źŴ

III. DutIes and ResponsIbIIItIes

. !owers and DutIes

Source of power and authority

O Under of political system, the entire source of public governmental authority is found in the people themselves
O (* Directly OR (* through their chosen representatives (in Congress), the people:
(a* create such offices and agencies as they deem to be desirable for the administration of the public functions
(b* declare in what manner and by what persons they shall be exercised
(c* prescribe the:
quantum of power attached to each department
conditions upon which its continuation depends
O This will of the people is expressed in the Constitution and the laws

2 onstruction of powers and duties

O Express grants of power are usually subject to a strict interpretation and will be construed as conferring those powers
only which are expressly imposed OR necessarily implied
O An officer can create rights against the State or other public authority represented b him, only while he is keeping
strictly with the limits of his authority, as so construed

3 Delegation of Power

Classification of powers and duties

rom their nature
4 The character of a duty as ministerial or discretionary must be determined by the nature of the act and not by
the office of the performer
4 There are instances when the duties are blended in one officer Therefore, one has to look at the facts of the
circumstances
4 Key distinction between ministerial and discretionary:
(* whether the duty is mandatory
(* whether the act complained of involves policy making or judgment

a Ninisterial
When it is absolute, certain, and imperative involving merely execution of a specific duty arising from
fixed and designated facts
When the officer or official body has no judicial power or discretion as to the interpretation of the
law and the course to be pursued is fixed by law
¨Ninisterial act" - one which a person performs on a given statement of facts, and in a prescribed
manner, in obedience to the mandate of legal authority, without regard to, or the exercise of, his
own judgment upon the im/propriety of the act done
What is not within the scope of a ministerial officer? Pass upon the validity of laws, instructions or
proceedings which are prima facie valid and requiring his action His only duty is OBED!ENCE and
cannot excuse himself by undertaking to show its unconstitutionality or invalidity
!nvolves enforcement or administration of a mandatory duty at the operational level, even if
professional expert evaluation is required
Remedy to compel action: specific action
DELECAT!ON: Performance of duties may be properly delegated to another, unless expressly
prohibited The delegate must be guided by the judgment or discretion of the public officer originally
tasked to do the duty
D!!AL REv!EW:
· !n case of refusal to perform duty, any person can have mandamus to compel its performance
· !f duty is threatened to be violated by some positive official act, injunction to prevent it

/ Discretionary
Necessarily require the exercise of reason in the adaption of the means to an end AND discretion in
determining how or whether the act shall be done or the course pursued

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Neaning of ¨Discretion"
O arises when an act may be performed OR a question may be decided in one of two or more
ways, either would still be lawful/right AND the choice is left to the judgment of the
performer,
O act or liberty to decide according to the principle of justice and one's ideas of what is right
and proper under the circumstances, without willfulness or favor,
O faculty conferred upon public officers by law of acting officially in certain circumstances,
according to the dictates of their own judgment and conscience, uncontrolled by the
judgment and conscience of others (Black's Law Dictionary)
¨Ouasi·judicial" - when the law commits to any officer the duty of looking into facts and acting upon
them, not in a way which it specifically directs, but after a discretion in its nature judicial
Remedy to compel exercise of duty: by mandamus, court will require action
DELECAT!ON: unless the power to substitute another in his place has been given to him, a public
officer CANNOT delegation his duties to another
O Why? Because the presumption is that he was chosen fit and competent to exercise that
judgment and discretion
O !llustrative case: Torres v Ribo (The board of canvassers wherein one of the authorized
substitute was still at the west coast of Leyte)
D!!AL REv!EW:
· udiciary will not interfere with executive officers in the performance of duties which are
discretionary in nature or involve exercise of judgment He is the sole and exclusive judge of
existence of facts relating to the discretionary power
· Only when the decision is tainted with arbitratriness or done in abuse of discretion or such fraud
or corruption vitiates the action taken will the court step in

rom the standpoint of the o/ligation of the officer to perform his powers and duties
4 Time of performance of official acts:
When law is silent within a reasonable time
!n the absence of language forbidding a public officer from performing an act at other than the time
stated time period is to be construed as directory and not mandatory, UNLESS nature of the act
to be performed or language used in the statute evidences an intention to limit the power of the
officer

a Nandatory
Powers conferred on public officers are generally mandatory ALTHOUCH the language may be
permissive, where they are for the benefit of the public or individuals
Eg statute intended for protection of the citizen, prevent sacrifice of property or if disregard of the
provision might be injurious to others

/ Permissive
Nere authorization to perform an act = mandatory duty
!f the act does not affect third persons and is not clearly beneficial to public, permissive words will
not be construed as mandatory
Eg statutory provisions which define the time and mode in which public officers will discharge their
duties and those which are obviously designed merely to secure order uniformity system and
dispatch in public business

3 rom the standpoint of the relationship of the officer to his su/ordinates

a Power of control
!t implies the power of an officer to manage, direct or govern, including the power to alter, modify or
set aside what a subordinate had done in the performance of his duties and to substitute his
judgment for that of the latter
He lays down the rules in doing of an act
!f not followed, it is discretionary on his part to order the act (* undone, (* redone or he may even
(3* decide to do it himself
Power of control necessary includes ¨power to supervise"
Eg President over members of his Cabinet Cabinet members over personnel under their jurisdiction
and bureaus/offices

/ Power of supervision

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Power of mere oversight over an inferior body
Nerely sees to it that rules are followed, cannot prescribe his own rules or own manner of doing the
act
!f rules are not observed, he may order done or redone but not do it himself
Does not include restraining authority
Eg Pres over LCU (because he only exercises delegated legislative power over them (S4, Art X)

Scope of authority

5ecŦ 1ţ AttŦ \lţ coostltotlooŦ Þubllc offlce ls a publlc LrusLŦ Þubllc offlcers and emplovees musLţ aL all Llmesţ
ż1Ž be accounLable Lo Lhe peopleţ
ż2Ž serve Lhem wlLh uLmosL żaŽ responslblllLvţ żbŽ lnLearlLvţ żcŽ lovalLvţ and żdŽ efflclencvŤ
ż3Ž acL wlLh paLrloLlsm and [usLlceţ and
ż4Ž lead modesL llvesŦ

5ecŦ 17ţ AttŦ \lţ coostltotlooŦ A publlc offlcer or emplovee shallţ upon assumpLlon of offlce and as ofLen LhereafLer as mav be requlred bv
lawţ ż1Ž submlL a declaraLlon under oaLh of hls asseLsţ llablllLlesţ and neL worLhŦ ln Lhe case of Lhe ż1Ž ÞresldenLţ Lhe ż2Ž vlceŴÞresldenLţ Lhe
ż3Ž Members of Lhe CablneLţ Lhe ż4Ž Conaressţ Lhe ż3Ž Supreme CourLţ Lhe ż6Ž ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons and oLher consLlLuLlonal offlcesţ
and ż7Ž offlcers of Lhe armed forces wlLh aeneral or flaa rankţ Lhe declaraLlon shall be dlsclosed Lo Lhe publlc ln Lhe manner provlded bv lawŦ

5ecŦ 17ţ AttŦ \lţ coostltotlooŦ Þubllc offlcers and emplovees owe Lhe SLaLe and Lhls ConsLlLuLlon allealance aL all Llmes and anv publlc offlcer
or emplovee who seeks Lo chanae hls clLlzenshlp or acqulre Lhe sLaLus of an lmmlaranL of anoLher counLrv durlna hls Lenure shall be dealL
wlLh bv lawŦ

Scope of authority
O Nechem: Authority of a public officer consists of those powers which are:
Expressly conferred upon him by law under which he has been elected or appointed
Expressly annexed to the office by law which created it OR some other law referring to it
3 Attached to the office as incidents to it
O Ceneral rules:
4 Powers and duties of public officers are prescribed by the Constitution or by statute or both
4 Public officers only have powers which are expressly granted and necessarily implied by law
O They cannot be merely assumed by administrative offices NOR created by courts in the proper exercise of their judicial
functions
O !t is also limited to the territory where law has effect

Authority of public officer is not presumed, express or implied
O Public officers exercises power, not rights
O Since the government is merely an agent of the people, so are the public officers entrusted with the responsibility of
discharging its functions
O !n the absence of a valid grant, public officers are devoid of power What they do, suffers from a fatal infirmity

Public officers vs Private agents
O The classification of ¨universal, general and special agencies" applicable to private agents cannot apply entirely to
public agents
O Analogies between public and private agents are not sufficiently close to make the authority in the one case the
criterion for that in the other

Ascertainment of authority
O All persons having occasion to deal with a public officer are presumed to have knowledge of his authority
O Why? Because the authority of public officer is created by law or is a matter of public record or which every person is
bound to take notice
O !mplication: !t is not enough for persons to rely upon any mere presumption as to the officer's authority They must
see to it that it is and in fact, sufficient for the assumed purposes
O The concept of ¨apparent authority" in private agents does not apply to public officers
O Therefore, persons contracting with public officer acting under a public law, must, at their peril, ascertain the scope of
the officer's authority AND are chargeable with notice of the contents of the law conferring that authority
O Nevertheless, every citizen has the right to assume that a public officer charged by law with certain duties knows his
duties and performs them in accordance with law and it is repugnant to justice to penalize citizens for good reliance
upon information officially given

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Ratification
O Although the act of a public officer may not be binding on the state because he has exercised his powers defectively,
his acts may be ratified
O Not applicable: want of power in the public officer to perform the original act (eg he could not have lawfully
performed the official act or no one could have lawfully done it)
O When applicable? Nerely voidable
O Absent ratification State cannot be estopped
O Ratification of inferior officers by their superiors allowed but only as to the extent that the superior could have done
it himself

Specific duties

Under the Sec S of RA 673 (Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees*

(a) Act promptly on letters and requests
(b) Submit annual performance reports
(c) Process documents and papers promptly - not more than three signatories, in the absence of duly authorized
signatories, official next·in·rank will sign
(d) Act immediately on the public's personal transactions - device a mechanism to avoid long queues
(e) Nake documents accessible to the public

kobe v l/ores %SuÞ8A)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť lormer AssessmenL Clerk l for LCu Lurned CourL lnLerpreLer lll for !udlclarvŤ ulsquallflcaLlon lnvolvedť
ulshonesLv and fallure Lo perform leaal obllaaLlon Lo dlsclose personal lnLeresLs
Ŵ 8abe flled admln complalnL aaalnsL llores because Lhe laLLer Look advanLaae of her poslLlon as courL emplovee ln c|a|m|ng a sta|| |n a
pub||c marketŦ lL was laLer dlscovered LhaL she falled Lo d|sc|ose that she rece|ved her sa|ary from Lhe LCu of Þanaboţ uavao desplLe Lhe
facL LhaL she has alreadv been Lransferred Lo Lhe !udlclarvŦ Per reason was LhaL lL was enrollmenL perlod and she was Lhe sole
breadwlnner of Lhe famllv so she needed Lhe monev and lnLended Lo reLurn lL as soon as Lhe SC salarv was releasedŦ Alsoţ she falled Lo
dlsclose ln her SAL LhaL she had a sLall ln Lhe markeL and leased lL Lo anoLher person %even when Lhe conLracL requlred LhaL lL should be
aLLended Lo personallv)Ŧ
Issueť WCn llores should be dlsmlssed for her vlolaLlons of Admln Code and 8A 6713?
ne|dť ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ under Lhe Cmnlbus 8ules lmplemenLlna 8ook v of LC noŦ 292 known as Lhe ƍAdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987ƍ and oLher perLlnenL Clvll
Servlce Lawsţ Lhe penalLv for dlshonesLv ls dlsmlssalţ even for Lhe flrsL offenseŦ

Accordlnalvţ for respondenLƌs dlshonesLv ln recelvlna and
keeplna whaL she was noL lawfullv enLlLled Loţ Lhls CourL has Lhe duLv Lo lmpose on her Lhe penalLv prescrlbed bv lawť dlsmlssalŦ ţ no
poslLlon exacLs a areaLer demand for moral rlahLeousness and uprlahLness from an lndlvldual Lhan ln Lhe [udlclarvŦ Þersonnel ln Lhe
[udlclarv should conducL Lhemselves ln such a manner as Lo be bevond reproach and susplclonţ and free from anv appearance of
lmproprleLv ln Lhelr personal behavlorţ noL onlv ln Lhe dlscharae of Lhelr offlclal duLles buL also ln Lhelr evervdav llfeŦ 1hev are sLrlcLlv
mandaLed Lo malnLaln aood moral characLer aL all Llmes and Lo observe lrreproachable behavlor so as noL Lo ouLraae publlc decencvŦ
Ŵ lallure of respondenL Lo dlsclose her buslness lnLeresL whlch she herself admlLLed ls lnexcusable and ls a clear vlolaLlon of 8epubllc AcL
noŦ 6713Ŧ 1he requlremenL for publlc offlcersţ ln aeneralţ Lo dlvesL Lhemselves of buslness lnLeresLs upon assumpLlon of a publlc offlce ls
prompLed bv Lhe need Lo avold confllcL of lnLeresLsŦ
18
ln Lhe absence of anv showlna LhaL a buslness lnLeresL wlll resulL ln a confllcL of
lnLeresLţ dlvesLmenL of Lhe same ls unnecessarvŦ ln Lhe presenL caseţ lL seems a blL farŴfeLched Lo lmaalne LhaL Lhere ls a confllcL of
lnLeresL because an lnLerpreLer lll of Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourL has a sLall ln Lhe markeLŦ A courLţ aenerallvţ ls noL enaaaed ln Lhe reaulaLlon
of publlc markeLţ nor does lL concern lLself wlLh Lhe acLlvlLles LhereofŦ Whlle respondenL mav noL be compelled Lo dlvesL herself of her
buslness lnLeresLţ she had Lhe leaal obllaaLlon of dlvulalna lLŦ

Norms of conduct

nder the Sec of RA 3 (Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees*
O ¨Public office is a public trust"
O Standard of personal conduct:
a Commitment to public interest - over and above their personal interests
b Professionalism - must have utmost dedication and devotion to their duty, discourage wrong perceptions
as peddlers of undue patronage
c ustness and sincerity - remain true to the people at all times and not discriminate anyone, no undue
favors to their relatives and avoid nepotism
d Political neutrality - provide service regardless of party affiliation or preference

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e Responsiveness to the public - prompt, courteous and adequate service to the public
f Nationalism and patriotism - implement ilipino first policy
g Commitment to democracy
h Simple living - live within the public official's visible means of income as correctly disclosed in his income
tax returns, annual SoAL and net worth

. RIgbts and !rIvIIeges

Right to office

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- @ ÞkL5kI8I- kLVI5LD ,ÞL-5@I- -D Þ5I@I- 55III@I- 5¥5@L, I- @nL VLk-,L-@ -D Ik @nLk ÞUkÞ5L5

5ect|on 1Ŧ 1it/eŦ Ŵ 1hls AcL shall be known as Lhe ƍompensat|on and Þos|t|on |ass|f|cat|on ct of 1989Ŧƍ

5ect|on 2Ŧ 5totement of Po/icyŦ Ŵ lL ls herebv declared Lhe pollcv of Lhe SLaLe Lo provlde equal pav for subsLanLlallv equal work and Lo base dlfferences ln pav
upon subsLanLlve dlfferences ln duLles and responslblllLlesţ and quallflcaLlon requlremenLs of Lhe poslLlonsŦ ln deLermlnlna raLes of pavţ due reaard shall be
alven Loţ amona oLhersţ prevalllna raLes ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor for comparable workŦ lor Lhls purposeţ Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenLs %u8M) ls
herebv dlrecLed Lo esLabllsh and admlnlsLer a unlfled CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon SvsLemţ herelnafLer referred Lo as Lhe SvsLemţ as provlded for
ln ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983ţ as amendedţ LhaL shall be applled for all aovernmenL enLlLlesţ as mandaLed bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ

5ect|on 3Ŧ enero/ ProvisionsŦ Ŵ 1he followlna prlnclples shall aovern Lhe CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon SvsLem of Lhe CovernmenLť
%a) All aovernmenL personnel shall be pald [usL and equlLable waaesŤ and whlle pav dlsLlncLlons musL necessarllv exlsL ln keeplna wlLh work
dlsLlncLlonsţ Lhe raLlo of compensaLlon for Lhose occupvlna hlaher ranks Lo Lhose aL lower ranks should be malnLalned aL equlLable levelsţ alvlna
due conslderaLlon Lo hlaher percenLaae of lncreases Lo lower level poslLlons and lower percenLaae lncreases Lo hlaher level poslLlonsŤ
%b) 8aslc compensaLlon for all personnel ln Lhe aovernmenL and aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons shall
aenerallv be comparable wlLh Lhose ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor dolna comparable workţ and musL be ln accordance wlLh prevalllna laws on mlnlmum
waaesŤ
%c) 1he LoLal compensaLlon provlded for aovernmenL personnel musL be malnLalned aL a reasonable level ln proporLlon Lo Lhe naLlonal budaeLŤ
%d) A revlew of aovernmenL compensaLlon raLesţ Laklna lnLo accounL posslble eroslon ln purchaslna power due Lo lnflaLlon and oLher facLorsţ shall be
conducLed perlodlcallvŦ

5ect|on 4Ŧ coverooeŦ Ŵ 1he CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon SvsLem hereln provlded shall applv Lo all poslLlonsţ appolnLlve or elecLlveţ on full or parLŴ
Llme baslsţ now exlsLlna or hereafLer creaLed ln Lhe aovernmenLţ lncludlna aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons and aovernmenL flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlonsŦ
1he Lerm ƍaovernmenLƍ refers Lo Lhe LxecuLlveţ Lhe LealslaLlve and Lhe !udlclal 8ranches and Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons and shall lnclude allţ buL shall
noL be llmlLed Loţ deparLmenLsţ bureausţ offlcesţ boardsţ commlsslonsţ courLsţ Lrlbunalsţ councllsţ auLhorlLlesţ admlnlsLraLlonsţ cenLersţ lnsLlLuLesţ sLaLe
colleaes and unlverslLlesţ local aovernmenL unlLsţ and Lhe armed forcesŦ 1he Lerm ƍaovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsƍ
shall lnclude all corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons owned or conLrolled bv Lhe naLlonal CovernmenLţ wheLher such corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons
perform aovernmenLal or proprleLarv funcLlonsŦ

5ect|on 5Ŧ Position c/ossificotion 5ystemŦ Ŵ 1he ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon SvsLem shall conslsL of classes of poslLlons arouped lnLo four maln caLeaorlesţ namelvť
professlonal supervlsorvţ professlonal nonŴsupervlsorvţ subŴprofesslonal supervlsorvţ and subŴprofesslonal nonŴsupervlsorvţ and Lhe rules and reaulaLlons for
lLs lmplemenLaLlonŦ
CaLeaorlzaLlon of Lhese classes of poslLlons shall be aulded bv Lhe followlna conslderaLlonsť
%a) 9tofessloool 5opetvlsotv coteootvŦ Ŵ 1hls caLeaorv lncludes responslble poslLlons of a manaaerlal characLer lnvolvlna Lhe exerclse of manaaemenL
funcLlons such as plannlnaţ oraanlzlnaţ dlrecLlnaţ coordlnaLlnaţ conLrolllna and overseelna wlLhln deleaaLed auLhorlLv Lhe acLlvlLles of an
oraanlzaLlonţ a unlL Lhereof or of a aroupţ requlrlna some dearee of professlonalţ Lechnlcal or sclenLlflc knowledae and experlenceţ appllcaLlon of
manaaerlal or supervlsorv skllls requlred Lo carrv ouL Lhelr baslc duLles and responslblllLles lnvolvlna funcLlonal auldance and conLrolţ leadershlpţ
as well as llne supervlslonŦ 1hese poslLlons requlre lnLenslve and Lhorouah knowledae of a speclallzed fleld usuallv acqulred from compleLlon of a
bachelorƌs dearee or hlaher dearee coursesŦ
1he poslLlons ln Lhls caLeaorv are asslaned Salarv Crade 9 Lo Salarv Crade 33Ŧ
%b) 9tofessloool NooŴ5opetvlsotv coteootvŦ Ŵ 1hls caLeaorv lncludes poslLlons performlna Lask whlch usuallv requlre Lhe exerclse of a parLlcular
professlon or appllcaLlon of knowledae acqulred Lhrouah formal Lralnlna ln a parLlcular fleld or [usL Lhe exerclse of a naLuralţ creaLlve and arLlsLlc
ablllLv or LalenL ln llLeraLureţ dramaţ muslc and oLher branches of arLs and leLLersŦ Also lncluded are poslLlons lnvolved ln research and appllcaLlon
of professlonal knowledae and meLhods Lo a varleLv of Lechnoloalcalţ economlcţ soclalţ lndusLrlal and aovernmenLal funcLlonsŤ Lhe performance of
Lechnlcal Lasks auxlllarv Lo sclenLlflc research and developmenLŤ and ln Lhe performance of rellalousţ educaLlonalţ leaalţ arLlsLlc or llLerarv
funcLlonsŦ
1hese poslLlons requlre Lhorouah knowledae ln Lhe fleld of arLs and sclences or learnlna acqulred Lhrouah compleLlon of aL leasL four %4) vears of
colleae sLudlesŦ
1he poslLlons ln Lhls caLeaorv are asslaned Salarv Crade 8 Lo Salarv Crade 30Ŧ
%c) 5obŴ9tofessloool 5opetvlsotv coteootvŦ Ŵ 1hls caLeaorv lncludes poslLlons performlna supervlsorv funcLlons over a aroup of emplovees enaaaed ln
responslble work alona Lechnlcalţ manual or clerlcal llnes of work whlch are shorL of professlonal workţ requlrlna Lralnlna and moderaLe
experlence or lower Lralnlna buL conslderable experlence and knowledae of a llmlLed sub[ecL maLLer or skllls ln arLsţ crafLs or LradesŦ 1hese
poslLlons requlre knowledae acqulred from secondarv or vocaLlonal educaLlon or compleLlon of up Lo Lwo %2) vears of colleae educaLlonŦ

źŹ



1he poslLlons ln Lhls caLeaorv are asslaned Salarv Crade 4 Lo Salarv Crade 18Ŧ
%d) 5obŴ9tofessloool NooŴ5opetvlsotv coteootvŦ Ŵ 1hls caLeaorv lncludes poslLlons lnvolves ln sLrucLured work ln supporL of offlce or flscal operaLlons
or Lhose enaaaed ln crafLsţ Lrades or manual workŦ 1hese poslLlons usuallv requlre skllls acqulred Lhrouah Lralnlna and experlence of compleLlon
of elemenLarv educaLlonţ secondarv or vocaLlonal educaLlon or compleLlon of up Lo Lwo %2) vears of colleae educaLlonŦ
1he poslLlons ln Lhls caLeaorv are asslaned Salarv Crade 1 Lo Salarv Crade 10Ŧ

5ect|on 6Ŧ lndex of Occupotiono/ 5ervicesţ Position 1it/es ond 5o/ory rodes of the compensotion ond Position c/ossificotion 5ystemŦ Ŵ All poslLlons ln Lhe
aovernmenL covered under SecLlon 4 hereof shall be allocaLed Lo Lhelr proper poslLlon LlLles and salarv arades ln accordance wlLh Lhe lndex of CccupaLlonal
Servlcesţ ÞoslLlon 1lLles and Salarv Crades of Lhe CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon SvsLem whlch shall be prepared bv Lhe u8MŦ

5ect|on 7Ŧ 5o/ory 5chedu/eŦ Ŵ 1he ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL ls herebv dlrecLed Lo lmplemenL Lhe Salarv Schedule prescrlbed belowť

Salarv Schedule
Crade 1sL 2nd 3rd 4Lh 3Lh 6Lh 7Lh 8Lh
1 Ŵ 2ţ000 2ţ020 2ţ040 2ţ061 2ţ081 2ţ102 2ţ123 2ţ144
2 Ŵ 2ţ073 2ţ094 2ţ113 2ţ136 2ţ138 2ţ179 2ţ201 2ţ223
3 Ŵ 2ţ136 2ţ178 2ţ200 2ţ222 2ţ244 2ţ266 2ţ289 2ţ312
4 Ŵ 2ţ230 2ţ272 2ţ293 2ţ318 2ţ341 2ţ364 2ţ388 2ţ412
3 Ŵ 2ţ333 2ţ378 2ţ402 2ţ426 2ţ430 2ţ473 2ţ300 2ţ323
6 Ŵ 2ţ473 2ţ497 2ţ322 2ţ347 2ţ373 2ţ399 2ţ623 2ţ631
7 Ŵ 2ţ604 2ţ630 2ţ637 2ţ683 2ţ710 2ţ737 2ţ763 2ţ793
8 Ŵ 2ţ732 2ţ779 2ţ807 2ţ833 2ţ864 2ţ892 2ţ921 2ţ930
9 Ŵ 2ţ917 2ţ946 2ţ976 3ţ003 3ţ036 3ţ066 3ţ097 3ţ127
10 Ŵ 3ţ102 3ţ133 3ţ164 3ţ196 3ţ228 3ţ260 3ţ293 3ţ323
11 Ŵ 3ţ309 3ţ342 3ţ373 3ţ409 3ţ443 3ţ477 3ţ312 3ţ347
12 Ŵ 3ţ340 3ţ376 3ţ611 3ţ647 3ţ684 3ţ721 3ţ738 3ţ796
13 Ŵ 3ţ800 3ţ838 3ţ876 3ţ913 3ţ934 3ţ994 4ţ033 4ţ074
14 Ŵ 4ţ091 4ţ132 4ţ173 4ţ213 4ţ237 4ţ300 4ţ343 4ţ386
13 Ŵ 4ţ418 4ţ463 4ţ307 4ţ332 4ţ398 4ţ644 4ţ690 4ţ737
16 Ŵ 4ţ786 4ţ834 4ţ883 4ţ932 4ţ981 3ţ031 3ţ081 3ţ132
17 Ŵ 3ţ201 3ţ233 3ţ306 3ţ339 3ţ413 3ţ467 3ţ321 3ţ377
18 Ŵ 3ţ670 3ţ726 3ţ784 3ţ841 3ţ900 3ţ939 6ţ018 6ţ079
19 Ŵ 6ţ199 6ţ261 6ţ323 6ţ386 6ţ430 6ţ313 6ţ380 6ţ646
20 Ŵ 6ţ798 6ţ866 6ţ933 7ţ004 7ţ074 7ţ143 7ţ216 7ţ288
21 Ŵ 7ţ478 7ţ333 7ţ628 7ţ704 7ţ781 7ţ839 7ţ938 7ţ017
22 Ŵ 8ţ230 8ţ333 8ţ416 8ţ300 8ţ383 8ţ671 8ţ738 8ţ843
23 Ŵ 9ţ131 9ţ222 9ţ314 9ţ407 9ţ301 9ţ396 9ţ692 9ţ789
24 Ŵ10ţ133 10ţ236 10ţ339 10ţ442 10ţ346 10ţ632 10ţ738 10ţ866
23 Ŵ11ţ383 11ţ499 11ţ614 11ţ730 11ţ847 11ţ966 12ţ083 12ţ206
26 Ŵ12ţ630 12ţ777 12ţ904 13ţ033 13ţ164 13ţ293 13ţ428 13ţ363
27 Ŵ13ţ913 14ţ034 14ţ193 14ţ337 14ţ480 14ţ623 14ţ771 14ţ919
28 Ŵ13ţ180 13ţ332 13ţ483 13ţ640 13ţ796 13ţ934 16ţ114 16ţ273
29 Ŵ17ţ073 17ţ246 17ţ418 17ţ392 17ţ768 17ţ946 18ţ123 18ţ307
30 Ŵ18ţ973
31 Ŵ19ţ330
32 Ŵ22ţ000
33 Ŵ23ţ000

1he above Salarv Schedule shall be used for poslLlons LhaL are pald on Lhe annual or monLhlv raLe baslsŦ All salarles ln Lhe Salarv Schedule expressed as
monLhlv raLes ln pesos shall represenL full compensaLlon for fullŴLlme emplovmenLţ reaardless of where Lhe work ls performedŦ Salarles for servlces rendered
on a parLŴLlme basls shall be ad[usLed proporLlonaLelvŦ

1he ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL shall updaLe Lhe above Schedule whenever Lhere are acrossŴLheŴboard salarv ad[usLmenLs as mav be provlded
bv lawŦ

1he dallv waae raLe shall be deLermlned bv dlvldlna Lhe monLhlv salarv raLe bv LwenLvŴLwo %22) worklna davs per monLhŦ


źź



5ect|on 8Ŧ 5o/ories of constitutiono/ Officio/s ond their £ouivo/entŦ Ŵ ÞursuanL Lo SecLlon 17ţ ArLlcle xvlll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ Lhe salarv of Lhe followlna
offlclals shall be ln accordance wlLh Lhe Salarv Crades lndlcaLed hereunderť

Salarv Crades
ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes 33
vlceŴÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes 32
ÞresldenL of Lhe SenaLe 32
Speaker of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves 32
Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme CourL 32
SenaLor 31
Member of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves 31
AssoclaLe !usLlces of Lhe Supreme CourL 31
Chalrman of a ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon under ArLlcle lxţ
1987 ConsLlLuLlon
31
Member of a ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon under ArLlcle lxţ 1987
ConsLlLuLlon
30

1he ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL ls herebv auLhorlzed Lo deLermlne Lhe offlclals who are of equlvalenL rank Lo Lhe foreaolna Cfflclalsţ where
appllcableţ and mav be asslaned Lhe same Salarv Crades based on Lhe followlna auldellnesť
C8AuL 33 Ŵ 1hls Crade ls asslaned Lo Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes as Lhe hlahesL poslLlon ln Lhe aovernmenLŦ no oLher poslLlon
ln Lhe aovernmenL servlce ls consldered Lo be of equlvalenL rankŦ
C8AuL 32 Ŵ 1hls Crade ls llmlLed Lo Lhe vlceŴÞresldenL of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes and Lhose poslLlons whlch head Lhe LealslaLlve and
!udlclal 8ranches of Lhe aovernmenLţ namelvť Lhe SenaLe ÞresldenLţ Speaker of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves and Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme
CourLŦ no oLher poslLlons ln Lhe aovernmenL servlce are consldered Lo be of equlvalenL rankŦ
C8AuL 31 Ŵ 1hls Crade ls asslaned Lo SenaLors and Members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves and Lhose wlLh equlvalenL rank as followsť Lhe
LxecuLlve SecreLarvţ ueparLmenL SecreLarvţ ÞresldenLlal Spokesmanţ Cmbudsmanţ Þress SecreLarvţ ÞresldenLlal AsslsLanL wlLh CablneL 8ankţ
ÞresldenLlal Advlserţ naLlonal Lconomlc and uevelopmenL AuLhorlLv ulrecLor Ceneralţ CourL of Appeals Þresldlna !usLlceţ Sandlaanbavan
Þresldlna !usLlceţ SecreLarv of Lhe SenaLeţ SecreLarv of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlvesţ and ÞresldenL of Lhe unlverslLv of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
An enLlLv wlLh a broad funcLlonal scope of operaLlons and wlde area of coveraae ranalna from Lop level pollcv formulaLlon Lo Lhe provlslon of
Lechnlcal and admlnlsLraLlve supporL Lo Lhe unlLs under lLţ wlLh funcLlons comparable Lo Lhe aforesald poslLlons ln Lhe precedlna paraaraphţ can
be consldered oraanlzaLlonallv equlvalenL Lo a ueparLmenLţ and lLs head Lo LhaL of a ueparLmenL SecreLarvŦ
C8AuL 30 Ŵ ÞoslLlons lncluded are Lhose of ueparLmenL undersecreLarvţ CablneL undersecreLarvţ ÞresldenLlal AsslsLanLţ SollclLor Ceneralţ
CovernmenL CorporaLe Counselţ CourL AdmlnlsLraLor of Lhe Supreme CourLţ Chlef of SLaff of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe vlceŴÞresldenLţ naLlonal Lconomlc
and uevelopmenL AuLhorlLv uepuLv ulrecLor Ceneralţ ÞresldenLlal ManaaemenL SLaff LxecuLlve ulrecLorţ uepuLv Cmbudsmanţ AssoclaLe !usLlces
of Lhe CourL of Appealsţ AssoclaLe !usLlces of Lhe Sandlaanbavanţ Speclal ÞrosecuLorţ unlverslLv of Lhe Þhlllpplnes LxecuLlve vlceŴÞresldenLţ
Mlndanao SLaLe unlverslLv ÞresldenLţ ÞolvLechnlc unlverslLv of Lhe Þhlllpplnes ÞresldenL of and ÞresldenL of oLher sLaLe unlverslLles and colleaes
of Lhe same classŦ

Peads of councllsţ commlsslonsţ boards and slmllar enLlLles whose operaLlons cuL across offlces or deparLmenLs or are servlna a slzeable porLlon of Lhe
aeneral publlc and whose coveraae ls naLlonwlde or whose funcLlons are comparable Lo Lhe aforeclLed poslLlons ln Lhe precedlna paraaraphţ mav be placed
aL Lhls levelŦ

1he equlvalenL rank of poslLlons noL menLloned hereln or Lhose LhaL mav be creaLed hereafLer shall be deLermlned based on Lhese auldellnesŦ

1he Þrovlslons of Lhls AcL as far as Lhev uparade Lhe compensaLlon of ConsLlLuLlonal Cfflclals and Lhelr equlvalenL under Lhls secLlon shallţ howeverţ Lake
effecL onlv ln accordance wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlonť Þrovldedţ 1haL wlLh respecL Lo Lhe ÞresldenL and vlceŴÞresldenL of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Lhe
ÞresldenL of Lhe SenaLeţ Lhe Speaker of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlvesţ Lhe SenaLorsţ and Lhe Members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlvesţ no lncrease ln salarv
shall Lake effecL even bevond 1992ţ unLll Lhls AcL ls amendedť Þrovldedţ furLherţ 1haL Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls AcL wlLh respecL Lo AsslsLanL SecreLarles and
undersecreLarles shall be deferred for one %1) vear from Lhe effecLlvlLv of Lhls AcL and for SecreLarlesţ unLll !ulv 1ţ 1992ť Þrovldedţ flnallvţ 1haL ln Lhe case of
AsslsLanL SecreLarlesţ undersecreLarles and SecreLarlesţ Lhe salarv raLes auLhorlzed hereln shall be used ln Lhe compuLaLlon of Lhe reLlremenL beneflLs for
Lhose who reLlre under Lhe exlsLlna reLlremenL laws wlLhln Lhe aforesald perlodŦ

5ect|on 9Ŧ 5o/ory rode 4ssionments for Other PositionsŦ Ŵ lor poslLlons below Lhe Cfflclals menLloned under SecLlon 8 hereof and Lhelr equlvalenLţ wheLher
ln Lhe naLlonal CovernmenLţ local aovernmenL unlLsţ aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons or flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsţ Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and
ManaaemenL ls herebv dlrecLed Lo prepare Lhe lndex of CccupaLlonal Servlces Lo be aulded bv Lhe 8enchmark ÞoslLlon Schedule prescrlbed hereunder and
Lhe followlna facLorsť %1) Lhe educaLlon and experlence requlred Lo perform Lhe duLles and responslblllLles of Lhe poslLlonsŤ %2) Lhe naLure and complexlLv of
Lhe work Lo be performedŤ %3) Lhe klnd of supervlslon recelvedŤ %4) menLal and/or phvslcal sLraln requlred ln Lhe compleLlon of Lhe workŤ %3) naLure and
exLenL of lnLernal and exLernal relaLlonshlpsŤ %6) klnd of supervlslon exerclsedŤ %7) declslonŴmaklna responslblllLvŤ %8) responslblllLv for accuracv of records
and reporLsŤ %9) accounLablllLv for fundsţ properLles and equlpmenLŤ and %10) hardshlpţ hazard and personal rlsk lnvolved ln Lhe [obŦ

8enchmark ÞoslLlon Schedule
ÞoslLlon 1lLle Salarv Crade
Laborer l 1

źŻ



Messenaer 2
Clerk l 3
urlver l 3
SLenoarapher l 4
Mechanlc l 4
CarpenLer ll 3
LlecLrlclan ll 6
SecreLarv l 7
8ookkeeper 8
AdmlnlsLraLlve AsslsLanL 8
LducaLlon 8esearch AsslsLanL l 9
Cashler l 10
nurse l 10
1eacher l 10
Aararlan 8eform Þroaram 1echnoloalsL 10
8udaeL Cfflcer l 11
ChemlsL l 11
AarlculLurlsL l 11
Soclal Welfare Cfflcer l 11
Lnalneer l 12
veLerlnarlan l 13
Leaal Cfflcer l 14
AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer ll 13
uenLlsL ll 16
ÞosLmasLer lv 17
loresLer lll 18
AssoclaLe Þrofessor l 19
8ural PealLh Þhvslclan 20

ln no case shall Lhe salarv of Lhe chalrmanţ presldenLţ aeneral manaaer or admlnlsLraLorţ and Lhe board of dlrecLors of aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled
corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons exceed Salarv Crade 30ť Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe ÞresldenL mavţ ln Lrulv excepLlonal casesţ approve hlaher compensaLlon
for Lhe aforesald offlclalsŦ

5ect|on 10Ŧ Loco/ overnment units {Lus)Ŧ Ŵ 1he raLes of pav ln LCus shall be deLermlned on Lhe basls of Lhe class and flnanclal capablllLv of each LCuť
Þrovldedţ 1haL such raLes of pav shall noL exceed Lhe followlna percenLaaes of Lhe raLes ln Lhe salarv schedule prescrlbed under SecLlon 7 hereofť

lor
Þrovlnces/ClLles
lor
MunlclpallLles
Speclal ClLles 100Ʒ
1sL Class 100Ʒ 90Ʒ
2nd Class 93Ʒ 83Ʒ
3rd Class 90Ʒ 80Ʒ
4Lh Class 83Ʒ 73Ʒ
3Lh Class 80Ʒ 70Ʒ
6Lh Class 73Ʒ 63Ʒ

5ect|on 11Ŧ ,i/itory ond Po/ice Personne/Ŧ Ŵ 1he base pav of unlformed personnel of Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe Þhlllpplnes and Lhe lnLearaLed naLlonal Þollce
shall be as prescrlbed ln Lhe salarv schedule for Lhese personnel ln 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6638 and 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6648Ŧ 1he lonaevlLv pav of Lhese personnel shall be as
prescrlbed under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6638ţ and 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1134 as amended bv 8ŦAŦ noŦ 3723 and 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6648ť Þrovldedţ howeverţ 1haL Lhe lonaevlLv pav of unlformed
personnel of Lhe lnLearaLed naLlonal Þollce shall lnclude Lhose servlces rendered as unlformed members of Lhe pollceţ [all and flre deparLmenLs of Lhe local
aovernmenL unlLs prlor Lo Lhe pollce lnLearaLlonŦ

All exlsLlna Lvpes of allowances auLhorlzed for unlformed personnel of Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe Þhlllpplnes and lnLearaLed naLlonal Þollce such as cosL of
llvlna allowanceţ lonaevlLv pavţ quarLers allowanceţ subslsLence allowanceţ cloLhlna allowanceţ hazard pav and oLher allowances shall conLlnue Lo be
auLhorlzedŦ


ź%



5ect|on 12Ŧ conso/idotion of 4//owonces ond compensotionŦ Ŵ All allowancesţ excepL for represenLaLlon and LransporLaLlon allowancesŤ cloLhlna and laundrv
allowancesŤ subslsLence allowance of marlne offlcers and crew on board aovernmenL vessels and hosplLal personnelŤ hazard pavŤ allowances of forelan
servlce personnel sLaLloned abroadŤ and such oLher addlLlonal compensaLlon noL oLherwlse speclfled hereln as mav be deLermlned bv Lhe u8Mţ shall be
deemed lncluded ln Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLes hereln prescrlbedŦ Such oLher addlLlonal compensaLlonţ wheLher ln cash or ln klndţ belna recelved bv
lncumbenLs onlv as of !ulv 1ţ 1989 noL lnLearaLed lnLo Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLes shall conLlnue Lo be auLhorlzedŦ

LxlsLlna addlLlonal compensaLlon of anv naLlonal aovernmenL offlclal or emplovee pald from local funds of a local aovernmenL unlL shall be absorbed lnLo Lhe
baslc salarv of sald offlclal or emplovee and shall be pald bv Lhe naLlonal CovernmenLŦ

5ect|on 13Ŧ Poy 4djustmentsŦ Ŵ Þaraaraphs %b) and %c)ţ SecLlon 13 of ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983 are herebv amended Lo read as followsť
ƍ%b) Þav 8educLlon Ŵ lf an emplovee ls moved from a hlaher Lo a lower classţ he shall noL suffer a reducLlon ln salarvť Þrovldedţ 1haL such
movemenL ls noL Lhe resulL of a dlsclpllnarv acLlon or volunLarv demoLlonŦ
ƍ%c) SLep lncremenLs Ŵ LffecLlve !anuarv 1ţ 1990 sLep lncremenLs shall be aranLed based on merlL and/or lenaLh of servlce ln accordance wlLh rules
and reaulaLlons LhaL wlll be promulaaLed [olnLlv bv Lhe u8M and Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦƍ

5ect|on 14Ŧ 4dministrotion of compensotion ond Position c/ossificotion 5ystemŦ Ŵ Subparaaraph %a)ţ SecLlon 17 of ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983 ls herebv
amended Lo read as followsť
ƍ%a) AdmlnlsLer Lhe compensaLlon and poslLlon classlflcaLlon svsLem esLabllshed hereln and revlse lL as necessarvŦƍ

5ect|on 15Ŧ keference to Offices ond PositionsŦ Ŵ All references Lo Lhe ƍCommlssloner of Lhe 8udaeLţƍ ƍ8udaeL Commlsslonƍ or ƍCommlsslonƍ and ƍCfflce of
CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlonƍ or ƍCCÞCƍ ln ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983 and ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 1397 shall read Lo mean Lhe SecreLarv of
8udaeL and ManaaemenLţ Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL or u8Mţ and Lhe CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon 8ureau or CÞC8ţ
respecLlvelvŦ

5ect|on 16Ŧ kepeo/ of 5pecio/ 5o/ory Lows ond keou/otionsŦ Ŵ All lawsţ decreesţ execuLlve ordersţ corporaLe charLersţ and oLher lssuances or parLs Lhereofţ
LhaL exempL aaencles from Lhe coveraae of Lhe SvsLemţ or LhaL auLhorlze and flx poslLlon classlflcaLlonţ salarlesţ pav raLes or allowances of speclfled
poslLlonsţ or aroups of offlclals and emplovees or of aaenclesţ whlch are lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe SvsLemţ lncludlna Lhe provlso under SecLlon 2ţ and SecLlon 16
of ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983 are herebv repealedŦ

5ect|on 17Ŧ 5o/ories of lncumbentsŦ Ŵ lncumbenLs of poslLlons presenLlv recelvlna salarles and addlLlonal compensaLlon/frlnae beneflLs lncludlna Lhose
absorbed from local aovernmenL unlLs and oLher emolumenLsţ Lhe aaareaaLe of whlch exceeds Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLe as hereln prescrlbedţ shall
conLlnue Lo recelve such excess compensaLlonţ whlch shall be referred Lo as LranslLlon allowanceŦ 1he LranslLlon allowance shall be reduced bv Lhe amounL
of salarv ad[usLmenL LhaL Lhe lncumbenL shall recelve ln Lhe fuLureŦ
1he LranslLlon allowance referred Lo hereln shall be LreaLed as parL of Lhe baslc salarv for purposes of compuLlna reLlremenL pavţ vearŴend bonus and oLher
slmllar beneflLsŦ

As basls for compuLaLlon of Lhe flrsL acrossŴLheŴboard salarv ad[usLmenL of lncumbenLs wlLh LranslLlon allowanceţ no lncumbenL who ls recelvlna
compensaLlon exceedlna Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLe aL Lhe Llme of Lhe effecLlvlLv of Lhls AcLţ shall be asslaned a salarv lower Lhan nlneLv percenL %90Ʒ) of
hls presenL compensaLlon or Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLeţ whlchever ls hlaherŦ SubsequenL lncreases shall be based on Lhe resulLanL ad[usLed salarvŦ

5ect|on 18Ŧ 4dditiono/ compensotion of commission on 4udit Personne/ ond of Other 4oenciesŦ Ŵ ln order Lo preserve Lhe lndependence and lnLearlLv of Lhe
Commlsslon on AudlL %CCA)ţ lLs offlclals and emplovees are prohlblLed from recelvlna salarlesţ honorarlaţ bonusesţ allowances or oLher emolumenLs from
anv aovernmenL enLlLvţ local aovernmenL unlLţ and aovernmenLŴowned and conLrolled corporaLlonsţ and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonţ excepL Lhose
compensaLlon pald dlrecLlv be Lhe CCA ouL of lLs approprlaLlons and conLrlbuLlonsŦ

CovernmenL enLlLlesţ lncludlna aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons lncludlna flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and local aovernmenL unlLs are herebv
prohlblLed from assesslna or bllllna oLher aovernmenL enLlLlesţ aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons lncludlna flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons or local
aovernmenL unlLs for servlces rendered bv lLs offlclals and emplovees as parL of Lhelr reaular funcLlons for purposes of pavlna addlLlonal compensaLlon Lo
sald offlclals and emploveesŦ

5ect|on 19Ŧ lundino 5ourceŦ Ŵ 1he fundlna sources for Lhe amounLs necessarv Lo lmplemenL Lhls AcL shall be as followsť
%a) lor naLlonal aovernmenL enLlLlesţ Lhe amounL shall be charaed aaalnsL Lhe approprlaLlons seL aslde for Lhe purpose ln Lhe 1989 Ceneral
ApproprlaLlons AcL and from savlnas aeneraLed from Lhe dlfferenL deparLmenLsţ bureausţ offlces and aaenclesŦ 1hereafLerţ such amounLs as are
needed shall be lncluded ln Lhe annual Ceneral ApproprlaLlons AcLŦ
%b) lor local aovernmenL unlLsţ Lhe amounL shall be charaed aaalnsL Lhelr respecLlve fundsŦ Local aovernmenL unlLs whlch do noL have adequaLe
or sufflclenL funds shall onlv parLlallv lmplemenL Lhe esLabllshed raLes as mav be approved bv Lhe !olnL Commlsslon under SecLlon 3 of
ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 1136ť Þrovldedţ 1haL anv parLlal lmplemenLaLlon shall be unlform and proporLlonaLe for all poslLlons ln each local
aovernmenL unlLť Þrovldedţ furLherţ 1haL savlnas from naLlonal AsslsLance Lo Local CovernmenL unlLs %nALCu) funds mav be used for Lhls
purposeŦ
%c) lor aovernmenL corporaLlonsţ Lhe amounL shall come from Lhelr respecLlve corporaLe fundsŦ

5ect|on 20Ŧ 5eporobi/ity c/ouseŦ Ŵ lf for anv reason anv secLlon or provlslon of Lhls AcL ls declared Lo be unconsLlLuLlonal or lnvalldţ Lhe oLher secLlons or
provlslons Lhereof whlch are noL affecLed Lherebv shall conLlnue Lo be ln full force and effecLŦ

5ect|on 21Ŧ 4pp/icobi/ity of Presidentio/ uecree NoŦ 985 os 4mended by Presidentio/ uecree NoŦ 1597Ŧ Ŵ All provlslons of ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 983ţ as
amended bv ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 1397ţ whlch are noL lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhls AcL and are noL expresslv modlfledţ revoked or repealed ln Lhls AcL shall
conLlnue Lo be ln full force and effecLŦ


ź%



5ect|on 22Ŧ kepeo/ino c/ouseŦ Ŵ all lawsţ decreesţ ordersţ rules or reaulaLlons or parLs Lhereof lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcL are herebv repealedţ
amendedţ or modlfled accordlnalvŦ

5ect|on 23Ŧ £ffectivityŦ Ŵ 1hls AcL shall Lake effecL !ulv 1ţ 1989Ŧ 1he u8M shallţ wlLhln slxLv %60) davs afLer lLs approvalţ allocaLe all poslLlons ln Lhelr
approprlaLe poslLlon LlLles and salarv arades and prepare and lssue Lhe necessarv auldellnes Lo lmplemenL Lhe sameŦ
Approvedť ugust 21ţ 1989

cO4 overnment 4uditino ku/es ond keou/otions Ŵ 5ecŦ 2671Ŧ Avolloble oeltbet oolloe oot lo tbe llbtotvŦ

O The rights of one elected or appointed to office are generally measured by:
(* the Constitution OR
(* the law under which he was elected or appointed
O Public officer has the right to exercise those powers which are conferred upon him by law
O !n general, the powers and duties of public officers are prescribed by the Constitution or by statute or both

oyboy woter uistrict v commission on 4udit %303 SC8A 309 | 1999ţ MeoJozoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť 8oard of dlrecLors of 8Wu vsŦ 8esldenL audlLor of 8Wu
Ŵ 8esldenL audlLor dlsallowed Lhe release of Lhe followlna emolumenLs of board of dlrecLorsť ż1Ž per dlem ln excess of Lhose allowed bv
Local WaLer uLlllLles AdmlnlsLraLlonţ ż2Ž 8A1Aţ ż3Ž rlce allowanceţ ż4Ž cash alfLs as parL of ChrlsLmas bonus and ż3Ž Lravelllna allowance
Issuesť
%1) wheLher members of Lhe board of dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLs are enLlLled Lo recelve beneflLs |n add|t|on to those author|zed Lo be pald
pursuanL Lo Lhelr charLer and Lhe auldellnes of Lhe LWuA after the effect|v|ty of kŦ Ŧ -oŦ 6758Ť
%2) wheLher Lhe dlsallowance of dupllcaLlon of clalms of LransporLaLlon allowance of varlous 8Wu emploveesţ as well as Lhe aranL of 8A1Aţ
rlce allowanceţ and excesslve per dlems Lo members of Lhe board of dlrecLors of 8Wuţ would |mpa|r vested r|ghtsţ vlolaLe anv rule
aaalnsL d|m|nut|on of benef|tsţ and undermlne Lhe management prerogat|ve of waLer dlsLrlcLsŤ and
%3) wheLher Lhe 8Wu offlcers and emplovees are enLlLled Lo recelve beneflLs |n excess of that author|zed by |awŦ
ne|dť no! 1hev are onlv enLlLled Lo per dlem and noLhlna elseŦ 8lame vour charLer and LWuAŦ
kat|oť
l55u£ 1
1Ŧ Þu 198 expresslv savsť ºno dlrecLor shall recelve oLher compensaLlon for servlces Lo Lhe dlsLrlcLŦ"
1o wblcb petltlooets otooeť ºCompensaLlon" does noL lnclude Lhe allowances and per dlems whlch had been dlsallowed ln Lhls caseŦ 1hev
clLeť
1Ŧ ÞŦ uŦ noŦ 1146ţ Ƈ2%l)ţ as amended bv 8ŦAŦ noŦ 8291 ºcompensaLlon" means ºLhe baslc pav or salarv bv an emploveeţ pursuanL Lo hls
emplovmenL/appolnLmenLţ excludlna per dlemsţ bonusesţ overLlme pavţ allowances and anv oLher emolumenLs recelved ln addlLlon Lo
Lhe baslc pav whlch are noL lnLearaLed lnLo Lhe baslc pav under exlsLlna lawsŦ"
2Ŧ oeebooe vŦ Nlkcţ veooco vŦ 1tojoooţ ooJ 9blllpploe uopllcototsţ locŦ vŦ Nlkc
SC answersť
1Ŧ 1he sLaLuLorv provlslon lnvoked refers Lo Lhe basls for Lhe compuLaLlon of emplover and emplovee conLrlbuLlons Lo Lhe CSlS as well as
Lhe beneflLs Lo whlch such emplovees are enLlLledŦ ln Lhe same mannerţ under Ƈ32 of Lhe nl8Cţ ºcompensaLlon" lncludes feesţ salarlesţ
waaesţ commlsslonsţ and slmllar lLems for purposes of recoanlzlna Laxable lncomeŦ 1he deflnlLlons of Lhe Lerm ºcompensaLlon" ln Lhese
sLaLuLes are for llmlLed purposes onlv and cannoL be deemed Lo comprehend such oLher purposes noL speclflcallv lncluded ln Lhe
provlslons LhereofŦ
2Ŧ 1hese cases do noL applv Lo Lhls caseŦ 1hev refer Lo Lhe excluslon made bv Lhls CourL of allowances and oLher beneflLs from Lhe
salarles of emplovees ln Lhe prlvaLe secLorţ noL Lo Lhe compensaLlon of members of Lhe board of dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLsţ whose rlahLs
Lo compensaLlonţ as alreadv sLaLedţ are aoverned bv ÞŦ uŦ noŦ 198Ŧ under Ƈ13 of Lhls uecreeţ pet Jlem ls preclselv lnLended Lo be Lhe
compensaLlon of members of board of dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLsŦ lndeedţ words and phrases ln a sLaLuLe musL be alven Lhelr naLuralţ
ordlnarvţ and commonlvŴaccepLed meanlnaţ due reaard belna alven Lo Lhe conLexL ln whlch Lhe words and phrases are usedŦ 8v
speclfvlna Lhe compensaLlon whlch a dlrecLor ls enLlLled Lo recelve and bv llmlLlna Lhe amounL he/she ls allowed Lo recelve ln a monLhţ
andţ ln Lhe same paraaraphţ provldlna ºno dlrecLor shall recelve oLher compensaLlon" Lhan Lhe amounL provlded for pet Jlemsţ Lhe law
qulLe clearlv lndlcaLes LhaL dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLs are auLhorlzed Lo recelve onlv Lhe pet Jlem auLhorlzed bv law and no oLher
compensaLlon or allowance ln whaLever formŦ
2Ŧ ÞeLlLlonersť 1he prohlblLlon ln ÞŦuŦ noŦ 198ţ Ƈ13 aaalnsL Lhe aranL of addlLlonal compensaLlon Lo board members musL be deemed
repealed bv vlrLue of Ƈ22 of 8Ŧ AŦ noŦ 6738 whlch Look effecL on !ulv 1ţ 1989Ŧ 1hev conLend LhaL Ƈ13 of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 198 ls lnconslsLenL wlLh
SecŦ 12 of 8A 6738 on coosollJotloo of Allowooces ooJ compeosotlooŦwhlch provldes LhaL ºAll allowances x x x deemed lncluded ln Lhe
sLandardlzed salarv raLes hereln prescrlbedŦ Such oLher addlLlonal compensaLlonţ wheLher ln cash or ln klndţ belna recelved bv
lncumbenLs onlv as of !ulv 1ţ 1989 noL lnLearaLed lnLo Lhe sLandardlzed salarv raLes shall conLlnue Lo be auLhorlzedŦ" And SecŦ 17 of 8A
6738 on 5olotles of locombeots Ŷ xxx conLlnue Lo recelve such excess compensaLlonţ whlch shall be referred Lo as trans|t|on a||owanceŦ
SC answersť
Ŵ ?ou are not covered by the 5a|ary 5tandard|zat|on aw! ulrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLs are ln facL llmlLed Lo pollcvŴmaklna and are
prohlblLed from Lhe manaaemenL of Lhe dlsLrlcLsŦ

ŻŴ



Ŵ LWuA acknowledaes LhaL dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLs are noL oraanlc personnel andţ as suchţ are deemed excluded from Lhe coveraae of
Lhe Salarv SLandardlzaLlon LawŦ
Ŵ Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 94Ŵ002 of Lhe u8MŴCSCŴLWuAŴÞAWu CverslahL CommlLLee sLaLes ln perLlnenL parLť ºAs Lhe Wu 8oard of
ulrecLors' funcLlon ls llmlLed Lo pollcvŴmaklna under SecŦ 18 of ÞresldenLlal uecree 198ţ as amendedţ lL ls Lhe poslLlon of Lhe CverslahL
CommlLLee LhaL sald Wu ulrecLors are noL Lo be LreaLed as oraanlc personnelţ and as such are deemed excluded from Lhe coveraae of 8A
6738ţ and LhaL Lhelr powersţ rlahLs and prlvlleaes are aoverned bv Lhe perLlnenL provlslons of Þu 198ţ as amendedţ noL bv 8A 6738 or
LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 164ţ sŦ 1994Ŧ"
As to lmpoltmeot of vesteJ tlobts
Ŵ ÞeLlLlonersť ClLlna uovoo cltv wotet ulsttlct vŦ clvll 5etvlce commlsslooť ´WaLer dlsLrlcLs are CCCCs sub[ecL Lo Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe CCAţ
waLer dlsLrlcLs had alreadv been aranLlna addlLlonal beneflLs Lo members of Lhe board of dlrecLorsţ wlLh Lhe approval of Lhe LWuAţ and
Lo Lhelr offlcers and emplovees and LhaL Lhev conLlnued dolna so afLer Lhe promulaaLlon of Lhe declslon ln LhaL caseŦ ÞeLlLloners conLend
Lhev have Lhus acqu|red a vested r|ght Lo Lhese beneflLs of whlch Lhev cannoL now be deprlved wlLhouL vlolaLlna Lhelr properLv rlahLs
and Lhe rule on nonŴd|m|nut|on of benef|tsŦ
SC answersť
Ŵ 1he erroneous appllcaLlon and enforcemenL of Lhe law bv publlc offlcers does noL esLop Lhe CovernmenL from maklna a subsequenL
correcLlon of such errorsŦ
Ŵ Where Lhere ls an express provlslon of law prohlblLlna Lhe aranL of cerLaln beneflLsţ Lhe law musL be enforced even lf lL pre[udlces cerLaln
parLles due Lo an error commlLLed bv publlc offlclals ln aranLlna Lhe beneflLŦ
As to mooooemeot ptetoootlve
Ŵ ManaaemenL preroaaLlve refers Lo Lhe rlahL of an emplover Lo reaulaLe all aspecLs of emplovmenLţ such as Lhe freedom Lo prescrlbe
work asslanmenLsţ worklna meLhodsţ processes Lo be followedţ reaulaLlon reaardlna Lransfer of emploveesţ supervlslon of Lhelr workţ
lavŴoff and dlsclpllneţ and dlsmlssal and recall of workŦ
Ŵ 1he exlsLence of such rlahL presupposes Lhe exlsLence of an emploverŴemplovee relaLlonshlpŦ ln Lhe presenL caseţ Lhe 8Wu board of
dlrecLors are NO1 emplovees of 8WuŦ As alreadv noLedţ Lhelr funcLlonţ as deflned bv ÞŦ uŦ noŦ 198ţ ls llmlLed Lo pollcvŴmaklnaţ lmplvlna
LhaL Lhelr relaLlonshlp Lo Lhe waLer dlsLrlcL ls more flduclarv Lhan LhaL of emploverŴemploveeŦ
Ŵ 1he rlahL of dlrecLors of waLer dlsLrlcLs Lo Lhe pavmenL of compensaLlon ls expresslv provlded for ln ÞŦuŦ noŦ 198ţ Lhus preŴempLlna Lhe
exerclse of anv dlscreLlon bv Lhe waLer dlsLrlcLsŦ
Ŵ As Lo emplovees and oLher offlclals of 8Wuť 1erms and condlLlons of emplovmenL of aovernmenL emplovees are aoverned bv lawŦ 1husţ
Lhe exerclse of manaaemenL preroaaLlve bv aovernmenL corporaLlons are ||m|ted by the prov|s|ons of the |aws app||cab|e to themŦ
As to tbe compotlsoo tbev moJe wltb N9c Jltectotsť unllke ÞŦuŦ noŦ 198ţ Ƈ13ţ Lhe CharLer of nAÞCCC8 express|y granted members of lLs
board of dlrecLors Lhe rlahL Lo recelve allowances ln addlLlon Lo Lhelr pet Jlemsţ sub[ecL onlv Lo Lhe approval of Lhe SecreLarv of
LneravŦ ÞeLlLloners cannoL Lhus clalm slmllar LreaLmenL as Lhe board of dlrecLors of nAÞCCC8Ŧ 1he 8Wu board of dlrecLors' rlahL Lo
compensaLlonţ lL bears emphaslsţ ls llmlLed Lo pet JlemsŦ

kodrioo v 5ondioonboyon %303 SC8A 309 | 1999ţ opooooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Mavorţ Munlclpal Þlannlna and uevelopmenL CoordlnaLor and Munlclpal 1reasurer of San nlcolasţ Þanaaslnan vsŦ Þrovlnclal AudlLor
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner Mavor 8odrlaoţ on behalf of Lhe MunlclpallLv of San nlcolasţ Þanaaslnanţ enLered lnLo an aareemenL wlLh Þhllwood
ConsLrucLlon for Lhe elecLrlflcaLlon of 8aranaav Caboloanţ San nlcolasŦ SubsequenLlv peLlLloner Me[lcaţ Munlclpal Þlannlna and
uevelopmenL CoordlnaLorţ prepared an AccompllshmenL 8eporL sLaLlna LhaL Lhe Caboloan Þower CeneraLlon Þro[ecL was 97Ŧ3Ʒ
accompllshedŦ Cn Lhe basls of sald reporLţ pavmenL was effecLed bv peLlLloner lacundoţ Munlclpal 1reasurerţ Lo Þhllwood ConsLrucLlonŦ
Ŵ Cn 14 AuausL 1993ţ peLlLloners recelved a noLlce of ulsallowance from Lhe Þrovlnclal AudlLor who foundţ amona oLhersţ LhaL as per
Commlsslon on AudlL evaluaLlon of Lhe elecLrlflcaLlon pro[ecLţ onlv 60Ŧ0171Ʒ of Lhe pro[ecL was acLuallv accompllshedŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners requesLed Lhe provlnclal audlLor Lo llfL Lhe noLlce of dlsallowance and Lo reŴlnspecL Lhe pro[ecLŦ 1he Þrovlnclal AudlLorţ
howeverţ alleaedlv dld noL acL on sald requesLs buL lnsLead flled a crlmlnal complalnL for esLafa before Lhe Cmbudsman aaalnsL
peLlLloners and Lhe ÞresldenL and Þro[ecL Lnalneer of Þhllwood ConsLrucLlonŦ SubsequenLlvţ Lhe Cmbudsman approved Lhe flllna of an
lnformaLlon aaalnsL peLlLloners for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 3 %e) of 8A 3019 before Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners flled before Lhe Sandlaanbavan a moLlon Lo quash Lhe lnformaLlon conLendlna LhaL Lhe lnsLlLuLlon bv Lhe Þrovlnclal AudlLor of
Lhe complalnL desplLe Lhe pendencv of Lhelr opposlLlon Lo Lhe noLlce of dlsallowance vlolaLes Lhelr rlahL Lo due processŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners llkewlse clalmed LhaL Mavor 8odrlaoţ Lhe hlahesL publlc ranklna publlc offlclal lmpleaded ln Lhls caseţ at the t|me of the
comm|ss|on of the a||eged cr|me was rece|v|ng a monLhlv salarv of Þ10ţ441Ŧ00Ŧ Such amounL ls supposedlv equlvalenL Lo a fourLh sLep
lncremenL ln Crade 24 under Lhe Salarv Schedule prescrlbed ln SecLlon 7 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738ţ ln a pos|t|on of rade 24 and wasţ therefore
beyond the or|g|na| and exc|us|ve [ur|sd|ct|on of the 5and|ganbayanŦ ÞeLlLlonersţ howeverţ clalm LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe alleaed crlme on or abouL 2 SepLember 1992ţ Mavor 8odrlaoţ Lhe hlahesL publlc ranklna publlc offlclal lmpleaded ln Lhls caseţť
Ŵ S8 ruled LhaL lL had [urlsdlcLlon over peLlLlonersŦ
Issueť WCn Mavors %Laklna lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe ºmeaaer" salarv Lhev acLuallv recelve) are wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe S8?
ne|dť ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ WlLh Lhe advenL of Lhe new ConsLlLuLlonţ and ln compllance wlLh SecLlon 3ţ ArLlcle lxŴCţ Conaress enacLed 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738Ŧ SecLlon 2
Lhereof declares lL Lhe pollcv of Lhe SLaLe ºLo provlde equal pav for subsLanLlallv equal work and Lo base dlfferences ln pav upon
subsLanLlve dlfferences ln duLles and responslblllLlesţ and quallflcaLlon requlremenLs of Lhe poslLlonsŦ

Żŵ



Ŵ 1o alve llfe Lo Lhls pollcvţ as well as Lhe consLlLuLlonal prescrlpLlon Lo º%Lake) lnLo accounL Lhe naLure of Lhe responslblllLles perLalnlna Loţ
and Lhe quallflcaLlons requlred" for Lhe poslLlons of aovernmenL offlclals and emploveesţ Conaress adopLed Lhe scheme emploved ln ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 983 for classlfvlna poslLlons wlLh comparable responslblllLles and quallflcaLlons for Lhe purpose of accordlna such poslLlons slmllar
salarlesŦ
Ŵ 1hls scheme ls known as Lhe ºCrade" whlch as deflned ln Þu 983 lncludes ºall classes of poslLlons whlchţ alLhouah dlfferenL wlLh respecL
Lo klnd or sub[ecL maLLer of workţ are suff|c|ent|y equ|va|ent as Lo level of Jlfflcoltv ooJ tespooslbllltles and level of ooollflcotloo
teooltemeots of tbe wotk Lo warranL Lhe lncluslon of such classes of poslLlons wlLhln one ranae of baslc compensaLlonŦ"
Ŵ 1he Crade ls Lherefore a means of group|ng pos|t|ons ºsufflclenLlv equlvalenL as Lo level of dlfflculLv and responslblllLles and level of
quallflcaLlon requlremenLs of Lhe work" so LhaL Lhev mav be lumped LoaeLher ln ºone ranae of baslc compensaLlonŦ"
Ŵ Conaress deleaaLed Lhe resL of Lhls Ledlous Lask %of flxlna Salarv Crades) Lo Lhe u8Mţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe sLandards conLalned ln 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738ţ
bv auLhorlzlna Lhe u8M Lo ºdeLermlne Lhe offlclals who are of equlvalenL rank Lo Lhe foreaolna offlclalsţ where appllcableţ" and Lo asslan
Lhem Lhe same Salarv Crades sub[ecL Lo a seL of auldellnes found ln sald secLlonŦ
Ŵ lor poslLlons below Lhose menLloned under SecLlon 8ţ SecLlon 9 dlrecLs Lhe u8M Lo prepare Lhe ºlndex of CccupaLlonal Servlces" aulded
bv %a) Lhe 8enchmark ÞoslLlon prescrlbed ln SecLlon 9ţ and %b) Lhe followlna facLorsť
%1) Lhe educaLlon and experlence requlred Lo perform Lhe duLles and responslblllLles of Lhe poslLlonŤ
%2) naLure and complexlLv of Lhe work Lo be performedŤ
%3) Lhe klnd of supervlslon recelvedŤ
%4) menLal and/or phvslcal sLraln requlred ln Lhe compleLlon of Lhe workŤ
%3) naLure and exLenL of lnLernal and exLernal relaLlonshlpsŤ
%6) klnd of supervlslon exerclsedŤ
%7) declslonŴmaklna responslblllLvŤ
%8) responslblllLv for accuracv of records and reporLsŤ
%9) accounLablllLv for fundsţ properLles and equlpmenLŤ and
%10) hardshlpţ hazard and personal rlsk lnvolved ln Lhe [obŦ
Ŵ ÞursuanL Lo such auLhorlLvţ Lhe u8M drafLed Lhe 1989 lndex of CccupaLlonal Servlcesţ ÞoslLlon 1lLles and Salarv Cradesţ laLer revlsed ln
1997Ŧ ln boLh verslonsţ Lhe poslLlon of Munlclpal Mavor was asslaned a Salarv Crade 27Ŧ
Ŵ 1haL peLlLloner recelved a salarv less Lhan LhaL prescrlbed for such Crade ls explalned bv SecLlons 10 and 19 %b) of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738Ŧ
Ŵ 1husţ a local aovernmenL offlclal's acLual salarv mav be less Lhan whaL Lhe Salarv Schedule under SecLlon 7 prescrlbesţ dependlna on Lhe
c|ass and f|nanc|a| capab|||ty of h|s or her respect|ve |oca| government un|tŦ 1hls clrcumsLanceţ howeverţ has no bear|ng on such
off|c|a|'s radeŦ As Lhe foreaolna dlscusslon showsţ on off|c|a|'s sa|ary |s determ|ned by the rade accorded h|s pos|t|onţ
and u|t|mate|y by the nature of h|s pos|t|on Ŷ Lhe level of dlfflculLv and responslblllLles and level of quallflcaLlon requlremenLs of Lhe
workŦ 1o alve credence Lo peLlLloners' araumenL LhaL Mavor 8odrlao's salarv deLermlnes hls Crade would be Lo mlsconsLrue Lhe
provlslons of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738ţ and lanore Lhe consLlLuLlonal and sLaLuLorv pollcles behlnd sald lawŦ

1ejodo v uominoo %203 SC8A 138 | 1992ţ uovlJeţ ItŦţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Senlor clerks of CCA asslaned Lo audlLlna unlLs of Þn8 and C8
Ŵ 1e[ada and Chlna were senlor clerks of CCA asslaned Lo audlLlna unlLs of Þn8 and C8 respecLlvelvŦ Þrlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLv of 8A 6738ţ Lhev
%as well as oLher CCA emplovees) recelved hlaher salarles because of Lhe conLrlbuLlons made bv Lhe aovernmenL enLlLlesţ local
aovernmenL or CCCCs Lo whlch Lhev had been asslanedŦ
Ŵ Poweverţ bv vlrLue of SecŦ 18 of 8A 6738 %prohlblLlna Lhe conLrlbuLlon and addlLlonal compensaLlon of CCA personnelsţ quoLed below)ţ
Lhelr salarles were slanlflcanLlv reducedŦ
SecŦ18Ŧ AJJltloool compeosotloo of commlssloo oo AoJlt 9etsoooel ooJ Otbet AoeoclesŦ Ÿ ln order Lo preserve the
|ndependence and |ntegr|ty of Lhe CCAţ lLs offlclals and emplovees are proh|b|ted from rece|v|ng salarlesţ honorarlaţ bonusesţ
allowances or oLher emolumenLs from anv aovernmenL enLlLvţ local aovernmenL unlLţ and aovernmenLŴowned and conLrolled
corporaLlonsţ and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsţ except those compensat|on pa|d d|rect|y by the out of |ts
appropr|at|ons and contr|but|onsŦ

CovernmenL enLlLles lncludlna CCCCsţ flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and LCus are herebv prohlblLed from assesslna or bllllna oLher
aovernmenL enLlLlesţ aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons lncludlna flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons or local aovernmenL unlLs
for servlces rendered bv lLs offlclals and emplovees as parL of Lhelr reaular funcLlons for purposes of pavlna addlLlonal
compensaLlon Lo sald offlclals and emploveesŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner arauesť
1Ŧ SecLlons 12 and 17 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738 auLhorlze Lhelr conLlnued recelpL of Lhe exLra allowances from Lhe CCCCs
2Ŧ ln respecL Lo CCCCs and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsţ Lhe law does noL seem Lo make a dlsLlncLlon beLween an locombeot Lhereln
who ls an oraanlc personnel Lhereof and an locombeot who ls a CCA personnel asslaned Lo Lhelr audlLlna unlLs
Issueť WCn 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738 CCA personnel mav sLlll be allowed Lo recelve from anv aovernmenL aaencvţ local or naLlonalţ lncludlna
aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons and aovernmenL flnanclna lnsLlLuLlonsţ oLher allowancesţ emolumenLs and frlnae beneflLs
over and above Lhelr leaallv seL salarles and allowances as CCA emplovees?
ne|dť no
kat|oť

ŻŶ



Ŵ ÞeLlLloners assume LhaL Lhelr gross compensat|on |nc|udes the extra emo|uments g|ven by the s to wh|ch they are ass|gnedţ LhaL
SecLlons 12 and 17 of Lhe AcL aranL Lhem vested r|ghts to such extra emo|uments and LhaL Lhev were dlrecLlv pald bv Lhe CCA ouL of lLs
approprlaLlons and conLrlbuLlonsŦ
lstotlcol bockotoooJ of tbe low
Ŵ Þrlor Lo Lhe enacLmenL of ÞresldenLlal uecree noŦ 1443 %CovernmenL AudlLlna Code of Lhe Þhlllpplnes)ţ all offlclals and emplovees of Lhe
CCA asslaned Loţ lotet olloţ CCCCsţ recelved Lhelr salarlesţ allowancesţ addlLlonal compensaLlonţ emolumenLs and oLher frlnae beneflLs
dlrecLlv from such CCCCsŦ 1hls pracLlce was noL deemed effecLlve enouah Lo enhance Lhe lndependence and proLecL Lhe lnLearlLv of Lhe
CCAŦ 1husţ wlLh Lhe end ln vlew of lnsulaLlna Lhese CCA offlclals and emploveesţ parLlcularlv Lhe audlLorsţ from unwarranLed lnfluenceţ
Lherebv preservlna Lhe lndependence and lnLearlLv of Lhe CCAţ Þu noŦ 1443 expresslv mandaLes LhaL Lhe salarles and oLher forms of
compensaLlon of Lhe personnel of Lhe CCA shall follow a common poslLlon classlflcaLlon and compensaLlon plan reaardless of aaencv
asslanmenL and shall be sub[ecL Lo ÞŦuŦ noŦ 983Ť and LhaL all offlclals and emplovees Lhereofţ lncludlna lLs represenLaLlves and supporL
personnelţ shall be pald Lhelr salarlesţ emolumenLs and allowances dlrecLlv bv Lhe CCA ouL of Lhe laLLerƌs approprlaLlons and
conLrlbuLlonsţ

whlch shall be consldered as parL of lLs operaLlna expenses Lo be lncluded ln Lhe annual approprlaLlons lawţ buL funded
from Lhe assessmenLs made uponţ or from conLrlbuLlons of Lhe CCCCsŦ

lL dlrecLs CCCCs Lo approprlaLe ln Lhelr respecLlve budaeLs and
remlL Lo Lhe naLlonal 1reasurv an amounL aL leasL equlvalenL Lo Lhe approprlaLlon for Lhe salarles and allowances of Lhe represenLaLlves
and sLaff of Lhe Commlsslon durlna Lhe precedlna flscal vearŦ
Ŵ 1he requlremenL of a common poslLlon and compensaLlon plan dld awav wlLh Lhe old pracLlce of aaencles concerned deLermlnlna Lhe
numberţ compensaLlon and asslanmenL of CCA represenLaLlvesţ whlch was boLh chaoLlc and un[usLŦ 1he provlslon on dlrecL pavmenL bv
CCA of Lhe salarles and oLher beneflLs was deslaned Lo lnsLlll lnsLlLuLlon lovalLvŦ
Ŵ 1hls pollcv was furLher sLrenaLhened bv LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 19 whlch ÞresldenL Corazon CŦ AqulnoŦ 1husţ Lhe law ls clear LhaL Lhe
conLrlbuLlons from Lhe CCCCs are llmlLed Lo Lhe cosL of audlL servlces whlch are based on Lhe acLual cosL of Lhe audlL funcLlon ln Lhe
corporaLlon concerned plus a reasonable raLe Lo cover overhead expensesŦ 1he acLual audlL cosL shall lnclude personnel servlcesţ
malnLenance and oLher operaLlna expensesţ depreclaLlon on caplLal and equlpmenL and ouLŴofŴpockeL expensesŦ
Ŵ Memorandum Crder noŦ 177ť llmlLs Lhe appllcaLlon of LranslLlon allowance provlslon lnvolvlna Lhe aranL of exLra allowances and frlnae
beneflLs Lo Lhelr offlclals and emplovees
Ŵ CorporaLe 8udaeL Clrcular noŦ 13 lssued bv u8M Lo lmplemenL Lhe MC noŦ 177 expllclLlv excluded Lhe personnel of CCA
Ŵ 8A 6738 repealed SecLlon 2 of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 983 whlch readsť ºŦ Ŧ Ŧ 9tovlJeJţ LhaL noLwlLhsLandlna a sLandardlzed salarv svsLem esLabllshed for
all emploveesţoJJltloool floooclol loceotlves mav be esLabllshed bv aovernmenL corporaLlons and flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons for Lhelr
emplovees Lo be supporLed fullv from Lhelr corporaLe funds and for such Lechnlcal poslLlons as mav be approved bv Lhe ÞresldenL ln
crlLlcal aovernmenL aaenclesŦ"
Ŵ WhaL can be deduced from Lhe developmenL of Lhe law? A LwoŴpronaed sLraLeav Lo preserve and enhance Lhe lndependence and
lnLearlLv of Lhe CCA and make lLs personnel loval Lo none oLher excepL LhaL lnsLlLuLlon and beholden Lo nobodv buL Lhe people whose
coffers Lhev musL auard wlLh dedlcaLlon and responslblllLvŦ
1Ŧ 1he flrsL aspecL of Lhe sLraLeav ls d|rected to the |tse|fŦ CCA personnel asslaned Lo audlLlna unlLs of CCCCs or aovernmenL
flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons can recelve onlv such salarlesţ allowances or frlnae beneflLs pald dlrecLlv bv Lhe CCA ouL of lLs approprlaLlons and
conLrlbuLlonsŦ 1he conLrlbuLlons referred Lo are Lhe cosL of audlL servlces earller menLloned whlch cannoL lnclude Lhe exLra emolumenLs
or beneflLs now clalmed bv peLlLlonersŦ 1he CCA ls furLher barred from assesslna or bllllna CCCCs and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons
for servlces rendered bv lLs personnel as parL of Lhelr reaular audlL funcLlons for purposes of pavlna addlLlonal compensaLlon Lo such
personnelŦ
2Ŧ 1he second aspecL ls addressed d|rect|y aga|nst the s and government f|nanc|a| |nst|tut|onsŦ CCCCs and aovernmenL flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlons can no lonaer relv on SecLlon 2 of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 983Ť moreoverţ frlnae beneflLs and oLher emolumenLs ln excess of Lhe
sLandardlzed raLesţ whlch mav be conLlnued Lo be recelved ln Lhe concepL of ƍLranslLlon allowanceƍ under Memorandum Crder noŦ 177ţ
ln relaLlon Lo CorporaLe 8udaeL Clrcular noŦ 13 %13 !ulv 1988)ţ applv onlv Lo Lhe offlclols ooJ emplovees of proflLŴmaklna and flnanclallv
vlable CCCCs and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsŦ
As to tbe lssoe ot booJ
Ŵ 1he LoLal removal of Lhe LempLaLlon and enLlcemenL Lhe exLra emolumenLs provlde would be one effecLlve wav Lo vlaorouslv and
aaaresslvelv enforce Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal provlslon mandaLlna Lhe CCA Lo prevenL or dlsallow lrreaularţ unnecessarvţ excesslveţ
exLravaaanLţ or unconsclonable expendlLuresţ or uses of aovernmenL funds and properLlesŦ 1he CCA personnel asslaned Lo Lhe CCCCs
who have absoluLelv noLhlna Lo look forward Lo or expecL from Lhe laLLer ln Lerms of exLra beneflLs would have no reason Lo accord
speclal LreaLmenL Lo Lhe CCCCs bv closlna Lhelr eves Lo lrreaular or unlawful expendlLures or use of funds or properLvţ or conducLlna
perfuncLorv audlLŦ 1he law reallzes LhaL such exLra beneflLs could dlmlnlsh Lhe personnelƌs serlousness and dedlcaLlon ln Lhe pursulL of
Lhelr asslaned Lasksţ affecL Lhelr lmparLlallLv and provlde a conLlnulna LempLaLlon Lo lnaraLlaLe Lhemselves Lo Lhe CCCCs or aovernmenL
flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons concernedŦ ln Lhe end Lhenţ Lhev would become lneffecLlve audlLorsŦ
As to oppllcobllltv of ttoosltloo ollowooce
Ŵ SecLlon 12 refers Lo Lhe reaular allowances and compensaLlon whlch an lnsLrumenLallLvţ enLlLv or aaencv of Lhe aovernmenL aranLs Lo lLs
oraanlc personnelŦ ln Lhe case of CCA personnelţ such allowances and compensaLlon cannot |nc|ude allowancesţ frlnae beneflLs or exLra
emolumenLsţ such as Lhose clalmed bv peLlLlonersţ whlch are aranLed bv CCCCs or aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons because 5ect|on 18
of the ct |tse|f bans the personne| from rece|v|ng them even as lL also prohlblLs CCCCs and aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons from
aranLlna such beneflLs Lo personnel of oLher aovernmenL lnsLrumenLallLlesţ enLlLles or aaencles asslaned Lo Lhem Lo perform Lhe reaular
funcLlons of Lhelr moLher unlLsŦ

Żŷ



As to meooloo of locombeot
Ŵ An incumbent ls a person who ls ln presenL possesslon of an offlceŤ one who ls leaallv auLhorlzed Lo dlscharae Lhe duLles of an offlceŦ
Ŵ An office ls a publlc charae or emplovmenLţ an emplovmenL on behalf of Lhe aovernmenL ln anv sLaLlon or publlc LrusLţ noL merelv
LranslenLţ occaslonal or lncldenLalŦ
Ŵ An lncumbenL Lhen can onlv refer Lo Lhe holder of an offlce elLher bv appolnLmenL or bv elecLlonŦ lnsofar as peLlLloners were concernedţ
Lhev are |ncumbents of the pos|t|on Lo whlch Lhev have been appolnLed Ÿ senlor clerks of Lhe CCA Ÿ and noL of Lhe Þn8 or Lhe C8 Lo
whlch Lhev are merelv Lemporarllv asslanedŦ


5ontos v c4 %343 SC8A 333 | 2000ţ uovlJeţ ItŦţ cŦIŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Me1C !udae Lurned 1CC dlrecLor
Ŵ AnLonlo SanLos %noL ÞrofŦ AnLonlo SanLos of Lhe Law Llbrarv) opLlonallv reLlred from Lhe !udlclarv under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 910ţ as amendedţ and
recelved hls reLlremenL araLulLv under Lhe law for hls enLlre vears ln Lhe aovernmenL servlceŤ for 3 vears laLerţ he has been reaularlv
recelvlna a monLhlv penslonŦ
Ŵ Pe reŴenLered Lhe aovernmenL servlce as ulrecLor lll of Lhe 1rafflc CperaLlon CenLer of Lhe MMAŦ Pls appolnLmenL was approved bv Lhe
Clvll Servlce Commlsslon %CSC)Ŧ Poweverţ ln 1993 Lhe MMA was reoraanlzed lnLo MMuA bv vlrLue of 8A 7924Ŧ
Ŵ ln vlew of Lhe reoraanlzaLlonţ SecŦ 11 of Lhe sald law provlded for Lhe separaLlon beneflLs of dlsplaced personnel as followsť º1he naLlonal
aovernmenL shall provlde such amounLs as mav be necessarv Lo pav Lhe beneflLs accrulna Lo dlsplaced emplovees aL Lhe raLe of 1 x
monLhs salarv for every year of serv|ceť 9tovlJeJţ 1haLţ lf qua||f|ed for ret|rement under exlsLlna reLlremenL lawsţ sald emplovees mav
opL Lo recelve Lhe beneflLs LhereunderŦ"
Ŵ 8oLh CSC and CA ruled LhaL hls separaLlon pav should onlv be counLed based on hls vears of servlce ln Lhe MMA
Issueť WCn for Lhe purpose of compuLlna or deLermlnlna peLlLloner's separaLlon pav under SecLlon 11 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 7924ţ hls years of serv|ce
|n the Iud|c|ary should be exc|uded and LhaL hls separaLlon pav should be so|e|y conf|ned to h|s serv|ces |n the ,,? ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he case aL bench ls noLţ sLrlcLlv speaklnaţ abouL double penslonŦ lL lsţ howeverţ abouL Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of a araLulLv lawţ vlzŦţ SecLlon
11 of 8epubllc AcL noŦ 7924 whlch awards separaLlon pav Lo Lhose aovernmenL emplovees who were dlsplaced bv Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of
Lhe MMA lnLo Lhe MMuAţ whlch should be consLrued Lo preclude a aovernmenL emplovee from recelvlna double araLulLv for Lhe same
vears of servlceŦ
Ŵ 1he lasL paraaraph of SecLlon 11 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 7924 on Lhe aranL of separaLlon pav aL Lhe raLe of one and oneŴfourLh %1) monLhs of salarv
for everv vear of servlce cannoL bv anv sLreLch of loalc or lmaalnaLlon be lnLerpreLed Lo refer Lo Lhe LoLal lenaLh of servlce of an MMA
emplovee ln Lhe aovernmenLţ lŦeŦţ Lo lnclude such servlce ln Lhe aovernmenL ouLslde Lhe MMAŦ Slnce lL allows Lhe aranL of separaLlon pav
Lo emplovees who were Lo be dlsplaced Lherebv Lhe separaLlon pav can be based onlv on Lhe lenaLh of servlce ln Lhe MMAŦ 1he
dlsplacemenL amounLed Lo an abollLlon of Lhe offlce or poslLlon of Lhe dlsplaced emploveesţ such as LhaL of peLlLlonerŦ 1he rule ls seLLled
LhaL Conaress mav abollsh publlc offlcesŦ Such a power ls a consequenL preroaaLlve of lLs power Lo creaLe publlc offlcesŦ Poweverţ Lhe
power Lo abollsh ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlon LhaL lL be exerclsed ln aood falLhŦ 1he separaLlon parLook of Lhe naLure of a dlsLurbance of
compensaLlonŤ henceţ Lhe separaLlon pav musL relaLe onlv Lo Lhe emplovmenL Lhus affecLedŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner hlmself musL have reallzed LhaL SecLlon 11 does noL allow Lhe Lacklna ln of hls prevlous aovernmenL servlceŦ lf he were
convlnced LhaL lL does he could have lnsLead applled for tetltemeot beneflLsţ slnce bv addlna hls vears of servlce ln Lhe MMA Lo hls
prevlous vears of servlce ln Lhe CovernmenL he could have reLlred under Lhe Lhlrd paraaraph of SecLlon 11Ŧ
Ŵ AfLer Lhe approval of hls opLlonal reLlremenL on 1 Aprll 1992ţ peLlLloner was fullv pald of hls reLlremenL araLulLv under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 910ţ as
amendedŤ and flve vears LhereafLer he has been recelvlna a monLhlv penslonŦ
Ŵ Second paraaraph of SecLlon 8 of ArLlcle lxŴ8 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon %ºÞenslons or araLulLles shall noL be consldered as addlLlonalţ doubleţ or
lndlrecL compensaLlonŦ") slmplv means LhaL a reLlree recelvlna penslon or araLulLv can conLlnue Lo recelve such penslon or araLulLv even
lf he accepLs anoLher aovernmenL poslLlon Lo whlch anoLher compensaLlon ls aLLachedŦ

2 Security of tenure

3 Systems of incentives and rewards, ompensation

Rights under the ivil Service Law and the rules under the Administrative ode of

Personnel actions

O Any action denoting the movement or progress of personal in the civil service
O Should be in accordance with such rules, standards and regulations as may be promulgated by the Commission

Appointment through ertification is issued to a person who is:
selected from a list of qualified persons certified by the Civil Service Commission from an appropriate register of
eligibles
meets all other requirements of the position

ŻŸ




a Promotion

O A movement from one position to another with increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law AND is
usually accompanied by an increase in pay
O Nay be from one department/agency to another OR from one organization unit to another in the same
department/agency
O !NCREASE !N SALARY · only incidental but never determinative of WON a promotion is being bestowed upon an
employee
O Likened to upgrading of salaries of government employees without necessarily conferring upon them a concomitant
elevation to higher position
O No law compels an employee o accept a promotion because it is in the nature of a gift or reward, which a person has a
right to refuse
O actors that may be considered in the promotion of a civil service employee:
4 Performance rating
4 Education and training relevant to the duties of the position to be filled
4 Work experience and outstanding accomplishments
4 Physical fitness
4 Attitudes and personality traits which have a bearing on the position to be filled
4 Potential or capability not only to perform the duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled, but also of
higher and more responsible positions

Next·in·rank Rule
4 The person next in rank shall be given PREERENCE in promotion when the position immediately above his is
vacated
4 BUT the appointing authority still exercises discretion and is not bound by this rule, although he is required to
specify the ¨special reason or reasons" for not appointing the officer next·in·rank

Automatic Reversion Rule
4 All appointments involved in a chain of promotions must be submitted simultaneously for approval by the
Commission
4 The disapproval of the appointment of a person proposed to a higher position invalidates the promotion of
those in the lower positions and automatically restores them to their former positions
4 However, the affected persons are entitled to payment of salaries for services actually rendered at a rate fixed
in their promotional appointments (Sec 3 of the Omnibus Rules !mplementing Administrative Code)
4 Requisites:
series of promotions
all promotional appointments are simultaneously submitted to the Commission for approval
3 the Commission disapproves the appointment of a person to a higher position


Ponis v c5c ond ve/oso %1994Ť Oolosooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť AsslsLanL Chlef of PosplLal for AdmlnlsLraLlon of Lhe Cebu ClLv Medlcal CenLer %CCMC)
Ŵ Crdlnance noŦ 1216ţ passed bv Lhe Cebu ClLv Sanaaunlana Þanalunsod amended Lhe charLer of Lhe Cebu ClLv PosplLal for Lhe purpose of
correcLlna Lhe deflclencles and lmprovlna Lhe performance of sald lnsLlLuLlonŦ PosplLalƌs name was chanaed Lo CCMCţ and depLs and
offlces Lhereln were reoraanlzedŦ 1he Cfflce of PosplLal AdmlnlsLraLor was creaLed and aranLed such powers as were deemed ln llne wlLh
Lhe ob[ecLlves of Lhe CrdlnanceŦ 1he LlLle of PosplLal AdmlnlsLraLor was laLer found Lo be a mlsnomer and Lhus was properlv classlfled bv
Lhe !olnL Commlsslon on Local CovernmenL Þersonnel AdmlnlsLraLlon as one of AsslsLanL Chlef of PosplLal for AdmlnlsLraLlonŦ 1hls
classlflcaLlon was subsequenLlv approved bv Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL ManaaemenLŦ
Ŵ Þanls was emploved as AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer of Lhe PosplLalţ whlle veloso was AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer of Lhe ClLv PealLh ueparLmenL
deLalled aL Lhe sald hosplLalŦ Mavor of Cebu ClLv appolnLed veloso Lo Lhe poslLlon of AsslsLanL Chlef of PosplLal for Admln of CCMCŦ
Ŵ Þanlsţ a candldaLe for Lhe sald poslLlonţ prompLlv proLesLed Lhe appolnLmenL before Lhe 8ealonal Cfflce of Lhe CSC whlch lndorsed Lhe
maLLer Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ClLv Mavorţ whlch ln Lurn referred lL Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ClLv ALLornevŦ
Ŵ ClLv ALLornevţ wlLh Lhe approval of Lhe ClLv Mavorţ dlsmlssed Þanlsƌ proLesL and upheld Lhe appolnLmenL of velosoŦ CSC 8ealonal Cfflce
and CSC boLh afflrmed Lhe proLesL's dlsmlssalŦ
Ŵ Þanls' araumenLsť
ż1Ž Lhe poslLlon of AsslsLanL Chlef of PosplLal for AdmlnlsLraLlon was noL leaallv creaLedŤ
ż2Ž assumlna LhaL lL wasţ Lhere was no quallflcaLlon sLandard nor valld screenlna procedureŤ and
ż3Ž Lhe senlorlLv and nexLŴlnŴrank rules were dlsreaardedŦ
Issueť WCn Þanls deserves Lhe poslLlon more Lhan veloso bv vlrLue of nexLŴlnŴrank rule? nC

ŻŹ



kat|oť
Ŵ lL ls lronlc LhaL peLlLloner ls personallv lnLeresLed ln Lhe sub[ecL poslLlonţ Lhe creaLlon and valldlLv of whlch he hlmself orlalnallv
quesLlonedŦ 8e LhaL as lL mavţ Lhe ƍnext |n rankƍ ru|e spec|f|ca||y app||es on|y |n cases of promot|on %MeJeolllo vŦ c5c)Ŧ 1he lnsLanL
conLroversvţ howeverţ lnvolves a new off|ce and a pos|t|on created |n the course of a va||d reorgan|zat|onŦ
Ŵ under Lhe lawţ a vacancv noL fllled bv promoLlon mav be fllled bv Lransfer of presenL emplovees ln Lhe aovernmenL servlceţ bv
relnsLaLemenLţ bv reemplovmenL of Lhose separaLed from Lhe servlceţ and appolnLmenL of ouLslders who have approprlaLe clvll servlce
ellalblllLvţ buL noL necessarllv ln Lhls order %ÞŦuŦ 807 ArLŦ vlllţ SecŦ 19 %3)Ť LŦCŦ 292ţ 8kŦ vţ SecŦ 21 %3)Ť MeJeolllo vŦ c5c)Ŧ
Ŵ lL cannoL be sald LhaL prlvaLe respondenL was an ouLslderŦ AlLhouah dlrecLlv emploved bv Lhe ClLv PealLh ueparLmenLţ she acLuallv
worked aL Lhe CCMC prlor Lo her appolnLmenL Lo Lhe sub[ecL poslLlonŦ 8esldesţ evenţ lf she was an ouLslderţ Lhe law does noL prohlblL Lhe
emplovmenL of persons from Lhe prlvaLe secLor so lona as Lhev have Lhe approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLvŦ
Ŵ Assumlna noneLheless LhaL a vacancv acLuallv occurred LhaL can be fllled up onlv bv promoLlonţ Lhe concepL of ºnexL ln rank" does noL
lmpose anv mandaLorv or perempLorv requlremenL Lo appolnL Lhe person occupvlna Lhe nexL lower poslLlon ln Lhe occupaLlonal aroup of
Lhe offlceŦ WhaL Lhe Clvll Servlce Law and Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987 provlde ls LhaL |f a vacancy |s f|||ed up by the promot|onţ the
person ho|d|ng the pos|t|on next |n rank thereto ƍsha|| be cons|dered for promot|onƍ %ÞŦuŦ 807ţ SecŦ 19 %3)Ť LŦCŦ 292ţ 8kŦ vţ SecŦ 20 %3))Ŧ
ln oLher wordsţ one who ls ƍnexL ln rankƍ Lo a vacancv ls g|ven preferent|a| cons|derat|on for promot|on to the vacant pos|t|onţ buL lL
does nor necessarllv follow LhaL he a|one and no one e|se can be appo|ntedŦ 1here ls no vested r|ght granted the next |n rank nor a
m|n|ster|a| duty lmposed on Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv Lo promoLe Lhe holder Lo Lhe vacanL poslLlon %5ootloooţ ItŦ vŦ c5c)Ŧ
Ŵ An appolnLmenLţ wheLher Lo a vacancv or Lo a newlv creaLed poslLlonţ ls essenLlallv wlLhln Lhe dlscreLlonarv power of whomsoever lL ls
vesLedŦ Cnce a candldaLe possesses Lhe mlnlmum quallLles requlred bv lawţ sufflclenL dlscreLlonţ lf noL plenarvţ ls aranLed Lo Lhe
appolnLlna auLhorlLv %MeJeolllo vŦ c5c)Ŧ
Ŵ veloso was deLalled aL Lhe CCMC prlmarllv Lo help ln uparadlna Lhe level of performance of Lhe sald hosplLalŦ She accompllshed Lhls
mlsslon bv lnsLlLuLlonallzlna chanaes ln Lhe manaaemenL and flnanclal reporLlna svsLem of Lhe hosplLal such LhaL lLs lncome doubled ln
less Lhan Lwo vears slnce her deLallŦ ÞrlvaLe respondenLƌs compeLence and her remarkable achlevemenL are Lhlnas Lhe appolnLlna
auLhorlLv Look noLlce of and whlch served as basls for her appolnLmenL Lo Lhe conLesLed poslLlon

uivinoorocio ond 5on Luis v 5onto 1omos ond Nocorio %1995Ť 8ellosllloţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Munlclpal uevelopmenL CoordlnaLor of Þlllţ Camarlnes Sur
Ŵ lllomena 8Ŧ ManclLa was appolnLed Munlclpal uevelopmenL CoordlnaLor %MuC) of Þlllţ Camarlnes Surţ ln a permanenL capaclLvŦ 8ecause
of Lhe Local CovernmenL Codeţ Lhe offlce was renamed Munlclpal Þlannlna and uevelopmenL CoordlnaLorŦ !olnL Commlsslon on Local
CovernmenL Þersonnel AdmlnlsLraLlon approved Lhe reoraanlzaLlon plan and sLafflna paLLern of Lhe MunlclpallLv of ÞlllŦ
Ŵ Mavor AnasLaclo MŦ Þrlla noLlfled ManclLa LhaL her servlces were belna LermlnaLed on Lhe around LhaL Lhe Cfflce of MuC was abollshed
as a resulL of Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of Lhe local aovernmenL of ÞlllŦ
Ŵ nacarlo who was Lhen Lhe Munlclpal 8udaeL Cfflcer %M8C) was appolnLed MÞuCŦ Pe was replaced bv ulana lsldro as Munlclpal 8udaeL
CfflcerŦ lsldro was succeeded a vear laLer bv Lleanor vlllarlcoŦ
Ŵ Local CovernmenL Cfflcers Servlcesţ whlch lncluded Lhe local 8udaeL Cfflceţ was naLlonallzed and placed under Lhe ueparLmenL of
8udaeL and ManaaemenLŦ As a resulLţ Lhe auLhorlLv Lo appolnL Lhe 8udaeL Cfflcers of Lhe dlfferenL local aovernmenL unlLs devolved upon
Lhe SecreLarv of Lhe 8udaeLŦ
Ŵ vlllarlco reslanedţ Lhe M8C poslLlon remalned vacanL for more Lhan a vearţ owlna Lo Lhe lack of a quallfled candldaLe LhaL Lhe 8udaeL Sec
could appolnLŦ ln Lhe meanLlmeţ !uan 8aLanţ Lhe former M8C of 8aaoţ Camarlnes Surţ was appolnLed ClC of Lhe M8C of ÞlllŦ Pe was laLer
replaced bv lranclsco ueocarezaţ Lhe former 8udaeL Cfflcer of naaa ClLvţ ln Lhe same capaclLvŦ
Ŵ Alexls uŦ San Lulsţ Cashler ll of Lhe uLn8ţ was Lemporarllv appolnLed M8C of Þlll bv SecreLarv Caraaue of Lhe u8MŦ When conLrol over
Lhe Local CovernmenL Cfflcers Servlces was reLurned Lo Lhe LCu bv vlrLue of Lhe locol Covetomeot coJe of 1991ţ San Luls was
reappolnLed Lo Lhe same poslLlonţ Lhls Llme ln a permanenL capaclLvţ bv Þlll Mavor uelfln ulvlnaaraclaŦ
Ŵ ManclLa appealed her LermlnaLlon Lo Lhe MSÞ8 whlch declared her separaLlon from Lhe servlce llleaalţ holdlna LhaL Lhe Cfflce of Lhe MuC
was abollshed bv Lhe LCC of 1991 and noL bv Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of Lhe MunlclpallLv of Þlll as clalmed bv Mavor ÞrllaŦ Accordlna Lo Lhe
MSÞ8ţ ManclLa was ln facL quallfled for Lhe newlvŴcreaLed poslLlon of MÞuC slnce Lhe powers and duLles of Lhe Lwo poslLlons were
essenLlallv Lhe sameŦ 1he MSÞ8 ordered Mavor ulvlnaaracla Lo relnsLaLe ManclLa Lo Lhe poslLlon of MÞuC or Lo an equlvalenL poslLlonţ
and Lo pav her backwaaes from Lhe daLe of her separaLlonŦ
Ŵ Whlle Lhe peLlLlon of ManclLa was pendlna wlLh usţ nacarlo senL a querv Lo CSC asklna abouL her sLaLus as a permanenL emplovee of Lhe
MunlclpallLv of Þlll afLer she had accepLed Lhe poslLlon of MÞuCŦ CSC oplned LhaL Lhe relnsLaLemenL of ManclLa Lo Lhe poslLlon of MÞuC
was noL a valld cause for nacarloƌs LermlnaLlonţ and slnce she was Lhe former M8C she had Lhe rlahL Lo reLurn Lo LhaL poslLlonŦ
Ŵ Mavor ulvlnaaraclať nacarlo was deemed Lo have vacaLed her poslLlon as 8udaeL Cfflcer when she accepLed her appolnLmenL as MÞuC
conslderlna LhaL Lhere were several appolnLmenLs made Lo Lhe 8udaeL Cfflce ln Lhe pasL 8 vears slnce her LransferŦ
Ŵ nacarloť she dld noL volunLarllv applv for Lransfer from Lhe 8udaeL Cfflce Lo Lhe Cfflce of MÞuC buL was consLralned Lo ƍaccepLƍ Lhe new
poslLlon because of Mavor ÞrllaŦ She wasţ ln her own wordsţ ƍa passlve parLlclpanL ln Lhe movemenL of personnelƍ ln Lhe munlclpal
aovernmenL of Þlll havlna acLed as a ƍsubservlenL publlc offlclalƍ ln assumlna Lhe poslLlon of MÞuCŦ Per ƍaccepLanceƍ of Lhe poslLlon of
MÞuC whlch she admlLs ls of Lhe same rankţ salarv arade and level was moLlvaLed bv her respecL for Mavor Þrlla who was Lhen her
superlorŦ ln facLţ accordlna Lo herţ she applled for Lhe poslLlon of 8udaeL Cfflcer wlLh Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL whlle
she was MÞuC lndlcaLlna LhaL she dld noL abandon or rellnqulsh her former poslLlon as alleaed bv peLlLlonersŦ

Żź



Ŵ San Luls and ulvlnaaracať 5ecŦ 1Jţ kole vlţ of tbe Omolbos koles lmplemeotloo tbe kevlseJ AJmlolsttotlve coJe %LŦCŦ 292) does NO1
A99l) Lo Lhe presenL case because Lhe rule covers onlv appolnLmenLs ln a chaln of promoLlons and noL where a publlc offlcer was merelv
Lransferred Lo anoLher poslLlon of Lhe same rankţ arade and levelŦ
Ŵ SLoŦ 1omas and LreneLaţ !rŦţ lnslsL on Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe automat|c revers|on ru|e provlded under SecŦ 13ţ 8ule vlţ of Lhe Cmnlbus
8ules lmplemenLlna 8ook v of LŦCŦ 292Ŧ 1hev submlL LhaL Lhe Lerm ºchaln of promoLlons" musL noL be lnLerpreLed ln a llLeralţ rlald and
narrow sense buL musL be consLrued llberallv ln favor of nacarlo who merelv accepLed Lhe poslLlon of MÞuC Lo accommodaLe her
superlor unaware LhaL her new appolnLmenL LhereLo would be lnflrmedŦ
Issueť Who aoes where? Who occuples whaL poslLlon?
ne|dť Alexls uŦ San Luls cannoL hold on Lo Lhe poslLlon of Munlclpal 8udaeL CfflcerŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ respondenL Þrescllla 8Ŧ nacarlo who
ls proLecLed bv law ln her securlLv of Lenure should be relnsLaLed LhereLo
kat|oť
Ŵ 5ecŦ 1l of the Omnibus ku/es lmp/ementino ook v of £ŦOŦ 292ť All appolnLmenLs lnvolved ln a chaln of promoLlons musL be submlLLed
slmulLaneouslv for approval bv Lhe CommlsslonŦ 1he dlsapproval of Lhe appolnLmenL of a person proposed Lo a hlaher poslLlon
lnvalldaLes Lhe promoLlon of Lhose ln lower poslLlons and auLomaLlcallv resLores Lhem Lo Lhelr former poslLlonsŦ Poweverţ Lhe affecLed
persons are enLlLled Lo Lhe pavmenL of salarles for servlces acLuallv rendered aL a raLe flxed ln Lhelr promoLlonal appolnLmenLsŦ
Ŵ 8efore a publlc offlclal or emplovee can be auLomaLlcallv resLored Lo her former poslLlonţ Lhere musL flrsL be a serles of promoLlonsŤ
secondţ all appolnLmenLs are slmulLaneouslv submlLLed Lo Lhe CSC for approvalŤ and Lhlrdţ Lhe CSC dlsapproves Lhe appolnLmenL of a
person proposed Lo a hlaher poslLlonŦ
Ŵ 1he essenLlal requlslLes prescrlbed under SecŦ 13 do noL avall ln Lhe case aL benchŦ 1o sLarL wlLhţ Lhe movemenL of nacarlo from Lhe
8udaeL Cfflce Lo Lhe Cfflce of MÞuC cannoL be consldered a promoLlon for Lhe Lerm connoLes an lncrease ln duLles and responslblllLles
as well as a correspondlna lncrease ln salarvŦ Conformablv LherewlLhţ we flnd Lhe movemenL of nacarlo one of laLeral LransferŦ
Ŵ A careful examlnaLlon of Lhe quallflcaLlonsţ powers and duLles of a 8udaeL Cfflcer and an MÞuC provlded under SecsŦ 473 and 476 of Lhe
LCC of 1991 shows LhaL Lhe laLLer offlce ls noL burdened wlLh more duLles and responslblllLles Lhan Lhe formerŦ lL ls also lnLeresLlna Lo
noLe LhaL Lhere wasţ on Lhe conLrarvţ a reducLlon ln Lhe baslc salarv of nacarloţ from Þ30ţ303Ŧ20 pet oooom

as 8udaeL Cfflcer Lo
Þ27ţ732Ŧ00 pet oooom as MÞuCŦ
Ŵ Aslde from Lhe lack of a serles of promoLlonsţ Lhe oLher Lwo %2) requlslLes are noL also presenLţ lŦeŦţ Lhe appolnLmenLs of Lhe parLles
concerned were not simu/toneous/y subm|tted Lo Lhe CSC for approval Ŵ Lhe appolnLmenL %permanenL) of nacarlo was approved bv Lhe
CSC on 13 !une 1983 whlle Lhe appolnLmenL %permanenL) of San Luls was approved bv Lhe CSC on 9 lebruarv 1993 Ŵ andţ Lhe ousLer of
nacarlo from Lhe Cfflce of MÞuC was a resulL of Lhe MSÞ8 declslon dlrecLlna Lhe relnsLaLemenL of ManclLa and not because the 5
d|sapproved her appolnLmenL as MÞuCŦ
As to vollJltv of Nocotlo´s lotetol ttoosfetť
Ŵ 1he submlsslve aLLlLude dlsplaved bv prlvaLe respondenL Lowards her Lransfer ls undersLandableŦ AlLhouah nacarlo was noL lnformed of
Lhe reasons Lherefor she dld noL complaln Lo Lhe mavor or appeal her case Lo Lhe CSC lf ln facL Lhe same was noL made ln Lhe lnLeresL of
publlc servlceŦ lor lL ls noL common amona local offlclalsţ even Lhose permanenL appolnLees who are more secured and proLecLed ln
Lhelr Lenurlal rlahLţ Lo oppose or quesLlon Lhe lncumbenL local execuLlve on hls pollcles and declslons no maLLer how lmproper Lhev mav
seemŦ
Ŵ nacarlo was Lhe 8udaeL Cfflcer of Þlll for almosL 8 vears unLll her LransferŦ

She appeared Lo be saLlsfled wlLh her work and felL fulfllled as
8udaeL Cfflcer unLll Mavor Þrlla appolnLed her MÞuC Lo flll up Lhe poslLlonţ whlch was noL even vacanL aL LhaL LlmeŦ lL was onlv 7 davs
afLer nacarloƌs appolnLmenL when Mavor Þrlla lnformed ManclLa LhaL her servlces were belna LermlnaLedŦ Slmplv puLţ Mavor Þrlla was
so deLermlned ln LermlnaLlna ManclLa LhaL he convenlenLlv preŴarranaed her replacemenL bv nacarloŦ AlLhouah nacarlo conLlnued Lo
dlscharae her duLlesţ Lhls dld noL dlscouraae her from Lrvlna Lo reaaln her former poslLlonŦ undaunLedţ she applled wlLh Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
8udaeL SecreLarv for Lhe poslLlon of 8udaeL Cfflcer upon learnlna LhaL lL was placed under Lhe u8MŦ She was noL however successfulŦ
Ŵ ClLlna 5toŦ Motlo v lopez on dlsLlncLlon beLween ºLransfer" and ºpromoLlon"ť ºA @k-5ILk ls a ƍmovemenL from one poslLlon Lo
anoLher whlch ls of equlvalenL rankţ level and salarvţ wlLhouL break ln servlceŦƍ Þk,@I- ls Lhe ƍadvancemenL from one poslLlon Lo
anoLher wlLh an lncrease ln duLles and responslblllLles as auLhorlzed bv lawţ and ls usuallv accompanled bv an lncrease ln salarvƍ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ A
Lransfer LhaL resulLs ln promoLlon or demoLlonţ advancemenL or reducLlon or a Lransfer LhaL alms Lo ƍlote tbe emplovee owov ftom bls
petmooeot posltlooţƍ coooot be Jooe wltboot tbe emploveesƌ cooseotŦ lot tbot woolJ coostltote temovol ftom offlceŦ lndeedţ no
permanenL Lransfer can Lake place unless Lhe offlcer or emplovee ls flrsL removed from Lhe poslLlon heldţ and Lhen appolnLed Lo anoLher
poslLlonŦ"
Ŵ LxcepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL unconsenLed Lransfers amounL Lo removalť ºSome such Lransfers can be effecLed wlLhouL Lhe need for charaes
belna profferedţ wlLhouL Lrlal or hearlnaţ and even wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe emplovee Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ 1he clue Lo such Lransfers mav be found ln
Lhe ƍnaLure of Lhe appolnLmenLŦƍ Where Lhe appolnLmenL does noL lndlcaLe a speclflc sLaLlonţ an emplovee mav be Lransferred or
asslaned provlded Lhe Lransfer affecLs no subsLanLlal chanae ln LlLleţ rank and salarv Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Such a rule does noL proscrlbe a Lransfer carrled
ouL under a speclflc sLaLuLe LhaL empowers Lhe head of an aaencv Lo perlodlcallv reasslan Lhe emplovees and offlcers ln order Lo lmprove
Lhe servlce of Lhe aaencv Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ nelLher does llleaallLv aLLach Lo Lhe Lransfer or reasslanmenL of an offlcer pendlna Lhe deLermlnaLlon of an
admlnlsLraLlve charae aaalnsL hlmŤ or Lo Lhe Lransfer of an emploveeţ from hls asslaned sLaLlon Lo Lhe maln offlceţ effecLed ln aood falLh
and ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe servlce pursuanL Lo SecŦ 32 of Lhe Clvll Servlce AcL"
Ŵ 1he unconsenLed laLeral Lransfer of nacarlo from Lhe 8udaeL Cfflce Lo Lhe Cfflce of MÞuC was arblLrarv for lL amounLed Lo removal
wlLhouL cause henceţ lnvalld as lL ls anaLhema Lo securlLv of LenureŦ When nacarlo was exLended a permanenL appolnLmenL on 1 AuausL
1980 and she assumed Lhe poslLlonţ she acqulred a leaalţ noL merelv an equlLableţ rlahL Lo Lhe poslLlonŦ Such rlahL Lo securlLv of Lenure ls

ŻŻ



proLecLed noL onlv bv sLaLuLeţ buL also bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon

and cannoL be Laken awav from her elLher bv removalţ Lransfer or bv
revocaLlon of appolnLmenLţ excepL for causeţ and afLer prlor noLlceŦ
Ŵ ConsequenLlvţ lL could noL be sald LhaL nacarlo vacaLed her former poslLlon as 8udaeL Cfflcer or abdlcaLed her rlahL Lo hold Lhe offlce
when she accepLed Lhe poslLlon of MÞuC slnceţ ln conLemplaLlon of lawţ she could noL be deemed Lo have been separaLed from her
former poslLlon or Lo have LermlnaLed her offlclal relaLlons LherewlLh noLwlLhsLandlna LhaL she was acLuallv dlscharalna Lhe funcLlons
and exerclslna Lhe powers of MÞuCŦ
Ŵ 1he appolnLmenL of San Luls as 8udaeL Cfflcer carrled wlLh lL a condlLlonŦ AL Lhe back of hls appolnLmenL ls lnscrlbed Lhe noLaLlon 5o
kooJlsvoo ooso ovos ooo pookokotlwoloo so toookollo oo Jotloo ooooooookolooţ whlch when LranslaLed means ƍ9tovlJeJ LhaL Lhe
separaLlon of Lhe former lncumbenL ls ln orderŦƍ Conslderlna LhaL Lhe separaLlon of nacarlo who was Lhe former lncumbenL was noL ln
orderţ San Luls should rellnqulsh hls poslLlon ln favor of prlvaLe respondenL nacarloŦ 1hls lsţ of courseţ wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo San Lulsƌ rlahL
Lo be relnsLaLed Lo hls former poslLlon as Cashler ll of Lhe uLn8ţ he belna also a permanenL appolnLee equallv auaranLeed securlLv of
LenureŦ

5ontioooţ lrŦ v c5c %1989)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť CusLoms CollecLor l Lurned CusLoms CollecLor lll
Ŵ november 1986ť CusLoms Commlssloner WlaberLo LŦ 1anada exLended a permanenL promoLlonal appolnLmenLţ as CusLoms CollecLor lllţ
Lo narclso SanLlaaoŦ 1haL appolnLmenL was approved bv Lhe CSC naLlonal CaplLal 8ealon CfflceŦ Þrlor LhereLoţ SanLlaao held Lhe poslLlon
of CusLoms CollecLor lŦ
Ŵ Leonardo !oseţ a CusLoms CollecLor llţ flled a proLesL wlLh Lhe MerlL SvsLems ÞromoLlon 8oard aaalnsL SanLlaaoƌs promoLlonal
appolnLmenL malnlv on Lhe around LhaL he was nexLŴlnŴrank Lo Lhe poslLlon of CollecLor of CusLoms lllŦ ÞursuanL Lo SecLlon 19%6) of ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 807 %Clvll Servlce uecree)ţ Lhe 8oard referred Lhe proLesL Lo Commlssloner 1anada for approprlaLe acLlonŦ
Ŵ 1anada upheld SanLlaaoƌs promoLlonal appolnLmenL on Lhe aroundsţ amona oLhersţ LhaLť
%1) Lhe nexLŴlnŴrank rule ls no lonaer mandaLorvŤ
%2) Lhe proLesLee ls compeLenL and quallfled for Lhe poslLlon and such facL was noL quesLloned bv Lhe proLesLanLŤ and
%3) exlsLlna law and [urlsprudence alve wlde laLlLude of dlscreLlon Lo Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv provlded Lhere ls no clear showlna of arave
abuse of dlscreLlon or fraudŦ
Ŵ !ose appealed Lo Lhe MSÞ8 whlchţ ln Lurnţ declded Lo revoke SanLlaaoƌs appolnLmenL and dlrecLed LhaL !ose be appolnLed ln hls sLeadŦ
MSÞ8 also denled SanLlaao's M8Ŧ
Ŵ CSC afflrmedť
ż1Ž AlLhouah boLh SanLlaao and !ose are quallfled for Lhe poslLlon of CusLoms CollecLor lllţ !ose has far beLLer quallflcaLlons ln Lerms of
educaLlonal aLLalnmenLţ clvll servlce ellalblllLlesţ relevanL semlnars and Lralnlna courses Lakenţ and holdlna as he does bv permanenL
appolnLmenL a poslLlon whlch ls hlaher ln rank and salarv ranaeŦ
ż2Ž lL added LhaL Lhe Commlsslon ls empowered Lo admlnlsLer and enforce Lhe merlL svsLem as mandaLed bv Lhe 1973 and 1987
ConsLlLuLlons and Lo approve all appolnLmenLsţ wheLher orlalnal or promoLlonalţ Lo poslLlons ln Lhe clvll servlceţ sub[ecL Lo speclfled
excepLlonsţ pursuanL Lo paraaraphs %a) and %h)ţ SecLlon 9 of Lhe Clvll Servlce LawŦ
Issueť WCn Lhe CSC erred ln revoklna SanLlaao's appolnLmenL? ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ ClLlna 1oJotoo vsŦ c5cť 1here ls no mandaLorv nor perempLorv requlremenL ln Lhe Clvll Servlce Law LhaL a person nexLŴlnŴ rank are
enLlLled Lo preference ln appolnLmenLŦ WhaL lL does provlde ls LhaL Lhev would be amona Lhe flrsL Lo be consldered for Lhe vacancvţ lf
quallfledţ and lf Lhe vacancv ls noL fllled bv promoLlonţ Lhe same shall be fllled bv Lransfer or oLher modes of appolnLmenLŦ
Ŵ Cne who ls nexLŴlnŴrank ls enLlLled Lo preferenLlal conslderaLlon for promoLlon Lo Lhe hlaher vacancv buL lL does not necessar||y fo||ow
that he and no one e|se can be appo|ntedŦ 1he rule nelLher aranLs a vesLed rlahL Lo Lhe holder nor lmposes a mlnlsLerlal duLv on Lhe
appolnLlna auLhorlLv Lo promoLe such person Lo Lhe nexL hlaher poslLlonŦ Poweverţ Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv mav promoLe an emplovee
who ls noL nexLŴlnŴrank buL who possesses superlor quallflcaLlons and compeLence compared Lo a nexLŴlnŴrank emplovee who merelv
meeLs Lhe mlnlmum requlremenLs for Lhe poslLlonŦ
Ŵ Commlssloner 1anada acLuallv explalned Lhe reasons behlnd SanLlaaoƌs appolnLmenLŦ Pe sald !ose was noL recommended Lo anv
promoLlon whlle SanLlaaoţ when he was appolnLed as 1ask lorce Chlef was credlLed wlLh selzure of mllllons of pesos worLh of smuaaled
aoods and was reclplenL of several clLaLlons as a aood cusLoms aaenLŦ
Ŵ 1he power Lo appolnL ls a maLLer of dlscreLlonŦ 1he appolnLlna power has wlde laLlLude of cholce as Lo who ls besL quallfled for Lhe
poslLlonŦ 1o applv Lhe nexLŴlnŴrank rule perempLorllv would lmpose a rlald formula on Lhe appolnLlna power conLrarv Lo Lhe pollcv of Lhe
law LhaL amona Lhose quallfled and ellalbleţ Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv ls aranLed dlscreLlon and preroaaLlve of cholce of Lhe one he deems
flL for appolnLmenLŦ
Ŵ Metom vsŦ £Jtollo lnappllcable Lo Lhe facLual slLuaLlon herelnŦ ln sald caseţ SC afflrmed Lhe appolnLmenL of Lhe nexLŴlnŴrank because Lhe
orlalnal appolnLeeƌs appolnLmenL was made ln conslderaLlon of pollLlcalţ eLhnlcţ rellalous or blood Lles LoLallv aaalnsL Lhe verv purpose
behlnd Lhe esLabllshmenL of professlonallsm ln Lhe clvll servlceŦ
Ŵ 1rueţ Lhe Commlsslon ls empowered Lo approve all appolnLmenLsţ wheLher orlalnal or promoLlonalţ Lo poslLlons ln Lhe clvll servlce and
dlsapprove Lhose where Lhe appolnLees do noL possess Lhe approprlaLe ellalblllLv or requlred quallflcaLlon %paraaraph %h)ţ SecLlon 9ţ ÞŦuŦ
noŦ 807)Ŧ Poweverţ ln loeoo vsŦ c5cţ lL was held LhaL all Lhe commlsslon ls acLuallv allowed Lo do ls check wheLher or noL Lhe appolnLee
possesses Lhe approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLv or Lhe requlred quallflcaLlonsŦ lf he doesţ hls appolnLmenL ls approvedŤ lf noLţ lL ls
dlsapprovedŦ no oLher crlLerlon ls permlLLed bv law Lo be emploved bv Lhe Commlsslon when lL acLs onţ or as Lhe decree savsţ

Ż%



ƍapprovesƍ or ƍdlsapprovesƍ an appolnLmenL made bv Lhe proper auLhorlLlesŦ 1o be sureţ lL has no auLhorlLv Lo revoke Lhe sald
appolnLmenL slmplv because lL belleved LhaL !ose was beLLer quallfled for LhaL would have consLlLuLed an encroachmenL on Lhe
dlscreLlon vesLed solelv ln Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLvŦ

4bi/o v c5c %1991Ť lellcloooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Admln Cfflcer lv ln Lhe PealLh ueparLmenL of CC
Ŵ vlllafuerLe reLlred so CC ClC appolnLed AbllaŦ Admln Cfflcer lll Llerla flled proLesL aL MSÞ8Ŧ 8oard lndorsed proLesL Lo CC ClC whlch
dlsmlssed Lhe proLesLŦ
Ŵ upon appeal Lo MSÞ8ţ Llerla prevalledŦ 8oard revoked Ablla on Lhe around LhaL ż1Ž boLh Ablla and Llerla meL Lhe mlnlmum ellalblllLv and
educaLlon requlremenLs for AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer lvţ buL ruled LhaL Llerla had Lhe edae ln Lerms of rank and experlence as an
AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer and ż2Ž Llerla was holdlna a poslLlon nexL ln rank Lo LhaL of Lhe vacancvţ whlch clrcumsLanceţ accordlna Lo Lhe
8oardţ under SecLlon 4 of Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon 8esoluLlon noŦ 83Ŵ343ţ aave her ƍpromoLlonal prlorlLvƍ over peLlLlonerŦ
Ŵ Ablla aoes Lo SC araulna malnlv LhaLť CSCţ havlna verlfled LhaL boLh of Lhem were leaallv quallfled Lo flll Lhe vacancvţ should noL have
proceeded Lo comparlna Lhe parLles' quallflcaLlons and chooslna Lhe person LhaL lL belleved Lo be Lhe approprlaLe appolnLeeŦ 1hose
funcLlons belona Lo Lhe ClLv Mavor as parL of hls appolnLlna power and cannoL be approprlaLed for lLself bv Lhe CSCŦ
Issueť WCn CSC has auLhorlLv Lo subsLlLuLe lLs own [udamenL for LhaL of Lhe offlclal auLhorlzed bv law Lo make an appolnLmenL Lo Lhe
aovernmenL servlceţ ln Lhe maLLer of welahlna an appolnLeeƌs quallflcaLlons and flLness for a poslLlonţ afLer lL has been shown LhaL Lhe
appolnLee possesses Lhe mlnlmum quallflcaLlons prescrlbed for Lhe poslLlonŦ
ne|dť nCoooo
kat|oť
Ŵ nŦ8Ŧ 1PlS lS A ÞCS1ŴLAÞlnlu uLClSlCnŦ ln a lona llne of casesţ SC has held LhaL respondenL Commlsslon has no such auLhorlLvţ Lhe power
of appolnLmenLţ whlch ls essenLlallv dlscreLlonarvţ belna vesLed bv law ln Lhe head of Lhe offlce concernedŦ 1he head of Lhe offlce ls Lhe
person on Lhe spoLŦ Pe occuples Lhe ldeal vanLaae polnL from whlch Lo ldenLlfv and deslanaLe Lhe lndlvldual who can besL flll Lhe posL and
dlscharae lLs funcLlons ln Lhe aovernmenL aaencv he headsŦ 1he cholce of an appolnLee from amona Lhose who possess Lhe requlred
quallflcaLlons ls a pollLlcal and admlnlsLraLlve declslon calllna for conslderaLlons of wlsdomţ convenlenceţ uLlllLv and Lhe lnLeresLs of
servlce whlch can besL be made bv Lhe head of Lhe offlce concernedţ Lhe person mosL famlllar wlLh Lhe oraanlzaLlonal sLrucLure and
envlronmenLal clrcumsLances wlLhln whlch Lhe appolnLee musL funcLlonŦ
Ŵ CSC lLself acknowledaed LhaL boLh Ablla and Llerla are leaallv quallfled for Lhe poslLlon ln quesLlonŦ

Pavlna made Lhe deLermlnaLlonţ CSC
had exhausLed lLs powers and mav noL acL anv furLher excepL Lo afflrm Lhe valldlLv of Ablla's appolnLmenLŦ More speclflcallvţ lL had no
auLhorlLv Lo revoke hls appolnLmenL because lL belleved LhaL Llerla was beLLer quallfled for Lhe poslLlon lnvolvedŤ CSC's acLs ln Lhls
respecL consLlLuLed an encroachmenL upon a dlscreLlonarv auLhorlLv vesLed bv law ln Lhe Cuezon ClLv Mavor and noL ln Lhe CSCŦ
Ŵ A vacanL poslLlon ln Lhe Clvll Servlce mav be fllled bv promoLlonţ Lransfer of presenL emploveesţ relnsLaLemenL and reŴemplovmenL or
appolnLmenL of ouLslders who have Lhe necessarv ellalblllLvŦ

1he nexLŴlnŴrank rule lnvoked bv CSC Lo [usLlfv lLs cholce of Llerla over Abllaţ
app||es on|y where a vacancy |s f|||ed by promot|onţ a process whlch denoLes a scalar ascenL of an offlcer Lo anoLher poslLlon hlaher
elLher ln rank or salarvŦ A promoLlon lnvolves a slLuaLlon qulLe dlfferenL from Lhe slLuaLlon ln Lhe case aL bar where Lhe appolnLmenL of
Ablla was effecLed Lhrouah laLeral Lransfer from a poslLlon ln one deparLmenL of Lhe clLv aovernmenL Lo a poslLlon of areaLer
responslblllLv ln anoLher deparLmenL of Lhe same aovernmenLŦ
Ŵ ClLlna MeJeolllo v c5cť We have alreadv held ln cases subsequenL Lo Mlllares LhaL Lhe nextŴ|nŴrank ru|e |s not abso|uteŤ lL on|y app||es |n
cases of promot|onŦ And even |n promot|onsţ |t can be d|sregarded for sound reasons made known to the nextŴ|nŴrankŦ 1he appolnLlna
auLhorlLvţ under Lhe Clvll Servlce Lawţ ls allowed Lo flll vacancles bv promoLlonţ Lransfer of presenL emploveesţ relnsLaLemenLţ
reemplovmenLţ and appolnLmenL of ouLslders who have approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLvţ oot oecessotllv lo tbot otJetŦ 1here is no /eoo/
fiot thot o voconcy must be fi//ed on/y by promotionŤ the oppointino outhority is oiven wide discretion to fi// o voconcy from omono the
severo/ o/ternotives provided for by /owŦ
Ŵ Lven lf Lhe vacancv here had been fllled bv promoLlon raLher Lhan bv laLeral Lransferţ Lhe concepL of ƍnexL ln rankƍ does noL lmporL anv
mandaLorv or perempLorv requlremenL LhaL Lhe person nexL ln rank musL be appolnLed Lo Lhe vacancvŦ WhaL SecLlon 19 %3) of ÞŦuŦ noŦ
807ţ Lhe Clvll Servlce Lawţ provldes ls LhaL lf a vacancv ls fllled bv a promoLlonţ Lhe person holdlna Lhe poslLlon nexL ln rank LhereLo ƍsboll
be cooslJeteJ fot ptomotlooŦƍ
Ŵ ClLlna 5ootlooo ItŦ v c5cť Cne who ls nexLŴlnŴrank ls enLlLled Lo preferent|a| cons|derat|on for promoLlon Lo Lhe hlaher vacancv buL lL
does noL necessarllv follow LhaL he and no one e|se can be appo|ntedŦ 1he rule nelLher aranLs a vesLed rlahL Lo Lhe holder nor lmposes a
mlnlsLerlal duLv on Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv Lo promoLe such person Lo Lhe nexL hlaher poslLlonŦ

,edeni//o v c5c %1991Ť Cotlettezţ ItŦţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Supervlslna Puman Manpower uevelopmenL Cfflcer
Ŵ Ardellza Medenllla was a conLracLual emplovee of Lhe uÞWP occupvlna Lhe poslLlon of Þubllc 8elaLlons Cfflcer llŦ Pe deLalled as
1echnlcal AsslsLanL ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe AsslsLanL SecreLarv for AdmlnlsLraLlon and Manpower ManaaemenLŦ LC 124 caused Lhe
reoraanlzaLlon of uÞWP and all poslLlons Lhereln were abollshedŦ
Ŵ new sLafflna paLLern was creaLedŦ Cne of Lhe newlv creaLed poslLlon ls Lhe Supervlslna Puman Manpower uevelopmenL Cfflcer ln whlch
Medenllla was appolnLedŦ
Ŵ Allealna LhaL Lhev are nexLŴlnŴrank emploveesţ erao one of Lhem should have been appolnLed Lo Lhe sald poslLlonţ Amparo uellosaţ
8osallnda !urla and MarlLa 8urdeos LoaeLher wlLh MaLllde Anaelesţ CaLallna Lsplnasţ Allcla nercelles and 8amon 8acelaţ all of whom are

Ż%



emplovees ln Lhe Puman 8esource 1ralnlna and MaLerlal uevelopmenL ulvlslonţ AdmlnlsLraLlve and Manpower ManaaemenL Servlce of
Lhe uÞWPţ [olnLlv lodaed a proLesL before Lhe uÞWP Lask force on reoraanlzaLlon conLesLlna Lhe appolnLmenL of Lhe peLlLloner Lo Lhe
poslLlonŦ
Ŵ 1ask force on reoraanlzaLlon dlsmlssed Lhe proLesLŦ
Ŵ Cn appealţ CSC reversedŦ Croundsť
ż1Ž Medenllla does noL possess Lhe requlred quallflcaLlons for Lhe poslLlonŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Moreoverţ her ellalblllLv ls Þu 907ţ belna a cum laude
araduaLeŦ LeL lL be consldered approprlaLe onlv for appolnLmenL Lo ƍsecond level poslLlonsƍ whlch requlre Lhe appllcaLlon of knowledae
and skllls wlLhln Lhe appolnLeeƌs fleld of sLudvŦ
ż2Ž 8A 6636 does noL preclude Lhe appolnLmenL of conLracLuals Lo a new sLafflna paLLernţ howeverţ ln Lhe presence and avallablllLv of
quallfled permanenL nexLŴlnŴrank emplovees ln Lhe oraanlzaLlonţ Lhe laLLer has Lo be preferredţ unless a conLracLual emplovee possesses
superlor quallflcaLlons LhaL could [usLlfv her appolnLmenLŦ Poweverţ ln Lhls caseţ we see no superlor quallflcaLlons or anv speclal reasons
for preferrlna Medenllla over Lhe proLesLanLsŦ
ż3Ž Medenllla ls baslcallv ln Lhe fleld of [ournallsm and noL ln Puman 8esource uevelopmenLŦ
ż4Ž Slnce she ls merelv a conLracLual emploveeţ ln Lhe absence of super|or qua||f|cat|onsţ Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs musL be preferred noL
onlv for Lhe reason LhaL Lhev are permanent career serv|ce emp|oyees buL mosL especlallv because Lhev are nexLŴlnŴrank Lo Lhe dlspuLed
poslLlonŦ
Issueť WCn CSC erred ln dlsapprovlna Medenllla's appolnLmenL on Lhe arounds alven above %espŦ her professlonal experlence)? ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ lL ls noL dlspuLed LhaL Lhe Medenllla possesses Lhe approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLv and requlslLe educaLlonal backaroundŦ CSC lLselfţ ln
lLs resoluLlonţ consldered Lhe peLlLlonerƌs Þu noŦ 907 ellalblllLv approprlaLe for Lhe poslLlonŦ
Ŵ Medenlllaţ noL onlv was a cum |aude graduate from the Un|vers|ty of the Þh|||pp|nesţ has also acqulred plenLv of experlence ln Lhe fleld
of Puman 8esource uevelopmenLŦ
Ŵ CSC falled Lo conslder LhaL ln her one vear and seven monLhs experlence wlLh CuLhrleŴ!ensenţ she was enaaaed ln research relaLlna Lo
performance appralsal svsLems and merlL promoLlon svsLems whlch duLles are all relaLed Lo Puman 8esource uevelopmenLŦ Þreclselvţ lL
was because of her experlence wlLh CuLhrleŴ!ensen LhaL she was deLalled from !anuarv 1987 unLll uecember 1988 ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
AsslsLanL SecreLarv for AdmlnlsLraLlon and Manpower ManaaemenLţ where she was asked Lo asslsL ln human resource plannlnaŦ
Ŵ lL can be readllv seen LhaL Lhe peLlLloner possesses superlor quallflcaLlonsŦ As earller sLaLedţ she ls a cum laude araduaLe of Lhe uÞŦ She
was ranked noŦ 1 ln Lhe deparLmenL wlde Lralnlna proaram handled bv a prlvaLe flrmŦ 1wo of Lhe respondenLs were ranked wav below
whlle a Lhlrd dld noL even parLlclpaLeŦ She was commended for exemplarv performance as faclllLaLor durlna Lhe Second Conaress of
Women ln CovernmenLŦ She recelved Lhe hlahesL arades from uLSu ln her M8A sLudlesŦ She helped drafL Lhe human resource proaram
for Lhe enLlre uÞWPŦ lnsplLe of her belna a new emploveeţ she was asslaned Lo conducL semlnars on Þerformance Appralsal SvsLems and
on ManaaemenL bv Cb[ecLlves and 8esulLs for Lhe uÞWPŦ She was preclselv drafLed from a prlvaLe flrm Lo asslsL ln human resource
plannlna for Lhe uÞWPŦ Per work ls apparenLlv hlahlv saLlsfacLorv as Lhe Lop admlnlsLraLors of Lhe uÞWP noL onlv appolnLed her buL
have asked Lhe respondenL Commlsslon Lo valldaLe Lhe appolnLmenLŦ
Ŵ Cld emplovees should be consldered flrsLŦ 8uL lL does noL necessarllv follow LhaL Lhev should Lhen auLomaLlcallv be appolnLedŦ 1he
preference alven Lo permanenL emplovees assumes LhaL emplovees worklna ln a ueparLmenL for lonaer perlods have aalned noL onlv
superlor skllls buL also areaLer dedlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc servlceŦ 1hls ls noL alwavs Lrue and Lhe lawţ moreoverţ does noL preclude Lhe
lnfuslon of new bloodţ vounaer dvnamlsmţ or necessarv LalenLs lnLo Lhe aovernmenL servlceŦ lfţ afLer conslderlna all Lhe currenL
emploveesţ Lhe ueparLmenL SecreLarv cannoL flnd amona Lhem Lhe person he needs Lo revlve a morlbund offlce or Lo uparade second
raLe performanceţ Lhere ls noLhlna ln Lhe Clvll Servlce Law Lo prevenL hlm from reachlna ouL Lo oLher ueparLmenLs or Lo Lhe prlvaLe
secLor provlded all hls acLs are bona flde for Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe publlc servlce and Lhe person chosen has Lhe needed quallflcaLlonsŦ
ln Lhe presenL caseţ Lhere ls no lndlcaLlon LhaL Lhe peLlLloner was chosen for anv oLher reason excepL Lo brlna ln a LalenLed person wlLh
Lhe necessarv ellalblllLles and quallflcaLlons for lmporLanL asslanmenLs ln Lhe ueparLmenLŦ
Ŵ 1he reason behlnd ÞŦuŦ noŦ 907 %whlch aranLs clvll servlce ellalblllLv Lo colleae araduaLes wlLh aL leasL com looJe honors) of aLLracLlna
honor araduaLes lnLo Lhe publlc servlce would be neaaLed lf Lhev alwavs have Lo sLarL as Clerk l and walL for hundreds of deadwood
above Lhem Lo flrsL ao lnLo reLlremenL before Lhev can hope for slanlflcanL and fulfllllna asslanmenLsŦ
Ŵ Commlsslonƌs rellance on Lhe dlcLum ln Mlllares vŦ Subldo ls mlsplacedŦ 1he rullna ln Mlllotes has alreadv been superseded bv laLer
declslonsŦ We have alreadv held ln cases subsequenL Lo Mlllares LhaL Lhe nexLŴlnŴrank rule ls noL absoluLeŤ lL onlv applles ln cases of
promoLlonŦ And even ln promoLlonsţ lL can be dlsreaarded for sound reasons made known Lo Lhe nexLŴlnŴrankŦ 1he appolnLlna auLhorlLvţ
under Lhe Clvll Servlce Lawţ ls allowed Lo flll vacancles bv promoLlonţ Lransfer of presenL emploveesţ relnsLaLemenLţ reemplovmenLţ and
appolnLmenL of ouLslders who have approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLvţ noL oecessotllv lo tbot otJetŦ
Ŵ 1he nexLŴlnŴrank rule musL alve wav Lo Lhe exlaencles of Lhe publlc servlceŦ 1he lnLenL of Lhe Clvll Servlce Laws noL merelv Lo besLow
upon permanenL emplovees Lhe advanLaae arlslna from Lhelr lona emplovmenL buL mosL speclallvţ lL ls Lo fosLer a more efflclenL publlc
servlceŦ Anv oLher facLor musLţ Lhereforeţ vleld Lo Lhe demand for an effecLlve aovernmenLţ whlch necessarllv enLalls Lhe appolnLmenL of
compeLenLţ quallfled and proflclenL personnelŦ

Lusterio v l4c %1991Ť uovlJeţ ItŦţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Cfflce of Supplv Cfflcer lll





Ŵ upon reLlremenL of hls predecessorţ Þalomar was appolnLed Supplv Cfflcer lll bv Lhe ulrecLor of MlnlsLer of LducaLlon and CulLureŦ 1he
appolnLmenL was ºpermanenL" buL quallfled bv Lhe condlLlon LvpewrlLLen on lLs facL LhaL lL ls ºsub[ecL Lo Lhe flnal ouLcome" of Lhe
proLesL flled bv !ose LusLerloŦ
Ŵ MLC denled LusLerlo's proLesLŦ LusLerlo appealed Lo Lhe CSC where he wonŦ 1hrouah Lhe MSÞ8ţ CSC dlrecLed hls appolnLmenL as he
occupled a funcLlonallv relaLed poslLlon and quallfled LhereLo as nexL ln rankŦ LusLerlo won as well ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL and 1CŦ
Ŵ 1rlal courL rullnať
a) pursuanL Lo SecLlon 19%3) of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 807 %Clvll Servlce uecree) and Lhe 8ules on Þersonnel AcLlons and Þollcles promulaaLed bv Lhe
CSC on nexLŴlnŴrank poslLlonsţ Lhe poslLlon of 5uperv|sory I|sca| |erk prevlouslv occupled bv Þalomarţ ls lmmedlaLelv nexL Lo Lhe
conLesLed poslLlon ln Lhe oraanlzaLlonal charL of Lhe ulvlslon of Cuezon for Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve SLaffŦ upon Lhe oLher handţ peLlLlonerţ
prlor Lo hls appolnLmenL Lo Lhe conLesLed poslLlonţ was Supplv Cfflcer l ln Lucban naLlonal Plah School ln Lucbanţ CuezonŤ consequenLlvţ
he does noL belona Lo Lhe oraanlzaLlonal unlL where Lhe vacancv exlsLsŦ Clrcular noŦ 3ţ Serles of 1963 of Lhe Lhen MlnlsLrv of LducaLlonţ
CulLure and SporLs provldes LhaL ƍfor reasons of equlLv and moraleţ fullv quallfled emplovees wlLhln Lhe oraanlzaLlonal unlLţ all
clrcumsLances belna equalţ should have flrsL call upon promoLlonal opporLunlLlesţƍ
%b) Þalomar ls a colleae araduaLe wlLh a dearee of 8S Commerce wlLh 3 unlLs ln MAŤ he has parLlclpaLed and compleLed ln servlce Lralnlna
courses alona supplv and properLv manaaemenLŤ held Lhe poslLlons of ClerkŴPelperţ ClerkŴ1vplsLţ Clerk lţ llscal Clerk lll and Supervlslna
llscal ClerkŤ performed Lhe duLles of a Supplv Cfflcer lll slnce hls appolnLmenL ln Aprll 1977 unLll CcLober 1979 wlLh a laLesL performance
raLlna of vetv sotlsfoctotvŤ and a flrsL arade clvll servlce ellalblllLvŦ Pe Lhus meeLs all Lhe requlremenLs for appolnLmenL Lo Lhe conLesLed
poslLlonŦ
%c) AppolnLmenL of LusLerloţ made pursuanL Lo Lhe declslon of Lhen ÞresldenLlal LxecuLlve AsslsLanLţ PonŦ !acobo Claveţ as recommended
bv Lhe CSCţ ls noL ln accordance wlLh lawţ for as noLedţ Lhe Chalrman of Lhe Commlsslon aL Lhe Llme of Lhe recommendaLlon was
Ponorable Clave hlmselfŦ ÞursuanL Lhen Lo AozolJo vsŦ cloveţ Þalomar was denled due processŦ
Ŵ lAC approves 1C rullnať LusLerlo does not be|ong to the organ|zat|ona| un|t where the vacancy ex|stsŦ
Ŵ LusLerlo's araumenLsť
ż1Ž More quallfled and enLlLled Lo Lhe conLesLed poslLlon Lhan Þalomar
ż2Ž Þalomar dld noL have Lhe requlred experlenceŤ he ƍslmplv and clearlv does noL possess anv dlrecL experlence ln Lhe fleld of Supplv
ManaaemenL Lo quallfv for Lhe poslLlon
ż3Ž ln deLermlnlna Lhe occupaLlonal aroup where Lhe vacancv occursţ tbe eotlte Jlvlsloo of Cuezonţ and noL tbe Jlvlsloo offlce aloneţ
should be Laken lnLo accounLŦ Penceţ peLlLlonerţ belna a Supplv Cfflcer l aL Lhe Lucban naLlonal Plah School ln Lhe dlvlslon of Cuezonţ
should necessarllv be conslderedŦ
Issueť WCn CSC and 1C erred ln revoklna LusLerlo's appolnLmenL ln favor of Lhe purporLed nexLŴlnŴrank Þalomar? ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ n8 AnC1PL8 ÞCS1ŴLAÞlnlu ÞCS1ŴA8lLA CASLŦ SCML Cu?S !uS1 nLvL8 LLA8nŦ
Ŵ Þalomar was a 5opetvlsloo llscol cletk before hls appolnLmenL Lo Lhe conLesLed poslLlonŦ Pls funcLlons Lhen covered an aspecL of supplv
acLlvlLlesţ lŦeŦţ Lhe flscal requlremenLs of supplles and maLerlals for Lhe dlvlslon offlceŦ Moreoverţ he had compleLed ln servlce courses ln
supplv and properLv manaaemenLŦ As correcLlv ruled bv Lhe SecreLarv of LducaLlon and CulLureţ and held bv Lhe Lrlal courL and Lhe
respondenL lACţ Þalomar meeLs all Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe poslLlon of Supplv Cfflcer lllŦ Lven lf We aranL for Lhe sake of araumenL LhaL
LusLerlo ls also quallfledţ Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv had Lhe dlscreLlon Lo deLermlne who of Lhose quallfled should be appolnLed Lo Lhe
conLesLed poslLlonŦ
Ŵ lL was an error for boLh courLs below Lo resLrlcLlvelv llmlL Lhe concepL of nexLŴlnŴrank Lo Lhe oraanlzaLlonal unlL where Lhe vacancv
occursţ whlch lsţ ln Lhls caseţ Lhe Jlvlsloo offlce of Cuezon and more speclflcallvţ Lo Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve SLaff LherelnŦ
Ŵ 5ectloo J of kole v oo 9tomotloos of tbe clvll 5etvlce koles oo 9etsoooel Actloos ooJ 9ollclesť ºA nextŴ|nŴrank poslLlon refers Lo a poslLlon
whlchţ bv reason of Lhe hlerarchlcal arranaemenL of poslLlons ln Lhe ueparLmenL or aaencv or ln Lhe aovernmenLţ ls deLermlned Lo be ln
Lhe nearesL dearee of relaLlonshlp Lo a hlaher poslLlon Laklna lnLo accounL Lhe followlnať %1) organ|zat|on structure/s as reflecLed ln Lhe
approved organ|zat|ona| chart/sŤ %2) c|ass|f|cat|on and/or funct|ona| re|at|onsh|psŤ %3) sa|ary and/or range a||ocat|onŤ and %4)
geograph|ca| |ocat|onŦ"
Ŵ 1he oraanlzaLlonal unlL ls noL Lhe sole crlLerlonŦ And even lf We have Lo furLher concede LhaL LusLerlo Lhen occupled a nexLŴlnŴrank
poslLlonţ LhaL facL alone dld noL make lL mandaLorv for Lhe appolnLlna power Lo appolnL hlm Lo Lhe conLesLed poslLlonŦ
Ŵ SecLlon 19%3) of Þu 807 %Clvll Servlce uecree) merelv provldes LhaL when a vacancv occurs ln a poslLlon ln Lhe second level of Lhe Career
Servlceţ Lhe emplovee ln Lhe aovernmenL servlce who occuples Lhe nexL lower poslLlons ln Lhe occupaLlonal aroup under whlch Lhe
vacanL poslLlon ls classlfled and ln oLher funcLlonallv relaLed occupaLlonal aroups and who are compeLenLţ quallfled and wlLh Lhe
approprlaLe clvll servlce ellalblllLvţ ƍsboll be cooslJeteJ fot ptomotlooƍŦ lL does noL sav ƍshall be promoLedƍŦ

/ Transfer

O Novement from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level or salary without break in service
O Nay be imposed as an administrative remedy
O CENERAL RULE: !f UNconsented = violation security of tenure
O EXCEPT!ONS:
4 Temporary Appointee
4 Career Executive Service Personnel whose status and salaries are based on ranks (= positions)






Peop/e v keyes ond ,onieoo %1995Ť 9oooţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ 8uenavenLura CŦ Manleaoţ CollecLor of CusLomsţ CollecLlon ulsLrlcL llţ Manlla lnLernaLlonal ConLalner ÞorL %MlCÞ) asslaned !ovenclo uŦ
Lbloţ CusLoms CperaLlon Chlefţ MlCÞ Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe uepuLv CollecLor of CusLoms for CperaLlons as Speclal AsslsLanLŦ
Ŵ Lblo flled wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC a leLLerŴcomplalnL proLesLlna hls LransferŦ Pe clalmed LhaL hls new asslanmenL vlolaLed Comelec 8esoluLlon
noŦ 2333 and SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881ţ Lhe Cmnlbus LlecLlon Codeţ whlch prohlblL Lhe Lransfer of anv emplovee ln Lhe clvll servlce
120 davs before Lhe Mav 11ţ 1992 svnchronlzed naLlonal and local elecLlonsŦ
Ŵ 8efore Lhe arralanmenLţ Manleao moved Lo quash Lhe lnformaLlon on Lhe around LhaL Lhe facLs alleaed do noL consLlLuLe an offenseŦ Pe
conLended LhaL Lhe Lransfer of Lblo on !anuarv 14ţ 1992 dld noL vlolaLe 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881 because on LhaL daLe Lhe acL was noL veL punlshable
as an elecLlon offenseŦ lL purporLedlv became punlshable onlv on !anuarv 13ţ 1992ţ Lhe daLe of effecLlvlLv of Comelec 8esoluLlon noŦ
2333 lmplemenLlna SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881Ŧ 1he Lrlal courL aranLed prlvaLe respondenL's moLlon Lo quash and dlsmlssed Lhe
crlmlnal caseŦ
Issueť WCn Lransfer bv Manleao ls vlolaLlve of secLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881? nC
kat|oť
Ŵ SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881 does noL per se ouLlaw Lhe Lransfer of a aovernmenL offlcer or emplovee durlna Lhe elecLlon perlodŦ 1o be
sureţ Lhe Lransfer or deLall of a publlc offlcer or emplovee ls a preroaaLlve of Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLvŦ 11 lL ls necessarv Lo meeL Lhe
exlaencles of publlc servlce someLlmes Loo dlfflculL Lo percelve and predlcLŦ WlLhouL Lhls lnherenL preroaaLlveţ Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv
mav noL be able Lo cope wlLh emeraencles Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of publlc servlceŦ Clearlv Lhenţ Lhe Lransfer or deLall of aovernmenL offlcer or
emplovee wlll noL be penallzed bv SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881 lf done Lo promoLe efflclencv ln Lhe aovernmenL servlceŦ Penceţ
SecLlon 2 of 8esoluLlon noŦ 2333 provldes LhaL Lhe CCMLLLC has Lo pass upon Lhe reason for Lhe proposed Lransfer or deLallŦ
Ŵ Þresclndlna from Lhls predlcaLeţ Lwo elemenLs musL be esLabllshed Lo prove a vlolaLlon of SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881ť
ż1Ž 1he facL of Lransfer or deLall of a publlc offlcer or emplovee wlLhln Lhe elecLlon perlod as flxed bv Lhe CCMLLLCŤ and
ż2Ž 1he Lransfer or deLall was effecLed wlLhouL prlor approval of CCMLLLC ln accordance wlLh lLs lmplemenLlna rules and reaulaLlons
Ŵ An offlcer cannoL be held llable for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 261 %h) of 8ŦÞŦ 8laŦ 881ţ a penal provlslonţ before Lhe effecLlvlLv of CCMLLLC
8esoluLlon noŦ 2333 promulaaLlna Lhe necessarv lmplemenLlna rulesŦ

vintonsŴchoto v Notividod %1995Ť MeoJozoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť 8evenue dlsLrlcL offlcer
Ŵ ÞursuanL Lo lv8's LC 132 for Lhe sLreamllnlna of 8l8ţ Commlssloner Llwavwav vlnzons 8Ŧ ChaLo lssued 8evenue AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder noŦ
3Ŵ93ţ ƍ8edeflnlna Lhe areas of [urlsdlcLlon and renumberlna of realonal dlsLrlcL offlcesŦƍ 1he order subdlvlded Lhe 19 revenue realons
provlded for under Lhe nl8C lnLo 113 revenue dlsLrlcLs and renumbered Lhe resulLlna revenue dlsLrlcL offlce %8uCs)Ŧ lL also abollshed Lhe
prevlous classlflcaLlon of 8uCs lnLo Class AŴ1ţ Aţ 8ţ Cţ and u and provlded LhaL henceforLh all 8uCs shall be LreaLed as Lhe same classŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Lhe ºexlaencles of Lhe revenue servlceţ" Cl8 lssued 8evenue 1ravel AsslanmenL Crder noŦ 80Ŵ93ţ dlrecLlna 90 revenue dlsLrlcL
offlcers Lo reporL Lo new asslanmenLs ln Lhe redeslanaLed and renumbered revenue dlsLrlcL offlces naLlonwldeŦ
Salvador norl 8lasţ an 8uCţ was Lransferred from San lernandoţ Þampanaa Lo 1uaueaaraoţ CaaavanŦ Pe clalmed reconslderaLlon because
ż1Ž he felL LhaL hls accompllshmenLs and performance had noL been Laken lnLo conslderaLlon ln Lhe reshuffle and LhaL hls Lransfer from
whaL he LhouahL ls Lhe laraer revenue dlsLrlcL of San lernandoţ Þampanaa Lo Lhe smaller dlsLrlcL ln 1uaueaaraoţ Caaavan was a
demoLlonţ ż2Ž he was amona Lhe Lop Len examlners of 8evenue 8ealon noŦ 3 for slx consecuLlve vears and LhaL he was a model emplovee
ln 1981 and ż3Ž he was a dlabeLlc and LhaL he needed Lo be near hls docLorţ and could noL endure lona LravelsŦ
Ŵ Pls plea for reconslderaLlon noL havlna acLed uponţ he flled ln[uncLlon wlLh Þrellmlnarv ln[uncLlon and 1emporarv 8esLralnlna Crder wlLh
81CŦ Pls alleaaLlonsť
ż1Ž 1he Lransfer wlLhouL hls consenL from Lhe revenue dlsLrlcL ln San lernandoţ whlch was formerlv deslanaLed as a Class ƍAţƍ Lo Lhe
revenue dlsLrlcL ln 1uaueaaraoţ whlch was classlfled as a Class ƍCţƍ wlLh a smaller pool of personnel and onlv x of Lhe revenue capaclLv of
Þampanaaţ would cause hls ºdlslocaLlon" and demoLlon or ºa dlmlnuLlon ln rankţ sLaLusţ and span of duLles and responslblllLlesŦ"
ż2Ž Pe lnvoked LŦCŦ noŦ 132ť ºƇ2Ŧ keJeplovmeot of 9etsoooelŦ 1he redeplovmenL of offlclals and oLher personnel on Lhe basls of Lhe
sLreamllnlna embodled ln Lhls LxecuLlve Crder shall noL resulL ln Lhe dlslocaLlon of exlsLlna personnel nor ln Lhe dlmlnuLlon of rank and
compensaLlon and shall Lake lnLo accounL perLlnenL Clvll Servlce Law and rulesŦ"
Ŵ 81C [udae lssued 81C and aranLed wrlL of prellmlnarv ln[uncLlonŦ
Ŵ vlnzons ChaLo's araumenLsť
ż1Ž !udae acLed wlLh arave abuse of dlscreLlon ln lssulna Lhe prellmlnarv ln[uncLlon because nowhere ln Lhe order was lL sLaLed LhaL 8las
had a rlahL whlch was vlolaLed as a resulL of Lhe lssuance Lhe reasslanmenL of realonal revenue offlcers under of 81AC 80Ŵ93Ŧ
ż2Ž 1ransfer was made pursuanL Lo LŦCŦ noŦ 132ţ and Lhls belna soţ lL should noL be consldered dlsclpllnarv ln naLureŦ Cn Lhe conLrarvţ lL
was made ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe publlc servlceţ as an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule requlrlna Lhe emploveeƌs consenL ln nonŴdlsclpllnarv LransfersŦ
ż3Ž nelLher was Lhe Lransfer a demoLlonţ slnce Lhere was no reducLlon ln duLlesţ responslblllLlesţ sLaLusţ rankţ or salarvŦ She clLed Lhe facL
LhaL 81AC 80Ŵ93 had abollshed all classes of 8uCs and consldered Lhem Lo be of Lhe same classŦ 8lasƌ rellance on Lhe classlflcaLlons
prevlouslv followed wasţ Lhereforeţ wlLhouL baslsŦ
ż4Ž 8las' fallure Lo exhausL all admlnlsLraLlve remedles prlor Lo flllna Lhe case was a [urlsdlcLlonal defecL and a valld around for dlsmlssal
of Lhe case ln Lhe 81CŦ Pe should have appealed wlLh Lhe CSC flrsLŦ





Issueť WCn 8las' Lransfer ls valld?
ne|dť ?LSŦ lL cannoL be consldered a demoLlonŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he Lransfer dld noL reallv enLall anv dlmlnuLlon ln rankţ salarvţ sLaLus and responslblllLlesŦ 8las' clalm LhaL Lhe 1uaueaarao revenue
dlsLrlcL ls smaller Lhan LhaL ln San lernandoţ Þampanaa has no basls because Lhe classlflcaLlon of 8uCsƌ lnLo Class AŴ1ţ Aţ 8ţ C and u has
been abollshed and all 8uCƌs are now consldered Lo be of Lhe same classŦ
Ŵ lL could be LhaL prlvaLe respondenL ls belna Lransferred Lo a revenue dlsLrlcL whlch he clalms has less revenue capaclLv Lhan San
lernandoţ Þampanaaţ preclselv Lo lmprove Lhe capaclLv of Lhe new asslanmenLŦ Pls new asslanmenL should Lherefore be consldered bv
hlm a challenae Lo hls leadershlp as revenue dlsLrlcL offlcer raLher Lhan a demoLlon or a penalLvŦ
Ŵ 1o susLaln hls conLenLlon LhaL hls Lransfer consLlLuLes a demoLlon slmplv because Lhe new asslanmenL ls noL Lo hls llklna would be Lo
subordlnaLe aovernmenL pro[ecLsţ alona wlLh Lhe areaL resources and efforLs Lhev enLallţ Lo Lhe lndlvldual preferences and oplnlons of
clvll servlce emploveesŦ Such conLenLlon would neaaLe Lhe prlnclple LhaL a publlc offlce ls a publlc LrusL and LhaL lL ls noL Lhe prlvaLe
preserve of anv personŦ ln aranLlna an ln[uncLlon desplLe Lhe absence of anv leaal rlahL Lo be proLecLedţ respondenL commlLLed a arave
abuse of lLs dlscreLlonŦ
Ŵ Moreoverţ under Lhe lawţ anv emplovee who quesLlons Lhe valldlLv of hls Lransfer should appeal Lo Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ
8espondenL [udae should have dlsmlssed Lhe acLlon below for fallure of prlvaLe respondenL Lo exhausL admlnlsLraLlve remedlesŦ

vintonsŴchoto v 2enoroso %2000Ť 8oeooţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ ÞursuanL Lo Llwavwav vlnzonsŴChaLo's 8evenue 1ravel AsslanmenL Crder %81AC) noŦ 8Ŵ93ţMarLlnez and oLhers were reasslaned from
AsslsLanL 8evenue ulsLrlcL Cfflcer of 8evenue ulsLrlcL Cfflce %8uC) noŦ 34 ÞacoŴÞandacanŴSan AndresŴSLaŦ Ana area Lo AsslsLanL ulvlslon
Chlefţ CollecLlon Þroarams ulvlslonţ naLlonal Cfflce ln Cuezon ClLvŦ
Ŵ ln vlew of sald reasslanmenLţ MarLlnez flled a peLlLlon for ln[uncLlon ln CC 81C Lo resLraln Marcelo %her replacemenL) from assumlna Lhe
posL of AsslsLanL 8ealonal ulsLrlcL Cfflcer of 8uC noŦ 34Ŧ
Ŵ MarLlnez arauesť 81AC 8Ŵ93ţ ls LanLamounL Lo a demoLlon slnce Lhe poslLlon she was Lransferred Lo%AsslsLanL ulvlslon Chlefţ CollecLlons
Þroaram ulvlslon Chlefţ naLlonal Cfflce) does noL lnvolve assessmenL and ls LoLallv allen Lo Lhe pasL experlence and skllls of prlvaLe
respondenL as an AsslsLanL 8evenue ulsLrlcL Cfflcer of 8uC 34Ŧ
Ŵ 81C aranLed Lhe prellmlnarv ln[uncLlonŦ
Ŵ Llwavwavť 8easslanmenL of revenue dlsLrlcL offlcers was made pursuanL Lo LŦCŦ 132 for Lhe purpose of lmprovlna revenue collecLlonŦ
Issueť WCn MarLlnez' reasslanmenL ls valld? ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he Commlssloner of lnLernal 8evenue ls auLhorlzed Lo asslan or reasslan lnLernal revenue offlcers and emplovees of Lhe 8l8 as Lhe
exlaencles of servlce mav requlreţ wlLhouL demoLlon ln rank and salarv ln accordance wlLh Clvll Servlce 8ules and 8eaulaLlonŦ 1he prlmarv
reason whv prlvaLe respondenL refuses Lo complv wlLh 81AC 8Ŵ93 was because she Look lL as an acL of vlndlcLlveness and reprlsal on Lhe
parL of Lhe Commlsslonerţ consequenL Lo her flllna a complalnL aaalnsL Lhe asslaned 8uC of 8uC noŦ 34 lsldoro 1ecsonţ !rŦ %now
deceased)ţ on Lhe basls of a prlor asslanmenL order lssued bv Lhe CommlsslonerŦ nowhere ln Lhe asslanmenL orderţ 81AC 8Ŵ93ţ can lL be
aleaned LhaL Lhe reasslanmenL was for Lhe purpose of harasslna prlvaLe respondenLŦ ln facLţ prlvaLe respondenL was noL Lhe onlv one
reasslaned Lo a new posLŦ
Ŵ 1here ls no merlL ln Lhe araumenL of MarLlnez LhaL she wlll be demoLed bv her Lransfer Lo Lhe naLlonal Cfflceţ CollecLlon Þroarams
ulvlslon because she was reasslaned Lo a poslLlon LoLallv allen Lo her proven area of experLlse ln assessmenLŦ

5ecŦ of lustice cuevos v oco/ %347 SC8A 338 | 2000ţ MeoJozoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť AppolnLmenL and Lransfer of career execuLlve servlce offlcers %CLSCs)
Ŵ 8acal %CLSC lll) was appolnLed bv ÞresldenL 8amos Lo Chlef Þubllc ALLornev %whlch requlres CLS 8ank Level l) and subsequenLlv
Lransferred wlLhouL her consenL as 8ealonal ulrecLor of ÞAC %her prevlous poslLlon prlor Lo Lhe ºappolnLmenL")Ŧ lL musL be noLed LhaL
she was [usL orlalnallv ºdeslanaLed" ln acLlna capaclLv bv SecreLarv of !usLlceŦ Cn Lhe same vear howeverţ ÞresŦ LsLrada appolnLed
uemalslp as ºchlef publlc defenderŦ"
Ŵ CA ruled ln favor of 8acalŦ
Issueť WCn 8acal's Lransfer amounLed Lo removal wlLhouL cause?
ne|dť nCŦ Per appolnLmenL Lo Lhe poslLlon of Chlef Þubllc ALLornev was merelv Lemporarv and LhaLţ consequenLlvţ her subsequenL Lransfer
Lo Lhe poslLlon of 8ealonal ulrecLor of Lhe same offlceţ whlch corresponds Lo her CLSC rankţ cannoL be consldered a demoLlonţ much less a
vlolaLlon of Lhe securlLv of Lenure auaranLee of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ She mav have been consldered for promoLlon Lo 8ank l Lo make her appolnLmenL as Chlef Þubllc ALLornev permanenLŦ 1he facLţ
howeverţ ls LhaL Lhls dld noL maLerlallze as Carlna !Ŧ uemalslp was appolnLed ln her placeŦ lf 8acal was pald a salarv equlvalenL Lo Salarv
Crade 30 whlle she was holdlna LhaL offlceţ lL was onlv becauseţ under Lhe lawţ lf a CLSC ls asslaned Lo a poslLlon wlLh a hlaher salarv
arade Lhan LhaL correspondlna Lo hls/her rankţ he/she wlll be allowed Lhe salarv of Lhe CLS poslLlonŦ





Ŵ ClLlna Acbocoso v Mocotolo %reť lssuance of permanenL sLaLus onlv Lo Lhose who have meL all Lhe requlremenLs)ţ respondenL does noL
have Lhe rank approprlaLe for Lhe poslLlon of Chlef Þubllc ALLornevţ her appolnLmenL Lo LhaL poslLlon cannoL be consldered permanenLţ
and she can clalm no securlLv of Lenure ln respecL of LhaL poslLlonŦ
Ŵ 1he mere facL LhaL a poslLlon belonas Lo Lhe Career Servlce does noL auLomaLlcallv confer securlLv of Lenure on lLs occupanL even lf he
does noL possess Lhe requlred quallflcaLlonsŦ Such rlahL wlll have Lo depend on Lhe naLure of hls appolnLmenLţ whlch ln Lurn depends on
hls ellalblllLv or lack of lLŦ A person who does noL have Lhe requlslLe quallflcaLlons for Lhe poslLlon cannoL be appolnLed Lo lL ln Lhe flrsL
place orţ onlv as an excepLlon Lo Lhe ruleţ mav be appolnLed Lo lL merelv ln an acLlna capaclLv ln Lhe absence of approprlaLe ellalblesŦ 1he
appolnLmenL exLended Lo hlm cannoL be reaarded as permanenL even lf lL mav be so deslanaLedŦ
Ŵ SecurlLv of Lenure ln Lhe career execuLlve servlce ls Lhus acqulred wlLh respecL Lo ronk and not Lo poslLlonŦ 1he auaranLee of securlLv of
Lenure Lo members of Lhe CLS does noL exLend Lo Lhe parLlcular poslLlons Lo whlch Lhev mav be appolnLed ºa concepL whlch ls appllcable
onlv Lo flrsL and secondŴlevel emplovees ln Lhe clvll servlce" buL Lo Lhe rank Lo whlch Lhev are appolnLed bv Lhe ÞresldenLŦ
Ŵ WlLhln Lhe Career LxecuLlve Servlceţ personnel can be shlfLed from one offlce or poslLlon Lo anoLher wlLhouL vlolaLlon of Lhelr rlahL Lo
securlLv of Lenure because Lhelr sLaLus and salarles are based on Lhelr ranks and noL on Lhelr [obsŦ
Ŵ 1he sLaLus and salarv of Lhe career execuLlves wlll be based on Lhelr rankţ and noL on Lhe [ob LhaL Lhev occupv aL anv alven LlmeŦ
Ŵ 1he rank classlflcaLlon ln Lhe Servlce wlll allow for moblllLv or flexlblllLv of asslanmenLs such LhaL Lhe aovernmenL could uLlllze Lhe
servlces or speclal LalenLs of Lhese career execuLlves wherever Lhev are mosL needed or wlll llkelv creaLe Lhe areaLesL lmpacLŦ

c Reinstatement

O Technically the issuance of a new appointment and is discretionary on the part of the appointing power
O !t cannot be the subject of an application for a writ of mandamus
O Who may be reinstated to a position in the same level for which he is qualified:
4 Any permanent appointee of a career service position
4 No commission of delinquency or misconduct, and is not separated
O Same effect as Executive lemency, which completely obliterates the adverse effects of the administrative decision
which found him guilty of dishonesty He is restored ipso facto upon grant of such
O Application for reinstatement = unnecessary

cristobo/ v ,e/chor %1977Ť MooozŴ9olmoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ÞrlvaLe secreLarv ln Lhe ÞresldenLƌs ÞrlvaLe Cfflceţ Malacananaţ Manlla
Ŵ CrlsLobal LoaeLher wlLh oLher emplovees ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL were lnformed bv Lhe LxecuLlve SecreLarv LhaL Lhelr servlces are
LermlnaLedŦ 1hev appealed Lo Lhe ÞresldenL %1961 Ŵ Marcos or Maasavsav?) buL Lhe same was denledŦ Some of Lhe emplovees flled a clvll
case for relnsLaLemenL and pavmenL of salarlesţ durlna Lhe pendencv of whlch Lhev were recalled Lo Lhelr poslLlonsŦ WlLh respecL Lo Lhe
oLher emplovees who were noL relnsLaLedţ efforLs were exerLed bv SecreLarv MuLuc Lo look for placemenLs ouLslde of Malacanana so
LhaL Lhev mav be reŴemplovedŦ 1he hereln plalnLlff was one of Lhose who had noL been forLunaLe enouah Lo be reappolnLed Lo anv
poslLlons as beflLs hls quallflcaLlonsŦ
Ŵ Pe walLed for SecreLarv MuLuc Lo make aood hls assurance LhaL he would be recalled Lo Lhe servlceţ unLll SecreLarv MuLuc was replaced
bv oLher execuLlve secreLarles who llkewlse assured Lhe plalnLlff of asslsLance Lo be reemploved aL ƍLhe opporLune LlmeŦƍ
Ŵ When CrlsLobalţ ln answer Lo hls varlous leLLersţ recelved Lhe leLLer of Mav 19ţ 1971 from Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL denvlna hls
relnsLaLemenL and declarlna Lhe maLLer ƍdeflnlLelv closedƍ because of hls fallure Lo flle an acLlon ln courL wlLhln one vear from hls
separaLlonţ lL was onlv Lhen LhaL he seL Lhe necesslLv of seeklna redress from Lhe courLs %9 vears laLer)Ŧ
Issueť WCn CrlsLobal ls enLlLled Lo relnsLaLemenLţ afLer he was made Lo relv on Lhe promlses of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL?
ne|dť ?LSţ docLrlne of laches cannoL applvŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 1here was no acqulescence Lo or lnacLlon on Lhe parL of !ose CrlsLobal amounLlna Lo abandonmenL of hls rlahL Lo relnsLaLemenL ln offlceŦ
Pls nonŴparLlclpaLlon ls noL faLal Lo hls cause of acLlonŦ uurlna Lhe pendencv of Lhe clvll case CrlsLobal conLlnued Lo press hls requesL for
relnsLaLemenL LoaeLher wlLh Lhe oLher emplovees who had flled Lhe complalnL and was ln facL promlsed relnsLaLemenL as wlll be shown
more ln deLall laLerŦ
Ŵ CrlsLobal could be expecLed Ŵ wlLhouL necessarllv spendlna Llme and monev bv aolna Lo courL Ŵ Lo relled upon Lhe ouLcome of Lhe case
flled bv hls coŴemplovees Lo proLecL hls lnLeresLs conslderlna Lhe slmllarlLv of hls slLuaLlon Lo LhaL of Lhe plalnLlffs Lhereln and Lhe
ldenLlcal rellef belna souahLŦ
Ŵ ClLlna 5ootbeto 9oclflc vsŦ 8ooettť 1he essence of laches ls noL merelv lapse of LlmeŦ lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhere be also acqulescence ln Lhe
alleaed wrona or lack of dlllaence ln seeklna a remedvŦ Pere plalnLlffsţ or oLhers represenLlna Lhemţ proLesLed ŦŦŦ and ever slnce Lhev
have ŦŦŦ perslsLed ln Lhe dlllaenL pursulL of a remedv ŦŦŦ wbete tbe coose of octloo of socb o ootote tbot o solt to eofotce lt woolJ be
btooobt oo bebolfţ oot oolv tbe 9lolotlffţ bot of o// persons simi/or/y situotedţ lt ls oot esseotlol tbot eocb socb petsoo sboolJ lotetveoe lo
tbe solt btooobt lo otJet tbot be be JeemeJ tbeteoftet ftee ftom tbe locbes wblcb bots tbose oo sleep oo tbe tlobtsŦ
Ŵ lL was an acL of Lhe aovernmenL Lhrouah lLs responslble offlclals more parLlcularlv Lhen LxecuLlve SecreLarv MuLuc and hls successors
whlch conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe alleaed delav ln Lhe flllna of CrlsLobalƌs presenL complalnL for relnsLaLemenLŦ lL was Lhls conLlnued promlse of
Lhe aovernmenL offlclals concerned whlch led CrlsLobal Lo blde hls Llme and walL for Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenL Lo complv wlLh lLs





commlLmenLŦ lurLhermoreţ he had behlnd hlm Lhe declslon of Lhe Supreme CourL ln looles vsŦ Motoc whlch he belleved should be
applled ln hls favorŦ
Ŵ 1here was no evldence Lo lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe respecLlve poslLlons of Lhe dlsmlssed plalnLlffs were ƍprlmarllv confldenLlalƍ ln naLure and on
Lhe conLrarv Lhe compensaLlon aLLached and Lhe deslanaLlon alven LhereLo suaaesL Lhe purelv or aL leasL malnlv clerlcal naLure of Lhelr
workŤ and consequenLlvţţ conslderlna LhaL Lhe plalnLlffs were admlLLedlv clvll servlce ellalbles wlLh several vears of servlce ln Lhe
CovernmenLţ Lhelr removal from offlce was ºllleaal and conLrarv Lo law"
Ŵ 1o summarlzeţ wlLh Lhe clrcumsLances Lhus surroundlna Lhls parLlcular caseţ vlzť %a) !ose CrlsLobal conslsLenLlv pressed for a
reconslderaLlon of hls separaLlon from Lhe servlceŤ %b) he was alven assurance LhaL would be recalled aL Lhe opporLune LlmeŤ and %c) LhaL
he sudden LermlnaLlon of hls emplovmenL wlLhouL cause afLer elahL vears of servlce ln Lhe aovernmenL ls coottotv to low followlna Lhe
rullna looles vsţ Motoc whlch lnures Lo Lhe beneflL of CrlsLobal who ls slmllarlv slLuaLed as Lhe plalnLlffs ln sald case and who merelv
deslsLed from [olnlna Lhe sulL because of Lhe assurance alven hlm LhaL he would be recalled Lo Lhe servlce

5obe//o v u£c5 %1989Ť Coocovcoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ConcurrenLlv elemenLarv school prlnclpal of 1allsav and AsslsLanL Þrlnclpal of Lhe 1allsav 8aranaav Plah School
of Lhe ulvlslon of Clnaooa ClLv
Ŵ 8arrlo councllţ ln aood falLhţ alloLLed a porLlon of Lhe ÞresldenLlal fund for barrlos Lo Lhe salarles of hlah school LeachersŦ Þrlnclpal
wlLhdrew Lhe amounLŦ Sabello and Lhe baranaav capLaln were charaed of Lhe vlolaLlon of 8A 3019ţ and boLh were convlcLed Lo suffer a
senLence of one vear and dlsquallflcaLlon Lo hold publlc offlceŦ
Ŵ Sabello was aranLed an A8SCLu1L ÞA8uCn bv Lhe ÞresldenLţ resLorlna hlm Lo ƌfull clvll and pollLlcal rlahLsŦƌ Sabello Lhen applled for
relnsLaLemenL Lo Lhe aovernmenL servlceţ onlv Lo be relnsLaLed Lo Lhe wrona poslLlon of a mere classroom Leacher and noL Lo hls former
poslLlon as LlemenLarv School ÞrlnclpalŦ
Ŵ SolCenť no [usLlclable conLroversv
Issueť WCn Sabello ls enLlLled Lo reappolnLmenL? ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ As a aeneral ruleţ Lhe quesLlon of wheLher or noL peLlLloner should be reappolnLed Lo hls former poslLlon ls a maLLer of dlscreLlon of Lhe
appolnLlna auLhorlLvţ buL under Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhls caseţ lf Lhe peLlLloner had been unfalrlv deprlved ofƌ whaL ls rlahLfullv hlsţ Lhe
dlscreLlon ls quallfled bv Lhe requlremenLs of alvlna [usLlce Lo Lhe peLlLlonerŦ lL ls no lonaer a maLLer of dlscreLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe
appolnLlna powerţ buL dlscreLlon Lempered wlLh falrness and [usLlceŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Moosooto v loctotooť 1he absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon from offlce or lnellalblllLv from publlc offlce forms parL of Lhe punlshmenL
prescrlbed under Lhe penal code and LhaL pardon frees Lhe lndlvldual from all Lhe penalLles and leaal dlsablllLles and resLores hlm Lo all
hls clvll rlahLsŦ AlLhouah such pardon resLores hls ellalblllLv Lo a publlc offlce lL does noL enLlLle hlm Lo auLomaLlc relnsLaLemenLŦ Pe
should applv for reappolnLmenL Lo sald offlceŦ
Ŵ As Lhere are no clrcumsLances LhaL would warranL Lhe dlmlnuLlon ln hls rankţ [usLlce and equlLv dlcLaLe LhaL he be reLurned Lo hls former
poslLlon of LlemenLarv School Þrlnclpal l and noL Lo LhaL of a mere classroom LeacherŦ


,onsonto v loctoron %1989Ť letoooţ cŦIŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť AsslsLanLLreasurer of Calbavoa ClLv
Ŵ Sandlaanbavan convlcLed Salvaclon AŦ MonsanLo %Lhen asslsLanL Lreasurer of Calbavoa ClLv) and Lhree oLher accusedţ of Lhe complex
crlme of esLafa Lhru falslflcaLlon of publlc documenLs and senLenced Lhem Lo lmprlsonmenLŦ 1hev were furLher ordered Lo [olnLlv and
severallv lndemnlfv Lhe aovernmenL ln Lhe sum of Þ4ţ892Ŧ30 represenLlna Lhe balance of Lhe amounL defrauded and Lo pav Lhe cosLs
proporLlonaLelvŦ
Ŵ MonsanLo appealed her convlcLlon Lo SC whlch afflrmed Lhe sameŦ She Lhen flled a M8 buL whlle sald moLlon was pendlnaţ she was
exLended bv Lhen ÞresldenL Marcos absoluLe pardonŦ 8v reason of sald pardonţ she wroLe Lhe Calbavoa ClLv Lreasurer requesLlna LhaL
she be resLored Lo her former posL as asslsLanL clLv Lreasurer slnce Lhe same was sLlll vacanLŦ
Ŵ llnance MlnlsLrv ruled LhaL peLlLloner mav be relnsLaLed Lo her poslLlon wlLhouL Lhe necesslLv of a new appolnLmenL noL earller Lhan Lhe
daLe she was exLended Lhe absoluLe pardonŦ lL also dlrecLed Lhe clLv Lreasurer Lo see Lo lL LhaL Lhe amounL of Þ4ţ892Ŧ30 whlch Lhe
Sandlaanbavan had requlred Lo be lndemnlfled ln favor of Lhe aovernmenL as well as Lhe cosLs of Lhe llLlaaLlonţ be saLlsfledŦ
Ŵ MonsanLoť lull pardon besLowed on her has wlped ouL Lhe crlme whlch lmplles LhaL her servlce ln Lhe aovernmenL has never been
lnLerrupLed and Lherefore Lhe daLe of her relnsLaLemenL should correspond Lo Lhe daLe of her prevenLlve suspenslon whlch ls AuausL 1ţ
1982Ť LhaL she ls enLlLled Lo backpav for Lhe enLlre perlod of her suspenslonŤ and LhaL she should noL be requlred Lo pav Lhe
proporLlonaLe share of Lhe amounL of Þ4ţ892Ŧ30Ŧ
Ŵ MlnlsLrv referred her leLLer Lo Lhe Cfflce of ÞresldenLŦ uepuLv LxecŦ SecŦ lacLoranť ulsaarees wlLh MlnlsLrv and MonsanLo and holds LhaL
acqulLLalţ noL absoluLe pardonţ of a former publlc offlcer ls Lhe onlv around for relnsLaLemenL Lo hls former poslLlon and enLlLlemenL Lo
pavmenL of hls salarlesţ beneflLs and emolumenLs due Lo hlm durlna Lhe perlod of hls suspenslon pendenLe llLeŦ
Ŵ MonsanLo's Lheorvť Ceneral rules on pardon cannoL applv Lo her case bv reason of Lhe facL LhaL she was exLended execuLlve clemencv
whlle her convlcLlon was sLlll pendlna appeal ln Lhls CourLŦ 1here havlna been no flnal [udamenL of convlcLlonţ her emplovmenL Lherefore
as asslsLanL clLv Lreasurer could noL be sald Lo have been LermlnaLed or forfelLedŦ ln oLher wordsţ w|thout that f|na| [udgment of
conv|ct|onţ Lhe accessorv penalLv of forfelLure of offlce dld noL aLLach and Lhe status of her emp|oyment rema|ned ƍsuspendedŦƍ More





lmporLanLlvţ when pardon was lssued before Lhe flnal verdlcL of aullLţ lL was an acqu|tta| because Lhere was no offense Lo speak ofŦ ln
effecLţ Lhe ÞresldenL has declared her noL aullLv of Lhe crlme charaed and has accordlnalv dlsmlssed Lhe sameŦ
Issueť WCna publlc offlcerţ who has been aranLed an absoluLe pardon bv Lhe Chlef LxecuLlveţ ls enLlLled Lo relnsLaLemenL Lo her former
poslLlon wlLhouL need of a new appolnLmenL? nC
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he penalLv of ptlsloo movot carrles Lhe accessorv penalLles of Lemporarv absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon and perpeLual speclal dlsquallflcaLlon
from Lhe rlahL of suffraaeţ enforceable durlna Lhe Lerm of Lhe prlnclpal penalLvŦ

1emporarv absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon bars Lhe convlcL
from publlc offlce or emplovmenLţ such dlsquallflcaLlon Lo lasL durlna Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLenceŦ

Lven lf Lhe offender be pardonedţ as Lo
Lhe prlnclpal penalLvţ Lhe accessorv penalLles remaln unless Lhe same have been expresslv remlLLed bv Lhe pardonŦ

1he penalLv of ptlsloo
cotteccloool carrlesţ as one of lLs accessorv penalLlesţ suspenslon from publlc offlceŦ
Ŵ Þardon ls deflned as ƍan acL of araceţ proceedlna from Lhe power enLrusLed wlLh Lhe execuLlon of Lhe lawsţ whlch exempLs Lhe
lndlvldualţ on whom lL ls besLowedţ from Lhe punlshmenL Lhe law lnfllcLs for a crlme he has commlLLedŦ lL ls Lhe prlvaLeţ Lhouah offlclal
acL of Lhe execuLlve maalsLraLeţ dellvered Lo Lhe lndlvldual for whose beneflL lL ls lnLendedţ and noL communlcaLed offlclallv Lo Lhe CourLŦ
ŦŦŦ A pardon ls a deedţ Lo Lhe valldlLv of whlch dellverv ls essenLlalţ and dellverv ls noL compleLe wlLhouL accepLanceŦƍ
Ŵ Þardon aranLed afLer convlcLlon frees Lhe lndlvldual from all Lhe penalLles and leaal dlsablllLles and resLores hlm Lo all hls clvll rlahLsŦ 8uL
unless expresslv arounded on Lhe personƌs lnnocence %whlch ls rare)ţ lL cannoL brlna back losL repuLaLlon for honesLvţ lnLearlLv and falr
deallnaŦ 1hls musL be consLanLlv kepL ln mlnd lesL we lose Lrack of Lhe Lrue characLer and purpose of Lhe prlvlleaeŦ
Ŵ She mav applv for reappolnLmenL Lo Lhe offlce whlch was forfelLed bv reason of her convlcLlonŦ And ln conslderlna her quallflcaLlons and
sulLablllLv for Lhe publlc posLţ Lhe facLs consLlLuLlna her offense musL be and should be evaluaLed and Laken lnLo accounL Lo deLermlne
ulLlmaLelv wheLher she can once aaaln be enLrusLed wlLh publlc fundsŦ 1he pardon aranLed Lo her has resulLed ln removlna her
dlsquallflcaLlon from holdlna publlc emplovmenL buL lL cannoL ao bevond LhaLŦ 1o reaaln her former posL as asslsLanL clLv Lreasurerţ she
musL reŴapplv and underao Lhe usual procedure requlred for a new appolnLmenLŦ

coboonot v c5c %199JŤ 9ooeoteţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť
Ŵ new oraanlzaLlonal sLrucLure and sLafflna paLLern of Lhe provlnclal aovernmenL of Aklan was approved bv Lhe !olnL Commlsslon on Local
CovernmenL Þersonnel AdmlnlsLraLlonŦ 1he reoraanlzaLlon provlded 364 reaular planLllla poslLlons from Lhe prevlous 339 wlLh Lhe offlce
of Lhe Covernor allocaLed 144 from Lhe prevlous 60 poslLlonsŦ
Ŵ 1he lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe reoraanlzaLlon plan was sub[ecL Lo several condlLlons such asť
ż1Ž LhaL Lhe quallflcaLlon sLandards for each poslLlon shall be ln accordance wlLh Lhe sLandards seL Lherefor bv Lhe Clvll Servlce
CommlsslonŤ
ż2Ž LhaL Lhere shall be no reducLlon ln acLual salarv of Lhe emplovees excepL ln lnsLances where Lhe salarles of such emplovees equal or
exceed Lhe salarv of Lhelr lmmedlaLe supervlsorŤ ln whlch caseţ Lhe acLual salarv of Lhe subordlnaLe emplovees shall be reduced bv aL
leasL one %1) sLep raLe below LhaL of Lhe lmmedlaLe supervlsorŤ
ż3Ž LhaL all reLalned personnel shall be lssued new appolnLmenLs excepL Lhose who are occupvlna elecLlve poslLlons and Lhose appolnLed
bv naLlonal offlclalsŤ
ż4Ž LhaL Lhe placemenL of personnel shall be ln accordance wlLh 8A noŦ 6636 daLed !une 10ţ 1988 and Lhe lmplemenLlna rules and
reaulaLlons lssued bv Lhe CSC
Ŵ CovŦ CabaanoL lssued a Memorandum lnvlLlna all provlnclal offlclals and emplovees Lo applv for anv of Lhe auLhorlzed poslLlons ln Lhe
new sLafflna paLLern for Lhe evaluaLlon and assessmenL of Lhe Þrovlnclal ÞlacemenL CommlLLee whlch she subsequenLlv creaLed Lhru
LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 0llŴ88Ŧ
Ŵ 1he llsL of emplovees newlv appolnLed and reŴappolnLed was posLedŦ lndlvldual leLLers were senL Lo all emplovees ln Lhe llsL dlrecLlna
Lhem Lo accompllsh and submlL Lhe necessarv documenLs Lo compleLe Lhelr appolnLmenL and Lo reporL Lo Lhelr asslaned offlcesŦ
Ŵ 21 emplovees [olnLlv appealed Lo CabaanoL clLlna 8ules on CovernmenL 8eoraanlzaLlon lssued bv Lhe CSC and 8A 6636 %AcL Lo ÞroLecL
Lhe SecurlLv of 1enure of Clvll Servlce Cfflcers and Lmplovees ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of CovernmenL 8eoraanlzaLlon)Ŧ 1hev asked LhaL
Lhev be appolnLed Lo Lhe poslLlons Lhev applled for Lo whlch Lhev are ellalbleţ havlna Lhe requlred educaLlonal backaroundţ Lralnlna and
experlenceŦ 1hev llkewlse senL CabaanoL lndlvldual leLLers relLeraLlna Lhelr quallflcaLlons and pravlna for reconslderaLlon of Lhelr new
appolnLmenLs Lo poslLlons lower ln rank Lhan Lhelr poslLlons prlor Lo Lhe reoraanlzaLlonŦ
Ŵ CabaanoL denled Lhe appeal sLaLlna LhaL Lhe reoraanlzaLlon renders all poslLlons vacanL and Lhe emplovees have no vesLed rlahL Lo Lhelr
orlalnal poslLlonsŦ Moreoverţ as Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLvţ she en[ovs Lhe preroaaLlve Lo Lransfer emplovees Lo offlces oLher Lhan Lhose
Lhev prevlouslv occupled lf such ls necessarv Lo make Lhem funcLlon more effecLlvelvŦ 1helr appolnLmenLs dld noL vlolaLe Lhe Clvll Servlce
Law on securlLv of Lenure as Lhe lLems offered Lhem carrled Lhe same raLe and salarv Lhev were recelvlna prlor Lo Lhe reoraanlzaLlonţ lŦeŦţ
Lhere was no dlmlnuLlon or reducLlon of Lhelr salarvŦ
Ŵ 17 emplovees brouahL Lhe case Lo CSCŦ CSC found LhaL a wlde dlsparlLv exlsLed beLween Lhe former poslLlons held bv Lhe emplovees and
Lhe poslLlons proposed for Lhem bv CabaanoL even lf equlvalenL poslLlons were avallableŦ CabaanoL was also found Lo have vlolaLed
SecLlon 4 of 8epŦ AcL noŦ 6636 provldlna preference for appolnLmenL of permanenL emplovees Lo Lhe new poslLlons or lf Lhere are noL
enouah comparable onesţ Lo poslLlons nexL lower ln rankŦ lL ordered resLoraLlon of Lhe emplovees Lo poslLlons same ln rank Lo Lhe ones
Lhev prevlouslv heldŦ
Issueť WCnţ as a resulL of Lhe reoraanlzaLlon underLaken bv Lhe Þrovlnclal CovernmenL of Aklanţ Lhe securlLv of Lenure of Lhe appeallna
emplovees ls lmpalred? ?LS





kat|oť
Ŵ A alarlna dlsparlLv exlsLs beLween Lhe former poslLlons held bv prlvaLe respondenLs and Lhe poslLlons proposed Lo Lhem bv peLlLlonerŦ
1hls ls falrlv obvlous ln Lhe case of respondenLs 8auLlsLaţ eL alŦ who were alven poslLlons whlch wereţ noL onlv lower bv Lwo arades Lo as
much as fourLeenţ buL whlch also chanaed Lhe naLure of Lhelr workŦ 1hls ls also Lrue wlLh respecL Lo respondenLs MarLlrezţ eL alŦ who
were alven poslLlons lower bv one arade desplLe Lhe showlna LhaL comparable poslLlons exlsLŦ ln Lhe case of respondenLs Sllvaţ eL alŦ
Lhere were dlfferences ln Lhelr proposed poslLlonsţ bv one or Lwo sLepsŦ llnallvţ ln Lhe case of 8rlonesţ Lhe dlsparlLv conslsLsţ noL so much
ln Lhe salarv arade and/or sLepţ buL ln Lhe naLure of Lhe workŦ
Ŵ SecŦ 1 of 8epŦ AcL noŦ 6636 declares as Lhe pollcv of Lhe SLaLeţ Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe securlLv of Lenure of clvll servlce offlcers and
emplovees ln Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of Lhe varlous aaencles of Lhe aovernmenLŦ SecŦ 2 requlres prlor deLermlnaLlon of a valld cause afLer due
noLlce and hearlna before anv offlcer or emplovee ln Lhe career servlce can be removedţ or demoLedţ whlch ln effecL ls a removalŦ
Ŵ ln order Lo show LhaL valld cause for demoLlon exlsLsţ CabaanoL submlLs an evaluaLlon supposedlv made bv Lhe ÞlacemenL CommlLLee
showlna LhaL Lhe emplovees were recommended Lo poslLlons Lo whlch Lhev are besL flLLed and where Lhev would be performlna more
effecLlvelv as demanded bv Lhe lnLeresL of publlc servlceŦ
Ŵ Poweverţ Lhe emplovees ralse some serlous ob[ecLlons reaardlna Lhls evaluaLlonŦ
ż1Ž 1hls supposed evaluaLlon was noL cerLlfled bv anv member of Lhe ÞlacemenL CommlLLeeŦ
ż2Ž 1he evaluaLlon ls noL compleLeţ meanlnaţ noL all of Lhe emplovees have Lhelr respecLlve evaluaLlonŦ
ż3Ž lLs valldlLv ls dublous because dlfferenL LvpewrlLers were used whlch could mean LhaL oLher enLrles were belaLedlv enLeredŦ
ż4Ž 1hls evaluaLlon was noL submlLLed before Lhe CSC and offered onlv Lo Lhls CourL for Lhe flrsL LlmeŦ
Ŵ ln vlew of Lhe serlousness of Lhe ob[ecLlons ralsed aaalnsL Lhe evaluaLlon whlch was Lhe onlv proof evldenclna Lhe exlsLence of valld
cause for demoLlonţ lL was expecLed LhaL peLlLloner would meeL squarelv Lhese ob[ecLlonsŦ Poweverţ she chose Lo lanore Lhe sameŦ 1husţ
as a resulL of Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of Lhe provlnclal aovernmenL of Aklanţ Lhese emplovees have been demoLed bv Lhelr asslanmenL Lo
poslLlons whlch are lower Lhan Lhose Lhev prevlouslv heldţ or whlchţ Lhouah of equlvalenL salarv arade and sLepţ drasLlcallv chanaes Lhe
naLure of Lhelr work wlLhouL a showlna bv peLlLloner of Lhe exlsLence of a valld cause for such demoLlonţ whlch ln effecL ls a removalţ
deLermlned afLer due noLlce and hearlnaŦ
Ŵ ClLlna MeoJozo vŦ Oolsomblooť lf a person ls dlsmlssed from hls [obţ he should be lnformed of Lhe reasonŦ 1he reason should be ln Lhe
Clvll Servlce Law orţ aL leasLţ ln Lhe law auLhorlzlna Lhe removalŦ 1he reason musL have a reasonable relaLlonshlp Lo Lhe emploveeƌs merlL
and flLness for Lhe [obŦ Pe musL be alvenţ before he ls flredţ an opporLunlLv Lo show LhaL Lhe cause for removal does noL applv Lo hlmŦ
LlemenLarv prlnclples of falrness and compasslon are essenLlalŦ Cnlv Lhen can Lhe reconclllaLlon and unlLv so earnesLlv souahL Lodav be
achlevedŦ
Ŵ Asslanlna an emplovee Lo a lower poslLlon ln Lhe same servlce whlch has a lower raLe of compensaLlon ls a clear case of demoLlon
LanLamounL Lo removal when no cause ls shown for lL or when lL ls noL a parL of anv dlsclpllnarv acLlonŦ 1husţ peLlLloner sLresses Lhe facL
LhaL slnce prlvaLe respondenLs would be recelvlna Lhe same raLe of salarv Lhev were recelvlna before Lhe reoraanlzaLlonţ Lherefore Lhev
are noL demoLedŦ ln Lhe case of llorezaţ we ruled LhaL Lhere was demoLlon even lf lloreza was allowed Lo recelve Lhe same salarv as hls
prevlous hlaher poslLlonŦ Slmllarlvţ we flnd LhaL prlvaLe respondenLsţ noLwlLhsLandlna nonŴdlmlnuLlon of Lhelr salarvţ have been
demoLedŦ 1hls arblLrarlness has no place ln a aovernmenL LhaL nurLures Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLes of securlLv of Lenure and due
processŦ
Ŵ ln addlLlon Lo a flndlna of demoLlonţ Lhe CSC also found peLlLloner Lo have vlolaLed Lhe rule on preference for appolnLmenL of permanenL
emplovees based on SecŦ 4 of 8A 6636ţ SecŦ 7 of 8ules on CraanlzaLlon and Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 3ţ sŦ 1988 of Lhe CSCŦ 1he rule
means LhaL ƍold emplovees should be consldered flrsLƍ on Lhe assumpLlonţ Lhouah noL absoluLelv Lrueţ LhaL Lhev have aalned ƍnoL onlv
superlor skllls buL also areaLer dedlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc servlceŦƍ 1hls ls noL Lo savţ howeverţ LhaL Lhev should be auLomaLlcallv appolnLed
because ƍLhe law does noL preclude Lhe lnfuslon of new bloodţ vounaer dvnamlsmţ or necessarv LalenLs lnLo Lhe aovernmenL servlceƍ
provlded LhaL Lhe acLs of Lhe appolnLlna power are ƍbonaflde for Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe publlc servlce and Lhe person chosen has Lhe
needed quallflcaLlonsŦƍ lL ls less Lhan accuraLeţ howeverţ Lo conclude LhaL peLlLloner vlolaLed Lhe rule on preference for appolnLmenL of
permanenL emplovees because noL all appolnLees Lo Lhe poslLlons formerlv held bv prlvaLe respondenLs or Lo Lhose comparable
poslLlons were new appolnLeesŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Covotoo vŦ c5cť lL ls wlLhln Lhe power of publlc respondenL Lo order Lhe relnsLaLemenL of aovernmenL emplovees who have been
unlawfullv dlsmlssedŦ As Lhe cenLral personnel aaencvţ CSC has Lhe obllaaLlon Lo lmplemenL and safeauard Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslons
on securlLv of Lenure and due processŦ ln Lhe presenL caseţ Lhe lssuance bv Lhe CSC of Lhe quesLloned resoluLlonsţ for Lhe reasons clearlv
explalned Lherelnţ ls lndublLablv ln Lhe performance of lLs consLlLuLlonal Lask of proLecLlna and sLrenaLhenlna Lhe clvll servlceŦ

/orio v ue utmon %5u9kA)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť lnlLlallv 8oard SecreLarv ll of ÞAlCA %ÞSCA)ţ Lurned CoordlnaLor for LxLenslon Servlces
Ŵ 8osarlo vŦ Cerlllo was lssued a oneŴvear Lemporarv appolnLmenL Lo Lhe poslLlon of 8oard SecreLarv ll of ÞAlCAŦ Poweverţ her
emplovmenL was LermlnaLed for loss of confldenceŦ SubsequenLlvţ howeverţ she was deslanaLed as ºCoordlnaLor for LxLenslon ServlcesŦ"
ColŦ Lolena %ÞSCA 8oard of 1rusLees Chalrţ on whom Lhe power Lo make appolnLmenLs ls lodaed) lnformed Cerlllo eLcŦ LhaL Lhev shall be
deemed separaLed from Lhe servlce upon Lhe explraLlon of Lhelr Lemporarv appolnLmenLsŦ
Issueť WCn Cerlllo musL be relnsLaLed?
ne|dť noŦ 8eappolnLmenL ls a dlscreLlonarv acL of Lhe appolnLlna power and cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL of wrlL of mandamusŦ Mere
ºdeslanaLlon" does noL confer upon Lhe deslanee securlLv of Lenure ln Lhe poslLlon or offlce whlch he occuples ln an acLlna capaclLv onlvŦ
kat|oť





Ŵ AlLhouah Lemporarllv exLended an appolnLmenL as 8oard SecreLarv llţ she was dlsmlssed Lherefrom because of loss of confldenceŦ 1hls
dlsmlssal was nelLher conLesLed nor appealed from bv MsŦ CerllloŦ 1he facL ls LhaL prlvaLe respondenLƌs asslanmenL as ƍCoordlnaLor for
LxLenslon Servlcesƍ was a mere deslanaLlonŦ noL belna a permanenL appolnLmenLţ Lhe deslanaLlon Lo Lhe poslLlon cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL
of a case for relnsLaLemenLŦ
Ŵ Lven aranLlna LhaL MsŦ Cerlllo could be valldlv relnsLaLed as ºCoordlnaLor for LxLenslon Servlces"ţ her relnsLaLemenL LhereLo would noL
be posslble because Lhe poslLlon ls noL provlded for ln Lhe ÞSCA planLlllaŦ 1he ÞSCA could noL have made anv valld appolnLmenL for Lhls
lnexlsLenL poslLlonŦ 1hls could verv well be Lhe reason whv she was merelv deslanaLed as CoordlnaLorŦ As a mere deslaneeţ she could noL
have acqulred anv rlahL Lo Lhe poslLlon even lf Lhe poslLlon exlsLedŦ
Ŵ 1hev were even lnformed LhaL Lhev should acqulre Lhe necessarv ellalblllLv wlLhln Lhree vears as a condlLlon for Lhe converslon of Lhelr
Lemporarv sLaLus Lo permanenLŦ 1he facL LhaL Cerlllo passed Lhe requlslLe Clvll Servlce LxamlnaLlon afLer Lhe LermlnaLlon of her
Lemporarv appolnLmenL ls no reason Lo compel peLlLloners Lo reappolnL herŦ cqu|s|t|on of c|v|| serv|ce e||g|b|||ty |s not the so|e factor
for reappo|ntmentŦ SLlll Lo be consldered bv Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv areť performanceţ dearee of educaLlonţ work experlenceţ Lralnlnaţ
senlorlLvţ andţ more lmporLanLlvţ as ln Lhls caseţ wheLher or noL Lhe appllcanL en[ovs Lhe confldence and LrusL of Lhe appolnLlna powerŦ
1he cholce of an appolnLee from amona Lhose who possessed Lhe requlred quallflcaLlons ls a po||t|ca| and adm|n|strat|ve dec|s|on calllna
for conslderaLlons of wlsdomţ convenlenceţ uLlllLv and Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe servlce whlch can besL be made bv Lhe Pead of Lhe offlce
concernedŦ
Ŵ 8eappolnLmenL Lo Lhe poslLlon of 8oard SecreLarv ll ls an acL whlch ls dlscreLlonarv on Lhe parL of Lhe appolnLlna powerŦ ConsequenLlvţ lL
cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL of an appllcaLlon for a wrlL of mandamusŦ 8elnsLaLemenL ls Lechnlcallv |ssuance of a new appo|ntment whlch ls
essenLlallv dlscreLlonarvţ Lo be performed bv Lhe offlcer ln whlch lL ls vesLed accordlna Lo hls besL llahLsţ Lhe onlv condlLlon belna LhaL Lhe
appolnLee should possess Lhe quallflcaLlons requlred bv lawŦ Such exerclse of Lhe d|scret|onary power of appo|ntment cannot be
contro||edţ noL even bv Lhe CourL as lona as lL ls exerc|sed proper|y bv Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLvŦ

d Detail

O Novement of an employee from one agency to another without the issuance of an appointment
O Only for a limited period in case of employees occupying professional, technical and scientific positions
O Temporary in nature maximum period allowed is only year, extension depends on the consent of the detailed
employee
O !f employee believes there's no justification for the detail, he may appeal the case to CSC Pending appeal, the decision
to detail the employee shall be executory, unless otherwise ordered by CSC
O Sec 2 (f) of PD Temporary and does not involve reduction in rank, status or salary and requires only an
official order (not appointment)

kepub/icţ u£c5 ond corput v c4 Ǝ Lopet %182 SC8A 721 | 1990Ť MeleocloŴettetoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ulrecLor and AsslsLanL ulrecLor of Lhe now defuncL Chlld and ?ouLh 8esearch CenLer under uLCS
Ŵ Corpuz %ulrecLor) ls a docLorţ Lopez %AssLŦ ulrecLor) ls an underbar law araduaLeŦ Lopez's coŴworkersţ especlallv Lhe sLaffţ complaln of hls
ºharassmenL"Ŧ 1he slLuaLlon was descrlbed Lo be so ºslck" LhaL some of Lhe emplovees reslaned from Lhe offlceŦ
Ŵ MLCS MlnlsLer Lemporarllv ºdeLalled" Lopez Lo Lhe MLCS Leaal CfflceŦ Lopez was also Lransferred Lo Lhe Þlannlna Servlce Cfflce of Lhe
MLCSţ lL appearlna LhaL he was faclna charaes before Lhe Leaal ulvlslonţ whlch heţ howeverţ denledŦ
Ŵ AfLer abouL 6 Z monLhs of reŴasslanmenLţ Lopez wroLe a leLLer Lo MlnlsLer Lava expresslna hls lnLenLlon Lo resume hls offlclal poslLlon as
C?8C AsslsLanL ulrecLorŦ Pavlna recelved no responseţ he reLurned Lo Lhe C?8C as AsslsLanL ulrecLor w|thout off|c|a| author|zat|onŦ
Ŵ 1hls prompLed Corpuz Lo lssue 2 Memorandať ż1Ž Addressed Lo Lhe C?8C SLaff advlslna LhaL Lopez would noL be consldered an acLlve
member of Lhe SLaff unLll he flrsL secured Lhe proper auLhorlzaLlon for hls Lransfer and ż2Ž Addressed Lo Lopez hlmself requesLlna hlm Lo
submlL an offlclal order LermlnaLlna hls ƍdeLallŦƍ ln response LhereLoţ Lopez lnslsLed on Lhe valldlLv of hls resumpLlon of offlce sLaLlna LhaL
ƍno one can be deLalled for more Lhan 3 monLhs wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of Lhe emplovee concernedƍ and LhaL ƍdeLalled asslanmenL
bevond 6 monLhs has Lo be approved bv Lhe CSC and Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenLŦƍ Pe also admonlshed Corpuz Lo recall and/or recLlfv her
memorandaŦ
Ŵ Þendlna Lopez' compllance wlLh Lhe memoranda and submlsslon of hls Llme recordsţ Corpuz wlLhheld Lopez' salarlesŦ
Ŵ Lopez flled peLlLlon for mandamus wlLh damaaes aaalnsL Corpuz and MLCS MlnlsLerŦ uurlna Lhe pendencv of Lhe case Lhen MlnlsLer
advlsed Lopez LhaL hls ƍLemporarv deLallƍ ln Lhe Þlannlna Servlce Cfflce of Lhe MlnlsLrv had been rect|f|ed to ƍtemporary ass|gnmentƍ
effecLlve 3 SepLember 1984 %8L18CAC1lvL)ţ Lo conLlnue unLll furLher advlceţ and LhaL approva| from the off|ce shou|d f|rst be secured
before return|ng to the ¥kŦ Lopez requesLed such clearance buL slnce lL was lefL unansweredţ he reLurned Lo Lhe MLCS CfflceŦ
Issueť Where should Lopez reporLť ln hls orlalnal appolnLmenL or ln Lhe Lemporarv deLall?
ne|dť 1emporarv deLall
kat|oť
Ŵ Lopez reLurned Lo Lhe C?8C aL hls own lnsLance wlLhouL anv auLhorlzaLlon from hlaher auLhorlLlesŦ As C?8C ulrecLorţ Corpuz offlclallv
advlsed hlm Lo secure LhaL clearanceţ buL he adamanLlv refused Lo obev a dlrecLlve from hls lmmedlaLe superlorŦ under Lhe
clrcumsLancesţ Corpuz as head of Lhe offlceţ was lefL wlLh no alLernaLlve buL Lo wlLhhold recoanlLlon of hls aLLendance aL Lhe C?8CŦ 1o
malnLaln dlsclpllne ln Lhe offlceţ and ln Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe servlceţ she could do no lessŦ

%%



Ŵ CA and 1C oplned LhaL uLCS MlnlsLerƌs dlrecLlve Lo 8espondenL Lopez was ƍdefect|veƍ ln LhaL Lhe Lerm ƍdeLallƍ was used lnsLead of ƍreŴ
asslanmenLţƍ whlch would have been Lhe proper LermlnoloavŦ
ƍDL@Iƍ ls Lhe movemenL from one ueparLmenL or Aaencv Lo anoLher whlch ls Lemporarv ln naLure %SecLlon 4ţ 8ule vlţ Clvll Servlce
8ules on Þersonal AcLlons and Þollcles)
ƍkLŴ55I-,L-@ƍ ls Lhe movemenL of an emplovee from one oraanlzaLlonal unlL Lo anoLher ln Lhe same ueparLmenL or Aaencv %SecLlon
3ţ lblJŦ)Ŧ
Ŵ 1he offlclal lnLenL of Lhe dlrecLlve was clear Lo move Lopez awav from Lhe C?8C and locaLe hlm ln Lhe head offlceţ ƍln Lhe exlaencles of
Lhe servlceŦƍ 8esldesţ proper rect|f|cat|on was made bv MlnlsLer Lava on 7 AuausL 1983 reLroacLlve Lo 3 SepLember 1984Ŧ
Ŵ 1he ºreŴasslanmenL" could noL have been sLaaeŴmanaaed bv Corpus because Lhe dlrecLlve Lo 8espondenL Lopez was noL lssued bv her
buL bv Lhe LducaLlon MlnlsLer hlmselfŦ lL ls lnconcelvable LhaL Lhe laLLer offlclal would have allowed hlmself Lo have been used as such an
unwlLLlna LoolŦ Cn Lhe conLrarvţ he musL have been aware of Lhe ƍslck slLuaLlonƍ ln Lhe C?8Cţ henceţ Lhe reŴasslanmenL of Lopez Lo
anoLher unlL ln Lhe LducaLlon MlnlsLrvŦ

e Reassignment

O An employee may be reassigned from one organizational unit to another in the SANE agency
O Shall NOT involved a REDUCT!ON in rank, status or salary, otherwise, it's constructive removal and violation of right to
security of tenure
O !t is a management prerogative of the CSC and any dept or agency embraced in the Civil Service
O !t does NOT constitute removal without cause
O REOU!RENENTS:
4 NO reduction in rank, status or salary
4 Should have a definite date or duration (cf Detail) Otherwise, a floating assignment = a diminution in status
or rank

lernondet ond ue Limo v 5toŦ 1omos ond c5c commissioner %SuÞ8A)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ulrecLor of Cfflce of Þersonnel lnspecLlon and AudlL and ulrecLor of Lhe Cfflce of Þersonnel 8elaLlonsŦ
Ŵ 8v vlrLue of 8esoluLlon noŦ 94Ŵ3710ţ several CSC CenLral Cfflces were meraed lnLo one %8esearch and uevelopmenL Cfflce)Ŧ lernandez
was Lhe ulrecLor of Cfflce of Þersonnel lnspecLlon and AudlL whlle de Llma was ulrecLor of Lhe Cfflce of Þersonnel 8elaLlonsŦ 1hev were
belna Lransferred as 8ealonal ulrecLors Lo Þampanaa and Leaaspl ClLv respecLlvelvŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners flled a 18C wlLh CSC Chalrman SLoŦ 1omasţ who sald LhaL Lhe resoluLlon wlll be lmplemenLed unless resLralned bv hlaher
offlclalsŦ Lven Lhe CSC Lakes Lhe slde of CSCŦ
Issueť WCn Lhe resoluLlon %whlch Lransferred Lhem Lo provlnces) vlolaLed Lhe peLlLloners' consLlLuLlonal rlahL Lo securlLv of Lenure? nC
kat|oť
Ŵ Commlsslon was moved bv qulLe lealLlmaLe conslderaLlons of admlnlsLraLlve efflclencv and convenlence ln promulaaLlna and
lmplemenLlna lLs 8esoluLlon noŦ 94Ŵ3710 and ln asslanlna Salvador CŦ lernandez Lo Lhe 8ealonal Cfflce of Lhe Commlsslon ln 8ealon v ln
Leaaspl ClLv %reLlremenL of Lhe lncumbenL) and Anlcla MŦ de Llma Lo Lhe Commlsslonƌs 8ealonal Cfflce ln 8ealon lll ln San lernandoţ
Þampanaa %prlor experlence as labor lawver asslaned Lo place where publlc unlons are acLlve)Ŧ
Ŵ AppolnLmenLs Lo Lhe sLaff of Lhe Commlsslon are noL appolnLmenLs Lo a speclfled publlc offlce buL raLher appolnLmenLs Lo parLlcular
poslLlons or ranksŦ
Ŵ 5ection 2õ{7)ţ ook vţ 1it/e lţ 5ubtit/e 4 of the 1987 k4c recoanlzes reasslanmenL as a manaaemenL preroaaLlve vesLed ln Lhe
Commlsslon andţ for LhaL maLLerţ ln anv deparLmenL or aaencv of aovernmenL embraced ln Lhe clvll servlceŦ CuoLed ln fullť
ºAs used ln Lhls 1lLleţ anv acLlon denoLlna Lhe movemenL or proaress of personnel ln Lhe clvll servlce shall be known as personnel acLlonŦ
Such acLlon shall lnclude appolnLmenL Lhrouah cerLlflcaLlonţ promoLlonţ Lransferţ reŴlnsLaLemenLţ reŴemplovmenLţ deLallţ reasslanmenLţ
demoLlonţ and separaLlonŦ All petsoooel octloos sboll be lo occotJooce wltb socb tolesţ stooJotJsţ ooJ teoolotloos os mov be
ptomolooteJ bv tbe commlsslooŦ"
%7) keossloomeotŦ An emplovee mav be teŴosslooeJ ftom ooe otooolzotloool oolt to oootbet lo tbe some ooeocvţ 9tovlJeJţ 1haL such reŴ
asslanmenL shall oot lnvolve a teJoctloo lo took sLaLus and salarvŦ
Ŵ lL follows LhaL Lhe reass|gnment of peLlLloners lernandez and de Llma from Lhelr prevlous poslLlons ln CÞlA and CÞ8ţ respecLlvelvţ Lo Lhe
8uC ln Lhe CenLral Cfflce of Lhe Commlsslon ln MeLropollLan Manlla and Lhelr subsequenL asslanmenL from Lhe 8uC Lo Lhe Commlsslonƌs
8ealonal Cfflces ln 8ealons v and lll had been effected w|th express statutory author|ty and d|d not const|tute remova|s w|thout |awfu|
causeŦ lL also follows LhaL such reŴasslanmenL d|d not |nvo|ve any v|o|at|on of the const|tut|ona| r|ght of pet|t|oners to secur|ty of
tenure conslderlna LhaL Lhev reta|ned the|r pos|t|ons of D|rector IV and wou|d cont|nue to en[oy the same rankţ status and sa|ary at
the|r new ass|gned stat|ons whlch Lhev had en[oved aL Lhe Pead Cfflce of Lhe Commlsslon ln MeLropollLan ManllaŦ ÞeLlLloners had noL
acqulred a vesLed rlahL Lo serve aL Lhe Commlsslonƌs Pead CfflceŦ
Ŵ 1hev reLalned Lhelr poslLlons and would conLlnue Lo en[ov Lhe same rankţ sLaLus and salarv aL Lhelr new sLaLlonsŦ Such LhaL Lhe rule
whlch proscrlbes Lransfers wlLhouL consenL as anaLhema Lo Lhe securlLv of Lenure ls predlcaLed upon Lhe Lheorv LhaL Lhe offlcer lnvolved
ls appolnLed Ÿ noL merelv asslaned Ÿ Lo a parLlcular sLaLlonŦ


%%



1eotico v 4odo %197 SC8A 673 | 1991Ť uovlJeţ ItŦţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť AdmlnlsLraLor of Lhe llber lndusLrv uevelopmenL AuLhorlLv vsŦ 8ealonal AdmlnlsLraLor
Ŵ Aada was appolnLed as Chlef llber uevelopmenL Cfflcerţ buL hls appolnLmenL does noL lndlcaLe anv speclflc sLaLlon or place of
asslanmenLŦ Cn Lhe same daLeţ lluA AdmlnlsLraLor lssued Speclal Crder noŦ 29ţ serles of 1984 whlch deslanaLed Aada as ƍAcLlna
8ealonal AdmlnlsLraLor for lluA 8ealons l and llŦƍ
Ŵ 3 vears laLer and Lhrouah Speclal Crder noŦ 219ţ AdmlnlsLraLor ºLemporarllv reŴasslaned" Aadaţ ºln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe servlceţ" aL Lhe
maln offlce of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLor Lo perform speclal funcLlons whlch mav be asslaned Lo hlmţ and AdmlnlsLraLor's cousln was deslanaLed
Cfflcer ln Charae of lluA 8ealon lŦ
Ŵ 1eoLlco %new AcLlna AdmlnsLraLor) lssued a Memorandum Lo Aada dlrecLlna hlm Lo lmmedlaLelv submlL hls developmenL proarams for
8ealon l for Lhe vears 1988 Lo 1993 and hls proposals concernlna Lhe poLenLlals for serlculLure and Lhe maauev lndusLrv ln Lhe 8ealonŦ
Aada dld noL complv because he was reasslaned aL Lhe lluA CenLral Cfflce %Lhrouah Speclal Crder noŦ 219)Ŧ Pe suaaesLed Lhouah LhaL lf
compllance ls lmperaLlveţ 1eoLlco musL seL aslde Lhe aforemenLloned orderŦ
Ŵ Meanwhlleţ lluA 8ealon l ClCţ requesLed 1eoLlco Lo requlre Aada Lo Lurn over Lo hlm %SeaurlLan) Lhe kevs of Lhe vaulL ln lluA 8ealon l
ƍfor Lhe safekeeplna of our blank checksţ offlclal recelpLsţ approved checks buL noL veL lssued Lo pavee credlLorsţ salarles and oLher vlLal
offlclal documenLs of Lhe 8ealonƍ
Ŵ Aada lndorsed Lhe above rouLlna sllp requesL Lo Lhe SecreLarv of Lhe ueparLmenL of AarlculLure whereln he admlLs LhaL he has Lhe kev of
Lhe safeLv vaulLţ buL lmplledlv asserLs LhaL he wlll noL vleld lL Lo anvbodv allealna LhaL hls peLlLlon Lo sLop Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Speclal
Crder noŦ 219 and Lo nulllfv lL ls sLlll unresolved andţ besldesţ Lhe lnLended reŴasslanmenL ls merelv LemporarvŤ henceţ lL would be ln
keeplna wlLh subsLanLlal [usLlce lf a sLaLus quo of Lhlnas be malnLalnedŦ
Ŵ 1eoLlco formallv charaed Aada for |nsubord|nat|on and conduct pre[ud|c|a| to the best |nterest of the serv|ce forţ amona oLhersţ hls
fallure Lo complv wlLh Lhe memorandum and wlLh Lhe rouLlna sllp requesLŦ
Ŵ Aada also lodaed a complalnL wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC allealna LhaL Speclal Crder noŦ 219 was ln vlolaLlon of Lhe appolnLmenL banŦ
Ŵ Lower courL aranLed prellmlnarv ln[uncLlon for lmplemenLaLlon of Speclal Crder noŦ 219
Issueť WCn Aada could demand LhaL he be alven Lhe poslLlon of 8ealonal ulrecLor lluA 8ealon 1?
ne|dť noţ he was valldlv ºreasslaned" or Lransferred Lo Lhe cenLral offlceŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ Aada was noL appolnLed as llbet keoloool AJmlolsttototţ lluA keoloo lţ buL as CPlLl ll8L8 uLvLLCÞMLn1 ClllCL8Ť he was noL
appolnLed Lo anv speclflc sLaLlonŦ

Pe was merelv JesloooteJ as Actloo keoloool AJmlolsttotot lot lluA 8ealons l and llŦ
Ŵ noL havlna been appolnLed Lo anv spec|f|c stat|onţ he could be transferred or ass|gned to any other p|ace bv Lhe head of offlce where ln
Lhe oplnlon of Lhe laLLer hls servlces mav be uLlllzed more effecLlvelvŦ
Ŵ cooJto vsŦ cotJovo rullna appllcable Lo Aadať 1emporarv appolnLmenLs or appolnLmenLs ln an acLlna capaclLv are Lermlnable aL Lhe
pleasure of Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLvŦ Pe can nelLher clalm a vesLed rlahL Lo Lhe sLaLlon Lo whlch he was asslaned nor Lo securlLv of Lenure
LhereaLŦ
Ŵ Aada could be reŴasslaned Lo anv place and Speclal Crder noŦ 219 daLed 13 november 1987 reasslanlna prlvaLe respondenL aL Lhe Cfflce
of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLor of Lhe lluA ƍln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe servlceƍ was ln orderŦ AlLhouah denomlnaLed as ƍreasslanmenLƍţ lL was ln facL a
mere deLall ln LhaL offlceŦ
Ŵ 1he Clvll Servlce uecreeţ ÞŦuŦ noŦ 807ţ allows Lransferţ deLall and reŴasslanmenLŦ lf Lhe emplovee concerned belleves LhaL Lhere ls no
[usLlflcaLlon Lhereforeţ he ƍmav appeal hls case Loƍ Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ unless oLherwlse ordered bv Lhe Commlsslonţ Lhe
declslon Lo deLall an emplovee shall be execuLorvŦ Aada lnvoked Lhe appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Commlsslon when he flled hls uraenL
ÞeLlLlon 1o SLav lmplemenLaLlon and nulllfv Lhe Speclal Crder ln quesLlon wlLh Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ lL does noLţ howeverţ
appear Lo us LhaL he exerLed aenulne and slncere efforLs Lo obLaln an expedlLlous resoluLlon Lhereof WhaL appears Lo be clear ls LhaL he
used lLs pendencv as an excuse for hls refusal Lo complv wlLh Lhe memorandum of 1eoLlco of 7 !anuarv 1988 and Lhe rouLlna sllp requesL
of 11 March 1988 for Lhe kev Lo Lhe safeLv vaulL
As to tbe oppolotmeot booť
Ŵ Lven ln Lhe cases of Lransfer or deLall wlLhln Lhe prohlblLed perlod prlor Lo an elecLlonţ an aaarleved parLv ls provlded an approprlaLe
admlnlsLraLlve remedvŦ
Ŵ 5ection õ of ku/e vl of the civi/ 5ervice ku/es on Personne/ 4ctions ond Po/iciesť LxcepL when Lhe exlaencles of Lhe servlce requlreţ an
offlclal or emplovee of Lhe aovernmenL mav noL be ordered deLalled or reasslaned durlna Lhe LhreeŴmonLh perlod before anv local or
naLlonal elecLlonţ and lf he belleves LhaL Lhe order for hls deLall or reasslanmenL ls due Lo harassmenLţ coerclonţ lnLlmldaLlonţ or oLher
personal reasonsţ he mav appeal Lhe order Lo Lhe CommlsslonŦ unLll Lhls ls provenţ howeverţ Lhe order ls presumed Lo be ln Lhe lnLeresL
of Lhe servlce and noLwlLhsLandlna Lhe appealţ Lhe declslon Lo deLall or reasslan hlm shall be execuLorvţ buL Lhe Commlsslon mav order
defermenL of suspenslon of Lhe deLall or reasslanmenL ex potteŦƍ

coriño v uooos %380 SC8A 333 | 2002Ť opooooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť AccounLanL lll ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe norLhern CulLural CommunlLles vŦ LxecuLlve ulrecLor of CnCC
Ŵ !ennv Carlno was appolnLed as AccounLanL lllţ uaoas reasslaned her as 1ech AsslsLanL of Lhe SocloŴLconomlc ulvlslon of Lhe CnCCŦ
Ŵ Carlno's araumenLsť
ż1Ž reasslanmenL was an offshooL of her refusal Lo slan a ulsbursemenL voucher for Lhe Lravel expenses Lo lndonesla of CnCC 8ealonal
ulrecLor 8osallna 8lsLovona
ż2Ž Lhe poslLlon she was alven was nonŴexlsLenL





Ŵ Carlno flled an admlnlsLraLlve complalnL for Crave MlsconducLţ Cppresslon and ConducL Þre[udlclal Lo Lhe 8esL lnLeresL of Lhe Servlce
aaalnsL 8lsLovonaŦ 8lsLovona alleaedlv asked Carlno a number of Llmes Lo wlLhdraw Lhe case ln exchanae for relnsLaLemenL Lo her former
poslLlonŦ Carlno refused whereupon 8lsLovona LhreaLened Lo reasslan her Lo Lhe CnCC 8ealon ll ln Caaavan or ln ManllaŦ
Ŵ Carlno recelved a faxed memorandum from 8lsLovona dlrecLlna her Lo reporL Lo Lhe CnCC 8ealon ll offlceţ effecLlve 17 March 1997ţ ln
vlew of Lhe reasslanmenL of one Mllaaros 8onnlL Lo Lhe cenLral offlceŦ
Ŵ CSC 8ealonal ulrecLorť 8easslanmenL was noL ln orderŦ CSC appealedŦ ln Lhe meanLlmeţ Carlno was dlsmlssed from servlce because of her
repeaLed refusal Lo reporL Lo her new asslanmenLŦ She was flrsL consldered AWCL Lhouah and worked ln her old offlceŦ
Ŵ CSC ordered relnsLaLemenL of Carlno Lo 8ealon lŦ uaoas and 8lsLovona however consldered Lhe declslon mooL because she has been
alreadv flredŦ
Issueť WCn a reasslanmenL order LhaL ls null and voldţ belna vlolaLlve of Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlahL Lo Lhe securlLv of Lenure of Lhe peLlLlonerţ
lmposes upon her Lhe obllaaLlon Lo complv wlLh lL before lL ls declared llleaal?
ne|dť noţ lL does noLŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he valldlLv of Lhe reasslanmenL of peLlLloner was alreadv seLLled bv Lhe pronouncemenL of Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon LhaL such
reasslanmenL was noL valld and LhaL she could noL be Lransferred Lo anoLher realon wlLhouL her consenLŦ lL ls Lrue LhaL Lhe Lransfer or
deLall of a publlc offlcer or emplovee ls a preroaaLlve of Lhe appolnLlna auLhorlLv and LhaL lL can be done as Lhe exlaencles of Lhe publlc
servlce mav requlreŦ As suchţ Lhls CourL ln a number of cases allowed Lhe reasslanmenL of personnel buL ln such lnsLancesţ Lhev were noL
appolnLed Lo a speclflc sLaLlon or parLlcular unlL or aaencvŦ 1he rule proscrlbes Lransfers wlLhouL consenL of offlcers appolnLed Ŵ noL
merelv asslaned Ŵ Lo a parLlcular sLaLlonţ such as ln Lhe case of hereln peLlLloner who was appolnLed as AccounLanL lll ln 8ealon lŦ Penceţ
she could noL be reasslaned Lo anoLher sLaLlon or realon wlLhouL her consenLŦ CLherwlseţ Lhe unconsenLed Lransfer would amounL Lo a
removalŦ
Ŵ 1he appellaLe courL clLed 8esoluLlon noŦ 98Ŵ0488 of Lhe CSC whlch mandaLes LhaL ºa reasslaned emplovee who does noL aaree wlLh Lhe
order musL neverLheless complv unLll lLs lmplemenLaLlon ls resLralned or lL ls declared Lo be noL ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe servlce or have
been lssued wlLh arave abuse of dlscreLlonŦ" Accordlna Lo CAţ Carlno should have asked CSC Lo en[oln Lhe effecLlvlLv of her reasslanmenL
orderţ and for her fallure Lo do soţ she had onlv herself Lo blameŦ
Ŵ We do noL aareeŦ lL was noL peLlLloner who appealed Lo Lhe CSC as Lhere was no need for her Lo do soŦ 1he slLuaLlon prevalllna ln Lhe
case aL bar was LhaL Lhe CSC 8ealonal Cfflcer lssued a leaal oplnlon LhaL peLlLloner's reasslanmenL was ºnoL ln order" and LhaL her
ºpresenL asslanmenL aL Lhe CnCC 8ealonal Cfflce noŦ 1 musL noL be dlsLurbedŦ" lL was ln facL due Lo Lhls leaal oplnlon LhaL prlvaLe
respondenLs wenL Lo Lhe Commlsslon on appealţ whlch appeal was evenLuallv denledŦ As we sLaLed earllerţ Lhe Commlsslon evenLuallv
declared Lhe reasslanmenL of peLlLloner as noL valldţ and respondenL uaoas was dlrecLed Lo reLurn peLlLloner Lo 8ealon lŦ
Ŵ 1he CSC 8ealonal Cfflce musL be accorded Lhe presumpLlon of reaularlLv ln Lhe performance of lLs duLlesŦ Penceţ when lL rendered a
leaal oplnlon as reaards Lhe reasslanmenL of peLlLlonerţ lL musL be consldered ln order and should be respecLed pendlna appeal bv
prlvaLe respondenLsŦ ÞeLlLloner ls Lhus [usLlfled ln noL heedlna her reasslanmenL order because her basls was noLţ as sLaLed bv Lhe
appellaLe courLţ her ºflrm bellef" LhaL her Lransfer was llleaalţ buL Lhe leaal oplnlon of a realonal offlce of Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ
ÞeLlLloner could noL Lherefore be consldered AWCL because she was ln facL reporLlna for work ln 8ealon l unLll 29 Aprll 1997 when
8lsLovona lssued a memorandum orderlna her Lo refraln from reporLlna for work LherelnŦ

Postor v city of Posio %382 SC8A 232 | 2002Ť MeoJozoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ClLv 8udaeL Cfflcer
Ŵ 8emedlos ÞasLor ls 8udaeL Cfflcer of Lhe MunlclpallLv %now ClLv) of ÞaslaŦ Per poslLlon was a deparLmenL head rankŦ
Ŵ ln 1992ţ she was reasslaned Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Munlclpal AdmlnlsLraLor pendlna lnvesLlaaLlon of reporLs aaalnsL her concernlna Lhe
lssuance of Advlce of AlloLmenLs bv herŦ ln 1993ţ afLer Lhree vears wlLh no case flled aaalnsL herţ she asked for relnsLaLemenL Lo her
former poslLlonŦ 8uL she was lnsLead reasslaned Lo anoLher unlL of Lhe now clLv aovernmenL %Þasav ClLv Pall Annex)Ŧ
Ŵ upon her complalnLţ CSC ordered her relnsLaLemenL as 8udaeL Cfflcer of Lhe ClLv of ÞaslaŦ Poweverţ on appeal of Lhe clLv aovernmenLţ
Lhe CourL of Appeals seL aslde Lhe declslon of Lhe CSCŦ Pence Lhls peLlLlon for cerLlorarlŦ
Issueť WCn ÞasLor's reasslanmenLs were valld?
ne|dť noţ erao she should be relnsLaLedŦ 1he lnflnlLe deLall amounLs Lo removal wlLhouL cause from Lhe poslLlon Lo whlch she has been
permanenLlv appolnLedŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 8ook Vţ @|t|e Iţ 5ubt|t|e ţ Ƈ26(7) of LŦŦ -oŦ 292ť keossloomeotŦ Ŷ An emplovee mav be reasslaned from one oraanlzaLlonal unlL Lo
anoLher ln Lhe same aaencvť 9tovlJeJţ 1haL such reasslanmenL shall noL lnvolve a reducLlon ln rankţ sLaLusţ or salarvŦ
Ŵ A reasslanmenL LhaL ls lndeflnlLe and resulLs ln a reducLlon ln rankţ sLaLusţ and salarv ls ln effecL a consLrucLlve removal from Lhe servlceŦ
ln Lhls caseţ conLrarv Lo Lhe rullna of Lhe CAţ ÞasLor's reasslanmenL Lo dlfferenL offlces ln Lhe local aovernmenL of Þasla ClLv ls
lndeflnlLeŦ ÞeLlLloner has been on v|rtua| f|oat|ng ass|gnments whlch cannoL buL amounL Lo a d|m|nut|on of her rankţ hence
lmpermlsslble under Lhe lawŦ
Ŵ As alreadv noLedţ her reasslanmenL beaan ln 1992 wlLh her deLall Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe %now) ClLv AdmlnlsLraLor pendlna lnvesLlaaLlon of
reporLs LhaL she had lssued Advlce of AlloLmenLs wlLhouL sufflclenL cash collecLlonsŦ Poweverţ no lnvesLlaaLlon appears Lo have ever
been conducLed on Lhe sald charaeŦ 1o [usLlfv her conLlnulna reasslanmenLţ respondenL ClLv Mavor clalmed LhaL Lhe same was ºdue Lo
peLlLloner's lona vears of experlence ln flnance" whlch especlallv flLLed her for sLudles reaardlna Lhe clLv's revenuesŦ





Ŵ Per reasslanmenL Lo varlous offlces should be consldered more Lhan merelv a Lemporarv oneŦ lor all lnLenLs and purposesţ her
reasslanmenLţ lasLlna nearlv Len vears nowţ ls a removal wlLhouL cause as 8udaeL Cfflcer of Lhe ClLv of ÞaslaŦ
Ŵ @here was a d|m|nut|on of rankŦ As head of Lhe Þasla ClLv Pall Annexţ her budaeL proposals for Lhe same wlll be sub[ecL Lo revlew bv Lhe
ClLv 8udaeL CfflcerŦ Moreoverţ Lhe poslLlon of ClLv 8udaeL Cfflcer ls creaLed bv sLaLuLeţ whlle LhaL of Lhe head of Lhe Þasla ClLv Pall
Annex ls creaLed bv mere ordlnanceŦ
Ŵ ClLlna ctoz v Novottoť 1here ls no quesLlon LhaL we recoanlze Lhe valldlLv and lndlspensable necesslLv of Lhe well esLabllshed rule LhaL for
Lhe aood of publlc servlce and whenever publlc lnLeresL demandsţ żaŽ publlc offlclal mav be Lemporarllv asslaned or deLalled Lo oLher
duLles even over hls ob[ecLlon wlLhouL necessarllv vlolaLlna hls fundamenLal and leaal rlahLs Lo securlLv of Lenure ln Lhe clvll servlceŦ 8uL
as we have alreadv sLaLedţ ºsuch cannoL be underLaken when Lhe Lransfer of Lhe emplovee ls wlLh a vlew Lo hls removal" and ºlf
Lhe Lransfer ls resorLed Lo as a scheme Lo lure Lhe emplovee awav from hls permanenL poslLlon" because ºsuch aLLlLude ls lmproper as lL
would ln effecL resulL ln a clrcumvenLlon of Lhe prohlblLlon whlch safeauards Lhe Lenure of offlce of Lhose who are ln Lhe clvll servlceŦ"

f Reemployment

O Names of persons who have been appointed permanently to positions in the career service and who have been
separated as a result of reduction in force and/or reorganization, shall be entered in a list from which selection from
reemployment shall be made

Right to self·organization

O !mplementing Rules, Rule X!!, Sec : The right to self·organization shall not be denied to government employees
O Sec 8, Art !!!, 87 Constitution: The right of people including those employed in the public and private sectors to
form associations, unions or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged
O Sec 3, Art X!!!, 87 Constitution: Cuarantee the rights of all workers to self·organization, collective bargaining and
negotiations and peaceful concerted activities including the right to strike in accordance with law
O PROH!B!TED ONERTED AT!v!TY" or NASS AT!ON" refers to ¨any collective activity undertaken by
government employees either by themselves or through their employees' organizations, with intent of effecting work
stoppage or service disruption in order to realized their demands or force concessions or otherwise, from their
respective agencies or the government"
O HOWEvER, if done outside of government office hours, it may be allowed and shall not be deemed prohibited as
long as such would not result in disruption of work
O Covernment agencies shall not approve or warrant mass leave of absences substantially intended to enable employees
to join or take part in prohibited mass actions
O NASS LEAvE OF ABSENES" occur when ¨five or more employees of the same agency apply for leave
simultaneously or at the same time under circumstances evidencing collusion or common design to participate in a
prohibited mass action"
O Covernment employees have ¨right to collective negotiation"

1uP45 v Notiono/ nousino corporotion %173 SC8A 33 | 1989Ť keooloJoţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ nPC ls a corporaLlon oraanlzed ln 1939 ln accordance wlLh LŦC noŦ 399 %unlform CharLer of CovernmenL CorporaLlons)Ŧ lLs shares of
sLock are and have been 100Ʒ owned bv Lhe CovernmenL from lLs lncorporaLlon under AcL 439ţ Lhe former corporaLlon lawŦ
Ŵ 1uÞAS flled a peLlLlon for Lhe conducL of a cerLlflcaLlon elecLlon wlLh 8ealonal Cfflce noŦ lv of Lhe ueparLmenL of Labor ln order Lo
deLermlne Lhe excluslve baraalnlna represenLaLlve of Lhe workers ln nPCŦ lL was clalmed LhaL lLs members comprlsed Lhe ma[orlLv of Lhe
emplovees of Lhe corporaLlonŦ
Ŵ MedŴarb dlsmlssed ÞCL because nPC ºbelna a CCCCţ lLs emplovees/workers are prohlblLed Lo formţ [oln or asslsL anv labor oraanlzaLlon
for purposes of C8 pursuanL Lo SecŦ1ţ 8ule llţ 8ook v of Lhe 8ules and 8eaulaLlons lmplemenLlna Lhe Labor CodeŦ" 8L8 reversed buL upon
M8 of nPCţ lL afflrmed MedŴArb's dlsmlssalŦ
Issueť WCn nPC emplovees %1uÞAS) have Lhe rlahL Lo form unlons?
ne|dť ?esŦ 1he workers or emplovees of nPC undoubLedlv have Lhe rlahL Lo form unlons or emploveesƌ oraanlzaLlonsŦ 1he rlahL Lo unlonlze
or Lo form oraanlzaLlons ls now expllclLlv recoanlzed and aranLed Lo emplovees ln boLh Lhe aovernmenLal and prlvaLe secLorsŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ n8ť ln anoLher SC case lnvolvlna same parLlesť Lmplovees of nPC and of oLher CCCCs were aoverned bv clvll servlce lawsţ rules and
reaulaLlons pursuanL Lo Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon whlch provlded LhaL ƍLhe clvll servlce embraces everv branchţ aaencvţ subdlvlslon and
lnsLrumenLallLv of Lhe aovernmenLţ lncludlna aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlonsŦ" 1o allow subsldlarv corporaLlons Lo be
excluded from Lhe clvll servlce laws would be Lo permlL Lhe clrcumvenLlon or emasculaLlon of Lhe aboveŴquoLed consLlLuLlonal provlslonŦ
Ŵ 1he ruleţ howeverţ was modlfled ln Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlonţ Lhe correspondlna provlslon whereof declares LhaL ƍ%L)he clvll servlce
embraces all branchesţ subdlvlslonsţ lnsLrumenLallLles and aaencles of Lhe aovernmenLţ lncludlna aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled





corporaLlons wlLh orlalnal charLersŦƍ ConsequenLlvţ Lhe clvll servlce now covers onlv CCCCs wlLh orlalnal or lealslaLlve charLersţ LhaL ls
Lhose creaLed bv an acL of Conaress or bv speclal lawţ and noL Lhose lncorporaLed under and pursuanL Lo a aeneral lealslaLlonŦ
Ŵ 1he emplovees of Lhe publlc secLor comprlse Lhe laraesL bloc of workers ln our naLlonal work forceŦ CovernmenLal bureaucracv ls
conLlnuallv belna reoraanlzed Lo cope wlLh Lhe arowlna complexlLv of Lhe problems and needs of pollLlcal and admlnlsLraLlve
aovernanceŦ As Lhe lncrease ln Lhe number of aovernmenL emplovees arows spaceţ Lhe need Lo enhance Lhelr welfare correspondlnalv
becomes more lmperaLlveŦ Whlle lL mav be assumed LhaL Lhe CovernmenL ls exerLlna efforLs Lo advance Lhe lnLeresLs of lLs emploveesţ lL
ls qulLe undersLandable LhaL Lhe emplovees Lhemselves should acLlvelv seek arranaemenLs wherebv Lhev can parLlclpaLe more
meanlnafullv ln manaaemenL and emplovmenL relaLlonshlpsŦ 1here lsţ Lhusţ a prollferaLlon of unlons or emploveesƌ oraanlzaLlonsţ each
seeklna concomlLanL represenLaLlonal recoanlLlonŦ
Ŵ 1he rat|ona|e of and [ust|f|cat|on for allowlna aovernmenL emplovees' rlahL Lo unlonlzeť ºŦŦŦ 1he aovernmenL ls ln a sense Lhe reposlLorv of Lhe
naLlonal soverelanLv andţ ln LhaL respecLţ lL musL be held ln reverence lf noL ln aweŦ lL svmbollzes Lhe unlLv of Lhe naLlonţ buL lL does perform a mundane
Lask as wellŦ lL ls an emplover ln everv sense of Lhe word excepL LhaL Lerms and condlLlons of work are seL forLh Lhrouah a Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ 1he
aovernmenL ls Lhe blaaesL emplover ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ 1here ls an emploverŴemplovee relaLlonshlp and we all know LhaL Lhe accumulaLed arlevances of
several decades are now bealnnlna Lo explode ln our faces amona aovernmenL workers who feel LhaL Lhe rlahLs afforded bv Lhe Labor Codeţ for exampleţ
Lo workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor have been effecLlvelv denled Lo workers ln aovernmenL ln whaL looks llke a aroLesqueţ %slc) a carlcaLure of Lhe equal
proLecLlon of Lhe lawsŦ lor exampleţ ŦŦŦ Lhere were manv occaslons under Lhe old aovernmenL when waaes and cosL of llvlna allowances were aranLed Lo
workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor buL denled Lo workers ln Lhe aovernmenL for some reason or anoLherţ and Lhe aovernmenL dld noL even sLaLe Lhe reasons
whvŦ 1he aovernmenL emplovees were belna dlscrlmlnaLed aaalnsLŦ As a aeneral ruleţ Lhe ma[orlLv of Lhe worldƌs counLrles now enLerLaln publlc servlce
unlonsŦ WhaL Lhev reallv add up Lo ls LhaL Lhe emplovees of Lhe aovernmenL form Lhelr own assoclaLlonŦ Cenerallvţ Lhev do noL baraaln for waaes because
Lhese are flxed ln Lhe budaeL buL Lhev do acqulre a forum whereţ amona oLher Lhlnasţ professlonal and selfŴdevelopmenL ls %slc) promoLed and
encouraaedŦ 1hev also acL as waLchdoas of Lhelr own bosses so LhaL when arafL and corrupLlon ls commlLLedţ aenerallvţ lL ls Lhe unlons who are no lonaer
afrald bv vlrLue of Lhe armor of selfŴoraanlzaLlon LhaL become Lhe publlcƌs own allles for deLecLlna arafL and corrupLlon and for exposlna lLŦŦŦŦ"
Ŵ 1here lsţ Lhereforeţ no lmpedlmenL Lo Lhe holdlna of a cerLlflcaLlon elecLlon amona Lhe workers of nPC for lL ls clear LhaL Lhev are
covered bv Lhe Labor Codeţ Lhe nPC belna a aovernmenLŴowned and/or conLrolled corporaLlon wlLhouL an orlalnal charLerŦ
Ŵ lnsofar as cerLlflcaLlon elecLlons are concernedţ subsequenL sLaLuLorv developmenLs have rendered academlc even Lhe dlsLlncLlon
beLween Lhe Lwo Lvpes of aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlons and Lhe laws aovernlna emplovmenL relaLlons Lherelnţ as
herelnbefore dlscussedŦ lorţ wheLher Lhe emplovees of nPC are covered bv Lhe Labor Code or bv Lhe clvll servlce lawsţ a cerLlflcaLlon
elecLlon mav be conducLedŦ
Þ8lvA1L SLC1C8ť ArLŦ 233 Lo 239 of LC
ClvlL SL8vAn1Sť LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 180Ŧ ChapLer lvţ conslsLlna of SecLlons 9 Lo 12ţ reaulaLes Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe ƍsole and
excluslve emplovees represenLaLlveƍŤ under SecLlon 12ţ ƍwhere Lhere are Lwo or more dulv realsLered emploveesƌ oraanlzaLlons ln Lhe
approprlaLe oraanlzaLlon unlLţ Lhe 8ureau of Labor 8elaLlons shallţ upon peLlLlon order Lhe conducL of cerLlflcaLlon elecLlon and shall
cerLlfv Lhe wlnner as Lhe excluslve represenLaLlve of Lhe rankŴandŴflle emplovees ln sald oraanlzaLlonal unlLŦƍ

555£4 v c4 ond 555 %173 SC8A 686 | 1989Ť cottesţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ SSSLA sLaaed a sLrlke whlch prevenLed nonŴsLrlklna emplovees from reporLlna Lo work and SSS members from LransacLlna buslnessŦ
Ŵ SSS flled an 18C ln[uncLlon wlLh 81CŦ SSSLA savs lL has no [urlsdlcLlon buL nL8C because lL's a labor dlspuLeŦ SSS araues LhaL slnce lL's a
CCCCţ emplovees are covered bv clvll servlce laws and noL Lhe LCŦ
Issuesť
1Ŧ WCn Lhe 81C can en[oln Lhe Soclal SecurlLv SvsLem Lmplovees AssoclaLlon %SSSLA) from sLrlklna and order Lhe sLrlklna emplovees Lo
reLurn Lo work? ?LS
2Ŧ CollaLerallvţ lL ls WCn SSS emplovees have Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlke? nC
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he leLLer of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls unclear as Lo wheLher Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlke ls also exLended Lo clvll servanLsŦ SC resorLed Lo Lhe lnLenL of Lhe
framersť ºA readlna of Lhe proceedlnas of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon LhaL drafLed Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon would show LhaL ln
recoanlzlna Lhe rlahL of aovernmenL emplovees Lo oraanlzeţ Lhe commlssloners lnLended Lo llmlL Lhe rlahL Lo Lhe formaLlon of unlons or
assoclaLlons onlvţ wlLhouL lncludlna Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlkeŦ"
Ŵ 1o lmplemenL Lhe consLlLuLlonal auaranLee of Lhe rlahL of aovernmenL emplovees Lo oraanlzeţ Lhe ÞresldenL lssued LŦCŦ noŦ 180 whlch
provldes auldellnes for Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlahL Lo oraanlze of aovernmenL emploveesŦ ln Lhe absence of anv lealslaLlon allowlna
aovernmenL emplovees Lo sLrlkeţ recoanlzlna Lhelr rlahL Lo do soţ or reaulaLlna Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlahLţ Lhev are prohlblLed from sLrlklnaţ
bv express provlslon of Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 6 and as lmplled ln LŦCŦ noŦ 180Ŧ
Ŵ ClLlna Alllooce of Covetomeot wotkets vŦ Mlolstet of lobot ooJ £mplovmeot as Lo Lhe raLlonale for dlsLlnaulshlna beLween workers ln Lhe
prlvaLe secLor and aovernmenL emplovees wlLh reaard Lo Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlkeť ºSlnce Lhe Lerms and condlLlons of aovernmenL emplovmenL
are flxed bv lawţ aovernmenL workers cannoL use Lhe same weapons emploved bv workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor Lo secure concesslons
from Lhelr emploversŦ"
Ŵ CbservaLlon of Lhe AcLlna Commlssloner of Clvll Servlceţ ln hls poslLlon paper submlLLed Lo Lhe 1971 ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlonť º8v
reason of Lhe naLure of Lhe publlc emplover and Lhe pecullar characLer of Lhe publlc servlceţ lL musL necessarllv reaard Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlke
alven Lo unlons ln prlvaLe lndusLrv as noL applvlna Lo publlc emplovees and clvll servlce emploveesŦ lL has been sLaLed LhaL Lhe
CovernmenLţ ln conLrasL Lo Lhe prlvaLe emploverţ proLecLs Lhe lnLeresL of all people ln Lhe publlc servlceţ and LhaL accordlnalvţ such





confllcLlna lnLeresLs as are presenL ln prlvaLe labor relaLlons could noL exlsL ln Lhe relaLlons beLween aovernmenL and Lhose whom Lhev
emplovŦ"
Ŵ LŦCŦ noŦ 180ţ whlch provldes auldellnes for Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlahL Lo oraanlze of aovernmenL emploveesţ whlle cllnalna Lo Lhe same
phllosophvţ hasţ howeverţ relaxed Lhe rule Lo allow neaoLlaLlon where Lhe Lerms and condlLlons of emplovmenL lnvolved are noL amona
Lhose flxed bv lawŦ
* SLC1lCn 13Ŧ 1erms and condlLlons of emplovmenL or lmprovemenLs Lhereofţ excepL Lhose LhaL are flxed bv lawţ mav be Lhe sub[ecL of
neaoLlaLlons beLween dulv recoanlzed emploveesƌ oraanlzaLlons and approprlaLe aovernmenL auLhorlLlesŦ
* SLC1lCn 16Ŧ 1he Clvll Servlce and labor laws and proceduresţ whenever appllcableţ shall be followed ln Lhe resoluLlon of complalnLsţ
arlevances and cases lnvolvlna aovernmenL emploveesŦ ln case anv dlspuLe remalns unresolved afLer exhausLlna all Lhe avallable
remedles under exlsLlna laws and proceduresţ Lhe parLles mav [olnLlv refer Lhe dlspuLe Lo Lhe żÞSLMŽ Councll for approprlaLe acLlonŦ
Ŵ CovernmenL emplovees mavţ Lhereforeţ Lhrouah Lhelr unlons or assoclaLlonsţ elLher peLlLlon Lhe Conaress for Lhe beLLermenL of Lhe
Lerms and condlLlons of emplovmenL whlch are wlLhln Lhe amblL of lealslaLlon or neaoLlaLe wlLh Lhe approprlaLe aovernmenL aaencles
for Lhe lmprovemenL of Lhose whlch are noL flxed bv lawŦ lf Lhere be anv unresolved arlevancesţ Lhe dlspuLe mav be referred Lo Lhe
Þubllc SecLor Labor Ŵ ManaaemenL Councll for approprlaLe acLlonŦ 8uL emplovees ln Lhe clvll servlce mav noL resorL Lo sLrlkesţ walkŴouLs
and oLher Lemporarv work sLoppaaesţ llke workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLorţ Lo pressure Lhe CovernmenL Lo accede Lo Lhelr demandsŦ As
now provlded under SecŦ 4ţ 8ule lll of Lhe 8ules and 8eaulaLlons Lo Covern Lhe Lxerclse of Lhe 8lahL of CovernmenLŴ Lmplovees Lo SelfŴ
CraanlzaLlonţ whlch Look effecL afLer Lhe lnsLanL dlspuLe aroseţ ƍżLŽhe Lerms and condlLlons of emplovmenL ln Lhe aovernmenLţ lncludlna
anv pollLlcal subdlvlslon or lnsLrumenLallLv Lhereof and aovernmenLŴ owned and conLrolled corporaLlons wlLh orlalnal charLers are
aoverned bv law and emplovees Lhereln shall noL sLrlke for Lhe purpose of securlna chanaes LhereofŦƍ

onoo/ison v c4 %276 SC8A 617 | 1997Ť keooloJoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť 800 publlc school Leachers who sLaaed a mass acLlon
Ŵ ÞeLlLlonersţ excepL 8odolfo Marlanoţ were amona Lhe 800 publlc school Leachers who sLaaed ƍmass acLlonsƍ on SepLember 17 Lo 19ţ
1990 Lo dramaLlze Lhelr arlevances concernlna Lhe alleaed fallure of Lhe publlc auLhorlLles Lo lmplemenL ln a [usL and correcL manner
cerLaln laws and measures lnLended for Lhelr maLerlal beneflLŦ
Ŵ uLCS lssued a 81WC buL peLlLloners falled Lo complv so Lhev uLCS Sec charaed Lhem wlLh ƍarave mlsconducLŤ aross nealecL of duLvŤ
aross vlolaLlon of Clvll Servlce lawţ rules and reaulaLlons and reasonable offlce reaulaLlonsŤ refusal Lo perform offlclal duLvŤ aross
lnsubordlnaLlonŤ conducL pre[udlclal Lo Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe servlceŤ and absence wlLhouL offlclal leave ln vlolaLlon of Þu 807ţ
oLherwlse known as Lhe Clvll Servlce uecree of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦƍ 1hev were slmulLaneouslv placed under prevenLlve suspenslonŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners' araumenLť 1hev were noL on sLrlke buL were merelv exerclslna Lhelr consLlLuLlonal rlahL peaceablv Lo assemble and peLlLlon
Lhe aovernmenL for redress of arlevancesŦ
Issueť WCn peLlLloners were deprlved of consLlLuLlonal rlahL Lo peaceablv assemble and peLlLlon Lhe aovernmenL for redress of arlevances?
ne|dť no
kat|oť
Ŵ n8 1he lssue as Lo WCn Lhe mass acLlon launched bv Lhe publlc school Leachers durlna Lhe perlod from SepLember up Lo Lhe flrsL half of
CcLoberţ 1990 was a sLrlke has been declded bv Lhls CourL ln a resoluLlonţ daLed uecember 18ţ 1990ţ ln Moollo 9obllc 5cbool 1eocbets
Assoclotlooţ et olŦ vsŦ loooloţ ItŦ lŦeŦ ºLhaL from Lhe pleaded and admlLLed facLsţ Lhese ƌmass acLlonsƌ were Lo all lnLenLs and purposes a
sLrlkeŤ Lhev consLlLuLed a concerLed and unauLhorlzed sLoppaae ofţ or absence fromţ work whlch lL was Lhe Leachersƌ duLv Lo performţ
underLaken for essenLlallv economlc reasonsŦ"
Ŵ lL ls an undlspuLed facL LhaL Lhere was a work sLoppaae and LhaL peLlLlonersƌ purpose was Lo reallze Lhelr demands bv wlLhholdlna Lhelr
servlcesŦ 1he facL LhaL Lhe convenLlonal Lerm ƍsLrlkeƍ was noL used bv Lhe sLrlklna emplovees Lo descrlbe Lhelr common course of acLlon
ls lnconsequenLlalţ slnce Lhe subsLance of Lhe slLuaLlonţ and noL lLs appearanceţ wlll be deemed Lo be conLrolllnaŦ
Ŵ 1he ablllLv Lo sLrlke ls noL essenLlal Lo Lhe rlahL of assoclaLlonŦ ln Lhe absence of sLaLuLeţ publlc emplovees do noL have Lhe rlahL Lo
enaaae ln concerLed work sLoppaaes for anv purposeŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLlonersţ excepL Marlanoţ are belna penallzed noL because Lhev exerclsed Lhelr rlahL of peaceable assemblv and peLlLlon for redress of
arlevances buL because of Lhelr successlve unauLhorlzed and unllaLeral absences whlch produced adverse effecLs upon Lhelr sLudenLs for
whose educaLlon Lhev are responslbleŦ 1he acLuaLlons of peLlLloners deflnlLelv consLlLuLed conducL pre[udlclal Lo Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe
servlceţ punlshable under Lhe Clvll Servlce lawţ rules and reaulaLlonsŦ
Ŵ As apLlv sLaLed bv Lhe SollclLor Ceneralţ ƍlL ls noL Lhe exerclse bv Lhe peLlLloners of Lhelr consLlLuLlonal rlahL Lo peaceablv assemble LhaL
was punlshedţ buL Lhe manner ln whlch Lhev exerclsed such rlahL whlch resulLed ln Lhe Lemporarv sLoppaae or dlsrupLlon of publlc
servlce and classes ln varlous publlc schools ln MeLro ManllaŦ lorţ lndeedţ Lhere are efflclenL buL nonŴdlsrupLlve avenuesţ oLher Lhan Lhe
mass acLlons ln quesLlonţ wherebv peLlLloners could peLlLlon Lhe aovernmenL for redress of arlevancesŦƍ
Ŵ lL bears sLresslna LhaL suspenslon of publlc servlcesţ however Lemporarvţ wlll lnevlLablv derall servlces Lo Lhe publlcţ whlch ls one of Lhe
reasons whv Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlke ls denled aovernmenL emploveesŦ lL mav be conceded LhaL Lhe peLlLloners had valld arlevances and noble
lnLenLlons ln sLaalna Lhe ƍmass acLlonsţƍ buL LhaL wlll noL [usLlfv Lhelr absences Lo Lhe pre[udlce of lnnocenL school chlldrenŦ 1helr
rlahLeous lndlanaLlon does noL leaallze an llleaal work sLoppaaeŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Manlla Þubllc School 1eachers AssoclaLlonť lL lsţ of courseţ enLlrelv posslble LhaL peLlLloners and Lhelr memberŴLeachers had and
have some lealLlmaLe arlevancesŦ 1hls much mav be concededŦ AfLer allţ and for one Lhlnaţ even Lhe emplovees of Lhe CourL have found
reason Lo complaln abouL Lhe manner ln whlch Lhe provlslons of Lhe salarv sLandardlzaLlon law on pav ad[usLmenLs and poslLlon
classlflcaLlon have beenţ or are belnaţ lmplemenLedŦ noneLhelessţ whaL needs Lo be borne ln mlndţ LrlLe Lhouah lL mav beţ ls LhaL one





wrona cannoL be rlahLed bv anoLherţ and LhaL redressţ for even Lhe mosL [usLlflable complalnLsţ should noL be souahL Lhrouah proscrlbed
or llleaal meansŦ 1he bellef ln Lhe rlahLeousness of Lhelr causeţ no maLLer how deeplv and fervenLlv heldţ alves Lhe Leachers concerned
no llcense Lo abandon Lhelr duLlesţ enaaae ln unlawful acLlvlLvţ defv consLlLuLed auLhorlLv and seL a bad example Lo Lhelr sLudenLsŦ
Ŵ As a aeneral ruleţ even ln Lhe absence of express sLaLuLorv prohlblLlon llke Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 6ţ publlc emplovees are denled Lhe
rlahL Lo sLrlke or enaaae ln a work sLoppaae aaalnsL a publlc emploverŦ 1he rlahL of Lhe soverelan Lo prohlblL sLrlkes or work sLoppaaes
bv publlc emplovees was clearlv recoanlzed aL common lawŦ lndeedţ lL ls frequenLlv declared LhaL modern rules whlch prohlblL such
sLrlkesţ elLher bv sLaLuLe or bv [udlclal declslonţ slmplv lncorporaLe or reasserL Lhe common law ruleŦ
Ŵ 1o aranL emplovees of Lhe publlc secLor Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlkeţ Lhere musL be a clear and dlrecL lealslaLlve auLhorlLv LhereforŦ ln Lhe absence
of anv express lealslaLlon allowlna aovernmenL emplovees Lo sLrlkeţ recoanlzlna Lhelr rlahL Lo do soţ or reaulaLlna Lhe exerclse of Lhe
rlahLţ emplovees ln Lhe publlc servlce mav noL enaaae ln sLrlkesţ walkouLs and Lemporarv work sLoppaaes llke workers ln Lhe prlvaLe
secLorŦ







Other rights Leaves of a/sence, CS!S retirement, A/sence's insurance, Employees'
ompensation

orromeo v c5c %199 SC8A 911 | 1991Ť Cotlettezţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť CSC chalrman
Ŵ 8orromeo senL leLLer Lo CSC asklna wheLher or noL Lhe monev value of Lhe Lermlnal leave of reLlred ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon members
should lnclude Lhe allowances recelved aL Lhe Llme of reLlremenLŦ ln hls leLLerţ he sLaLed LhaL whlle reLlred members of oLher
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons recelved Lermlnal leave pav compuLed on Lhe basls of hlahesL monLhlv salarv lncludlna allowancesţ Lhe
formerƌs Lermlnal leave was compuLed solelv on Lhe basls of hlahesL monLhlv salarvŦ
Ŵ upon Lhe peLlLlonerƌs requesL for pavmenL of Lermlnal leave dlfferenLlal represenLlna Lhe unpald CCLA and 8A1A amounLlna Lo
Þ111ţ229Ŧ04ţ Lhe CSC Chalrman lnformed Lhe peLlLloner LhaL Lhe release of Lhe correspondlna advlce of alloLmenL and cash ouLlav Lo
cover Lhe pavmenL of hls Lermlnal leave dlfferenLlal had alreadv been requesLed from Lhe ueparLmenL of 8udaeL and ManaaemenL
%u8M)Ŧ
Ŵ u8M denled peLlLlonerƌs requesL for pavmenL of Lermlnal leave dlfferenLlal for Lhe followlna reasonsţ amona oLhersť 1) CompuLaLlon of
Lhe monev value of vacaLlon and slck leave ls based on ƍbaslc pavƍ or ƍbaslc salarvƍ pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8evlsed
AdmlnlsLraLlve Codeţ as amended bv 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1081Ť 2) under SecLlon 2%1) of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 1146ţ Lhe Lerm salarv refers Lo Lhe baslc pav or
salarv recelved bv an emploveeţ excludlna per dlemsţ bonusesţ overLlme pav and allowanceŤ 3) 1he cases of former CCA Commlssloners
Þobre and SarmlenLo cannoL be valldlv lnvoked as precedenLs for purposes of u8M 8udaeLarv acLlon slnce sald clalms were processed
wlLhouL prlor lnvolvemenL of Lhe u8MŦ
Ŵ laced wlLh Lhe u8M refusal Lo release Lhe correspondlna alloLmenLţ Lhe CSC vlelded Lo u8M lnsLead of asserLlna lLs lnlLlal deLermlnaLlonŦ
lL lssued 8esoluLlon noŦ 90Ŵ314 whereln Lhe Commlsslon deemed lL proper noL Lo rule on Lhe lssue on ƍeLhlcal conslderaLlonsƍ Ǝ
ƍcompulslons of dellcadezaƍ Ǝ advlsed Lhe peLlLloner Lo flle an acLlon for declaraLorv rellef on Lhe lssue wlLh Lhe SCŦ
Ŵ 8orromeo souahL reconslderaLlon of CSC 8esoluLlon noŦ 90Ŵ314ţ reasonlna LhaL nelLher Lhe CSC 8esoluLlon nor Lhe oplnlon of Lhe u8M
SecreLarv could prevall over Lhe CCA declslon whlch had become flnal and execuLorvŦ CSC lssued 8esoluLlon noŦ 90Ŵ943 denvlna
reconslderaLlon of Lhe peLlLlonerƌs caseŦ lnsplLe of Lhe CSC Chalrmanƌs earller approval of Lhe clalm for pavmenLţ Lhe CSC ruled LhaL Lhe
CCA declslon ƍhas no sufflclenL leaal moorlna and Lherefore cannoL be Lhe basls for allowlna pavmenL of Lhe clalmsŦƍ 1he 8esoluLlon
llkewlse clLed a !une 13ţ 1990 leLLer from former CourL AdmlnlsLraLor Mevnardo AŦ 1lro lnformlna Lhe CSC LhaL ƍLhe monev value of Lhe
Lermlnal leave credlLs of Lhe !usLlces of Lhe Supreme CourL and oLher members of Lhe !udlclarv ls based onlv on Lhe hlahesL baslc salarv
%plus lonaevlLv pav) buL excludlna 8A1A as cerLlfled Lo bv our ulrecLor of llscal ManaaemenL and 8udaeL CfflceŦƍ
Ŵ 8orromeo's araumenL on peLlLlon for cerLlorarlť nulllflcaLlon of CSC 8esoluLlon nosŦ 90Ŵ314 and 90Ŵ943Ť
ż1Ž CCA declslon whlch lnLerposed no ob[ecLlon Lo Lhe compuLaLlon of hls Lermlnal leave pav based on salarv plus allowances had alreadv
become flnal and execuLorv slnce no Llmelv appeal had been Laken Lherefrom
ż2Ž Anchors hls clalm on Lhe Memorandum Crder lssued bv ÞresldenL Marcos on november 20ţ 1980Ŧ ApparenLlvţ Lhls Memorandum
Crder was also Lhe basls for Lhe CCA declslonţ lnvoked bv Lhe peLlLloner as flnal and execuLorvţ lnLerposlna no ob[ecLlon Lo hls clalm for
Lermlnal leave dlfferenLlalť ´1be mooev voloe of tbe tetmlool leove sboll be polJ os compoteJ oo tbe bosls of tbe blobest mootblv solotv
locloJloo ollowooce tecelveJ ot tbe tlme of tbe tetltemeotŦ´ 8eť CCA's lnqulrv on reLlremenL beneflLs of CCMLLLC chalr
ż3Ž AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder noŦ 444 daLed uecember 13ţ 1979ţ exLendlna Lo Lhe Chalrman and members of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons
Lhe same beneflLs en[oved bv reLlrlna members of Lhe !udlclarv ln Lhe maLLer of raLlonallzed raLe of allowances and llberallzed
compuLaLlon of reLlremenL beneflLs and accumulaLed leave credlLsŦ
Ŵ CSC's araumenLť CCA declslon ls noL flnal and concluslve slnce sald declslon merelv sLaLed LhaL Lhe CCA wlll noL lnLerpose anv ob[ecLlon
Lo Lhe pavmenL of Lhe peLlLloner's clalmŦ 1he deLermlnaLlon of Lhe leaallLv of clalms on leave maLLers ls wlLhln Lhe provlnce of Lhe CSCŦ
Ŵ SolCen's araumenLs for CSC and CCAť
ż1Ž SecLlon 286 of Lhe 8ACţ as amended bv 8A 1081 and LC 1077ţ Lhe compuLaLlon of Lhe monev value of Lhe Lermlnal leave pav ls based
onlv on monLhlv baslc salarvŦ
SecLlon 286Ŧ wbeo vocotloo leove ooJ slck leove mov be tokeoŦ Ÿ vacaLlon leave and slck leave shall be cumu|at|ve and anv parL Lhereof
whlch mav noL be Laken wlLhln Lhe calendar vear ln whlch earned mav be carrled over Lo Lhe succeedlna vearsţ buL whenever anv offlcerţ
emploveeţ or laborer of Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes shall volunLarllv reslan or be separaLed from Lhe servlce Lhrouah no faulL of
hls ownţ he shall be enLlLled Lo Lhe commuLaLlon of all accumulaLed vacaLlon and/or slck leaves Lo hls credlLť 9tovlJeJţ 1haL Lhe LoLal
vacaLlon leave and slck leave LhaL can accumulaLe Lo Lhe credlL of anv offlcer of emplovee shallţ ln no caseţ exceed Len monLhsť 9tovlJeJţ
fottbetţ 1haL Lhe proper ueparLmenL Pead mav |n h|s d|scret|on author|ze the commutotion of the so/ory LhaL would be recelved durlna
Lhe perlod of vacaLlon and slck leave of anv appolnLed offlcer or emplovee or Leacher or laborer of Lhe Þhlllpplne CovernmenL and dlrecL
lLs pavmenL on or before Lhe bealnnlna of such leave from Lhe fund ouL of whlch Lhe salarv would have been paldť 9tovlJeJţ fottbetmoteţ
1haL no person whose leave has been commuLed followlna hls separaLlon from Lhe servlce shall be reappolnLed or reemploved under Lhe
CovernmenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe leave commuLed unless he flrsL refunds Lhe monev value of Lhe unexplred
porLlon of Lhe leave commuLedŦ %LC 1077 laLer amended SecLlon 286 bv removlna Lhe llmlLaLlon on Lhe number of davs of vacaLlon and
slck leaves LhaL a reLlree mav accumulaLeţ alLhouah all emplovees are requlred Lo ao on a mlnlmum of flve davs vacaLlon leave annuallvŦ)
ż2ŽClLlna 9oteJes vŦ Actloo cboltmooť Cfflclals and emplovees reLlred under CA 186 %reLlremenL of aovernmenL emploveesţ oLher Lhan
members of Lhe !udlclarvţ ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons and Lhose whose reLlremenL ls noL covered bv speclal law)ţ shall be enLlLled Lo Lhe
commuLaLlon of Lhe vacaLlon and slck leave credlLs based on Lhe ºblobest tote tecelveJ" lŦeŦ hlahesL monLhlv salarv malnlv because Lhe
reLlremenL araLulLv recelved bv emplovees under SecLlon 12%c) of CA 186 ls based onlv on monLhlv salarvŦ 1husţ under Lhe





aforemenLloned provlslonţ Lhe beneflL for emplovees shall be ƍa araLulLv equlvalenL Lo one monLhƌs salarv for everv vear of Lhe flrsL
LwenLv vears of servlceţ plus one and oneŴhalf monLhƌs salarv for everv vears of servlce over 20 buL below 30 vears and Lwo
monLhƌs salarv for everv vear of servlce over LhlrLv vears Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ based on Lhe hlahesL raLe recelved Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Cfflclals and emplovees reLlred under
Lhls acL shall be enLlLled Lo Lhe commuLaLlon of Lhe unused vacaLlon and slck leaveţ based on Lhe hlahesL raLe recelved Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧƍ
Issueť WhaL should be Lhe basls of compuLaLlon of CSC chalr's Lermlnal leave pav? PlahesL monLhlv salarv + CCLA + 8A1A C8 [usL PMS?
ne|dť CCLA and 8A1A should be lncluded ln compuLlna Lhe Lermlnal leave credlLs when Lhe offlclals reLlre or Lhe offlclal relaLlonshlp ls
lawfullv LermlnaLedŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 8eť CSC's sLance LhaL lL ls Lhe bodv empowered Lo deLermlne Lhe leaallLv of clalms on leave maLLersţ Lo Lhe excluslon of CCAţ ls noL wellŴ
LakenŦ Whlle Lhe lmplemenLaLlon and enforcemenL of leave beneflLs are maLLers wlLhln Lhe funcLlons of Lhe CSC as Lhe cenLral personnel
aaencv of Lhe aovernmenLţ Lhe duLv Lo examlne accounLs and expendlLures relaLlna Lo leave beneflLs properlv perLalns Lo Lhe CCAŦ
Where aovernmenL expendlLures or use of funds ls lnvolvedţ Lhe CSC cannoL clalm an excluslve domaln slmplv because leave maLLers are
also lnvolvedŦ
Ŵ 8eť Marcos' MCť Slnce Lhe Memorandum order speclflcallv applles Lo Lhese Lhree offlclalsţ sald Crder cannoL auLomaLlcallv beneflL
oLhers noL menLloned LherelnŦ Whlle lL has persuaslve value as a maLLer of conLemporaneous lnLerpreLaLlon especlallv as reaards
ÞresldenLlal uecrees or oLher presldenLlal acLsţ we cannoL confer upon Lhls Crder Lhe sLaLus of a law of aeneral appllcaLlonŦ
Ŵ 8eť AC 444ť Law perLalnlna Lo reLlremenL beneflLs respecLlna members of Lhe !udlclarv ls 8ŦAŦ 910ţ as amended bv Þu 1438 SecŦ 3Ŧ ºupon
reLlremenLţ a [usLlce of Lhe SC or of Lhe CAţ or a [udae of Lhe Cllţ ClrculL Crlmlnal CourLţ Aararlan 8elaLlonsţ 1ax Appealsţ !uvenlle and
uomesLlc 8elaLlonsţ clLv or munlclpal courLţ or anv oLher courL hereafLer esLabllshed shall be automat|ca||y ent|t|ed to a |ump sum of
f|ve years gratu|ty compuLed on Lhe basls of Lhe hlahesL monLhlv salarv plus Lhe hlahesL monLhlv aaareaaLe of LransporLaLlonţ llvlna and
represenLaLlon allowances he was recelvlna on Lhe daLe of hls reLlremenL"
1he ºflveŴvear araLulLv" ls based on hlahesL monLhlv salarv plus LransporLaLlonţ llvlna and represenLaLlon allowanceŦ 5hou|d the
computat|on of term|na| |eave payţ wh|ch |s g|ven on the same occas|on of ret|rement and wh|ch ar|ses from the same cons|derat|ons
of government grat|tude that for most ret|rees |s based on a ||fet|me of serv|ceţ be accorded s|m||ar treatment?
Ŵ ƍommutat|on of sa|aryƍ as used ln SecLlon 286 ls noL Lhe same as ƍcommutat|on of |eave cred|tsŦƍ
CCMMu1A1lCn Cl SALA8? ls applled for bv an emplovee Jotloo emplovmeot when he aoes on otJlootv leoveŦ 1husţ lf hls ueparLmenL
Pead allows lLţ Lhe emplovee mav recelve hls salarv for Lhe perlod of Lhe vacaLlon or slck leave befote Lhe bealnnlna of such leaveŤ
oLherwlseţ he aeLs hls salarv onlv on Lhe pav davs covered bv Lhe vacaLlon or slck leave perlod or upon reLurnlna Lo workŦ
,,U@@I- I LVL kLDI@5ţ aka 1L8MlnAL LLAvLţ ls applled for bv an offlcer or emplovee who reLlresţ reslans or ls separaLed
from Lhe servlce Lhrouah no faulL of hls ownŦ %Manual on Leave AdmlnlsLraLlon Course for LffecLlveness publlshed bv Lhe Clvll Servlce
Commlsslonţ paaes 16Ŵ17)Ŧ
Ŵ ln Lhe exerclse of sound personnel pollcvţ Lhe CovernmenL encouraaes unused leaves Lo be accumulaLedŦ 1he CovernmenL recoanlzes
LhaL for mosL publlc servanLsţ reLlremenL pav ls alwavs less Lhan aenerous lf noL meaaer and scrlmpvŦ A modesL nesL eaa whlch Lhe senlor
clLlzen mav look forward Lo ls Lhus provldedŦ 1ermlnal leave pavmenLs are alven noL onlv aL Lhe same Llme buL also for Lhe same pollcv
conslderaLlons aovernlna reLlremenL beneflLsŦ
Ŵ Slnce Lermlnal leave ls applled for bv an offlcer or emplovee who has alreadv severed hls connecLlon wlLh hls emplover and who ls no
lonaer worklnaţ Lhen lL follows LhaL Lhe Lermlnal leave pavţ whlch ls Lhe cash value of hls accumulaLed leave credlLsţ should noL be
LreaLed as compensaLlon for servlces rendered aL LhaL LlmeŦ %8eť 8equesL of ALLvŦ 8ernardo ZlalclLaţ 190 SC8A 831 ż1990Ž) lL cannoL be
vlewed as salarv for purposes whlch would reduce lLŦ 1here can Lhus be no ƍcommuLaLlon of salarvƍ when a aovernmenL reLlree applles
for Lermlnal leave because he ls noL recelvlna lL as salarvŦ WhaL he applles for ls a ƍcommuLaLlon of leave credlLsŦƍ lL ls an accumulaLlon of
credlLs lnLended for old aae or separaLlon from Lhe servlceŦ Penceţ SecLlon 286 of Lhe 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code ls noL appllcableŦ lL
cannoL be consLrued as llmlLlna Lhe basls of Lhe compuLaLlon of Lermlnal leave pav Lo monLhlv salarv onlvŦ
Ŵ A readlna of SecLlon 12%c) of CA 186 reveals an lnLenL on Lhe parL of Lhe lealslaLure Lo provlde a unlform basls ln compuLlna boLh Lhe
reLlremenL araLulLv and Lhe Lermlnal leave pavŦ ln CA 186ţ LhaL unlform basls ls solotvŦ A dlfferenL lawţ 8ŦAŦ 910 as amendedţ aoverns Lhe
peLlLlonerŦ ln Lhe case of members of Lhe !udlclarv and ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslonsţ Lhe basls ln compuLlna Lhe reLlremenL araLulLv ls Lhe
hlahesL monLhlv salarv plos tbe blobest mootblv oooteoote of ttoospottotlooţ llvloo ooJ tepteseototloo ollowooce (cOlA ooJ kA1A)Ŧ 1he
same rule of unlformlLv whlch we applled ln 9oteJes vŦ Actloo cboltmoo for Lhose reLlrlna under CA 186 as amended should also applv
for Lhose who reLlre under 8ŦAŦ 910 as amendedŦ 1he raLe used ln compuLlna reLlremenL araLulLles also applles ln Lhe compuLaLlon of
Lermlnal leave credlLsŦ
Ŵ 8eLlremenL laws are llberallv consLrued and admlnlsLered ln favor of Lhe persons lnLended Lo be beneflLedŦ All doubLs as Lo Lhe lnLenL of
Lhe law should be resolved ln favor of Lhe reLlree Lo achleve lLs humanlLarlan purposesŦ
Ŵ AlLhouah Lermlnal leave pav ls noL svnonvmous wlLhţ and ls noL a parL ofţ Lhe flveŴvear lump sum araLulLv provlded under 8A 910 as
amended and AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder noŦ 444ţ Lhe former mavţ ln a broad senseţ parLake of Lhe naLure of a araLulLv raLher Lhan acLual
salarvŦ A araLulLv ls LhaL pald Lo Lhe beneflclarv for pasL servlces rendered purelv ouL of aeneroslLv of Lhe alver or aranLorŦ lL ls a mere
bounLv alven bv Lhe aovernmenL ln conslderaLlon or ln recoanlLlon of merlLorlous servlces and sprlnas from Lhe appreclaLlon and
araclousness of Lhe aovernmenLŦ Whlle lL ls Lrue LhaL vacaLlon and slck leave credlLs are earned durlna oneƌs perlod of emplovmenLţ Lhev
areţ bv Lhelr verv naLure and purposeţ supposed Lo be en[oved or exhausLed durlna emplovmenLŦ When Lhese accumulaLed leave
beneflLs are allowed Lo be accumulaLedţ noL Lo be pald whlle one ls worklna buL Lo be reserved for old aaeţ Lhen Lhls consLlLuLes Lhe
araLulLvŦ





Ŵ Slnce Lermlnal leave pav mav also be consldered a araLulLvţ Lhen applvlna Lhe rule on llberal lnLerpreLaLlon of reLlremenL lawsţ Lhe basls
for lLs compuLaLlon ln Lhe case of members of Lhe !udlclarv and ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons musL be Lhe same as LhaL used ln compuLlna
Lhe 3Ŵvear lump sum araLulLv under 8A 910 as amended and AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder noŦ 444Ŧ
Ŵ lnconarulLv mav ensue lf Lhe Lermlnal leave pav of members of Lhe !udlclarv and ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons ls compuLed onlv on Lhe
basls of hlahesL baslc monLhlv salarv lfţ for example a member of Lhe CSC has an accumulaLed leave credlL of one monLh andţ ln Lhe
Lwo monLhs lmmedlaLelv prlor Lo reLlrlnaţ consumes hls accumulaLed leaves bv aolna on flfLeen davsƌ vacaLlon leave Lwlceţ Lhere ls no
dlspuLe LhaL he wlll be pald Lwo monLhsƌ salarv plos cOlA ooJ kA1A for Lhls LwoŴmonLh perlodţ alLhouah no work has been rendered bv
hlmŦ lfţ on Lhe oLher handţ he chooses Lo work unLll Lhe lasL dav of emplovmenL and upon reLlremenLţ applles for Lhe commuLaLlon of hls
accumulaLed leave credlL of one monLhţ followlna Lhe proposlLlon of Lhe SollclLor Ceneralţ he wlll recelve Lermlnal leave pav equlvalenL
onlv Lo one monLhƌs salarvţ wltboot cOlA ooJ kA1AŦ ln Lhe laLLer caseţ whv should he be penallzed for falLhfullv worklna conLlnuouslv
and noL consumlna hls leave credlLs unLll hls lasL worklna dav? Whv should Lhe basls for Lhe commuLaLlon of leave credlLs be dlfferenL
[usL because he chose Lo avall hlmself of hls leave beneflLs lmmedlaLelv before and noL lmmedlaLelv afLer reLlremenL? Surelv Lhls
dlsparlLv ln consequence could noL have been lnLended bv our lawmakersŦ
Ŵ SecLlon 12 of 8epubllc AcL 6738 %CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon AcL of 1989)ţ mandaLed Lhe lnLearaLlon of CCLA Lo Lhe baslc
salarv andţ Lhereforeţ Lo Lhe reLlremenL pav of all emploveesŦ Whlle lL ls Lrue LhaL 8A 6738 Look effecL onlv on !ulv 1ţ 1989ţ lona afLer
peLlLloner had alreadv reLlred on Aprll 1ţ 1986ţ hls CCLA should neverLheless have been lncluded ln compuLlna Lermlnal leave pav for Lhe
same reasons sLaLed aboveŦ

vito/Ŵoton v c4 %212 SC8A 233 |1992Ť Notvosoţ cŦ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Chlef of Cllnlcs
Ŵ AL Lhe Llme of Lhe reoraanlzaLlonţ urŦ de la luenLe was Chlef of Lhe Cllnlcs of Lhe naLlonal Chlldrenƌs PosplLalţ havlna been appolnLed Lo
LhaL poslLlon on uecember 20ţ 1978Ŧ Þrlor LhereLoţ he occupled Lhe posL of Medlcal SpeclallsL llţ a poslLlon Lo whlch he was promoLed ln
1977 afLer servlna as Medlcal SpeclallsL l of Lhe same hosplLal for 6 vears %slnce 1971)Ŧ
Ŵ Cn lebruarv 4ţ 1988 urŦ de la luenLe recelved noLlce from Lhe uCP LhaL he would be reŴappolnLed ƍMedlcal SpeclallsL llŦƍ Conslderlna
Lhls ls Lo be a demoLlon bv no less Lhan Lwo ranks from hls posL as Chlef of Cllnlcsţ urŦ de la luenLe flled a proLesL wlLh Lhe uCP
8eoraanlzaLlon 8oardŦ When hls proLesL was lanoredţ he brouahL hls case Lo Lhe CSCŦ ln Lhe meanLlme ƍLhe duLles and responslblllLles
perLalnlna Lo Lhe poslLlon of Chlef of Cllnlcs were Lurned over Lo and were allowed Lo be exerclsed bv urŦ !ose uŦ Merenclllaţ !rŦƍ
Ŵ CSC's declslonť uemoLlon/Lransfer from Chlef of Cllnlcs Lo Medlcal SpeclallsLs ll as null and voldť henceţ llleaalŦ ue [ure Chlef of CllnlcsŦ
Ŵ uCP falled Lo execuLe sald declslon and so urŦ repalred Lo CSC whlch lnsLrucLed hlm Lo flle ln courL a peLlLlon for mandamus because of
Lhe bellef LhaL Lhe CSC had no coerclve powersŸunllke a courLŸLo enforce lLs flnal declslons/resoluLlonsŦ So he lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe CA an
acLlon of ƍmandamus and damaaes wlLh prellmlnarv ln[uncLlonƍ Lo compel vlLalŴCozonţ and Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcerţ 8udaeL Cfflcer
and Cashler of Lhe nCP Lo complv wlLh Lhe flnal and execuLorv resoluLlon of Lhe Clvll Servlce CommlsslonŦ CA requlred respondenLs Lo
answer buL none was flledŦ Poweverţ CA denled clalm for damaaes on Lhe around LhaL Lhe ƍpeLlLlons %for mandamus) are noL Lhe vehlcle
nor ls Lhe CourL Lhe forumŧƍ
Ŵ SolCenť lnsLlLuLed Lhe speclal clvll acLlon of cerLlorarl aL barŦ lL conLends LhaL Lhe CourL of Appeals ls noL leaallv compeLenL Lo Lake
coanlzance of and declde Lhe quesLlon of damaaes ln a mandamus sulL
Issuesť
ż1Žuoes CSC have Lhe power Lo execuLe lLs own resoluLlons? ?esŦ
ż2Ž WCn CA has [urlsdlcLlon Lo Lake coanlzance of Lhe maLLer of damaaes ln a speclal clvll acLlon of mandamus? ?es
ż3Ž WCn Lhe SollclLor Ceneral mav properlv represenL a publlc offlclal llke urŦ vlLalŴCozonţ who ls sued for damaaes for alleaedlv refuslna Lo
complv wlLh a lawful and execuLorv [udamenL of compeLenL auLhorlLv? ?es
ż4Ž WCn Lhe CA declslon of !une 9ţ 1989 could sLlll be modlfled afLer lL was pronounced flnal and execuLorv and was ln facL execuLed wlLh
respecL Lo de la luenLeƌs relnsLaLemenL Lo hls poslLlon and Lhe pavmenL of Lhe salarles and allowances due hlm? ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ llnal and execuLorv [udamenLs are enforced bv wrlL of execuLlon and noL bv anoLherţ separaLe acLlonţ wheLher of mooJomos or
oLherwlseŦ Penceţ execuLlon of Lhe CSCƌs declslon should have been ordered and effecLed bv Lhe Commlsslon lLselfţ when de la luenLe
flled a moLlon LhereforŦ lL decllned Lo do soţ howeverţ on Lhe alleaed aroundţ as de la luenLe clalms he was Loldţ LhaL lL ƍhad oo coetclve
powets Ÿ unllke a courL Ÿ to eofotce lLs flnal declslons/resoluLlonsŦƍ

1haL proposlLlonţ communlcaLed Lo de la luenLeţ of Lhe
Commlsslonƌs supposed lack of coerclve power Lo enforce lLs flnal [udamenLsţ ls lncorrecLŦ lL ls lnconslsLenL wlLh prevlous acLs of Lhe
Commlsslon of acLuallv dlrecLlna execuLlon of lLs declslons and resoluLlonsţ whlch Lhls CourL has sancLloned ln several casesŤ and lL ls noL
ln LruLh a correcL assessmenL of lLs powers under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe relevanL lawsŦ
Ŵ ClLlna C5l5 v c5cť ºlL would appear absurd Lo denv Lo Lhe CSC Lhe power or auLhorlLv Lo enforce or order execuLlon of lLs declslonsţ
resoluLlons or orders whlchţ lL should be sLressedţ lL has been exerclslna Lhrouah Lhe vearsŦ lL would seem qulLe obvlous LhaL Lhe
auLhorlLv Lo declde cases ln lnuLlle unless accompanled bv Lhe auLhorlLv Lo see LhaL whaL has been declded ls carrled ouLŦ Penceţ Lhe
aranL Lo a Lrlbunal or aaencv of ad[udlcaLorv powerţ or Lhe auLhorlLv Lo hear and ad[udae casesţ should normallv and loalcallv be deemed
Lo lnclude Lhe aranL of auLhorlLv Lo enforce or execuLe Lhe [udamenLs lL Lhus rendersţ unless Lhe law oLherwlse provldesŦ"
Ŵ 1he SollclLor Ceneralƌs Cfflce evldenLlv searched sald SecLlon 9 for an expllclL and speclflc sLaLemenL reaardlna ƍoctloos fot motol ooJ
exemplotv Jomooesţƍ and flndlna noneţ concluded LhaL Lhe CourL of Appeals had noL been aranLed compeLence Lo assume coanlzance of
clalms for such damaaesŦ 1he concluslon ls lncorrecLŦ SecLlon 19ţ aovernlna Lhe excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of 8ealonal 1rlal CourLs ln
clvll casesţ conLalns no reference whaLever Lo clalms ƍfor moral and exemplarv damaaesţƍ and lndeed does noL use Lhe word ƍdamaaesƍ

%%



aL allŤ veL lL ls lndlspuLable LhaL sald courLs have power Lo Lrv and declde clalms for moralţ exemplarv and oLher classes of damaaes
accompanvlna anv of Lhe Lvpes or klnds of cases falllna wlLhln Lhelr speclfled [urlsdlcLlonŦ 1he SollclLor Ceneralƌs Lheorv LhaL Lhe rule ln
quesLlon ls a mere procedural one ollowloo [olnder of an acLlon of mooJomos and anoLher for damaaesţ ls unLenableţ for lL lmplles LhaL a
clalm for damaaes arlslna from Lhe omlsslon or fallure Lo do an acL sub[ecL of a mooJomos sulL mav be llLlaaLed separaLelv from Lhe
laLLerţ Lhe maLLer of damaaes noL belna lnexLrlcablv llnked Lo Lhe cause of acLlon for mooJomosţ whlch ls cerLalnlv noL Lhe caseŦ
Ŵ 1he docLrlne lald down ln Lhe utbooo and co cases alreadv adverLed Lo qulLe clearť ºŦ Ŧ Ŧ %1)he Cfflce of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral ls noL
auLhorlzed Lo represenL a publlc offlclal aL anv sLaae of a ctlmlool caseŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ 1hls observaLlon should applv as well Lo a publlc offlclal who ls
haled Lo courL on a clvll sulL for damaaes arlslna from a felonv alleaedlv commlLLed bv hlm %ArLlcle 100ţ 8evlsed Þenal Code)Ŧ Anv
pecunlarv llablllLv he mav be held Lo accounL for on Lhe occaslon of such clvll sulL ls for hls own accounLŦ 1he SLaLe ls noL llable for Lhe
sameŦ A fottlotlţ Lhe Cfflce of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral llkewlse has no auLhorlLv Lo represenL hlm ln such a clvll sulL for damaaesŦ" lL belna
qulLe evldenL LhaL urŦ vlLalŴCozon ls noL here charaed wlLh a crlmeţ or clvlllv prosecuLed for damaaes arlslna from a crlmeţ Lhere ls no
leaal obsLacle Lo her belna represenLed bv Lhe Cfflce of Lhe SollclLor CeneralŦ
Ŵ 1here would seem Lo be no quesLlon abouL Lhe Llmellness of de la luenLeƌs moLlon for reconslderaLlon of Lhe !une 9ţ 1989 declslonŦ 1hls
belna soţ lL would cerLalnlv have been enLlrelv wlLhln Lhe auLhorlLv of Lhe CAţ ooJet ootmol cltcomstoocesţ Lo rule on LhaL moLlon for
reconslderaLlon andţ ln lLs dlscreLlonţ acL favorablv on lLţ as lL dld Lhrouah lLs 8esoluLlon of SepLember 27ţ 1991 Ÿ bv amendlna Lhe
declslon of !une 9ţ 1989ţ declarlna lL a parLlal [udamenLţ and seLLlna a daLe for recepLlon of evldence on Lhe la luenLeƌs clalm for
damaaesŦ lL would also appear LhaL Lhe moLlons for reconslderaLlon of sald 8esoluLlon of SepLember 27ţ 1991 separaLelv submlLLed ln
Cozonƌs behalfţ bv her own prlvaLe aLLornev and bv Lhe SollclLor Ceneralƌs Cfflceţ were flled wav ouL of LlmeŦ

,oncenido v c4 %330 SC8A 419 |2000Ť Oolsomblooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť
Ŵ Mancenldo flled an acLlon for mandamus and damaaes wlLh Lhe 81C of Camarlnes norLeţ 8ranch 38ţ uaeLţ aaalnsL Lhe provlnclal board of
Camarlnes norLeţ Lhe school boardţ provlnclal aovernorţ provlnclal Lreasurerţ and provlnclal audlLor Lo pav Lhe Leacherƌs clalm for unpald
salarv lncreasesŦ
Ŵ 8oLh LC and CA ruled ln favor of Lhe hereln respondenLsŦ
Ŵ Mancenldo's araumenLsť
ż1Ž ALLvŦ !ose Lapak could noL represenL Lhe respondenLs Þrovlnclal 1reasurer and Þrovlnclal School 8oardţ because boLh are
lnsLrumenLallLles of Lhe naLlonal CovernmenL and mav be represenLed onlv bv Lhe Cfflce of Lhe SollclLor Ceneral pursuanL Lo SecLlon 33ţ
ChapLer 12ţ 1lLle 3ţ 8ook 4 of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987Ŧ Cnlv Lhe Þrovlnclal ÞrosecuLor of Camarlnes norLe mav represenL Lhe
Þrovlnclal Covernor and Lhe Þrovlnclal 8oard ln accordance wlLh SecLlon 481 ż1Žţ parŦ 8 of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code of 1991
ż2Ž ClLlna cebo v lAcť º1he munlclpallLvƌs auLhorlLv Lo emplov a prlvaLe lawver ls expresslv llmlLed onlv Lo slLuaLlons where Lhe provlnclal
flscal ls dlsquallfled Lo represenL lL as when he represenLs Lhe provlnce aaalnsL a munlclpallLvŦ 1he lawmakerţ ln requlrlna LhaL Lhe local
aovernmenL should be represenLed ln lLs courL cases bv a aovernmenL lawverţ llke lLs munlclpal aLLornev and Lhe provlnclal flscalţ
lnLended LhaL Lhe local aovernmenL should noL be burdened wlLh Lhe expenses of hlrlna a prlvaLe lawverŦ 1he lawmaker also assumed
LhaL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe munlclpal corporaLlon would be besL proLecLed lf a aovernmenL lawver handles lLs llLlaaLlonsŦ"
Issuesť
ż1Ž WheLher a prlvaLe counsel mav represenL munlclpal offlclals sued ln Lhelr offlclal capaclLles? ?es
ż2Ž WheLher a noLlce of Appeal flled Lhrouah prlvaLe counsel and wlLh noLlce Lo peLlLloners and noL Lo Lhelr counsel ls valld? ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ SecLlon 481ţ ArLlcle 11ţ 1lLle v of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code %8ŦAŦ noŦ 7160) provldes for Lhe appolnLmenL of a leaal offlcerţ whose
funcLlon lsť º8epresenL Lhe local aovernmenL unlL ln all clvll acLlons and speclal proceedlnas whereln Lhe local aovernmenL unlL or anv
offlclal Lhereofţ ln hls offlclal capaclLvţ ls a parLvť Þrovldedţ 1haLţ ln acLlons or proceedlnas where a componenL clLv or munlclpallLv ls a
parLv adverse Lo Lhe provlnclal aovernmenL or Lo anoLher componenL clLv or munlclpallLvţ a speclal leaal offlcer mav be emploved Lo
represenL Lhe adverse parLv"
Ŵ ueclslon reť represenLaLlon of a local aovernmenL unlL bv a prlvaLe aLLornevŦ Moolclpolltv of 8ocooe vŦ Moootok eLcť onlv when Lhe
provlnclal flscal ls dlsquallfled mav Lhe munlclpal councll be auLhorlzed Lo hlre Lhe servlces of a speclal aLLornevŦ
Ŵ ClLlna £otlooezţ 5tŦ vŦ Clmeoezť lnsLances when Lhe prov|nc|a| pub||c prosecutor ls dlsquallfled from represenLlna a parLlcular
munlclpallLv
1Ŧ when Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of a case lnvolvlna Lhe munlclpallLv lles wlLh Lhe SCţ
2Ŧ when Lhe munlclpallLv ls a parLv adverse Lo Lhe provlnclal aovernmenL or Lo some oLher munlclpallLv ln Lhe same provlnceţ and
3Ŧ when ln a case lnvolvlna Lhe munlclpallLvţ Lhe provlnclal prosecuLorţ hls spouseţ or hls chlld ls lnvolved as a credlLorţ helrţ leaaLeeţ or
oLherwlseŦ
8ut do these ru||ngs equa||y app|y to |oca| government off|c|a|s?
Ŵ ClLlna Allosoo vŦ k1cţ 8tŦ 58ţ 5oo cotlos cltvţ Neotos OcclJeotolť ln resolvlna wheLher a local aovernmenL offlclal mav secure Lhe servlces
of prlvaLe counsel ln an acLlon flled aaalnsL hlm ln hls offlclal capaclLvţ Lhe nature of the act|on and the re||ef sought are Lo be
conslderedŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Alboeto vŦ 1ottesť CourL approved Lhe represenLaLlon bv prlvaLe counsel of a provlnclal aovernor sued ln hls offlclal capaclLvţ where
Lhe complalnL conLalned oLher alleaaLlons and a praver for moral damaaesţ whlchţ lf due from Lhe defendanLsţ musL be saLlsfled bv Lhem
ln Lhelr prlvaLe capaclLvŦ

%%



Ŵ ClLlna 9tovloce of cebo vŦ lotetmeJlote Appellote coottť where rlald adherence Lo Lhe law on represenLaLlon would deprlve a parLv of hls
rlahL Lo redress for a valld arlevanceţ Lhe hlrlna of prlvaLe counsel would be properŦ
Ŵ ln vlew of Lhe damaaes souahL whlchţ lf aranLedţ could resulL ln personal llablllLvţ respondenLs could noL be deemed Lo have been
lmproperlv represenLed bv prlvaLe counselŦ no error mav Lhus be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe appellaLe courL when lL recoanlzed Lhe rlahL of
respondenLs Lo be represenLed bv prlvaLe counselŦ

,oyor Lopet v c4 ond ,onopot %213 SC8A 312 | 1992Ť lellcloooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť
Ŵ Callcano ManapaL was flrsL emploved as Chlef of Lhe Leaal ulvlslon of Lhe offlce of Lhe Munlclpal 8oard of ManllaŦ AfLer renderlna 20
vears of servlceţ he reLlred under 8A 1616Ŧ llve vears laLerţ he was reemploved bv Lhe ClLv of Manlla Lhls Llme as SecreLarv of Lhe ClLv of
Manlla 8oard of 1ax AssessmenL AppealsŦ Pe occupled LhaL poslLlon unLll he reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsŦ
Ŵ 1he ClLv of Manlla exLended hls perlod of servlce for 6 monLhs durlna whlch Lhe Salarv SLandardlzaLlon Law %8A 6738) Look effecL and
lncreased ManapaLƌs monLhlv salarv from Þ3ţ993Ŧ33 Lo Þ11ţ383Ŧ00Ŧ upon explraLlon of hls 6ŴmonLh exLended perlod of servlceţ he flled
wlLh Lhe CSlS an appllcaLlon for reLlremenL under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1616ţ as amendedŦ 1hls appllcaLlon was approved bv Lhe CSlS lnlLlallv on Lhe
basls of hls prevlous salarv of Þ3ţ993Ŧ33 per monLhŤ on LhaL baslsţ he was enLlLled Lo a LoLal reLlremenL araLulLv of Þ179ţ274Ŧ04ţ less Lhe
amounL of Þ24ţ479Ŧ02 prevlouslv recelved as reLlremenL pav when he flrsL reLlredŦ PCWLvL8ţ Lhe CSlS ad[usLed ManapaLƌs approved
appllcaLlon for reLlremenL Lo conform wlLh hls lasL sLandardlzed monLhlv salarv of Þ11ţ383Ŧ00Ŧ 1hls ad[usLmenL resulLed ln a LoLal
collecLlble reLlremenL pav or araLulLv of Þ486ţ634Ŧ84 for ManapaLŦ
Ŵ Manlla 8oard of 1ax AssessmenL Appeals wlLhouL acLlna on Lhe reLlremenL araLulLv clalm of ManapaLţ upon Lhe around LhaL lL was
exlsLlna pollcv of Lhe ClLv of Manlla LhaL an emplovee who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vears musL reLlre under 8ŦAŦ
noŦ 660 and oot under Lhe provlslons of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1616ţ as amendedŦ
Ŵ ManapaL appealed Lhe acLlon of Lhe Chalrman of Lhe CommlLLee Lo Lhe ClLv 8udaeL Cfflcer who replled bv LhaL hls clalm for reLlremenL
pav was forwarded Lo Lhe Lhen Mavor of Lhe ClLv of Manlla %Lopez) and Lo Lhe ClLv Leaal Cfflcer for leaal advlceŦ
Ŵ ClLv Leaal Cfflcer of Lhe ClLv of Manlla rendered a wrlLLen oplnlon Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe ClLvţ as emploverţ had d|scret|onary author|ty Lo
allow or dlsallow a clalm Lo reLlre under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1616ţ as amendedţ conslderlna LhaL reLlremenL under LhaL law was opLlonal and
pavmenL of reLlremenL beneflLs Lhereunder was sub[ecL Lo Lhe avallablllLv of fundsŦ A week laLer he recelved a leLLer from ClLv Mavor
advlslna LhaL hls requesL for seLLlemenL of hls clalm for reLlremenL araLulLv under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1616 could noL be favorablv acLed upon due Lo
flnanclal consLralnLs upon Lhe ClLv CovernmenLŦ
Ŵ ManapaL flled mandamus Lo compel hls reLlremenL under 8A 1616 ln 81CŦ 81C dlsmlssedŦ CA reversedŦ
Issuesť
%1) WheLher a aovernmenL emploveeţ who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsţ mav ºopL Lo reLlre under 8A 1616 as
amended" C8ţ alLernaLlvelvţ ls ºenLlLled onlv Lo reLlremenL beneflLs under Lhe mandaLorv reLlremenL clause of 8A 660" Ŷ opL Lo reLlre
%2) WheLher Lhe ClLv of Manlla as emplover mav be compelled Lo pav Lhe reLlremenL beneflLs of lLs emplovees under 8A 1616ţ desplLe lack
of avallable funds for LhaL purpose Ŷ ves
kat|oť
Ŵ lMÞLlCA1lCnS ll 8A 1616 C8 8A 660ť under 8A 660ţ CSlS ls bound Lo pav Lhe reLlremenL beneflLs properlv accrulna Lo ManapaLţ whlle lL
ls Lhe ClLv of Manlla as emplover whlch ls llable for Lhe reLlremenL araLulLv apperLalnlna under 8A 1616 as amendedŦ ManapaL wlshes Lo
reLlre under Lhe provlslons of 8A 1616 as amended because Lhe amounL of Lhe araLulLv under LhaL law wlll be slanlflcanLlv hlaher Lhan
Lhe araLulLv whlch would be pavable under Lhe Lerms of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 660Ŧ
Ŵ AL Lhe Llme of hls second reLlremenLţ ManapaL rendered a LoLal of 33 vears of aovernmenL servlceţ wlLh Lhe resulL LhaL he had complled
wlLh Lhe requlremenL for reLlremenL under each and everv one of Lhe 4 modes of reLlremenL provlded ln SecLlon 12 of CŦAŦ noŦ 186 as
amendedţ quoLed aboveţ Lo wlLť
12 %a) 30 vears of aovernmenL servlce 37 vears old
12 %b) 30 vears of aovernmenL servlce reaardless of aae
12 %c) 20 vears of aovernmenL servlce reaardless of aae
12 %e) 13 vears of aovernmenL servlce 63 vears old
Ŵ 9etltlooet´s otoomeotť A aovernmenL emplovee who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsţ wlLh aL leasL 13 vears of
servlce ln Lhe aovernmenLţ has no cholce save Lo reLlre under Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 12%e) of CŦAŦ noŦ 186 as amended %lŦeŦţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ
660)ţ reLlremenL Lhereunder belna ƍauLomaLlc and compulsorvŦƍ
Ŵ SC savsť Whlle SecLlon 12%e) of CŦAŦ noŦ 186 as amended provldes LhaL ƍżrŽeLlremenL shall be auLomaLlc and compulsorv aL Lhe aae of 63
vearsţƍ Lhere ls noth|ng |n the statute to suggest that a government emp|oyee whoţ ||ke pr|vate respondent ,anapatţ happens to
sat|sfy the requ|rements not on|y of 5ect|on 12(e)ţ but a|so 5ect|on 12(a)ţ 12(b) and 12(c)ţ must necessar||y ret|re under 5ect|on 12(e)Ŧ
We flnd lL verv dlfflculL Lo undersLand whv a aovernmenL emplovee who reaches Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 buL who has
served a LoLalţ noL of flfLeen %13) vears %Lhe mlnlmum requlred under 12żeŽ) buL raLher 33 vears %lŦeŦţ more Lhan Lhe vears of servlce
speclfled under 12żaŽţ 12żbŽ and 12żcŽ)ţ should be reaarded as deprlved of Lhe rlahL Lo reLlre under 12%c) %lŦeŦţ 8ŦAŦ noŦ 1616 as amended)ţ
where Lhe requlred number of vears of servlces ls onlv 20Ŧ
Ŵ 1he lnLerpreLaLlon uraed bv peLlLloners ls consplcuouslv aL war wlLh Lhe baslc pollcv purpose of CA 186 as amended bv 8A 1616 whlch lsţ
of courseţ Lo creaLe an added lncenLlve for quallfled aovernmenL emplovees Lo remaln ln Lhe servlce of Lhe aovernmenLŦ 1he baslc
prlnclples for Lhe consLrucLlon of sLaLuLes Lell us LhaL a sLaLuLe musL be read ln such a wav as Lo alve effecL Lo Lhe purpose pro[ecLed ln
Lhe sLaLuLeŦ under Lhls prlnclple of effecLlvenessţ reLlremenL sLaLuLesţ ln case of a real as dlsLlnaulshed from a merelv osLenslble doubL or

ŵŴŴ



amblaulLvţ musL be so consLrued as Lo alve meanlna and effecL Lo Lhelr humanlLarlan purposes and so as reasonablv Lo beneflL
emplovees who had opLed Lo sLav ln Lhe servlces of Lhe aovernmenL for so manv vearsŦ

1husţ we read SecLlon 12%c) as appllcable ln
respecL of prlvaLe respondenL ManapaL who had complled wlLh Lhe requlremenL of LhaL subsecLlon of aL leasL 20 vears of servlceŦ 1he
beneflLs of SecLlon 12%c) areţ under lLs express Lermsţ avallable Lo anvone who shall have rendered aL leasL 20 vears of servlceţ
ƍreaardless of żLheŽ aaeƍ reached bv Lhe reLlree aL Lhe Llme of hls reLlremenLŦ
Ŵ Aarees wlLh CA LhaLť SecLlon 12%e) of CŦAŦŦ noŦ 186 as amended ºcannot and shou|d not be construed as ||m|t|ng the mode of ret|rement
of żaŽ aovernmenL emplovee who was has reached Lhe aae of 63 vears"
Ŵ 1he phrase ºreaardless of aae" found ln SecLlon 12%c) becomes parLlcularlv meanlnaful when lL ls recalled LhaL SecLlon 12%e)ţ whlch
declares LhaL ºreLlremenL shall be auLomaLlc and compulsorv aL aae 63ţ" noneLheless alves an emplovee who has alreadv reached 6)
vears of aae Lhe opLlon Lo remaln ln Lhe aovernmenL servlce ln order Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear mlnlmum servlce requlremenLŦ
Ŵ An emplovee who shall have saLlsfled Lhe requlremenLs for reLlremenL under more Lhan one %1) subsecLlon of SecLlon 12 of CA 186 as
amended ls enLlLled Lo choose Lhe subsecLlon %whose requlremenL he has complled wlLh and) under whlch he shall reLlreŦ 1he opLlon of
reLlrlna under SecLlon 12%c) or SecLlon 12%e)ţ ln Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhls caseţ belonas Lo ManapaL and oot Lo hls emploverŦ
DL5 ,-D,U5 IL?
Ŵ 1he appllcaLlon for reLlremenL of ManapaL havlna been approved and ad[usLed under Lhe provlslons of SecLlon 12%c)ţ CŦAŦ noŦ 186 as
amendedţ lL became mlnlsLerlal on Lhe parL of peLlLloner ClLv of Manlla as emplover of ManapaL Lo provlde Lhe funds necessarv Lo pav
Lhe laLLerƌs lawfullv accrued reLlremenL araLulLvŦ
Ŵ 1he facL LhaL peLlLloner ClLv of Manlla mav have no lLem ln lLs Ceneral ApproprlaLlon Crdlnance speclflcallv earmarklna an amounL of
Þ486ţ634Ŧ84 for pavmenL Lo MrŦ ManapaLţ presenLs no leaal obsLacleŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Mokotl v cAť Mandamus was avallable Lo compelţ noL onlv Lhe enacLmenL and approval of Lhe necessarv approprlaLlon ordlnance
buL also Lhe correspondlna pavmenL of munlclpal funds LhereforŦ
Ŵ SecLlon 12%c)ţ CA 186 as amendedţ ln facL effecLlvelv Jlspeoses wltb tbe oeeJ fot eooctloo oo otJloooce speclflcollv opptoptlotloo
Mooopotƌs tetltemeot povţ or lnserLlna an approprlaLe lLem Lo LhaL effecL ln a Ceneral ApproprlaLlon CrdlnanceŦ

5ontos v c4 %SuÞ8A)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Me1C !udae Lurned 1CC dlrecLor
Ŵ AnLonlo SanLos %noL ÞrofŦ AnLonlo SanLos of Lhe Law Llbrarv) opLlonallv reLlred from Lhe !udlclarv under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 910ţ as amendedţ and
recelved hls reLlremenL araLulLv under Lhe law for hls enLlre vears ln Lhe aovernmenL servlceŤ for 3 vears laLerţ he has been reaularlv
recelvlna a monLhlv penslonŦ
Ŵ Pe reŴenLered Lhe aovernmenL servlce as ulrecLor lll of Lhe 1rafflc CperaLlon CenLer of Lhe MMAŦ Pls appolnLmenL was approved bv Lhe
Clvll Servlce Commlsslon %CSC)Ŧ Poweverţ ln 1993 Lhe MMA was reoraanlzed lnLo MMuA bv vlrLue of 8A 7924Ŧ
Ŵ ln vlew of Lhe reoraanlzaLlonţ SecŦ 11 of Lhe sald law provlded for Lhe separaLlon beneflLs of dlsplaced personnel as followsť º1he naLlonal
aovernmenL shall provlde such amounLs as mav be necessarv Lo pav Lhe beneflLs accrulna Lo dlsplaced emplovees aL Lhe raLe of 1 x
monLhs salarv for every year of serv|ceť 9tovlJeJţ 1haLţ lf qua||f|ed for ret|rement under exlsLlna reLlremenL lawsţ sald emplovees mav
opL Lo recelve Lhe beneflLs LhereunderŦ"
Ŵ 8oLh CSC and CA ruled LhaL hls separaLlon pav should onlv be counLed based on hls vears of servlce ln Lhe MMA
Issueť WCn for Lhe purpose of compuLlna or deLermlnlna peLlLloner's separaLlon pav under SecLlon 11 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 7924ţ hls years of serv|ce
|n the Iud|c|ary should be exc|uded and LhaL hls separaLlon pav should be so|e|y conf|ned to h|s serv|ces |n the ,,? ?es
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he case aL bench ls noLţ sLrlcLlv speaklnaţ abouL double penslonŦ lL lsţ howeverţ abouL Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of a araLulLv lawţ vlzŦţ SecLlon
11 of 8epubllc AcL noŦ 7924 whlch awards separaLlon pav Lo Lhose aovernmenL emplovees who were dlsplaced bv Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of
Lhe MMA lnLo Lhe MMuAţ whlch should be consLrued Lo preclude a aovernmenL emplovee from recelvlna double araLulLv for Lhe same
vears of servlceŦ
Ŵ 1he lasL paraaraph of SecLlon 11 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 7924 on Lhe aranL of separaLlon pav aL Lhe raLe of one and oneŴfourLh %1) monLhs of salarv
for everv vear of servlce cannoL bv anv sLreLch of loalc or lmaalnaLlon be lnLerpreLed Lo refer Lo Lhe LoLal lenaLh of servlce of an MMA
emplovee ln Lhe aovernmenLţ lŦeŦţ Lo lnclude such servlce ln Lhe aovernmenL ouLslde Lhe MMAŦ Slnce lL allows Lhe aranL of separaLlon pav
Lo emplovees who were Lo be dlsplaced Lherebv Lhe separaLlon pav can be based onlv on Lhe lenaLh of servlce ln Lhe MMAŦ 1he
dlsplacemenL amounLed Lo an abollLlon of Lhe offlce or poslLlon of Lhe dlsplaced emploveesţ such as LhaL of peLlLlonerŦ 1he rule ls seLLled
LhaL Conaress mav abollsh publlc offlcesŦ Such a power ls a consequenL preroaaLlve of lLs power Lo creaLe publlc offlcesŦ Poweverţ Lhe
power Lo abollsh ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlon LhaL lL be exerclsed ln aood falLhŦ 1he separaLlon parLook of Lhe naLure of a dlsLurbance of
compensaLlonŤ henceţ Lhe separaLlon pav musL relaLe onlv Lo Lhe emplovmenL Lhus affecLedŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner hlmself musL have reallzed LhaL SecLlon 11 does noL allow Lhe Lacklna ln of hls prevlous aovernmenL servlceŦ lf he were
convlnced LhaL lL does he could have lnsLead applled for tetltemeot beneflLsţ slnce bv addlna hls vears of servlce ln Lhe MMA Lo hls
prevlous vears of servlce ln Lhe CovernmenL he could have reLlred under Lhe Lhlrd paraaraph of SecLlon 11Ŧ
Ŵ AfLer Lhe approval of hls opLlonal reLlremenL on 1 Aprll 1992ţ peLlLloner was fullv pald of hls reLlremenL araLulLv under 8ŦAŦ noŦ 910ţ as
amendedŤ and flve vears LhereafLer he has been recelvlna a monLhlv penslonŦ
Ŵ Second paraaraph of SecLlon 8 of ArLlcle lxŴ8 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon %ºÞenslons or araLulLles shall noL be consldered as addlLlonalţ doubleţ or
lndlrecL compensaLlonŦ") slmplv means LhaL a reLlree recelvlna penslon or araLulLv can conLlnue Lo recelve such penslon or araLulLv even
lf he accepLs anoLher aovernmenL poslLlon Lo whlch anoLher compensaLlon ls aLLachedŦ


ŵŴŵ



Peop/e v lo/osjos %324 SC8A 333 | 2000Ť )ootesŴ5ootloooţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ 8omeo lŦ !aloslos ls a fullŴpledaed member of Conaress who ls now conflned aL Lhe naLlonal penlLenLlarv whlle hls convlcLlon for
sLaLuLorv rape on Lwo counLs and acLs of lasclvlousness on slx counLs

ls pendlna appealŦ 1he accusedŴappellanL flled Lhls moLlon asklna
LhaL he be allowed Lo fullv dlscharae Lhe duLles of a Conaressmanţ lncludlna aLLendance aL lealslaLlve sesslons and commlLLee meeLlnas
desplLe hls havlna been convlcLed ln Lhe flrsL lnsLance of a nonŴballable offenseŦ
Ŵ Crounds proferred for hls ºMoLlon 1o 8e Allowed 1o ulscharae MandaLe As Member of Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves"
1Ŧ AccusedŴappellanLƌs reelecLlon belna an expresslon of popular wlll cannoL be rendered lnuLlle bv anv rullnaţ alvlna prlorlLv Lo anv rlahL
or lnLeresL Ÿ noL even Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLeŦ
2Ŧ 1o deprlve Lhe elecLoraLe of Lhelr elecLed represenLaLlve amounLs Lo LaxaLlon wlLhouL represenLaLlonŦ
3Ŧ 1o bar accusedŴappellanL from performlna hls duLles amounLs Lo hls suspenslon/removal and mocks Lhe renewed mandaLes enLrusLed
Lo hlm bv Lhe peopleŦ
4Ŧ 1he elecLoraLe of Lhe llrsL ulsLrlcL of Zamboanaa del norLe wanLs Lhelr volce Lo be heardŦ
3Ŧ A precedenLŴseLLlna uŦSŦ rullna allowed a deLalned lawmaker Lo aLLend sesslons of Lhe uŦSŦ ConaressŦ
6Ŧ 1he Pouse LreaLs accusedŴappellanL as a booo flJe member Lhereof and uraes a coŴequal branch of aovernmenL Lo respecL lLs
mandaLeŦ
7Ŧ 1he concept of temporary detent|on does noL necessarllv curLall Lhe duLv of accusedŴappellanL Lo dlscharae hls mandaLeŦ
8Ŧ AccusedŴappellanL has alwavs complled wlLh Lhe condlLlons/resLrlcLlons when allowed Lo leave [allŦ
Ŵ 1he prlmarv araumenL of Lhe movanL ls Lhe ƍmandaLe of soverelan wlllŦƍ Pe sLaLes LhaL Lhe soverelan elecLoraLe of Lhe llrsL ulsLrlcL of
Zamboanaa del norLe chose hlm as Lhelr represenLaLlve ln ConaressŦ Pavlna been reŴelecLed bv hls consLlLuenLsţ he has Lhe duLv Lo
perform Lhe funcLlons of a ConaressmanŦ Pe calls Lhls a covenanL wlLh hls consLlLuenLs made posslble bv Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe SLaLeŦ Pe
adds LhaL lL cannoL be defeaLed bv lnsuperable procedural resLralnLs arlslna from pendlna crlmlnal casesŦ
Ŵ Pe araues LhaL a member of Conaressƌ funcLlon Lo aLLend sesslons ls underscored bv SecLlon 16 %2)ţ ArLlcle vl of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonť ºA
ma[orlLv of each Pouse shall consLlLuLe a quorum Lo do buslnessţ buL a smaller number mav ad[ourn from dav Lo dav and mav compel
Lhe aLLendance of absenL Members ln such mannerţ and under such penalLlesţ as such Pouse mav provldeŦ"
Ŵ ClLlna AooloolJo vŦ 5ootosť º1he CourL should never remove a publlc offlcer for acLs done prlor Lo hls presenL Lerm of offlceŦ 1o do
oLherwlse would be Lo deprlve Lhe people of Lhelr rlahL Lo elecL Lhelr offlcersŦ When a people have elecLed a man Lo offlceţ lL musL be
assumed LhaL Lhev dld Lhls wlLh Lhe knowledae of hls llfe and characLerţ and LhaL Lhev dlsreaarded or foraave hls faulL or mlsconducLţ lf
he had been aullLv of anvŦ lL ls noL for Lhe CourLţ bv reason of such faulL or mlsconducLţ Lo pracLlcallv overrule Lhe wlll of Lhe people"
Ŵ Pe also araues LhaL on several occaslons Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourL of MakaLl aranLed several moLlons Lo Lemporarllv leave hls cell aL Lhe
MakaLl ClLv !allţ for offlclal or medlcal reasons
Issueť uoes membershlp ln Conaress exempL an accused from sLaLuLes and rules whlch applv Lo valldlv lncarceraLed persons ln aeneral?
ne|dť LlecLlon Lo Lhe poslLlon of Conaressman ls noL a reasonable classlflcaLlon ln crlmlnal law enforcemenLŦ 1he funcLlons and duLles of Lhe
offlce are noL subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons whlch llfL hlm from Lhe class of prlsoners lnLerrupLed ln Lhelr freedom and resLrlcLed ln llberLv of
movemenLŦ Lawful arresL and conflnemenL are aermane Lo Lhe purposes of Lhe law and applv Lo all Lhose belonalna Lo Lhe same classŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ LlecLlon ls Lhe expresslon of Lhe soverelan power of Lhe peopleŦ ln Lhe exerclse of suffraaeţ a free people expecLs Lo achleve Lhe
conLlnulLv of aovernmenL and Lhe perpeLuaLlon of lLs beneflLsŦ Poweverţ lnsplLe of lLs lmporLanceţ Lhe prlvlleaes and rlahLs arlslna from
havlna been elecLed mav be enlaraed or resLrlcLed bv lawŦ Cur flrsL Lask ls Lo ascerLaln Lhe appllcable lawŦ
Ŵ 1here ls an unforLunaLe mlslmpresslon ln Lhe publlc mlnd LhaL elecLlon or appolnLmenL Lo hlah aovernmenL offlceţ bv lLselfţ frees Lhe
offlclal from Lhe common resLralnLs of aeneral lawŦ Þrlvlleae has Lo be aranLed bv lawţ noL lnferred from Lhe duLles of a poslLlonŦ ln facLţ
Lhe hlaher Lhe rankţ Lhe areaLer ls Lhe requlremenL of obedlence raLher Lhan exempLlonŦ
Ŵ 1he lmmunlLv from arresL or deLenLlon of SenaLors and members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlvesţ Lhe laLLer cusLomarllv addressed as
Conaressmenţ arlses from a provlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he hlsLorv of Lhe provlslon shows LhaL prlvlleae has alwavs been aranLed ln a
resLrlcLlve senseŦ 1he provlslon aranLlna an exempLlon as a speclal prlvlleae cannoL be exLended bevond Lhe ordlnarv meanlna of lLs
LermsŦ lL mav noL be exLended bv lnLendmenLţ lmpllcaLlon or equlLable conslderaLlonsŦ
Ŵ 8ecause of Lhe broad coveraae of felonv and breach of Lhe peaceţ Lhe exempLlon applled onlv Lo clvll arresLsŦ A conaressman llke Lhe
accusedŴappellanLţ convlcLed under 1lLle Lleven of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Code could noL clalm parllamenLarv lmmunlLv from arresLŦ Pe was
sub[ecL Lo Lhe same aeneral laws aovernlna all persons sLlll Lo be Lrled or whose convlcLlons were pendlna appealŦ
Ŵ 1he presenL ConsLlLuLlon adheres Lo Lhe same resLrlcLlve rule mlnus Lhe obllaaLlon of Conaress Lo surrender Lhe sub[ecL Conaressman Lo
Lhe cusLodv of Lhe lawŦ 1he requlremenL LhaL he should be aLLendlna sesslons or commlLLee meeLlnas has also been removedŦ lor
relaLlvelv mlnor offensesţ lL ls enouah LhaL Conaress ls ln sesslonŦ
Ŵ 8eť SecŦ 16 of ArLŦ vlť Pe has noL alven anv reason whv he should be exempLed from Lhe operaLlon of SecLlon 11ţ ArLlcle vl of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he members of Conaress cannoL compel absenL members Lo aLLend sesslons lf Lhe reason for Lhe absence ls a lealLlmaLe
oneŦ 1he conflnemenL of a Conaressman charaed wlLh a crlme punlshable bv lmprlsonmenL of more Lhan slx monLhs ls noL merelv
auLhorlzed bv lawţ lL has consLlLuLlonal foundaLlonsŦ
Ŵ 8eť Aaulnaldo rullnať lL wlll noL exLrlcaLe hlm from hls predlcamenLŦ lL can be readllv seen LhaL Lhe Aaulnaldo case lnvolves Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve removal of a publlc offlcer for acLs done prlor Lo hls presenL Lerm of offlceŦ lL does noL applv Lo lmprlsonmenL arlslna from
Lhe enforcemenL of crlmlnal lawŦ Moreoverţ ln Lhe same wav LhaL prevenLlve suspenslon ls noL removalţ conflnemenL pendlna appeal ls
noL removalŦ Pe remalns a conaressman unless expelled bv Conaress orţ oLherwlseţ dlsquallfledŦ

ŵŴŶ



Ŵ Cne raLlonale behlnd conflnemenLţ wheLher pendlna appeal or afLer flnal convlcLlonţ ls publlc selfŴdefenseŦ SocleLv musL proLecL lLselfŦ lL
also serves as an example and warnlna Lo oLhersŦ
Ŵ lL wlll be recalled LhaL when a warranL for accusedŴappellanLƌs arresL was lssuedţ he fled and evaded capLure desplLe a call from hls
colleaaues ln Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves for hlm Lo aLLend Lhe sesslons and Lo surrender volunLarllv Lo Lhe auLhorlLlesŦ lronlcallvţ lL ls
now Lhe same bodv whose call he lnlLlallv spurned whlch accusedŴappellanL ls lnvoklna Lo [usLlfv hls presenL moLlonŦ 1hls can noL be
counLenanced becauseţ Lo relLeraLeţ aslde from lLs belna conLrarv Lo wellŴdeflned ConsLlLuLlonal resLralnsţ lL would be a mockerv of Lhe
alms of Lhe SLaLeƌs penal svsLemŦ
Ŵ 8eť opporLunlLles Lo ao ouLť 1here's no showlna LhaL Lhe above prlvlleaes are pecullar Lo hlm or Lo a member of ConaressŦ Lmeraencv or
compelllna Lemporarv leaves from lmprlsonmenL are allowed Lo all prlsonersţ aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe auLhorlLles or upon courL ordersŦ
Ŵ 8eť respecL hls mandaLeť AccusedŴappellanL admlLs LhaL whlle under deLenLlonţ he has flled several bllls and resoluLlonsŦ lL also appears
LhaL he has been recelvlna hls salarles and oLher moneLarv beneflLsŦ SucclncLlv sLaLedţ he has been dlscharalna hls mandaLe as a member
of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlve conslsLenL wlLh Lhe resLralnLs upon one who ls presenLlv under deLenLlonŦ 8elna a deLalneeţ accusedŴ
appellanL should noL even have been allowed bv Lhe prlson auLhorlLles aL Lhe naLlonal ÞenlLenLlarv Lo perform Lhese acLsŦ
Ŵ When Lhe voLers of hls dlsLrlcL elecLed Lhe accusedŴappellanL Lo Conaressţ Lhev dld so wlLh full awareness of Lhe llmlLaLlons on hls
freedom of acLlonŦ 1hev dld so wlLh Lhe knowledae LhaL he could achleve onlv such lealslaLlve resulLs whlch he could accompllsh wlLhln
Lhe conflnes of prlsonŦ 1o alve a more drasLlc lllusLraLlonţ lf voLers elecL a person wlLh full knowledae LhaL he sufferlna from a Lermlnal
lllnessţ Lhev do so knowlna LhaL aL anv Llmeţ he mav no lonaer serve hls full Lerm ln offlceŦ
Ŵ l1 ALL 8ClLS uCWn 1C LCuAL Þ8C1LC1lCn! uoes belna an elecLlve offlclal resulL ln a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon LhaL allows dlfferenL
LreaLmenL? ls belna a Conaressman a subsLanLlal dlfferenLlaLlon whlch removes Lhe accusedŴappellanL as a prlsoner from Lhe same class
as all persons valldlv conflned under law?
Ŵ 1he performance of lealLlmaLe and even essenLlal duLles bv publlc offlcers has never been an excuse Lo free a person valldlv ln prlsonŦ
1he duLles lmposed bv Lhe ƍmandaLe of Lhe peopleƍ are mulLlfarlousŦ 1he accusedŴappellanL asserLs LhaL Lhe duLv Lo lealslaLlve ranks
hlahesL ln Lhe hlerarchv of aovernmenLŦ 1he accusedŴappellanL ls onlv one of 230 members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlvesţ noL Lo
menLlon Lhe 24 members of Lhe SenaLeţ charaed wlLh Lhe duLles of lealslaLlonŦ Conaress conLlnues Lo funcLlon well ln Lhe phvslcal
absence of one or a few of lLs membersŦ uependlna on Lhe exlaencv of CovernmenL LhaL has Lo be addressedţ Lhe ÞresldenL or Lhe
Supreme CourL can also be deemed Lhe hlahesL for LhaL parLlcular duLvŦ 1he lmporLance of a funcLlon depends on Lhe need Lo lLs
exerclseŦ 1he duLv of a moLher Lo nurse her lnfanL ls mosL compelllna under Lhe law of naLureŦ A docLor wlLh unlque skllls has Lhe duLv Lo
save Lhe llves of Lhose wlLh a parLlcular affllcLlonŦ An elecLlve aovernor has Lo serve provlnclal consLlLuenLsŦ A pollce offlcer musL
malnLaln peace and orderŦ never has Lhe call of a parLlcular duLv llfLed a prlsoner lnLo a dlfferenL classlflcaLlon from Lhose oLhers who are
valldlv resLralned bv lawŦ

ceno v c5c %211 SC8A 179 | 1992Ť MeJlolJeoţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť 8ealsLrar of realsLer of deeds
Ŵ Caudenclo 1Ŧ Cena enLered Lhe aovernmenL servlce on november 16ţ 1978 as Leaal Cfflcer ll of Lhe Law ueparLmenL of Caloocan ClLv
where he sLaved for seven %7) vears unLll hls Lransfer on november 16ţ 1986 Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Conaressman of Lhe llrsL ulsLrlcL of
Caloocan ClLv where he worked for onlv Lhree %3) monLhsţ or unLll lebruarv 13ţ 1987ţ as Supervlslna SLaff CfflcerŦ
Ŵ AppolnLed as 8ealsLrar of Lhe 8ealsLer of ueeds of Malabonţ MeLro Manllaţ Lhe poslLlon he held aL Lhe Llme he reached Lhe compulsorv
reLlremenL aae of 63 vears on !anuarv 22ţ 1991Ŧ 8v Lhenţ he would have rendered a LoLal aovernmenL servlce of 11 vearsţ 9 monLhs and 6
davsŦ 8efore reachlna hls 63Lh blrLhdavţ he requesLed Lhe SecreLarv of !usLlceţ Lhrouah AdmlnlsLraLor 1eodoro CŦ 8onlfaclo of Lhe Land
8ealsLraLlon AuLhorlLv %L8A)ţ LhaL he be allowed Lo exLend hls servlce Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear servlce requlremenL Lo enable hlm Lo
reLlre wlLh full beneflLs of oldŴaae penslon under SecLlon 11ţ parŦ %b) of ÞŦuŦ 1146Ŧ
Ŵ L8A AdmlnlsLraLorţ for hls parLţ souahL a rullna from Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon wheLher or noL Lo allow Lhe exLenslon of servlce of
peLlLloner Cena as he ls covered bv Clvll Servlce Memorandum noŦ 27ţ serles 1990Ŧ ln hls 2nd lndorsemenL daLed AuausL 6ţ 1990ţ Lhe L8A
AdmlnlsLraLor observed LhaL lf peLlLlonerƌs servlce as of !anuarv 22ţ 1991 of 10 vearsţ 6 monLhs and 6 davs %should be 11 vearsţ 9 monLhs
and 6 davs) would be exLended Lo 13 vearsţ he would have Lo reLlre on Aprll 13ţ 1994 aL Lhe aae of 68 vearsŦ
Ŵ CSC denled Cenaƌs requesL for exLenslon of servlce ln lLs CSC 8esoluLlon noŦ 90Ŵ681ţ declarlna Lherelnţ LhaL MrŦ Cena shall be consldered
reLlred from Lhe servlce on Lhe daLe when he shall reach Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsţ unless hls reLenLlon for anoLher vear
ls souahL bv Lhe head of offlce under CSMC noŦ 27ţ sŦ 1990 ´Aov teooest fot tbe exteosloo of setvlce of compolsotv tetltees to complete tbe 15
veots setvlce teooltemeot fot tetltemeot sboll be olloweJ oolv to petmooeot oppolotees lo tbe coteet setvlce wbo ote teoolot membets of tbe C5l5ţ
ooJ sboll be otooteJ fot o petloJ oot exceeJloo 1 veotŦ´
Ŵ Cena's araumenLť CSC's rellance on parŦ %1) of Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27 allowlna an exLenslon of servlce of a compulsorv reLlree for
a perlod noL exceedlna 1 vear ls boLh erroneous and conLrarv Lo Lhe ƍbenevolenL and munlflcenL lnLenLlonsƍ of SecLlon 11 of ÞŦuŦ 1146Ŧ
ÞarŦ %b)ţ SecLlon 11 of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 1146 does noL llmlL nor speclfv Lhe maxlmum number of vears Lhe reLlree mav avall of Lo compleLe Lhe 13
vears of servlceŦ
Ŵ SolCen Lakes Cena's sldeť 1he quesLloned provlslon belna aenerallv wordedţ SecLlon 11 parŦ %b)ţ ÞŦuŦ 1146 has aeneral appllcaLlonţ Lhus
respondenL CSC has no auLhorlLv Lo llmlL Lhrouah CSC Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27 Lhe prlvlleae under sald secLlon Lo aovernmenL
emplovees who lack [usL one vear Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear servlce requlremenLŦ
Ŵ CSC's araumenLť CSC ls Lhe cenLral personnel aaencv of Lhe aovernmenLţ lL ls vesLed wlLh Lhe power and auLhorlLvţ amona oLhersţ Lo
aranL or allow exLenslon of servlce bevond reLlremenL aae pursuanL Lo SecLlon 14 parŦ %14)ţ ChapLer 3ţ SubLlLle Aţ 1lLle lţ 8ook v of LC noŦ
292Ŧ ln lnLerpreLlna SecLlon 11 parŦ %b) of ÞŦuŦ 1146ţ CSC conLends LhaL Lhe phrase ƍÞrovldedţ 1haL lf he has less Lhan flfLeen vears of

ŵŴŷ



servlceţ he shall be allowed Lo conLlnue ln Lhe servlce Lo compleLe Lhe flfLeen vearsƍţ ls quallfled bv Lhe clauseť ƍunless Lhe servlce ls
exLended bv approprlaLe auLhorlLlesţƍ whlch means LhaL Lhe exLenslon of servlce musL be flrsL auLhorlzed bv Lhe Commlsslonţ as Lhe
approprlaLe auLhorlLv referred Lo ln SecLlon 11ţ parŦ %b)ţ ÞŦuŦ 1146ţ before Lhe servlce of a compulsorv reLlree %one who has alreadv
reached aae of 63 vears wlLh aL leasL 13 vears of servlce) can be exLendedŦ
Issueť Mav a aovernmenL emplovee who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsţ buL who has rendered 11 vearsţ 9 monLhs
and 6 davs of aovernmenL servlceţ be allowed Lo conLlnue ln Lhe servlce Lo compleLe Lhe13Ŵvear servlce requlremenL Lo enable hlm Lo reLlre
wlLh Lhe beneflLs of an oldŴaae penslon under SecLlon 11 parŦ %b) of Lhe 8evlsed CovernmenL Servlce lnsurance AcL of 1977?
ne|dť ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ SecLlon 12ţ parŦ %14)ţ ChapLer 3ţ SubLlLle Aţ 1lLle lţ 8ook v of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987 %november 24ţ 1987)ť %14) 1ake approprlaLe
acLlon on all appolnLmenLs and oLher personnel maLLers ln Lhe Clvll Servlce lncludlna exLenslon of servlce bevond reLlremenL aaeŤ
cannoL be lnLerpreLed Lo auLhorlze Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon Lo llmlL Lo onlv one %1) vear Lhe exLenslon of servlce of an emplovee
who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 wlLhouL havlna compleLed 13 vears of servlceţ when sald llmlLaLlon has no relaLlon
Lo or connecLlon wlLh Lhe provlslon of Lhe law supposed Lo be carrled lnLo effecLŦ
Ŵ SecLlon 11 paraaraph %b) of Lhe 8evlsed CovernmenL Servlce lnsurance AcL of 1977ť SecŦ 11Ŧ CondlLlons for CldŴAae ÞenslonŦ Ÿ %a) CldŴ
aae penslon shall be pald Lo a member whoť %b) unless Lhe servlce ls exLended bv approprlaLe auLhorlLlesţ reLlremenL shall be
compulsorv for an emplovee of slxLvŴflve vears of aae wlLh aL leasL flfLeen vears of servlceť Þrovldedţ 1haL lf he has less Lhan flfLeen vears
of servlceţ he shall be allowed Lo conLlnue ln Lhe servlce Lo compleLe Lhe flfLeen vearsŦ
Ŵ 8elna remedlal ln characLerţ a sLaLuLe creaLlna a penslon or esLabllshlna reLlremenL plan should be llberallv consLrued and admlnlsLered
ln favor of Lhe persons lnLended Lo be beneflLed LherebvŦ 1he llberal approach alms Lo achleve Lhe humanlLarlan purposes of Lhe law ln
order LhaL Lhe efflclencvţ securlLv and wellŴbelna of aovernmenL emplovees mav be enhancedŦ
Ŵ ClLlna Abad SanLos vsŦ AudlLor Ceneralť A penslon parLakes of Lhe naLure of ƍreLalned waaesƍ of Lhe reLlree for a double purposeť
%1) Lo enLlce compeLenL men and women Lo enLer Lhe aovernmenL servlceţ and
%2) permlL Lhem Lo reLlre from Lhe servlce wlLh relaLlve securlLvţ noL onlv for Lhose who have reLalned Lhelr vlaorţ buL more so for Lhose
who have been lncapaclLaLed bv lllness or accldenLŦ
Ŵ 1here ls Lhus no [usLlflable reason ln noL allowlna ordlnarv emplovees ln Lhe LxecuLlve 8ranch on a case Lo case baslsţ Lo conLlnue ln Lhe
servlce Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear servlce requlremenL Lo avall of Lhe oldŴaae penslon under SecLlon 11 of ÞŦuŦ 1146Ŧ 8v llmlLlna Lhe
exLenslon of servlce Lo onlv one %1) vear would defeaL Lhe beneflclal lnLendmenL of Lhe reLlremenL provlslons of ÞŦuŦ 1146Ŧ
Ŵ ln resolvlna Lhe quesLlon wheLher or noL Lo allow a compulsorv reLlree Lo conLlnue ln Lhe servlce Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear servlceţ Lhere
musL be presenL an essenLlal facLor before an appllcaLlon under SecLlon 11 parŦ %b) of ÞŦuŦ 1146 mav be aranLed bv Lhe emplover or
aovernmenL offlce concernedŦ ln Lhe case of offlclals of Lhe !udlclarvţ Lhe CourL allows a maklna up or compensaLlna for lack of requlred
aae or servlce onlv lf saLlsfled LhaL Lhe career of Lhe reLlree was marked bv compeLenceţ lnLearlLvţ and dedlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc servlceŦ lL
musL be so ln Lhe lnsLanL caseŦ
Ŵ 1he aovernlna reLlremenL law ln Lhe lnsLanL case ls ÞŦuŦ 1146 oLherwlse known as Lhe ƍ8evlsed CovernmenL Servlce lnsurance AcL of
1977Ŧƍ 1he rule on llmlLlna Lo onlv one %1) vear Lhe exLenslon of servlce of an emplovee who has reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae
of 63 vearsţ buL has less Lhan 13 vears of servlce under Clvll Servlce Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27 sŦ 1990ţ cannoL llkewlse be accorded
valldlLv because lL has no re|at|on to or connect|on w|th any prov|s|on of ÞŦuŦ 1146 supposed Lo be carrled lnLo effecLŦ 1he rule was an
addlLlon Lo or exLenslon of Lhe lawţ noL merelv a mode of carrvlna lL lnLo effecLŦ 1he Clvll Servlce Commlsslon has no power Lo supplv
percelved omlsslons ln ÞŦuŦ 1146Ŧ
Ŵ Cena should noL be covered bv Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 63 lssued bv Lhen LxecuLlve SecreLarv Macarala on !une 14ţ 1988Ŧ
Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 63 allowlna reLenLlon of servlce for onlv slx %6) monLhs for ƍexLremelv merlLorlous reasonsƍ should applv onlv
Lo emplovees or offlclals who have reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vears buL whoţ aL Lhe same Llmeţ have compleLed Lhe
13Ŵvear servlce requlremenL for reLlremenL purposesŦ lL should noL applv Lo emplovees or offlclals who have reached Lhe compulsorv
reLlremenL aae of 63 vearsţ buL who opLed Lo avall of Lhe oldŴaae penslon under parŦ %b)ţ SecLlon 11 of ÞŦuŦ 1146ţ ln whlch caseţ Lhev are
allowedţ aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe aaencv concernedţ Lo compleLe Lhe 13Ŵvear servlce requlremenLŦ

kobor v c5c %244 SC8A 614 | 1995Ť lellcloooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť uLlllLv worker ln Cfflce of Mavor
Ŵ An offlclal ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Mavor of uavao ClLvţ advlsed 8abor Lo applv for reLlremenLţ conslderlna LhaL he had alreadv reached Lhe
aae of 68 vears and 7 monLhsţ wlLh 13 vears and 1 monLh of aovernmenL servlceŦ 8abor responded Lo Lhls advlce bv exhlblLlna a
ƍCerLlflcaLe of Membershlpƍ lssued bv Lhe CSlSŦ AL Lhe boLLom of whlch ºCerLlflcaLe of Membershlp" ls a LvpewrlLLen sLaLemenL of Lhe
followlna Lenorť ºServlce exLended Lo complv 13 vears servlce requlremenLsŦ" 1hls sLaLemenL ls followed bv a nonŴlealble lnlLlal wlLh Lhe
followlna daLe ƍ2/28/91Ŧƍ
Ŵ uavao ClLv CovernmenLţ Lhrouah MsŦ ÞaaaLpaLanţ wroLe Lo Lhe 8ealonal ulrecLor of CSCţ 8ealon xlţ uavao ClLvţ lnformlna Lhe laLLer of
Lhe foreaolna and requesLlna advlce ƍas Lo whaL acLlon żshouldŽ be Laken on Lhls maLLerŦƍ
Ŵ CS8CŴxl advlsed uavao ClLv Mavorť ºCfflclals and emplovees who have reached Lhe compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vears shall noL be
reLalned Lhe servlceţ excepL for exLremelv merlLorlous reasons ln whlch case Lhe reLenLlon shall noL exceed slx %6) monLhsŦ"
Ŵ CSC dlsmlssed Lhe appeal of MrŦ 8abor and afflrmed Lhe acLlon aboveŦ

ŵŴŸ



Ŵ CSC Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27ţ sŦ 1990ť Anv requesL for exLenslon of servlce of compulsorv reLlrees Lo compleLe Lhe flfLeen vears
servlce requlremenL for reLlremenL shall be allowed onlv Lo permanenL appolnLees ln Lhe career servlce who are reaular members of Lhe
CSlS and shall be aranLed for a perlod of noL exceedlna one %1) vearŦ
Ŵ 8abor senL Mavor anoLher leLLer whlch was replled wlLh Mavor uuLerLe polnLlna ouL LhaLţ under Cena aranL of Lhe exLenslon of servlce
was dlscreLlonarv on Lhe parL of Lhe ClLv Mavorţ erao he could noL aranL Lhe exLenslon requesLedŦ Pe also sald LhaL ºAs vou are alreadv
nearlna vour 70Lh blrLhdav mav no lonaer be able Lo perform Lhe duLles aLLached Lo vour poslLlonŦ Moreoverţ Lhe poslLlon vou had
vacaLed was alreadv fllled upŦ"
Ŵ 8aborť l'm slmllarlv slLuaLed wlLh Cena!
Ŵ CSCť no vou're noL! SC had ruled ln Cena LhaL Lhe emplover aaencvţ Lhe Land 8ealsLraLlon AuLhorlLv of Lhe ueparLmenL of !usLlceţ was
vesLed wlLh dlscreLlon Lo aranL Lo Cena Lhe exLenslon requesLed bv hlmŦ 1he Land 8ealsLraLlon AuLhorlLv had chosen noL Lo exerclse lLs
dlscreLlon Lo aranL or denv such exLenslonŦ ln conLrasLţ ln Lhe lnsLanL caseţ Lhe uavao ClLv CovernmenL dld exerclse lLs dlscreLlon on Lhe
maLLer and declded Lo denv Lhe exLenslon souahL bv peLlLloner 8abor for lealLlmaLe reasonsŦ
Issueť WCn Cena docLrlne squarelv applles?
ne|dť noţ SC reversed Cena docLrlneŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 8asls of Cena rullnať
1Ŧ SecŦ 11 CondlLlons for CldŴAae ÞenslonŦ Ÿ %a) CldŴAae Þenslon shall be pald Lo a member who
%1) has aL leasL flfLeen %13) vears of servlceŤ
%2) ls aL leasL slxLv %60) vears of aaeŤ and
%3) ls separaLed from Lhe servlceŦ
%b) unless Lhe servlce ls exLended bv approprlaLe auLhorlLlesţ reLlremenL shall be compulsorv for an emplovee aL slxLvŴflveŴ%63) vears of
aae wlLh aL leasL flfLeen %13) vears of servlceŤ Þrovldedţ LhaL lf he has less Lhan flfLeen %13) vears of servlceţ he shall he allowed Lo
conLlnue ln Lhe servlce Lo compleLed Lhe flfLeen %13) vearsŦ
2Ŧ 8elna remedlal ln characLerţ a sLaLuLe aranLlna a penslon or esLabllshlna żaŽ reLlremenL plan should be llberallv consLrued and
admlnlsLered ln favor of persons lnLended Lo be beneflLLed LherebvŦ 1he llberal approach alms Lo achleve Lhe humanlLarlan purposes of
Lhe law ln order LhaL efflclencvţ securlLv and wellŴbelna of aovernmenL emplovees mav be enhancedŦ
Ŵ Whlle SecLlon 11 %b) appeared casL ln verballv unquallfled Lermsţ Lhere were %and sLlll are) 2 adm|n|strat|ve |ssuances whlch prescrlbe
llmlLaLlons on Lhe exLenslon of servlce LhaL mav be aranLed Lo an emplovee who has reached 63 vears of aaeŦ
1Ŧ Clvll Servlce Commlsslon Clrcular noŦ 27ţ Serles of 1990 Ŵ £xteosloo of 5etvlce of compolsotv ketltee to complete tbe llfteeo )eots
5etvlce keooltemeot fot ketltemeot 9otposesŦ
2Ŧ Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 63 of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenLţ daLed 14 !une 1988ť Cfflclals or emplovees who have reached Lhe
compulsorv reLlremenL aae of 63 vears shall noL be reLalned ln Lhe servlceţ excepL for exLremelv merlLorlous reasons ln whlch case
Lhe reLenLlon shall noL exceed slx %6) monLhsŦ
Ŵ Medlaldeaţ !Ŧ resolved Lhe challenaes posed bv Lhe above 2 admlnlsLraLlve reaulaLlons bv
1Ŧ conslderlna as lnvalld Clvll Servlce Memorandum noŦ 27 and
2Ŧ bv lnLerpreLlna Lhe Cfflce of Lhe ÞresldenLƌs Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 63 as lnappllcable Lo Lhe case of CenaŦ
Ŵ ceooţ ln sLrlklna down CSC Memorandum noŦ 27ţ Look a verv narrow vlew on Lhe quesLlon of whaL subordlnaLe ruleŴmaklna bv an
admlnlsLraLlve aaencv ls permlsslble and valldŦ ClLlna 9eople v £xcooJeť lL ls well esLabllshed ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon LhaLţ whlle Lhe maklna of
laws ls a nonŴdeleaable acLlvlLv LhaL corresponds excluslvelv Lo Conaressţ neverLhelessţ Lhe laLLer mav consLlLuLlonallv deleaaLe auLhorlLv
and promulaaLe rules and reaulaLlons Lo lmplemenL a alven lealslaLlon and effecLuaLe lLs pollclesţ for Lhe reason LhaL tbe leolslotote ofteo
floJs lt lmptoctlcoble (lf oot lmposslble) to ootlclpote ooJ ptovlJe fot tbe moltlfotloos ooJ complex sltootloos LhaL mav be meL ln carrvlna
Lhe law lnLo effecLŦ All tbot ls teoolteJ ls tbot tbe teoolotloo sboolJ be oetmooe to tbe objects ooJ potposes of tbe lowŤ tbot tbe
teoolotloo be oot lo coottoJlctloo wltb ltţ bot coofotm to stooJotJs tbot tbe low ptesctlbesŦ
Ŵ ClLlna £Jo v £tlctoť SLandards whlch our CourL has ln prlor case law upheld as sufflclenL for purposes of compllance wlLh Lhe
requlremenLs for valldlLv of subordlnaLe or admlnlsLraLlve ruleŴmaklnať ƍpubllc welfareţƍ ƍnecessarv ln Lhe lnLeresL of law and orderţ"
ƍpubllc lnLeresLţƍ and ƍ[usLlce and equlLv and subsLanLlal merlLs of Lhe caseţ"
Ŵ Clearlvţ Lhereforeţ ceoo when lL requlred a conslderablv hlaher dearee of deLall ln Lhe sLaLuLe Lo be lmplemenLedţ wenL aaalnsL prevalllna
docLrlneŦ lL seems clear LhaL lf Lhe aovernlna or enabllna sLaLuLe ls qulLe deLalled and speclflc Lo bealn wlLhţ Lhere would be verv llLLle
need %or occaslon) for lmplemenLlna admlnlsLraLlve reaulaLlonsŦ lL lsţ howeverţ preclselv Lhe lnablllLv of lealslaLlve bodles Lo anLlclpaLe all
%or manv) posslble deLalled slLuaLlons ln respecL of anv relaLlvelv complex sub[ecL maLLerţ LhaL makes subordlnaLeţ deleaaLed ruleŴmaklna
bv admlnlsLraLlve aaencles so lmporLanL and unavoldableŦ All LhaL mav be reasonablvŤ demanded ls a showlna LhaL Lhe deleaaLed
lealslaLlon conslsLlna of admlnlsLraLlve reaulaLlons are aermane Lo Lhe aeneral purposes pro[ecLed bv Lhe aovernlna or enabllna sLaLuLeŦ
Ŵ We conslder LhaL Lhe enabllna sLaLuLe LhaL should approprlaLelv be examlned ls Lhe presenL Clvll Servlce law Ÿ found ln 8ook vţ 1lLle lţ
SubLlLle Aţ of LxecuLlve Crder noŦ 292 daLed 23 !ulv 1987ţ oLherwlse known as Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987 Ÿ and oot olooe ÞŦuŦ noŦ
1146ţ oLherwlse known as Lhe ƍ8evlsed CovernmenL Servlce lnsurance AcL of 1977Ŧƍ Ior the matter of extens|on of serv|ce of ret|rees
who have reached s|xtyŴf|ve (65) years of age |s on oreo thot is covered by both stotutes and not a|one by 5ect|on 11 (b) of ÞŦDŦ 1146Ŧ
@h|s |s crysta| c|ear from exam|nat|on of many prov|s|ons of the present c|v|| serv|ce |awŦ
Ŵ lL was on Lhe bases of Lhe above quoLed provlslons of Lhe 1987 AdmlnlsLraLlve Code LhaL Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon promulaaLed lLs
Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27Ŧ ln dolna soţ Lhe Commlsslon was acLlna as ƍLhe cenLral personnel aaencv of Lhe aovernmenL empowered
Lo promulaaLe pollclesţ sLandards and auldellnes for efflclenLţ responslve and effecLlve personnel admlnlsLraLlon ln Lhe aovernmenLŦƍ

lL

ŵŴŹ



was also dlscharalna lLs funcLlon of ƍoJmlolstetloo tbe tetltemeot ptootom for aovernmenL offlclals and emploveesƍ and of ƍevolootżlooŽ
ooollflcotloos fot tetltemeotŦƍ
Ŵ We flnd lL verv dlfflculL Lo suppose LhaL Lhe llmlLaLlon of permlsslble exLenslons of servlce afLer an emplovee has reached slxLvŴflve %63)
vears of aae has no reasonable relaLlonshlp or ls noL aermane Lo Lhe foreaolna provlslons of Lhe presenL Clvll Servlce LawŦ @he
phys|o|og|ca| and psycho|og|ca| processes assoc|ated w|th age|ng |n human be|ngs are |n fact re|ated to the eff|c|ency and qua||ty of
the serv|ce that may be expected from |nd|v|dua| personsŦ
Ŵ 1he pollcv conslderaLlons whlch aulded Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon ln llmlLlna Lhe maxlmum exLenslon of servlce allowable for
compulsorv reLlreesţ were summarlzed bv CrlnoŴAqulnoţ IŦ ln her dlssenLlna oplnlon ln ceooť ´WorLh ponderlna also are Lhe polnLs ralsed
bv Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon LhaL exLendlna Lhe servlce of compulsorv reLlrees for lonaer Lhan one %1) vear wouldť %1) alve a ptemlom
to loteŴcomets ln Lhe aovernmenL servlce and lo effect Jlsctlmloote ooolost tbose wbo eotet tbe setvlce ot o vooooet ooeŤ %2) Jelov tbe
ptomotloo of tbe lottet ooJ of oextŴloŴtook emploveesŤ and %3) ptejoJlce tbe cbooces fot emplovmeot of ooollfleJ voooo clvll setvlce
oppllcoots who have alreadv passed Lhe varlous aovernmenL examlnaLlon buL musL walL for [obs Lo be vacaLed bv ƍexLendeesƍ who have
lona passed Lhe mandaLorv reLlremenL aae buL are en[ovlna exLenslon of Lhelr aovernmenL servlce Lo compleLe 13 vears so Lhev mav
quallfv for oldŴaae penslonŦ"
Ŵ ceoo lald heavv sLress on Lhe lnLeresL of reLlrees or would be reLlreesţ someLhlna LhaL lsţ ln lLselfţ qulLe approprlaLeŦ AL Lhe same Llmeţ
howeverţ Lhere should be counLervalllna sLress on Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe emplover aaencv and of oLher aovernmenL emplovees as a wholeŦ
1he resulLs flowlna from Lhe sLrlklna down of Lhe llmlLaLlon esLabllshed ln Clvll Servlce Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27 mav well be ƍabsurd
and lnequlLableţƍ as suaaesLed bv MmeŦ !usLlce CrlnoŴAqulno ln her dlssenLlna oplnlonŦ An emplovee who has rendered onlv 3 vears of
aovernmenL servlce aL aae 63 can have hls servlce exLended for 12 vears and flnallv reLlre aL Lhe aae of 77Ŧ 1hls reduces Lhe slanlflcance
of Lhe aeneral prlnclple of compulsorv reLlremenL aL aae 63 verv close Lo Lhe vanlshlna polnLŦ
Ŵ ceoo should be and ls herebv modlfled Lo Lhls exLenLť
ż1Ž LhaL Clvll Servlce Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27ţ Serles of 1990ţ more speclflcallv paraaraph %1) Lhereofţ ls herebv declared valld and
effecLlveŦ SecLlon 11 %b) of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 1146 musLţ accordlnalvţ be read LoaeLher wlLh Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27Ŧ
Ŵ We relLeraLeţ howeverţ Lhe holdlna ln ceoo LhaL Lhe head of Lhe aovernmenL aaencv concerned ls vesLed wlLh dlscreLlonarv auLhorlLv Lo
allow or dlsallow exLenslon of Lhe servlce of an offlclal or emplovee who has 63 vears of aae wlLhouL compleLlna 13 vears of aovernmenL
servlceŤ Lhls dlscreLlon lsţ neverLhelessţ Lo be exerclsed conformablv wlLh Lhe provlslons of Clvll Servlce Memorandum Clrcular noŦ 27ţ
Serles of 1990Ŧ

Neri v 5enote %CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 180643| 2008Ť leoootJoŴue costtoţ IŦ)
Iactsť
Ŵ uC1C enLered lnLo a conLracL wlLh Z1L for Lhe supplv of equlpmenL and servlces for Lhe naLlonal 8roadband neLwork %n8n) Þro[ecL ln
Lhe amounL of uŦSŦ $ 329ţ481ţ290 %approxlmaLelv Þ16 8llllon Þesos)Ŧ 1he Þro[ecL was Lo be flnanced bv Lhe Þeopleƌs 8epubllc of ChlnaŦ
Ŵ 8uslnessman !ose de venecla lll LesLlfled LhaL several hlah execuLlve offlclals and power brokers were uslna Lhelr lnfluence Lo push Lhe
approval of Lhe n8n Þro[ecL bv Lhe nLuAŦ lL appeared LhaL Lhe Þro[ecL was lnlLlallv approved as a 8ulldŴCperaLeŴ1ransfer %8C1) pro[ecL
buLţ on March 29ţ 2007ţ Lhe nLuA acqulesced Lo converL lL lnLo a aovernmenLŴLoŴaovernmenL pro[ecLţ Lo be flnanced Lhrouah a loan
from Lhe Chlnese CovernmenLŦ
Ŵ nerl as nLuA SecreLarv LesLlfled before CommlLLees for 11 hoursŦ Pe dlsclosed LhaL Lhen CCMLLLC Chalrman 8en[amln Abalos offered
hlm Þ200 Mllllon ln exchanae for hls approval of Lhe n8n Þro[ecLŦ Pe furLher narraLed LhaL he lnformed ÞresldenL Arrovo abouL Lhe
brlberv aLLempL and LhaL she lnsLrucLed hlm noL Lo accepL Lhe brlbeŦ Poweverţ when probed furLher on what they d|scussed about the
-8- Þro[ectţ peLlLloner refused Lo answerţ lnvoklna ƍexecuLlve prlvlleaeƍŦ ln parLlcularţ he refused Lo answer Lhe quesLlons on
%a) wheLher or noL ÞresldenL Arrovo followed up Lhe n8n Þro[ecLţ
%b) wheLher or noL she dlrecLed hlm Lo prlorlLlze lLţ
%c) wheLher or noL she dlrecLed hlm Lo approve afLer belna Lold Lhe alleae brlbe
Ŵ unrelenLlnaţ respondenL CommlLLees lssued a Subpoena Ad 1esLlflcandum Lo peLlLlonerţ requlrlna hlm Lo appear and LesLlfv on
november 20ţ 2007Ŧ 8uLţ ln a leLLer LxecuLlve SecreLarv LrmlLa requesLed CommlLLees Lo dlspense wlLh nerlƌs LesLlmonv on Lhe around
of execuLlve prlvlleaeŦ
Issueť Are Lhe communlcaLlons ellclLed bv Lhe sub[ecL 3 quesLlons covered bv execuLlve prlvlleae? ?LS
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he landmark case of 5eoote vŦ £tmlto becomes lmperaLlveŦ 5eoote draws ln bold sLrokes Lhe dlsLlncLlon beLween
Lhe |eg|s|at|ve and overs|ght powers of Lhe Conaressţ as embodled under SecLlons 21 and 22ţ respecLlvelvţ of ArLlcle vl ConsLlLuLlonŦ
Ŵ 5eoote cauLlons LhaL whlle Lhe above provlslons are closelv relaLed and complemenLarv Lo each oLherţ Lhev should noL be consldered as
perLalnlna Lo Lhe same power of ConaressŦ Whlle boLh powers allow Conaress or anv of lLs commlLLees Lo conducL lnqulrvţ
Lhelr ob[ect|ves are dlfferenLŦ
SLC1lCn 21Ŧ 1he SenaLe or Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves or anv of lLs respecLlve commlLLees mav conducL lnqulrles |n a|d of |eg|s|at|on ln
accordance wlLh lLs dulv publlshed rules of procedureŦ 1he rlahLs of persons appearlna ln or affecLed bv such lnqulrles shall be respecLedŦ
8elaLes Lo Lhe power to conduct |nqu|r|es in oid of /eois/otionŦ lLs alm ls Lo ellclL lnformaLlon LhaL mav be used for lealslaLlon
SLC1lCn 22Ŧ 1he heads of deparLmenL mav upon Lhelr own lnlLlaLlveţ wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe ÞresldenLţ or upon Lhe requesL of elLher
Pouseţ or as Lhe rules of each Pouse shall provldeţ appear before and be heard by such nouse on any matter perta|n|ng to the|r
departmentsŦ WrlLLen quesLlons shall be submlLLed Lo Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe SenaLe or Lhe Speaker of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves aL
leasL Lhree davs before Lhelr scheduled appearanceŦ lnLerpellaLlons shall noL be llmlLed Lo wrlLLen quesLlonsţ buL mav cover maLLers

ŵŴź



relaLed LhereLoŦ When Lhe securlLv of Lhe sLaLe or Lhe publlc lnLeresL so requlres and Lhe ÞresldenL so sLaLes ln wrlLlnaţ Lhe appearance
shall be conducLed ln execuLlve sesslonŦ
ÞerLalns Lo Lhe power to conduct a quest|on hourţ Lhe ob[ecLlve of whlch ls Lo obLaln lnformaLlon ln pursulL of Conaressƌ overslahL
funcLlonŦ
Ŵ 1hls dlsLlncLlon alves blrLh Lo another d|st|nct|on wlLh reaard Lo Lhe use of compulsorv processŦ unllke ln SecLlon 21ţ Conaress cannoL
compel Lhe appearance of execuLlve offlclals under SecLlon 22Ŧ
Ŵ ClLlna 5eoote v £tmltoť "When Conaress merelv seeks Lo be lnformed on how deparLmenL heads are lmplemenLlna Lhe sLaLuLes whlch lL
has lssuedţ lLs rlahL Lo such lnformaLlon ls noL as lmperaLlve as LhaL of Lhe ÞresldenL Lo whomţ as Chlef LxecuLlveţ such deparLmenL heads
musL alve a reporL of Lhelr performance as a maLLer of duLvŦ ln such lnsLancesţ SecLlon 22ţ ln keeplna wlLh Lhe separaLlon of powersţ
sLaLes LhaL Conaress mav onlv teooest Lhelr appearanceŦ noneLhelessţ when Lhe lnqulrv ln whlch Conaress requlres Lhelr appearance ls
ƌln ald of lealslaLlonƌ under SecLlon 21ţ Lhe appearance ls mooJototv for Lhe same reasons sLaLed ln AtoooltŦ In f|neţ the overs|ght
funct|on of ongress may be fac|||tated by compu|sory process on|y to the extent that |t |s performed |n pursu|t of |eg|s|at|onŦ 1hls ls
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe lnLenL dlscerned from Lhe dellberaLlons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal CommlsslonŦ ulLlmaLelvţ Lhe power of Conaress Lo
compel Lhe appearance of execuLlve offlclals under secLlon 21 and Lhe lack of lL under SecLlon 22 flnd Lhelr basls ln Lhe prlnclple of
separaLlon of powersŦ Whlle Lhe execuLlve branch ls a coŴequal branch of Lhe lealslaLureţ lL cannoL frusLraLe Lhe power of Conaress Lo
lealslaLe bv refuslna Lo complv wlLh lLs demands for lnformaLlonŦ"
Ŵ Desp|te revocat|on of L 464ţ execut|ve pr|v||ege |s st||| ava|||ng because of |ts const|tut|ona| underp|nn|ngsŦ
Ŵ 1he Nlxoo and postŴwotetoote coses esLabllshed Lhe broad conLours of Lhe pres|dent|a| commun|cat|ons pr|v||egeŦ ln u5 vŦ Nlxooţ Lhe
uŦSŦ CourL recoanlzed a areaL publlc lnLeresL ln preservlna ƍthe conf|dent|a||ty of conversat|ons that take p|ace |n the Þres|dentƌs
performance of h|s off|c|a| dut|esŦƍ lL Lhus consldered presldenLlal communlcaLlons as ƍpresumpt|ve|y pr|v||egedŦƍ ApparenLlvţ Lhe
presumpLlon ls founded on Lhe ƍÞres|dentƌs genera||zed |nterest |n conf|dent|a||tyŦƍ 1he prlvlleae ls sald Lo be necessarv Lo auaranLee
Lhe candor of presldenLlal advlsors and Lo provlde ƍthe Þres|dent and those who ass|st h|mŧ w|th freedom to exp|ore a|ternat|ves |n
the process of shap|ng po||c|es and mak|ng dec|s|ons and to do so |n a way many wou|d be unw||||ng to express except pr|vate|yŦƍ
Ŵ ClLlna lo keť 5eoleJ coseť 1here are 2 klnds of execuLlve prlvlleae
ż1Ž Þres|dent|a| commun|cat|ons pr|v||ege Ŷ ºcommunlcaLlonsţ documenLs or oLher maLerlals LhaL reflecL presldenLlal declslonŴmaklna
and dellberaLlons and LhaL Lhe ÞresldenL belleves should remaln confldenLlalŦ"Ť applles Lo dec|s|onŴmak|ng of the Þres|dentŤ rooLed ln
Lhe consLlLuLlonal prlnclple of separaLlon of power and Lhe ÞresldenLƌs unlque consLlLuLlonal roleŤ applles to documents |n the|r ent|retyţ
and covers f|na| and postŴdec|s|ona| mater|a|s as we|| as preŴde||berat|ve ones
ż2Ž De||berat|ve process pr|v||ege Ŷ ºadvlsorv oplnlonsţ recommendaLlons and dellberaLlons comprlslna parL of a process bv whlch
aovernmenLal declslons and pollcles are formulaLedŦ"Ť dec|s|onŴmak|ng of execut|ve off|c|a|sŤ on common law prlvlleae
Ŵ LL,L-@5 I ÞkL5IDL-@I ,,U-I@I-5 ÞkIVILL
1) 1he proLecLed communlcaLlon musL relaLe Lo a ƍqulnLessenLlal and nonŴdeleaable presldenLlal powerŦƍ
2) 1he communlcaLlon musL be auLhored or ƍsollclLed and recelvedƍ bv a close advlsor of Lhe ÞresldenL or Lhe ÞresldenL hlmselfŦ 1he
[udlclal LesL ls LhaL an advlsor musL be ln ƍoperaLlonal proxlmlLvƍ wlLh Lhe ÞresldenLŦ
3) 1he pres|dent|a| commun|cat|ons pr|v||ege remalns a quallfled prlvlleae LhaL mav be overcome bv a showlna of adequaLe needţ such
LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon souahL ƍllkelv conLalns lmporLanL evldenceƍ and bv Lhe unavallablllLv of Lhe lnformaLlon elsewhere bv an
approprlaLe lnvesLlaaLlna auLhorlLv
Ŵ LxecuLlve SecreLarv LrmlLa premlsed hls clalm of execuLlve prlvlleae on Lhe around LhaL Lhe communlcaLlons ellclLed bv Lhe 3 quesLlons
ƍfall under conversaLlon and correspondence beLween Lhe ÞresldenL and publlc offlclalsƍ necessarv ln ƍher execuLlve and pollcv declslonŴ
maklna processƍ andţ LhaL ƍLhe lnformaLlon souahL Lo be dlsclosed mlahL lmpalr our dlplomaLlc as well as economlc relaLlons wlLh Lhe
Þeopleƌs 8epubllc of ChlnaŦƍ Slmplv puLţ Lhe bases are pres|dent|a| commun|cat|ons pr|v||ege and execut|ve pr|v||ege on matters
re|at|ng to d|p|omacy or fore|gn re|at|onsŦ
Ŵ uslna Lhe above elemenLsţ SC ls convlnced LhaL Lhe communlcaLlons ellclLed bv Lhe 3 quesLlons are covered bv Lhe pres|dent|a|
commun|cat|ons pr|v||egeŦ
1Ŧ 1he communlcaLlons relaLe Lo a ºqulnLessenLlal and nonŴdeleaable power" of Lhe ÞresldenLţ lŦeŦ Lhe power Lo enLer lnLo an execuLlve
aareemenL wlLh oLher counLrlesŦ 1hls auLhorlLv of Lhe ÞresldenL Lo enLer lnLo execotlve ooteemeots wlLhouL Lhe concurrence of Lhe
LealslaLure has LradlLlonallv been recoanlzed ln Þhlllpplne [urlsprudenceŦ
2Ŧ 1he communlcaLlons are ºrecelved" bv a close advlsor of Lhe ÞresldenLŦ under Lhe ƍoperaLlonal proxlmlLvƍ LesLţ peLlLloner can be
consldered a close advlsorţ belna a member of ÞresldenL Arrovoƌs cablneLŦ
3Ŧ no adequaLe showlna of a compelllna need LhaL would [usLlfv Lhe llmlLaLlon of Lhe prlvlleae and of Lhe unava||ab|||ty of Lhe
lnformaLlon elsewhere bv an approprlaLe lnvesLlaaLlna auLhorlLvŦ
ul5cu55lON A5 1O 1£ 1lku £l£M£N1ť
Ŵ CommlLLees should cauLlouslv Lread lnLo Lhe lnvesLlaaLlon of maLLers whlch mav presenL a confllcL of lnLeresL LhaL mav provlde a around
Lo lnhlblL Lhe SenaLors parLlclpaLlna ln Lhe lnqulrv lf laLer on an lmpeachmenL proceedlna ls lnlLlaLed on Lhe same sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe
presenL SenaLe lnqulrvŦ
Ŵ 1he rlahL Lo publlc lnformaLlonţ llke anv oLher rlahLţ ls sub[ecL Lo llmlLaLlonŦ Clearlvţ Lhere ls a recoanlzed publlc lnLeresL ln Lhe
confldenLlallLv of cerLaln lnformaLlonŦ We flnd Lhe lnformaLlon sub[ecL of Lhls case belonalna Lo such klndŦ 1he rlahL of Conaress or anv of
lLs CommlLLees Lo obLaln lnformaLlon ln ald of lealslaLlon cannoL be equaLed wlLh Lhe peopleƌs rlahL Lo publlc lnformaLlonŦ

ŵŴŻ



ÞeLlLloner made hlmself avallable Lo Lhem durlna Lhe SepLember 26 hearlnaţ where he was quesLloned for eleven %11) hoursŦ noL onlv
LhaLţ he expresslv manlfesLed hls wllllnaness Lo answer more quesLlons from Lhe SenaLorsţ wlLh Lhe excepLlon onlv of Lhose covered bv
hls clalm of execuLlve prlvlleaeŦ
w£1£k 1£ clAlM l5 9kO9£kl) lNvO£u 8) 1£ 9k£5lu£N1
Ŵ lor Lhe clalm Lo be properlv lnvokedţ Lhere musL be a formal clalm of prlvlleaeţ lodaed bv Lhe head of Lhe deparLmenL whlch has conLrol
over Lhe maLLerŦ A formal and proper clalm of execuLlve prlvlleae requlres a ƍpreclse and cerLaln reasonƍ for preservlna Lhelr
confldenLlallLvŦ
Ŵ WlLh reaard Lo Lhe exlsLence of ƍpreclse and cerLaln reasonţƍ we flnd Lhe arounds relled upon bv LxecuLlve SecreLarv LrmlLa spec|f|c
enough so as noL ƍLo leave respondenL CommlLLees ln Lhe dark on how Lhe requesLed lnformaLlon could be classlfled as prlvlleaedŦƍ 1he
case of 5eoote vŦ £tmlto onlv requlres LhaL an alleaaLlon be made ƍwheLher Lhe lnformaLlon demanded lnvolves mlllLarv or dlplomaLlc
secreLsţ closedŴdoor CablneL meeLlnasţ eLcŦƍ 1he parLlcular around musL onlv be speclfledŦ 1he enumeraLlon ls noL even lnLended Lo be
comprehenslveŦƍ
Ŵ º1he conLexL ln whlch execuLlve prlvlleae ls belna lnvoked ls LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon souahL Lo be dlsclosed mlahL lmpalr our dlplomaLlc as
well as economlc relaLlons wlLh Lhe Þeopleƌs 8epubllc of ChlnaŦ Clven Lhe confldenLlal naLure ln whlch Lhese lnformaLlon were conveved
Lo Lhe ÞresldenLţ he cannoL provlde Lhe CommlLLee anv furLher deLalls of Lhese conversaLlonsţ wlLhouL dlscloslna Lhe verv Lhlna Lhe
prlvlleae ls deslaned Lo proLecLŦ"

C. LIabIIItIes

Three fold lia/ility of pu/lic officers
Civil - individual is damaged by such violation, official is liable to reimburse the injured party
Criminal - if the law has attached penal sanction
3 Administrative - if the administration's disciplinary power is strong such violation may lead to imposition of fine, reprimand,
suspension or removal from office

!n Ceneral (RA 3)
2 Administrative Lia/ility
3 ivil Lia/ility

4rtŦ 27ţ civi/ codeŦ Anv person sufferlna maLerlal or moral loss because a publlc servanL or emplovee refuses or nealecLsţ wlLhouL [usL
causeţ Lo perform hls offlclal duLv mav flle an acLlon for damaaes and oLher rellef aaalnsL Lhe laLLerţ wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo anv dlsclpllnarv
admlnlsLraLlve acLlon LhaL mav be LakenŦ

4rtŦ l2ţ civi/ codeŦ Anv publlc offlcer or emploveeţ or anv prlvaLe lndlvldualţ who dlrecLlv or lndlrecLlv obsLrucLsţ defeaLsţ vlolaLes or ln anv
manner lmpedes or lmpalrs anv of Lhe followlna rlahLs and llberLles of anoLher person shall be llable Lo Lhe laLLer for damaaesť
%1) lreedom of rellalonŤ
%2) lreedom of speechŤ
%3) lreedom Lo wrlLe for Lhe press or Lo malnLaln a perlodlcal publlcaLlonŤ
%4) lreedom from arblLrarv or llleaal deLenLlonŤ
%3) lreedom of suffraaeŤ
%6) 1he rlahL aaalnsL deprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŤ
%7) 1he rlahL Lo a [usL compensaLlon when prlvaLe properLv ls Laken for publlc useŤ
%8) 1he rlahL Lo Lhe equal proLecLlon of Lhe lawsŤ
%9) 1he rlahL Lo be secure ln oneƌs personţ houseţ papersţ and effecLs aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzuresŤ
%10) 1he llberLv of abode and of chanalna Lhe sameŤ
%11) 1he prlvacv of communlcaLlon and correspondenceŤ
%12) 1he rlahL Lo become a member of assoclaLlons or socleLles for purposes noL conLrarv Lo lawŤ
%13) 1he rlahL Lo Lake parL ln a peaceable assemblv Lo peLlLlon Lhe aovernmenL for redress of arlevancesŤ
%14) 1he rlahL Lo be free from lnvolunLarv servlLude ln anv formŤ
%13) 1he rlahL of Lhe accused aaalnsL excesslve ballŤ
%16) 1he rlahL of Lhe accused Lo be heard bv hlmself and counselţ Lo be lnformed of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon aaalnsL hlmţ Lo
have a speedv and publlc Lrlalţ Lo meeL Lhe wlLnesses face Lo faceţ and Lo have compulsorv process Lo secure Lhe aLLendance of wlLness ln
hls behalfŤ
%17) lreedom from belna compelled Lo be a wlLness aaalnsL oneƌs selfţ or from belna forced Lo confess aullLţ or from belna lnduced bv a
promlse of lmmunlLv or reward Lo make such confesslonţ excepL when Lhe person confesslna becomes a SLaLe wlLnessŤ
%18) lreedom from excesslve flnesţ or cruel and unusual punlshmenLţ unless Lhe same ls lmposed or lnfllcLed ln accordance wlLh a sLaLuLe
whlch has noL been [udlclallv declared unconsLlLuLlonalŤ and
%19) lreedom of access Lo Lhe courLsŦ


ŵŴ%



ln anv of Lhe cases referred Lo ln Lhls arLlcleţ wheLher or noL Lhe defendanLƌs acL or omlsslon consLlLuLes a crlmlnal offenseţ Lhe aaarleved
parLv has a rlahL Lo commence an enLlrelv separaLe and dlsLlncL clvll acLlon for damaaesţ and for oLher rellefŦ Such clvll acLlon shall proceed
lndependenLlv of anv crlmlnal prosecuLlon %lf Lhe laLLer be lnsLlLuLed)ţ and maL be proved bv a preponderance of evldenceŦ

1he lndemnlLv shall lnclude moral damaaesŦ Lxemplarv damaaes mav also be ad[udlcaLedŦ

1he responslblllLv hereln seL forLh ls noL demandable from a [udae unless hls acL or omlsslon consLlLuLes a vlolaLlon of Lhe Þenal Code or
oLher penal sLaLuLeŦ

4rtŦ l4ţ civi/ codeŦ When a member of a clLv or munlclpal pollce force refuses or falls Lo render ald or proLecLlon Lo anv person ln case of
danaer Lo llfe or properLvţ such peace offlcer shall be prlmarllv llable for damaaesţ and Lhe clLv or munlclpallLv shall be subsldlarllv
responslble LhereforŦ 1he clvll acLlon hereln recoanlzed shall be lndependenL of anv crlmlnal proceedlnasţ and a preponderance of evldence
shall sufflce Lo supporL such acLlonŦ

4dministrotive codeţ ook l
5ecŦ l8Ŧ LlablllLv of Superlor CfflcersŦ Ŷ
%1) A publlc offlcer shall not be c|v|||y ||ab|e for acLs done ln Lhe performance of hls offlclal duLlesţ unLLSS Lhere ls a clear showlna of bad
falLhţ mallce or aross neallaenceŦ
%2) Anv publlc offlcer whoţ wlLhouL [usL causeţ neg|ects Lo perform a duLv wlLhln a perlod flxed bv law or reaulaLlonţ or wlLhln a reasonable
perlod lf none ls flxedţ shall be llable for damaaes Lo Lhe prlvaLe parLv concerned wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo such oLher llablllLv as mav be
prescrlbed bv lawŦ
%3) A head of a deparLmenL or a superlor offlcer shall not be c|v|||y ||ab|e for Lhe wronaful acLsţ omlsslons of duLvţ neallaenceţ or
mlsfeasance of hls subordlnaLesţ unLLSS he has actua||y author|zed by wr|tten order the spec|f|c act or m|sconduct comp|a|ned ofŦ

5ecŦ l9Ŧ LlablllLv of SubordlnaLe CfflcersŦ Ŷ no subordlnaLe offlcer or emplovee shall be c|v|||y ||ab|e for acLs done bv hlm ln good fa|th ln
Lhe performance of h|s dut|esŦ Poweverţ he shall be llable for w|||fu| or neg||gent acts done bv hlm whlch are conLrarv Lo lawţ moralsţ
publlc pollcv and aood cusLoms LVL- II he acted under orders or |nstruct|ons of h|s super|orsŦ

Requisites for recovery of damages arising from acts of public officers
Damages to the individual
Wrong or violation of the right of a party commited by the other
3 Without a wrong: damnum absque injuria

Effect of contributory negligence of the injured party: Public official cannot be held liable, as if the alleged misconduct did not
occur, in pari delicto rule applies

Liability of President for official acts

Liability of other executive officials for official acts

Liability of legislative officials for official acts

Liability of members of judiciary for official acts

Liability of quasi·judicial officers for official acts

Liability of ministerial officers for official acts

Liability of superior officers for acts of subordinates

Liability for tortuous acts

Liability under the CC
for failure or neglect to perform official duty
for violating rights and liberties of private individuals
3 for failure to render aid or protection to persons

Liability for contracts executed in behalf of the government
O Ceneral rule: Not personally liable if acting within the scope of his authority AND in his official capacity

ŵŴ%



O Exception: !f the contract was executed with an unambiguous personal undertaking which makes no mention of the
public agency he serves OR does not indicate that it is executed in an official capacity
O Therefore: To avoid personal liability, public official must insert an express provision against it

Liability for unexplained wealth

Liability of accountable officers to the government

a Bond requirement
b Primary and secondary responsibility
c Ceneral liability for unlawful expenditures
d Neasure of liability of accountable officers
e Liability for acts done by direction of superior officers

cojuonoco v c4 ond Pc5O %1999Ť 9ooooolbooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť ÞCSC Chalr
Ŵ uandlna sued Carrascoso as ÞCSC chalr afLer Lhe laLLer wlLhheld Lhe release of hls horse raclna wlnnlnasŦ ÞCSC chalr raLloclnaLed LhaL he
wanLed Lo flrsL ascerLaln LhaL such wlnnlnas were noL covered bv Lhe wrlL of sequesLraLlon lssued aaalnsL peLlLloner as a former Marcos
CronvŦ Poweverţ afLer clearance from Lhe ÞCCCţ Carrascoso prompLlv pald uandlna whaL was due Lo hlmŦ
Ŵ 1Cť 8v noL pavlna Lhe wlnnlnasţ Carrascoso acLed ln bad falLh amounLlna Lo Lhe persecuLlon and harassmenLŦ Pe had no auLhorlLv Lo
wlLhhold Lhe racehorse wlnnlnasţ slnce no wrlL of sequesLraLlon Lherefor had been lssued bv Lhe ÞCCCŦ lL was Carrascosoƌs unwarranLed
personal lnlLlaLlve noL Lo release Lhe prlzesŦ Pavlna been a prevlous lonaLlme assoclaLe of peLlLloner ln hls horse raclna and breedlna
acLlvlLlesţ he had supposedlv been aware LhaL peLlLlonerƌs wlnnlna horses were noL lllŴaoLLenŦ lL awarded damaaesŦ
Ŵ Whlle Lhe case was pendlna wlLh Lhe CourL of Appealsţ peLlLloner moved for Lhe parLlal execuLlon pendlna appeal of Lhe 81C [udamenLţ
pravlna for Lhe pavmenL of Lhe prlnclpal amounL of hls prlze wlnnlnasŦ ÞrlvaLe respondenLs posed no ob[ecLlon LhereLo and manlfesLed
Lhelr readlness Lo release Lhe amounL praved forŦ
Ŵ CA reversed Lhe flndlna of bad falLhŦ Pe was merelv carrvlna ouL Lhe lnsLrucLlon of Lhe ÞCCC ln reaard Lo Lhe prlze wlnnlnas of peLlLlonerŦ
lL noLed LhaLţ aL Lhe Llmeţ Lhe scope of Lhe sequesLraLlon of Lhe properLles of former ÞresldenL lerdlnand LŦ Marcos and hls cronles was
noL wellŴdeflnedŦ
Issuesť
1Ŧ WheLherLhe award for damaaes aaalnsL Carrascoso ls warranLed bv evldence and Lhe law? ÞarLlv merlLorlous
2Ŧ WCn he was properlv represenLed bv Lhe Cfflce of Lhe CovernmenL CorporaLe Counsel %CCCC) ln Lhe appeal? ?esŦ
ne|dť 1o hold publlc offlcers personallv llable for moral and exemplarv damaaes and for aLLornevƌs fees for acLs done ln Lhe performance of
offlclal funcLlonsţ Lhe plalnLlff musL prove LhaL Lhese offlcers exhlblLed acLs characLerlzed bv evldenL bad falLhţ mallceţ or aross neallaenceŦ
8uL even lf Lhelr acLs had noL been so LalnLedţ publlc offlcers mav sLlll be held llable for nomlnal damaaes lf Lhev had vlolaLed Lhe plalnLlffƌs
consLlLuLlonal rlahLsŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ 1he represenLaLlon of Lhe CCCC on behalf of Lhe ÞCSC and MrŦ Carrascoso ls pursuanL Lo lLs baslc funcLlon Lo ƍacL as Lhe prlnclpal law
offlce of all aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlonsţ Lhelr subsldlarlesţ oLher corporaLe offsprlnas and aovernmenL acqulred asseL
corporaLlons and Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ żLoŽ exerclse conLrol and supervlslon over all leaal deparLmenLs or dlvlslons malnLalned separaLelv and such powers
and funcLlons as are now or mav hereafLer be provlded bv lawŦƍ

1he CCCC was Lherefore duLvŴbound Lo defend Lhe ÞCSC because Lhe
laLLerţ under lLs charLerţ

ls a aovernmenLŴowned corporaLlonŦ 1he aovernmenL counselƌs represenLaLlon exLends Lo Lhe concerned
aovernmenL funcLlonarvƌs offlcers when Lhe lssue lnvolves Lhe laLLerƌs offlclal acLs or duLlesŦ CranLlna LhaL upon hls separaLlon from Lhe
aovernmenLţ Carrascoso ceased Lo be enLlLled Lo Lhe leaal servlces of Lhe aovernmenL corporaLe counselţ Lhls developmenL does noL
auLomaLlcallv revoke or render lneffecLlve hls noLlce of appeal of Lhe Lrlal courLƌs ueclslonŦ
Ŵ Carrascoso dld noL acL ln bad falLhŦ 8ad falLh does noL slmplv connoLe bad [udamenL or slmple neallaenceŦ lL lmporLs a dlshonesL purpose
or some moral obllqulLv and consclous dolna of a wronaţ a breach of a known duLv due Lo some moLlve or lnLeresL or lll wlll LhaL parLakes
of Lhe naLure of fraudŦ
Ŵ CA's declslon quoLedť º1he leLLer of Carrascoso Lo ÞCCC Chalr !ovlLo Salonaaţ read||y d|sp|ay uncerta|nt|es |n the m|nd of Carrascoso as
Lo Lhe exLenL of Lhe sequesLraLlon aaalnsL Lhe properLles of Lhe plalnLlffŦ ln Lhe sald leLLer Lhe flrsL prlze xxx wereţ ln Lhe meanLlmeţ belna
wlLhheld Lo ƍavold anv posslble vlolaLlon of vour sequesLraLlon order on Lhe maLLerƍ because whlle he ls aware of Lhe sequesLraLlon
order lssued aaalnsL Lhe properLles of Lduardo Co[uanacoţ he ls noL aware of Lhe exLenL and coveraae LhereofŦ lL was for LhaL reason
LhaLţ ln Lhe same leLLerţ Carrascoso requesLed for a clarlflcaLlon wheLher Lhe prlzes are covered bv Lhe order and lf lL ls ln Lhe afflrmaLlveţ
for lnsLrucLlons on Lhe proper dlsposal of Lhe 2 prlzes Laklna lnLo accounL Lhe shares of Lhe Lralner and Lhe aroomŦ"
Ŵ Carrascosoƌs declslon Lo wlLhhold peLlLlonerƌs wlnnlnas could noL be characLerlzed as arblLrarv or whlmslcalţ or even Lhe producL of lll wlll
or mallceŦ Pe had parLlcularlv souahL from ÞCCC a clarlflcaLlon of Lhe exLenL and coveraae of Lhe sequesLraLlon order lssued aaalnsL Lhe
properLles of peLlLlonerŦ
Ŵ 1he exLanL rule ls LhaL a publlc offlcer shall noL be llable bv wav of moral and exemplarv damaaes for acLs done ln Lhe performance of
offlclal duLlesţ unless Lhere ls a clear showlna of bad falLhţ mallce or aross neallaenceŦ ALLornevƌs fees and expenses of llLlaaLlon cannoL

ŵŵŴ



be lmposed elLherţ ln Lhe absence of a clear showlna of anv of Lhe arounds provlded Lherefor under Lhe Clvll CodeŦ 1C's award of Lhese
klnds of damaaes musL perforce be deleLedţ as ruled bv Lhe CourL of AppealsŦ
Ŵ Poweverţ under ArLŦ 32 CCţ he mav sLlll be held llable for damaaesŦ lL ls noL necessarv LhaL Lhe publlc offlcer acLed wlLh mallce or bad
falLhŦ

1o be llableţ lL ls enouah LhaL Lhere was a vlolaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlahLs of peLlLlonerţ even on Lhe preLexL of [usLlflable
moLlves or aood falLh ln Lhe performance of oneƌs duLlesŦ peLlLlonerƌs rlahL Lo Lhe use of hls properLv was undulv lmpededŦ Whlle
Carrascoso mav have relled upon Lhe ÞCCCƌs lnsLrucLlonsţ he could have furLher souahL Lhe speclflc leaal basls LhereforŦ A llLLle exerclse
of prudence would have dlsclosed LhaL Lhere was no wrlL lssued speclflcallv for Lhe sequesLraLlon of Lhe racehorse wlnnlnas of peLlLlonerŦ
1here was apparenLlv no record of anv such wrlL coverlna hls racehorses elLherŦ 1he lssuance of a sequesLraLlon order requlres Lhe
showlna of a ptlmo focle case and due reaard for Lhe requlremenLs of due processŦ
38
1he wlLhholdlna of Lhe prlze wlnnlnas of peLlLloner
wlLhouL a properlv lssued sequesLraLlon order clearlv spoke of a vlolaLlon of hls properLv rlahLs wlLhouL due process of lawŦ

1ecson v 5ondioonboyon %1999Ť Oolsomblooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Munlclpal Mavor of Þrosperldadţ Aausan del SurŦ
Ŵ Mavor 1ecson's nelahbor flled an admlnţ clvll and crlmlnal case aaalnsL hlm afLer Lhe Lwo enaaaed ln a buslness of ºselllna LlckeLs" eLcŦ
º1hev would sell LlckeLs aL Þ100Ŧ00 each whlch afLer 30 davs would earn Þ200Ŧ00 or moreŦ She would buv appllances and cosmeLlcs aL a
dlscounLţ wlLh Lhe use of Lhe proceeds of Lhe sales of LlckeLsţ and resell LhemŦ no oLher deLalls were dlsclosed on how Lhe buslness would
operaLeţ and 1ecson does noL appear Lo have conLrlbuLed anv moneLarv conslderaLlon Lo Lhe caplLalŦ Cn SepLember 27ţ 1989ţ Lhev
beaan selllna LlckeLsŦ" Poweverţ ln a meeLlna of Sanaaunlana 8avanţ Lhelr buslness permlL was revokedŦ
Issuesť
%1) WCn Sanaaunlana Þanlalawlaan's declslon exoneraLlna Lhe accused serves as a bar bv prlor [udamenL Lo Lhe declslon of Lhe S8? nC
%2) WCn Lhere was a vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal rlahL of Lhe accused aaalnsL double [eopardv? nC
kat|oť
ÞeLlLlonerť ulsmlssal of Lhe admln case before Lhe Sanaaunlana Þanlalawlaan of Aausan del Sur ls concluslve and blndlna upon Lhe parLlesŦ
8elvlna on our rullna ln 8ŦlŦ CooJtlcb 9blllpploesţ locŦ vŦ wotkmeoƌs compeosotloo commlsslooţ he Lheorlzes LhaL Lhe ruleţ whlch
prohlblLs Lhe reopenlna of maLLers alreadv deLermlned bv compeLenL [udlclal auLhorlLvţ applles Lo oooslŴjoJlclol bodles or admlnlsLraLlve
offlcesŦ Pavlna been exoneraLed bv Lhe Sanaaunlana Þanlalawlaan of Aausan del Sur ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlve caseţ he now submlLs Lhe same
ls tes joJlcoto and Lhus bars Lhe Sandlaanbavan from hearlna hls caseŦ
Ŵ SC savsť ?our Lheorv has no lea Lo sLand onŦ ż1Ž kes joJlcoto ls a docLrlne of clvll lawŦ lL Lhus has no bearlna ln Lhe crlmlnal proceedlnas
before Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ ż2Ž lL ls a baslc prlnclple of Lhe law on publlc offlcers LhaL a publlc offlclal or emplovee ls under a LhreeŴfold
responslblllLv for vlolaLlon of duLv or for a wronaful acL or omlsslonŦ 1hls slmplv means LhaL a publlc offlcer mav be held clvlllvţ crlmlnallvţ
and admlnlsLraLlvelv llable for a wronaful dolnaŦ 1husţ lf such vlolaLlon or wronaful acL resulLs ln damaaes Lo an lndlvldualţ Lhe publlc
offlcer mav be held clvlllv llable Lo relmburse Lhe ln[ured parLvŦ lf Lhe law vlolaLed aLLaches a penal sancLlonţ Lhe errlna offlcer mav be
punlshed ctlmloollvŦ ż3Ž Such vlolaLlon mav also lead Lo suspenslonţ removal from offlceţ oLher oJmlolsttotlve sancLlonsŦ 1hls
admlnlsLraLlve llablllLv ls separaLe and dlsLlncL from Lhe penal and clvll llablllLlesŦ 1husţ Lhe dlsmlssal of an admlnlsLraLlve case does noL
necessarllv bar Lhe flllna of a crlmlnal prosecuLlon for Lhe same or slmllar acLsţ whlch were Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve complalnLŦ

We concludeţ Lhereforeţ LhaL Lhe declslon of Lhe Sanaaunlana Þanlalawlaan of Aausan del Sur exoneraLlna peLlLloner ln AdmlnlsLraLlve
Case noŦ SÞ 90Ŵ01 ls no bar Lo Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlon before Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ
Ŵ As Lo Lhe amlcable seLLlemenLť A complalnL for mlsconducLţ malfeasance or mlsfeasance aaalnsL a publlc offlcer or emplovee cannoL [usL
be wlLhdrawn aL anv Llme bv Lhe complalnanLŦ 1hls ls because Lhere ls a need Lo malnLaln Lhe falLh and confldence of Lhe people ln Lhe
aovernmenL and lLs aaencles and lnsLrumenLallLlesŦ

1he lnescapable concluslonţ Lhereforeţ ls LhaL Lhe order of Lhe Lrlal courL dlsmlsslna
Clvll Case noŦ 716 dld noL bar Lhe proceedlnas before Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ
ÞeLlLlonerť 8elna Lrled before Lhe Sandlaanbavan vlolaLed hls consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon aaalnsL double [eopardv slnce Lhe Sanaaunlana
Þanlalawlaan of Aausan del Sur had alreadv cleared hlm of all charaesŦ
Ŵ uouble [eopardv aLLaches onlvť %1) upon a valld lndlcLmenLŤ %2) before a compeLenL courLŤ %3) afLer arralanmenLŤ %4) when a valld plea has
been enLeredŤ and %3) when Lhe defendanL was acqulLLed or convlcLed or Lhe case was dlsmlssed or oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL Lhe
express consenL of Lhe accusedŦ none of Lhe foreaolna applles Lo Lhe hearlnas conducLed bv Lhe Sanaaunlana Þanlalawlaan of Aausan
del Sur ln AdmŦ Case noŦ SÞ 90Ŵ01Ŧ lL musL be sLressed LhaL Lhe sald proceedlnas were not cr|m|na|ţ but adm|n|strat|ve ln naLureŦ Penceţ
double [eopardv wlll noL lleŦ

Ocompo v Ombudsmon ond £c/ipse %2000Ť 8oeooţ IŦ)
Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť 1ralnlna CoordlnaLor of nlACCnSuL1ţ lnCŦţ a subsldlarv of Lhe naLlonal lrrlaaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon
Ŵ nlACCnSuL1 conducLed Lralnlna proaram for slx nepalese !unlor Lnalneers and Lhe servlce was pald for bv Lhe AarlculLural uevelopmenL
8ank of nepalŦ nlACCnSuL1ţ Lhrouah lLs presldenLţ 1lonacoţ wroLe a leLLer Lo peLlLloner demandlna Lhe LurnŴover of Lhe LoLal Lralnlna fee
pald bv Au8n whlch peLlLloner personallv recelvedŦ uesplLe recelpL of Lhe leLLerţ peLlLloner falled Lo remlL Lhe sald amounL prompLlna
nlACCnSuL1 Lhrouah lLs presldenLţ Maxlmlno Lcllpseţ Lo flle an admlnlsLraLlve case before respondenL CM8uuSMAn for serlous
mlsconducL and/or fraud or wlllful breach of LrusLŦ
Ŵ 8ecause of hls repeaLed fallure Lo flle an answer ln Lhe Cmbudsmanţ Ccampo was dlscharaed from servlceŦ Whlle Lhe case ls pendlnaţ
peLlLloner flled a ManlfesLaLlon sLaLlna LhaL Lhe crlmlnal complalnL for esLafa and falslflcaLlon flled aaalnsL hlm based on Lhe same facLs
or lncldenLs whlch aave rlse Lo Lhe admlnlsLraLlve caseţ was dlsmlssed bv Lhe 81CŦ WlLh Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe crlmlnal caseţ peLlLloner
manlfesLs LhaL Lhe admlnlsLraLlve case can no lonaer sLand on lLs own and Lherefore should be dlsmlssedŦ

ŵŵŵ



Issueť uoes dlsmlssal of Lhe crlmlnal case preclude Lhe conLlnuaLlon of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve case?
ne|dť noŦ 1hev requlre dlfferenL quanLum of evldenceŦ
kat|oť 1he dlsmlssal of Lhe crlmlnal case wlll noL foreclose admlnlsLraLlve acLlon flled aaalnsL peLlLloner or alve hlm a clean blll of healLh ln
all respecLsŦ 1he 81Cţ ln dlsmlsslna Lhe crlmlnal complalnLţ was slmplv savlna LhaL Lhe prosecuLlon was unable Lo prove Lhe aullL of
peLlLloner bevond reasonable doubLţ a condlLlon slne qua non for convlcLlonŦ 1he lack or absence of proof bevond reasonable doubL does
noL mean an absence of anv evldence whaLsoever for Lhere ls anoLher class of evldence whlchţ Lhouah lnsufflclenL Lo esLabllsh aullL bevond
reasonable doubLţ ls adequaLe ln clvll casesŤ Lhls ls preponderance of evldenceŦ 1hen Looţ Lhere ls Lhe ƍsubsLanLlal evldenceƍ rule ln
admlnlsLraLlve proceedlnas whlch mere|y requ|res such re|evant ev|dence as a reasonab|e m|nd m|ght accept as adequate to support a
conc|us|onŦ 1husţ conslderlna Lhe dlfference ln Lhe quanLum of evldenceţ as well as Lhe procedure followed and Lhe sancLlons lmposed ln
crlmlnal and admlnlsLraLlve proceedlnasţ Lhe flndlnas and concluslons ln one should noL necessarllv be blndlna on Lhe oLherŦ

riminal Lia/ility

kevised Peno/ codeţ 1it/e vll
k4 l019
k4 1l79

kodrioo v 5ondioonboyon %SuÞ8A)
Iactsť Mavorţ Munlclpal Þlannlna and uevelopmenL CoordlnaLor and Munlclpal 1reasurer of San nlcolasţ Þanaaslnan vsŦ ÞrovŦ AudlLor
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner Mavor 8odrlaoţ on behalf of Lhe MunlclpallLv of San nlcolasţ Þanaaslnanţ enLered lnLo an aareemenL wlLh Þhllwood
ConsLrucLlon for Lhe elecLrlflcaLlon of 8aranaav Caboloanţ San nlcolasŦ SubsequenLlv peLlLloner Me[lcaţ Munlclpal Þlannlna and
uevelopmenL CoordlnaLorţ prepared an AccompllshmenL 8eporL sLaLlna LhaL Lhe Caboloan Þower CeneraLlon Þro[ecL was 97Ŧ3Ʒ
accompllshedŦ Cn Lhe basls of sald reporLţ pavmenL was effecLed bv peLlLloner lacundoţ Munlclpal 1reasurerţ Lo Þhllwood ConsLrucLlonŦ
Ŵ Cn 14 AuausL 1993ţ peLlLloners recelved a noLlce of ulsallowance from Lhe Þrovlnclal AudlLor who foundţ amona oLhersţ LhaL as per
Commlsslon on AudlL evaluaLlon of Lhe elecLrlflcaLlon pro[ecLţ onlv 60Ŧ0171Ʒ of Lhe pro[ecL was acLuallv accompllshedŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners requesLed Lhe provlnclal audlLor Lo llfL Lhe noLlce of dlsallowance and Lo reŴlnspecL Lhe pro[ecLŦ 1he Þrovlnclal AudlLorţ
howeverţ alleaedlv dld noL acL on sald requesLs buL lnsLead flled a crlmlnal complalnL for esLafa before Lhe Cmbudsman aaalnsL
peLlLloners and Lhe ÞresldenL and Þro[ecL Lnalneer of Þhllwood ConsLrucLlonŦ SubsequenLlvţ Lhe Cmbudsman approved Lhe flllna of an
lnformaLlon aaalnsL peLlLloners for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 3 %e) of 8A 3019 before Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners flled before Lhe Sandlaanbavan a moLlon Lo quash Lhe lnformaLlon conLendlna LhaL Lhe lnsLlLuLlon bv Lhe Þrovlnclal AudlLor of
Lhe complalnL desplLe Lhe pendencv of Lhelr opposlLlon Lo Lhe noLlce of dlsallowance vlolaLes Lhelr rlahL Lo due processŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloners llkewlse clalmed LhaL Mavor 8odrlaoţ Lhe hlahesL publlc ranklna publlc offlclal lmpleaded ln Lhls caseţ at the t|me of the
comm|ss|on of the a||eged cr|me was rece|v|ng a monLhlv salarv of Þ10ţ441Ŧ00Ŧ Such amounL ls supposedlv equlvalenL Lo a fourLh sLep
lncremenL ln Crade 24 under Lhe Salarv Schedule prescrlbed ln SecLlon 7 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738ţ ln a pos|t|on of rade 24 and wasţ therefore
beyond the or|g|na| and exc|us|ve [ur|sd|ct|on of the 5and|ganbayanŦ ÞeLlLlonersţ howeverţ clalm LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe alleaed crlme on or abouL 2 SepLember 1992ţ Mavor 8odrlaoţ Lhe hlahesL publlc ranklna publlc offlclal lmpleaded ln Lhls caseţť
Ŵ S8 ruled LhaL lL had [urlsdlcLlon over peLlLlonersŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ lL bears sLresslna LhaL Lhe exoneraLlon of peLlLloners ln Lhe audlL lnvesLlaaLlon does noL mean Lhe auLomaLlc dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL
aaalnsL LhemŦ 1he prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlonţ afLer allţ ls lndependenL from Lhe lnvesLlaaLlon conducLed bv Lhe CCAţ Lhelr purposes
dlsLlncL from each oLherŦ 1he flrsL lnvolves Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe facL of Lhe commlsslon of a crlmeŤ Lhe second relaLes Lo Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve aspecL of Lhe expendlLure of publlc fundsŦ Accordlnalvţ we hold LhaL Lhe Cmbudsman dld noL err ln enLerLalnlna Lhe
complalnL flled bv Lhe Þrovlnclal AudlLor aaalnsL peLlLlonersţ nor Lhe Sandlaanbavan ln allowlna Lrlal Lo proceedţ desplLe Lhe pendencv of
peLlLlonersƌ moLlons before Lhe audlLorŦ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner mavorƌs poslLlon havlna been classlfled as Crade 27 ln accordance wlLh 8ŦAŦ noŦ 6738ţ and havlna been charaed wlLh vlolaLlon
of SecLlon 3 %e) of 8ŦAŦ 3019ţ peLlLloner ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlaanbavanţ as deflned bv SecLlon 4 aŦ of ÞŦuŦ noŦ 1606ţ as
amended bv SecLlon 2 of 8ŦAŦ noŦ 7973Ŧ 8v vlrLue of Lhe same SecLlon 4 aŦţ as amendedţ hls coŴaccused are also sub[ecL Lo Lhe AnLlŴCrafL
CourLƌs [urlsdlcLlonŦ
Ŵ 1o dlsLlnaulsh Lhe bla flsh from Lhe small frvţ Conaress deemed Lhe 27Lh Crade as Lhe demarcaLlon beLween Lhose who should come
under Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlaanbavan and Lhose wlLhln Lhe reaular courLsƌŦ %Whlle PŦ8Ŧ noŦ 9823 orlalnallv lnLended onlv offlclals
of Crade 28 and above as wlLhln Lhe excluslve and orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlaanbavanţ Lhe resulLlna law lncluded offlclals of Crade
27Ŧ) 1husţ offlclals occupvlna poslLlons of Crade 27 and aboveţ charaed wlLh crlmes referred Lo ln SecLlon 4 aŦ and bŦţ are wlLhln Lhe
orlalnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SandlaanbavanŤ Lhose below come under Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe reaular courLsŦ AlLhouah some
poslLlons of Crade 27 and above are sLaLed bv name ln SecLlon 4 aŦţ Lhe poslLlon of Munlclpal Mavor ls noL amona LhemŦ neverLhelessţ
Conaress provlded a caLchall ln SecLlon 4 aŦ %3)ţ Lhusť %3) All oLher naLlonal and local offlclals classlfled as Crade 27 and hlaher under Lhe
CompensaLlon and ÞoslLlon ClasslflcaLlon AcL of 1989Ŧ Such a caLchall ls necessarvţ for lL would be lmpracLlcalţ lf noL lmposslbleţ for
Conaress Lo llsL down each poslLlon creaLed or wlll be creaLed perLalnlna Lo Crades 27 and aboveŦ

Locson v £xecutive 5ecretory %1999Ť Mottloezţ IŦ)

ŵŵŶ



Iactsť Þubllc offlce lnvolvedť Þollce offlcers lnvolved ln Lhe kuraLona 8alelena 8ubŴouL
Ŵ Accused were Lhe leaders of pollce operaLlves charaed wlLh 11 counLs of murder for Lhe summarv execuLlon %rub ouL) of kuraLona
8alelenaŦ 1hev lnlLlallv assall Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe S8 over Lhelr caseţ conslderlna LhaL lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo cases where one or more of Lhe
"principo/ occused" are aovernmenL offlclals wlLh Salarv Crade %SC) 27 or hlaherţ or ÞnÞ offlclals wlLh Lhe rank of Chlef SuperlnLendenL
%8rlaadler Ceneral) or hlaherŦ 1he hlahesL ranklna prlnclpal accused ln Lhe amended lnformaLlons has Lhe rank of onlv a Chlef lnspecLorţ
and none has Lhe equlvalenL of aL leasL SC 27Ŧ Lacson was onlv an accessorvŦ
Ŵ Whlle Lhese M8s were pendlna resoluLlonţ and even before Lhe lssue of [urlsdlcLlon cropped up wlLh Lhe flllna of Lhe amended
lnformaLlons on March 1ţ 1996ţ Pouse 8lll noŦ 2299 and noŦ 1094 %sponsored bv 8epŦ Laaman and nepLall MŦ Conzales llţ respecLlvelv)ţ
as well as S8 noŦ 844 %sponsored bv SenaLor nepLall Conzales)ţ were lnLroduced ln Conaressţ deflnlna expandlna Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
SandlaanbavanŦ Speclflcallvţ Lhe sald bllls souahL Lo amend Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlaanbavan bv de|et|ng the word ƍpr|nc|pa|ƍ from
the phrase "pr|nc|pa| accused" ln SecLlon 2 %paraaraphs a and c) of 8A 7973Ŧ
Ŵ ÞeLlLloner's araumenLť
ż1Ž 1he quesLloned provlslons of Lhe sLaLuLe were lnLroduced bv Lhe auLhors Lhereof |n bad fa|th as lL was made Lo preclselv sulL Lhe
slLuaLlon ln whlch peLlLlonerƌs cases were ln aL Lhe Sandlaanbavan bv resLorlna [urlsdlcLlon Lhereof Lo lLţ Lherebv vlolaLlna hls rlahL Lo
procedural due process and Lhe equal proLecLlon clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ
ż2Ž 8eLroacLlve appllcaLlon of Lhe law ls plan from Lhe facL LhaL lL was aaaln made Lo sulL Lhe pecullar clrcumsLances ln whlch peLlLlonerƌs
cases were underţ namelvţ LhaL Lhe Lrlal had noL veL commencedţ as provlded ln SecLlon 7ţ Lo make cerLaln LhaL Lhose cases wlll no
lonaer be remanded Lo Lhe CC 81Cţ as Lhe Sandlaanbavan alone should Lrv Lhemţ Lhus maklna lL an ex posL facLo lealslaLlon and a denlal
of Lhe rlahL of peLlLloner as an accused ln Crlmlnal Case nosŦ 23047Ŵ23037 Lo procedural due processŦ
Issueť WCn SecLlons 4 and 7 of 8epubllc AcL noŦ 8249 Ÿ an acL whlch furLher deflnes Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlaanbavan are
unconsLlLuLlonal?
ne|dť nCŦ
kat|oť
Ŵ Conslderlna LhaL hereln peLlLloner and lnLervenors are belna charaed wlLh murder whlch ls a felonv punlshable under 1lLle vlll of Lhe
8evlsed Þenal Codeţ Lhe aovernlna on Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal offense ls noL paraaraph a buL paraaraph bţ SecLlon 4 of 8ŦAŦ 8249Ŧ 1hls
paraaraph b perLalns Lo ƍoLher offenses or felonles wheLher slmple or complexed wlLh oLher crlmes commlLLed bv Lhe publlc offlclals and
emplovees menLloned ln subsecLlon a of %SecLlon 4ţ 8ŦAŦ 8249) ln relaLlon Lo Lhelr offlceŦ ƍ1he phraseƍ oLher offenses or felonlesƍ ls Loo
broad as Lo lnclude Lhe crlme of murderţ provlded lL was commlLLed ln relaLlon Lo Lhe accusedƌs offlclals funcLlonsŦ 1husţ under sald
paraaraph bţ whaL deLermlnes Lhe Sandlaanbavanƌs [urlsdlcLlon ls Lhe offlclal poslLlon or rank of Lhe offender Ÿ LhaL lsţ wheLher he ls one
of Lhose publlc offlcers or emplovees enumeraLed ln paraaraph a of SecLlon 4Ŧ 1he offenses menLloned ln pararaphs aţ b and c of Lhe
same SecLlon 4 do noL make anv reference Lo Lhe crlmlnal parLlclpaLlon of Lhe accused publlc offlcer as Lo wheLher he ls charaed as a
prlnclpalţ accompllce or accessorvŦ ln enacLlna 8ŦAŦ 8249ţ Lhe Conaress slmplv resLored Lhe orlalnal provlslons of ÞŦuŦ 1606 whlch does
noL menLlon Lhe crlmlnal parLlclpaLlon of Lhe publlc offlcer as a requlslLe Lo deLermlne Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ
Ŵ 1he challenaers of SecLlons 4 and 7 of 8ŦAŦ 8249 falled Lo rebuL Lhe presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLv and reasonableness of Lhe
quesLloned provlslonsŦ 1he classlflcaLlon beLween Lhose pendlna cases lnvolvlna Lhe concerned publlc offlclals whose Lrlal has noL veL
commence and whose cases could have been affecLed bv Lhe amendmenLs of Lhe Sandlaanbavan [urlsdlcLlon under 8ŦAŦ 8249ţ as aaalnsL
Lhose cases where Lrlal had alreadv sLarLed as of Lhe approval of Lhe lawţ resLs on subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon LhaL makes real dlfferencesŦ

ln
Lhe flrsL lnsLanceţ evldence aaalnsL Lhem were noL veL presenLedţ whereas ln Lhe laLLer Lhe parLles had alreadv submlLLed Lhelr respecLlve
proofsţ examlned wlLnesses and presenLed documenLsŦ Slnce lL ls wlLhln Lhe power of Conaress Lo deflne Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of courLs
sub[ecL Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlonsţ

lL can be reasonablv anLlclpaLed LhaL an alLeraLlon of LhaL [urlsdlcLlon would necessarllv affecL
pendlna casesţ whlch ls whv lL has Lo prlvlde for a remedv ln Lhe form of a LranslLorv provlslonŦ 1husţ peLlLloner and lnLervenors cannoL
now clalm LhaL SecLlons 4 and 7 placed Lhem under a dlfferenL caLeaorv from Lhose slmllarlv slLuaLed as LhemŦ Þreclselvţ paraaraph a of
SecLlon 4 provldes LhaL lL shall applv Lo ƍall case lnvolvlnaƍ cerLaln publlc offlclals andţ under Lhe LranslLorv provlslon ln SecLlon 7ţ Lo ƍall
cases pendlna ln anv courLŦƍ ConLrarv Lo peLlLloner and lnLervenorsƌ araumenLţ Lhe law ls noL parLlcularlv dlrecLed onlv Lo Lhe kuraLona
8alelena casesŦ 1he LranslLorv provlslon does noL onlv cover cases whlch are ln Lhe Sandlaanbavan buL also ln ƍanv courLŦƍ lL [usL
happened LhaL kuraLona 8alelena cases are one of Lhose affecLed bv Lhe lawŦ Moreoverţ Lhose cases where Lrlal had alreadv beaun are
noL affecLed bv Lhe LranslLorv provlslon under SecLlon 7 of Lhe new law
Ŵ ln Lhelr fuLlle aLLempL Lo have sald secLlons nulllfledţ heavv rellance ls premlsed on whaL ls percelved as bad falLh on Lhe parL of a SenaLor
and Lwo !usLlces of Lhe Sandlaanbavan

for Lhelr parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe passaae of Lhe sald provlslonsŦ ln parLlcularţ lL ls sLressed LhaL Lhe
SenaLor had expressed sLrona senLlmenLs aaalnsL Lhose offlclals lnvolved ln Lhe kuraLona 8alelena cases durlna Lhe hearlnas conducLed
on Lhe maLLer bv Lhe commlLLee headed bv Lhe SenaLorŦ ÞeLlLloner furLher conLends LhaL Lhe lealslaLure ls blased aaalnsL hlm as he
clalms Lo have been selecLed from amona Lhe 67 mllllon oLher llllplnos as Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe deleLlon of Lhe word ƍprlnclpalƍ ln paraaraph
aţ SecLlon 4 of ÞŦuŦ 1606ţ as amendedţ and of Lhe LranslLorv provlslon of 8ŦAŦ 8249Ŧ

8ŦA 8249ţ whlle sLlll a blllţ was acLedţ dellberaLedţ
consldered bv 23 oLher SenaLors and bv abouL 230 8epresenLaLlvesţ and was separaLelv approved bv Lhe SenaLe and Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves andţ flnallvţ bv Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
Ŵ A perusal of Lhe aforequoLed SecLlon 4 of 8ŦAŦ 8249 reveals LhaL Lo fall under Lhe excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe S8ţ Lhe ff concurť
1Ŧ Lhe offense commlLLed ls a vlolaLlon of
aŦ 8ŦAŦ 3019ţ as amended %Lhe AnLlŴCrafL and CorrupL ÞracLlces AcL)ţ
bŦ 8ŦAŦ 1379 %Lhe law on lllŴaoLLen wealLh)ţ
cŦ ChapLer llţ SecLlon 2ţ 1lLle vllţ 8ook ll of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal Code %Lhe law on brlberv)

ŵŵŷ



dŦ LxecuLlve Crder nosŦ 1ţ 2ţ 14ţ and 14ŴAţ lssued ln 1986 %sequesLraLlon cases)
eŦ oLher offenses or felonles wheLher slmple or complexed wlLh oLher crlmesŤ
2Ŧ Lhe offender commlLLlna Lhe offenses ln lLems %a)ţ %b)ţ %c) and %e) ls a publlc offlclal or emplovee holdlna anv of Lhe poslLlons
enumeraLed ln paraaraph a of SecLlon 4Ť and
3Ŧ Lhe offense commlLLed ls ln relaLlon Lo Lhe offlceŦ
wbetbet tbe offeose of moltlple motJet wos commltteJ lo telotloo to tbe offlce of tbe occosseJ 9N9 offlcets
Ŵ ClLlna 9eople vsŦ Mootejoť An offense ls sald Lo have been commlLLed ln relaLlon Lo Lhe offlce lf lL %Lhe offense) ls ƍlnLlmaLelv connecLedƍ
wlLh Lhe offlce of Lhe offender and perpeLraLed whlle he was ln Lhe performance of hls offlclal funcLlonsŦ 1hls lnLlmaLe relaLlon beLween
Lhe offense charaed and Lhe dlscharae of offlclal duLles ƍmusL be alleaed ln Lhe lnformaLlonsŦ"
Ŵ Whlle Lhe aboveŴquoLed lnformaLlon sLaLes LhaL Lhe aboveŴnamed prlnclpal accused commlLLed Lhe crlme of murder ƍln relaLlon Lo Lhelr
publlc offlceţ Lhere lsţ howeverţ no speclflc alleaaLlon of facLs LhaL Lhe shooLlna of Lhe vlcLlm bv Lhe sald prlnclpal accused was lnLlmaLelv
relaLed Lo Lhe dlscharae of Lhelr offlclal duLles as pollce offlcersŦ Llkewlseţ Lhe amended lnformaLlon does noL lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe sald
accused arresLed and lnvesLlaaLed Lhe vlcLlm and Lhen kllled Lhe laLLer whlle ln Lhelr cusLodvŦ
Ŵ lor fallure Lo show ln Lhe amended lnformaLlons LhaL Lhe charae of murder was lnLlmaLelv connecLed wlLh Lhe dlscharae of offlclal
funcLlons of Lhe accused ÞnÞ offlcersţ Lhe offense charaed ln Lhe sub[ecL crlmlnal cases ls plaln murder andţ Lhereforeţ wlLhln Lhe
excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourLţ noL Lhe SandlaanbavanŦ

D. DIsabIIItIes and InbIbItIons

nder the onstitution
a Disabilities of President, vice President, Nembers of Cabinet and their Deputies and Assistants
b Disabilities of Nembers of Congress
c Disabilities of Nembers of Constitutional Commissions
d Disabilities of President, vice President, Nembers of Cabinet and their Deputies and Assistants
e Prohibitions against designation of members of judiciary to administrative positions
f Prohibitions against engaging in partisan political activities
g Prohibitions against appointment of elective officials
h Prohibitions against holding more than one position by appointive officials
i Prohibitions against acceptance of any present etc from any foreign state
j Prohibitions against receiving additional, double or indirect compensation
k Prohibitions against grant of loan, guaranty or other form of financial accommodation

2 nder existing laws
a Prohibitions imposed on civil service officers or employees
b Prohibitions imposed on local government officials
c Prohibitions imposed on civil service officers or employees
· Prohibited business and pecuniary interest
· Practice of profession
· Partisan political activity
d Prohibitions against purchase of certain property at public auction
e Prohibitions imposed on the Covernor of and personnel of the Central Bank
f Prohibitions imposed on internal revenue officers or employees
g Prohibited acts and transactions under the Anti·Craft and Corrupt Practices Act
h Prohibited acts and transactions under the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards
· inancial and material interest
· Outside employment and other activities related thereto
· Disclosure and/or misuse of confidential information
· Solicitation or acceptance of gifts