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. This is really a revision of a previous post, (far far in the past), regarding two very simple (related) summation problems:

n p i 1 i in general (a function of n given p), and find the polynomial series (as a function of n and p that sums to n p .

Find the value of

The second problem is the more interesting and less practical, and I discovered it in my fifth post. I noticed this series of series:

n i n i n i n i 11 1 1 1

n

2 i 1 n2 3 i 2 3 i 1 n3 4 i3 6 i2 4 i 1

n4

... Well aware that this was a non-trivial result, I attempted fruitlessly to nest these into a general double-summation: however, I was only a high-school freshman, and hadn't yet discovered the binomial theorem (my own personal discovery of the theorem came half a year later). In reality, the summation is a very simple one, though I have no clue how I originally discovered it. We notice that the polymomials are the expanded forms of i 1 p with the i p term missing; we can write

n i 1

ip

i

1

p

**n p , which is clearly true since this sum telescopes: 1p 0p 2p 2p ... 2p 1p n 1
**

p

n p i 1 i 1 i 0p 1p 1p np

p

...

np n 1

p

n 1 np

p

**Using the binomial theorem, the nested sum I was looking for is
**

n i 1 p k 1

p p i k

for 6 17

2

k

1

k 1

n p.

172 4 16 1 3 5 ... 33 6 16 2 4 16 1 or ... 1 .

17

4

So, 4 17

3

example, 4 17 1

3

Our second summation has a more direct method of derivation- though the definition is recursive, not explicit- and uses the same telescoping sum in a different manner. I am writing this post only because half an hour ago I rediscovered an old note I wrote that uses said telescoping sum to con-

2

n p i 1 i 1 i Polynomial Series.nb 0p 1p 1p np

p

1p 0p 2p 2p ...

2p 1p n 1

p

...

np n 1

p

n 1 np

p

**Using the binomial theorem, the nested sum I was looking for is
**

n i 1 p k 1

p p i k

for 6 17

2

k

1

k 1

n p.

172 4 16 1 3 5 ... 33 6 16 2 4 16 1 or ... 1 .

17

4

So, 4 17

3

example, 4 17 1

3

Our second summation has a more direct method of derivation- though the definition is recursive, not explicit- and uses the same telescoping sum in a different manner. I am writing this post only because half an hour ago I rediscovered an old note I wrote that uses said telescoping sum to construct the formula for the triangle numbers, claiming the method (which is actually quite clever) as my own. (I may well have found it on the internet, but I can't remember.) Here was the example I gave: Note that

n i 1

i

1

2

i2

22 12

32 22

...

n 1

2

n2

**n 12 1 n2 2 n But, we also have that n2 2 n
**

n i 1 i, n i 1

i

1

2

i2

n i 1

2i

1

n 2

n2 n 2 .

n i 1 i,

so that

n 2

and solving we have

n i 1i

Noticing that this method could be extended to find the value of the sum for any p, a sum whose value has shown up in much of the series work I've been doing recently, I did just that: Let Sn,x

n x i 1i n i 1

In general, we write

i

p

1 1 1

1 p

p

ip

p 1 k 0 p 2 k 0 p

n 1

p

1

n i 1

ip

p k 0

p p i k

k

1

k 1

n 1 n 1 Sn, p Sn,x

p S k n,k p S k n,k 1 1

p 2 k 0 x 1 k 0

p

p Sn, p 1 , and finally we have p S , or in general, k n,k x k 1 Sn,k .

1

n 1 n 1

1 x 1

x 1

Noticing that this method could be extended to find the value of the sum for any p, a sum whose value has shown up in much of the series work I've been doing recently, I did just that: Polynomial Series.nb Let Sn,x

n x i 1i n i 1

3

In general, we write

i

p

1 1 1

1 p

p

ip

p 1 k 0 p 2 k 0 p

n 1

p

1

n i 1

ip

p k 0

p p i k

k

1

k 1

n 1 n 1 Sn, p Sn,x

p S k n,k p S k n,k 1 1

p 2 k 0 x 1 k 0

p

p Sn, p 1 , and finally we have p S , or in general, k n,k x k 1 Sn,k .

1

n 1 n 1

1 x 1

x 1

Since Sn,0 Sn,2 Sn,2 Sn,2 Sn,2

n and Sn,1

nn 1 2

**, we can calculate Sn,2 as an example:
**

nn 1 2

1 n 13 1 3 1 2 n3 6 n2 6 2 n3 3 n2 n 6 n n 1 2n 1 6

1 n 3

6 n 2 n 3 n2 3 n

I failed to notice that the summation I noted at the end of my previous post clearly has that value, u ), because that series is the taylor polynomial for the exponential function. However, it is still an interesting question if the series can be shown algebraically to have that value.

- Counting Clusters on a Finite Grid
- Bases for the Natural Numbers
- Monochromatic Components
- Iron Bars
- Sum Constructions
- Weight of Natural Numbers
- Unit Fractions
- Unit Fractions
- Counting Monochromatic Regions
- Unit Fractions
- Monkeys and Bananas
- Expected # of Returns to the Origin of a Random Walker
- Expected # of Returns to the Origin of a Random Walker
- Needle Experiments
- Needle Experiments Part 1
- Expected Value of the Greatest of a Set of Reals
- Some Short Problems
- Some Short Problems
- Two Somewhat Similar Two-Part Problems
- Randomness and Circles
- Assorted Problems
- Magic Tricks
- Finite N-Dimensional Random Walk
- Polynomial Series

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