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faris Elecrical Engg Department Al-Ameen Engg College, Shoranur

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED WITH ELECTRIC FIELD Electric Field:The space around a charge where its effect can be felt is called electric field. Electric Flux:Electric flux through a surface is the number of electric lines of force passing normally through the surface. Potential:Work done by an external force in moving a unit charge from infinity to a point, without any acceleration against the electrostatic force. Potential Difference:Work done by an external force in moving a unit charge from one point to another point, without any acceleration against the electrostatic force. Voltage (V):Voltage is the difference in potential provided for helping the movement of charges. Its unit is volt (V). Electro Motive Force (EMF):The energy required to do the work on a unit charge in order to move the charges is called EMF. Its unit is volt (V). Current (I):It is the rate of flow of charges. Its unit is ampere (A). Resistance (R):It is the opposition offered to the flow of charges. Its unit is ohm ( ). OHM S LAW At constant temperature, potential difference across the ends conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing through that conductor . i.e. V I

V=IR Where R is the proportionality constant, called resistance.

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k KIRCHHOFF S LAWS Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL):-

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

The sum of voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to the sum of the voltage sources of that loop Or The algebraic sum of the product of current & resistance in each of the conductor in any closed path in a network plus the algebraic sum of the voltages in that path is zero Kirchhoff s current law (KCL):In any electrical network, current entering in to a junction is equal to current leaving the junction SOLUTION OF SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS WITH DC EXCITATION Problem-1:Two coils connected in series have a resistance of 9 resistance of each coil? and when in connected parallel have a resistance of 2 . Find the =9 (1) (2)

When coils are connected in series, effective resistance When coils are connected in parallel, effective resistance Put eq(1) in eq(2), we get

=2

Put eq(3) in eq(1), we get

( = 3 or 6 , therefore Problem-2:The effective resistance of two resistors connected in parallel is 8 . The resistance of one of the resistor is 12 . Calculate the resistance of other coil and the effective resistance of the two resistors connected in series? = 6 or 3 .

When resistances are connected in parallel, effective resistance The resistance of one of the resistor is 12 , EEE Department = 12

=8

(1) (2)

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

Put eq(1) in eq(2), we get 12 12 = 8 * (12 + -8 = 96 = 24 .

(12*

) / (12 +

=8

Therefore the resistance of other resistor is

= 24 = 36 .

When resistances are connected in series, effective resistance Problem-3:-

A current in a circuit is due to a potential drop of 10V applied to a resistor of resistance 100 . What resistance would permit the same current to flow if supply voltage were 100V? Case-1 Current produced in a 100 resistor due to 10V is I = V/R = 10/ 100 =0.1A Case-II Value of resistance would permit the same current (i.e. is 0.1A) if voltage is 100V, R = V/I = 100/0.01 = 1000 Problem-4:Calculate voltage that must be connected across terminal ab such that the voltage across 2 resistor is 10V.

Current passing through 2 resistor is , I = V / R = 10 / 2 = 5A. Total resistance in the circuit is

**=2+1+ =7 Therefore voltage across ab is v = I *
**

= 5 * 7 = 35V

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

Problem-5:Write the mesh current equations in the circuit shown in figure and determine the currents?

By KVL in mesh A-B-E-F-A -6 9 - 3 = 42 By KVL in mesh B-C-D-E-A -4 + 10 + 0 + 3 -3 + 7 = 10 =0 .(2) (1)

Eq (2)*3 + eq (1), we get 18 = 72, = 72/18 = 4A. (3)

Put eq (3) in eq(1), we get 9 - 3*4 = 42 , = 54/9 = 6A (4)

Problem-6:Using Kirchhoff s law, find the current through 10 resistor?

By KVL in mesh A-B-E-F-A, -5 15 - 10 = 20 EEE Department (1) Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

By KVL in mesh B-C-D-E-A -2 - 8 + 0 + 10 10 - 12 =8 =0 .(2)

Eq (1)*2 - eq (2)*3, we get

Therefore current through 10

resistor is, -

= 1A .

MAGNETIC CIRCUITS Magnetic circuit may be defined as the path which followed by magnetic flux. The law of magnetic circuit is similar to those of electrical circuit.

Consider a solenoid or toroid have iron ring having a magnetic path of l meter, area of cross section A N turns carrying I amperes wound anywhere as shown in figure Then field strength inside the solenoid is H=

and a coil of

Now B =

*

*H =

Therefore total flux produced =B*A =

=

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

The numerator NI produces magnetization in the magnetic circuit is known as magneto motive force (mmf) and the denominator is called reluctance of the circuit.

Therefore, Flux = .

Flux =

=

(Wb)

M.M.F It is the work done in joules in carrying a unit magnetic pole once through the entire magnetic circuit. It measures in ampere turns (AT). M.M.F, F = NI (AT) FLUX It is the amount of magnetic field produced by a magnetic source. It measures in Weber (Wb). Flux, = B * A (Wb) RELUCTANCE It is the opposition offered to the passage of magnetic flux through a material. It measures in Reluctance, S= ( ) .

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

COMPARISON OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUITS Magnetic Circuit Electric Circuit

Flux = m.m.f (AT) Flux Density B (Wb/ Reluctance S= Permeance (1/S) Once magnetic flux is set up due to energy , does not require any further energy to maintain it. ( ) )

Current = e.m.f (Volt) Current Density J (A/ Resistance, R= ( ) )

Conductance (1/R) Continuous energy is required to maintain flow of electricity

Problem-7:An iron ring of mean length 1.2m & cross-sectional area 0.005 is wound with a coil of 900 turns. If a current of 2A in the coil produces a flux density in the ring of 1.1T, calculate (a) mmf, (b) total flux in the ring and (c) relative permeability of iron at this flux density? (a) mmf = NI = 900*2 = 1800AT (b) Flux , = B*A = 1.1* 0.005 =5.5mWb (c) Reluctance, S = mmf/ flux = 1800/(5.5* Also S=

) = 327272.723

, we get

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

=

=1.2 / (4 *10^-7*0.005*327272.723) = 583.568 Relative permeability, Problem-8:A coil of insulated wire of 500 turns and a resistance of 4 is closely wound on an iron ring. The ring has a mean diameter of 0.25m & a uniform cross-sectional area 700 . Calculate the total flux in the ring when a DC supply at 6V is applied to the ends of winding. Assume = 550. From Ohm s law, I = V/R = 6/4 = 1.5A = *d = 3.14* 0.25 = 0.785m MMF = NI = 500* 1.5 = 750 AT Reluctance, S = Flux, = = = 750/ (1.6225* = 0.462 mWb. = 1.6225* = 583

FARADAY S LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Faraday s first law:Whenever the magnetic field linked with a circuit changes, an emf is always induced in it Faraday s second law:The magnitude of induced emf is equal to the rate of change of flux linkages Explanation:Suppose a coil has N turns and flux through it changes from an initial value of webers to final value of webers in time t seconds. Then remembering that by flux linkages mean the product of number of turns and flux linked with the coil, we have Initial flux linkages = N Final flux linkages = N , ) ,

Therefore change in flux linkages = N (

Let t b e the time taken for transition, the rate of change of flux linkages = According to faraday s 2nd law, this must be equal to emf induced in it. EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k Therefore induced emf, e = e= . (in differential form)

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

LENZ S LAW Electromagnetically induced emf set up a current in such a direction that magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause producing it

e=-(

Problem-9:A coil of 500 turns is linked by a flux of 0.4mWb. If the flux is reversed in 0.01second, find the emf induced in the coil? N = 500 e= Problem-10:The current flowing through the coil of 400 turns is suddenly changed so that the flux linking the turns increased by 6mWb in 0.2 second, calculate the induced voltage? N = 400 , e= == 6* mWb , = -12V. DYNAMICALLY INDUCED EMF t = 0.2 s , == 0.4* mWb , = -0.4* = 40V mWb , t = 0.01 s

Here magnetic field is stationary & the conductor or coil cut across it. By changing the position of conductor, flux linked with circuit changes. Therefore emf is induced dynamically. Generators works based on principle of dynamically induced emf. In generators, emf is induced in a conductor housed in revolving armature lying within a strong magnetic field. EEE Department Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k Dynamically induced emf,

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

e = B v sin

Where

B = flux density in Weber/

,

= length of conductor in meter V = velocity in m/s Problem-11:A conductor of length 1m moves at right angles to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 1.5 Wb/ with a velocity of 50 m/s. Calculate emf induced in it?. Find also the value of induced emf when the conductor moves at an angle of 30° to the direction of field? Case I B = 1.5 Wb/ , = 1m, v = 50 m/s, = 90°

e = B v sin = 1.5*1*50*sin90 = 75V. Case-II B = 1.5 Wb/ , = 1m, v = 50 m/s , = 30°

e = B v sin = 1.5*1*50*sin30 = 37.5V STATICALLY INDUCED EMF Here the conductor or coil is stationary & flux linked with it changes by simply increasing or decreasing the current producing this flux. This type of emf is obtained by changing the strength of current there by changing the flux linkages with the coil. There are two types of statically induced emf (a) Self induced emf , (b) Mutually induced emf Self induced emf: - The emf induced in one coil due to change in current in the same coil is called self induced emf. Self induced emf is directly proportional to rate of change of current producing it. That is e , e = -L Where L is the proportionality constant called self inductance Mutually induced emf: - The emf induced in one coil due to change in current the other coil is called mutually induced emf. e = -L

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

Mutually induced emf in one coil ( coil-2) due to change in current in other coil (coil-1) is directly proportional to . That is rate of change of current

,

Where M is the proportionality constant called mutual inductance.

SELF INDUCTANCE (L) Consider a coil of N turns carrying a current i , which produces a flux links with that coil. From Faraday s law, induced emf in the coil is

**e=-( If L is the self inductance, induced emf in the coil is
**

e = -L Compare eq(1) & eq(2), we get

.(1)

.(2)

-(

L=N

-L

For a coil with non-magnetic core, flux is directly proportional to current . That is

**= In such a case inductance is,
**

L=N

If =

, we get L=

**Its unit is Henry (H).
**

EEE Department Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

Consider two coils 1&2 with N1&N2 turns respectively. The coils are located physically close to one another so that a flux produced by current in coil-1 links with coil-2 as shown in figure. From Faraday s law, induced emf in the coil-2 due to change in flux is

**.(1) If M is the mutual inductance, induced emf in the coil-2 due to current flow in coil-1 is
**

(2) Compare eq(1) & eq(2), we get

= M=

For a coil with non-magnetic core, flux is directly proportional to current . That is

= In such a case mutual inductance is, M= If

(3)

=

, we get

M=

..(4)

Therefore

M=

or

M=

Its unit is Henry (H). COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING Consider two magnetically coupled coils A & B having inductances are . Therefore,

EEE Department

turns respectively. Their individual self

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

and Suppose a fraction of flux M= ( i.e M= ( i.e

.(1) ) is linked with coil-2. . .(2)

Therefore mutual inductance M is Similarly a fraction of flux

) is linked with coil-1. .(3) ..(4)

Therefore mutual inductance M is From eq(1), we get From eq(2) and eq(3), we get Compare eq(5) and eq (6), we get

=

.(5)

= = = Put k= ( ), we get k =

k =

The constant k is called coefficient of coupling & is defined as the ratio of mutual inductance actually present between the coils to the maximum possible value.

Problem-12:An air-cored toroid has 450 turns and mean diameter of 300mm and a cross sectional area of 300m .

Determine self inductance of coil & the average voltage induced in it when a current of 2A is reversed in 40ms?

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

Faris.k.k

Basic Electrical Lecture Notes

N = 450 ,

d = 300mm,

= d =

* 300*10^-3 = 0.9424 m , A = 300*10^-6

S =

=

=

Self inductance L =

EEE Department

Al-Ameen Engineering College

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