sus Christ's Birth!

......... :::-- ____l2~==========:::::;_--- September/October 2010

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A bout 2000 years ago God sent an angel to Israel, to a virgin nnamed Mary. She was engaged to Joseph, a carpenter. The angel told Mary that by God's power, she would conceive and bearason.

When Joseph learned that she was pregnant, an angel instructed him to marry her. Joseph took her to Bethlehem to register for a census. While there, Mary gave birth to Jesus. She laid him in a manger because there was no room at the inn. Shepherds visited Jesus in Bethlehem.

Later, wise men brought gifts to Jesus. They told Herod the Great, a wicked king, that Jesus would rule Israel. So Herod sent soldiers to kill the children in Bethlehem. Warned by an angel, Joseph took his family to Egypt. After Herod died, they returned to Israel and raised Jesus in a town called Nazareth.

Dear Brethren in Christ, the above narration gives us the very good exhortation about our Savior's birth & reason to rejoice, but whereas, to be more precise on the month & date of His birth, most of our Christian brethren have been mislead by irrelevant proofs by the scholars. Here, we are making a humble attempt to overcome these misconceptions about our Savior's birth with the relevant Bible proof for more & clear enlightenment; so that we must not be deceived by pagan's celebration. As scripture clearly said, Let your light shine upon theworldL ...

Most biblical scholars and preachers readily admit that they know Christ was not born on December 25th. There is no evidence for this date. So then, who decided that Jesus' birth would be celebrated on that date? The early Christian church did not celebrate Jesus' birth. It wasn't until AD. 440 that the church officially proclaimed December 25 as the birth of Christ. This was not based on any religious evidence but on a pagan feast. Saturnalia was a tradition inherited by the Roman pagans from an earlier Babylonian priesthood. December 25 was used as a celebration of the birthday ofthe sun god. It was observed near the winter solstice Palestine is very cold in December. It was much too cold to ask everyone to travel to the city of their fathers to register for taxes. Also the shepherds were in the fields (Luke 2:8-12). Shepherds were not in the fields in the winter time. Let us verify these facts with the guidance of Holy spirit for further clarifications.

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Verification One: Other evidence that December 25 is the wrong date for the birth of Jesus comes from early writings. Iranaeus, born about a century after Jesus, notes that Jesus was born in the 41st year of the reign of Augustus. Since Augustus began his reign in the autumn of 43 B.C., this appears to substantiate the birth of Jesus as the autumn of 2 B.C. Eusebius (AD. 264-340), the "Father of Church History," ascribes it to the 42nd year of the reign of Augustus and the asth from the subjection of Egypt on the death of Anthony and Cleopatra. The 42nd year of Augustus ran from the autumn of 2 B.C. to the autumn of 1 B.C. The subjugation of Egypt into the Roman Empire occurred in the autumn of 30 B.C. The 28th year extended from the autumn of 3 B.C. to the autumn of 2 B.C. The only date that would meet both of these constraints would be the autumn of 2 B.C. (Note:

Iranaeus ,( 2nd century AD - c. 202) was a Catholic Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire (now Lyons, France). He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology.)

Verification Two: John the Baptist also helps us determine that December 25 is not the birth of Jesus. Elizabeth, John's mother, was a cousin of Mary. John began his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar. The minimum age for the ministry was 30. As Augustus died on August 19, AD. 14, that was the accession year for Tiberius. If John was born on April 19-20, 2 B.C., his 30th birthday would have been April 19- 20, AD. 29, or the isth year of Tiberi us. This seems to confirm the 2 B.C. date, and, since John was 5/6 months older, this also confirms an autumn birth date for Jesus.

LUKE 1:5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah... (NKJV) First, we need to understand "the division of Abijah." We find in 1 Chronicles 24:1-19 that the descendants of Aaron's 24 grandsons (the sons of Eleazer and Ithamar) were divided into 24 divisions or courses for the purpose of serving at the Temple. 1 Chronicles 24:10 tells us that the 8th division of service was assigned to Abijah's descendants. Each of these divisions served at the Temple for an eight-day period (1 Chr. 9:25). The service began and ended on the weekly Sabbath (2 Chr. 23:8). In addition to their normal service, all 24 courses served at the Temple during the three holy seasons every year. The Jewish Mishnah indicates that each course served a week during the first half of the year, the three annual festival weeks, and a week during the last half ofthe year, for a total of five weeks during a normal year. Note: A normal year on the Hebrew calendar consists of twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days,for a total of 354 days. This is about 11 days less than a solar year (365.24 days). During a regular Jewish year (which occurs 12 times in a 19-year cycle), 51 weeks of coverage would be needed to ensure that the Temple was cared for every week throughout the year. 24 (first half of the year) + 3 (festival weeks) + 24 (second half of the year) = 51 weeks Between the ist and the 9th week of the year, two of the three festival times when all 24 courses served occurred. Therefore, the course of Abijah, the 8th course, would serve its first regular week during the 9th or 10th week of the year (depending on how the Feast of Weeks fell on the calendar).

With this little insight, I would urge upon the readers to reconsider the entire study for the better enlightenment as we know there is always one or two years of difference would emerge in all biblical chronological aspect. In addition to this there are various articles is also included in this regard. ,..--",,;;;;;;;;0:- ...... MayGodBlessYouAll! Amen

For any clarification and comments you may also write to, rbjj @reasonedtruth.com &9~ ~ §l &9

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a. The Christmas Challenge!

Page - 3

b. Skeptic Stories December 25?

c. The Christmas Tree Page - 4

a. What did you find, Lord?

b. It's up to you

c. Building your house!

d. Is your hut burning? Page -7

a. Guarding Against Deception & False Doctrine Page - 5 a. Jesus was born on the day of Trumpets!

The Name above all Names He is Jesus?

Page - 6

a. Tribute to Bro. John Colet b. Early Christian Martyrs Page - 8

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~e Dear Brethren in Christ, we are pleased

.~ ta invite all the authars/preachers

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fram acrass world, who seek Gad's wisdoJ11

and wish 10 share their views to the fellow servants.

You may submit your manuscript by

3 September/October 2010

Christmas has always been a holiday celebrated carelessly. For millennia, pagans, Christians, ana even Jews have been swept away in the season's festivities, and very few people ever pause to consider the celebration's intrinsic meaning, history, or origins .

* Christmas celebrates the birth of the Christian god who came to rescue mankind from the "curse of the Torah." It is a 24-hour declaration that Judaism is no longer valid.

* Christmas is a lie. There is no Christian church with a tradition that Jesus was really born on December 25th•

December 25 is a day on which Jews l:i~ve been shamed, tortured, and murdered.

* Many of the most popular Christmas customs - including Christmas trees, mistletoe, Christmas presents, and Santa Claus - are modern incarnations of the most depraved pagan rituals ever practiced on earth.

Many who are excitedly preparing fon their Christmas celebrations would prefer non knowing about the holiday's real significance. If they ~o know the history, they often object that their celebration has no1i~ing to do with the holiday'S monstrops history and meaning. "We are just

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havmgfun."

Imagine that between 1933-4~' the N~i regime celebrated Adolf Hitler's birthday - April 20 - as a holiday. Imagine that they named the day, "Hitlerday," and observed the day with feasting, drunkenness, gift-giving, and various pagan practices. Imagine that on that day, Jews were historically subject to perverse tortures and abuse, and that this continued for centuries.

Now, imagine that your great-great-great-grandchildren were about to celebrate Hitlerday. Aprll zo'tarrived. They had long forgotten about Auschwitz and Bergen Belsen. They had never heard of gas chambers or death marches. They had purchased champagne and caviar, and were about to begin the party, when someone reminded them of the day's real history and their ancestors' agony. Imagine that they initially objected, "We aren't celebrating the Holocaust; we're just having a little Hitlerdayparty." If you could travelforward in time and meet them; if you could say a few words to them, what would you advise them to do on Hitlerday?

On December 25,1941, Julius Streicher, one of the most vicious of Hitler's assistants, celebrated Christmas by penning the following editorial in his rabidly Antisemitic newspaper, Der Stuermer:

If one really wants to put an end to the continued prospering of this cursefrom heaven that is the Jewish blood, there is only one way to do it: to eradicate this people, this Satan's son, root and branch. It was an appropriate thought for the day. This Christmas, how will we celebrate?

~e actual birthday of Jesus was forgotten by the early ~ Christian movement. in those days, various groups celebrated his birth on JAN-6, APR-21 and MAY-I. By the 4th century, the church selected the approximate time of the winter solstice as the date to recognize Jesus' birth. They: . picked up this date from Pagan sources. .

The winter solstice occurs about DEC-21 each year. It is the' day of the year when the night is longest and the daytime shortest. Using the crude instruments available, astronomers were able to detect by DEC-25 of each the daytime had become noticeably longer. This date chosen, and remains, the traditional date for followers of many different Pagan religions to celebrate the rebirth of the sun. Following the solstice, each succeeding day has slightly more sunlight than the previous day. It was seen as a promise that warmth would return once more to the earth. Numerous pre-Christian Pagan religions honored their gods' birth or rebirth on or about that day. Their deities were typically called: Son of Man, Light of the World, Sun of Righteousness, Bridegroom, and Savior.

Some examples are:

Roman Pagan Religion: Attis was a son of the virgin Nana. His birth was celebrated on DEC-25. He was sacrificed as an adult in order to bring salvation to mankind. He died about MAR-25, after being crucified on a tree, and descended for three days into the underworld. On Sunday, he arose, as the solar deity for the new season. His followers tied an image of Attis to a tree on "Black Friday," and carried him in a procession to the temple. His body was symbolically eaten by his followers in the form of bread. Worship ofAttis began in Rome circa 200 BCE.

Greek Pagan Religion: Dionysus is another savior-god whose birth was observed on DEC-25. He was worshipped throughout much of the Middle East as well. He had a center of worship in Jerusalem in the ist century BCE. Some ancient coins have been found in Gaza with Dionysus on one side and JHWH (Jehovah) on the other. In later years, his flesh and blood were symbolically eaten in the form of bread and wine. He was viewed as the son of Zeus, the Father God.

Egyptian Pagan Religion: Osiris is a savior-god who ha.d. been worshipped as far back as Neolithic times. "He was called Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God of Gods ... the Resurrection and the Life, the Good shepherd ... the god whti! 'made men and women be born again"' sThree wise men announced his birth. His followers ate cakes of wheat

which symbolized his body. Many sayings associated with Osiris were taken over into the Bible. This included: 23rd Psalm: an appeal to Osiris as the good Shepherd to lead believers through the valley of the shadow of death and to green pastures and still waters.

Lord's Prayer: "0 amen, who art in heaven ... " Many parables attributed to Jesus.

Worship of Osiris, and celebration of his DEC-25 birth, were established throughout the Roman Empire by the end of the ist century BCE.

www.reasonedtruth.com

Babylonian Religion: Celebrated their "Victory of the Sun-God" Festival on DEC-25. Saturnalia (the Festival of Saturn) was celebrated from DEC-17 to 23 in the Roman Empire. The Roman Emperor Aurelian blended Saturnalia with a number of birth celebrations of savior Gods from other religions, into a single holy day: DEC-25. After much argument, the developing Christian church adopted this date as the birthday oftheir savior, Jesus. The people of the Roman Empire were accustomed to celebrating the birth

of a God on that day. So, it was easy for the church to divert people's attention to Jesus' birth.

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Hfiil1'!piI~. an evergreen tree into the house is another pagan hndillDlil relating to the worship of evergreen plants as lI)~s offertility, life and reproduction. The pagans ~~rated their trees with fruit, and placed other foods gJi~rneath it as offerings to the tree. The Christmas

:.talftl .. 'iI'r~e is to be an evergreen with it's boughs stretched toward heaven, reminding us of the everlasting life that Christ came to bring sinners. The candles or lights on the tree remind us that Jesus is the light of the world. This surely is what Martin

Luther envisioned back in 1535 when he cut and decorated the first Christmas tree for his children. Prince Albert carried the Christmas tree custom from Germany to Windsor Castle in 1841. Ten years later, a Cleveland minister was accused of sacrilege and idolatry when he put up the first American tree. But a young child saw it right. "Mother", he whispered, "the tree from heaven!"

Revelation regarding false ministers and false doctrines. When you preach against deception and false doctrines in the church, you are not dealing with heresy hunting or evil suspicions, but with very serious biblical issues. Deception and false doctrine can destroy people, families, and churches. Church history is full of the carnage, confusion, and turmoil caused by false prophets and false teachers who have led multitudes astray with their strange teachings and heresies. As the opening scripture above warns you, false teachers introduce destructive heresies and bring swift destruction upon themselves.

When I was young I used to watch a television show called Lost in Space. In this show there was a robot that would begin to swing his arms up and down violently and his lights would begin to flicker on and off whenever he and his companions were near danger. The robot would yell, "warning, warning, warning!" During the last year, my spirit has been resounding with the words "warning, warning, warning" regarding all that is presented in the name of Christ in Christian books, churches, magazines, and television. In Matthew 24:4-5, before Jesus said anything else about end-time events, He gave His apostles this warning: "Watch out that no one deceives you. For many will come in My name, claiming, 'I am the Christ,' and will deceive many." Jesus did not say that a few would be deceived, but many! I am seriously warning all of you who are reading this to guard against deception and false teachings by testing everything, staying humble in spirit, and crying outfor discernment. You must be like King Solomon - rightly discerning between the false mother and the true one (1 Kings 3=16-28). The days are short, deception is strong, and you must be fully armed with the truth of God's Word!

Let me give you five practical ways to guard against the deception and lies of false and unstable ministers whose condemnation has been written about long ago (Jude 1:4).

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Isaiah 8:19-20 says, "When men tell you to consult mediums and spiritists, who whisper and mutter, should not a people inquire of their God? Why consult the dead on behalf of the living? To the law and to the testimony: If they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." Your first counsel on anything is God and His Word. This is your first question: Is it in God's Word? If you can't find it in

5------o-------i---'----- September/October 2010

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from God. He said God had revealed to him how to quickly lose weight. He went on to say how he had some "anointed cookies" that he had prayed over and when you ate these cookies you would begin to lose weight! You may laugh, but this guy was on television promoting this in the name of Christ! There are no "anointed cookies" for weight reduction in the Bible. I recommend you go on a diet and exercise!

In 1901, one of the most famous evangelists of his time, John Alexander Dowie, claimed that he was Elijah the Restorer. Dowie was not some flaky minister who was following a bunch of dilutions. He was a powerful minister who built Zion City in Illinois and had an 8,000-seat church called Shiloh Tabernacle. In 1904, he told his followers to expect the full restoration of apostolic Christianity and that he was commissioned by God as the first apostle of the renewed endtimes church. He became a modern-day Solomon, starting out very strong in wisdom, knowledge, and power, only to end in bondage, confusion, and deception. Flee from those who claim to be some famous person of Bible days. It's not in the Word!

In Acts 17:11, the Bible says, "Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the word with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true." Here was a group of people who examined the Scriptures every day to see if the writer of much of the New Testament (Paul) was speaking the truth! You have people today accepting any form of teaching just because a minister has some title or position in the church. It doesn't matter how many radio or television stations a minister appears on, you need to check the Scriptures yourself to see if what is being taught is the truth. The Greek word "examined" found in this verse is "anakrino." It means "to scrutinize, interrogate, investigate, question, and search." It's a word clearly implying that the Bereans were making a careful, complete, and thorough search of the Scriptures to make sure they were not led astray. This is honorable. That's why the Bible says they were of "more noble character" than the believers at Thessalonica. You need to be in the Word every day or you could be deceived. ... to be continued

For any clarification and comments you may also write to, charliavila777@yahoo.com or visit www.spiritofrevelation.org

'--_"'__---'

www.reasonedtruth.com

... But it was a trap ... and Satan fell for it. He boldly opened the door of hell and took Jesus in. There in that pit, Jesus paid the full price for sin. He bore the curse of damnation for all mankind.

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But God didn't leave Jesus in that pit. When the penalty for sin had been fully met, the voice of the LORD .......... ,,'" ... thundered out of heaven and exploded into the very depths hell as He said: "Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" (Hebrews 1:5, Matt: 28:2, 18)

With those words, the very glory of God shot into Jesus' tormented, sin-and-death-wracked spirit. Suddenly He rose up in power and majesty, and came storming up out of that place a reborn glorified Man united with the LORD of glory Himself! Whipping every demon principality, every power, every ruler darkness, especially Satan himself. Jesus tore through the region of the dead and freed the captives who were in the bosom Abraham. He came roaring out of there in glorious victory over all of hell, death and every devil and "made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it" (Colossians 2:15).

When Jesus went back to heaven, He returned as a warrior. He returned as the hero of the ages who had by .......... .,'" ... purged our sins, stripped the devil of His weapons, and taken back the keys of death and hell.

In honor of Jesus' great victory, God bestowed on Him the greatest title that could be given. He highly exalted Him and gave Him "the name which is above every name: That at the name Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is LORD, to the glory of God the Father" (Philippians 2:9-11).

Do you realize what that means? It means Jesus has been given the Tetragrammaton ... with honor added to it! He has been given that Name and every other name by which God has been known throughout the ages. His Name represents the Champion champions!

When we pray by faith in that Name, all of heaven-including the angelic forces, the mighty Holy Spirit and our heavenly Father Himself-responds. When we utter that Name in faith, the elements of the earth obey. When we declare that Name in faith, all of hell and the devil buckles at the knees. There's nothing else they can do. The force released by Jesus' Name exerts so much pressure on Satan that he has to flee. He can't function in the presence of it.

Now you can see why Jesus so boldly said, "Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it you." He understands the power of His Name.

It's time we understand it too. It's time we reverence it, develop faith in it ... and put it to work. When we do, the will of God shall be done on earth as it is in heaven. And hell won't be able to keep us from receiving the answers to our prayers. God Bless You All.

For any clarification and comments you may also write to, johnarnoldzesgmail.com

~~~&ftMltl

www.reosonedtruth.com

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of Trumpets (the first day ofTishri - the start of the an impressive amount of symbolic features emerge on prophetic scenes. Before the period of the Exodus in the time of Moses, this was the day that began the biblical year. It also looks like this was the day when people were advanced one year oflife - no matter at what month of the year they were actually born.

Notice that the patriarch Noah became 600 years of age "in the first month [Tishri], the first day of the month Dater to be called the Day of Trumpets]" (Genesis 8:13). That was the very day when "Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry" (v. 13). This was not only Noah's official birthday, it became a new birth after the Flood for the earth as well.

There is more. Even the first day of creation mentioned in Genesis 1:1-5 could be reckoned as being this very day. The early Jews discussed whether the actual creation took place in spring or in autumn. But since the autumn commenced all biblical years before the Exodus (Exodus 12:2), and since all the fruit was then on the trees ready for Adam and Eve to eat (Genesis 1:29; 2:9, 16-17), it suggests that the month of Tishri was the creation month, beginning near the autumn. If so, then the first day of creation mentioned in Genesis was also the first of Tishri (at least, Moses no doubt intended to give that impression). This means that not only was this the birthday of the new earth in Noah's day and what was later to become the Day of Trumpets on the Mosaic calendar, but it was also the day which ushered in the original creation of the heavens and the earth.

As shown before, among the Jews this day was called Rosh ha-Shanah (the Feast of the New Year). The majority belief of Jewish elders (which still dominates the services of the synagogues) was that the Day of Trumpets was the memorial day that commemorated the beginning of the world. Authorized opinion prevailed that the first of Tishri was the first day of Genesis 1:1-5. It "came to be regarded as the birthday of the world." It was even more than an anniversary of the physical creation. The Jewish historian Theodor H. Gaster states,

"Judaism regards New Year's Day not merely as an anniversary of creation - but more importantly - as a renewal of it. This is world is reborn."

",n .... enter was ready to retire. He told his employer-

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more leisurely with his wife and enjoy his extended family. He

would miss the paycheck each week, but he wanted to retire. They could get by.

The contractor was sorry to see his good worker go & asked if he could build just one more house as a personal favor. The carpenter said yes, but over time it was easy to see that his heart was not in his work. He resorted to shoddy workmanship and used inferior materials. It was an unfortunate way to end a dedicated career.

When the carpenter finished his work, his employer came to inspect the house. Then he handed the front-door key to the carpenter and said, "This is your house ••• my gift to you."

The carpenter was shocked!

What a shame! If he had only known he was building his own house, he would have done it all so differently.

So it is with us. We build our lives, a day at a time, often putting less than our best into the building. Then, with a shock, we realize we have to live in the house we have built. If we could do it over, we would do it much differently.

What did you find, Lord, on that day While sowing your seed, you came by my way?

When seeds of grace to me you threw, What did you find here, amidst the dew?

Was my heart like a path, hardened and cold No place for your truth to burrow and take hold?

Did it lay there unyielded, left open as prey For the birds of the air to come take it away?

Did you see me as weak and unable to bear The suffering I'll have when your name I declare? Did your truth find ajoy that would wither away, When my faith is tested, and finds a cost to pay?

When you looked my way and truth you cast down Did the way of my heart cause you to frown?

Was I pulled by worry and distracted by things That won't stand the fire when eternity rings?

Or did you, Lord, as the seed left your hand Find a fertile heart on which it would land Will your truth take hold and grow to yield A legacy of grace, Your kingdom to build?

Based on Jesus' Parable of the sower Matthew 13

One song can spark a moment, One flower can wake the dream. One tree can start a forest,

One bird can herald spring.

One smile begins a friendship, One handclasp lifts a soul.

One star can guide a ship at sea, One word can frame the goal.

One vote can change a nation, One sunbeam lights a room. One candle wipes out darkness, One laugh will conquer gloom.

One step must start each journey, One word must start each prayer. One hope will raise our spirits, One touch can show you care.

One voice can speak with wisdom, One heart can know what's true. One life can make the difference, You see it's up to YOU!!!

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••

But, you cannot go back. You are the carpenter, and every day you hammer a nail, place a board, or erect a wall. Someone once said, "Life is a do-it-yourself project." Your attitude, and the choices you make today, help build the "house" you will live in tomorrow. Therefore, Build wisely!

man asked his rescuers: you know I was here?"

They replied: ''We saw your smoke signal."

It is easy to get discouraged when things are going bad. But we shouldn't lose heart, because God is at work in our lives, even in the midst of pain and suffering. Remember, the next time ,Your little hut is burning to the ground --

it just may be the smoke SIgnal that summons the grace of God.

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In 1496, John Colet.jmother Oxford professor and the son of the Mayor of London, Strongly influenced by learned to read Greek after a two-year trip to Italy, Colet followed in his footsteps and went to Italy for

two years to learn Greek. He later assisted Linacre in the production of the first Greek grammar book printed in England.

Colet's most significant contribution to the Reformation, was bold reading the New Testament in Greek and translating it into English for his students at Oxford, which was strictly forbidden by the church. Later, Colet went even further by reading the scriptures in English for the public at Saint Paul's Cathedral in London.

The people were so hungry to hear the Word of God in a language they could understand,{not Latin), that within six months there were 20,000 people packed in the church and at least that many outside trying to get in! (Sadly, while the enormous and beautiful Saint Paul's Cathedral remains the main church in London today, as of 2003, typical Sunday morning worship attendance is only around 200 people ... and most of them are tourists.) Fortunately for Colet, he was a powerful man with friends in high places, so he amazingly managed to avoid execution for this blatant violation of the church's "Latin-only" policy. Colet demonstrated the public's overwhelming reaction of hunger for the Gospel in English, adding tremendous fuel to the growing fire of the Reformation. Colet condemned war and prompted Christians

to fight only for Christ.

Colet, did not aspire to a formal breach with the Roman Church, but then, neither did most of the Reformers. Colet was a keen Reformer, who disapproved of priestly confession, and of the celibacy of the clergy. He was a powerful force in the England of his day, and helped materially to overcome the medieval conditions still common in England, and to introduce the humanist movement. Among his works are:

Absoliaissimus de octo orationis partium constructione libellus (Antwerp, 1530), Rudimenta Grammatices (London, 1539), Daily Devotions, Monition to a Godly Life, Epistolae ad Erasmum, antd'cJromenta~es 5>ll diff~ren~f~rts of the Bible.

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!~d man, he was called upon to utter impious statements. When he did not obey, his tormentors beat his body with clubs, and pricked his face and eyes. After that, they led him to the suburbs, where they stoned him. (257)

endured many torments to the body because of his faith. He was under an iron collar, spent time in the deepest recesses of the prison, for many days was extended and stretched to four holes on the rack, was threatened by fire, and had other tortures. The judge tried hard to protract his life in order to prolong his sufferings. (255)

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Htrwa\ a teacher from Asia who taught multitudes not to sacrifice to the gods nor worship them. Through a vision he had, he said that he must be burned alive. After he was bound to the stake, he prayed and awaited the fire. The flames gave the appearance of an oven around him. He was in the midst, not like burning flesh, but like gold and

silver purified in the flames. A fragrant odour, like the fumes of incense, or other precious aromatic drugs, was perceived. When the persecutors saw that his body could not be consumed by fire, they commanded the executor to plunge his sword into him. When this was done, such a quantity of blood gushed forth that the fire was extinguished. His body was later burned according to the custom of the Gentiles, and his bones were buried. (143)

~~erformed the ministrations of the episcopate of Lyons. Although past ninety years of age, very infirm of body, he was taken to the tribunal where he stood firm in his faith. He was unmercifully dragged away and endured many stripes, while those nearby abused him with their hands and feet. Then, after two days in prison, he died.(174)

~

Before he was tried by

imprisonment, he was taken before the tribunal of the governor. When commanded to sacrifice to the gods, he declared that he knew only one to whom it was proper to sacrifice. When ordered to make libations [the ritual of pouring out wine or oil in honor of a god]

to the four emperors, he stated a sentence which did not please his accusers. Immediately, he was beheaded. (349)

... to be continued

Source:

Ecclesiastical History

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