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Non-Linear Analysis (also called second-order analysis) performs an elastic analysis in which secondorder effects may be considered. The different second-order effects are described below. Non-linear analysis uses a multi-step procedure that commences with a linear elastic analysis. The load residuals, computed for the structure in its displaced position and with the stiffness of members modified, are applied as a new load vector to compute corrections to the initial solution. Further corrections are computed until convergence occurs. There is no single method of iterative non-linear analysis for which convergence is guaranteed. It may therefore be necessary to adjust the analysis control parameters in order to obtain a satisfactory solution. The solution may not converge if the structure is subject to gross deformation or if it is highly nonlinear. This may be the case as the elastic critical load is approached. Note: You should not attempt to use non-linear analysis to determine elastic critical loads. Results of non-linear analysis should be treated with caution whenever the loading is close to the elastic critical load. More: Second-Order Effects Running a Non-Linear Analysis Troubleshooting Non-Linear Analysis
The most important second-order effects taken into account in non-linear analysis are the P-Delta effect (P-Ä) and the P-delta effect (P-ä). These are discussed in detail below.
P-Ä AND P-ä EFFECTS You may independently include or exclude these two major effects. Different combinations of the P-Ä and P-ä settings affect the operation of non-linear analysis as set out in the table below. Node Axial
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.. causing additional bending moments that are not computed in linear analysis. which provides the most rigorous solution for all structure types.com
Coordinate Force Update Effects NO NO
Analysis Type Linear elastic analysis with tension-only or compression-only members taken into account.
More: Node Coordinate Update – P-Delta Effect Axial Force Effects – P-delta Effect Flexural Shortening Changes in Fixed-End Actions Non-Linear Members
Node Coordinate Update – P-Delta Effect The P-Delta effect (P-Ä) occurs when deflections result in displacement of loads. Full account is taken of the effects of axial force on member flexural stiffness while the effects of node displacement are approximated by a sidesway correction in the stability function formulation. Either small displacement theory or finite displacement theory may be used with node coordinate update. 2
. These settings normally give minimum solution time with second-order effects taken into account. This is the default analysis type.HSD Viet Nam. This can be achieved for any load case by selecting linear analysis Analysis includes the effects of displacement due to sidesway but not changes in member flexural stiffness due to axial force. These settings will usually yield satisfactory results for pin-jointed structures.mstower.MSTower V6 http://www. As shown
Hoang Van Cuong . P-Ä is taken into account either by adding displacement components to node coordinates during analysis or by adding sidesway terms to the stability functions used to modify the flexural terms in the member stiffness matrices.
SMALL AND FINITE DISPLACEMENT THEORIES
Axial Force Effects – P-delta Effect The bending stiffness of a member is reduced by axial compression and increased by axial tension.
Hoang Van Cuong ..mstower. however. In most structures the effect is small but can give rise to considerable difficulty in obtaining convergence of the analysis. finite displacement theory takes into account the rotation of the chord of the displaced member in computing the end rotations and the extension of the member..MSTower V6 http://www. it is difficult to obtain such restraint.
Flexural Shortening Flexural shortening. This is called the P-delta effect (P-ä) and is taken into account by adding beam-column stability functions to the flexural terms of the member stiffness matrices. also called bowing. The additional moments caused by P-ä are approximated in some design codes by the use of moment magnification factors applied to the results of a linear elastic analysis.HSD Viet Nam. In practice.com
in the diagram below. Only where large displacements occur would the use of finite displacement theory produce results different from those obtained with small displacement theory. The stability functions are derived from the "exact" solution of the differential equation describing the behaviour of a beam-column. Member stiffness matrices therefore vary with the axial load and are recomputed at every analysis iteration. is the reduction in chord length caused by bending. Inclusion of the flexural shortening effect is rarely required for a tower or mast. If the ends of the member are completely restrained against axial movement very high tensions may develop with transverse loading.
MSTower V6 http://www. all members nominated as tension-only or compression-only are checked and either removed from or restored to the model for the next analysis step. or cable members requires non-linear analysis.HSD Viet Nam. no solution is possible. In the Type column. or is to be ignored (Skipped). whether a primary load case or a combination load case. according to their deformation. load cases are identified as Primary or Combination. The second character is a code that specifies whether the load case is to be processed with Linear analysis or Non-linear analysis. If the removal of non-linear members causes the structure to become unstable. There is no need to analyse any load cases for which results are not required.
Non-Linear Members Analysis of structures containing tension-only.
Hoang Van Cuong . the following dialog box is displayed so you may specify the load cases to be analysed and the analysis type. On selecting the Analyse > Non-Linear command.. For non-linear analysis a load vector is formed for each load case to be solved. At the conclusion of each analysis step.com
Changes in Fixed-End Actions Member fixed-end actions may change between successive analysis iterations owing to displacement of the member and variations in its flexural stiffness caused by axial force..
Running a Non-Linear Analysis
Selecting Load Cases for Non-Linear Analysis Non-Linear Analysis Parameters
Selecting Load Cases for Non-Linear Analysis Non-linear analysis lets you specify the load cases to be analysed and the analysis type (linear or nonlinear) to be used for each.mstower. MStower automatically recalculates the fixed-end actions at each analysis iteration and updates the load vector accordingly.
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Non-Linear Analysis Parameters The next dialog box determines the type of non-linear analysis that will be performed for load cases selected for non-linear analysis. Note: The settings in this dialog box will be lost if you subsequently perform a linear analysis.com
SELECTING LOAD CASES FOR NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS The ability to use different analysis types is used for obtaining results for both linear and non-linear analysis in a single pass. You must reinstate the analysis type flag if you revert to non-linear analysis. This is particularly important for structures containing cable elements where realistic loads including self weight are required to determine the equilibrium position of each cable.MSTower V6 http://www. the analysis type flag (S/L/N) will be unconditionally set to Linear. only "realistic" load cases should be selected for non-linear analysis – there is no point in analysing a wind load case because this load will never exist in isolation. and a solution may not be possible for load cases containing only some load components. This may be necessary where the model includes members to be designed to different codes with different analysis requirements.mstower. The default setting is on..
Hoang Van Cuong .. In this case. It is automatically set for structures containing cable elements.
NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS PARAMETERS The dialog box contains the following items:
Node coordinate update (P-Ä) This flag is set if node coordinates are to be updated at each analysis step. In general.
convergence is checked by comparing the convergence tolerance against a generalized measure of the change in displacement between successive iterations. As a general rule. Convergence tolerance This value determines when the analysis has converged. Oscillation control This control facilitates convergence when the solution oscillates owing to the removal and restoration of tension-only or compression-only members.MSTower V6 http://www.. At each analysis iteration the maximum values of residual and displacement are displayed in correct user units. if the relaxation factor is too far from optimum the analysis may require an excessive number of iterations for convergence or it may not converge at all. This parameter is used to stop the analysis if convergence is taking an excessive time. Axial force effects (P-ä) If this flag is set member stiffnesses are modified at each analysis step.com
Small/finite displacement theory If the node coordinate update flag has been set. load steps You may apply loads in a stepwise fashion which may assist in obtaining a solution for flexible structures by keeping displacements small at each load increment.HSD Viet Nam... You normally leave this control at minimum and only increase the setting if difficulties are encountered in solution. i. Caution is recommended in changing the relaxation factor from the default value of 1. When Displacement is selected. The default setting is on. displacements increase disproportionately with load) have an optimum relaxation factor between 1.0005. or for structures that are initially unstable but become stable as they displace under load. determined by checking the change in the convergence criterion between successive analysis cycles.2 while structures which "harden" under load have an optimum relaxation factor as low as 0. residuals
Hoang Van Cuong . but larger values are often applicable for very flexible structures or models containing large numbers of cable elements. Residual / displacement Specifies the criterion to be used for convergence of the solution. Small displacement theory is the default setting. Do not attempt to achieve "convergence" by increasing the tolerance. Displacement control Increasing the setting of this control will assist convergence in situations where displacements appear to diverge with successive analysis iterations.mstower. The default setting is Residual.
As the analysis proceeds.0. The default value is 0.. Relaxation factor The relaxation factor is applied to incremental displacement corrections during analysis. Too small a value will prolong the solution time and may even inhibit convergence. No. This parameter is usually left at its default value of 1. The default value is 50. the analysis window displays key information for each selected load case. either small or finite displacement theory must be selected. Iterations per load step The maximum number of analysis iterations for each load step. Residual uses a function of the maximum out-of-balance force after analysis. For a satisfactory solution there must be acceptably small changes in the displacement and the residual must be of a low value. 6
.e. The optimum value for the relaxation factor depends on the type of the structure. structures which "soften" under load (i. Note that at this stage the values shown are from the most critical degree of freedom.0 and 1. The default setting is off.85.e.
MSTower V6 http://www. It contains information about members that have become ineffective because of slenderness or member type. Is a full non-linear analysis necessary? If the only significant non-linear effect is the presence of tension-only or compression-only members. However.com
may be either forces or moments. non-linear analysis may detect buckling of individual members or of the whole frame. Even though the analysis has failed. in diagnosing convergence problems. Examine the analysis log file. if the instability is not in a single member but localized in a small group of members it may not be detected until the completion of the analysis. Because a non-linear analysis considers the effects of axial force on member stiffness it is able to detect a range of instability that linear analysis cannot. If it is greater than the imposed load non-linear analysis is not possible.HSD Viet Nam..
Troubleshooting Non-Linear Analysis
It is possible to perform a successful linear analysis for structures that are incapable of resisting the imposed loads. and displacements may be either translations or rotations.g. Adjust non-linear analysis parameters. The presence of unstable members is reported in the Analysis window and details are written to the static log file. Non-linear analysis is a more complete simulation of the behaviour of a structure under load and the procedure may fail to provide a solution where a linear analysis succeeds. The results of
Hoang Van Cuong .. Sometimes. results are available and may be used to determine corrective measures. change to tension-only members. In this case. set the analysis type to L for these load cases. The manner in which a structure is modelled and the analysis parameters used can have some bearing on the stage of the analysis when instability of individual members is detected and the way in which it is subsequently treated. the following tips may be helpful:
Make sure that a linear analysis can be performed. If an unstable member is detected during the update process at the end of each iteration. troubleshoot the linear analysis before continuing with the non-linear analysis. increase some member sizes or. the presence of the instability will be reported in the Analysis window and some diagnostic information will be written to the static log file to assist you in correcting the problem. if some compression members are slender and buckle.mstower. If not. it is helpful to remove ALL releases and reinstate them in stages. In other cases. e. For example. perhaps. Where non-linear analysis fails to converge. Perform an elastic critical load analysis to check the frame buckling load.
Instability Instability detected during linear analysis is usually due to modelling problems and some of the common causes of these are discussed elsewhere. it will be deleted from the following iteration in much the same way that a tension-only member would be. a successful analysis may result if either node coordinate update or axial force effects are excluded. for example. 7
. Is the structure too flexible? Remove excessive member end releases (pins). This may occur.
an analysis in which instability has been reported are useful for diagnosis but should not be used for other purposes. An elastic critical load analysis will often assist in locating the cause of local instabilities.mstower.MSTower V6 http://www.HSD Viet Nam..
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