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SCHEDULING OF MULTI SPAN BRIDGES: AN APPLICATION OF REPETITIVE SCHEDULING METHOD Submitted to
Rajiv Gandhi Prodhyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal (MP)
For Partial fulfilment of requirements of Master of Engineering (Civil) with specialization in Construction Technology and Management
Department of Civil Engineering
MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE autonomous Institute under R.G.P.V., Bhopal) Gwalior (MP)
MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE autonomous Institute under R.G.P.V., Bhopal) Gwalior (MP)
This dissertation work entitled ³SCHEDULING OF MULTISPAN BRIDGES: AN APPLICATION OF
REPETITIVE SCHEDULING METHOD´ submitted by KAVI PRAKASH for partial fulfilment of the requirement of Master of Engineering Civil with Specialization in Construction Technology and Management is satisfactory account of his dissertation work and recommended for the award of degree
Dr. M.M. Pande Professor Department of Civil Engineering and Dean (Academic) Prof. Y P Singh Director M.I.T.S., Gwalior-5
Dr. S.K. Jain Professor and Head Department of Civil Engineering M.I.T.S., Gwalior-5
I hereby declare that the work, presented in the dissertation entitled ³ Scheduling of Multispan Bridges : An Application of Repetitive Scheduling Method´ in partial fulfilment of the requirement Master of Engineering Civil with specialization in Construction Technology and Mangment is an authentic record of my own work carried out under the guidance of Dr. M. M. Pande , Professor of Civil Engineering and Dr. S .K. Jain , Professor and Head , Department of Civil Engineering, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior.
The matter embodied in this dissertation has not been submitted by me for award of any other degree or diploma
This is to certify that the above statement of the candidate is true to best of our knowledge
Dr. S K Jain Professor and Head Department of Civil Engineering M.I.T.S. Gwalior-5
Dr. M M Pande Professor Department of Civil Engineering and Dean (Academic)
The scheduling problem posed by multi span bridge has the characteristics of problem posed by linear repetitive construction however the repetitive units in this case of bridge may vary greatly in work from one unit to the other. The network methods are not effective to address such problems. When two activities are independent of each other, network techniques are incapable of scheduling the activities logically. Additional artificial constraints are required to schedule the activities which have constant production rate. These methods are not efficient in addressing problems of continuous utilization of resources. Line of Balance (LOB) is well suited for repetitive activities where different crews performs the activities one after the other; however this is not effective in scheduling multi span bridges where large numbers of activity are dependent on each other. Further, LOB is primarily a technique with emphasis on continuous utilization of resources and therefore is not ideally suited for scheduling bridges where activities and quantum of work varies from one unit to another.
Linear scheduling Method developed primarily for scheduling linear activities, like pipelines, highways etc. This method uses different type of activities viz bar, line and block activities which are scheduled using a graph with time and distance as axes. An algorithm developed for linear scheduling method for repetitive projects known as Repetitive Scheduling Method makes use of
precedence diagram for repetitive unit attempting to provide advantages of both Line of Balance and CPM techniques. The method takes care of both resource continuity constraint as well technical constraints. This study deals with application of Repetitive Scheduling Method for scheduling of multispan bridges. The effectiveness of this method for scheduling of multispan bridge is analysed by comparing it with other scheduling method like precedence diagramming and Line of Balance Technique. Results obtained from the different methods show that use of repetitive scheduling method provides more effective scheduling addressing both, continuous utilization of resources and minimum schedule duration.
I feel great pleasure in expressing my heartfelt indebtedness and gratefulness to Dr. M.M. Pande, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Dean (Academic), MITS, Gwalior who has guided and encouraged me at all stages of this work. The confidence which he instilled and precious advise he gave can not be acknowledged through words. The efforts and cooperation provided by him and enriching suggestions given are gratefully acknowledged.
I am very thankful and indebted to Dr. S.K. Jain, Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, MITS, Gwalior for all the careful efforts, kind cooperation and benevolent behaviour. The confidence which he posed in me and highly valued inputs which he provided has lead to current shape of this dissertation. It is a pleasure acknowledging his invaluable help and support.
I sincerely thank all the faculty members of Department of Civil Engineering who willingly provided assistance and learning when ever it was needed. I will ever to indebted to them for all their advice. I also express thankfulness to all the staff member of Department of Civil Engineering, MITS, Gwalior, for all their help.
Any work requires time. I thank my wife, Deepika and son, Kavvya for allowing use of their share of time for this work. I also thank my parents, Dr. Manorama and Dr. Prakash Chandra Mahajan for their spirited support. I express my gratefulness for my family members and friends who have helped in completing this dissertation by the way of encouragement and cooperation.
In the end I thank all those who have knowingly or unknowingly helped me with this work. Kavi Prakash
CERTIFICATE ... .. .. i
CANDIDATES DECLARATION........................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. iii Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................... v Contents .................................................................................................................... vi List of Figures ...........................................................................................................viii List of Tables .............................................................................................................. ix List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................... x Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1 General......................................................................................................... 1 Process of Planning....................................................................................... 3 Pre Tender Planning .............................................................................. 4 Post Tender Planning ............................................................................. 5 Operational or Detailed Planning........................................................... 5
1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Project Management and Scheduling ........................................................... 6 Purposes of scheduling ................................................................................. 8 Element of Project Scheduling ...................................................................... 9 Work Break down Structure ....................................................................... 10 Scheduling Requirements in a Bridge Project .............................................. 10 Objective and Scope of Study ..................................................................... 12 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES & THEIR FEATURES .................................... 14 General....................................................................................................... 14 Bar Charts and Milestone Charts ................................................................ 15 Network Analysis Techniques ..................................................................... 16 Line of Balance ........................................................................................... 18 Linear Scheduling Method .......................................................................... 19 Other Scheduling Method .......................................................................... 23 Computer Based Modelling of Project Schedule .................................. 23 Critical Chain Project Management ..................................................... 24
2.6.3 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Chapter 3
4 D CAD ............................................................................................... 24 REPETITIVE SCHEDULING METHOD ...................................................... 26
Concluding Remarks ................................................................................... 25 Introduction ............................................................................................... 26 RSM ACTIVITY LOGIC .................................................................................. 26 Activity Logic Constraints..................................................................... 27 Production Rates ................................................................................. 28 RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................... 27 Control Points and Activity Relationships.................................................... 29 Procedure for creating RSM schedule ......................................................... 32 First Stage of RSM ............................................................................... 32 The second stage of RSM ..................................................................... 32 APPLICATION OF RSM TO A BRIDGE..................................................... 34
3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Chapter 4
Concluding Remarks ................................................................................... 33 General....................................................................................................... 34 Salient Features .......................................................................................... 34 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) .............................................................. 35 Resource Constraint ................................................................................... 40 Scheduling Using Precedence Diagramming ............................................... 40 Scheduling using Line of Balance Technique ............................................... 42 LOB chart for sub structure ................................................................. 42 LOB diagram for Superstructure .......................................................... 44 RSM Diagram of Substructure.............................................................. 46 RSM DIAGRAM of Superstructure ........................................................ 48 Duration .............................................................................................. 53 Additional information ........................................................................ 53 Critical Path ......................................................................................... 54 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 55 . 60
4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 Chapter 5
Scheduling Using Repetitive Scheduling Method ........................................ 46
Results and Discussion ................................................................................ 53
Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 57 Annexure I......
List of Figures
Figure1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Ability to influence Cost Planning Process Project Management Triangle Delay in Activities due to resource considerations RSM diagram for three Units Schematic Diagram of Digaru Bridge Bar Chart of Substructure Unit LOB diagram of Substructure Bar Chart of Superstructure Unit LOB diagram of Superstructure Network Diagram of Substructure RSM Graph of Substructure Activity Logic Diagram Activities in Soffit Activities in Web Activities in Deck RSM Graph of Superstructure 2 4 7 30 31 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 Plate 6 Plate 7 49 50 51 52 Plate 8
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Phases in Construction of Bridge __________________________________________ 2 Table 2.1 Different Methods and suitability for different projects ________________________ 22 Table 3.1 Activity relationship and Control Points _____________________________________ 31 Table 4.1 Salient Features of Bridge ________________________________________________ 35 Table 4.2 Work Breakdown Structure of Bridge ______________________________________ 36 Table 4.3 WBS of Abutment /Pier __________________________________________________ 36 Table 4.4 WBS of PSC Box Girder _________________________________________________ 39 Table 4.5 Availability of Resources _________________________________________________ 40 Table 4.6 Available and Allocation of resources after levelling __________________________ 41 Table 4.7 Activity Table Substructure _______________________________________________ 43 Table 4.8 Activity table superstructure ______________________________________________ 45 Table 4.9 Activities and Associated Resources_______________________________________ 46 Table 4.10 Activities in Substructure Unit ____________________________________________ 47 Table 4.11 Activities in Soffit_______________________________________________________ 50 Table 4.12 Activities in Web _______________________________________________________ 51 Table 4.13 Activities in Deck_______________________________________________________ 51 Table 4.14: Project Duration from different techniques ________________________________ 53
List of Abbreviations
CPM FF FS Lob LRP LSM LSMh PM PSC RSM SF SS WBS Critical Path Method Finish to Finish Finish to Start Line of Balance Linear repetitive Project Linear Scheduling Method Linear Scheduling Model Precedence Diagramming Pre Stressed Concrete Repetitive Scheduling Method Start to Finish Start to Start Work Breakdown Structure
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Bridges are structures that cross over a body of water, traffic, or other obstruction, permitting the smooth and safe passage of vehicles. In highway transportation systems, the term ³bridge´ is usually reserved for structures over bodies of water. Other terms like flyovers, overbridge, underbridge are used where the highway across another highways or railway. The construction of bridge has strong positive impact on economical and social development of the areas to be served. This along with reliability of connection is the major factor affecting the decision to invest in bridges. Major bridges represent significant investment and considerable social political involvement is required for deciding on making a bridge (Ostenfeld, et al. 2000).
Typical process for construction of large civil engineering structures like bridges is given in the Table 1.1.These phases are also referred to as project life cycle (Burke 2001). Planning is done for different phases. Proper planning affects the cost of the project. The Figure 1.1 shows the influence of planning on cost. Impact of planning reduces as the project is being constructed. If correct choices are not made at the concept stage the resultant of cost are increased much more than at a later stage.
Bridge project like other infrastructure projects are characterized by long duration, large budget, and complexity. Construction of bridge projects is a complex process that inherits uncertainty since the construction is executed in different job conditions. These conditions includes unusual or complex works, equipments breakdown, unfavourable weather conditions, and unexpected site conditions. (Mazrouk, Zein and AlSaid 2006). 1
Table 1.1: Phases in Construction of Bridge
Phase Conceptual Planning and Feasibility Study Find out Needs, demands etc Social, Economic, Environmen t feasibility To build or not to build Design and Engineering Procurement and Construction Detailed Design and Startup Design of Bridge Preparati on of Drawings Execution Commissioning and Operation
Designing the layout Estimating of scope of work
Obtaining provider, contractor
Bridge in Use
What to Build
Who will build
Figure 1.1 Ability to Influence cost (Hendrickson 1989)
Until a bridge is commissioned there is no return on investment for the owner. An incomplete bridge is as good as no bridge hence successful construction of bridge is utmost important for owner. Due to is very nature bridge are subject
to large number of contingencies which if foreseen can save a lot of money. Thus planning for bridge is very important.
At the Concept and Feasibility stage, selection of different type of bridge is dependent on various factors like availability of resources, cost, time, and nature of crossing. Bridges are classified according to different criteria. Span arrangement of bridge is typically used to identify the bridge even after its completion. On the basis of span arrangement bridges can be single or multi span. A multi span bridge consists of one or more of foundation piers or columns in addition to abutments. Generally, the span lengths of different spans of bridge are same.
Once the decision for construction of a bridge is taken the planning for construction of bridge is taken up. Essential aspects of construction planning include the generation of required activities, analysis of the implications of these activities, and choice among the various alternative means of performing activities. Construction planners choose the best among numerous alternative plans. Without planning the course of action may become somewhat aimless with a succession of random changes in direction (Hendrickson 1989). The plan of construction is generally included as a contract condition and work is rarely started without a construction plan approved. Payment for bridge construction contract and progress of work is monitored using construction plan submitted and approved.
1.2 Process of Planning
The planning process is explained inFigure 1.2. During the project life cycle this process is repeated for different phase of project life cycle. Planning for a construction project can be divided in three main stages in the overall planning cycle of construction project; pre tender planning, post tender planning and operational planning, each associated with different stages in lifecycle (Sahai 2002). 3
Objective To determine the most economical method, sequence of each operation
Reject Impractical method
Evaluate remaining methods within the draft sequence
Select Final Method, modify, select final sequence on the basis of overall cost
Prepare plan for Communication
Figure 1.2 Planning Process (Sahai 2002) 1.2.1 Pre Tender Planning
It primarily enables the estimator to determine the costs involved. The required information concerning methods, plants, materials etc. is required by the estimator in a concise form (i.e. data sheets and tables) in order that a quick 4
assessment can be made for higher management to decide on further action. A secondary purpose of the ³tender plan´ is to provide a basis for the subsequent contract plan. The amount of detail entered into at this stage of tender planning will thus include both the time available and the degree of competitive pricing of the tender for obtaining the contract. Scheduling in the Tender Plan is generally to establish milestones.
At the tender stage sponsoring agency informs the executives regarding the main objectives that are the extent of construction and the required completion date. These call for an early assessment on aspects like methods to be used; preparation entailed; scheduling and phasing of operations; available resources; purchasing and supplies; and schedule of payments. These will all be interdependent to various extents; without such assessments; any estimate becomes a matter of conjecture, site management becomes mainly labour supervision, and financial matters become crucial.
1.2.2 Post Tender Planning
After the tender stage planning much of the information required for planning and scheduling becomes available. Planning at this stage goes into the details of flow of funds with the associated progress of work. to ensure that the final µcontract plan¶ is A check is then made
at least as economical as that
submitted at the tender stage : It should be such that all company data on both detailed tasks and overall stages of operation are based on the some information, preferably obtained from reliable sources. The contract plan is provided to site executive based on which the operations are planned.
1.2.3 Operational or Detailed Planning
The objective of the operational or detailed planning is to ensure that the most economical method and sequence is used for each operation in compliance with data is used in planning and estimation for the overall program of work. It 5
also becomes necessary to determine the timing of plant used, labour requirements and availability of materials. The information can be recorded either by a stage period planning which covers stages of construction. The later is program setting which entails the detail plan for a period of perhaps four to six weeks. In this way a forward view of at least three to four weeks work is always maintained.
Planning subsequent to detail planning is stage planning. Stage planning is used whenever it considered necessary to enlarge a section of contract plan. Except for the stage planning being for a small part the process for stage planning is same as for detailed planning
1.3 Project Management and Scheduling
A project schedule is so important that it is a customer specified requirement. A schedule is conversion of project action plan into a operating time table (Meredith and Mantel Jr 2003). Planning and Scheduling are often used synonymously in context of project. Scheduling is part of the project planning process. Planning can be used in a wider context with different objectives like financial planning.
Project planning is the heart of proper project management because it provides the central communication for the work of all parties. A bridge project is undertaken to satisfy the goal of establishing connectivity. Satisfying a project goal requires three constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost". These are also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle´ as shown in Figure 1.3 where each side
represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others (Lester 2003) & (Leach 2000). Resources and Quality shown in the centre affects all the three constraint. The schedule constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a 6
project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are competing constraints. The effect of changing three constraints is summarized as follows (Lester 2003): (i) (ii) Increase in scope leads to increase in both cost and time; Tight time schedule results in reduced scope with increased cost; (iii) Tight budget causes reduced scope with more time.
RESOURCES QUALITY SCOPE SCHEDULE
Figure 1.3: Project Management Triangle (Leach 2000) & (Lester 2003)
It is the role of project planning team to prepare methods and layout statement and work schedule to comply with these managerial requirements. The final expression of planning is the documentation referred to as the µthe plan¶ which consists of charts and schedules showing the various programs required and is accompanied by a method µstatement¶ for the project. Submission of Work plan and its approval is generally a contract condition. This is also termed as master schedule. 7
1.4 Purposes of scheduling
Schedules cannot be 1:1 scale models of the construction process. The schedule provides following information regarding the project: i. Minimum stipulated requirements of project The most common reason for the use of schedules today is to meet the owner¶s requirements to provide a monthly schedule update. In this case, schedules are typically created by off-site scheduling consultants who never discuss the project with the contractor or subcontractors. After the submission of the initial schedule, it is updated monthly to identify activities¶ percentage complete. ii. Checking the progress of the project by earned value analysis Earned Value analysis requires that the schedule track both the time and cost completion of each activity. First this means that the activities in the schedule updates must reflect those tasks that are actually taking place on the job site. Second, it means that each activity is required to report two values: Percent Cost Completion, and Remaining Duration. Separating cost from time allows activities that have large up-front costs for equipment to correctly accrue costs. Another way that earned value analysis can help the team understand what is a happening on the project is to identify when work is falling behind schedule. iii. Activities in progress On complex projects, one of the most difficult coordination efforts is to ensure that subcontracting crews arrive at the job site to complete their work in an efficient sequence with other workers. One contractor out of step results in rework. The coordination required is not a technology problem it is a communication problem. The communication can, however, be made more clear through the use of schedules. If schedules specifically identify subcontractor activities, then the timing for the arrival, scope of work, and departure of subcontractor crews can be clearly described to the whole team. Using the schedule as a 8
communication vehicle may help decrease miscommunications. If there are delays or scheduling conflicts, then the impacts of these delays on following contractor and/or subcontractor activities may be clearly identified. iv. Effect of changes in schedule If the baseline schedule accurately reflects the way that the prime and subcontractors plan to do the work, and that the schedule is updated as the project goes along, then the schedule can be used to evaluate what would happen if changes are introduced to the plan. Schedule changes will directly add or remove specific activities and may also impact other activities or the overall completion of the schedule. A schedule that accurately reflects the changes during the project will allow the entire team to quickly understand the context in which a problem occurred and the impact of that problem on other activities and the project completion. Having an up-to-date schedule when a problem occurs will assist the project team to resolve the issue and impacts rapidly and then get on with the work. Usefulness of construction schedule helps to predict progress of the projects, its completion time, task time, the conflicts in work to sequence, and lastly to satisfy contractual requirements.
1.5 Element of Project Scheduling
Basic elements of project scheduling are (Adeli and Karim 2001): 1. Creating the work breakdown structure where the total work needed for the project is divided into recognizable and logical chunks of work called tasks. 2. Assigning resources to the tasks and estimating their durations. 3. Specifying scheduling constraints, which can be resource constraints or logic constraints between the tasks. 4. Generating the optimal schedule by using an algorithm to appropriately sequence and time each task in the project.
1.6 Work Break down Structure
The fundamental technique used for planning and managing a project is to break down the scope of work into manageable tasks. This breaking of larger tasks into smaller ones begins early in the project. This breaking develops from the initial scope statement in a top down fashion, much like beginning at the top of a pyramid and expanding downward (Ahuja 1984). The purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) is to sub-divide the scope of work into manageable work packages which can be estimated, planned and assigned to responsible person or department for completion. The work breakdown structure provides a structured breakdown of the scope of work into manageable work packages which can be further developed into a list of activities (Burke 2001) (Kimmons 1990). In case of a multi span bridge construction project many activities are required to be repeated for construction like shuttering and concreting. Thus a multi span bridge comprises of partly repetitive activities for certain part while for other parts it may not be repetitive.
1.7 Scheduling Requirements in a Bridge Project
Linear repetitive projects (LRP) (Ipsilandis 2006) are projects which involve repetitive units of construction elements. Examples of linear repetitive projects include high rise buildings, tunnels, highways, and pipelines. The repetitive construction of these can monitored and planned in terms of number of floors, tunnel rings, road sections, and joints of pipe, respectively. (Lutz and Hijazi 1993) Repetitive units can be further broken down into a sequence of processes which are repeated for each unit of the project. For example, the sequence of processes for a bridge having multiple spans include form erection, steel placing, concrete placement, stressing, wearing coat, expansion joints.
Here linear refers to construction projects the activities of which are repeated continuously like highways, bridges, tunnels, railways, pipelines, sewers, and follow one after the other. Repetitive is used for works like high-rise buildings, mass housing. The repetitive nature of linear repetitive projects along with the construction industry¶s emphasis on standardization and modularization has led to development of various planning techniques dealing with LRP. Repetitive projects such as multi-span bridges require a different approach to planning. In order to allow the optimum use of resources, crews and equipment are required to yield the same production rate, in terms of construction units. If activities are planned to be built in this way, all activities could become critical since delay in one shall affect all subsequent activities. When planning is based in construction units (floors, apartments, meters etc.) and production rates, repetitive construction subdivisions can be considered. The schedule can then be developed to generate the same work rate for all crews. The number of crews is to be selected so that all crews will perform the same amount of construction units in the same period of time. Various authors have listed concerns in scheduling of repetitive projects (Arditi, Tokdemir and Suh 2002) (Yang and Ioannou 2004). y Resources may have variable production rates and variable work quantity at different work locations. y An activity may utilize multiple crews simultaneously. A crew may perform multiple activities. y Activities may have multiple predecessors and successors. There may be multiple relationships between each pair of predecessor and successor. y The construction process, as defined by a set of activities and relationships, need not be the same at every work location. y A full set of relationships (Finish-to-Start, Finish-to-Finish, Start-to-Start, and Start-to-Finish) should be available.
Labour and equipment may change progress direction (east-to-west, up-to-down, etc.) or have complex work sequences.
One activity may link to another activity at non-contiguous locations. For example, a drywall activity on a specific floor should not start until the completion of two higher floors of the preceding glazing activity to ensure a weather-tight environment.
Activities may require space-buffer (lead-distance) in addition to timebuffer (lead-time). The space-buffer may be non-integer, e.g., 1.5 km or 1/2 houses.
Activities may need resources that work back-and-forth in an area within a certain period, such as excavation or traffic control. Other resources may not work in this area at the same time.
Work interruption should be allowed. The non-repetitive portion of project work should be incorporated into the framework of repetitive scheduling.
Activity may have space-dependency like shuttering, placing steel and concreting and time-dependency like stressing and concreting.
1.8 Objective and Scope of Study
The objectives of this study are outlined as follows:(i) To study different scheduling methods, which can be used to schedule work execution of a multi span bridge, (ii) To analyse the effectiveness of different methods of scheduling a bridge consisting of repetitive activities, (iii) To apply and examine Repetitive Scheduling Method which has been proposed for repetitive works, and (iv) Compare the result with the currently well known techniques of Precedence Diagramming and Line of Balance technique.
The bridge was scheduled using precedence diagramming with the use of MS Project 2002 while MS Excel spreadsheet software was used for Line of Balance Technique and Repetitive Scheduling Model. The study concentrates on scheduling of work on site without consideration towards procurement action of materials resources like cement, steel etc. Study is limited in application of scheduling methods to repetitive works activities required for construction of foundation, substructure and superstructure. Scheduling was not done for non repetitive activities where precedence requirement required completion of work on approach road, guide bunds.
Chapter 2 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES & THEIR FEATURES
Attitudes toward the formal scheduling of projects are often extreme. Many owners require detailed construction schedules to be submitted by contractors as a means of monitoring the work progress. The actual work performed is commonly compared to the schedule to determine if construction is proceeding satisfactorily. Many field supervisors dislike formal scheduling procedures and regard them irrelevant to actual operations and time consuming distraction. Use of formal scheduling procedures is advantageous whenever the complexity of work tasks is high and the coordination of different workers is required. After the completion of construction, similar comparisons between the planned schedule and the actual accomplishments may be performed to allocate the liability for project delays due to changes requested by the owner, worker strikes or other unforeseen circumstances. Different bases exist for preparation of schedules (Sahai 2002). i. Arbitrary basis In this basis the owner will best attain his or her objectives by telling the contractors ³what to do´ and by restricting direction on ³how to do it´ the matters of real significance. In this basis the owner will give the total start and end time of major elements of the project. ii. Intuitive Basis In this basis of scheduling the contractor mostly uses his/her experience and ³gut feelings´. This basis is not useful when the project is large because the complexity increases. 14
Scientific Basis Here the contractor breaks whole projects into some elements and considers all factors such as man, machine, and material required, critical time, start and finish time of all elements as well as his experience.
Scheduling Approaches can be primarily classified as resource oriented and time oriented scheduling techniques. For resource oriented scheduling, the focus is on using and scheduling particular resources in an effective fashion. For time oriented scheduling, the emphasis is on determining the completion time of the project given the necessary precedence relationships among activities. Hybrid techniques for resource levelling or resource constrained scheduling in the presence of precedence relationships also exist.
2.2 Bar Charts and Milestone Charts
Bar charts were designed by Henry Gantt as a visual aid in planning and controlling his ship building projects. In a bar chart the activities are first plotted against the time axis. The scheduling of each activity is represented by a horizontal line. The length of line is proportional to estimated duration of the activity. For tracking the progress a second line is drawn beside the first line. This second line was drawn as to indicate the actual status of work. The relative position of these lines indicated the actual progress of the activity with respect to planned progress (Burke 2001).
The purpose of a milestone schedule is to highlight the dates of significant events. Milestones should be critical events which have serious schedule implications (Ahuja 1984). Milestones are usually represented by single points or diamonds. These represent dates when a particular event shall occur.
Bar charts have various disadvantages for scheduling complex projects. There is no indication of interrelationships among activities. In developing a bar chart, little analysis is done to find out how much time will be required. No information about level of effort requirements is available. Despite these shortcomings the Bar Chart continue to be used since Bar Charts are simple to construct and easy to comprehend. Bar Chart can be summarized for any desired level of WBS. With the advent of computer bar charts can be easily updated (Bennet 2003).
2.3 Network Analysis Techniques
As a management tool, especially in project management of large capital construction projects, network techniques are unsurpassed, if the activities have been arranged in a logical, practical and easily identifiable manner by experienced people (Lester 2003).
Basically the network is a flow diagram showing the sequence of operations of a process. Each individual operation is known as an activity and each meeting point or transfer stage between one activity and another is an event or node. If the activities are represented by straight lines and the events by circles, it is very simple to draw their relationships graphically, and the resulting diagram is known as the network (Lester 2003).
Network analysis, as the name implies, consists of two basic operations: 1) 2) Drawing the network and estimating the individual activity times Analysing the activity times to find the critical activities and the float in the non-critical ones. (Lester 2003)
The predominant technique used in building construction today is the Critical Path Method (CPM). This technique has evolved over the past several decades into highly sophisticated and computerized applications. This method
calculates the minimum completion time for a project along with the possible start and finish times for the project activities. The critical path itself represents the set or sequence of
predecessor/successor activities which will take the longest time to complete. The duration of the critical path is the sum of the activities' durations along the path. Thus, the critical path can be defined as the longest possible path through the "network" of project activities, hance the name Network Analysis. The duration of the critical path represents the minimum time required to complete a project. Any delays along the critical path would imply that additional time would be required to complete the project (Kerzner 2001). Formally, critical path scheduling assumes that a project has been divided into activities of fixed duration and well defined predecessor relationships. A predecessor relationship implies that one activity must come before another in the schedule. No resource constraints other than those implied by precedence relationships are recognized in the simplest form of critical path scheduling. When the activities in Critical Path Method are shown as node with arrows connecting them the Network Diagram is known as Precedence Diagram. Precedence diagram has advantage over CPM in the since four types of activity relationship can be represented (i.e. Finish to Start, Start to Start, Finish to Finish, Start to Finish ) . Another advantage is that there is no use of dummy activities as in CPM (Gray and Larson 2001).
Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) differs from CPM in having three time estimate instead of one activity duration. Thus PERT incorporates uncertainty in activity durations in analysis (Mahdi 2003). Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) is another modification which allows for loops in the network (Moder, Philips and Davis 1964).
Network analysis offers all the advantage of being able to analyse the planning data by holding the data in computer files. The planning data in a network is linked through the logic that defines the relationship between the activities. Thus changes can be made in the data relating to individual activities, i.e. the duration, the resources etc. or changes can be made in the logical relationship between activities and the consequences recalculated and represented. In addition the steps to produce and process a network plan are more clearly defined, self contained and offer a more rigorous approach to planning complex operations. Despite their extensive use due to obvious advantages these methods have a number of shortcomings. Primarily these are due to their inability to address continuity of work which may result in crews being idle. Multiple-crew strategy is difficult to implement in the network methods. The network diagram is not suitable for monitoring the progress of a project. Network methods do not provide an efficient structure for the representation of repetitive tasks. There is no consideration of the location of work in the scheduling (Adeli and Karim 1996). For all practical purposes Precedence Diagramming has superceded CPM for scheduling due to its extensive use in computer softwares.
2.4 Line of Balance
Line of Balance is primarily a production management method. Used primarily for repetitive projects, a Line of Balance (LOB) chart does not show direct relationships between individual activities. It shows an output relationship between different operations in that one operation must be completed at a particular rate for the subsequent relationship to proceed at the required rate. Only the critical are important activities are included for the purpose of scheduling through Line of Balance chart (Chitkara 1998).
This technique has been applied in construction work mainly in building of houses and to a lesser extent for jetty work and in conjunction with networks of roads. Line of Balance is a planning technique for repetitive work, and the 18
principles employed in it are taken from the planning and control of manufacturing process. The basis of the technique is to find the required resources for each stage of operation so that different stages are not interfered with and the target output could be achieved. The completed schedule is based on chosen resources; therefore the rate of construction calculated takes account of these resources. This is difficult for the network calculations, with separated logic and resource allocation.
The main concept of LOB is the work continuity of the labour teams over the construction units. The purpose of this technique is to calculate the required resources for each stage of production so that the following stages are not delayed and target output is achieved (Harris and Ioannou 1998).
Updating a LOB schedule is difficult once the project has started, and if the rates of the construction prove to be different from those of calculated values. This difficulty arises from the fact that the resources, that is teams of men with different skills, are already on site. Various challenges in adoption of Line of Balance techniques in construction industry have presented (Arditi, Tokdemir and Suh 2002). However the method has been adopted by some large construction firms (Henrich and Koskela 2006).
2.5 Linear Scheduling Method
Alternate techniques to bar charts and networks that were developed in the last 30 years are known under the generic term, µµlinear scheduling method.¶¶ The general consensus is that linear scheduling methods are well suited to projects that are composed of activities of a repetitive nature. (Arditi, Tokdemir and Suh 2002). Indian Roads Congress (IRC SP:14 1979) suggests for use of CPM in case of highways by dividing each activity into small portion and schedule as a separate activity. This gives a ladder like schedule.
Linear Schedule is a simple diagram to show location and time at which a certain crew will be working on a given operation. Linear Scheduling Method (LSM) is a graphical scheduling method focusing on continuous resource utilization in repetitive activities. LSM is used mainly in construction industry to schedule resources in repetitive activities commonly found in highway, pipeline, and high-rise building projects. These projects are called repetitive projects or linear projects. The main advantage of LSM over Critical Path Method (CPM) is its underlying idea of keeping resource work continuously. In other words, it schedules activities in such a way that: i. ii. Resource utilization is maximized. Interruption in on-going process is minimized, including hiring-andfiring. iii. Effect of learning curve phenomenon is minimized.
In LSM the activities are plotted on Graph where time is one axis and distance is the other axis. The controlling path is obtained by linking the least distance point between the activities. Linear construction consists of a group of operations that involve repetitive µµunits¶¶ of construction elements. Highways, high-rise buildings, tunnels, and pipelines are good examples that exhibit repetitive characteristics where the same basic unit is repeated several times. Multiple-dwelling, multiple-floor, or linearly progressive projects allow
construction to proceed in a repetitive fashion, allowing for cost and time efficiencies. To achieve these possible efficiencies, it is necessary to balance the crews. By such scheduling, a construction manager achieves continuity in the placement of all repetitive elements, thus maximizing the productivity of labour and equipment. In Linear Scheduling Method three types of activities are recognized (Harmelink and Rowings 1998) i. Linear Activity Linear activities are activity which has a production rate. These activities tend to progress continuously over length or units utilizing same crew and resources. 20
Bar Activity Bar Activities are those which occupy small space and large time. These activities do not allow any other activity to proceed for some time.
Block Activity Block Activities are those which occupy both space and time. A block activity generally means that the activity in progress is discrete and cannot be assigned a production rate while it progress over some distance or unit.
LSM diagram resembles the Objective Diagram of LOB technique. While Objective Diagram is used to schedule or record the cumulative events of unit completion LSM is used to plan or record progress on multiple activities that are moving continuously in sequence along the length of a single project. This method aims to provide a graphical view more efficiently representing linear construction activities like highway and pipeline construction.
Linear activities have a production rate depending on resources required and available. The activity is shown as line on the linear schedule graph with production rate as slope of the line .The sequence of the activity to be included in linear schedule is determined along with the time buffer and space buffer.
Time buffer is the time required between the start of succeeding activity and end of proceeding activity. Space buffer is the distance required to allow two activities to proceed without affecting is each other. The minimum time constraint denotes the minimum time buffer between two activities²e.g., the minimum time buffer between concreting and formwork removal allowing for curing of concrete. The minimum distance/location constraint denotes the minimum allowable distance between two activities to allow for the correct or safe execution of work (Alexandros, John and Sergios 2007)
Linear Scheduling Method has been proposed by different names by different authors. Different methods have been proposed for specific objectives by different authors (Harris and Ioannou 1998)
Suitability of methods described in preceding sections for various purposes has been studied (Harmelink and Yamin 2001). The Table 2.1 shows suitability of the above described methods for different types of projects.
Table 2.1 Different Methods and suitability for different projects (Harmelink and Yamin 2001)
Type of project Linear and continuous projects (pipelines, railroads, tunnels, highways) Multiunit repetitive projects (housing complex, buildings) High-rise buildings y Hard logic for some activities, soft for others, y Large amount of activities y Every floor considered a production unit Refineries and other very complex projects y Complex design y Activities discrete in nature y Crucial to keep project in critical path Simple projects (of any kind) Relatively few activities Scheduling method Linear method Main characteristic Few activities all scheduling occurring at one place one after the other Similar units
Line of Balance
LOB, VPM, PM
y Complex Relationship y Extremely large number of activities PERT/CPM , PM Indicates only time dimension (when to start and end activities)
Different models for identifying critical path or critical sequence for LSM have been proposed by various authors namely the repetitive scheduling method (RSM) by Harris and Ioannou, the linear scheduling model (LSMh) by Harmelink and Rowings, the critical path linear scheduling method by Ammar 22
and Elbeltagi, and the repetitive project model by Kallantzis and Lambropoulos (Alexandros, John and Sergios 2007). Repetitive Scheduling Model has been described in detail in next chapter.
2.6 Other Scheduling Method
In addition to the methods described above, other scheduling methodologies have been developed in recent years. Some of the methods are described in subsequent paragraphs.
2.6.1 Computer Based Modelling of Project Schedule
With the availability of more powerful computers and software, the use of advanced scheduling techniques is becoming easier and of greater relevance to practice. (Hendrickson 1989) These techniques address some important practical problems, such as:
y y y
scheduling in the face of uncertain estimates on activity durations, integrated planning of scheduling and resource allocation, Scheduling in unstructured or poorly formulated circumstances.
PERT and CPM can be modelled as linear programming problem with the objective of minimizing project duration (Taha 2005). The growing availability of computers allows computing power to solve larger mathematical models. Computer models allow for both time and resource constraints while modelling. Neural Network Technique has been developed for use in schedule and cost optimization of projects (Adeli and Karim 1996). Multi objective optimization has been suggested for scheduling linear repetitive projects (Ipsilandis 2006). The success of computer based techniques is dependent on proper modelling of the problem. Another advantage offered by use of computers is in incorporating uncertainty in activity duration (Hendrickson 1989) by means of use of simulation.
2.6.2 Critical Chain Project Management
Critical Chain Project Management is based on the Theory of Constraint developed by Eliyahu M Goldratt as applied to project management (Goldratt 1997). Theory of constraint says that there is generally one or two constraints in a system. By concentrating on bottleneck the output can be maximised. This is applied to project environment considering critical chain as bottleneck and time available as inventory. Buffers are provided wherever required. The critical chain can cater for both technical as well as resource constraints. Critical Chain Project Management is a method of planning and managing projects that puts more emphasis on the resources required to execute project tasks. This is in contrast to the more traditional Critical Path and PERT methods, which emphasize task order and rigid scheduling. A Critical Chain project network will tend to keep the resources levelly loaded, but will require them to be flexible in their start times and to quickly switch between tasks and task chains to keep the whole project on schedule. CCPM is not a new scheduling techniques instead adopts PERT/CPM. CCPM scheduling
provides for buffer before the critical path (bottleneck) but not anywhere else in the network thus no float is given to any activity but rather float of all activity are placed as a buffer before the critical path (Steyn 2002) (Leach 2000).
2.6.3 4 D CAD
This approach involves the combination of 3D design data with the added dimension of time. Extending the traditional planning tools, visual 4D models combine 3D CAD models with construction activities to display the progression of construction over time. 4D CAD systems originated from the construction of processing, power, and offshore plants where 3D modelling has long been used for checking space conflicts of the complex piping systems.4 D CAD is used for scheduling by including use of GIS in modelling construction. 3D CAD is development of 3D Model on computer of a facility being designed. The 4th dimension of time is applied so that this model shows the state of works as the work progresses. In 4D CAD for planning of works it is attempted 24
to note location where a crew shall be working at a particular time by modelling the construction sequence. The planning takes care that the crew while working gets enough space for working and progress is not hindered by other crews in vicinity. While great achievements have been made in applying 4D CAD to the construction of industrial facilities and commercial buildings little has been done in road and bridge construction. This may be due to limited computer support for construction planning of transportation
construction projects. Formally speaking 4D CAD is addition of time dimension to standard 3 D models which are now commonly used in construction.
2.7 Concluding Remarks
Above methods are used in different types of construction works depending on the availability of necessary information. The choice of scheduling method depends on the requirements of the project. The use of computer based modelling and simulation requires knowledge of modelling, the use of 4D CAD requires availability of 3D CAD drawings, and the Critical Chain Project Management requires details regarding details of buffers available for different activity. These methods cannot be used since the necessary information was not readily available. In comparison Repetitive Scheduling Method proposed by Harris and Ioannou uses the data required for precedence diagramming and can be utilized wherever precedence diagramming is used. Repetitive Scheduling Method has been used in this study and same has been described in details is the following chapter.
Chapter 3 REPETITIVE SCHEDULING METHOD
Harris and Ioannou presented Repetitive Scheduling Model (RSM) as a generalized approach to scheduling of linear and repetitive projects than Line of Balance and Precedence Diagramming. It uses Precedence Diagramming for planning of unit network. All the activity types (linear, bar, block) as used in LSM are accepted in RSM. (Harris and Ioannou 1998).
An RSM schedule is shown as an X-Y graph where the axes represent units, and time. In general for clearly delineating schedule information, in case of construction of high-rise buildings, the units can be conveniently shown by plotting on Y axis and time along X axis. The work progress of horizontal construction projects e.g. highways, pipelines, canals, tunnels, bridges can be plotted along X axis since unit represent length. A logical sequence is adopted for representing the units of projects which are repetitive in nature.
3.2 RSM ACTIVITY LOGIC
The identification of the precedence constraints amongst the units is essential in addition to establishing the pattern of repetitive units. A CPM precedence network is drawn for each repetitive unit. A list of all the time consuming activities is prepared for establish unit activity logic. A name and identification symbol is assigned to each activity in the list for finding suitable relationship with regards to related units, there by reducing redundancies. On examination, the activity list will show a set of similar activities occurring repeatedly. A logic diagram is prepared after all the activities of each repetitive unit are identified. The precedence form is generally preferred but arrow network can also be used. Each unit network should contain all technical logic relationships among 26
the activities. The main purpose of this diagram is to establish logical relationships among the activities, resource considerations within this unit can be temporarily ignored. Actual projects have complex relationships among their activities which may be difficult to properly detail without a standard procedure outlined above.
3.2.1 Activity Logic Constraints
The activities within a repetitive unit must be logically related as well as they also must be logically related from unit to unit. The two types of constraints that control unit-to-unit logic in RSM diagrams: i) Technical Precedence Constraint A particular work activity in the network of one unit must be followed by a similar work activity in the network of a succeeding unit to ensure that the flow of the technical work between the units is maintained. ii) Resource Availability Constraint The resource assigned to an activity in one unit also must be assigned to the similar activity in the succeeding unit to ensure that the resource required in the first unit is available when needed by the second unit. The continuous resource utilization is neither ensured nor forced in the schedule.
3.3 RESOURCE CONSIDERATIONS
Every activity requires the application of resources for its performance. Most activities require that several resources like man, material, machine be employed together. RSM assumes that only the most significant resource is associated with an activity and all activities are defined using this assumption (Harris and Ioannou 1998).
To cater for a second assumption that the same resource will be used for like activities in successive repeating units, each activity¶s resource must be consistent from unit to unit. If an activity needs several significant resources for its performance, different activities in parallel can be assigned for each resource/crew. If several activities within a repetitive unit require the same resource, the several activities are grouped into one common activity using that resource to avoid the appearance of interruptions in resource usage between units.
3.3.1 Production Rates
There are two important production rates associated with each activity, a resource production rate and a unit production rate. (Harris and Ioannou 1998)
The resource production rate for an activity is defined as the amount of work that can be done by the resource per unit of time. Resource production rate is obtained from available databases. Resource production rate is an attribute of the resource and thus remains constant in any unit involving the same activity.
The unit production rate is the number of repetitive units that can be accomplished by a resource during a unit of time. The unit production rate is the slope of a production line in an RSM diagram. The unit production rate is directly proportional to the activity¶s resource production rate and inversely proportional to the quantity of work in the unit. In cases where activity duration are known unit production rate is inverse of duration.
When the quantity of work in activities that repeat from unit to unit is not the same in every unit, the unit production rates will vary depending upon the amount of the work in each unit. Similarly, if the activity duration is not same in different units, unit production rate changes.
3.4 Control Points and Activity Relationships
In an RSM graph activities are represented as continuos lines with interruption indicating the interruption in utilization of the resource associated with that activity. These lines are termed as production lines. The slope of this line is proportional to unit production rate of the activity.
Production line of different activity can be parallel, diverging or converging. Parallel production line indicates that both activities are progressing at the same rate. Diverging production line indicate that rate of production of successor is less than that of predecessor. Converging production lines mean that rate of production of successor is greater than that of predecessor.
Resource is utilized continuously across different units with each resource being associated with one activity. If an activity Y1 (where Y indicates activity and 1 indicates unit) follows an activity X1 and has greater duration than its predecessor, the resource associated with activity Y1 shall not be available for the activity Y2 in subsequent unit till its utilization in first unit is not complete. This will result in delay in start activity Y2 in second unit in spite of predecessor activity X2 being complete in second unit. Similar for the activity Y3 in third unit this delay is greater due to effect of delays in both unit 1 and unit 2. The Figure 3.1 shows bar chart of how activities are delayed due to resource continuity requirements in RSM.
In RSM graph the activity are represented as lines. The Figure 3.2Figure 3.2 RSM diagram for three Units shows the activity shown in Figure 3.1 in RSM diagram. Due to non availability of resource required for activity Y the project is duration is increased. The location of activities Y1, Y2, Y3 is determined by the start of activity Y3 and this point is the control point. In order to achieve continuos resource utilization the activity Y1 and Y2 have to be delayed. The location of Activity Y2 and Y1 is determined by the location of start of activity Y3. This point is defined as control point for activity X and Y since activities in 29
other unit are controlled by it. If production rate is of Activity X is increased the control point will shift. With this the production line of activity Y will shift. If production rate of activity X is changed the location of control point will not change however the slope of production line will change. In this situation the production line will rotate about the control point. A control point in RSM can be defined as a point which can be used to determine the location of all the activity of the same type in the project. These point are required to be established to plan for increase and decrease in production rates of the activities. Location of control point is determined by production rates of activity and relationship between the activities. The Table 3.1 shows location of control point and activity relationship. The controlling path or sequence is drawn by connecting the control points along the production lines starting from the last activity
Activity Y2 delayed due non availability of resources due to non-completion of Activity Y1 X3 3 Repetitive Units X2 Y2 1 X1 Y1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Delay in Activity Y3 greater than that of Activity Y2 due to addition of delays of previous units Y3
Figure 3.1 Delay in Activities (Harris and Ioannou 1998)
Control Point determines the start of Activity Y in all units X3
Y2 Successor Activities delayed due to resource consideration 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Figure 3.2 RSM diagram for three Units (Harris and Ioannou 1998)
Table 3.1 Activity relationship and Control Points
Activity Relationship Slope of Location of Effect of change Production Control Point of Production Line rate of predecessor
Effect of change of production rate of successor
Finish to Start
Start of successor Shift in successor Rotate about in last unit activity control point End of successor Shift of successor Rotate about in first unit activity control point Start of successor Shift of successor Rotate about in last unit activity control point End of successor Shift of successor Rotate about in first unit activity control point Start of successor Shift of successor Rotate about in last unit activity control point End of successor Shift of successor Rotate about in first unit activity control point
Finish to Start
Start to Start
Start to Start
Finish to Finish
Finish to Finish
3.5 Procedure for creating RSM schedule
RSM schedule is created in two stages (Yang and Ioannou 2001)
First Stage of RSM
In the first stage, the forward pass computations of CPM are performed. The first stage of RSM includes the following five steps: (1) Establish the position and slope of production line of each activity by assuming it starts at time zero.. (2) For each predecessor, determine the activity¶s shifted position based on each relationship (link) in every possible unit. (3) Calculate the shift that is the difference between the shape starting at time zero and the shifted position. (4) Select the maximum shift over all units, all incoming relationships, and all predecessors. (5) Move the activity being scheduled to the position that results from the maximum shift.
3.5.2 The second stage of RSM
The second stage is used to model the pulling effect of work continuity automatically. It is built on an important assumption: each activity would have no more than one µcontinuity predecessor¶. This is one of the basic assumptions of RSM. The activities linked by continuity relationships can form a continuity activity chain. A continuity activity chain can be considered a summary activity that utilizes the same crew. For each continuity activity chain, upstream activities are pulled by the sum of lags within the chain to eliminate gaps and ensure the continuous utilization of the resource from one activity to the next. If gaps (work interruptions) are desired between activities, this stage may be skipped. This stage consists of following steps:
(1) Locate continuity activity chains and sort them according to the precedence order. This is similar to the topological sorting of activities in the first stage. (2) Increase the start time of the first activity in a continuity activity chain by the sum of lags within the chain so that first activity is continuous over all units and schedule other activities based on the new start time of the first activity. (3) First stage is required to be repeated for all activities other than first activity. (4) If the start time of the last activity in the continuity activity chain increases, postponing the first activity in the chain would delay the start time of the last activity and hence lead to a cycle. Therefore in such a case this chain should be skipped and the next chain taken up. If there is no effect on start time of last activity in chain, change the start times of all activities in the chain can be changed to the calculated ones and proceed to the next chain.
3.6 Concluding Remarks
RSM considers resources continuity as well technical precedencies. In projects availability of resources and their continuous utilization is very important for project managers. A scheduling method which incorporates continuous resource utilization can well and truly takes care of requirement of project management especially for resource planning. RSM thus seems to be a useful and efficient method which can be easily applied for scheduling of bridges projects. Attempt is made to study the method for scheduling a multispan bridge. The same bridge is also scheduled with other method to test feasibility of the method for scheduling multispan bridge projects to compare relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods
Chapter 4 APPLICATION OF RSM TO A BRIDGE
A 720 meter multispan bridge under construction, comprising of 16 spans, was taken up for the purpose of study. The bridge is currently under construction by defence in eastern sector. The total work involved in the bridge project includes construction of a bridge over a meandering river along with its approaches and guide bunds for river training.
All the superstructure spans and pier shaft and wells for abutments and piers were alike with only minor difference. This meant that similar type of work was to be repeated 16 times making this bridge a good case to apply scheduling methods developed for repetitive works. Sixteen (16) Prestressed Concrete Box Girders for superstructure and seventeen (17) solid piers over circular wells as substructure are included as part of study. Other activities not being repeated many times were not included in study due to time limitations.
Activity durations have been obtained from site executives and by experience. These have been used from another nearby bridge under construction by the same organisation and also from other bridge in the vicinity.
4.2 Salient Features
A bridge under construction over river Digaru in Arunachal Pradesh is used for the purpose of study. The bridge is located on a meandering river with multiple channel necessitating large length with multiple spans in a sparsely populated forest area. Design details and construction methodology is elaborated in Table 4.1. A schematic diagram of the bridge is attached as Figure 4.1.
Table 4.1 Salient Features of Bridge
Length of Bridge Span Arrangement Type of Superstructure Method of Prestressing Type of Substructure Type of Foundation Methodology of Construction Proposed date of Completion Date of Start of Construction at site Working Period Founding RL of Wells
720 meters 16 span 45 meter each Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Box Girder Post Tensioning Solid Pier both for Abutments and Intermediate Piers Circular Well foundation for Piers and Abutments Cast In situ 31 March 2010 26 Nov 2006 Throughout the Year 145.00 meter (from the temporary bench mark established 162.50 meters 167 meter 170 meter 7.00 meter 2.75 meter
Top of Well RL of Soffit RL of Deck Width of Soffit Height of Web
4.3 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
The work break down structure has been prepared, keeping in view the reporting requirements. Each Abutment/Pier was divided in 10 main activities. Some activities were further divided in sub activities. Each PSC Box girder was divided into 7 main activities some of which were further divided into sub activities. The division of activities into sub-activities was done in consultation with site executives. The dependency relationship and duration were obtained from other bridge being constructed in vicinity and from experience of bridge site staff. The following tables (Table 4.2, Table 4.3,Table 4.4) give the details of WBS of the bridge. Activities in WBS level 3, 4, 5 and 6 are shown in Table 4.3 for substructure and Table 4.4 for superstructure.
Table 4.2 Work Breakdown Structure of Bridge
BRIDGE (WBS level 0)
SUB STRUCTURE (WBS level 1)
Abutment/Pier (WBS (repeated 17 times) level 2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 SUPERSTRUCTURE PSC Box Girder (repeated 16 times) (WBS level 1) (WBS level 2) 1 2 Fixing of bearing Casting of PSC BOX Girder (including Erection of Shuttering and Concreting and stressing) Casting of wearing coat Casting kerb & handrail Load Testing Site Clearance Fixing of expansion joints & drainage sprouts Making of island and placing of cutting edge Casting of well kerb Casting of well steining Well sinking Bottom plugging Top plugging Sand filling in well Casting of well cap Casting of abutment/pier Casting of pier cap
Activities to be reported (WBS level 3)
3 4 5 6 7
Table 4.3 WBS of Abutment /Pier (highest level not included, shown
for only one Abutment/Pier) S WBS Activity No. Code
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5
Abutment/Pier 306.5 days Making of Island and Placing of Cutting Edge 16 days Making of Island 1 day Placing and Fabrication of Well 15 days Kerb Casting of well curb 21 days Erection of Shuttering 2 days Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day
4 6,7 8 9
S WBS No. Code
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 1.3 1.3.1 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 1.3.2 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 1.3.3 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 1.3.4 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 1.3.5 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 1.3.6 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52
Casting of well steining Casting of 1st Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering Casting of 2nd Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering Casting of 3 Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering Casting of 4 Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering Casting of 5th Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering Casting of 6 Lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Pouring of Concrete Removal of Shuttering
th th rd
231 days 50.5 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 80 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 109.5 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 61 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 90.5 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 120 days 2 days 0.5 days 1 day 1 day 1 day
57 7 13,14 15 16 58 14 19,20 21 22 59 20 25,26 27 28 60 22 31,32 33 34 61 32 37,38 39 40 62 38 43,44 45 46
S WBS No. Code
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 1.3.7 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5 1.9.6 1.10 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.10.3
Concreting 7th lift Erection of Shuttering Cutting of Steel
150 days 2 days 0.5 days
63 44 49,50 51 52 53 54 10 17 23 29 35 41 47 55 64 65FS+21 days 66 50
Placing of Steel 1 day Pouring of Concrete 0.5 days Shuttering for False Steining 1 day Pouring of Concrete 0.5 days Removal of Shuttering 0.5 days Well Sinking 235.5 days Well Sinking 0-2.1 25 days Well Sinking 2.1 -4.2 25 days Well Sinking 4.2-6.3 25 days Well Sinking 6.3- 8.4 Well Sinking 8.4-10.5 Well Sinking 10.5 ± 12.6 Well Sinking 12.6 ± 14.7 Well Sinking 14.7- 15.5 Bottom Plugging Sand Filling Top Plugging Well Cap Cutting of Steel Reinforcement for well cap and pier Casting of Well Cap Casting of Pier Shuttering 1st lift Concreting 1 lift Shuttering 2nd lift Concreting 2 lift Shuttering 3rd lift Concreting 3 lift Casting of Pier Cap Shuttering Cutting of Steel Concreting
rd nd st
25 days 25 days 25 days 25 days 25 days 3 days 3 days 1 day 203.5 days 10 days 1 day 6 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 16 days 7 days 7 days 2 days
69,67 70 72 73 74 75 76 76 79 80
Table 4.4 WBS of PSC Box Girder (highest level not included,
shown for only one PSC box Girder) S WBS Activity No. Code
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 1.2.2 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 1.2.3 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 1.2.4 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 1.2.5 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 PSC BOX GIRDER Fixing Of Bearing Fixing of Bearing Casting of Pedestal Casting of BOX GIRDER Erection of Staging and Shuttering Levelling of Ground Staging for Soffit Shuttering for Soffit Staging for Deck Shuttering for Web Shuttering for Deck Casting of Superstructure Cutting of Steel for Soffit and Web Placing of Steel for Soffit Concreting of Soffit Concreting of Web Cutting of Steel for Deck Placing of Steel For Deck Concreting of Deck Cutting and Placing of Cables Cutting of Cables Placing of Cables Making of End Block Crushing of Chips Crushing of Chips for Soffit Crushing of Chips for Web Crushing of Chips for Deck Stressing of Cables Stressing of Cable Grouting of Cables Casting of Wearing Coat and Crash Barrier Casting of Wearing Coat Casting of Crash Barrier Casting of Kerb and Hand Rail Casting of Kerb Casting of Handrail
Duration Precedence Relationships
92 days 2 days 1 day 1 day 85 days 45 days 1 day 7 days 10 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 55 days 7 days 7 days 3 days 3 days 3 days 7 days 3 days 16 days 8 days 3 days 12 days 20 days 6 days 6 days 8 days 9 days 1 day 1 day 7 days 5 days 2 days 2 days 1 day 1 day
9SS+3 days 3
7 8 7 16,10 17
9,14,23FF+1 day 15,23,26 11,27 14 18,12 19,28
26 27 20FS+21 days 30FS+7 days 30 33 20 36
S WBS No. Code
38 39 40 41 42 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2
Duration Precedence Relationships
Load Testing 1 day Site Clearance 1 day Fixing of Expansion Joints and Drainage Sprouts 14 days Fixing of Drainage Sprouts 6 days Fixing of Expansion Joints 14 days
4.4 Resource Constraint
Various resources are required for construction of bridge. Resources are not available in infinite quantity. Availability of resources for the project is limited. Major of resources required for the construction of bridge and maximum quantity available is given in Table 4.5.
Table 4.5 Availability of Resources
RESOURCE NAME Winch and Grab Bucket arrangement (used for sinking of well by grabbing in the well) Crushing unit Concreting Capacity MAXIMUM AVAILABILTY 7 numbers 1 no. 6-10 Tonnes Per Hour Capacity Volumetric Output 15 cu. m./day 30-40 cu m per day using 5 batch mixers (each mixer capable of providing about 5-7 cu. m. of concrete per day/ depending on mix design 2 sets 1 No. (1) Limited availability of Highly skilled, manpower due to which highly complex operations cannot be executed (2) Semi skilled manpower available can be used as multi skilled personnel 4 sets
Circular Shuttering forms for well Welding set Skilled Manpower
Shuttering Forms for PSC box girders
4.5 Scheduling Using Precedence Diagramming
The schedule contains nearly 2000 activities. Scheduling of the bridge is done using precedence diagramming method with the help of MS Project 2002 software. Duration for one abutment/pier is 306.5 days as seen in Table 4.3 and duration for one box girder is 92.5 as seen from Table 4.4. Without using resources levelling the project duration obtained is 399.5 days which is the 40
sum of duration of time required for completion of one abutment/pier and one PSC box girder. Scheduling data obtained from MS Project software is attached as annexure 1. The resource levelling tools available in the software was then implemented. The duration of activities was kept fixed. The schedule as obtained from the software after resource levelling is attached as annexure 1. The software was not able limit allocation of resources up to the maximum limit. The Table 4.6 shows the allocation and maximum quantity available in percentage. There is an over allocation of resources which is required to be resolved by delaying activity in the network.
Table 4.6 Available and Allocation of resources after levelling
Name of Resource Shuttering Steel Cutting Winch and Grab bucket arrangement Concreting Cutting Edge team Welding Set Jack Grouting Pump Cable Cutting Stone Crusher Steining form set Girder Form set Carpenter Dozer Peak Requirements 800% 600% 800% 1,300% 100% 300% 200% 200% 200% 100% 400% 600% 100% 200% Maximum Unit 400% 300% 700% 600% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 200% 400% 100% 100%
In precedence diagramming resource considerations are applied after network has been prepared. Thus at the start of resource levelling procedure there is an over allocation. After preparing the network the resources are levelled, by delaying the activity within the slack/ float available. The rescheduling of activities results in reduction in peak requirement of resources. Maximum availability of resources cannot be enforced with the levelling procedure
resulting in over allocation. Since maximum resource constraint are fixed this makes the schedule infeasible.
In case the resource constraints have to be fulfilled extensive reworking by addition of artificial precedence relationships between different activities is required. The additional dependencies between activities cater for continuous utilization of resources from one activity to another in subsequent units are needed to ensure and allow for resource continuity. This is not done in this work due to limitations of time. The inability of network diagramming techniques to handle resource utilization adequately is highlight in scheduling repetitive projects.
4.6 Scheduling using Line of Balance Technique
The same Bridge was scheduled using Line of balance Technique. In the bridge the substructure activities are repeated 17 times while superstructure PSC box Girder is repeated 16 times. For applying Line of Balance technique substructure and superstructure have to be dealt with separately to obtain balance in the progress rate. This process of segmentation in superstructure and substructure is required to avoid resources overlap and confusion in decision making. Accordingly, two production diagrams and LOB chart have to be prepared for substructure and superstructure.
LOB chart for sub structure
Activities in the superstructure have been revised from the precedence diagram Table 4.3 of one unit due to some activities being necessarily
required to move at same pace. The revised activities are shown in Table 4.7. These activities have a time dependency due to the nature of work. Activities like concreting and shuttering progress at rates equal to each other since concreting can only be done when shuttering has been completed. As a
result, some of resources required these activities will have forced idle time, 42
especially concreting and reinforcement (placing of steel). Activities where progress of one is dependent upon progress of another activity have been replaced by one activity thereby reducing the number of activities. Dependencies between the activities have been revised keeping in view of reduction in number of activities. Activities have been grouped such that duration of combined activity takes care of time required for all the activities grouped together.
Table 4.7 Activity Table Substructure
S No Activity Predecessor Dura tion Cre w Start End Day Day First Seven Wells 0 105 66 104 134 164 194 226 256 286 334 358 373 365 611 620 111 141 171 201 231 261 291 321 349 373 380 442 653 693 Start End Day Day Second Seven Wells 254 359 329 359 389 419 449 479 509 539 581 605 620 612 653 693 364 394 424 454 484 514 544 574 602 626 627 689 695 756 Start End Day Day Last Three Wells 541 586 576 606 636 666 696 726 756 786 820 844 851 843 864 870 591 621 651 681 711 741 771 801 829 853 854 876 882 897
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Making of Island and Placing Cutting Edge Casting of well curb Casting of 1st Lift Casting of 2nd Lift Casting of 3rd Lift Casting of 4th Lift Casting of 5th Lift Casting of 6th Lift Concreting 7th lift Bottom Plugging Sand Filling Top Plugging Well Cap Casting of Pier Casting of Pier Cap
15 1 2FS+25 days 3FS+25 days 4FS+25 days 5FS+25 days 6FS+25 days 7FS+25 days 8FS+25 days 9FS+25 days 10FS+21 days 11, 10,12FF+3day 13 14 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 1 11 6 9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Winch and Grab bucket arrangement is fixed for each well to be sunk, hence well sinking is not considered as an activity, instead a finish to start relationship between castings of lift with a buffer of 25 days has been used. Due to limit on number of Winch and Grab bucket arrangement, seven wells have been planned to be followed by seven wells and three wells. Table 4.7 43
gives the results of application of LOB technique. Cutting of steel is not included as an activity since time required for the activity is very small and the activity is not critical. The crew involved for cutting of steel will have a large period of forced idleness. Production diagram of one unit is of substructure is shown in Figure 4.2. Total duration of one well is 301 days. The details
obtained are used for Line of Balance calculations.
Objective Diagram for sub structure is shown in Figure 4.3. Total Duration for Sub Structure Work is 897 days.
4.6.2 LOB diagram for Superstructure
As in substructure, in superstructure PSC box girder too revision is made to activity details. Activity details in Table 4.8 have been revised from the precedence Table 4.4 due to certain activity being necessarily required to move at same pace. The nature of work of requires activity like concreting and shuttering to progress at rates equal to each other as such these activity have been replaced by one activity. These activities will have forced idle time for crews since especially for concreting and reinforcement (placing of steel).
Dependencies of the activity have been revised keeping in view of reduction in activity. Activities have been grouped such that duration of the activity taking maximum time is treated as duration of the grouped activity. The nature of work of requires activity like concreting and shuttering to progress at rates equal to each other as such these activity have to be replaced by one activity. These activities will have forced idle time for crews since especially for concreting and reinforcement (placing of steel). Production diagram for one unit of superstructure is shown in Figure 4.4. Total duration for one superstructure span is 99 days. Four crews have been planned for casting of box girders since four sets of shuttering forms are available.
Objective Diagram of the Superstructure (LOB chart) has been made such that none of the activities cross each others path and have a balanced rate. Activity
Table 4.8 gives details of balance start and finish date for superstructure.
Objective diagram is shown in Figure 4.5. Total Duration of Superstructure obtained is 478 day.
Table 4.8 Activity table superstructure
S N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Activity Duration Precedence Numb er Of Crews 1 4 1 1 1 2SS 6,10FF 2 10 6 4 1 1 1 1 Total Time Reqd. 160 220 320 128 192 312 160 112 16 320 Balance Start date 0 36 0 0 0 36 188 219 462 178 Balance Finish Date 160 324 320 128 192 348 358 331 478 476
Cutting of Steel Casting of BOX GIRDER Crushing of Chips Cutting of Cables Making of End Block Forms in Place Casting of Wearing Coat and Crash Barrier Casting of Kerb and handrail Site Clearance Fixing of Expansion Joints and Drainage Sprouts
10 days 55 days 20 days 8 days 12 days 78 days 10 days 7 days 1 day 20 days 3FF+4,1FF+10, 4FF+38,5FF+38
When the two LOB Diagrams are superimposed it can be seen that site is required for superstructure on 36thth day from start of superstructure work since shuttering activities start on 36th day (refer Table 4.8) while other activities which can be executed else where can start by then. Work of last three box girders is dependent on completion of last three wells. The shuttering for last box girder shall finish by 348 days and hence will start on 270th day (refer Figure 4.4) after start of super structure work. To allow uninterrupted progress of super structure work this can happen only after all piers of substructure have been completed. This work is complete by 897th day (refer Figure 4.3). Superstructure Work can start 270 days before this on 627th day to allow for uninterrupted working in superstructure. In case the work is started earlier there shall be a break in progress of superstructure work. 45
Total Project Duration is 627 + 476 = 1105 days
The duration is more than what obtained through precedence diagramming but there is no over allocation of resources since production rate of resources is balanced. Some operational problems are not ruled out since all activities have not been included in unit plan. Activities having time or space dependency will result in forced idleness for crew since such activities have been included as a combined activity.
4.7 Scheduling Using Repetitive Scheduling Method
In RSM one resource is associated with one activity. Continuity in availability of this resource in similar activity of subsequent unit is ensured. For purpose implementing RSM a precedence diagram is first required. Each activity in this precedence diagram is associated with one resource. Accordingly Activities have been associated with resources. Same is shown in Table 4.9.
Table 4.9 Activities and Associated Resources
Activity Sinking of Well Associated Resource DD winch and Grab Bucket arrangement Concreting of Lifts Shuttering crew and form work Shuttering of Wells Form work for Well Concreting Concreting Equipment Crushing Crushing Unit Steel Cutting Steel Cutting Placing of Steel(including fixing of Bearing and Blacksmith and Welder Placing of HT Strands) Shuttering of PSC Box girder Shuttering Crew and Formwork for Box Girder Stressing Jack Grouting Grouting Pump Expansion Joint and Drainage Sprouts Welding
4.7.1 RSM Diagram of Substructure
For drawing RSM diagram a single unit precedence diagram is required. This diagram for typical substructure unit i.e. abutment/pier is same as that of single unit precedence diagram for LOB. From Table 4.5 we know that seven Winch and Grab bucket arrangement are available. In order to plan use of seven available Winch and Grab bucket arrangements for 17 wells it is obvious that Winch and Grab bucket arrangements have to be used twice or thrice. Three Winch and Grab Bucket arrangements will be required to be used thrice while remaining four will have to be used twice. In order to draw RSM diagram first production lines for first unit are drawn. Production lines for other units are similar. Activities in subsequent unit are pushed to new position depending on the resource continuity by shifting the production lines on the RSM graph.
Table 4.10 Activities in Substructure Unit
S No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Activity Making of Island Placing of Cutting Edge Casting of well curb Casting of 1st Lift Casting of 2nd Lift Casting of 3rd Lift Casting of 4th Lift Casting of 5th Lift Casting of 6th Lift Concreting 7th lift Bottom Plugging Sand Filling Top Plugging Well Cap Casting of Pier Casting of Pier Cap Duration 16 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 3 days 3 days 1 day 11 days 6 days 9 days Predecessor 1 2FS+25 days 3FS+25 days 4FS+25 days 5FS+25 days 6FS+25 days 7FS+25 days 8FS+25 days 9FS+25 days 10FS+21 days 11 10,12FS+3 days 13 14
It is also known that two set of forms for well are available. Due to this it is possible to divide the work in two parts. Accordingly for the purpose of drawing RSM diagram the work is converted in to two parts: Three machines to be used thrice for 9 wells and four machines to be used twice for 8 wells. Continuos utilization of two shuttering crews is not enforced. Single Unit 47
Diagram for RSM has been drawn by precedence diagramming and is shown as figure 4-6. RSM Diagram has been drawn accordingly and shown in Figure 4.7. 17th well and pier will be completed by 852nd days.
4.7.2 RSM DIAGRAM of Superstructure
Planning is done for four set of forms being used for four girders shuttering for each girder is independent and hence not required to be considered for resource continuity. Two construction joints are permissible after concreting of soffit and web. Thus casting of soffit, web, and deck can be done in three phases. For four span activities Concreting, Crushing and Shuttering each are required for casting of soffit, web and deck. Steel Cutting and Placing is required for deck and Soffit while auxiliary works are required only prior to shuttering of deck. This allows for Soffit, Web and Deck to be taken as three repetitive activities. The activity logic diagram is drawn as Figure 4.8 shows that treating the three parts of deck separately as a typical repetitive unit is possible.
Activities for Box Girder
Figure 4.8 shows that the casting of PSC box girder can be restructured in three parts with similar activities and relationship namely Soffit, Web and Deck. Each PSC box girder can be understood to consist of three similar repetitive units, each typical unit comprising of shuttering, crushing of chips, and concreting with other activities not repeating either in deck unit or soffit units. This means that the superstructure work can be said to comprise of 48 units (each of the 16 box girders replaced by three units). Work for four spans can be started simultaneously due to availability of four sets of forms (refer Table 4.5). Scheduling for following four spans will be done when forms are available for reuse after stressing is completed. Shuttering activity is associated with two resources. To cater for underlying assumption that one resource is required for each activity, activity of shuttering 48
has been replaced in two activities shuttering and formwork in place. Formwork in place will have a start to start relationship with shuttering and finish to finish relationship with concreting since forms will be required till concreting is complete. Shuttering activity for web requires 7 days after casting of concrete for soffit. In RSM activities in subsequent unit are connected by resources. In order to ensure shuttering is not commenced till concreting of soffit is done the activity formwork in place, included with resource being forms, has start to start relationship with shuttering which has shuttering crew as its resource. Continuity of shuttering is not enforced. Similar situation occur in shuttering of deck before concreting of web hence the activity formwork in place has been introduced in deck also. Shuttering activity will for the duration of concreting accordingly continuity of shuttering has not been enforced for planning. SOFFIT WEB DECK
Auxiliary Works and Levelling Shuttering Shuttering Shuttering
Placing of steel Concreting Crushing of Chips Concreting Crushing of Chips
Placing of steel Concreting Crushing of Chips
Finishing Activities Figure 4.8 Activity Logic Diagram 126.96.36.199 Activities in Soffit
The Table 4.11 tabulates the activities for soffit and Figure 4.9 shows the precedence diagram for them.
Table 4.11 Activities in Soffit
S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Activity Levelling of Ground Shuttering for Soffit Formwork in place for soffit fabrication of End block Crushing of Chips Cutting of Steel Placing of Steel Concreting of Soffit Duration 1 day 13 days 23 days 12 days 6 days 7 days 7 days 3 days 6,2,4 7,5,2 1 2SS,8FF Precedence
Figure 4.9 Precedence diagram for Soffit 188.8.131.52 Activities in Web
The Table 4.12 tabulates the activities for web and Figure 4.10 shows the precedence diagram for them. 50
Table 4.12 Activities in Web
S. No 1 2 3 4 Activity Shuttering for Web Formwork in place for Web Crushing of Chips for web Concreting of Web Duration 10 days 13 days 6 days 3 days 1,3 Precedence 1SS,4FF
Figure 4.10 Activities in Web 184.108.40.206 Activities in Deck
The Table 4.13 tabulates the activities for deck and Figure 4.11 shows the precedence diagram for them.
Table 4.13 Activities in Deck
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Activity Cutting of Steel Crushing of Chips Placing of Steel Formwork in place for Deck Shuttering Concreting Kerb and hand rail Stressing Grouting Wearing Coat and Crash Barrier Expansion Joint and Drainage Sprout Duration 3 days 8 days 7 days 17 days 7 days 3 days 4 days 3 days 1 day 7 days 20 days Precedence
1 5SS,6FF 3,5 6 6FS+21 days 8FS+7 days 8 10
Figure 4.11 Activities in Deck
RSM graph drawn for the superstructure is shown as Figure 4.12. From the figure we can see that use of shuttering forms starts from 14th day and stressing for first span is complete by 115th day. After stressing is completed shuttering can be reused, so one set forms can be reused after 102 days. Four spans are complete in 187 days. For the super structure to complete total 494 days are required which is less than that obtained by LOB technique.
Start of superstructure work is dependent on completion of substructure work. The substructure work will complete on 852nd day. Start of Shuttering for last of the girders is planned from 337th day while for the first has been planned 14th day from the start of shuttering work. From above it is clear that the superstructure work should be so planned that shuttering of last girder may start by 852nd day. Thus total time required for bridge will be 852 ± 337 + 494 = 1009 days. While this duration is more than that of PM but there is no resource constraint/conflict in the project unlike PM where resource utilization after levelling is more than available resources.
4.8 Results and Discussion
Project duration obtained with the use of different methodologies is given in the Table 4.14. It can be seen that duration obtained is least from precedence diagramming. Time obtained with the use of RSM is greater than PM but less than LOB.
Table 4.14: Project Duration from different techniques
Method PM LOB RSM Total Time Obtained 814.5 1105 1009 Resource Constraint Over allocation not resolved No over allocation No over allocation Remarks Additional time will be required to resolve over allocation Maximum Time All activities could not be considered
4.8.2 Information available
Soffit, Web, and Deck parts of superstructure are not same. Considering similarity in activities (shuttering, formwork in place, concreting and crushing of chips being part of each) these are used as repetitive units since in RSM there is no requirement of all units to be same. Use of this repetitive pattern for scheduling allows for continuity in use of different activities.
Graphical information is available in form of charts in LOB and RSM techniques. From the graph the schedule start or finish date for an activity can be read quickly. Precedence diagram could not be plotted in the same size of paper to provide any worthwhile information.
On drawing RSM Graph as shown in Figure 4.12, it can be seen that two shuttering crew can be used for shuttering of four spans using four sets of forms. This information was not available from PM or LOB. Availability of shuttering forms for reuse can also be seen from the graph.
Use of repetitive patterns as units allows planning for continuous use of machines. This makes RSM more supportive to mechanization, since advantages of mechanization can be achieved with continuous repeated utilization of resource/ machine.
4.8.3 Critical Path
Critical Path is defined by the activities having no float. Complicated dependencies in precedence diagram lead to large amount of float in various activities, if all the activities are scheduled at early start. This means that a large number of activities will be started but complete over a long time resulting in confusion in monitoring progress. LOB technique does not show any critical path. RSM has a concept of controlling sequence. The activities on controlling path are to be monitored to avoid delay in the project. These activities may or may not be critical as per precedence diagram. This indicates which activities should be monitored to avoid delay on the project.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
The present investigations was undertaken to provide an elaborate study of Repetitive Scheduling Method applied to a multispan bridge. This study also entails a study of Precedence Diagramming and Line of Balance methods and comparison of these methods with Repetitive Scheduling Method. The following conclusions are drawn from the present study:1) Repetitive scheduling takes care of continuous utilization of resources as compared to precedence diagramming. Repetitive Scheduling can be implemented to take care of maximum resource availability. This is not possible for both Line of Balance Technique and Precedence Diagramming. The maximum availability of resources is often fixed for a project. The advantage offered by repetitive scheduling method by considering reuse of resources takes care of maximum availability constraint in project scheduling makes it a candidate for use in case of linear and repetitive projects where same resource has to be used repetitively. The inability of Network techniques to address resource constraints is especially obvious in repetitive projects. The reason for this is that initial scheduling for all the activities have been made with out resource consideration. Resource availability is considered to readjust the activities.
2) RSM allows only one resource per activity. This is an impractical assumption since in real life there will be more then one resource associated with each activity. Precedence diagram of single unit drawn for PM cannot be used for LOB and RSM. Reworking by taking care of different constraints and reducing number of activities is required for generating single unit precedence diagram bar chart. Lesser details are included in Line of Balance technique. Precedence Diagramming allows
for maximum details to be incorporated. Details included in RSM are less than PM but more than LOB.
3) Critical path allows managers information about where to concentrate. Line of balance method does not have a critical path. This shortcoming is adequately dealt by RSM. Controlling path of RSM can have activities which not critical as per critical path network scheduling methods. This is due to resource constraints.
4) More mechanization is possible if more work is done by repeated use of similar unit i.e. repetitive work. Scheduling Technique which considers necessity of continuous utilization of the resources is required in greater number of projects as the complexity of project increases., in order to achieve advantages of mechanisation. RSM has the potential to address this problem which is not adequately done by network diagramming.
5) RSM algorithm is complicated then both LOB and CPM however the advantages in use of RSM make it a practical method which can be utilized extensively. More information can be obtained from the RSM graph, as compared to the network diagram or LOB chart.
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