The study of non-verbal communication examines how messages are communicated through physical behavior, vocal cues and spatial relationships.

According to A. Barbour, the total impact of a message breaks down like this: Hello!! 7 percent verbal (words) 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc) 55 percent body movements (mostly facial expressions)

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Effective communication is the combined harmony of verbal and nonverbal actions. Nonverbal communication consists of body movement, facial expressions and eye movement.

E. It is often used to accent the verbal message.g. while stating it. – Verbal tone indicates actual meaning of words . by fingers. E.g..NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ● ● It has many functions to perform: It is used to repeat the verbal message.Showing nos.

A nod would reinforce the positive statement. Regulates interactions-Nonverbal cues prompt the person to speak or stay quiet. while a wink at the end of a serious note would mean the person was joking.g..NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ● ● ● It complements/ contradicts the verbal message. . E.

rather than call out. . E. A person may use just the finger to call.NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ● It substitutes the verbal message.g.

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ● Major areas of nonverbal behaviors are: Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures ● ● .

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ● Posture and body orientation ● Proximity ● Para linguistics .


● ● . When someone is excited. An angry or negative mood causes the pupils to contract. his pupils dilate to four times the normal size.EYE CONTACT ● The eyes can give clues to a person’s thoughts.

Eye-contact helps regulate the flow of communication and reflects interest in others.EYE CONTACT ● Good eye contact helps the audience develop the interest in the speaker. ● .

● ● . credibility and concern. Downward gaze may be a sign of submissiveness or inferiority. Shifty eyes suggest dishonesty. warmth.EYE CONTACT ● Direct eye-contact conveys interest.



000 facial expressions. .FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ● You have 80 muscles in the face that can create more than 7.

mood.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ● ● The facial muscles produce the varying facial expressions that convey information about emotion. . and ideas Emotional expressions are one primary result of activity by the facial muscles.

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS • • • • • • There are six categories of facial expressions: Happiness Sadness Anger Disgust Surprise Fear .

” -Mark Twain .FACIAL EXPRESSIONS HAPPINESS “Whoever is happy will make others happy too.

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS SADNESS “Sadness dulls the heart more than the grossest sin” -Author Unknown .

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ANGER “Anger is one letter short of danger” Author Unknown .

.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS DISGUST A disgusting expression on the face is considered negative and should be avoided in formal gatherings.

.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS SURPRISE The eye-brows and the eyes are most affected in an expression of surprise.

.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS FEAR There is nothing to fear. but fear itself.


They sometimes detract from what you say. ● ● .GESTURES ● Gestures communicate as effectively as words. Gestures support the verbal communication. sometimes even better.

GESTURES ● Some commonly used gestures are: Nodding the head Hand shake Good Bye ● ● .

GESTURES ● Pointing the finger Victory Well Done Clapping ● ● ● .

GESTURES ● Showing numbers Shoulder Shrug Eyebrow raise Greeting ● ● ● .

GESTURES ● Directing music .

Fiddling with your items-It gives the impression that you are nervous. Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy.It is perceived as accusatory. Head Down.It suggests timidity. ● ● ● ● .GESTURES There are some negative gestures which should be avoided: Pointing at people.

Weak handshake-It implies meek and ineffectual personality. .It is a defensive gesture.GESTURES ● ● ● ● Drooping shoulders. Shifty eyes. Arms crossed on the chest.It suggests nervousness.It implies weariness and lethargy.

Shaking feet or legs. and that you have something to hide. Covering your mouth.It suggests you are lying.It shows indifference and disinterest.Shows disrespect.GESTURES ● ● ● Hands in pockets. .



Leaning backwards demonstrates aloofness or rejection. ● ● . Interested people pay attention and lean forward.POSTURE ● Body posture can be open or closed.

● ● . A head down is negative and judgmental.POSTURE ● A head held straight up signals a neutral attitude. A head tilted to the side indicates interest.

POSTURE Some negative postures should be avoided: Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight Hunched Shoulders –Lacks interest/ Feeling inferior Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/ Negative Thoughts ● ● ● .


.PROXIMITY Proximity is the distance people maintain between themselves while talking.

social gatherings) Public Distance-More than 12 feet( Public speaking) . Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal.PROXIMITY ● ● ● ● DISTANCE ZONES Intimate Zone. business. (Casual and personal conversations).No more than18 inches apart (mother and baby) Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet.

Executives. secretaries have small space . presidents of colleges..PROXIMITY ● ● Space/Distance as an indicator of intimacy-The more we get to know each other the more we are permitted into each other's personal space Space/Distance as an indicator of status.. government officials have large offices with big space.


Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect of communication.PARALINGUISTICS ● Para linguistics are what accompany your words to make up for its true meaning. ● .

PARALINGUISTICS ● Components of Para linguistics are: Rate of speed. Pitch-Pitch should be changed in accordance with the context of spoken words. ● .When a speaker speaks too fast. he is seen as more competent.

Loud people are perceived as aggressive or over-bearing.PARALINGUISTICS ● ● Volume.It refers to loudly we speak.Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa” are used to gather thoughts. . Softspoken voices are perceived as timid or polite. Fillers.


What we say is not as important as how we say it.SUMMARY ● ● ● Nonverbal communication is a very integral part of our communication process. . The meaning / interpretation of gestures varies from culture to culture.

SUMMARY ● A non-verbal message functions in one of these ways: a) it replaces b) it contradicts c) it reinforces .