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Evaporators are kind of heat transfer equipments where the transfer mechanism is controlled by natural convection or forced convection. A solution containing a desired product is fed into the evaporator and it is heated by a heat source like steam. Because of the applied heat, the water in the solution is converted into vapour and is condensed while the concentrated solution is either removed or fed into a second evaporator for further concentration. If a single evaporator is used for the concentration of any solution, it is called a single effect evaporator system and if more than one evaporator is used for the concentration of any solution, it is called a multiple effect evaporator system. In a multiple effect evaporator the vapour from one evaporator is fed into the steam chest of the other evaporator. In such a system, the heat from the original steam fed into the system is reused in the successive effects.
1.1) Multi Effect Evaporator
A multiple-effect evaporator, as defined in chemical engineering, is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate water. In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each held at a lower pressure than the last. Because the boiling point of water decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel can be used to heat the next, and only the first vessel (at the highest pressure) requires an external source of heat. While in theory, evaporators may be built with an arbitrarily large number of stages, evaporators with more than four stages are rarely practical except in systems where the liquor is the desired product such as in chemical recovery systems where up to seven effects are used. The multiple-effect evaporator was invented by the African-American engineer Norbert Rillieux. Although he may have designed the apparatus during the 1820s and constructed a prototype in 1834, he did not build the first industrially practical evaporator until 1845 . Originally designed for concentrating sugar in sugar cane juice, it has since become widely used in all industrial applications where large volumes of water must be evaporated, such as salt production and water desalination. Multiple-effect evaporation plants in sugar beet factories have up to eight effects. In the pulp and paper industry, multi-eﬀect evaporators are mainly used to evaporate water (1)
from black liquor solutions to allow its recycle as chemicals and fuel for the process.
1.2) Application of evaporators
Evaporators are integral part of a number of process industries namely Pulp and Paper, Chlor-alkali, Sugar, pharmaceuticals, Desalination, Dairy and Food processing, etc (Bhargava et al., 2010). Evaporators find one of their most important applications in the food and drink industry. In these industries, evaporators are used to convert food like coffee to a certain consistency in order to make them last for considerable period of time. Evaporation is also used in laboratories as a drying process where preservation of long time activity is required. It is also used for the recovery of expensive solvents and prevents their wastage like hexane. Another important application of evaporation is cutting down the waste handling cost. If most of the wastes can be vapourized, the industry can greatly reduce the money spent on waste handling (Bhargava et al., 2010). The multiple effect evaporator system considered in the present work is used for the concentration of weak black liquor. It consists of seven effects. The feed flow sequence considered is backward and the system is supplied with live steam in the first two effects. In the system, feed and condensate flashing is incorporated to generate auxiliary vapour to be used in vapour bodies in order to improve the overall steam economy of the system.
1.3) Overview of Kraft Recovery Cycle
Kraft pulping and the chemical recovery process is composed of the following units: cooking, washing, evaporation, burning, causticizing and calcining . Wood chips are cooked with white liquor (NaOH + Na2S) in a digester at about 170 ºC, to produce kraft pulp and weak black liquor. Weak Black liquor (WBL) , the by-product of the chemical recovery cycle in the pulp and paper industry, is composed of water, lignin, cellulose and inorganic sodium salts . These chemicals (2)
need to be recovered for the pulping process to be economically feasible. In order to do that, weak black liquor is separated from pulp in a washing unit. The black liquor is diluted by the wash water and generally contains 14-17% solids. 95-98% of chemicals are recovered in modern pulp washing units . For each ton of pulp, 8-10 tons of weak black liquor is produced. Weak black liquor is concentrated in a series of evaporators. The resulting concentrated black liquor is burned in the recovery furnace to produce an inorganic smelt of Na2CO3 and Na2S. The smelt is then dissolved in water to yield green
liquor, an aqueous solution of Na2CO3 and Na2S, as shown in Reaction . The green liquor undergoes the causticizing process where Na2CO3 is converted into NaOH by reacting with Ca(OH)2, as in Reaction 3. At this point, the original white liquor required
for pulping is recovered. In order to provide lime for the causticizing process, lime mud
(or precipitated CaCO3) is dewatered, dried and burned in a lime kiln to produce lime for
the causticizing reaction.
The main reactions in the kraft process are listed below:
Wood + NaOH + Na2S Pulp + Weak Black Liquor (Reaction. 1)
Black Liquor + O2 Na2CO3 + Na2S + CO2 + H2O (Reaction. 2)
3) Calcining (lime kiln @ 800ºC) CaCO3 CaO + CO2 (Reaction.H2O + CaO Ca(OH)2 Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3↓+ 2NaOH (Reaction. 4) (4) .
This problem was addressed by Stewart and Beveridge (1977) and Ayangbile. 1.5) Classification of Evaporators Weak black liquor leaving the washers contains 13 to 17% dissolved solids.1.4) Problems associated with multiple effect evaporators The problems associated with a multiple effect evaporator system are that it is an energy intensive system and therefore any measure to reduce the energy consumption by reducing the steam consumption will help in improving the profitability of the plant. All these mathematical models are generally based on a set of linear or non.and condensateflashing. efforts to propose new operating strategies have been made by many researchers to minimize the consumption of live steam in a multiple effect evaporator system in order to improve the steam economy of the system. Some of these operating strategies are feed-. the solids content must be at least 60%. One of the earliest works on optimizing a multiple effect evaporator by modifying the feed flow sequence was by Harper and Tsao in 1972.and steam. They developed a model for optimizing a multiple effect evaporator system by considering forward and backward feed flow sequence.splitting and using an optimum feed flow sequence. In order to cater to this problem. Okeke and Beveridge (1984). a whole new set of model equations were required for the new operating strategy. The developed a generalized cascade algorithm which could be solved again and again for the different operating strategies of a multiple effect evaporator system. This work was extended by Nishitani and Kunugita (1979) in which they considered all possible feed flow sequences to optimize a multiple effect evaporator system for generating a non inferior feed flow sequence. Increasing the solids content improves the (6) . In the present work.(1984) feed and condensate flashing has also been included and it also considers the variations in the boiling point elevation and overall heat transfer coefficient.linear equations and when the operating strategy was changed. in extension to the modeling technique proposed by Ayangbile et al. feed. product. In order to safely and effectively burn the black liquor to recover chemicals and heat.
recovery boiler thermal efficiency. As the heated black liquor boils.1 meters long.Thus.7 – 9. held in place by a tube sheet at the top and bottom . All vapour domes have a deflector directly over the heating element to break foam and initiate downward flow to the liquor. the most common types of evaporators presently used in the industry are the rising film long tube vertical evaporators (LTV) and the falling film evaporators (FF). a large amount of water must be evaporated in order to increase the net fuel value of black liquor. Black liquor enters the tubes from the bottom of the unit. The fine black liquor (7) . 1. such as gas and oil . stabilizes boiler operation and reduces sulfur emissions. the resulting water vapour helps push the black liquor upward. To accomplish this task. The concentrated black liquor exits the unit through a liquor outlet at the bottom of the vapour dome. 6. The tubes are typically 5 cm (2” OD).1) Rising film long tube vertical evaporators (LTV) A LTV evaporator is composed of two parts: a single pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger at the bottom and a vapour dome at the top. Heating value of black liquor ranges between 5800-6600 Btu/lb of dry solids.5. which is low in comparison to other fuels. where it is heated by the steam on the shell side of the tubes. until it reaches a deflector at the top where it is separated from the vapour.
The vapour is then separated from the liquor and is cleaned by a drop separator. Liquor rises to the top by means of a recirculation pump.2) Tubular falling film evaporator A tubular falling film evaporator is composed of a heating element similar to LTV and a vapour body at the bottom. (INDIA) Hangzhou Semya Machinery Co. Vapour Demister Vapour Deflector Condensate Steam Inlet Dome Liquor Outlet Manufacturer: Universal Process Engineers Private Ltd. Liquor is fed to the bottom of the evaporator where a fixed level is maintained. The liquor and vapour mixture leaving the tubes enters the dome at the bottom of the unit. and flows down the tubes with gravity ..5. (8) . Ltd. (CHINA) Condensate Outlet Vent Tubes Liquor Inlet Rising film long tube vertical evaporator 1.droplets entrained in the water vapour are separated by means of a demister as the vapour passes through it at the top of the dome .
Falling film evaporators have a significantly smaller risk of scaling than the LTV evaporators because no bulk boiling occurs inside the tubes. Falling film evaporators run at lower steam pressures than the LTV evaporators. no dry spot formation exists where scaling can initiate . (CHINA) (9) . (INDIA) Anhui OECH Mechanical Equipment Co. since steam does not have to push the liquor upwards in the tubes. consequently.. Ltd. Consuming weaker steam minimizes the scaling caused by reverse solubility of compounds such as sodium sulphate or temperature-sensitive calcium complexes. Recirculating Liquor Steam Inlet Vapour Vent Condensate Outlet Liquor Inlet Liquor Outlet r Dome Outlet Drop Separato Falling film tubular evaporator Recirculation Pump Manufacturers : Universal Process Engineers Private Ltd.
Results indicate that better performance is obtained for the parallel/cross flow system. and number of effects. Ettouneya. the thermal performance ratio. Two operating modes are considered in the analysis. Box 42325. College of Engineering and Petroleum. All rights reserved. Performance of both systems is consistent with literature data. Kuwait Received 9 December 1998. and the specific flow rate of the cooling water. Shuwaikh 70654. Faisal Mandanib a) Department of Chemical Engineering.Safat 13060. Modelling (10) . Hisham M. Parallel feed. Kuwait University. However.O. salinity of the intake seawater. Comparison of the two parallel feed systems versus conventional multistage flash desalination and the forward feed multiple effect evaporation schemes show that the forward feed system has better performance characteristics than the other three systems. Hisham T. Kuwait b) College of Technological Studies. Analysis is performed as a function of the heating steam temperature. El-Dessoukya.Chapter 2 Literature Survey Performance of parallel feed multiple effect evaporation system for seawater desalination. Multiple effect evaporation.O. which includes the parallel and the parallel/cross flow systems. which includes the specific heat transfer area. Box 5969. P. the conversion ratio. P. the parallel feed system has similar characteristics and simpler design and operation procedures. Keywords: Seawater desalination. accepted 14 November 1999 Abstract Performance analysis is presented for the parallel feed multiple effect evaporation system. Results are presented as a function of parameters controlling the unit product cost.
evaporation occurs in multiple effect evaporators (MEE). (11) .Chapter 3 Working of Multi Effect Evaporators (MEE) To use steam efficiently.5 ºC will often cause poor performance behaviour. Steam economy. ΔT is critical for long tube vertical evaporators. a series of evaporators are connected to each other so that the latent heat of vapour is used multiple times. In kraft pulp mills. while the vapour generated in the first effect is the heating medium in the second effect. where a ΔT of less than 9. defined as the ton of water evaporated over the ton of steam used. increases as the number of effects increases lists measured steam economies for a practical operation shows specific heat consumption decreases as the number of evaporators in a series increases. however. Live steam is only fed to the first effect. in practice this number is limited to six to eight evaporators. ΔT of an evaporator body is defined as the temperature difference between the saturated vapour temperature and the liquor temperature. where steam and black liquor flow counter-currently . and so on. Each evaporator is called an effect in this system. It is therefore desirable to have more evaporators connected in a series.
240 KPa . the pressure of the evaporator. boiling temperature and % solids increase. Live steam is only fed to the first evaporator body/effect. where the liquor boils at lower temperature under vacuum.80 KPa (12) .The evaporators operate at different pressures and are connected so that the produced vapour in one is used as heating steam for the next one. As the liquor flows through the evaporators (from sixth to first). The weak black liquor feed usually splits between the last two effects. while the volume of liquor decreases.
calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and silicates. The liquor is concentrated most efficiently using a series of evaporators or multiple effects. WBL contains about 14 . By utilizing the evaporation process the liquor can be concentrated to a density suitable for burning in the recovery boiler. These effects are shell and tube heat exchangers. acts as heating steam in the steam chest of the following effect. sodium sulphate (Na2SO4). which contains the inorganic compounds sodium hydroxide (NaOH). 1 and No. where solids concentration is increased slightly. The liquor flows to the 5th effect vapour body where it is concentrated to 17% solids.1) Black Liquor Flow: One of two transfer pumps to the weak liquor flash tank. The 5th effect recirculation pump (13) . Black liquor is useful as a fuel because it also contains organic compounds such as lignin and tannins. which are connected by vapour piping so that the water boiled off the liquor in the first effect. Weak black liquor is received from the digesters after the pulp fibres have been washed in the brown stock washers. 2 WBL storage tanks. These chemicals are the result of chemical reactions. pumps the weak black liquor from the storage tanks.5 MJ/kg. 3. which take place in the digester cooking process.The evaporation system starts with weak black liquor (WBL) from the brown stock washers entering No. sodium sulphide (Na2S). The liquor basically follows a reverse flow to the vapour. Disposing of these chemicals is undesirable both environmentally and economically because they are costly to replace. The liquor flows through without a pump (by gravity) as the 5th effect vapour body is at a lower pressure than the flash tank.16% dried solids. where chemicals and energy are recovered. sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). These compounds give the liquor a heating value of about 14.
Liquor is recirculated through the 2nd effect by the 2nd effect recirculation pump. 2 (14) . A transfer pump draws liquor off the suction line of the 4th effect recirculation pump and pumps it through either the secondary reflux condenser or through the secondary reflux condenser bypass line to the 2nd effect vapour body.continuously circulates liquor through the 5th effect. The 2nd effect concentrates the liquor to 27% solids. From the 2nd effect the liquor flows to No. The secondary reflux condenser heats the liquor to 91°C. Black liquor flow path through evaporation system at Mill A 4th effect concentrates the liquor to 21% solids. From the 5th effect. the liquor is pumped through a level control valve on the 5th effect to the suction line of 4th effect recirculation pump.
The liquor is circulated through the 1st effect by the 1st effect recirculation pump. flows into the 58% flash tank where the liquor temperature is reduced to 115°C. The condenser heats the liquor to 112°C.62% solids. concentrating the liquor to 39% solids. from the 1st effect. The name of the flash tank is an indication of approximate solids content of the liquor inside it. The 1st effect concentrates the liquor to 58 . Liquor is recirculated through the effect with 3rd effect recirculation pump. This is necessary to maintain the efficiency of the evaporator and concentrator heating surfaces which would otherwise foul. if soap is not removed. the liquor is pumped to the 3rd effect vapour body. Liquor is pumped from the flash tank by the 1st effect transfer pump to the 58% storage tank. The purpose of the evaporator soap system is to recover tall oil soap from various points in the black liquor system and to deliver this soap to the recovery boiler for incineration. The 3rd effect transfer pump draws liquor off the recirculation pump suction line and pumps it through the primary reflux condenser to the 1st effect vapour body.product flash tank where it is concentrated to 28% solids. After soap removal. (15) . Liquor. The liquor is pumped from the flash tank to the soap skimming tank.
The resulting vapour from the 2nd effect is. in turn. The vapour from the 1st effect is used as a steam source to concentrate the liquor in the 2nd effect. and so on.After the 58% storage tank. black liquor is further concentrated in the High Solids Concentrator. Liquor concentration rises after HSC due to decrease in pressure in its flash tank. The same process principle is carried through the 4th effect and the 5th effect. HSC is composed of two heathers and a flash tank.2) Steam Flow: Saturated steam enters the system at 325 kPa (143°C) through the HSC and the 1st effect. 3. (16) . used to concentrate the liquor in the 3rd effect. Steam pressure and temperature decreases as it travels through the effects. The final vapour from the 5th effect is condensed in the surface condenser to create a vacuum of –70 kPa to help drive steam and vapour through the system (Figure 14).
create a vacuum of approximately -70 kPa in the 5th effect. Economy calculations are determined using enthalpy balances. The other effects have progressively higher pressure where 1st effect operates at about 105 kPa of pressure. a shell and tube heat exchanger that has cold mill water on the tube side and vapour out of the 5th effect on the shell side. so does the boiling point of the water in the liquor. 3. in doing so.0. some flash evaporation occurs on entry. so the boiling point of the solution will be higher than that of the water. If the feed is not already at its boiling point.3) Performance Measures: There are three main measures of evaporator performance: 1. 2. If the feed is above the boiling point. water will boil at temperatures significantly lower than 100oC. heat effects must be considered. there is a surface condenser. The economy of a single effect evaporator is always less than 1. As the pressure decreases through the evaporators (first to last). therefore.At the outlet of the vapour system. The vapour pressure of an aqueous solution is less than that of pure water at the same temperature.4) Boiling Point Elevation Since evaporators dealing with boiling solutions. Capacity (kg vaporized / time) Economy (kg vaporized / kg steam input) Steam Consumption (kg / hr) Note that the measures are related. and in particular with solutions with nonvolatile solutes. This is called (17) . since Consumption = Capacity/Economy. any calculations must account for the effect of boiling point elevation. 3. Multiple effect evaporators have higher economy but lower capacity than single effect. If the feed is cold (below boiling) some of the heat going into the evaporator must be used to raise the feed to boiling before evaporation can begin. The thermal condition of the evaporator feed has an important impact on economy and performance. The key factor in determining the economy of an evaporator is the number of effects. In this case the primary purpose of the surface condenser is to cool and condense the vapour from the 5th effect and. this reduces the capacity. 3.
The vapour. but not on what the solute and solvent are. The equilibrium vapour rising from a solution exhibiting boiling point elevation will exist at a temperature and pressure such that it is superheated with respect to pure vapour. (18) . The boiling point of a solution is a colligative property -.it depends on the concentration of solute in the solution. elevated with respect to the pure component boiling point. When working problems involving heat transfer to or from boiling solutions. is solute free. it is necessary to adjust the temperature difference driving force for the boiling point elevation. however. thus it is superheated. so it won't condense until the extra heat corresponding to the elevation is removed. The vapour rises at the solution boiling point.Boiling Point Elevation (BPE) or vapour pressure lowering.
This technique of evaporations is advantageous.3. The procedure is also used if the product is viscous and high temperatures are required to keep the viscosity low enough to produce good heat transfer coefficients. the raw feed enters the last (coldest) effect and the discharge from This effect becomes a feed for the next to last effect. in case the feed is cold.5.5.backward feed . A brief explanation of these operations: 3.5) Methods of feeding in Multi Effect Evaporators There are three feed operations . 3.2) Forward Feed: (19) . forward feed and mixed feed operations. as much less liquid must be heated to the higher temperature existing in the early effects.1) Backward Feed : In the backward operation.
3. The method is also used if the concentrated product may be damaged or may deposit scale at high temperature. the raw feed is introduced in the first effect and is passed from effect to effect parallel to steam flow.5. (20) . The product is withdrawn from the last effect. This eliminates some of the pumps needed in backward feed and yet permits the final evaporation to be done at the highest temperature. flows in forward feed to the end of the series .3) Mixed Feed : In mixed feed the dilute liquid enters an intermediate effect .In the case of a forward feed operation. and is then pumped back to the first effects for final concentration. This procedure is highly advantageous if the feed is hot.
Chapter 4 Mass And Energy Balances 4.1) Single Effect Evaporators (21) .
F : Feed flow rate (kg\hr) L: Product glow rate (kg\hr) S: Steam flow rate (kg\hr) V: Vapour flow rate (kg\hr) C: Condensate flow rate (kg\hr) Tf : Temperature of feed Ts : Condensing temperature of steam TBP : Boiling temperature of the liquid in evaporator qs : rate of heat transfer through heating surface from steam Hs : Specific enthalpy of steam Hc : Specific enthalpy of condensate Hv : Specific enthalpy of vapour Hf : Specific enthalpy of thin liquor (22) .
depend on unknown intermediate temperatures. Fortunately. You also know that the effects are all to have the same heat transfer area. The overall strategy is to estimate intermediate temperatures. You typically want to find the steam consumption and the heat transfer area. requiring only minor adjustments to compensate for problem quirks. and it is acceptable to neglect them in making an enthalpy balance. and the feed and product compositions. estimated amounts for each effect. multiple effect evaporator calculations require an iterative solution procedure because so many of the required properties. and from that information find the heat transfer area. usually it is convenient to split it equally. Divide this up into these numbers are fixed and are not changed by iteration. you revise the temperature estimates and repeat the procedure. the feed pattern. Both the superheat and subcooling of the condensate are small. and the condensate usually leaves the steam chest somewhat subcooled below its boiling point. ASSUMPTIONS MADE: 1) There is no leakage or entrainment . 2) The steam entering the steam chest may be superheated. solve the material balances for the solven t vapor flow rates. (23) . etc. however . In a typical evaporator problem. that the flow of noncondensables is negligible. the operating pressure of the final effect.. and one or more of the temperatures. use these to determine the heat transferred in each effect. If the areas are not equal. the overall approach is basically the same for the majority of problems. Calculate the total amount of solvent vaporized (another fixed number). flows. values for the overall heat transfer coefficient in each effect. you are given the steam supply pressure. The steps in the procedure can be summarized as: 1) 2) Use the overall component balance to completely determine the feeds and product streams. and that heat losses from the evaporator need not be considered. and compositions from within the system.2) Multi Effect Evaporators Typically.HL : Specific enthalpy of thick liquor λ : ΔHvap: latent heat of condensation of steam. 4.
temperature. the temperature difference in each effect is roughly proportional to the overall transfer coefficients. Be sure to use the same reference temperatures for all streams. 8) Use the temperature and composition estimates to get enthalpy values. adding a BPE. You can use the saturation temperature of the last effect as a check -. Typically. or both. etc. Note that the BPE values may depend on the concentrations. (24) . You can get these from specific heat calculations or from data. 6) Allocate the overall drop among the various effects. etc. subtracting a Delta T. 7) Use the Delta T and BPE values to obtain estimates for all the temperatures in the system. Be sure to keep track of which Determine the overall temperature drop between the steam and the saturation temperature of the last effect (remember to subtract off the BPEs). you do this starting with the steam to the first effect. Since the areas are the same.it should match the value for your final effect operating pressure. so the overall Delta T can vary with each iteration. 4) 5) Use the compositions to estimate BPEs and other properties.3) Use component and material balance to get estimates for the remaining flowrates within the system and the compositions of the intermediate streams. properties depend on composition. including those taken from steam tables. These (and all the estimated quantities) will change each iteration.
If they are not equal. The recommended approach is to use the ratio of the calculated heat transfer area for an effect to the arithmetic mean of the calculated areas. 13) Repeat the calculations (from step 7) until the system converges. Use material balances to eliminate the liquid flows from the enthalpy equations. you will need to include steps 3 and 4 in each cycle as well. 12) Compare the areas. Be sure to use values from the final iteration to calculate your answers. 11) Use heat transfer equations to calculate the heat transfer area for each effect. (25) . enthalpy data. answer questions. If your BPEs. 14) Once the system has converged. Do enough algebra so that the only unknowns left in the balances are the vapor flow rates and the steam to the first effect. Begin by using the areas you obtained to revise the temperature estimates. you need to repeat the calculation..9) Set up the process side enthalpy balances. depends on composition. etc. 10) Solve the set of equations that is made up of one enthalpy balance for each effect and the total vapor material balance for the unknown vapor flows (one off each effect and the steam to the first).
Precipitated solids may deposit on the heat transfer surfaces.2) Limitations in Multi Effect Evaporators Scaling Problem Scaling is a persistent problem in evaporators in the kraft pulp mills. as well as a vacuum source and a condenser. Severe scaling can interrupt black liquor flow. Each effect would consist a heat transfer surface. The vapours from the preceding effect are used as the heat source in the next effect. a vapour separator. creating a bottleneck in pulp (26) . dissolved salts begin to precipitate from the system as they reach solubility. 5. There are two advantages to multiple effect evaporators: • Economy .due to the viscous effects of the products as they become more concentrated Each effect operates at a lower pressure and temperature than the effect preceding it so as to maintain a temperature difference and continue the evaporation procedure. The vapours are removed from the preceding effect at the boiling temperature of the product at that effect so that no temperature difference would exist if the vacuum were not increased. As black liquor is concentrated.they evaporate more water per kg steam by re-using vapours as heat sources in subsequent effects • Improve heat transfer .1) Advantages Two or more evaporator units can be run in sequence to produce a multiple effect evaporator.Chapter 5 Advantages and Limitations of Multiple Effect Evaporators 5. forming a layer of scale. The operating costs of evaporation are relative to the number of effects and the temperature at which they operate.
A brief description of each type is given below. Calcium ions become free when temperature reaches 90 – 130 ºC. Studies show a great influence of calcium ions in the solubility of Na2CO3-Na2SO4-H2O system. (2Na2SO4.Na2CO3). 5. resulting in a higher degree of super-saturation . therefore causing calcium carbonate to form and precipitate on heating surfaces. Calcium binds to organic compounds such as lignin complexes. Heat transfer surfaces can be the host for nuclei formation as they have the highest temperature in the evaporator body. The rate of scaling strongly depends on temperature. burkeite scaling.2. 5. soap or fibre scaling. Due to its low thermal conductivity. This type of scale is easily washable by circulating weak liquor or vapour condensate through the evaporators. Calcium ions restrain the nucleation of burkeite and dicarbonate.2. Since calcium compounds are less soluble at higher temperatures.1) Calcium scaling: Calcium scales form mainly in the first effect. calcium scaling increases rapidly as temperature increases.production. aluminum silicate and oxalate scaling. 5. The solubility of sodium carbonate and sulphate decreases slightly when the liquor temperature is above 40 ºC .2.2) Sodium carbonate and sulphate scaling: Sodium carbonate and sodium sulphate precipitate as a double salt. oxalate and soap.3) Fibre and Soap scaling: (27) . burkeite. The scaling in a kraft black liquor evaporator is of the following types: calcium carbonate scaling. lowering the evaporator performance . scale greatly reduces the heat transfer efficiency.
and its amount is determined by aluminum and silicate concentrations . High fibre content makes the separation of soap harder.4) Aluminum silicate scaling: Sodium aluminum silicate scales are hard. since soap adheres to the fibre surface. To reduce this type of scaling.2. glassy and persistent.5) Oxalate scaling: The oxalate ions are formed in the cooking and bleaching process.Black liquor soap is a mixture of resin and fatty acids that is separated from weak and intermediate black liquors to avoid scaling and foaming in the evaporators and concentrators. the process temperature is raised to about 110 ºC . Generally.2. This type of scale is usually found in first effect and final concentrators. soap is usually removed from the evaporators at the 3rd effect. 5. since calcium is removed in the form of calcium carbonate which is less soluble. To avoid this precipitation. 5. This type of scaling is common in the 2nd. (28) . silicate scaling is not a common problem due to its small input in the recovery cycle. 3rd and 4th effects. Calcium oxalate deposition is not a concern. Also when evaporation is performed under vacuum at about 90 ºC sodium oxalate can precipitate at 30-40% solids. Sodium oxalate particles can form in black liquor when the concentration exceeds 45% solids. in North American mills.
a process called “boiling out”.e. more steam is consumed in case of (29) . Scaling is costly due to the price of cleaning and loss of efficiency. and high solids concentrator tube The mill’s initiative toward the scaling problem is to clean the evaporators and flash tanks with water or weak black liquor. i. 58% flash tank outlet pipe.Scale Samples collected from the 1st Effect.
and product. Further. is considered. are developed. These ERSs are condensate-. The results show that ERSs reduce the steam consumption up to 24.6%. employed for concentrating weak black liquor in an Indian Kraft Paper Mill. in the present paper a simple graphical approach named “Modified Temperature Path (MTP)” is developed for the analysis of different feed flow sequences of a MEE system to screen best possible feed flow sequence. feed. a new scheme is proposed where condensate of vapor chest of an effect is used to preheat the liquor. Further. To study the effect of different ERSs on steam consumption and MTP analysis an example of septuple effect flat falling film evaporator (SEFFFE) system.scaling due to loss of heat transfer area. (30) .flashing and vapor bleeding. used to reduce the consumption of steam for a multiple effect evaporator (MEE) system. This work also presents a comparative study between existing ERSs and selects the best ERS amongst these based on steam consumption as well as number of units involved. which is entering into that effect using a counter current heat exchanger. Cleaning the 1st effect during shut down costs $137.000. with the additional cost of lost efficiency. Chapter 6 Future Aspects in Multi Effect evaporators In the present work different energy reduction schemes (ERSs).
The future energy saving methods concern the modification of the operation conditions of the decrease of the ∆Tmin (Temperature Drop) and increasing or decreasing pressures of evaporation effects allowed one to reduce by 20% the minimum energy requirement of the evaporation system with an associated utility cost reduction of 23%. (31) . The study focuses on the identification of actions to reduce the energy cost related to the evaporator section of wood pulping mill.Conclusion Liquor evaporation is an important energy consumer in a pulp and paper mill.
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. www. 4) Wikipedia – “Multi effect evaporators”.google. 5) Unit operations of chemical Engineering – 7th Edition Warren L. University of Toronto.com On google – “RMP lecture notes” 7) Through Net.google. (32) . France 3) Energy reduction schemes for multiple effect evaporator systems By :. Julian C.com On google – “Energy balance in multi effect evaporations”.Bibliography:1) Multivariate Analysis of Variables Affecting Thermal Performance of Black Liquor Evaporators By . India * Department of Chemical Engineering. National Institute of Technology Rourkela.Shabina Khanam & Bikash Mohanty * Department of Chemical Engineering. Rourkela. Roorkee-.Smith. McCabe. www. 2) Energy integration study of a multi effect evaporator by Zoe Perin-Levasseur.Hamideh Hajiha A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science .Vanessa Palese.Graduate Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. India. Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering. Peter Harriott McGraw – Hill international edition 6) Through Net.