IIs are spectally configured to carry com :nunrcahons equlpment rnstead of a -.','arhead to act as Emerqency Rocket 3ommunicatrons Systems for the backlp role of crrsts communlcatlon to sur..ving nuclear slnke torces ln a postruclear exchanqe envlronment. The Lmprovements of the LGM-3OG N,fLnuteman lll over rts predecessor rre confined marnly to the third stage :nd the warhead re-entry system. The :hree MIRVs as the payload. The postboost bus has been frtted wrth a small BeLl Aerosystem hquid-propellant :ocket motor, four smaller roll rockets -nd sLx sirghtly iarger pitch stabrlizer 'ets All of these are under the comnand of the onboard Rockwell Inter:atLonal rnertral gn-udance system. Currently 250 of the Minuteman III force LGM-3OF Mtnuteman


retargeting. A total of 550 of this version was put into silos.







rs essentrally

rn eight target selectlon

Ir l1

ln lc





i j

narn feature ts the rntroductron of



I ,


Fr. -E-:


American Ground-Launched Cruise Missile System

a - lv .Iulse mts: . . ..-. :::..1: :.:.=.'gen RUSStan, bUt ::-:-:= :::::::rnbrned efforts of ' ::':r- ;::.:s,ars and the Western - - I r ::.: :::r- 3r,jise today means a -: ::.:.. ..:.: -.1:'.'.-mtsslle whtch the --

West are greater than in the Warsaw Pact powers, where the population as a whole are not mobile and the area available for concealing mobile longrrange missiles far grreater, The other big question mark hangring over such slow-flying missiles is their ability to penetrate hostile airspace. In I944 southern Engrland rapidly got the upper hand over very similar missiles which were fired in much larger numbers (several thousands) using piston-engrne flghters and ordinary anti-aircraft gnrns, Modern radars, computers, jet rnterceptors and precision missile combine to form a defence network that a 805 kmih (500-mph)

selective or general nuclear release options against either flxed targets
(such as lines of communication, Iogis-

tical stores dumps, arrfields and command and control facihtres) or stationary tactrcal targets such as troop staging and assembly areas. The GLCM is deployed in flring units of 16 missiles carried on four TELs with two mobile LCCs in attendance, The unit is in peace located in a hardened concrete shelter at rts home base, but will deploy to pre-suweyed flrrng positions offering gTood natural

system, The major advantage of the GLCM is its abrlrty to fly most of the mission at low altitude to avord radar detection and air defence systems, Its major disadvantaqe is its slow speed (Mach 0,7), which makes for long mrssion times to extreme-range targets. Thus if the Russians field enough highperformance low-level detection and air defence-missile systems, and aircraft with look-down radars, then the credibllity of the cruse missile in rts present form becomes questionable
The Americans are actively looking at the incorporation of 'stealth' anti-radar

concealment at distances of about



miles) from the base



missile would certainly find very difficult to prerce. The land-based ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM) wrll be operated by the United States Arr Force (USAF) and be deployed in five West

tilities seem imminent. Escorts from the host natron's armed forces will
accompany the unit to provide security during the dispersal operation and to provide gnound defence at the launch site. Both the TEL and the LCC have

detection technology into its next
cruise-missile generation to mitigate
thrs farling.

good cross-country capabilitres. To

European countries: Belgium


wheeled transporter-erectorlauncher (TEL) vehrcles and

rounds), Italy (1 12 rounds), the Netherlands (48 rounds), the UK (160 rounds) and West Germany (86 rounds) Total USAF procurement rs intended to be 560 BGM-I09G missrles, 137 four-round

flrst elevated and then a solid-

fire a mssrle the launcher-container is

propellant booster on the missile is ignited to boost it to its cruise speed.
ter is jettisoned, the missile wings and flns unfold, the engrne inlet is deOnce this has been attained the boos-

wheeled launch control centre (LCC) vehicles. The BGM-109G is a member of the General Dynamics BMG-I09
Tomahawk cruise-missile family and Ls intended to be the major compolent of the NATO theatre nuclear force modernization programme to counter the Russian deployment of the SS-20 IRBM system, The other component ls the Pershing 1l surface{o-surface mrsstle

ignited in order to sustain flight. Guidance throughout the mission is by an inertral navigation gnridance system
updated by a terrain contour matchrng (Tercom) unrt at periodic intervals, The GLCM carries a 123-kq (2701b) WB4 nuclear warhead with a yield of 200 kilotons to a maxrmum range of 2800 km (1,740 miles). The CEP value

ployed and the turbofan engine

Due for deployment in December

over that range is estimated to be
18.3 m (60 ft), and is


the GLCM can be used for both

solely due to the inertiaVTercom guidance



The basicGLCM combat unit

comprises 1 6 missiles loaded on tour TELs ( tr ansporter/ etectorl launcher s )

and twoLCCs (launch control centres) for command and control.



Surface-to-Surface M: s s.. :






A dramatic launch picture of a GLCM

during a test firing (probably at
White Sands Missile Range, New M e xico). The mrssr/e rs p opped from its tube by a short-burn rocket,

giving it enough energy to keep coasting upwards as it unfolds its wings, tail and engine inlet, and fires up the small turbojet onwhich it

BGM-109G Tomahawk Lengrth: 6.4 m (21 ft 0 rn)

Diameter: 0.53 m


(l ft Belro rn) (2 645 lb) Warhead weight: 123 kq (270 lb)


Warhead type: 200 krloton nuclear,
and trarnrng Minimum range: not avarlable Maximum range: 27BO km (l 725 mrles) CEP: 18 3 m (60 ft) Launch vehicle: wheeleci transporterarector launcher Propellant type/gnridance: sold boos:er plus turbofan marn engrne/Lnertral ',vLth Tercom updatLng

t t





Here the TEL is shown parked in the

firingmodewith the quad missile box elevated. The LCC seen below
contains all systems needed {or a two-man crew to target and fire.

-...f$' : ;-;:r' r i!

ffir'p*:;'*f trH#


Ground-lcrunched Crube in Action
After launch Cruise flies high in f riendly airspace to save fuel.


The r:nboard comp!':' calculates the distarce and direction, keeprno preclse track of the m s. :


prog ress.


As it approaches e-=^ tetritory it drops to ,o\.. :. and compares the arc prolile below wrth thar ,' . 'routes'it has stored . -: memory, making nece::. correction to fly onto:--. prescribed route

o\\+'* participatlng in what so far have been mere manoeuvres. Soon the BGM-109G cruise missiles will also be seen trundling along roads in

-1'.a+)i;. I



away, whilst the vehicle changes itself from a tightly packed cylinder into a smali aeroplane. The Atlantic Research or CSD rocket boost motor imparts quite gentle thr-ust and acceleration, and throughout the flight the environment is no more severe than in a modern fighter.


Western Europe, but as far as possibie they will keep out of sight by moving at mght, because it is vital to keep secret the locatlons selected as their actual fi.ring positions. Every missile with self-contained guidance has to know its exact position at the start of its flight In the case of BGM-109G each launch location is pre-suweyed, so that the exact coordinates can be prepared rn advance and inserted into the missile gmidance system, The latter is of an unusual type which reiies crucial-

Like any air-breathing aircraft, it pays to fly

ly upon the undulations in the ground over

which the missile flies, and thus the missile has to know not only its launch position in the usual geographrcal sense but also its exact height above sea level.

l0-metre accuracy
puter in whose memory are stored all the
As the missile climbs away it contains a com-

high in order to reduce fuel consumption, and for maximum range the high-level portion of the mission is extended as far as possibie. The smalj Williams FI07 turbofan, of 272-kg (600-lb) sea-level thrust, burns kerosene at about onetenth the rate that an equivalent rocket would eat up its fuel, so despite the modest size of the tankage the missile can fly up to 92872 lar] (1,785 miles) This range is reduced if most of the trip has to be made at low level. One has oniy to draw a line less than 24i5 km

(1500 mlles) long from the likely iaunch re-

!-:'CC ;s here seen on the march as itwould be :: =:',- :;:ne of crisis. {ollowing a known route as

from aerial or satellite predetermined firing location. )i:'-::::gltould be left at the only known location, :.: e -*a ce dn're base. ?ft us a pre' e m p t ive nucleat sire'n-culC have little effect.



,cossrb.le screened
to a

necessary details of its launch position in three dimensions, the flight trajectory to be followed to the target, and the precise location of the target. As far as possible only pre-suweyed launch sites would be used, but it is essential to have the capability of switching to a different launch site (for example, if it is beiieved the original location has become lcrown to the enemy), and from 1987 the Rockwell Collins Navstar global satellite-based positioning system will enable launch data to be entered into the misslie memory within seconds of arriving at a fresh site. Navstar data are accurate to within about I0 m (33 ft), which rs adeguate for this missile; the numbers entered diQritaily into the memory include latitude, longitude, altttude, velocity within 0,01 m (4 in) per second (zero before launch, relative to the Earth's surface) and time within a few nanoseconds (thousandths of a milllonth of a second).

gions to see that usually the first several hundred miles can be flown with maximum fuel economy at high altitude through friendly or neutral airspace. Over this section the whole method of gmidance is the self-contatned inertiai system, a Litton Industries P-1000 package containrng super-sensitive gryros and accelerometers which sense the exact motion of the mrssile and continuously compute the output in terms of changed latitude and longrtr:de from the point of launch. No radio srgnal is emitted, so the misslle gives no warning of its approach, and though at an altitude of some I2190m (40,000 ft) the missile can be seen by radars over 402 km (250 miies) away, it is very small and specrally designed so that its appearance as seen on hostile radars (technicaily known as its 'radar cross-section') is minimal. it is vital that the cruise missile should as far as possible remain undetected by hostile radars, and its

After launch the computer automatically ticks away the metres and seconds on climb-

small size and careful shaping combine to make it very elusive.
The accuracy ofan inertial system grradually falls away as time passes. A fast ballistic misstle

Surface-to-Surface Miss I


6 (l .itti'rt.trti r,I il ' I lllj'ri i rir'-( -r!f,, l, r r'.: rr1 rlril i :;i i i( .rt, ililtr' -tiri rtr Vtlt,l rt ,,1 ;1[r 1,.. I t|lJrl, li, ,i'hill I :,,'it.t r/ t;l|'r tl I rrtt,tr ':1,,'y' 1, 1,1,





--l .t




swooped down almost to ground level, Normally it holds a height of about 15 m (50 ft), but crossrng hrlls it will rise to about twrce this heighi above the ground, and the'terrain ciearance crossrng mountains may have to be increased ro IOO m (330 ft) Thus, the Tercom system s measurements of the height above the ground have to be subtracted from the known herght ot the mrssrle Lfrom arr pressure or lnertial measurements) to get the true undulations rn the Earth's surface.

can cover rntercontinental ranges rn 30 minutes, but the slow cruise mrssrle needs several times as long to fly its much shorter
distance, and after an hour or two the cumulative effect of the various errors in the rnerttal measurements begins to be signrficant. i ylprcally, a modern inertial system might be 50C m (l 640 ft) oif course after an hour, or after two hours in the case of a very good system. There are ways of checking on the missrle's posrtron as it flies across the land, and thus of updatrng the inertral navrgation system to maintarn its accuracy. The BGM-109G rs equrpped wrth an amazing new back-up system developed by McDonnell Douglas and called Tercom (Terraln comparrson, or more accurately, TERrain

The missrle now proceeds :: :::.i---. . target, knowrng exactly \\'h-r= .. radar, opttcal and IR sen-:--r-r '-:.:. .:.:. . turns the picture actudlly s+a:. .: - : .. . .: : bers and compares them .'.-:: .-.. .- . .- . the TCU. The computer fina,.-,'s :=: j ' : . : sile to merge the lwo se-s :- :. .-.: - .

switches on yet a thrrd guidance mode, the
most accurate of all. The TCU (Termrnal Corre-

When the missile gets near rts target


COntour Matchrng). Technically known


DPW 23 this small package stores rn irs mem cry millions of figures which represent the successive heights of the ground over which the missile will fly, These measurements combine to form an exact profile of the Earth's surface, each of whrch is unique to a particuiar flrght cver a particular route, DPW-23 stores perhaps 25 such profrles. No matter how the inertia] guidance has behaved, rt will make landfall on to one of the 25 routes,

lator Unit) contarns further sets of mrlhons of numbers whrch rn fact are a digital (numerical) representation of a detarled picture of the target. The picture shows the target as it would be seen by the approaching missile, using varrous vrsible and IR (rnfra-red) wavelengths.

r '' -: -.-- : ..:. 'looking' at the Larger, and 'es-: r.: . : : . . the final CfP (crrcllar eiror ir- i:.'.very unlrke.ly to be worse '.:.::. .. : ... Thrs rs an unprecedenteci a::-:'.:'. r -:flrght of some 2800km (L ?=,:-,,=. .i. . : lhree hours lt has so v.orr::c '--.: .- -, , the'antr-crurse' campalgn rS'.-,i.1 rt:: - : ...
Thus, as the mrssrle piLnges
ItS aCCuIaCy tS






Terrain clearance
As soon as DPW-23 is switched on, a superaccurate radar altimeter begins measuring the distance vertically down to the ground, and the successive readings qulckly estabhsh which route the missile is on. The on-board computer :hen adjusts the flrght path shghtly unttl the missile is exactly on course, and updates the inertial system. The Tercom system keeps neasuring the herght oi the terrain below at rarefully spaced time intervals and thus keeps lpdating the guidance and holdtng the exact lesired route, What makes the process more :omplicated is that, to try io avoid detection by


enemy radars, the missile has already




'Scud'/SS-X-23 Short Range Ballistic Missile Systems
mLsstles are

:::- :: -:::::-::al taCtrCal-level - i:..: :'':'::.: :-.'::e SsVlets The Ori- -. --,,-,; : -,,-:cl 'Scud-A'was .-:- :-,:---.'-1 .:. -lll Carrred on a ' --S---- :.3a',ry ': .: ,. .,--=..'.- -_r::ed tank chassis to a L3O-km -;.: :


Sc:d' ;-^.1ei

.-.. =::=.j=:.:spaf ioad In 1965the -' :.- - .:t ::-,-<1 .11 043-lb)'Scud-B' - ---..:: :-:=i :il an etght-wheeled vehlcle for

:.-:-...= :-:-;=',','-::, a 4o-kLloton nuc-

lcene showing four'Scud-A' m jssi/es in about 1 9 62. C arried on a very heaw IS-3 tank chassis, 'Scud-A'was one of the largestbattlefield mobile weapons with a length of I I '25 m/ 37 fl and launch weight of 4400 kg
(9700 Ib). Range is uP to I 30 km miles).

rocket publicity photograPhs was this
One of the earliest Soviet


- ..'.:- =j :::ee-quarters of the 300 -: ..-:-::.:rs ranqe 'Scud-C'was -: :- ::'.= .:.= .::-ier deployed. Around ..-. -=:'.-'.'- : 'rLs belng an improve-:-- '.':: ::: Scud-B in terms of
.= :- .','.':rse CEP at Iong ranges. : : . - .i: 520 or so 'Scud' iaun-:. :=:-:';ed ln the Sovlet army

..:.-':;: =:::::r-launch ::=--=: ::-::,,-:-; By 1970 the'Scud-B'

: =..::.. :::.:tency but at the ex-

-:::.'-:.; :re

Scud-B' or 'Scud-C'

Below : MAZ- 5 43 type vehicles have been used forseveral types of large Soviet tactical missile, and here this vehicie rs seen a s the TEL

firing position.

(tr ansporter/ erectorl launcher) in the

The replacement for 'Scuc


nated SS-X-23 by NATO Thrs mLsstle

has much improved reactton t:mes
over the 'Scud' and rs much mole accurate, with a CEP of 280 m (305 -vards) at range of 440 km (273 mLles) compared with 930 m (1,015 yards) for the ScudB' at a range of 180 km ( I l2 mLles) and 1100 m (1,205 yards) for the Scud-C at 450 km (280 mrles) The warhead yreld is 200 krlotons compared wLth the 40/ lOO-kiloton yields of the Scud-B and

Scud-C. Limited servlce lntroductton was in l9B0 and by 1982 only 10 SS-X23s had been deployed. The number of 'Scud-B' and Scud-C' misstles in servrce then was 550.

Lengrth: 11.4 m (37 ft 4% in) Diameter: 0 84 m (2 ft 9 in) weisht: 6370 kq (14,043 lb) Warhead weight: 1000 kq (2,205 lb)

Warhead type: 40-l l0O-kiloton nuclear HE, chemtcal and training Minimum range: BO km (50 miles) Maximum range: lB0 km (l12 mtles) with nuciear warhead, and 280 km ( I 74 mrles) with HE or chemtcal warhead CEP:930 m (1 015 yards) at 180 km (1 12 miles), reducing with further range Launch vehicle: wheeied MAZ-537 Propellant type/guidance: liqurd/inertral


$'i-f Z 'scaleboard'/SS-22 Short Range Ballistic Missile Systems
me by the SS-22 started rn 1977, 60 of these newer systems berng deployed by 1982. The solid-propellant SS-22 has

improved ranqe, reactLon tlme and


accuracy compared wlth the
miles) with a CEP of 320 m (350 yards) whilst carrying a 550 krloton warhead has been indtcated The nuclear warheads for any Sovlet battlefleld or reararea delivery system are stored at a

'scaleboard' A range of




separate sites heavilY guarded bY

KGB rather than by army units. The warheads are moved before use in securely gnrarded vehicle convoys or by a transport helicopter with a close

eicort of gunshrp helicoPters


fighter atrcraft as top cover. Usually
only one warhead is asstgned to each of the targets on the war Plan. weapon with a range of 800 I<m (500 miles). It is gradually being replaced
SS- I 2

is a powerful battlefield


SS- 12

Lensrth: 1l 25 m (36 ft 11 in) Diameter: 1.05 m (3 ft 5 /r ln) Weisht: BB00 kq (19,400 1b) Warhead weight: 1250 kg (2,756 lb)


by the SS-22, which has imProved range and accuracy.

Warhead type: 800-krloton nuclear Minimum iansel.220 km (138 mrles) Maximum range: 800 km (497 miles)
CEP:.480 m (525 Yards)

Launch vehicle: wheeled MAZ-537 rnertral

Propellant tYPe/guidance: solid/


FnOC senes SS-21 Tactical Surface-to-Surface Missile Systems
;-^--.- -: ------. :::=:.::''=-,-.=: l: ,,:
' __- l-','---::.::=a: -:a l]-as: I:a::-: i: --::::--: -' :::::: :: :---:-I -:-:::-lr-

,. '::'---=i r,-.]s:-.t -:'.'-:':::.: ::.I ::: :^..,^,.,--. _-::.__: -, .--: J-._:t ::1.., '. j.:--n Luna Fttstdeplc-,'r,:-:. -::. -:.+ : : I I ras undergone an exiensrve de.


'=- :r:.ent programme that has re--::

Ir;:. -:. ::.e Suli ,4'=r .:;: :.=-. : ==:. using the FROG-7 as a lcrq-rai-;e bombardment sys-em








---:.:ugh the FROG-3 is still used in '::.::ng units and held in the Soviets :-::.v'e war stocks The FROG-6 rs a

i -:: considered obsolescent,

in seven versrons of the mrssile, . ,'.':. by the NATO desLgnatrons :3-1 to FROG-7 Of these the track'.':rLcie-mounted FROG-l to FROG-



aqarnst Iranran citres immedrately be-

hrnd the battle zone. A hst of current

FROG operators rs as follows: USSR
(680 FROG-3/7), Bulsaria (36 FROG-7)

'o only 30 sysren c t .:12 T.-.: :S . .-. -= a gurded srngle-sta7e scl.c.r:-':=-.=:.:

'/.he:i+: -:i.-: i=:<: '.:.-..:_= :.::' deploTed r. .: .l '.:.+ j-: - :.i.. l: .'. :

East Germany (24 FROG-7), Czechos-

:.-:-:perational trainingr round, and

-::jiced lnto servlce rn 1965, the : :.aG-7 is carrred on a ZIL-135

-:.= FROG-? is the current system. In-

Iovakia (40 FROG-3/7), Hungary (24 FROG-7), Poland (52 FROG-3/7), Romania (30 FROC-3/7), Yugoslavra (16 FROG-7), Esypt (i2 FROG-7), Iraq (24 FROG-7), Kuwait (12 FROG-7),

misstle with rmproved reac:ton ltr-€ and rncreased range (120 km 75 mtles compared wrth the FROGs 70km43 associated with the mrssLle rnclude nuclear, chemical fuel-aLr explosrve
mrles). Warhead types beheved to be

Maximum ranqe:

'''.--:e1ed erectorlauncher vehicle and -. -:.rnd at drvisional level in both the !:-.'-et and Warsaw Pact armies. Each -.-,=,k drvrsron and motorized rifle divr -.,:: has a FROG battalion with a headl-rners battery and two firinef batter.=.- (each equrpped wrth two FROGs - :. :rerr launchers and two reload vehr:.:s .wrth a further sx missiles). TWo

South Yemen (12 FROG-7), North Korea (54 FROG-5/7) and Cuba (50 FROG-7 is a srngle-stage sprnstabilzed solid-propellant ungmided rocket that uses speed brakes as rts
main inflrght control system. The rocket, werghing 2300 ks (5 071 lb), takes about 30 mrnutes to prepare for flnng and is armed by adjusting the elevatron of the launcher arm. Meteorologrcal radars are requrred for maxrmum

Libya (48 FROG-7), Syria (24 FROG-7),

and high explosive payloads Max-

imum warhead yield has dropped to 100 kilotons because ol the rmprovement rn the CEP to 280 m (3OS yards) from the FROG s maxrmum-range 700 m (765 yards). The alternate nuclear warhead is of 10-krloton yreld. The minrmum range is said to be 14 km, and it is believed that the SS-2 I battalion has sx rather than four launcher

Launch vehrcle: '.' :.=-.= : Propellant tpe gnroa-r.:.

pendr:; :l:a:,1=



- :: -: -

,, :-:,-. -:



..:rants of the FROG-7 have been .r:ntlfled: the nuclear-armed FROG:a 'rLth a 550-kq (1,213-lb) warhead, .:.1 the FROG-7b wrth a 390-kq (860::l chemrcal warhead, The latter rs ::lLeved to contain the thrckened per:-.::ant nerve gas agent VR-55, and - rer types ofagents may also be car:-:C The FROG serres has been ex'=isrvely exported and has also been -sed rn combat The Eqyptrans used ::th FROG-3 and FROG-7 mrssrles .'.'rih HE warheads in the 1973 war wrth -s:ael. Fired initially agrainst fixed

effect. In the nuclear role the Sovrets will frre srngle FROG rounds wrth airburst nuclear warheads (50-200 krlotons) aqtarnst battlefleld nuclear deirvery systems lorward and reserve troop concentratrons forv,,ard head-

quarters and communrcatlon facrhtres the largre-yLeld vrarheads used makrng

up for the FROGs lack



..rgets ln the Sinai and then against the

-sraeli bridqehead over the Suez Can.. the mrssiles caused relatively little ramage At least one FROG-7 was :.armed as shot down by the Israeh :attlefleld arr defence system The Sy' :,ans used FROG-2 and FROG-3 mls-

---les during

their Golan Herghts



Soviet Cruise Missile
i.-.ss:a: army has at present no rehably reported that the Rusare currently rn the early stages

bases, The 'Sepal', a land based vartant

=:-.','alent to the American land:-:j :rurse mrssrle, although it has

of the SS-N-3 'Shaddock' naval antiship missile, is carried on the rdar of a large lengthened lorry chassis in its



own cylindrical container-launcher

altitude of the 'Sepal' is

cyanide and the other filled wrth VR55, which is a thrckened form of the nerve gas Soman. The maximum flight 125ft) with a maximum attained
4600 m

Warhead weisht: 1000-kg (2 205-lb) nuclear, 1000-kq (2,205-lb) conventional, 1000-kq (2,205-lb) chemical and 2000-kq (4,409-lb) nuclear Warhead types: 35O-krloton nuclear, hrgh explosive, AC or VR-55 chemical agent, and BO0-kiloton nuclear Minimum range: 40 lcn (25 miles) Maximum range: 460 km (286 miles) CEP: 500-IOOO m (545-1,190 yards) depending on qnridance packagTe used and ranqe Launch vehicle: lengthened wheeled

:: :=s:.ne' such

missile with a range


::-,: ::Cer of 2000-3000 km (1,240-1,865 The missile will apparently be :=p:bie of berng launched from shrps, :-ir:arrnes, aircraft or mobile land::s:d launchers along the hnes of the -:-:::errcan BGM-109 Tomahawk family. lreratronal deployment is not thought .-<ely untrl the late l9BOs or early 1990s. At present the nearest that a Soviet :::ssrle comes to the cruise mtssile


brn, which is elevated for frring, The 'Sepal' has a secondary surface-tosurface role agrainst land targets and can be fitted wtth a nuclear or a chemical warhead. in the flrst case the

speed of Mach i.4. This makes the mis-

sile very vulnerable to European battlefleld air-defence systems although it is still a viable system in
secondary battle zones, Current deployment is approximately 100 launvehrcles.

warhead can be either of 8OO-kiloton yield when the gnridance is solely by autoprlot with a mid-course gnridance capability, or of 350-kiloton yield when the gruidance also includes an activeradar terminal homing unit as well as
the autopilot and mid-course gmidance

cher-containers in battahons of l5 to tB

lorry chassis Specification
SS-C-18 'Sepal'

C-lB 'Sepal' assigned to the Soviet
3castal Artillery and Rocket Troops ::r defence of major ports and naval

:aiegory is the turbojet-powered


capability. The chemical warhead

comes in two variants, one carryrng the

non-perststant blood aqent hydrogen

Length: 10,9 m (35 ft 9 rn) Diameter: 0.86 m (2 ft 93/+ in) Weisht: 10500 kg (23, 150 lb) dance had been changed from command to an inertial system. The complete SS-4 flring unrt consists of around one dozen tractor vehrcles and associated trailers. The missile can be flred either from a fixed hardened srte or from a soft launch pad. At the latter site a reload capacrty rs known to exist The SS-4 force peaked at rts maximum during the 1960s but fell to 500 in the period 1971-7. From the latter year the numbers started to decline as the SS20 was rntroduceci untLl rn March l9B3 only some 232't;ere rn servtce, based prrmarrly rn :he \A'esrern SovLer states and targeted to',';ards NATO and the Mrddle East Replacement by the SS20 ccntLnues

Propellant tlpe/guidance: liquid/autopilot plus mid-course correction and optronal active-radar terminal homing (depending on warhead choice)


$t-+ MRBM Missile system
Middle East, Japan and China. The SS4 and SS-20 systems targets include those in the immediate enemy army
group rear areas lyrng some 3 I0 to 375 miles (500 to 600 km) behind the battle zone, whrlst the remaining targets for the SS-4, SS-5 and SS-20 missiles lie at theatre headquarters and communlca tions facilities, airfields ports logisttc-

use ofthe Bl was tn 1962, and the type has been used to Iaunch Kosmos and

The Soviet SS-4 (NATO reportrng
name 'Sandal') is a development of the SS-3 'Shyster' mrssile. Deployed initialIy rn 1959, the SS-4 rapidly became the

Interkosmos series satellites from the Kapustin Yar space centre.

Lengrth: 21.0 m (68

standard operatlonaystrategic-level
MRBM of the Sovret Strategic Rocket


10% in)

Forces (Raketnyye Voyska

Strategicheskovo Natnachentya, or RVSN). In fact all Soviet land-based

distances in excess of 620 miles (1000 km) and rnclude strategic

Diameter: 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in) Weisht: 27000ks (59,525 lb)

Warhead type: single 1.2-megaton
thermonuclear RV, or high explosive Range: 2200 km (1,367 miles) CEP: 2300 m (2,515 yards) Launch facility: hardened silo or ftxed soft launch pad Launch: hot type (reload capability at
soft site)

with ranges exceeding 620 mrles (1000 }cn) are assigned to the
Strategdc Rocket Forces whilst those missiles with ranges of under 620 miles (1000km) are assigned to the Rocket Troops and Artillery branch of the Soviet army. Both the MRBM and IRBM forces are designed to deliver nuclear strikes agiainst Westem Europe, the

al centres and selected


economic targets such as oil reflneries. The SS-4 gatned a certain notortely in 1962 as the main Soviet missrle deployed to Cuba during the Cuban Mtssile Crisrs. It was during this deployment that it was noticed that the qntl-

the Bl small J.iil:i',' satellite launchvehrcle




';as aLs: developed into
a second staEre. Ftrst

Propellant t1rye/gnridance: liquid/




Ht-s IRBM Missile System
wrth a small decline to 90 for the period

The Soviet SS-5 (NATO reporting

name 'Skean') is the operational/
strategiclevel IRBM singrle-stage successor to the SS-3 and SS-4 MRBM missiles, Frst deployed tn 196i, the missile is similar in conflEnlation to its predecessors but is identifiable by a lack of

SS-5 soft sites are known to have a refire capability. The SS-5 force level peaked at its maximum in the 1960s,

developmerr as a satellte launchvehicle The flexrble intermediate Iaunch vehrcle coded CI by the
Amerrcans rs an SS-5 fltted with a re-

SS-5'Skean' Length: 23.0 m (75 ft 572 in) Diameter: 2.4 m (7 ft 10/z in) Weight: not available Warhead type: single I 2-megaton

startable second stage. The CI is thought tc be 3. 6 m (103 ft B in) long, with a draneler of 2 4 m (7 ft i07z in),
and has bee: used to launch Kosmos, Interkosrncs Creol and Aryabhata
serLes satelhtes irom the Kapustin Yar,

transport is by a trailer towed by a wheeled tractor vehicle. The missile is deploybd in hardened underground silos and at soft launch pad srtes, The

fins and a blunter nose cone. Normal

numbers began to drop sharply as the SS-20 reached operational units, until only 16 were tn service in March I9B3 with the rocket armies facing NATO, By late 1983 or early 1984 the SS-5 is expected to be phased out of service entirely
1979 the


thermonuclear RV Range: 4100 km (2,548 miies) CEP: I 110 m (1,215 yards) Launch facility: hardened silo or ftxed
soft launch pad Launch: hot type (reload capability at soft site) Propellant type/$ddance: liquid./inertial

Plesetsk anci Tvuratam space flight centres SLnce rts first flLght in 1964 the

The SS-5 has also been the subject of

Ci has been developed to carry multiple spacecrait payloads, initially three, then frte and lnall'.' elght at a trme


Ht-g Heavy ICBM Missile System
warhead-carrrer that attained a temporary orbit close to the Earth's surface before a retro-rocket untt was activated to bring the carrier back into the atmosphere over the target zone. Such a missile can be fired in any directron to hit its target without alerting the defending early warning systems until accuracy that
is offset somewhat

The SS-9 heavy ICBM (NATO reporting name'Scarp') entered service in its

initial.form with the Strategic Rocket Forces in 1965 as the largest ICBM in the world, The missile was a three-

stage rnertially-guided liquidwhich only one, the Model 4, actually

veloped another three variants of
entered service rn some numbers from l97l onwards. The SS-9 Model I carried a 2S-megaton warhead; the brief-

propellant type, The Soviets then de-

just before impact. However, the penalty incurred is a reduction in
by the

high-yield multi-megaton warhead

Iy-deployed SS-9 Model 2 had a 20megaton warhead; and the SS-9 Model 4 had three MRVs of 3.5-megaton yield each, The Model 3 or F-l-m satellite Iaunch-vehicle version was employed as the test vehicle for a depressed :rajectory role and Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS). The :rst flight of a FOBS mrssile was in 1966, :re uppermost stage being a new ::urth stage acting as the suborbital

also beheved to have been de-

carried. A three-stage FOBS variant is

veloped, possibly using the uppermost stage of the SS-10 'Scrag' ICBM for the suborbital warhead carrier. The FOBS test flrghts lasted until 1971. All the SS-9 ICBM variants can loosely be described as bottle-shaped in appearance with the flrst stage having sx frxed thrust nozzles and four vernier nozzles. The SS-9 Model 3 has

also appeared in the F-I-r satelhte
launcher form. This is the main Soviet anti-satelllte hunter,&iller missile and carries a manoeuvring flnal stage with

multiple-burn capacity to attack


First of the really globalmissiles to be dep loyed in subslan ltal n umbert SS-9 rs 345 m (J I 3 ft) Iong and has a Iaunch weight of 200 tonnes. This versjon, seen o n parade through Red .Squarer'n I 967, has a single 25megaton warhead, by far the largest ever produced for any missile.

near-Earth orbit reconnaissance and communications satellites by detonatrng an onboard high explosive frag-

!S-3 Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)

Surface-to-Surface Mis sile s
remain avatlable for use
le 2O-megaton rhermonuclear 1tl: ::. = three 3.S-megraton MRVs Range: Models i and 2 I 1000 km i: mrles) Model 4 .l2O0O km rl -J: r.-...:.CEP: Models t and 2 740 m (B 10 vards' Model 4 IB5O m i2.025 yards;

. =:

--:--led from then as the first of the
largrer SS-18 iCBMs became ,=rrtLonal, By l9BO-1 the SS-9 had . -::, totally replaced in therr silos on a

:-: numbers of SS-9s deployed -..::d at 308 rn the penod 1972-4, but


r:ron chargte near them.

F- i -m missrles

in a strategic nuclear exchange.

megaton thermonuclear Mociel



Ftrcr ai'ie --. yru!o; ^l^L-i-.--..^---..,:i-.::



SS-9 'Scarp'



.=-:cr-one basis, although it rs known -8 launch pads remarn operational ,' :e Tyuratam space centre to launch = F-l-r It is also likely that several

Model 35.0 m

34.5 m (113 ft 27q rn); 2 34.5 m (113 fi Zt/q tn), Model 4

Model I

bers.:rei-i-!:::riF.l . .re-. ::
lht-e . -

be dep.c','ec::. subs:a-: ::a- .: ';--:: -



10 rn)

Diameter: 3.05 m (10 ft 0 in)

weisht: 200000 ks (440 920 lb) Warhead type: Model I srngle

Launch facility: hardened srlc Launch: hot type Propellant tlpe/gmidance: ILqurd.



megratc.:_',Li, s .':
has 18.




b.;- :-: s SJ-


Ht-rI Lishtweisht ICBM System

.:-e SS-ll (NATO reportlng name
: .-yed, making this the most numer;s of all ICBMs deployed. The twoSego') was rnrroduced rnto servrce in :i6. By 1970 some 970 had been de-

. age storable hquid-propellant

mrs,.-+ was developed rn Jour versrons. ':-e basic Model I with a single RV, the

Model 2 flrst seen in the late i96Os but ,,:n-operational although fitted wrth a ,-:gle RV and advanced penerration
=-ds, ',','rth

::en in the late

the Model 3 deployed rn 1973 three MRVs and the Model 4
I970s wrth three or srx

:mall MiRVs but not deployed oper:tronaily. By 1975 the number of the deployed SS-ll Model 1 and Model 3 variants lropped slightly to 960 as the first of :he SS-17 and SS-19 replacement sys:emswere fielded By 1977 the number rad dropped to 850 and then by 1979 to i50. By mid-1982 the number had stabilized at around 570 with only a small rumber believed to be of the Model 3 type. In March 1983 the number had Cropped to 550 as the first 20 of an
By the mid-l9BOs the Soviets

theWest still have only a rough idea of what SS- I I looks like, but this ts themrssiTe ttralhas smce J 966mWe in

creasingly been targeted on every city, airfield and port inWestem

Europe. By 1 972 there were 970


known SS- I I silos, with 66 more then being built. Over 1,000 are still available, each with three 30A-kiloton

additional 50 MIRVed SS-19 Modei 3s ,rere deployed to suitable SS-11 silos. completed their present ICBM modernization programme and wtll have a iourth-generation ICBMs rn service The SS-11 has been rdentrfied at the followrng mrssile fleld locattons: Derazhnya, Kozelek Teykovo, Kostroma, Perm, Gladkaya, Drovyanava, Olor,ryannaya and Svobodnyy. The SS-11 has been periodicaily
shown in the Moscow mrlitary parades but only enclosed in a tubular contain, total of 520 SS-1 1, 60 SS-13, 150 SS-17, 308 SS-IB and 360 SS-19 third- and

Lengrh: 20 0 m (65 ft 7rl:) Diameter: 2 5 m (B fl ZVz rn)

will have


kiioton RV Model 3 three 25O-kiloton
Range: Model I BB00 km (5,470 miles) Model 3 9600 km (5,965 miles)

kq (99,205 tb) Warhead type: Model I single


CEP: Model 1 l4O0m (1,530 yards); Model 3 1ll0 m (1,215 yards) Launch facility: hardened srlo Launch: hot type (limited reload capabtlity) Propellant type/guidance: liquid,/rnertial Pictured from left to right:
SS-4 was

tractor-trailer combination. The only

er carrred on the rear of a wheeied

physical features of the missile to be
seen are four thrust nozzles on the first stage and the tip ofthe nose cone. The container is believed to be raised to the vertical over a srlo for loading. The

operational in 1 959 but ftas

been superseded by SS-20.

nextgenera tion missile, deployed from )96 L Rapidly being
replaced bySS-20.
SS- 1 I ,

Americans credrt the SS- I I force with a hmited reload capability as the hot-

launched missrle rs accommodated within a launch container inside the
silo. This and the srlo desrgn are common to the SS-11 SS-17, SS-18 and SS19 systems, and ltmit damage during

first deployed in I 966, at one time the most numerous ICBM with almost 1000 in place. SS-9, once flre /a rgest ICBM, now replaced by the even larger SS-1 L

main-engine ignrtion and launch Refurbishment and reloadrng probably

take several days. Provision for the de-

livery of reserve missiles warheads
and propellants to a number of

and SS-19 hot-launch ICBM complexes, together with all the cold,

Iaunch SS-17 and SS-18 missrles rs known to exist None ol lhe extra mrsstles or warheads rs reckoned under the SALT agreements, only the launchers being counted.



SS-13 and 55-16

Lightweight ICBM Missile Systems

: :-:=-ra:: ICBMs ic have been de.::r i'. rh= Scvrets probably by '-= '.'li Nadradze mrssile desrgn . -r.=i- :nai specralzes rn such sohd- -=- :--ssiles The SS- l3 (NATO report,.-.: :.1:e'Savage') was first deployed . , -::: aLthouqrh tt was actually first
-.==:, -:'r publtc Ln 1965.

-.-.= SS-13 a:C SS-16 are the flrst solid-

:,:=:- :: 20. wLth 40 operational in l97l ..--: ..=:r:he maxLmum 60 the following The SS-13 is deployed in the
Ola missile fleld The 60 mis:-,=s are certain to serve into the late -::-s before replacement is under-

By 1970 the ,-.-:--.:r deployed operationally had

However, the mssrle carries only a single RV. The SS-16 rs considered to be launchable from erther a silo or a mobile tractor-erector-launcher vehLcle, most American defence sources tending to support the latter. No reload capabilrty for the system is believed to exist, The upper two stages of the SS16 have been used to form the SS-20 mobile IRBM mssiie

Lengnh: 20.0 m (65 ft 77: rn)

':.::n The

three-staQte inertially-

'.'.:le used rn the development ol the
SS-14 'Scapegoat'

,..-^-:ed mrssile rs stated to be compa:-rle r,vrth the Minuteman mrssile in '=:i:.s of performance and capabilities. -:.: upper two stages of the SS-i3

Diameter: I7m(5ft7rn) Weisht: 34000 kg (74,955 lb) Warhead type: single 600-kiloton RV Range: 8000 km (4 970 miles) CEP: 1850 m (2,025 yards) Launch facility: silo
Launch: hot type Propellant type/guidance: sohd/


1978 the second-generatlon -lBM due to be the SS-13s replace-


mobile IRBM sys-




::bsequently deployed, although

rs stated to have attarned oper::-rna1 status after evaluatron between .:r2 and 1975 This missile, the 55-16 S:';ret desrgnation RS-14), was not

Length: 20 5 m (67 ft 3 Ln) Diameter: 1.7 m (5 ft 7 rn)




Only a few (about 60) were put into serrice of tlre SS- I 3, the tirst of the S ov ie t U nion's s olid - pr opellant slralegicmissrTes. Sma//er flan SSI I, it is very like a Minuteman III, and has a launchweightof34 tonnes and range of over 8000 km (5,000 miles), usually carrying a warhead of 600-kt

Right: SS-l,7, an


(79,365 lb)

some olderS,S-l.l

60 were burlt. The three-stage

:m beheved tc be of the stellar.:.ertial type, and a post-boost bus '.':nicle usually associated with MIRVs,

SS-16 has an advanced Enridance sys-

Warhead tyge: sinqrle 650-krloton RV Range: 8750 km (5,435 mrles) CEP: 14BO m (525 yards) Launch facility: srlo or mobrle launcher Launch: hot type Propellant type/gnudance: sohd/ stellar-rnertia



Hil-rz Lishtweisht ICBM Missile System
SS-I7 Sovret desrgnatron RS-16)

'.'.'ls flrst deployed rn i975 as the s::ond two-staqe storable hquid:lcpellant successor to part of the SS- - Sego force, theotherpartbeingthe
-iS-19 The SS-17 is slightly longer than :---e SS- I I and has an rncreased '.:lume. The most important features, :.:',r,'ever are rts cold-launch technr::e and, rn its Model I and Model 3 ::rns the four-MIRV warhead tt car:-:s The Model 2 rntroduced rn i977 :.as a singtle medrum-yreld thermonu:rear warhead, whilst the Model 3 was .:-:roduced rn the early 1980s because :: rts rncreased accuracy over the ].l:del I version, The number of the :-::erent versrons fielded was 20 Mod-

the foreseeable future Two missile
flelds contaLn the SS-]7: Yedrovo and

Lengrth: 24.0 m (78 ft 9 rn)

The accuracy of the iorce makes feasrble attacks on some hardened Amerrcan tarqrets The use of the MIRVed warhead allows a srngle Model I or Model 3 mrssrle to attack
square mrles whereas the oider Soviet SS-1ls equipped wrth MRVs can only attack a srngle tarqret wLthrn a few thousand square krlometres by creat-

Diameter: 2.5 m (8 fI

tndividual tarqets throughout an area covenng several tens of thousands of

ing a nuclear explosion footprrnt'

:- 2 plus



.:.; :f the


I and Model 3
further upgrad-

atound rt wlth tls warheads to maximrze the blast and radratron damaqe. The SS-17 has yet to appear at a Moscow parade.

(385 yards) Launch facility: hardened srio Launch: cold type (confirmed reload capabrlrty) Propellant tlpe/gn:idance: liqurd./rnertral.

megaton thermonuclear RV; Model 3 four 750-krloton MIRVs Range: Model I 10000 km (6,215 miles), Model 2 11000 km (6 835 miles); Model 3 10000 km (6,215 miies) CEP: Model I 440 m (4BO yards); Modei 2 425m (465 yards)t Model 3 350m

weisht: 65000 kq (143 300 lb) Warhead type: Model I four 750kiloton MIRVs; Model 2 single 6-



rn mrd- 1983, No


force is envrsagred for


Ht-re Heavy ICBM Missile System
Model 4 is also MIRVed but cardes up to l4 warheads (usually l0 SOO-krloton MIRVs and four dummies plus other
advanced penetratron ards). The SS- lB Models 3 and 4, together wrth the most accurate verslon of the SS- i9, can des-

SS-I8 heavy ICBM (Sovret deentered service in its ,:.-:--l iorm Ln 1974. Since then three ::,:: ','ersrons have been deployed, :.- Model 2 rn 1976, the Model3 in 1977 ..*,: ::e Model 4 in 1979. By 1980-1 the : -:'.'elsLons had replaced the 308 SS: :--:s:les In mid-1982 the number ::=:.,i- r.n for the four versions was l.l- r:ls I and 3 total 26, Model 2 total - : - ::.i Model 4 total 120. In l9B3 it was .==::.: :lat the Model 4 was continuing

: j:.j-ron RS-20)

stage llqurd-propellant mrssrle. The
launch technique is so called because the missile rs ejected from its srlo by a qas generator system before the marn engines are fired. Thrs allows the silo to be reused wrthrn a day or so after the mtssile has been fired. The Russians have been monitored doing this during Strategic Rocket Force exercises, The reload capabrlrty is of significant importance to the Russrans in therr protracted nuclear-exchanqe warflghtrng scenario The SS-iB missile flelds are known to be located in the followrng areas: Kartaly, Dombarovskiy, Imeni Gastello, Aleysk, Zhangrz Tobe and

troy hard targets. Thrs effectively

' :=:.,:e rhe Model 2 rn a progressive -:;::i:ng of the ss-18 force. The
I.l-:=l .'.

carries a single 27-megaton =::-:aC ',vh1lst the lonqer-ranqe and .-.:,::-.':ci-accuracy Model 3 carries a

maintain the Russian preference for such warheads, the accuracy of both berng sufficrent to allow the missiles to engage the deeply buned and nuclear
commumcation facilrties that wlll be used in the event of a nuclear conflict The SS-18 is a cold'launched two-

means the Amerrcan Mrnuteman ICBM force rn rts silos. Hence the Soviets have a credible flrst-strike capabrlity if they requrre it. The very high yield SS-18 Models I and 3 also


-. - :...: a spln-stabllized ',varhead


-megaton warhead. The Mod-

hardened American Strategic Air Command command, control and

: .


computerbus carryrng B to :,,-<-lc:cn yield MIRVs The later



Lensth: 35.0 m

( I 14



in) ss-.r3


SS- 18

Heavy ICBM Missile System (continued)
11000 km (6.835 mLles) CEP: Model I 425 m (465 yards).

)rameter: 3.0 m (9 ft 10 rn) ,'/eisht: 225000 kq (496,030 lb)


':qaton RV; Model 2 B 1O 9OO-ktloton I.liRVs Model 3 stngle 20-megaton : .' Model 4 l0 500 kiloton MIRVs
Range: Model 1 12000 km (7,455 mrles); l.l:del 2 11000 km (6,835 mrles); Model

,'/arhead type: Model stngle


yards) Model 4 260 m (285 yards) Launch facility: hardened stlo Launch: cold type (conflrmed reload

Z 425m (465 yards); Model 3


16000km (9,940 miles); Model


capabrlity) Propellant type/gnridance: liquid/ rnertlal


i'lt ill

-re :re SS-li

Hil-rg Lishtweisht ICBM Missile System
SS-19 (Sovret desrqtnatton RS-18) 1975 as the ftrst of

:ntered servrce in

'Sego' replacements, the

,ther berng the SS 17. The SS-19 rs a :-,vo-stage hqurd-propellant mlsstle '..;rth an onboard computer, a MIRV

cayload and a combrned 'fly the-wire' -nertial quldance systenr srmilar to that itted on the SS l7 and SS-18 missrles. The computer determines the devtatrons from the preprogrammed course and erther corrects it or computes a new course rf the circumstances re-

The Sovtets in thetr weapon Improvement programmes follow an tncremental policyt they Lmprove those components of the system thal Iequlre improvrng whrlst retainrnq those portrons that have demonstrated thelr reliabLlity to a satisfactory level. For the current ICBM force thrs poltcY has
meant a consrderable improvement Ln both rts rehabilrty and capabrlrtres The fourth-generatron SS-17, SS lB and SSl9 deploymenl was primartly Lnro converted thrrd-generatron srlos. During the process of converston the sllo hardness was greatly enhanced to improve he survivabrltty factor extstinq communlcatlons syslems were upgraded and where necessary new ones added and sLlo based launchcontroL factltttes built.

EeJow: SS-.19 was

l,975, along

'i:. ..ti



SS-l 1, and

Both arc

ii: :


are among themost
accurate of Soviet ICBMs.




qurre it. The SS-19 Ls shghtly larger :han the SS 17 and has been flelded in :hree versrons: the basrc Model I wLth sx MIRVs, the Model 2 (deployed in 1978) with a srnqle hLgh-yteld thermo nuclear warhead, and the rmproved
accuracy Model 3 (rntroduced rn



L: *,"


wrth the same MIRV payload as the
orLginal versron. In 198I the numbers of each version deployed were lB0 Model 1, 40 Model 2 and BO Model3 ICBMs By 1982 the Model 3 total had rnen to 90 and rn March l9B3 the totals were

ss- 19 Lengrth: 22 5 m (73 ft 9",1 rn)


Diameter: 2.75 m (9 ft 0'/r


Model 2 and 110 Model 3 mrssrles. A further 30 Model 3s wrll be deployed to replace SS-11 Sego systems by I9B5 to grve a final SS- 19 force level of 360 The SS-19 mrssLle flelds
180 80

Model l.

Weight: 78000 kg (171 960 ]b) Warhead type: Mcdel L sr-r 55O-kLLoton
krloton MIRVs


MIRVs: Model 2 s-rgle l0 meqaton thermonuclear Rv- Moce] 3 sL: 55i
Model 2 1lirCi krn (6 215 r::les) MoCel

t iEi.,,l;

are located in the Derazhnyna

Mcdel ,


km (i 96: n:les) Model

Fi. r*-,


Kozeisk, Perrromayek and TatLschchevo areas Because of its accuracy the Model 3 together with the most accurate versions of the SS I B are consrdered to be counterforce weapons capabLe of destroyrng practlcally all the Amerrcan hardened mrssrle sjlos by usrng a -wo warhead-to-one srlo ratio


10000 km (6 215 mLles) CEP: lv{oiel I 39C m (125 yarcis)


illi ;,"

(285 vards) Mode] 28C m (305 yards) Launch facility: hardened stlo Launch: hot type (limrted reload capa-










Propellant type/gruidance: ItquLd' inerhal






H3-zo Mobile IRBM system


Desrgn of the operatlonaystrateglc- 07:rn) long, 1.4m (4ft 7tn) dLameter levelmobileSS-20IRBMsystembegan SS-15 utilized the same transporterrnabout 1967asthelong-termreplace erector-launcher vehicle as the SS-14 ment for the SS-4 and SS 5 mtssiles but was contained tn a 19 m (62 ft 4 tn) TheSS-2Oprogrammewasallocatedto lonq tubular contalner-launcher that the VN Nadradze design bureau, had to be elevated to the vertical for which specralizes rn buildrnqt sohd firrng. The SS-15 had a 5630-km (3 500propellant misstles. The design mile)ranqe, carrledaOOO-kllotonwarbureau had already some experience head and had a CEP value about the




SS-14'scapegoat' were deployed rn hmrted numbers in and SS-I5'Scrooge' IRBM systems SovretCentralAsiaadlacenttotheborshowed The SS-14 carrted in a con- der wtth China tarner nicknamed the lron Matden The SS-20, basrcally the flrst two
the brrefly deployed was deployed on a consrderably

developrng mobrle IRBM systems


same as that of the

SS- 14.

Both systems

F: k

stages of the solid-propellant SS- 16 ICBM had rts flrst fltgtht test in 1974 By served as the transporter-erector- 1977 rt had entered service with the launcher vehrcle. The whole system Strateglc Rocket Forces and was soon was known by the NATO reportinq deployed wrth each of the sx Rocket name 'scarnp'. The 10.7 m (35 ft 1% rn) Armres that compose these forces. The long, I 5 m (4 ft 7 rn) diameter mtssrle SS-20s are rn su major base groupings was rnertially gnlded, had a maximum located in three geographLcal areas of range of 3540 km (2 200 mrles) and car- the USSR namely the western USSR rLed a 6OO-klloton yield warhead. The lust east of the Ural Mountalns and the CEP value was around IB00 m (1,970 Soviet Far East The mobtle launchers ','ards). The 'Scapegoat was basrcally are grouped toelether Ln brLqtades of v9!-:9.)?:< trst two skqes af thg-sp r3 991!9 !aylc!,er.t9ns2ar::r Lfied

lS-lll heavy tank






7- 7-

{:,':: !'-: 1..,.



ICBM Nuclear Warhead Development
-: :a\.' s ng e re-enlry vehicle : :-J:-\'e d relat vely inaccurate r r:: :^:l 1o ce used against large :: :;-:::s sJCh as c t es or industrial : ::::: :v lc devastate such targets :: :5ast e'fect. which rs . -::S-'eC rn pounds per Square


blast damage caused; the resulting pattern as the nuclear footprint. The USA deployed this type of warhead only on its Polaris submarinelaunched ballistic missile force and did not use it on any ICBM.

of nuclear explosions is known

:.:'3.essure 1r.e. pressure qrea-:- -,'-. atmospheric). Such war'.: -

:::.e ihe target to give what is ..- :: :- : -burst explosion. Wth the :-: ,' ::::e. gu dance systems terminal : .,;rheads to be
: -'s: wea pons


r TOSt Certainly be detonated

'.'eased and thls allowed


retargeted as
st point targets

'-: :- :^d delay to the opposing side in . -.a.' exchange until new lines ol - - :.^r :.d control could be activated.


:r '-J hardened underqround bunker : ='=. )estructron of some or all of ':: : es would cause consrderable

:: , :ommand. control and com:^s C'l facil ties located n deeply

:s :-€ e.emy s mLlitary and political




There was a time when threatened nuclear force seemed fo consrst ofa srnErle blunt instrument of undeniable devastation. But defence strategrsts and scjent ifs have now developed a range of warheads, and methods of delivery which have greatly complicated ffte djscussjons of nuclear comparability and
nrque in order to ensure that the kill probability approaches the certainty value. Both the Soviets and the Americans use MIRV equipped lCBMs. The current Soviet SS-18 Model4 and SS-19 Model3 MlRVed ICBMs are considered to be the world's most lethal missiies in terms of accuracy, and given the numbers deployed the Russians can des-

Multiple Re-entry Vehicles (MRV s ). Each missile could deliver a number of warheads (usually three) whose combined airburst footprint could obliterate a city.
The USA decided to freid the mult ple independently-targeted re-entry vehicle
iMIRV)warhead system lnstead. The MIRV targeted, whch means that each MIRVequipped missi e can engage a number of widely separated targets equivalent to the number of M RV warheads it carrles. The accuracy of the N,4lBV s usually sufficient for the carry ng missile to be targeted against the enemy's hardened m ssile silos. Usual y two warheads are assigned from different missrles n a cross-targeting techS

troy most of the American Mlnuteman The Americans, however, have

is highly accurate and independently

ICBM {orce in therr sitos by erpendrng or y a tractron o, lhe warheddb they carry for a trrsLstrike situation

veloped a follow-on to the MIRV. This is knowr as the nanoeuv'rng .e ertry vel rcle


ol terrrrra. in.atmosprere gu darce

(MARV), ano ,s caoaole oorh of rnf I gnt rar oeuvrinq to avoid anti'miss le def ences and

ro grve

:ng le

iarly generation single warheads
2:rburst over their targets to achieve .e',,astation by blast. Later more .ccurate warheads were designed to

R e- entry Vehicles (SRVs).

very low CEP (circular error probable, a measure of statistica accuracy) values in the order of tens of mentres. The

M anoeuvr ab Ie

R e - en try V e h icle s (MARVs). Eachwarhead has an ability to manoeuvre itself through defences and onfo its assjgred



o u n d bur s t ag ains t h ar dene d :arErefs. such as sr7os or command

for the MARV is available for eventual deployment on all American strategic balltstic missile systems if required. The Americans also have available the the Pershing earth technology


:-: lSA and USSR

r'::3d w th thermonuclearwarheads
' : e-t accuracy to achieve these

currently have

penetrator theatre nuclear missile warheads. lf the Americans were to combine



S:, et CBM force, assiqned to the := : :f u poed wrth a multiple re-entry : = \,'lV) package as the payload. This ,: .: ', provides for landing severalwar:= -sJai y two or three, which have

:::acKS against soft city, industrial :r1 targets were then, in the case

the low-yield earth-penetrator design with MARV technology then the possibility is opened up of the eventual deployment of an ICBM carrying a large number (20 or more) of super accurate warheads capable of attacking any type of target. Such a de-

velopment would have

:'j::i ::-:

n the final stage of the flighl in 3'ea as the target to maximize the

Multiple Independently-targeted Re-entry Vehicles (MIRVs). The independent accurate targetingof a number of warheads enables MIRVs to be groundburst against hardened targets.

effect on the strategic forces of both sides
as a radical rethlnking of f ixed-base misslles


considerab e

and command {aclltres would have to be
nderta ken.

SS-20 continued

ground-iaunched ,: -,:= :.-ssrle the launchers would in ':.=: ,: -rn-rent conflict move by :, : : :- -.'.',i:l',' dtspersed presurveyed .- .:.1:. .r.;.: :- ensure the minrmum ::r:r -:- ::-: :rertral quidance launch '

- '.-= -:-r:ttcan

r :.:.::a:ance base As rn the


NATO. ']'he Russrans are also known to SS-20 follow-on for serurce ln the late l980s or early 1990s. This has been tentatively identrfied as the SS-X-28 IRBM system.

be developing an






:S-2, is carrLed on the rear of a
.'= -.

:, a:


Ln a

tubular contarner

elevated to the vertrcal l.-.::: cther wheeled vehr-!-::: the SS-20 system, one


---'.' :3 I ihe number of SS-20 :=c-:','eC ',Yas about 250 (175 '.'.'::: :arJeted agalnst NATO -:. ::-i-Nlarch l9B3 the num:-:=: r. more than 330, of

:s a:i

- ::Lcad round whilst the ::::-,'ihe launch control, test,
communrcatron sys-

Length: 16,0 m (52 ft 6 in) Diameter: 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) Weisht: 25000 kq (55, I l5 lb) Warhead type: Model I single 650kiloton nuclear RV, Model 2 three 150kiloton nuclear MIRVs; Model 3 single 50-krloton nuclear RV Range: Model I 5000 km (3, 105 miles) Model 2 5000 km (3, 105 miles); Model3 7000 km (4,350 miles) CEP: 425 m (465 yards) Launch facility: wheeled transportererector-launcher Launch: cold type (reload capability
confirmed) Propellant type/gnridance: solid,z rnertial






is being deployed in increasing numbers in Europe and the Far East. Department of Defensevisualizes highly mobileunits operatingfrom easily prepared concealed positions, as shown here.

Armed Forces of the World

useful method of entry to both Norway and the Baltic to the south. The country has rich

proportion of the revenue is spent on defence. Sweden is not a member of NATO but has a border with the USSR, and the terrain forms a mineral resources but the terrain is hostile to

Proportionally, Sweden is one of the most highly-taxed nations on Earth, and a great

combination of conscription followed by recall to the forces at intervals, coupled with a welltrained and well established system of Home Guards and local defence units. Sweden has a

both attackers and defenders alike, and for much of the year the climate is cold to an extreme and wet for much of the rest. To maintain their neutrality the Swedes use a






almost all its armed forces' equipment.

strong armaments industry which supplies

The army
The army maintains only a small cadre of about

tricts. To maintain sL,ppl,es in an emergency the Swedes ma<e much use of their orin industrial resources for arms production, and many of therr wcapons bear comparison with anything produced elsewhere Although the buik of the five armoured brigades thai would be formed on mobilization are made up from support tanks. To these can be added large numbers of Pbv-302 APCs and a wide arraybf towed and self-propelled artillery. Some of the towed artillery is still effective but of some vinttge, and a programme of replacement by the Bofors '1 55 mm FIJ-77 A is now well advanced. Anti-tank missiles are widely used, with large numbers of TOW anti{ank missiles
in use and on order

these would be added about 100 independent infantry battalions, between 400 and 500 independent companies and a large number of more Home Guard units all operating under the general control of 26 Local Defence Dis-

than 700,000 men, with a furrher 'i 00,000 men turning out for Home Guard duties. To

their hands at any one time To train this f low of recruits the army maintains about bO training establishments for all arms of the force, and large and well-protected depots full of equipment ready for use. ln an emergency the army could suddenly be expanded to no less

9,000 regulars, who are used to train the 36,900 or so conscripts who pass through

The amphibious, tracked Bv 202 weighs 3.2 tons and can tow up to I 5 soldjers on skls or bicycles. In a northern country like Sweden, such vehicles are essential in providing cross-country mobility in winter. The Bv 202 is now being replaced by the Bv 206,which has a much larger load capacity.


/and brigades that wculd be used to defend the northern areas of Sweden. These brigades are specially equipped with over-snow vehicles such as the 8v.206 and its weapon carrier variants with TOW and recoilless rifles. Some carry the Bofors RBS-70 anti,aircraft guided missile. The only regular army unit kept in being all the time is a single army aviation battalion with about 35 helicopters including BellAB 204 and AB 206 helicopters. Also kept in being are a further 1 '1 army artillery aviation platoons, 66

be formed in an emergency are the four

Among the 9 tnfantry brigades that would


se lf- propelled gun m a.r :j.-: :: - : :: attracted worldwide rn leresl ;',..::.: introduced in 1966. This heavy vehicle .c...e: : tons) has afully automatic gun which is ie=::::: 14-round clip, and which can fire a 48-kz . - :..HE projectile up to 25 km ( I 5 milesl.







strong in all, that are used for army liaison, artillery spotting, observatron and casualty

Centurion M BTs, the army also has about 330 Strv-l05MBTs and about 200 lkv-91 infantry

force can be added the large numbers of
Home Guard and local defence units. Takino into account the formidable Swedish terrain, fr can be seen that invadlng Sweden would be
no easy matter. Sweden's neutrality in all matters has led to

evacuation. Types in service include BAe Bulldogs, Piper Super Cubs and Dornier Do 27s. _ The conscript's time with the army may vary from 71/z to 15 months, depending on the trade involved. After this period the conscript becomes an active reservist and can expect to spend some time each year with the army. On mobilization, full strengths for nearly all units can be expected within 72 hours, and to this

the older Saab Draken in tne J c-: of which remain tn use. anr '--: being delivered.

- of which about 45 na .: and stretches
airf ields

ln wartime, the


dispersed operations. n sJc-

:: instance, aViggen would and c- :': ly taxi on a smaller road to : :: shelter. be refuelled and rearn^.1 10 minutes, and tnen tar, brc. -' 'take-off on another mrssion

of strenqthe.e.

,:' . :-



infantry. Mortars of all calibres are well suited to the Swedish terrain.

with large quantities of the new Bofors BILL missile in prospect for the

Swedish army troops being virtual full-time members of any United Nations force. At present the Swedes are operating under the United Nations flag in Cyprus and the Lebanon. The air force
supplier of combat aircraft to the Swedish air force (Flygvapen) for more than 40 years, and today has production lines building the JA 37 interceptor version of the canard-winged Viggen. This powerful combat aircraft is replacing
Swedish subm arines are specifically designed for operation in the Baltic Sea. ?Ffte Niicken, namesftip of the latest class of three boats, has a crew of only 20 due to extensive use of automation.

Saab-Scania at Linkoping has been the main

armour use, while specially der, = :: as and inf ra-red equipment a d :-: -=: with the SF37 variant of th s r:-sr: : Light attack duties are'ron^ r. :.,-: and a trainer version equ ps i-= _.Flying Training Scnooi i1o :-= - - :: lege at Uppsala. Fifty-e grt 3r: s--:: dogs conduct basic ra ^ Fo - :^-. unrt rs equrpped wrth e qhI f ^- =' ' - and some ageing C-4ls rre' '^ .. :_=

further 180 AJ SH37 Viggers :- to-surlace missiles for botr a-: = '

Attack and reconna ssarce -^ ::

ployed on United Nations !...-. supply duties wrthrr Svreoe^


The navy
The Swedish navy

defence only, and has no 3.1: t:: units. lt is unusual in tr.at ii .r : :: borne element the navy a sc --.: . .'-- .-

is nre-oe c '_'




Armed Forces of the World
: :' :, siem of coastal defences involving .' :-^s, guided misstles and prepared JS ?"d t is the nature of these that .: =': .:i sc attractive to marauding Soviet : --:--:- -:S n reCent timeS. -: :l:stai art llery could perhaps be dealt :- ' -s: as t involves no less than five full I ^-:-is wth 45 static batteries and 12 , a : 3atter es. The static batteries are cur-: . - tne process of being re-equipped with





-^-- and 20 mm turreted guns of adv-:r Cesrgn with equally advanced fire--:'l svstems, whrle the mobile batteries -: 3€ rQ re-equipped wirh 120-mm Kartn -^- V,ssiles include the RB-08 and the RB- _-::tr effective against even large naval '.'^es form an important part of Swedish

proportion of

-:s:al defences, so the navy includes a large -^-cer of mtnelayers for both inshore and i:aaer wateT use. Front the larger sizes down-

The Swedish navy devotes a relatively high ifs resources lo mine warfare. The 300-ton minesweeperArkors fypical of its kind. Of wooden construction and armed with a40-mm gun, Arko was commissioned in 1958, the first of a 12-ship class.

Norrk6ping r's a 'Spica'-c/ass fa st patrol boat, armedwith a radar-directed 57-mm Bofors gun
and six 2 I -inch torpedo tubes. The anti-ship capability of the 'Spicas' will be much enhanced by the installation of long range (70 km/44 miles) RBS /5anfi-ship mrssiles, currently under development.

: 2O in-shore mine-sweepers. -^e main navy bases are at Stockholm, Karl:.-1.a, Goteborg and Hdrnosand. These : ::.s support the main defensive element of .-: -avy, which has as its largest vessels two

:- J ivlo trarning vessels for the role. To these ---^ be added nine coastal and 36 inshore '- -e ayers For clearing there are 11 coastal


ilre navy has two f ull-size minelayers

2 Pen



these can be added a further 1B toroedoarmed fast attack craft. A force of 33 cbastal patrol craft back up this force and to these will be added a further four now on order.
equrpped with fourAlouette

n surf ace,to-surface missi les, and to

rons One is at Berga, near Stockholm, and

The navy maintains two helicopter squadtrainers and

the bulk (81) are utility craft that can be used for a number of purposes. 53 are assault landing craft. All three types can be used to land troops in remote regions, possibly behinC an attacker's front lines.

used as landing tanks and similar vehicles, but



:':r'de an offensive patrol capability and a '-1reT four submarines are on order. A sur'-.:: capabilrty is provided by a force of 17 --c n fast attack patrol craft armed with RB
aabViggens of the Flyryapen fly low over the ::rdra /andscape. TheViggen is the mainstay of -::,,eden's arr defence force, and serves in the :::ack (AJ37), intercepbr AA37), overland :sconnajssance (S P 37 ), maritime reconnarlsance Si37) and trainer(5K37) roles.

r=s:royers with RB-08 surface to-surface mis.s lonly one of these is kept in service at any : ^: t me). A force of 12 submarines is used to

submarine warfare, commando transpoft or gunship roles The other squadron is at Save near Gothenburg and has 0 Boeing Vertol/ Kawasaki KV-l07-1 1 that are used in a wide variety of roles including anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue and long-range surveillance. They are also to be used to operate with the new RBS-'1 5 anti-shipping rnissile that has been ordered for all Swedish navy

AB 206s that can be used in the anti,


Order of Battle
Army (on mobilization)
Frve armoured brigades One army aviatron battalion

19 infantry brigades, including four Norrland

ve55c 5.

50 independent infantry, artt lery and antlaircraft artillery battalions 26 Local Defence Districts encompassing 100 independent battalions, up to 500 independent companies and Home Guard units


The navy has one further claim to being unusual: it maintains a large force of no less than 143 landinq craft. Nrne of these can be

The air force
Six attack squadrons (AJ37 Viggen and Saab




ighter squadrons (.J437 Viggen and J35D/F


Six reconnaissance squadrons (SH37/SF37

gen and SK35C Draken) Two transport squadrons (C-130 Hercules, C47 Dakota and Caravelle) Five communications squadrons (Saab 105) One search and rescue squadron (KV-107) One utility helicoptersquadron (Alouette ll and

Two operations conversion units (SK37 Vig-


Bell AB.204)

i t:.&.t ';:..



r ,lr.' 'lt! rt "1 ! ', ,.i -.::.

$r. ''




Two minelayers Two minelayer/training ships
Nine coastal minelayers 36 in-shore minelayers '1 1 coastal minesweepers 20 in-shore minesweepers 45 coastal batteries, static 12 coastal batteries, mobile two helicopter squadrons

Navy Two destroyers with RB,08 (one in reserve) 12 submarines (four under construction) 17 fast attack craft with RB-12 missiles (two under construction) 18 fast attack craft with torpedoes 34 coastal patrol craft (seven of them large, with four more on order)

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