AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

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. C.'AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION BY OTTORINO POMIL'IO CONSULTING AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER FOR THE POMILIO BROTHERS CORPORATION FIRST EDITION McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. 1919 . YORK 239 WEST 39TH STREET. & 8 BOUVERIE ST. LTD. INC. NEW LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING 6 CO.. E.

COPYRIGHT. BY THE MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY. INC. MAP1. 1919.E PRE8S YORK .

anh <0rttUt .

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appropriate. expense. Employment of the data presented should enable designers to save both time and The arrangement. and explanation of the derivation of working formulae. 1919. together with the assumptions upon which they are based. a tangible expression of the keen appreciation of the author for the great work of these two brothers. vii . The dedication of this volume to Wilbur and Orville Wright is at once appropriate and significant. and consequently their limitations. J.INTRODUCTION major part of experimental work in aerodynamics has been conducted in Europe rather than in America. as a sort of recompense zation to the product of for the daring. courage and inventive genius which made analysis of many of the and operation. are such that the book lends itself to use as a text in technical schools and colleges. The time is. and significant. S. presentation of subject matter. opportune. in the form of a rational in that it is problems relating to airplane design of the product of an older civilithe new. This book presents in greater detail than has hitherto been attempted in this country the application of aerodynamic research conducted abroad to practical airplane design. publication of this book at and it should go far toward replacing by scientific procedure many of the "cut and try" methods now used. By far the The airplane industry is now shifting from the design and construction of military types of craft to that of pleasure and commercial this types. MACGREGOR. therefore. where the feat of flying in a heavier than air machine was first accomplished. in that it is a return. on the part human NEW flight possible. YORK.

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- IX . III. . XX. On Stability and Maneuverability Flying in the Wind PART XII. The Speed The Climbing Great Loads and Long . The Wings The Control Surfaces The Fuselage The Landing Gear The Engine The Propeller 1 19 37 44 51 72 PART VII. . \ . XXI. I Structure of the Airplane II. IV. VI. 161 167 188 Flights 204 PART Design IV of the Airplane XVI.. XV. . INDEX. 221 261 276 324 358 379 401 . V. II Elements of Aerodynamics The Glide Flying with Power 87 102 115 134 151 III . .CONTENTS PAQB INTRODUCTION vii PART CHAPTER I. Landing Gear and Propeller. X.. XVIII. IX. VIII. Determination of the Flying Characteristics Sand Tests Weighing Flight Tests .. XVII. XI. Static Analysis of Fuselage. . Materials Planning the Project Static Analysis of Main Planes and Control Surfaces . XIX. Problems of Efficiency XIV. XIII.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT Lester The author desires to express his sincere thanks to Mrs. XI . P. Garibaldi Joseph Piccione drawing the diagrams. 0. Morton Savell for her valuable assistance in matters for his intelligent assistance in pertaining to English and to Mr.

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Vertical or sustaining force. a disturbance of the atmosphere which is more or less pronounced and complex in character. and Horizontal component perpendicular to the line of Lateral Drift. The phenomenon of sustentation is easily explained. of the negative flight. wings those of the airplane are used solely to provide the means of sustaining the machine in the air.AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PART I STRUCTURE OF THE AIRPLANE CHAPTER While I THE WINGS for birds. component is found in the elevator used for the climbing maneuver of an airplane. serve to insure both sustentation and propulsion. and in general for all animals of the air. A body moving through the air produces. 2. The resultant of these pressures may then be classified into its three components : 1. 3. because of its motion. called Lift. In the final analysis. vertical The An example l . called Drag. called component may be positive or negative. as will be shown later. this disturbance is reduced to the formation of zones of positive and negative pressures. Horizontal component parallel and opposite the line of flight.

is of great importance in the directional maneuvers of airplanes. generally not existing in normal flight. it parallel to the line of flight. It is carried. For a body having a plane of symmetry and moving through space so that the line of flight is contained in that plane. then. The body would then continue in its path without further applicaIf 1 tion of energy.. This compo- nent. the body. Thus. This means be built. perpetual motion would ensue. natural. the ratio of the wing span to its depth or chord (called the Aspect Ratio). as will be shown further on in a more detailed study of aerodynamical principles (Chapter 7). have demonstrated the possibility of devising surfaces of such form that by properly moving them through the air they create reactions. for every 23 Ib. In actual practice. which. that designers direct all efforts toward in- may offer creasing the of the wing. always negative. " Conservation of energy" 1 underlying this phenomenon. of load a resistance to motion of but 1 Ib. of which the vertical component has a far greater magnitude than the horizontal. of birds' Observations made wings and results based upon the experiences of experimenters in aeronautics. g^ ratio.e. the horizontal component were positive. the force of drift is zero and the only components acting are the lift and the drag. a surface capable of developing high values of lift with small values of drag is called a wing. since it would be necessary only to furnish the initial force to set the body in motion." because it tends to flight make the body drift from the line of flight. which is used to define the efficiency Three factors influence such efficiency: the profile of the wing section. and This principle states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. . the value of the ratio that wings ^ varies from 15 to 23.AND CONSTRUCTION The is horizontal component i. tends to retard the motion of is the principle line of The horizontal is component perpendicular to the called the force of "drift.

the distriand negative pressures and give different values of Lift. to obtain the highest values of the j^ ratio. wing (Fig. as well as to vary the Lift 'coefficient according to the load to be carried per square foot of wing surface. to express them by means of curves . It is posas sible. Line of FIG. but the aerodynamical advantages derived from their use were never sufficient to compensate for the complicated construction required. 2. Because of the simplicity angles of modern construction. there are the following distinct elements (Fig. bottom and trailing The proper use of these elements makes it possible edge. Drag and ^ The laws of variation of these factors are rather complicated and cannot be expressed by means of formulae. 1. 2). profile of a wing section is its major section at right to the span of the wing. wings are generally built with The Back FIG.THE WINGS 3 the relative position of the wings (in multiplane machines). As a result. called the angle of incidence of the between greater or smaller limits. many types of wings were built with a variable wing section. 1): leading edge. In the early days of aeronautics. a constant section throughout the span. however. may vary bution and value of the positive will vary. The angle between the wing chord and the line of flight. however. In the profile of a wing. back.

whence the equation (1) 7 \2 1 becomes If A = . ft. differ in other elements. which.h. and V = = 100 m. Consequently it is seen that the phenomenon is quadrupled. ft. 3 These illustrate the laws of coeffi- variation for the values of the Lift. cients for Drag and ^ two types of aerofoils. follow the general law that the intensity of the phenomenon increases not in proportion to the speed.4 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and 4. It is now necessary to introduce a new factor. Assuming a wing with an area of A square feet.p. This is accounted for by the fact that for redoubled speed not only is the velocity of impact of air molecules against the body moving in the air redoubled. 5 In practice it is convenient to refer the coefficients X and to the velocity of 100 m. the fol- lowing general equations may 2 be written: L = D = where X d X A X V*\ XA X V J L = total Lift for area total D= V Drag for area A in pounds A in pounds speed of translation in miles per hour (m. All aerodynamical phenomena. although having the same lengths of chord.h. namely. then X (3) Li that X 1 is.h. but so also is the number of molecules that are struck intensity of the by the body.). is area of sq... 1 sq. .p. the load in pounds carried by a wing with an and moving at a velocity of 100 m.h. when considered with respect to speed. the speed or velocity of translation of the wing... illustrated in Figs. but to the square of the speed.p.p.

3. 7. 4.THE WINGS 8 1.5 -3 -2 2345678 Degrees*.75.5 0.5 1.50:10 12.75 A.15 15 0.30 22.5 0.25.2505 10 -3-2-1 I 2S4-567&9 Degrees FIG. .25 1.00.20 17. Fia. 35 25 1.50.

the coefficients X and 8 may assume an entire series of varied values by changing the angle of incidence of the wings. while and elements of the wing. one which will pass along the top and the other which will pass along the bottom of the wing. Figs. top. Figs.p.h. For example. 1 gives X = 11. 2 gives X = 17. in order to prevent eddies. edge should be designed with the same criterions as those adopted in the design of turbine blades. by using equation (2) the values of L and be found for any area or any speed. 5 and 6 show the phenomenon schematically. is obtained by dividing the L equation by the D equation. 3 and 4 show the laws of variation of X.8.6. the and D may 5 ratio - is equal to D which 7. of each of these elements: Actually. Now. the function of the leading edge is to penetrate the air and to deviate it into two streams. examination of the diagrams is instructive because it is it shows how possible to build wings which may have for totally different values of Lift. at an angle of incidence of 3. Knowing X and 5. wing No.6 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 5 the head resistance in pounds for a wing with an area of 1 sq. wing No. bottom Let us consider separately the function trailing edge. 1. 2 carries a load 49 per cent. In order to obtain a good efficiency necessary that this penetration be made with as little disturbance as possible. 2. the speed being the same both wings. Eddies it is give rise to considerable head resistance and are therefore For that reason. namely. the leading edge. greater than wing No. 5 and - for two different types of wings to which we will refer as An wing No. the air deviated above the wing tends Due to inertia. 1 and wing No. and moving at a velocity of 100 m. to continue in its . Also. with equal speeds. The laws of variation of X and 5 depend upon the several wing No. in other words. the leading great consumers of energy. ft.

of the wing. but also on the law of negative pressure distribution along its entire length. 7. FIG. 5. also due to inertia. It is obvious. Loading edge of good efficiency. 7). FIG. to condense. of the wing. Leading edge of poor efficiency. that the top curvature has a pronounced influence not only upon the intensity of the vacuum. path downward so as to flow along the top curvature A dynamic equilibrium is thereby established between the negative pressure and the centrifugal force of their FIG. G. tending to deflect path. thus producing a positive pressure which forces the air molecules to follow the concairty of The air .THE WINGS rectilinear 7 vacuum on top thus producing a negative pressure or This negative pressure exerts a centripetal force on the air molecules. deviated below the wing tends instead. then. POSITIVE PRESSURE. the various molecules (Fig.

8. as greater. of these pressures represents the value -T-- It will be noted that the portion of the sustentation due to the vacuum above is much greater than that due to the positive pressure below. of the positive The resultant FIG.9 times and equal to 74 per cent. the means adopted to raise the value of X is . In practice. a centrifugal force is developed which is in dynamic equilibrium with the positive pressure produced (Fig. careful consideration than that of the bottom curvature. it is 2. Curves showing the laws of distribution and negative pressures are given in Fig. 7). 8.8 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Because of this the bottom curvature. of the total Lift. change in the direc- tion of velocities. In the case under consideration. Therethe study of the top curvature must be given more fore. a wing is not at all defined by the bottom curvature alone.

with the resulting losses of energy. In brief. the formation of a wake or eddies behind the wing. Trailing edge of poor efficiency. 9. Trailing edge of good efficiency. for good wing efficiency. thereby increasing the intensithe negative and positive pressures. and in order to obtain a higher value of the Lift coefficient X the top and' bottom curvatures must be increased. In this manner. and shows the mean negative and positive pressure curves for the top the chord . is avoided (Figs. 1 1 which Considering represents a section parallel to the leading edge. it is primarily necessary for the leading and trailing edges to be of a design which will avoid the formation of eddies. the front view of a wing surface. air leaves air streamthe wing. trailing edge also has its bearing on the efficiency. Fig. FIG. S and and bottom of the wing. affecting a smooth. until their difference becomes zero. From the foregoing Of it is easy to understand the importhe relation between the span tance of the ratio ^. C of a wing. it will be seen that while in . that is.THE WINGS to increase of the ties of 9 both the convexity of the top and the concavity bottom The Its liness of the wing. 9 and 10). 10. gradual decrease in the negative and positive pressures shape must be such as to straighten out the when the FIG.

which is done by increasing the ratio of the span to the r*) (Cf\ it is sometimes done in practice. The loss is expressed by s X = c -> that s by the inverse of the ratio . Pres&ure. is. The same result is obtained as though the also that the diagram is the wing. and the Lift is decreased considerably. as AC modified according equivalent to assuming a decrease in the Lift measured by the triangles AA'C'. BB'D' and BB" D". the importance of the term c is greatly decreased. 11. under pressure rushing toward the vacuum zone. for at the end of the wing a short circuit between This is due to the the compression and depression occurs. thus establishing an air flux (the so-called marginal losses). reduce the importance of this phenomenon to a minimum. . . This is average X remained constant and the lifting surface were reduced by the amount c 2 which means that the total surface If the product sXc is kept would be reduced by sXc c 2 constant by increasing s and diminishing c correspondingly. at the wing tips A and B. It is necessary to thus lowering the value X of the wing. and to a linear law. they suffer serious disruption.10 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the central part the curves are represented by lines parallel to the wing. AA"C". that the in the average curves due to marginal losses disruption and BD. Negative Positive fir Pressure. c"~~ FIG. equal to the chord of extends for a distance W Assume. with the result that at the wing tips the average pressure curves air come together.

12 and 13 In illus- trate this phenomenon and triplane respectively. 12. and there are also static and structural problems to be considered which limit the value of the ratio c In value modern varies machines. the following effects ensue: 1. e triplane. and even more. ment high of the surfaces necessitated by the structural considerations. and is therefore advantageous to build wings of large spread. the j n ^he cage Q f due to ^ . . In practice. still losses are greater. 13. with the result that the value of the Lift coefficient entire wing is lowered. case of the for a biplane the biplane. triplanes and multiplanes. In biplanes. this 12.THE WINGS span chord So it 11 is seen that by increasing the ratio > the c average value of the cient of Lift it is coeffi- increased. and 2. FIG. there is a limit beyond which this advantage becomes a minimum. another very im- from 5 to portant problem is presented that of the mutual interference of each plane upon the In view of the close arrangeothers. Decrease in vacuum on top of lower plane. Decrease in positive pressures FIG. and values of their negative and positive pressures of air. Triplane system. a confliction of air flow is formed over the surface. however. on bottom of upper plane. Figs.

per sq. For this reason designers strive to confine the unit load between the limits and 8 Ib. Now. the is 51 Ib. per sq. is produced between two points in the air at a distance of 6 ft. however. respectively. of course.12 1. the triplane really Another important ratio in aeronautics is the unit load on the wings. Keeping in mind what has been previously stated (Fig. ft. that value has never been reached. of 6 provided. 8). plane. the discussion here will be limited to the biplane. so however. Decrease in vacuum on top of intermediate plane. point of view. but the principal disadvantages of such high unit ratio loads are the resulting high gliding and landing speeds. for wing No. is.. that the two wing surfaces had no effect on each other. ft. ft. and an appreciable loss in maneuverability. When a wing is in motion. It is thus seen how undesirable. Special racing airplanes have been built whose unit loads were as high as 13 Ib. per sq. per sq. Theoretically this value may vary between wide limits. ft. so that . or the number of pounds carried per square foot of wing surface. In practice. per sq. per sq. and 6 Ib. for example. the triplane is not a common type of airplane. ft. condensed and rarefied conditions of the air are being constantly produced. 2 set at an angle of 6 and moving at a speed of 150 miles an hour. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Decrease in vacuum on top of bottom plane. from each other. per sq. Consider a biplane with a chord and gap each of 6 ft. 3. ft. if a difference in pressure of 8 Ib. Decrease in positive pressures on bottom of upper 2. ft. with a unit load equal to 8 Ib. Decrease in positive pressures on bottom of intermediate plane. from an aerodynamical At the present time. and 4. the air under pressure rushing violently to fill up the vacuum will result in a veritable cyclone in the intervening space. it can be assumed that the values of positive and negative pressures (vacuum) found at the top and bottom of both wings would be equal to 2 Ib.

00 20 17.75 15 0.75 15 15 0.THE WINGS 8 1.25 25 20 1.25 5 i Z 3 4 5-6 7 & .5 1.25 5 -3 -2 -I I 23456789 75 .5 0.50 30 22.50 10 0.75 /t 13 35 25 1.5 0.50 10 12. 0.

14 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a certain dynamic equilibrium ensues. Assume each machine to carry a load of 1500 Ib. a few brief computations will be made. following conditions: 1.415 X 200 - 83 Ib. with a biplane also having the same wing section. . Considered as an upper plane. 3 will change for every one of the three for a biplane. Fig. for the monoplane (Fig. Acting alone. ft. = d = D = i 1 0. The problem then is to find the values of the angles of inci- dence and the thrust efforts required to overcome the Drag. Serving as the lower plane of a biplane structure. 3. as for a monoplane. since the aerodynamical behavior of the wing shown in Fig. 1500 200 _ : r which value of X gives. and 3. ft. Serving as the upper plane of a biplane structure. at a speed of 100 miles per hour. 3 are no longer applicable and new curves must be determined experimentally. in area. 2. From the equation Since L == --= A then 1500 Ib.. Again consider the type of wing curve whose characteristics are given in Fig. 3. and whose planes are each 100 sq. 3).415 0.. 15 gives the characteristics of a complete biplane whose upper and lower planes are similar. the curves in Fig. 14 gives the characteristics for wing No. possessing the type of wing mentioned above. and 200 sq. ft. In order to study the phenomenon more closely. the aerodynamical curve is practically the same as that in Fig. and assume that it is to be adopted In such a case. Compare now a monoplane having a wing surface of 200 sq. Fig. 1 serving as a lower plane.

so that the total loss due to the employment of equal area. the span of to weight.P.450 0. As only 0.P. the main stress-resisting members of the wing. Regarding the former.THE WINGS and for the biplane (Fig. fuselage spars of In the biplane. the biplane structure has almost entirely supplanted that of the monoplane. which are running parallel to the span. greater. offered cellular structure over a linear type. the corresponding spars of both upper and . is to be noted that a wing structure two or more main beams called wing constructed to form the outline of the wing section. due largely to the great superiority. more H. the final deduction must not be made that a biplane requires 8 per cent. In the case of the biplane ^ is seen to be 12 per cent.71 that required by the monoplane. it usually consists of spars. the the biplane is r~~g ratio being the same. of a biplane structure is 8 per cent. For lifting surfaces of equal areas. are fitted to the The junction of the wings to the body or fuselage spars. more power than the monoplane The power absorbed by the wing system is about 25 per cent. smaller than in the case of the monoplane. 17). of 25 per cent. or 2 per cent. the biplane takes up much less ground by a space and is much lighter than the monoplane. of the total H. Wing ribs. Of late. required by really only the machine. of a machine is made by means of the spars. i d 15 D = = = 1 45' 0. However. is required to move the wing surfaces of this biplane than that necessary to move a similar wing in the monoplane structure. from a structural point of view. instead. therefore 8 per cent.450 X : 200 - 90 Ib. to The the monoplane wings are fixed or hinged and braced by steel cable rigging (Fig.. The thrust required is 8 per cent. 16).

A leading edge made of wood or steel tube struts connects the front extremities of the ribs. 16. The vertical struts of a biplane may between the upper and lower wings be either of wood or steel tubing. the frame all types of airplanes. In .[ or box section for lightness (Fig. becoming more and more uniform for As already pointed out. 18). 17). the function of which is to stiffen the wing horizontally. while for the trailing edge a steel wire or wood strip is used. The spars are also held together by wooden and steel wire cross bracing. FIG.16 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION lower planes are held together by struts and cross bracing. For those familiar with the principles of structures it is easy to see the great superiority of the biplane structure over the monoplane structure in stiffness and lightness. forming a truss (Fig. 19). The up with a thin veneer web. to which are glued and nailed or screwed strengthening flanges rib is usually built (Fig. 20). The spars are usually of an I. and the impossibility of monoplane structure in large machines because of its excessive weight. consists of two or more spars on which the ribs are fitted Wing structure is (Fig.

19. SECTION A-B (ENLARGED) FIG. FIG. attached by sewing it to the ribs.. Wing Trussing Strut Rear Spar. different Many systems of Angle Strut:' Box.. attaching the struts and cables to the spars are used. they must have a streamline section to reduce to a minimum their head resistance. 18.. 20. End Fitting -For Connecting Spar. and tacking or sewing it to the . 22. FIG. Wood struts are often hollowed to obtain lightness. and some of the many possible methods are shown in Fig.THE WINGS 17 either case. Inferior Trailing Edge. Section "> End Rib. The wing skeleton is covered with linen fabric. Interior Steel Wire Cross Bracing. >g to the Fuselage:''"" Intermediate tr I"Section Rib.

The surface is then finished with bright leading and trailing edges.18 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION It is then given an application of special varnish. FIG. which leaves the fabric smooth so as to reduce frictional losses to a minimum. SECTION A-B(ENLARGED) FIG. 21. ." which stretches it and makes it air tight. thereby detracting as little as possible from the efficiency. 22. called "dope. waterproof varnish.

One of machine while the third the two axes in the plane is is is parallel to the line of flight while the other to it. or prevent a pitching devices of longitudinal stability. principal axis perpendicular to the plane of symmetry.G. Two of the of the axes are contained in the plane of symmetry normal to this plane. 19 . every rotation of the about its C. any rotation of the machine about its C. is called the pitching axis. in the plane The of symmetry is called the axis of direction of flight. each capable of producing a rotation of the airplane about one of its principal axes. The bring about. must be made to its center of gravity (C. devices which cause or prevent movements about that axis are called devices of directional stability. one fixed.) and to three principal axes.CHAPTER II THE CONTROL SURFACES reference its In studying the directional maneuvers of an airplane. called the elevator.G. The axis parallel to the line of flight is called the rolling axis. Rotations about that The devices used to axis are called pitching movements. There are usually two surfaces which control longitudinal stability.G. and the devices causing or preventing rolling movements are called devices of lateral stability. perpendicular By a known machine principle of mechanics. movement are called The axis perpendicular to the line of flight. and the other movable. called the stabilizer or tail plane. can be brought about or prevented. may be considered as the resultant of three distinct rotations. first fixed at the rear end of the fuselage. if three systems of principal axes. one about each of the three On the other hand. <The stabilizer or tail plane is a relatively small surface Its function is. control are used.

ft. the proportions of the stabilizer with respect to the other parts of the airplane are also dependent on another factor: the type of airplane. 'C The elevator or edge of while in movable surface is hinged to the rear the stabilizer. and it may be raised or lowered flight flight. otherwise of the wings. it would add to the instability As on to the proper dimensions of the stabilizer. be lower than that of the principal wing surface. its speed. speed of the machine. For small. Moreover.20 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION even completely invert the phenomenon curved wings. but it must always of all. such as those used for bombing operations and requiring a much lower degree of maneuverability. and the distance the stabilizer is set from the center of gravity of the machine. swift combat machines which require a high degree of maneuverability. Its value is generally 1 to 4 less than that of the wings. the stabilizer will require relatively less surface than that required for large. to act as a damper on longitudinal or pitching movements. In normal the elevator is is set parallel to the air flow so that there or no air reaction on its faces. heavily loaded machines. Under this condition only. However. will it act as a stabilizer. The size of the elevator also depends on the weight. its longitudinal moment or inertia. moment of inertia. and secondly. It may be either lifting or non-lifting. that incidence must never be greater than the angle used for the main wing surfaces. The stabilizer may be of various shapes and sections. In general stabilizer is generally its angle of incidence may be adjusted either on the ground or while in flight. and on its distively. If it is downward the air will strike it. to offset or of the inherent instability of satisfy the basic condition that its unit loading per sq. of The framework or skeleton of the wood or steel tubing. . they depend various factors such as the weight of the airplane. producing swung upward a reaction whose direction is upward or downward respecthus tending to set the machine for climbing or descending.

the two proportions vary inversely ity. 23. However. for slow machines endowed with a greater degree of stabilIn other words. However.THE CONTROL SURFACES 21 tance from the center of gravity of the machine. as those of the stabilizers. also the type of airplane and the service for which it is intended must be given consideration. for quick and responsive machines the elevator must be proportionally larger than FIG. this will be more easily understood upon considering the functions of .

will falls at be in equilibrium if the center of gravity of the a distance of 40 per cent. it 7. and vice versa. examination will be made of the mechanism by which the stabilizer. supposing the normal speed to be 100 m. The by the ratio c The curves for X and for . through which it is progressing. in an airplane. just to disturb the equilibrium of the machine in instead. given in Fig. When. are unstable.h. of the chord. acting alone. An outline of a type of stabilizer and elevator system is be made of the function of these two parts of longitudinal stability.p. and the normal angle of flight 2. chord and 40 ft. The function of the stabilizer is to insure longitudinal The elevators function as its name implies. span. otherwise it is said to be unstable. 23. the airplane is said to be stable. By applying the data from these curves to a wing of ft. the wing loading will be 5 L = and load ft. when increased. First of all. deviation. the air reaction will not only vary in intensity but also in locaIf the new reaction is such as to antagonize the tion. is order to bring about a change in the normal flying.22 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the two devices which are in a certain sense^ completely opposite.as functions of the c angle of incidence for a given wing section. 25. Suppose now that the inci- . The point of intersection of the air reaction on the wing chord is the incidence is called the center of pressure of the wing (Fig. or 2 from the leading edge. A closer study may now when properly set. are shown in Fig. stability.3 X 200 = 1460 Ib. the incidence of the wing is changed with respect to the air. the reaction moves forward as wing Wings having curved profiles. 24) location of the center of thrust is usually indicated /p /> . exercises its stabilizing property. Laboratory experiments have shown that for a with a curved profile. thus the reaction moves in such a way as to aggravate the disturbance.

Ib. "c" 0.5 0. or 1. FIG. from the leading edge. 23456769 Degrees.5 15. then the sustaining force becomes L = 10 X 200 . .THE CONTROL SURFACES dence is 23 increased from 2 to 4. 24. of the chord.85 ft.5 0. X TV. Center of Pressure.15 = 300 ft.30 5.40 10. 0.0 0.50 17.15 and it will be applied at 37 per cent.20 -3-2-1 01 .5 0.35 7.45 12. 25.2000 Ib. this result will then produce around the center of gravity.0 0.25 2. C - ' FIG.0 0. a moment of 2000 X 0.

and it is found that while in norin each mal flight. The center of pressure of the elevator located at 0. The The The sustaining force of the main wing equal to L. values.88 ft. and constituted of a surface of 15 sq. where a stabilizer is set behind this wing. considered.g. ft. it will be found in that case that a moment is originated tending to make the machine nose down.82 ft. = 11. and 4. Therefore..3 X 200 = 1460 Ib. it will dence of the wing. center of pressure of the elevator located at 0. With these .40 main wing located at X 5 = 2 ft. of the machine is equal to zero when the incidence is increased . the total resultant of the forces acting case is obtained.. the wing in question is unstable. 2.78 ft. from its leading edge.30 X 5' 200 = 2260 1.355 3.5) set in such a manner as to present an 2 with the line of flight when the wing in front angle of practical case will A now be presents an angle of 1. 15 3. + 2.24 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION will tend to make the machine nose up. the moment of total resultant about the e.. sustaining force of the elevator equal to L = a 2 X = 30 Ib. is Suppose now that the incidence of the machine in- creased so that the angle of incidence of the front wing changes from +2 to +5. 2. tend to further increase the angle of inci- and such moment that is. center of pressure of the main wing located at 0. (2 X 7. In normal flight there is The The The The sustaining force of the main wing. from its leading edge. and 4.05 15 91 Ib. X X = = sustaining force of the elevator equal to L = s 6. center of pressure of the 0. equal to L = s 7. from the leading edge.410 X 2' = 0. then there is 1.44 X 2' = 0. Ib. Following the same line of reasoning for a case of decrease in the angle of incidence.

It is obvious.71/ = 2. that if the airplane were provided with only a stabilizer and with no elevator. In analogous manner it can be shown that if the incidence of the machine is decreased. developed. 26). to 2351 X (2. 26. that tending to make the machine nose down. stabilizing moment (Fig.THE CONTROL SURFACES to 25 5. that moment becomes equal 645 is. since any change in this angle would develop the machine to its original izing moment tending to restore Thus the exact function of the elevator is to proangle. it would fly at only one certain angle of incia stabildence. that deviation is duce moments which will balance the stabilizing moments .6 Ft FIG.44') ft. tends to prevent the deviation and therefore is a Ib. then. a moment tending to prevent V 0.

normal flight would be impossible. as the machine tends to . of application is called center of drift. 27). to There are also usually two parts controlling directional one fixed surface called the fin or vertical stabilizer. but if is no longer coincident axis. an airplane in normal flight. enabling maneuver for climbing or descending. stability. machine to assume it a complete series of angles of incidence. If this center is found to lie behind the center of gravity. 27. instead. with its line of flight coincident with the rolling axis FIG. In this case there is for some reason the line of flight no force of drift. 28). the center of drift should fall before the center of gravity. Consider. the with the rolling whose point machine tends to set itself against the wind. (Fig. that is. If. and one movable surface called the rudder. for example. it becomes endowed with directional stability. a force of drift is developed (Fig. that is.26 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This will allow the due to the stabilizer.

the condition of directional stability is easily attained by the use of a small vertical surface of drift which is set at the extreme rear of the fuselage. falls entirely in the rear) and in which the problem of directional stability presents considerable difficulty. in which the main wing surface is the one in the rear. For that reason it is necessary to have a rudder. however. This type of airplane.THE CONTROL SURFACES 27 course. is would possess good directional stability. a vertical movable A machine provided with only a fin . a type of airplane called the Canard FIG. 28.g. This surface is called the fin or vertical stabilizer. however. type. (and consequently the e. There is. turn sharply about at the least deviation from its normal In practice. but for that very reason it would be impossible for the airplane to change its course. since the center of gravity of an air- plane is found very close to the front end of the machine. not used at the present time.

and when D" X d" = D' X d'. the airplane will FIG. 29. when the starts to drift in its course. when properly deviated. The equilibrium will be obtained only if the line of D" no longer be and D' are unequal. then. that is. which tends to stabilize. this deviation will then provoke on the rudder a the fin. rotate about the axis of direction and the line of flight will no longer coincide with the rolling axis. equilibrium will be obtained.28 surface. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION which. 29). and Obviously. 'be studied more in detail. as a result. a drifting force D" is airplane originated. if line of flight will transported to the center of other than gravity they will give a resultant D = D" zero. since the two forces D f . Let us suppose that the directing rudder is deviated at an angle. will produce a balancing moment to overcome the stabilizing moment of thus permitting a change in the course of the drift. The phenomenon may now reaction D' (Fig. which will have about the center of gravity a moment D'Xd'. the rectilinear.

which is analogous to that of a The airplane. seen that in addition to the fixed surfaces. whose functions are to insure longitudinal and directional stability. airplanes are provided with movable surfaces. offers the great advantage of ship. stabilizer and fin. in fact. as is the weight of the airplane. must not being able to incline itself laterally which greatly facilitates turning. as will be shown when reference is made to the devices for transversal stability. and it is necessary that the rudder be located at a consider- able distance from the center of gravity.D' From this equation it will maneuverability in turning. for good maneuverability. a centrifugal force $ is then developed which will be in equilibrium with the resultant force of drift D. must be not too far behind it. The foregoing applies to what is called a turn without banking. which are intended to produce moments to oppose the it is stabilizing moments of the fixed devices. the difference be seen that to obtain remarkable D" D' must have a large value.E X Z!__E X A D g g ' ' v ' _!!_ D" . the velocity of the airplane and r the radius of curvature of the line of flight. Or. In other words. therefore where W V from which is obtained . It will now be . Then equilibrium will be obtained ' when <J> = Z).THE CONTROL SURFACES flight 29 becomes curvilinear. an excessive directional stability flat exist. elevator and rudder. however. In summarizing the foregoing. since _ " d" drift. D' it is necessary that the center of although being in the rear of the center of gravity. g the acceleration due to gravity.

30. for transversal stability. the point of application of the force a must be D D . the machine is said to be transverIf D a has sally stable. Da If this reaction is a the airplane is said to have an indifferent transversal stability. 30) . Consequently. a and a form a couple tending to aggravate the inclination of the machine.30 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is better understood that excessive stability contrary to good maneuverability. the same axis as D D D the latter said to be transversally unstable. together with the force a form a stabilizing couple. conditions must be such that the lateral reaction is Da that is. . . If. there are two are classes of devices opposite in their functions. and suppose that a gust of wind causes the machine to become inclined and the air reaction The weight laterally by an angle a. In like manner. air reaction this drifting movement will produce a acting in the direction opposite D Da . finally. Some used to insure stability while others serve to produce moments capable of neutralizing the stabilizing moments. this is the case shown in Fig. L will have a resultant D n which will tend to make the W machine drift a lateral to (Fig. The resultant of the lateral is wind forces acting on the machine such as to make with the force D a a couple tending to restore the machine to its original position. Let us consider an airplane in normal flight. in order to have an airplane laterally stable.

and how It FIG. possibility of the machine banking while turning. will obtain a and equilibrium tending to balance the force A D when $ = D a (Fig. as will now be explained. the couple of lateral . cannot be actually done in practice since there is a Now. " will admit when the banks. has been explained before how a turning action may be obtained by merely narrowing the rudder. D stability must not have an excessive value. However. when . as it would decrease the maneuverability to such an extent as to make the machine dangerous to handle. 31)." the forces L and this airplane a lateral resultant W Da which tends to deviate laterally the line of flight. 31. that is.THE CONTROL SURFACES 31 situated above the point of application of force a which is the center of gravity. centrifugal force $ is thereby developed.

. If force D passes below the center of gravity. instead. and the angle a of the bank is increased. no practical interest. it the controls for lateral stability. then the angle of bank a is such that a is of the same direction as D. it D D Therefore. therefore M?which will give WX V 2 T r _. a flat turn without banking will result. If. has been observed that the machine assumes an angle of = D" . the result would be that with a slight movement of the rudder. the center of gravity. in a direction opposite to force D. This explains why pilots desiring to turn make a steep bank and at the same time nose the sharply. which is force passes above the center of gravity. the airplane will incline itself so as to produce a resultant of L and W. the angle of bank may be obtained in two ways by operating the rudder or by using the ailerons which are machine upward Now . corresponds to the case to be avoided.32 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION r is where the radius of curvature of the line of flight. In using the rudder. a strong overturning moment would develop which would give the machine a dangerous angle of bank.D' (Fig. 29) passes If the force of drift drift. w_ g x Z! Da 2 As Z) a = IF tan a. we obtain r = 1 - F tan a This equation shows that the turn can be so much sharper as the speed is decreased. since of lateral instability. the total force of drift Now if force is D + D a D a had its point of application too far above . in order to lose speed. D through the center of gravity. Then the total force of drift is equal to This case is a Da of D D . Therefore it is evident that an excessive stabilizing moment must be avoided.

32) when they are operated. is broken. the equity of the sustaining force on both the FIG. Thus a couple brought right and left wings. in a laterally the banking movement caused machine will tend to oppose is Da . which. is direction. can bank his machine to the right or that the Supposing that the pilot operates the ailerons so machine banks to the right. The AA movement. the pilot to the left.THE CONTROL SURFACES The ailerons are 33 Let us the wing ends (Fig. two small movable surfaces located at now observe what happens and BB' ailerons are hinged along the axes controlled in such a manner that when one swings and are upward the other swings downward. . then. With this inverse '. 32. a force stable produced. into play which tends to rotate the machine about the rolling Since it is possible to operate the ailerons in either axis. let a be the angle of bank.

of the ailerons. but use the motion of their wings for changing the direction of their flight. Therefore for good mobility of the airplane. applied very far above the center of gravity) the maneuver will be slow. we may either install fins above the rolling axis. or. and vice versa. 33.34 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION by the The rapidity of turning. to control directional stability by means of the lateral conFor 'example. The foregoing considerations show the is ency existing between the problems and those of transversal stability. the mobility of the machine. better still. all other conditions being similar. and the couple due to the if the value of the latter is very large (that FIG. of control for directional stability alone. birds possess no means trols. Now. It close interdependof directional stability practically possible FIG. is. give the wings an upward inclination from the center . and consequently ailerons. 34. the force a must not be too far above if D a is D the center of gravity. To raise the force D a with respect to the center of gravity. will increase in proportion as the rapidity of the banking movement increases. the rapidity with which the machine banks is proportional to the difference of the couple due to the actions force of drift .

The effect of this regulation is that when the machine takes an angle of drifts. the wing on the side toward which the machine assumes an angle of incidence greater than the inci- FIG. steel outline of tubing or pressed steel members. the so-called dihedral angle (Fig. An wood ailer- FIG. drift. 33). thereby developing a lateral couple which is favorable to stability. dence of the opposite wing. ^The framework of the ailerons is usually of wood. an airplane will produce stabilizing couples for every deviation from the position of equilibrium. the Concluding to be relatively safe and controllable at must be provided with devices which same time. 35. 36.THE CONTROL SURFACES 35 to the tip of the wing. 34. but these couples must not be . ons is given in Fig.

Balanced rudders are found on some of the high-powered machines. 37) between the center of pressure C and the axis of rotation. the muscular effprt_of the pilot. oted on a universal joint.36 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION machine would then be of excessive magnitude. 35 and 36). and a hand-controlled vertical stick (called the "joy stick") piv- UNBAUANCED RUDDER IA BALANCED RUDDER FIG. for the too slow in maneuvers. as they reduce. many same magnitude as the couples which can be produced by the controlling devices. . The system of control of maneuvering by the pilot usu- ally consists of a rudder-bar operated by the feet. and from left to right to move the ailerons (Figs. moved forward and backward to lower and raise the elevator. and consequently dangerous in These stabilizing couples must be of the cases. In this manner the pilot always has control of the machine and it will answer readily and its effectively to his will. the value of h is reduced to is h'. If axis AB AB is moved to A'B' '.^ The effort required to move a control surface Depends on the distance h (Fig. and therefore the required effort for the maneuver decreased. 37. to a slight degree.

(a) By K much as possible. and V . In the discussion on wings. as nearly as possible. Thus the the head resistance per square foot of the 1 = 100 m. as the lower is. or nearly so. however. the load. the Lift component is zero. coefficient S = is K and V = 100. then . In general. is called the coefficient will be the fuselage. and (6) by lowering the value of. 2 Assuming our base speed as 100 m. to a reducing the major section of the fuselage as coefficient minimum.h. The attached to the fuselage. the type of engine. and must be reduced to a minimum in it order to minimize the power necessary to through the air. Equation (1) shows two ways of decreasing the necessary power. etc. 37 . For a fuselage moving along a path parallel to its axis.p. the fuselage must be designed so as to have. the shape of a solid offering a minimum head resistance. the velocity of the airplane. landing gear. the Drag component is predominant. crew and the useful The wings.p. when V The of penetration of the fuselage. was observed that the air reaction acting on them is generally considered in its two components of Lift and Drag. This major section of the fuselage. rudder and elevator are all load. R = if KXSx(^) (1) therefore.CHAPTER III THE FUSELAGE fuselage or body of an airplane is the structure usually containing the engine. fuel tanks. the more suitable K corresponding necessary power will be decreased.h. then R = K. The fuselage may assume any one of various shapes. move the fuselage Let S indicate the major section of the fuselage. depending on the service for which the machine is designed. shown that head resistance Laboratory experiments have 2 is proportional to S and V for a given' fuselage.

pilot. 38. stern. when other reasons do not prevent it. thus improving the penetration of the fuselage. rectangular. so designed that its major section follows the etc. fuselage must be carefully especially the form of the bow and Analogous to that of the wings. the shape of the designed. developing on the forward and rear ends respectively (Fig.) one behind the other. but the problem presents greater difficulties with FIG. fixed to and rotating with . The FIG. it must be given a shape which \plL as nearly as possible approach that of the nose of a dirigible. To decrease the coefficient of head resistance. so as to keep the transversal dimension as small as possible. section. form of the major section of the engine. to arrange the various masses constituting the load (fuel. the phenomenon of head resistance of the fuselage is due to the resultant of two positive and negative pressure zones. triangular. This is easily affected with engines whose contours are circular. or V types without Sometimes a bullet-nosed colwing is reduction gear. fuselage be of circular. it is good practice. In may the second place.. etc.38 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In order to solve problem (a) it is necessary first to adapt the section of the fuselage to that of the engine. 38). will K To improve the bow. passengers. Whatever be the means employed to reduce the importance of those zones. vertical types of engines. fitted over the propeller hub. the value of be lowered.39. square.

h. we must overcome a resistance of 30 lb. Its form is then continued in the front end of the fuselage contour. 2.THE FUSELAGE 39 the propeller. for instance. which will theoretically Fuselages may absorb about 66 H. which is the above disc at a speed of 100 m. the resistance to be overcome at a speed of 150 m. in area. The value of coefficient K varies from 7 (for the usual types of fuselage) to 2. we must overcome a resistance of only or less than one-tenth the head resistance of the Practically. ..8 lb. ft. in this case.P. is disc. 39). be divided into three principal classes. while in the case of the fuselage of equal section. It is interesting to compare such values with the coefficient of head resistance equal to 30.h.. 40) tending to decrease the pressure. 12 sq. To move of a flat disc 1 sq. and consequently increasing the efficiency.p. and the shaping with the rest of the machine must be smoothly accomplished. a deviation in the air is originated in the To improve zone of reverse curving (Fig. but having a perfect streamline shape. (6) Veneer type.8 (for perfect dirigible shapes). a well-shaped fuselage has a coefficient of about 6. the stern of the fuselage it must be given a strong ratio of elongation. 40. and (c) Monocoque type. A special advantage is offered by the reverse curve of the sides. FIG. depending on the type of construction used: (a) Truss structure type. in fact. 6 X 12 X = 162 Ibs. so if its major section is.p.. ft. its lines gradually easing off to meet those of the fuselage (Fig.

Strut. 41. FIG. Main Spar5 k Mofor Supports Motor Supporl-ina-Beams FIG.40 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Mam Longerons. Bulkheads. v Motor Supporting Beams. . Transverse Strut. g Wood Cross-Bracing. Mofor Supports. 42.

43). By the use of veneer. instead of being assembled with struts and bracing. and the small struts are often of wood. the constant would disturb the . The whole covered in the forward part with veneer and alumiin the rear with fabric. It is important that the tanks be so located. although it is highly successful from an aerodynamical point of view. the distribution of the component parts to be contained in it does not vary substantially. The material generally used for this type is wood cut into very thin strips. but the latter. In order to insure the necessary rigidity. plies. the oil tank is located under the engine. The monocoque type has no longerons. directly behind the engine are the gasoline tanks. as and the fuel is a load which is consumed during flight flight. in a two-seater biplane (Fig. held together by means of small vertical and horizontal struts and steel wire cross bracing (Fig. are held in place by means of veneer panels glued and attached by nails or screws. 42).THE FUSELAGE The 41 truss type generally consists of 4 longitudinal longerons. at the forward end we find the engine with its radiator and propeller. Fuselages built of veneer are similar to the truss type as they also have 4 longitudinal longerons. 41). Whatever the construction of the fuselage be. and if it were located away from decrease in its weight during balance of the machine. the transverse section of the monois frame num and coque is either circular or elliptical. which firmly holds the longerons in place along their entire length. glued together in three or more layers so that the grain of one ply runs in a different direction than the adjacent This type of construction has not come into general use because of the time and labor required in comparison with the other two types. the fuselage being formed of a continuous rigid shell. the center of gravity. the section of the longerons can be reduced (Fig. although sometimes they are made of steel tubing. located in a position corresponding to the center of gravity of the machine. The longerons are generally of wood. For example.

42 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

Fig.THE FUSELAGE 43 Directly behind the tanks is the pilot's seat. Its proper with respect to the center of gravity of the machine position will be dealt with later on. cameras. . Under the fuselage is placed the landing gear. surfaces etc. are attached to that part on which the center of gravity of the machine will fall. 43 shows the positions of the machine-guns. The stabilizing longitudinal and the directional surfaces are at the rear end of The wings. and behind the pilot is the observer. which support the entire weight the fuselage. of the fuselage during flight.

and only then will there be no vertical comit is ponents capable of producing shocks. the land and principal types of landing gears are which might be called the marine types. The "take off" and landing. the amphibious. off" from ground or water. There is a third. which consists of both The two wheels and pontoons. 44. the study of which pertains especially to the outlines of the present volume. 44 . especially the latter. Even though a large and perfectly levelled field is available. intermediate type. line of flight until tangent to the ground (Fig.CHAPTER IV THE LANDING GEAR The purpose to take off- of the landing gear is to permit the airplane and land without the aid of special launching apparatus. are the most delicate maneuvers to accomplish in flying. the pilot when landing must modify the . 44) only by doing this will the kinetic force of the airplane result parallel to the ground. This discussion will be devoted solely to wheeled landing gears. enabling a machine to land or "take \ FIG.

First. but for an airgenerally L= Tofal Lift of the Wings and Horizontal Tail The system Planes. G). T. the maneuvers develop in a rather different manner. Such forces are (Fig. the fields are never perfectly level. weight of airplane. the line of flight is not always exactly parallel to the ground when the machine comes in contact with the ground.THE LANDING GEAR 45 In actual practice. The landing gear must therefore be equipped with shock absorbers capable of absorbing the force due to the impact. friction of the landing wheels. 45). 45. reaction of the ground. the entire system of the acting forces must be referred to the axis of the landing wheels. plane moving on the ground. 'enter of Ghpvity Inertia Force. G" Reaction of Ground. inertia force. . T = = L = R = / = F = G = W propeller thrust. total total lift of wing surfaces. of these forces and The moments about the axis of the landing gear may be divided into four groups: 1.Propeller Thrust. head resistance of airplane. of forces acting on an airplane in flight is referred to its center of gravity. Forces whose moments are zero (the reaction of the ground. and secondly. however. FIG.

W . (In fact. (forces T and F). Consequently it is necessary to locate the land- ing gear so that the tendency to sommersault will be decreased and the "take off" be not too difficult. the moment due to the weight is decreased. the moment of the force in direction at the pilot's will." By placing the landing 'gear backward. for it cannot put itself into the line of flight. and this may be done until the moment can even become negative. ing (forces W and R). AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Forces whose Forces whose Forces whose moments will tend to make the machine sommersault 3. cannot be counterbalanced by moments Then the airplane will not "take off.46 2. In practice it is possible to vary the value ments by changing the position of the landing it forward or backward. in the case of a perfect landing. when the machine is . and aids sommersaulting in landing when the machine retards its motion. placing By placing the landing gear forward. of these mo- gear. force I prevents sommersaulting when the machine accelerates in taking off. and it saulting. the reaction of the ground on the wheels is equal to the difference between maximum the weight and the sustaining force L. and a of gravity of the vertical line pass- ing through the center of gravity. and 4. and it may be carried to a limit where this moment becomes so excessive that it of opposite sign. to prevent sommersault- moments tend moments may . L may be changed maneuvering the eleby vator. Assume. a landing with a shock. and assumes a value when L = that is. in this case. In practice this is brought about by having an angle of from 14 to 16 between the line joining the center machine to the axis of the wheels. that is. then the machine could not move on the ground without sommeris zero. an abnormal landing. Let us examine the stresses to which a landing gear is subjected upon touching the ground. the moment due to the weight of the machine is particularly increased. aid or prevent sommer- saulting (forces L and 7) In group 4.

and V the velocity of the airplane with respect to the ground. The foregoing where g is is the amount of kinetic energy stored it Naturally.004.25 it. referred to per cent. elongation of x 77 equal to the product of ^. The kinetic energy of shock absorbers. are the tires and Fig. 46 gives the work diagrams for a capable of absorbing 900 ft.p.^ times the area 1UU of the diagram corresponding to x per . That kinetic energy is equal to the acceleration due to gravity.5 per cent.. or to the fact that the line of flight has not been straightened out. Then the up in the airplane. due either to the encounter of some obstacle on the ground. capable of absorbing all the kinetic energy thus developed. of elastic cord is under a per cent. it will be necessary that the landing gear be capable of absorbing a maximum amount of energy equal to 2000 \\^^) " " = 5300 ft. is wheel.-lb.004 X X For example. (146 ft. of the total kinetic energy. Fig.) 47 In the case of a hard shock. 47 gives the diagram of the The wheel work elastic cord.-lb.). as the weight of such devices would make their use prohibitive. is equal to an air- W 0. with a deformation of 0.THE LANDING GEAR standing. elongation for a certain type of The work absorbed by n ft. parts of the landing gear intended to absorb the an airplane in landing. assuming 0.0050 X WX y V 2 for an airplane weighing 2000 lb. to 1 per cent. Experience has proven that it is sufficient to provide shock absorbers capable of absorbing from 0. the kinetic energy of the machine must be considered. moving at a velocity of 100 m. would be impossible to adopt devices maximum plane of weight kinetic energy to be absorbed in landing and velocity V. 0.h.0025 to 0. per sec.

48 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION cent. . long. elongation. allowing an elongation of 150 per 0. . is two wheels and two shock absorbers of such type will be sufficient for the airplane in question. for instance. equal as shown in the As this gives a total of 2700 ft. Supposing.5 010 0.15 0. to have a shock absorbing system 32 ft.. the work that it can absorb diagram to 1800 ft. cent.20 025 FIG. 46.-lb. 4b.

49. which perform work by have proven to be the lightest and most their elongation. but the practical. such as the steel spring.THE LANDING GEAR Rubber cord shock 49 absorbers. FIG. 50. Experiments have been made with other types. hydraulic and pneumatic. . 48. FIG. FIG.

is attached to the middle of the landing gear which can be caused to dig into the ground and pro- duce a braking effect. ances. must also be given the horizontal component. has to roll on the ground. When the available landing space is limited. Friction on the wheels. some brakin order to shorten the distance the machine ing device. Up to this point. On certain airplanes. exerts on the machine an energetic braking action (Fig. with a small plow blade at its lower end. and consequently offering no passive resist- when landing they can be maneuvered so as to be disposed perpendicularly to the line of motion. On some machines. our discussion has been only on the Consideration vertical component of the kinetic energy. 49 shows the outline of a landing gear. use is made of aerodynamical brakes consisting of special surfaces which normally are set in the line of flight. head resistance and the drag all have a braking effect. The practice therefore prevails of providing the tail skid with a hook. a short arm. producing an energetic braking force. 48 illustrates an example of elastic cord binding. Fig. but . whose only effect is to make the machine run on the ground for a certain distance. but it the machine must be slowed of down by means often happens that these retarding forces are not sufficient. as it digs into the ground. 50). Similar to the landing gear. the tail skid is also provided with a small elastic cord shock absorber to absorb the kinetic energy of the shock. axle. which.50 results AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION have shown these types to possess but little merit. Fig.

there exist certain fundamental characteristics which enable one to judge the engine from the point of view of its use on the airplane. will The engine There are various types of aviation engines with rotary or fixed cylinders. 3. Position of the center of gravity of the engine with respect to the propeller axis. equation (1) gives the linear relation between y and x. Ratio between the major section of the engine and the number of horsepower developed. Number of revolutions per minute of the propeller shaft. For all the problems peculiar to designers point the technique of the subject. F. 2. which can be translated into a simple.CHAPTER V THE ENGINE be dealt with only from the airplane of view. For a given engine. then the smaller the value of the following equation. it is not sufficient to know only its weight and horsepower. and x the number of hours of flight required of the airplane. and 5. it is If we also essential to know it specific fuel consumption. special texts can be referred to. the lighter will be the motor: V = E p + xX p C (1) . Oil and gasoline consumption per horsepower per hour. and radial types of cylinder disposition. Such characteristics may be grouped as follows: 1. In order to judge the light weight of an engine. and of verWhatever tical. 4. P its power.. 51 . air cooled or water cooled. C the total fuel consumption per hour (gasoline and oil). the type under consideration. Weight of engine per horsepower. call E the weight of the engine.

51. 2 9- 456789 .x FIG. representation. B = . Let us consider two engines. having the following characteristics: A TABLE 1 For engine A. equation For engine B.P. that'is. then V. for flights up to 4 hours 10 minutes beyond which point. since P SCO H.5 + OA8x. equation ir\ (1) will give (1) y will give y = = + Q. 10 Hours Translating these equations into diagrams (Fig. = = 7. the total advantage is 270 lb.P. B is the lighter. 51). per H.. 8 lb.7 lb.52 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION graphic. and B. see that engine If x Vt = 10 hours. 2. we A is lighter than engine B.Qx.3 has an advantage of 0.

Let us suppose that we wish to build an airplane of given horizontal and climbing speed characteristics. W v = useful load. furthermore W v W = l 3 flight) c is Ib.). that ratio is so important that may power in often be convenient to adopt an engine of lower comparison with another of high power. only the weight per horsepower. ammunition. etc. In fact. the flying characteristics is equivalent to fixing the Fixing maximum weight per horsepower. Analyzing the Supposing for example. of the machine with its Ib. observer.2. the same general c value of the specific consumption = C p> varies around the same e it values. . devices. we find it to be the sum of the following . = 10 Ib.2P. for engines of the 53 types. and the power P of the motor. W components : WA = weight of airplane without engine group and WP = weight of the complete engine group. that the lower the ratio -p w between the total weight W. this gives W c . . we shall see further on in discussing the efficiency of the airplane. that -p weight W. where C the specific conW 4 hours of sumption per horsepower which can be assumed to be equal = 600 to 0. In fact.55. the better will be the flying characteristics of the machine. capable of carrying fuel for a flight of three hours and a useful load of 600 (pilot. In this case (assuming Generally W A = / W. oil accessories.THE ENGINE Practically. complete load. = E is of interest. for the sole reason that for the latter the above ratio is higher. arms. W c = weight of and gasoline. p In that case. WP = 4CP. We can then write W A + WP + W c + W v = eP.

70 per cent. Another important consideration is the bulk of the enOf two engines having the same power. but on the contrary. and it is seen that there are innumerable couples of values e. and 416 H.P.P. We see that 246 H. and if e if e = = 3 . greater. are absolutely similar. whose characteristics with the exception of Suppose that one of .P. plus the disadvantage of having an airplane of which the surface (and consequently the required floor space). From these it is obvious then. not only does not possess higher weight per horsepower. per H.P. the same result is obtained.446 O. Ib. major sections. W = y W + eP + 2. 52 these relations have been translated into curves. P. is However. each of their bulk. we naturally prefer the engine of lesser major section. which satisfy the conditions necessary for the construction of the airplane under consideration. because it permits the construction of fuselages offering less head resistance. Let us examine the extreme values for e = 2 Ib. but different gine. has a lower weight per horsepower. in practice it often happens that an engine of higher power than another. and e = 3 per H. P = p= W = 2460 W = 4160 Ib. Ib.. It is only necessary to note the importance of this matter. 300 H. that although using an engine of 70 per cent.2P + 600 W must be to 10 since -p equal 60 4.le In Fig.46 - e and consequently W = 600 0. Supposing we have two engines.P. more power. 2.54 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION shall We then have z that is. An example will make the point clearer.

for the resistance of the fuselage. Let us assume that the power developed lowing manner : is used up in the fol- 30 per cent. that with the second engine. 40 per cent.THE ENGINE 55 of 9 sq. and the other ft. for the resistance of all the other parts. greater than that of the first. a machine can be constructed whose head resistance will be 20 per cent. ft. The result is ... the head resistance of the fuselage of the second is engine 50 per cent. for the resistance of the wing surface. these engines has a major section of 6 sq. and 30 per cent.

the principal accessory installations such as the gasoline and oil systems. importance for the efficiency. The supports. for all rotary and vertical is or V radial engines. Instead. Furthermore. usually of wood. to which it is firmly bolted. the tractor biplane the end of the fuselage on properly designed supports. As has been pointed out before. we shall see the great importance of the position of the center of gravity of the machine with respect to the axis of traction. and let us discuss briefly. unless the proIn peller axis is raised by using a transmission gear. of employing a trans- mission gear in order to realize more favorable conditions. or at the most. . due to the relations between the various head resistances and the speeds. coinThis last condition is true cident with the line of thrust. may in some cases prove very convenient in making the propeller turn at a speed conducive to good efficiency.56 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION greater. In the following chapter we shall see that the propeller efficiency depends on the ratio between the speed of the airplane and the peripheral speed of the propeller since the peripheral speed depends on the number of revolutions. has a great importance in regard to the installation of The an engine in the airplane. in the type of machine most engine generally is used today. of the speed. speaking of the problems of balancing. as we shall see in the discussion on the efficiency of the airplane. An ideal engine should have its center of gravity below. Let us see now which criterions are to be followed in installing an engine in an airplane. thereby losing about 7 per cent. for engines with types of cylinders. in turn. are supported on transverse fuselage bridging and are anchored with steel wires which take up the propeller thrust (Fig. the transmission gear from the engine shaft to the propeller shaft. position of the center of gravity with respect to the propeller axis. and the convenience there may be in certain cases. 53) installed in the forward . and the water circulation for cooling. the center of gravity generally found above the line of thrust. this factor consequently becomes of vast .

THE ENGINE 57 .

The oil The it made of copper or leaded steel sheets. to 12 per cent. The general scheme of the pressure feed is shown in Fig. The motor M. 54). 54. so There as to reduce to a minimum the piping system. Therefore. multiple tanks are used.58 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION tank is generally situated under the engine. goes to carburetor C. Air Gasoline pump pressure feed. carries a special pump which compresses 55. consumption. It is easy to place all the oil in sumption per horsepower is one tank. but it is a difficult matter to contain all the required gasoline in a single tank. as much generally weighs from 10 per cent. for the return and leading into the top of the tank (Fig. the other. Further- . Cock i enables the opening or closing of the flow between tank T and the carburetor. The principal artifices are a. pump feed. the air in tank T] the gasoline flowing through cock i. especially for powerful engines. oil tank is usually as the oil it contains. as the oil conabout {oo f the gasoline ' Return Oil Oil Feed and Return Pump ' Pump Filter Return Pipe FIG. bottom of the one leading from the are two pipe lines tank and which is used for the suction. b. it is necessary to resort to artifices to insure the feeding. As the gasoline must be sent to the carburetor which is generally located above the tanks.

nally. Gasoline pressure feed system.THE ENGINE 59 more. Fi- 1 i ' ' ' ' FIG. it allows or stops a flow between the carburetor and a small auxiliary safety tank t. so that the gasoline may flow to the carbu- FIG. situated above the level of the carburetor. in order that the latter of circulation is between the main tank T may be completed by a . the gasoline in this tank is used in case the feed from the main tank should cease to operate. The scheme replenished. retor by gravity. cock i also enables a flow and the auxiliary tank t. 55. 56.

eter of the piping system. cock 2 establishes a flow between tank T and either or both of the pumps P and p. or excludes them both. per second. As to the diamcopper. Gasoline pump feed is much more convenient than presIt does not use comsure feed because it is more reliable. or between tank t and the carburetor. For the thus gasoline. the cocks only changing so as to allow simultaneous or single functioning of each of the tanks. 55 and 56. that it is necessary to install proper metallic filters or strainers in the gasoline feed system. to 18 per cent. to 13 per cent. for instance. an example of only one main tank is shown.60 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION hand pump p. and him only finally. the diameter must be such that the speed of gasoline flow does not exceed 1 ft. while a tank operating without pressure weighs from 10 per cent. pressed tiresome for the pilot. as it requires of the maneuver of opening or closing a cock. which sends it to the carburetor. from clogging up the carburetor jets. Cock i permits or stops a flow between tank T and the carburetor. in order to avoid obstruction due to congealing. In the schemes of Figs. a tank operating under pressure weighs from 14 per cent. or between T and t. to 1. as much as the gasoline it contains. 0. If there are two or more tanks the conception of the schemes remains the same. which serves to produce pressure in the tank before starting the engine. Pump G may be operated by a special small propeller or Fig. The gasoline in the main tank T flows to a pump G. 56 line by the engine. shows the scheme of circulation by using the gasopump feed. because the tanks can be much lighter as they do air. supposing an engine to consume 24 gallons an hour (that is. The piping systems for gasoline and oil are made of The joints are usually of rubber. shall note finally. in We order to prevent impurities existing in the gasoline. As a matter of interest.5 ft. it must be comparatively large for the oil. is less not have to withstand the air pressure.00666 gallon a second) the .

after it has been FIG. in it is winter.P.P. Fig. of the water-cooling system. per hour.P.600 B.. and since the heat of the combustion of about 18. 57 The water necessary to insulate the tank with felt. 61 must be from J{ 6 in.u. Water-cooling system. On the contrary. the thermal equivalent of 1 H. shows the principle The engine is provided with a water pump P. are necessary.55 Ib.THE ENGINE inside diameter of the gasoline pipe to in. 57. is warmed by contact with completed. The gasoline consumption of the engines varies from 0.u..t.45 to 0. from the the water flows back to the pump. in order to avoid freezing. Now. then for 1 H. it flows to the radiator R. therefore only gasoline is = 9300 27 5 per cent ' ' f the heat f combustion of the .5 Ib. which pumps the water into the cylinder jackets. the cylinders. per hour is 2550 B. circulation exists only in water-cooled engines. per hour. Finally.u. per H. 9300 B.t.t. Assuming an average of 0. % the It is often necessary to resort to special radiators to cool oil. and the circuit radiator. per Ib.. per H.P. which lowers its temperature.

the air passes through the gaps between the tubes. we may then say that the lower the percentage of power absorbed the more efficient It is possible to determine experiwill be the radiator.t. we can assume the water to absorb about 30 per cent.t. the rest. every horsepower per hour. of application to the airplane. This quantity of heat must naturally be given up to the air. The B.u. which are First. the water circulates through the interstices the tubes. as minimum power to move it Since the weight also involves a loss of power. the quantity of B. it : great number of small tubes. the water passes through a Before all. while the air flows through For the present great flying speeds. and the air tube or honeycomb type. taken up by the exhaust. between the tubes. suppose we have indicated. that. the latter . In the air tube radiators (also called honeycomb radiators because of their resemblance to the cells of a beehive). and From the standpoint of its : Second. There are two main types of radiators the water tube type. or 6550 B. is consequently equal to (2800P) B. to be absorbed by the cooling water of an engine for power P. 72. disposed parallel to.u.5 per cent. or about 2800 utilized in useful B.u. with respect application to the airplane.u.t.t. and the radiator is used for that purpose. In the first. compared with those taken up by the cooling water. vary not only for each engine. but even for each type of exhaust system.t. to its must be remembered that a radiator is nothing more than a reservoir in which the water circulates in such a way as to expose a large wall surface to the air which passes conveniently through it. On the average. and at some distance from each other. it must be as light as possible.62 gasoline AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is work. It must absorb the through the air. the radiator must possess two fundamental qualities.. the flying characteristics depend on the weight per horsepower.u. are to be eliminated through exhaust gases or through the cooling water.t. mentally the coefficients which classify a given type of radiator according to its efficiency. of the B.u.

head resistance. much more and more generally used. therefore content ourselves with studying separately. resistance of 1 cu. and of the machine in feet per second. a the ratio between the weight of 1 cu.THE ENGINE type of . we will take into consideration a cubic foot of radiator. may assume ft the following expression: X S X V\. of radiator including the water. depends on the velocity of water flow and air flow. types of honeycomb radiators. also let us W . water capacity.radiator has proven therefore is 63 suitable. The first three are geometrical elements which can be defined without uncertainties. and its radiating surface. the influence of each of the above factors. ft. and study weight. of radiator for certain types of radiators. many factors which would be We must difficult to condense into one single formula. but also on its position in the machine. In the following table are given' the values of the weight R water capacity w and radiating surface S per cubic foot. W . and its To compare two frontal area. As one can see. cooling surface. ft. where S the frontal area of the radiator. Finally. and the initial temperatures of the air and water. there are. call TABLE 2 The power absorbed by the head of the radiator. speed is V is the . the cooling coefficient beside depending on the type of radiator. and cooling coefficient. The head resistance depends not only on the speed of the airplane.

(2) where I is the diameter of the tubes in and v the velocity of the air flow through the tubes in feet per second. or whether it is completely surrounded by free air. ft. the air is excessively heated. on the velocity of water flow. of radiator. is limited by the fact that it is of radiators. on the velocity v of air flow through the tubes. the radiator must take . of water flow to be constant. may become greater as the it For this reason the depth d air flow v increased in velocity.u. not only depends on the type. is the cooling coefficient. however.64 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us call d the depth of the radiator core. The quantity of heat radiated by 1 cu. the may 7 be expressed by (t w X - to) X v2 (3) where j radiator. varying with the type of Now. depending on whether it is placed in the front of the fuselage. thus decreasing the difference in temperature between and the water.t. Assuming the velocity quantity of B. S X d = I or S = -jj thus the preceding expression becomes X The coefficient \ X F 3 (1) varies not only with the different types but with the same radiator. if the engine has power P. advisable to keep at a maximum the difference in the water and air temperatures. but on the difference between the temperature t w of the water. and t a of the air. The following that may be used in determining d: is through the tubes is a practical formula d = 8 X I X \/v feet. Equation (1) shows that to decrease the head resistance it is convenient to augment the depth of the radiator d. then if the depth of the radiator tubes is greatly increased. This increase. and on the radiating surface S per cubic foot of the given radiator.

is proportional to the speed of the airplane.). in cold seasons. the boiling point of water is lowered.THE ENGINE care of 65 of the radiator 2800P calories. it. 7 X (t w - to) X - v X S = 2800P C = 7 28QOP X (t w t a) X v X S m the 3 The weight of the radiator will be its C X W. Therefore the volume C must be such that C X or. will be (in ft. D can further simplify the preceding expression. For the air temperature t a we must take the maximum annual value of the region in which the machine is to fly. as the airplane must be able to fly at considerable altitude.). where due to the atmospheric depression. the cooling capacity of the radiator becomes . First we will note that v (the velocity of air flow inside of the tubes). C X X ~ X V Therefore the total power absorbed by the cooling system will be PR = ^XAXJJ + SXlXv (4) C XWX L XV D and by equation x_ 800 w jX(t -t a )XvX2 X L. Ibs. we can then write of all v We = d X V The temperature it is tw is not convenient to increase usually taken at 176F. (80C. and be power absorbed by head resistance l will c x If ft x x v* = c_xjLXZ d we call -jr the ratio W SXlXVv > the power required to carry C X TFlb. .

|8 coefficient of head resistance. S = radiating surface per cubic foot of radiator.66 excessive.9 1 (7) .396 air passes). then the result tw is - ta = I 176 -- 104 = 72F. equation (4) gives c - 7X2-5 X V 38. ft. becomes where the coefficients have the following significance: p = p = -=j percentage of power absorbed by the radiator. special devices are resorted to.033 15. and simplifying as before. and increase 2. = 0. a = = = W 2^ = weight of radiator per square foot of radiating surface. for a letting good wing. = -y = and coefficient of velocity reduction inside the tubes. re- by the proper ductions. radiator. for cutting off part. if Similarly. 7 5 cooling coefficient of the radiator. or all of the radiator. varies where around Then p = ratio Po -p-> P is the power absorbed by the equation (5). AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and therefore. I must be kept around 0. the ratio y. we call c = C p the volume of radiator re- quired per horsepower. ^/ remembering W= that and . In very warm climates. with respect to the speed of the airplane. As to the dimension (the diameter of the tube in. we may take for example t a = 104. Finally. P the total power. which the through experiments have shown that to diminish W.

For a given type of radiator.h. and S are constants. or to convey the gases away joined together. Mufflers have not as yet been extensively adopted for aviation engines. battleplanes carry out their mission at heights varying from 10. exhausting singly cylinder. from those parts of the machine that might be damaged for each by them. and because tubes are of their bulk and weight. to 160 m.).. principally because they entail a direct loss of power amounting to from 6 per cent. to decrease the speed of water circulation. then one can write 149/3 .000 to 20. the point being. .000 ft.THE ENGINE 67 The two equations (6) and (7). Modern airplanes have attained heights up to 25. (8) C Naturally. it is desirable to note the functioning of the engine at high altitudes. 583 38 9 ' y X 2 X * 7X5 (6) = 7 (7) X 5 X 2 and therefore equations and become. They state that the volume of the radiator is inversely proportional to the speed. allow one to solve the problem of determining the volume of the radiator and the power absorbed.p. and the power required is proportional to the power of the speed.. to 10 per cent. we will briefly discuss the systems of reducing the cooling capacity. is preferable. and is today more generally It is effected by providing the front face of the radiator with shutters which can be until the air passage is more or less closed completely obstructed. The second adopted. a. respectively..000 ft. Before concluding this chapter. There % are two general methods. such relations can be used within the present limits of airplane speeds (80 m. Before leaving the discussion on radiators. therefore it is necessary to study the actions of the engine at such altitudes. Ordinary exhaust used.p. or to decrease the speed of air circulation. ft 6.h.

the density // with respect to the ground than the value given by the above formula. and that H jj. let us remember that the moving . in feet. is happens that the temperature of Then decreases as one rises above the ground.720 log M of shows the diagram for M as a function structed on the basis of the preceding formula. in order not to complicate the treatment of the subject. With this foreword. according to a logarithmic law. the air also at a given height level. then H Fig. it H. which is primarily qualitative in nature. H.O 0.7 0. 58 = X 60. let above sea level.5 0. greater In the following discussion.9 0. at ground level.6 0. however. 58. we will not take into account this decrease in temperature. In practice.5 0. con- i.68 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Since the density of the air decreases as one rises above the be the height ground. at some point in the atmosphere and the ratio between the density at height H.4 Q3 FIG.

the engine torque proportional to the O. the power of the engine decreases. of the angular velocity GO co P = co XM M is At height H.THE ENGINE power P.JO? 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 H in Fee-l- FIG. or to the density of the air. is equal to the product by the engine torque M. 59. obvious then. that as the machine climbs. mass of oxygen burned Therefore in one unit of time. . P = where Mu = M X Po X COo (1) P =u It is M = power at sea level.

To eliminate this loss of efficiency. the turbo compressor designed by Rateau (France). two solutions present themselves. 59.251 of the power of the engine. corresponding to the increase of H. It be readily perceived. for The of less . since at ground level the airplane employs a useless excess of power. with engines of such excess power. the machines are to attain high altitudes. allows a complete recuperation of the power at 13. and the directly. it must carry an engine which will develop = = 4 times the minimum power necessary for its sustentation. the engine torque is increased.. while at high altitudes it is overloaded with a weight of engine power mentioned above. and as a result. p to In one of the following chapters will be shown the in- fluence that the decrease in the air density exerts on the power required for the sustentation of the machine. it must be able to maintain itself in the air with will 0. Anastasi example. . with an increase in weight than 10 per cent.. Two centrifugal multiple compressor designed (Italy) actioned by the engine shaft. is greater than the amount which would be sucked in from the atmosphere buretor.of the power. as to be equipped strictly sufficient to maintain flight even after the strong reduction of irrational. One provisional solution (but of inestimable value in augmenting the efficiency of engines as they are actually conceived and constructed) consists of providing the engine with an air compressor which will feed the car- In this way. types of compressors have thus far been experimented with. In practice.000 ft. Such a method is evidently entirely out of proportion to the power actually developed.70 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig. that if a machine is to climb 25. actioned by means of the exhaust gases. these are the actual means chosen by designers That is. the mass of gas mixture taken in by the engine at each admission stroke.000 ft. of the latter type.. a diagram is given for the reduction in per- centage =. by Prof. in other words. or it recuperates 50 per cent.

of the power in power recuperated is 40 per cent. Since it 71 absorbs 10 per cent. . These compressors have not yet been adopted for practical use. because of reasons inherent to the operation of the propeller. which will be seen in the following chapter. the actual The second solution (the one toward which engine technique must inevitably direct itself in order to open a way for further progress). consists in predisposing the engines so that the compression of air at high altitudes may be effected without the aid of external compressors.THE ENGINE power. operation.

the maximum width of is A the blades and their profile..P.CHAPTER VI THE PROPELLER The propeller in aviation. is the aerial pfopulsor universally adopted Its scope is to produce and maintain a force of traction capable of overcoming the various head resistances of the wings and other parts of the airplane. and V the velocity of the airplane in feet per second. Calling T the propeller traction in pounds. propeller is defined by a few geometric elements. the pitch. The geometric elements of a propeller are the number of blades. less than PI.80 = 260 H. If P is the power of the engine in horsepower. the product T measures the useful work in foot pounds per second X V accomplished by the propeller. Suppose for example T = 500 Ib. and by its operating characteristics.P. ^V_ 550 X P which means that having assumed a given speed and a given head resistance. then that for Pl for P2 = = 0.70 0. the diameter. the power required for flight will be so much greater as the value of p is smaller. P = 227 H. and V = 200 ft. may also be written as In fact. per sec. Pi 2 and P 2 13 per cent. the propeller efficiency is expressed by p = TV 550 X P. 72 . making the proequation (1) Every effort must of course be used in peller efficiency as high as possible.

4-bladed .THE PROPELLER Propellers are built with 2. Thus. 61). while the angular velocity of the propeller varies. 61. which release the projectiles at the instant the propeller blades have passed in front of the machine gun muzzle. as it often happens. Angle a of revolutions of the propeller. which is called the angle of dispersion of the synchronizer (Fig. the projectile is fired through the plane of rotation of the propeller when the blade has rotated is not fixed. there is a dispersion of proa sector 5. the problem of firing directly forward is solved by equipping the machine guns with special automatic devices operated by the engine FIG. Now. (devices called synchronizers). altho in certain cases. 60). angle is greater than 90. it is if this impossible to use 4-bladed propellers. are mounted on the airplane. especially when quick-firing guns with synchronized devices for firing through the propeller. but varies by an angle a with the number (Fig. which is easily understood if one considers that FIG. these fall in of revolutions change. is 73 The type 3. the 2-blade propeller. and 4 blades. as the number jectiles. the velocity of the projectile remains constant. 60. in other words. On most commonly used machines that have their propellers in front.

62). important as to its absolute with respect to the diameter. for reasons of construction and resistance of it is . the pitch of the propeller at that section will be p = 2irr tang 6 Practically. two examples of propellers. the axis XX (Fig. should be defined as "the distance by which the propeller must advance for every revolution in order that the In practice. however. the pitch is measured the tangent of the angle of inclination of the propeller by blade with respect to its plane of rotation. The pitch of the propeller. important Since the propeller blade may be considered as a small wing but is The width of the blade is not moving along an helicoidal path. The diameter of the propeller depends exclusively upon the power the propeller has to absorb. at a distance r from FIG. from an aerodynamical point of view. Figs. if 6 is the angle traction be zero. value. or a more or less variable one. 62." for a cross section AB of the propeller.74 propellers AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION be convenient for reasons of efficiency. one with constant pitch. the other with variable pitch. it is convenient to reduce the width of the blades to a minimum with respect to the diameter. and upon its may number of revolutions. propellers are made with either a constant pitch for all sections. as will be observed further on. However. 63 and 64 illustrate respectively. a certain not possible to reduce the blade width below limit. it is evident that to increase the efficiency.

Practically. propellers that are of the same family and geometrically are similar. are said to same family. . of the diameter. so that once the coefficients of these relations known. it 75 oscillates from 8 to 10 per The profile of a propeller. to section. Pi -teh Equal for all Sections. the power absorbed by the propeller on the ground. All propellers belong to the having the same type of profile. have demonstrated that there exist certain well-determined relations between the elements of M PmPnRtftrPte 1 f FIG. 64. Numerous laboratory experiments on by Colonel Dorand. 63. It bears a great influence on the characteristics of a propeller. it is for the easily possible to obtain all the data design of the propeller. FIG.THE PROPELLER the propeller. cent. propellers. the pitch of the propeller in feet. although varying from section characterizes the type of the propeller. Let D = p = P = the diameter of the propeller in feet.

but depends on the ratio V ^this Let ratio. in fact. varies with the variation of this explains gent = y why as tan- g varies. 65. . 65) Now. g path. than the relations binding the preceding parameters are Po = a n3 D 5 (1) Equation is (2) states that the coefficient a of equation (1) not a constant. Since TrnD is the peripheral speed of the blade y tip. y efficiency is dependent upon ~ . as in the case of a wing. which shows that the propeller varies. the angle of incidence is i i of measured exactly by 6' the blade with respect to the difference 6 6'] as 6 0'. . measures the angle that the path of the blade tip makes with the plane of rotation of the propeller (Fig. and the efficiency of the propeller.76 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION N p = number of revolutions per second. V = = the speed of the machine in feet per second. This also explains equation (3). the power absorbed by the propeller and consequently coefficient a varies. the efficiency of a propeller blade varies with the variation of the angle of incidence i. its is fixed. us examine the graphical interpretation of TTnD FIG.

the power required increases as the 3d power of n.s. is drawn is illustrating that law. the power required to rotate a propeller. It is a parabola of the 5th r. (1). the diameter is to be given to the propeller inversely proportional to the power of the number of revolutions. In Fig. states For a propeller it. n = 25 degree. a = 3 and assuming a given value 3 X 10~ 8 . 10 15 20 n FIG. 67 the curve is drawn illustrating that law for = 1500 R. increases as the 5th power of the 2.THE PROPELLER Returning to equation for a. . It is % an hyperbola.s.p. 66. 66 a curve ft. diameter.. 77 for instance. Assuming the power. assuming D = 10 the curve a cubic parabola. 68. The curve for that law is drawn in Fig. then that equation becomes Po = X 10~ 8 n 3 Z> 5 and 1. to rotate of a given diameter.p.M. 3. In Fig. For a given number of revolutions.P. \n R.

.78 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 500 400 300 I D_ 200 Diameter FIG.Ft. 67. 5 10 15 20 E5 30 36 .

having diameter D and pitch p. Let us consider all geometrically similar propellers of the same family.THE PROPELLER Equation (2). it is of maximum interest to examine equation (3). so that p -^ . On the contrary. which gives the efficiency of the propeller. we shall not pause in examination of it. Therefore. __ TrnD FIG. 79 which gives a as a function of irnD is of interest only inasmuch as it is necessary to know the value of a for equation (1). 70. FIG. 69.

However. The diagram shows that p increases and reaches a the value maximum value y = 0. v V First. Obviously that is very high. 7? - p max = 0. Fig. such that the ratio y~ will be the one at which efficiency. one in shape. 71 gives the values of -g> and p. maximum a. varies with the variation maximum easy to construct a diagram giving -g- all the values of <p max as functions of Such a diagram shows its that a propeller of a certain type.275. gives ciency maximum effi- when = -g 1. but will This will be similar to the preceding reach a value p max = 0. as the propeller must rotate at a number of revolu- tions irnD the propeller actually attains the IY\ 7i. especially when the great we see that for D - 1. Naturally this condition does not suffice. 70). ~ = 0.32.20. the irnD maximum efficiency p reaches a value of 82 per cent. and let us draw the efficiency diagram (Fig. The use of these diagrams requires a knowledge of all the aerodynamical characteristics of the machine for which the propeller is intended.80 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0. as functions of V > for the best propellers actually existing.71 corresponding to Let us profile. Fig.77 corre- spending to a value of If this experience is it V = g 0. even a partial study of them is very interesting for the results that can be attained.0. now consider a group of propellers also of similar but having = 1.18 and . efficiency obtainable of certain profile.8. fQ repeated for various values of yy will be observed that the it is from a propeller of that ratio.227. = 69 gives the diagram p =/ 2 f gj for such propellers.

it often occurs in practice. Let us assume that we have at our disposition an engine ..16 0..Q 7 3x10r 5 2x10 IxlO iiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiiii . 0.22 0. parameters which it is impossible to vary.14 0.18 mi . that that value of fortunately.26 0.. iiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiittiQ 0..26 0..30 0. 71...... efficiency cannot be attained because there are certain 7 TxICT 6x10 5x10 4x10 Q.24 0..THE PROPELLER 81 But unsimplicity of the aerial propeller is considered..32 V FIG.20 0.. An example will illustrate this point.

p. for this value of D..P. and V = 2 55 ' onn the expression ^ V 20 u becomes 3J4 x 25 ^D ~^ and a X D = 5 0. ~ ' 10.6 15 to which '^responds > a that its = is. X pitch will be 0.4 X 3. For the second machine instead 4-V n = 25.6 = 5.62.48 X 10. one to carry heavy loads and consequently slow.1 ft.0192. while its shaft makes 25 r.6. in fact. per sec. It ^> would be = . that = 0.0192 Now a the corresponding values of a and equations are D satisfying those = ~1.27 more than that of the first machine. the two values satisfying the desired conditions are V 3.s. = X25 X 10~ 7 .14 X 200 25 X83 = ' 296.79. it will satisfy the equation 300 or. Let the speed of the first machine be 125 ft. We shall then determine the most suitable propeller for each machine. as n = 25. has an efficiency of 79 per cent. our propeller will have an efficiency of 62 per cent. We the propeller for the second machine. 1. and V = 125.4 the corresponding value of p is '~ 0. per sec.. For the first machine. and let us assume that we wish to adopt such an engine on two different machines. for = an*D 5 5 n = 25 a XD = 0. and that of the second 200 ft. the expression - ^ becomes i equal to W We must choose a value of D. * p = ^X The pitch and corresponding to these values results equal to 9.."'82 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION developing 300 H.14 10 -7 and 5 D = 10. the other intended for high speeds. such that together with the value of a corref\r\ sponding to-W-> (Fig..3 ft. 71). that 79 is ~1. can see then..

for which it will is give good efficiency. We see then that in 0. the be possible by properly selecting a reduction gear. such that value a corresponding to a V g gives for which Xn XD V = 3 5 = 300. to attain maximum efficiency of 82 per cent. of the total load. the reduction gear has gained g-^s = 1. the propeller may be directly connected. must be provided with a reduction gear when they are applied to slow machines.4 r. and if we bear in mind that the useful load is generally about Y% of the total weight. we see that in order to obtain good modern engines whose number of revolutions are very high. on the useful load. which may mean 16 per cent. represents a gain of about 50 per cent. On the the preceding. p That value is n = 12. Then it is necessary to find a value of n. this abundantly covers the additional load due to the reduction gear. but it is necessary that it be used under those conditions of speed V and number of revolutions n. that it could not be installed on the machine.23 and = 0.16 or 16 per cent. The . But this would require the construction of a propeller of such diameter. From contrary.s. Concluding we can say.72 this case. what happens when it operates at high equation of the power then becomes altitudes.p. we see that a gain of 16 per cent. for very fast machines. it would even of revolutions of the propeller. that it is not sufficient for a propeller to be well designed in order to give good efficiency..72. of the power. on the total load. Consequently we shall suppose a fixed maximum diameter of 14 ft. even if the number of revolutions of the shaft very high.THE PROPELLER possible to 83 improve the propeller efficiency of the first machine by using a reduction gear to decrease the number In this case. ~ 0. efficiency. Until now we have studied the functioning of the propelLet us see ler in the atmospheric conditions at sea level.

the . Practically. In this way.500 ft. however. This. so as not to allow a number of revolutions greater than 1500 X 0. is one of the principal difficulties that have until now opposed the introduction of compressors for practical use. as it is unsafe that an engine designed for 1500 revolutions make 1900. and and this propeller consequently the number of revolutions slowly decreases as the propeller rises in the air. it would practically be necessary for the propeller to brake the engine on the ground.. If instead. This means that the power required to rotate the propeller decreases as the propeller rises through the air. then. would make 1900 revolutions at a height.84 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is where M consideration the ratio between the density at the height under and that on the ground (see Chapter 5). however.79 = 1180. A propeller making 1500 revolutions on the ground. in direct proportion to the ratio of the densities. the engine on the ground could not develop . the preceding equation gives Theoretically. by using a compressor or other device. the ally to n } power of the engine varies proportion- that is P = vP so that theoretically we should have a X D* would mean that the number of revolutions of the would be the same at any height as on the ground. As to the number of revolutions. In fact. power of the engine were kept constant and equal to then the number of revolutions would increase inversely P as vV So for instance.5 the n revolutions should be Tr? = rTo = n 1-26 n. at 14. the motive power decreases a little more rapidly than proportionally to M (see Chapter 5). where /* = 0.

the problem of the variable propeller has not yet been satisfactorily solved. the which they are subjected. and therefore the characteristics of the machine would be considerably decreased. and the mode of designing them. stresses to . at the will of the pilot.THE PROPELLER all 85 its power. thus the pilot would be enabled to vary the coefficient of the formula P = a X n3 XD b and consequently could contain the value of n within proper limits. The materials used in the construction of propellers. will be dealt with in Part IV of this book. there should be the solution of adopting propellers whose pitch could be variable in flight. To eliminate such an inconvenience. but tentatives are being made which point to positive results. Today.

.

the research for coefficients. cannot be completed except in the experimental Lift- field. Direction of the Line of Flight.PART II CHAPTER VII ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS of the air Aerodynamics studies the laws governing the reactions on bodies moving through it. to the Di re ction Perpendicular Vertical Plane Containing the FIG. positive and negative pressure zones will be produced on the various surfaces of the body. 72). little of these laws can be established on a basis of Very This can only give indications theoretical considerations. Let us consider any body 87 . and in general. For these reasons. the resultant speed V. we shall consider aerodynamics as an Applied Mechanics" and we shall rapidly study the experimental elements in so far as they have a direct " moving through the air at a us represent the body by its center of gravity G (Fig. which are definitely those of interest in the study of the airplane. Direction Perpendicular' to L me of Flight and Contained in the Vertical Plane. 72. Due to the disturbance in the air. in general. and let application to the airplane.

s the Lift component. in such a case. the second perpendicular to the line of flight and lying in the vertical plane passing through the center of gravity. 73. . the most laborious research work of this kind would be of scant interest in the study of the motion of the s R and R' that the airplane. and that its line of path is. . may have any direction whatever. practically. These components R^. R s and R' d shall be called . body R^j in the air s . the component R' d = 0. PAR FIG.88 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION R of these pressures. respectively: R R Xy . If we wished to make a complete study it . and referring the values to the angle i that the line of path makes with any straight line contained in the plane of symmetry and fixed with the machine. of for all the infinite number of orientations body could assume with respect to its line of path. In general. This is why made by assuming the study of components Rx and R s is the line of path contained in the plane of symmetry. the Drag component. Let us first note that the airplane admits a plane of symmetry. of the motion of the would be necessary to know the values. contained in that plane of symmetry. in general. the first in the sense of the line of flight. and the third perpendicular to that plane. Let us resolve that resultant into three directions perpendicular to one another. . this reference is made to the wing chord (Fig. R' s the Drift component.

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
73),

89

called the angle of incidence; as to the force of drift, usually the study of its law of variation is made by
i is

and

keeping constant the angle i between the chord and the projection of the line of path on the plane of symmetry, and varying only the angle 5 between the line of path and
the plane of
angle of
drift.

symmetry

(Fig. 74)

;

the angle

5 is

called the

FIG. 74.

is

Summarizing, the study of components usually made in the following manner:
1.

Rx R
,

s,

and R' &>

To study #x and R

s,

considering
it

them

as functions

of the angle of incidence
2.

i.

To study R' by
s

considering

as a function of the

angle of drift

5.

For the study of the air reactions on a body moving through the air, the aerodynamical laboratory is the most important means at the disposal of the aeronautical
engineer.

The equipment
of a special

an aerodynamical laboratory consists tube system of more or less vast proportions,
of

90
inside of

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
which the
air is

special fans (Fig. 75).

made to circulate by means of The small models to be tested are

FIG. 75.

suspended in the air current, and are connected to instruments which permit the determination of the reactions

I

(3D

FIG. 76.

provoked upon them by the air. The section in which the models are tested is generally the smallest of the tube sys-

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
tern,

91

and a room is constructed corresponding to it, from which the tests may be observed. The speed of the air current may easily be varied by varying the number of

revolutions of the fan.

The velocity of the current may be measured by various systems, more or less analogous. We shall describe the Pitot tube, which is also used on airplanes as a speed indiPitot tube (Fig. 76), consists of two concentric tubes, the one, internal tube a opening forward against the wind, the other external tube 6, closed on the forward
cator.

The

end but having small
mitted by tube a

circular holes.

These tubes are con-

nected with a differential manometer.
is

The
2

pressure trans-

*Q mitted by tube b is equal to P; thus, the differential manometer will indicate a pressure h in feet of air, equal to

equal to

P+

~^r~] the pressure trans-

dV

p + T~ ~ p
that
is
,

~ dV*
~9

consequently

y =
as g

\ d

M

=

32.2, the result will

be

v=*~sxJ^
d represents the specific weight of the air. The preceding formula consequently gives us the means of graduating the manometer so that by using the Pitot tube it will read air

speed directly. With this foreword, let us note that experiments have demonstrated that the reaction of the air R, on a body moving through the air, and therefore also its components R x R s and R' s may be expressed by means of the formula
,

,

R =

a

d

XAXV*

92

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

where
a

=

coefficient

depending on the angle of incidence

or the angle of drift,

d
g

= =

the specific weight of the air, is the acceleration due to gravity (which at the latitude of 45 = 32.2),
the major section of model tested (and denned as will be seen presently), and

A =
V =

the speed.

of convenience we shall give the coefficients that the specific weight of the air is the one corassuming responding to the pressure of one atmosphere (33.9 ft. of

As a matter

water),

coefficients will

of 59F. Furthermore the be referred to the speed of 100 m.p.h. Then the preceding formula can be written

and to the temperature

and knowing K, it gives the reaction of the air on a body similar to the model to which K refers, but whose section is equal to A sq. ft., and the speed to V m.p.h.
It is of interest to

when the
more
1

the value of coefficient K, pressure and the temperature of the air are no atmosphere and 59 F., but have respectively any

know

value h whatsoever (in feet of water), and t (degrees F.). The value of the new coefficient ht is then evidently given

K

by
Kht

h -KX 33.9 x 4600 + 590 460 FiF.
<
>

This equation will be of interest in the study of
at high altitudes.

flight

Interpreted with
it, is

respect

to

the

speed,

formula

(1)

states that the reaction of the air

on a body moving through

proportional to the square of the speed of translation. This is true only within certain limits. In fact, we shall soon see that in some cases, coefficient determined by

K

equation (1) changes with the variation of the speed, although the angle of incidence remains constant.

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS

93

From the aerodynamical point of view, the section of the parts which compose an airplane may be grouped in three main classes which are
:

1.

2.

Surfaces in which the Lift component predominates, Surfaces in which the Drag component predominates, Surfaces in which the Drift component predominates. first are essentially intended for sustentation.

and
3.

The

Among

them, the elevator is also to be considered, of which the aerodynamical study is analogous to that of the wings. The second, surfaces in which the component of head

resistance exists almost solely, are the major sections of all those parts, as the fuselage, landing gear, rigging, etc.,

which although not being intended
essential parts of the airplane.

for sustentation,

form
air

Finally, the last surfaces are those in reaction equals zero until the line of path

which the
is

contained in
itself

the plane of symmetry of the airplane, but manifests as soon as the airplane drifts.

enough of the criterions followed for the aerodynamic study of a wing. Consequently, we shall repeat briefly what has already been said. Let us consider a wing which displaces itself along a line of path which makes an angle i with its chord; a certain reaction will be borne upon it which may be examined in its two components Rx and R s respectively perpendicular and opposite to the line of path, and which shall be called Lift and Drag, indicating them respectively by the symbols L and D.
In Chapter
I,

we have spoken

diffusely

We may

then write,

'

D=sxAX (mJ
Where the
coefficients X

and

6

are functions of the angle

94

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

of incidence, and define a type of wing, and A is the total The wing efficiency is given by surface of wing. X L

D

"

d

and measures the number of pounds the wing can sustain for each pound of head resistance. In Chapter I, we have given the diagrams for X, 6 and
o

as functions of

i

for

two types

of wings; consequently,

it is

unnecessary to record further examples. For a complete aerodynamical study of a wing, it is necessary to determine in addition to the diagrams of
X, 6

and

->

as functions of

i,

also the

diagram

of the ratio

x

p

as a function of

i,

which defines the position at the center
II)
.

of thrust (see
/v

Chapter

Knowledge
i,

of the

law of varia-

tion of

^

as a functon of

is

necessary to enable the

study of the balance of the airplane. In the reports on aerodynamical experiments conducted
in various laboratories, American, English, Italian, etc., the reader will find a vast amount of experimental material

which will assist him in forming an idea of the influence borne on the coefficients X and 5, not only by the shape and relative dimensions of the wings, as for instance the
ratios
,.

span
chord of the wing
, ,

,
~.

7-7?:

and

thickness of the wing r T-TT j chord of the wing
-

. >

but also

by the

relative positions of the wings with respect to each

other; such as multiplane machines with wings, with wings in tandem, etc.
eral, solely

superimposed

In the study of coefficients of resisting surfaces, in genthe knowledge of the component R d is of interest; the sustaining component 7 x is equal to zero, or is of a We then negligible value as compared with that of R s
.

have

R =
8

KXAX

,

1QO

ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
where

95

K

is

a function of

i,

and

A

measures the surface of

the major section of the form under observation, taken

I

I!

I

of the body, or to perpendicular to the axis of symmetry the axis parallel to the normal line of path.

96

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

In general, the head resistance is usually determined for only one value of i, that is, for the value corresponding to normal flight. In fact, it should be noted that an airplane normally varies its angle of incidence within very narrow to 10; now, while for wings such variations limits, from
of incidence bring variations of enormous importance in the values of L as well as in those of D, the variation of
coefficient

K for

the resistance surfaces
in laboratories,

is

relatively small.
is

Consequently,

only one value

found.

Nevertheless, exception is made for the wires and cables, which are set on the airplanes at a most variable inclination, and therefore it is interesting to know coefficient K
for all the angles of incidence.
is given below compiled on the basis of Eiffel's for the following experiments, which gives the value of forms (Fig. 77), and for a speed of 90 feet per second:

A table

K

A = B =
C =

D=

Half sphere with concavity facing the wind, Plain disc perpendicular to the wind, Half sphere with convexity facing the wind,
Sphere,

H=

Cylinder with ends having plain faces, with axis

parallel to the wind,

/ = Cylinder with spherical ends, with axis parallel to the wind, = Cylinder with axis perpendicular to the wind,

E

F = G = L =

Airplane strut Airplane strut
Dirigible shape,

fineness ratio
fineness ratio

J, >,

M=
N=
0\=

Airplane fuselage with radiator in front, Airplane wheel without fabric, and Wheel covered with fabric.
TABLE 3

one is immediately impressed by the very low value for the dirigible form. If the law of proportion to the square of the speed were exact. eo 50 40 30 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 TO SO 90 100 110 Speed Ft. An example will better illustrate this point. and for the speed of from 13 to 100 ft. 78. per sec. 78 diagrams are given of the variation of for the forms A and D. (Eiffel's experiments). per Sec. Its resistance is about 10 times less than that of the plain disc. and consequently the coefficients of head formed behind the bodies . therefore varying the distribution of the positive and negative pressure resistance. these values would also be available On the contrary. at different speeds these for other speeds. These anomalies can be explained by admitare ting that the various speeds vary the vortexes which K K in question.ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS 97 In the above table. increases with the speed. We see that coefof form A. zones. per sec. In Fig. values vary. while that of ficient D decreases. FIG. The preceding table contains values corresponding to a speed of 90 ft.

FIG. per Sec. the value of 40 K then increases. it is more interesting to know the total head resistance than that of the various parts. for the cables instead.70 30 90 100 1 10 Speed Ft. 79. coefficient K first decreases. In studying the airplane. Finally. . shows an opposite tendency. FIG.98 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Figs. 80. 30 10 20 30 40 50 Ft.O ZO 30 40 50 60. 81 gives the diagram showing how coefficient varies for the wires and cables when their angle of incidence K varies from to 90. for the wires. 79 and 80 give the diagrams of the coefficient K. for the wires and cables (Eiffel). 60 70 80 90 100 110 Speed per Sec. Fig. 40 30 i.

). the total head resistance R s of the airplane will be 7? /t: 5 = AI/LI Zi 7" /I . K 2. . wheels. in Degrees the respective coefficients of head resistance. etc. landing gear. 81. . . 99 we call AI.ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS if . Angle of Incidence FIG. bombs. . and K n. A z and A n the major sections of the various parts constituting the airplane and which produce a head resistance. (fuselage. radiators. wires. . . and KI. struts.

Pj and the efficiency p. the parts of the airplane can be considered as drift surfaces. For what we have already briefly said in speaking of the rudder and elevator.efficaciousness for directional stability. When all the line of path lies out of the plane of symmetry. and for what we shall say more diffusely in discussing the problems of stability. and the rudder. Let us suppose that in the air current of we have a propeller model rotating an experimental tunnel. As to the study of the drift surfaces. the most important are the fuselFrom the point of view of age. By measur- number of revolutions absorbed by the propeller. it is opportune to know both of the coordinates of the center of drift. the fuselages without fins and without rudders. Nevertheless. it is accomplished by taking into consideration only the drift component. . in order to determine the moments = KiAi +K + . it is possible to draw the diagrams pf T. this study it is interesting to know the center of drift at various angles of drift. the center of drift may be situated before the center of gravity in such a way as to accentuate the path in drift when this has been produced for any reason whatsoever. the power of the propeller. we shall make brief mention of the aerodynamical tests of the propeller. . which define its position on the surface of drift. K of drift and then. Finally. may be unstable that is. . drift forces. as the latter is Furthermore.' n 2D 2 a n 3D a' = TV = P a V X UD . its T P relations .100 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION where a total coefficient of n A n and is called the 2A 2 head resistance of the airplane. in negligible with respect to the former. T = P = P a. and the velocity V of the wind. and not the component of head resistance. the fin. Numerous experiments by Colonel Dorand have led to the establishing of the following ing the thrust n.

Knowing the values it is of a' and a as functions of y ^> possible to obtain those of T.ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS where 101 the diameter of the propeller. P. . and p. and a and a are numerical coefficients which vary with the variation of is D y ~- This ratio is proportional to the other ~_ V it-nD velocity of translation peripheral velocity of incidence of the line of which defines the angle path with respect to the propeller blade. thereby possessing the data for the calculation of the propeller.

if this angle should some restoring couples (see Chapter II). are known. would be produced. Then if R the airplane is well balanced. 6 and V. 82). <r. i. in well-determined angle fact. V = constant). and of which the diagrams for X. which will make a of incidence with the wing. 6 (Fig. tending to the machine at incidence i. keep Let us study the existing relations among the parameters W. 6 and the total head resistance a. it will follow a sloping line of path vary. When the machine has reached its normal gliding speed (that is. Let us suppose that the machine descends through the air with the engine shut off.CHAPTER VIII THE GLIDE Let us consider an airplane of weight W. that is gliding. of sustaining surface A. Suppose the pilot keeps the elevator fixed in a certain position maintaining the ailerons and the rudder at zero. 6. the forces 102 . A. X.

that of opposite direction to in this case force R is equal and W\ that is. Where and X Rx is is expressed in XAF A in 2 sq. 5.4 lb.THE GLIDE 103 acting on it are reduced only to the weight W.. rectilinear motion.100. all the forces acting on a body in uniform is. balance each other. by squaring and preceding equations by adding the . a and 7. R x and R s as function of what we have said in the Remembering R = x preceding chapters. the angle of V incidence and of which the law of variation must be found of experimentally. a coefficient which depends upon in m. 10. R + W = Let us consider the two components R x and R s of R (on the line of the path and perpendicular to the line of path).h.. As to R s its expression results from the 5 sum two terms. and the total air reaction R. The preceding equation can then be divided into two others R + Rx + d W sin W cos 6 B = = (1) (2) Let us express the components X. Thus we shall have The equations (1) and (dA (2) become 10- 4 4 + 2 (7) V = 2 10- XAF = -- W W sin e (3) (4) cose We have immediately. By a known theorem of mechanics. one due to the wings XAX iTHn) and the other due to / V \ 2 parasite resistances a of the form .p. ft.

5. In other words. to the unit load on the wings. the angle of glide that o is. This ratio is also usually called coefficient of fineness. V = 100 m. Change. The angle of volplaning weight of the airplane. the gliding speed will increase but the angle of descent will not 6. is directly between the coeffi- A. therefore with wings having a heavily curved surface and consequently of great sustaining capacity. by increasing the load. corand V. W is is. a couple of values Thus the elements of the problem are known. h. the descending speed is much lower than with wings having a small sustaining capacity. . once the angle of incidence i is fixed. the angle of glide proportional to the ratio -. \ Equation principles 4. Other conditions being equal. Other conditions being equal. Other conditions being equal. p. Equation (5) enables us to state the following general all : principles 1. equations (5) and (6) enable us to find. is independent from the This weight doesn't influence but the speed. the gliding speed directly proportional to the ratio-.-* that A. the gliding speed is inversely proportional to the coefficient X. the values X and are fixed. responding to each value of i. 2. 3. is : (6) enables us to state the following general Other conditions being equal. cient of parasite resistance and the surface of the wings. inversely proportional to the ratio -> to the efficiency of the wing.104 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (3) and dividing by (4) 5 x + ^ = tan* - (6) <5 As. Other conditions being equal. the gliding speed is inversely proportional to the value of sum (5 + ^r\ which represents ~r for A.

THE GLIDE 105 With this premise we propose.4 XA A = 10. 0. to draw a special logarithmic diagram which will enable us to study all the relations existing among the variable parameters of gliding.(dA 4 (7) + o-) (8) .25 5 -3-2-10123456789 Let us go back to formulas in the following (3) 7. following a method suggested by Eiffel.5 and (5) and write them form -TFsin e = 10~ 4 (dA W Furthermore = let V [10-* (dA +cr)] (10 us assume A = 10.50 10 0.

5. as for each value of the angle of incidence i. sin . <r. of Fig. X and is constant. A equations numerical example will better explain this. A = 270 sq. determine a couple of values of A and A and consequently of \/A 2 + A 2 and A corresponding to each value of i. d from the diagram We can then compile the following table: TABLE 4 Thus we have a values of ->/A 2 diagram of number of pairs of corresponding A 2 and A which enable us to draw the + \/A 2 + A 2 as a function of A. we can.106 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Then the preceding equations become (9) Now. it will be then possible to draw the 2 2 logarithmic diagram of \/A + A as function of A. = 160 (average functions of i value bet ween as i = andi = 9). X. 83. by means of and as A (7) and (8). ft. Let us consider an airplane having the following characteristics : W o- = 2700 Ib. instead of drawing this diagram on paper graduated to cartesian coordinates. certain Now. W = A (10) are known. let us draw it on paper with .

sin 0) and 2 log 7.2 7 7 parallel to parallel to . 5. Log Log W parallel to OX. 84). to the point A of the segments log W. of this point is nv OX = i log W. Log ( sin 0) parallel to OX. we can consider OY as the algebraic sum of the two segments log Thus in order to pass from the origin the diagram it is W and 2 log 7. is sum of the Analogously the ordinate of point A OY = and as log log ^ W f W 2 = log W 2 log 7.-/! Let us consider any part whatever of this curve for instance the point A. sin yj( Now log - 511 - j^ = log Therefore we can consider sin segments log W. the abscissa OX. log ( W]+ log OX as the 0) sin 0) 2 log V and algebraic 2 log V.THE GLIDE logarithmic graduation (Fig. 4. Similarly the two segments corresponding to 7 can be 3. following the axis of the ablog ( scissae and log 2 log 7. 2. the segments can be summed in any order whatever. Now.2 log . can be replaced by a single oblique segment of inclination 1/1 on the axis OX and of lengths A/2 log W. W parallel to OY. OF. it is evident that the two segments corresponding to W. following the axis of the and sufficient to sum W ordinates. . we can sum them in the following order: As 1. evidently. rithmic diagram which gives 107 We shall have a loga- A/A 2 or + A 2 = /(A) . log OX.

84.06 -0. The units of measure selected for drawing the diagram of Fig.04 0. 84.3 0.h. OX + A OX one parallel in the respective scales.C3 -0.05 0.6 a system of values of W. are the following: W in V in Ib. is evidently that the three corresponding segments.5 -0.4 0.108 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION replaced and by a single segment also inclined by 1/1 on 2 2 log V. to OX. V and sin be realizable with the given airplane.OZ -0. ' O. . end on the diagram. Thus we can pass from the of length \/2 2 of the diagram by drawing 3 segto the point origin and two parallel to an axis of inclination 1/1 on ments. m. summed geometrically startficient in order that ing from the origin. and which measure W.p.2 A Sine FIG. V and sin 6 The condition necessary and suf- O.

the weight W is repre- sented by the segment BB'. if divided by 10*. gives the scale of sin It would be convenient to make x = 2700 72 1 in order to keep the scale of within the drawing.3 the corresponding segment is to a point of the diagram zero and we pass from the origin by summing geometrically the segments corresponding to Then.h. for instance the point whose coordinates are A/A 2 For this point +A = 2 0. W scale of A. V and sin 6. 164. equation A = sin 6. making V = sin and W. .3 m. we W that is = 8100 BB' = 8100 . It is of all necessary to fix the origin of the scale of convenient to select our case it is airplane. in Furthermore to W equal to the weight of the W be equal convenient that the ratio W = 2700 Ib.3 and A = 0.3.THE GLIDE 109 In order to determine the relation between the scales of \/A 2 +A 2 and A 2 and the scales of W.1 We The have F = 2 27. sin -1 equal to that of A divided by 10 that multiplied by 10. thus we have from the any one whatever of the values 1 X 10 X . ^ where x is a whole positive or negative number.p.031 and for V = 164. Let us consider any point whatsoever B : of the diagram.000 and is 164. Then from = 1 X V 10. it is first W and V. scale of is. because + have A2 W : y-2 substituting the preceding values of \/A 2 +A 2 and F. ^ that the same sin 0.

after which incidence. W sin immediately the pair of corresponding values of and V.p.3 on 0" and 116.3.139. that CC' = 116. the angle its increases again. 85.3 on C".2 and A = 0. whose coordinates 2 are: +A = 2 0.3 m. in our case C'C = 116. In fact for any value whatsoever of sin for = from the point C' correspondent to sin is sufficient to draw a parallel to the scale of 0. W V = ---^ e-s'so' ~""" 5m FIG. in 0' and 8100 Ib. in B" the scale of weights will be individuated.. speeds until it meets the diagram in C. and marking Taking BB' to O'B" on the scale of 2700 Ib. as For this point and for demonstrated with an analogous process. instance. then the corresponding to in order to pass from the origin segment of the diagram it would be sufficient to sum geoa point sin and V. read on the scale of the speeds gives the value of the speed V corresponding to sin 0. the segment C'C. the scales of speed will be individuated.0278 it is = 2700 we shall have. 84 gives .h. the diagram of Fig. it From it the diagram we see that by increasing the angle of decreases to a minimum. This means that the line of path raises inclination up to a limit which in our case is equal to . Analogously taking CC' to 0"C" on the scale of V and marking 164. metrically the segment corresponding to zero Let us take any other point whatsoever for instance that -V/A C on the diagram. With the preceding scales and for the airplane of our example weighing 2700 Ib.110 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us make is now and W = 2700.

We have seen that a centrifugal force is then originated spiral The descent <j> = W . V r 2 g equal and opposite to the centripetal force R' s which has provoked the turning (Fig. is accomplished by keeping the machine turning during the glide. while gliding very normal maneuver for the descent. situated within ft. . 86). keeping it preferably slightly below the normal speed which the machine has with engine running. devices and consequently in the control of the machine by the pilot. In practice the pilots usually dispose the machine even vertical but for a very short time.1 111 to corresponding to the incidence of 5 6. It is necessary to take up also the spiral glide which is today the of speedometers. was descending for instance from the height of it could reach any point whatsoever. This force R' s can be produced by the inclination of the airplane or by the drifting course of the airplane or by both phenomena. is referred to an exceptional case with the present airplanes.14. the minimum value is between 0.THE GLIDE about 1000 0. today much diffused. if our airplane ft. Until now we have treated the rectilinear glide. It is seen that it is not safe to decrease too much the angle of incidence in order not to increase excessively the speed. When this . however.12 and 0. Furthermore the diaof sin shows the law variation of the speed of the airplane gram with a variation of the angle of incidence. The use may good keep the speed within normal limits. 85). one has to look out not to increasing excessively the angle of incidence in order not to fall in the opposite inconvenience of reducing excessively the speed. which causes a strong decrease in the sensibility of the controlling Our example. is a caution in order that the pilot. a radius of 9950 in practice (Fig. so as not to give time to On the other hand the airplane to reach dangerous speeds.

.112 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FIG. 86.

the formula for rectilinear gliding. as in practice this is the normal case. (3) (6 Then equations 10. Calling V and 6 the values of calling V and for a a. as we consider the fictitious weight instead of the weight W. when the this case. and we fall back to 0. of the line of path. angle of drift is zero. - sin 0' a = From known theorems of the line of of geometry. = Va and 0' a the values for the angle and we have V V ~ a.4 and become A + <r)V 2 = - - w sin 0' 0' 10. we say the spiral descent is correct. the machine then doesn't turn flat. developed .the discussion for this case as the weight were increased from to where We W W if cos a we can apply the formulae of the rectilinear but we shall be careful to consider the angle 6' gliding. . we shall have to consider a fictitious horizontal W plane perpendicular to perpendicular to W instead of the horizontal plane (4) 2 W. V V o V COS a sin B Ba . we have sin 0' = sin 0^ .2 V = 0. with a plane perpendicular to instead of the angle of the line of path with the horizontal Therefore W .4 XA7 = W COS a cos (11) COS a (12) from which 10. calling cos a the angle path with the horizontal. we shall study only provoked solely by the that is. sn If we make a = we have cos a = 1. in fact.THE GLIDE force is 113 inclination of the airplane.

if we suppose that we maintain a certain incidence (by maneuvering the elevator) and a certain transverse inclination a (by maneuvering the ailerons) the airplane will follow an elicoidal line of path. with speed Va and inclination to the ground B a which are given by the equations : V COS a and sin e a (13) = e51 5-^ COS a (14) are the speed and the inclination of line of path. equations (13) arid (14) tell us that in the spiral descent the angle of incidence being kept the same. to obtain the couples of values V a where V and 6 sin 6 a corresponding to each value of a. and . it is then easy. from diagram 84. corresponding to the rectilinear gliding. In general. an airplane has a speed and an angle of slope of the line of path which are greater than in the rectilinear gliding.114 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION from which sin 6 COS a i Resuming.

we consider the fictitious weight all the considerations made and Then notations adopted in the preceding chapter can be applied. T. other than the weight R. R = T + W cos R x = W cos 8 (90 -0) = T + W sin 115 . namely.CHAPTER IX FLYING WITH POWER ON In the preceding chapter flying with the engine off. that the course whatever of gliding. starts the pilot. force will appear. W. during any engine without maneuvering the elevator. 87. we have studied gliding or Let us suppose now. W and air reaction W If. Then a new FIG. the propeller thrust. instead of weight resulting from W and T (Fig. 87).

for each value of T. we have .4 (dA + a) F 3 (6) .h..4 \AV = 2 W cos T 7 (2) Eliminating 10~ 4 V 2 from the two equations. for all the values T < T is. cos must decrease. line is positive. 5. Value T for which = 0. the line of path ascends. and the power PI in H. we of thrust necessary for horizontal flight. consequently have cos return to the case of gliding.P.p. find the value of For T = 0. and <r. For = 1. study horizontal flight.4 \AV 2 + V 2 (4) (5) Now Ib. gives the value decreases.4 (dA a) 10. that the angle B with the horizontal the machine descends. it is evidently equal to = IA7TV and because of equation (4) 550Pi = 1. increase.47 10. (dA + - o-) ^ XA/ - = + W sin (3) from which T = (i \X + -^-W cos -TF sin Let us suppose that the angle of incidence is fixed. we must increases. For all the . corresponding to the thrust T in to the speed V in m. First of all let us sign. T 0} the angle B with the horizontal line changes that is. will be determined. Then. as B = equation (1) and (2) values T> become T = W= 10. then Equation (3) enables us to X.116 or AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 10. and sin = 0. that is. As T and sin . the angle = 0.4 (dA + <r)V = T + 2 W sin (1) 10.

Let us have as in the preceding chapter A = 10~ 4 \A A = 10.FLYING WITH POWER ON Equations 117 (5) and (6) enable us to draw a very interesting logarithmic diagram with the method proposed by Eiffel. 270 160 sq. ft. Based upon the table given in the preceding chapter we can compile the following table: TABLE 5 This table gives a certain number of pairs of values corresponding to A and A and therefore enables us to draw the diagram of A as as function of A. We or shall have a logarithmic diagram which gives A=/(1.47 55QP! 73 = A (8) Let us consider then the airplane of the example used in the preceding chapter. the airplane having the following characteristics : W = 2700 A = er Ib. = and whose diagrams of X and 6 are those given in Fig. 83.4 (dA Equations (5) + a) (7) and (6) become W= TT A 1. that is. 88).47A) W_ ~ V* /550P . let us draw the same diagram on paper with logarithmic graduation (Fig. Now instead of drawing the diagram on paper graduated with uniform scales.

118 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION x .

the abscissa OX of this point is Now sider log y = 3 log 550Pi 3 log F. it is sufficient to add the segment log 550 PI and W and log TF and F along the axes 2 the axes OF. one parallel to the axes OX. segments. thus we can con- OX as and segment the algebraic sum of segment log 550Pi. W evident that the two segments 3 log F and corresponding to F. can be replaced by a single oblique segment whose inclination is 2 on 3 and whose length is Thus we can pass from the origin 3 2 log F.FLYING WITH POWER ON 119 Let us consider then any point whatever of this curve for instance the point A . 3 log V. end on the diagram. may be realized with the evidently that the three corresponding given airplane summed geometrically starting from the origin. Analogously the ordinate of point A is W and as log yg W = log W 2 log V we can consider OF as and 2 log the algebraic sum of the two segments log in order to pass from the origin F. to point A of Thus. the second parallel to an axes of an inclination of 2 on 3 and the third parallel to the axes OF which segments it is Now 2 log F + . log along Since evidently these segments can be added in any order whatever. \/2 2 to point A by drawing three segments. then 2 log F parallel to the axes of ordinates of abscissa. condition necessary and sufficient in order that a of values of Pi. scales PI. . we can take first log 550Pi parallel to the 3 Jog OX F 3 log F also parallel to the axes axes of abscissa. then and finally log parallel to the axes of ordinates. the diagram. is F F and TF. measure in the respective The system and TF.

88 are the following: Pi in H. 84.P. Consequently. V W in in m.3 and A = 0. = C in Applying the usual construction we shall lay off OB 3000.h.0463 Corresponding to these points we shall have W 100 2 = 0-3 and ^~ = Pi == 0. Ib. In order to determine the relation between the scales of A and A and the scales of Pi. EC = 200 in the respective scales.p. in fact for A whose the particular value V = 100 the segment to be laid off parallel to the scale of V becomes zero and so we go from the origin to the diagram through the sum of the only two seg- ments W and P.h.2 H. V we proceed as follows : In order to determine the scale of W and Pi two values whatever.h. from point we draw a point D. Then for V = 100 m. V and W.P. for instance W = 3000 and PI = 200 H.p.p. as'we have in CD we will have V = 140 m.h.120 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION units of measure selected for drawing the diagram The of Fig.p. scales of W and Pi are determined.153. it is necessary to fix the origin of the scale of V] we shall suppose to assume as origin V = 100 m. . parallel to the scale V to We meet the diagram shall have Now for DA = 0.0463 which gives W Thus the Let us give to --= 3000 Ib.P. Let us consider then the point coordinates are A = 0. the coordinates A and A measure also W and P. the corresponding speed..

h. Then.FLYING WITH POWER ON that V. . 121 the segment scales CD laid off in it is The being known airplane acts. and could only fly horizontally or descend. it would be.p. we draw then FF' parallel to the scale of the speed and we have in F on O'X' the value of the power V we f PI corresponding to a speed E. The phenomenon power increasing for the decreasing speed may seem strange. The examination of the diagram enables us to make some interesting observations. this tangent will cut the axis O'X' in a point corresponding to a power of 58 H. could hardly sustain itself. as one says. partially in order to insure sustentation this dynamical sustentation admits a maxi.P. the parallel to OX up to F. the necessary power for flying increases. An airplane having an engine capable of giving no more than this power. point of intersection with the diagram. this is the minimum power at which the airplane can sustain itself . for which the necessary power for motion is so much greater as the speed of motion But we must reflect that in the airplane. and the corresponding speed Fmin is 72. even more so.3 m. Let us draw first the tangent t to the diagram which is parallel to scale V. if the comparison is made with all other means of locomotion. power necessary for motion is partly absorbed in overcomof ing the passive resistances. that is. tangent. In Fig. but could by no means follow an ascending line of flight. and we have furthermore repeated on O'X' the scale of power. is. 88 we have disposed the scales so as to facilitate the readings. the increases. it is of the speed the value of the gives the scale of to study the way the easy possible to find for each value 0"D' power necessary to fly. that is we have made the origin 0" of the scale of V coincide with the intersection of this scale and a line O'X' parallel to the axis OX and passing through the value the weight of the airplane. in order to have two corresponding values of P and W = 2700 which is draw from any point whatever E on the scale of the speed. For all the values of speed greater or lower than the above value.

it is necessary draw the diagram pP 2 as a function of F. the speed 7min corresponds to the minimum value which the speed of the airplane can assume. the useful power furnished by the propeller is 2 Let P be the power of the engine. When they are known. and . and the power necessary for flying. When . Therefore. . the power pP 2 available for that speed. evidently depends upon the the propeller can furnish. the speed increases to values greater than 7min the power necessary for sustentation rapidly increases. evidently pP 2 To study to flying with the engine running. consequently. Pp = to the power The first of the three diagrams must be determined in the engine testing room. but the further decrease is of no interest. maximum value of useful power p the propeller efficiency.122 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION efficiency corresponding to a given value of speed. The maximum value the airplane speed can assume. mum below which. the determination of values pP 2 as a function of V becomes possible by using a method is also proposed by Eifell. more difficult. as it requires increase of power which makes the sustentation and therefore the flight more dangerous./ (n) = I V f (~j))> which gives the value of \ coefficient a of the formula an*D 5 corresponding absorbed by the propeller. Practically. and which interesting to expose diffusely. and the other two in the aerodynamical laboratory. (1) it is necessary to know the following diagrams : Pi a (2) . in order to be able to compare for each value of V. and . the efficiency itself decreases. It is quite true that theoretically the speed of the airplane can still decrease. also at that speed.

log V. scales. it is sufficient to add log V. A of the diagram. considering 3 log n of the following. the axis of the abscissae. Then. and 5 log parallel to the axis of the ordinates. 3 and log following axis OX. Analogously. and log P p D . respectively. point A. OF = p ^> U and we OF as the algebraic sum and log log 3 log n 5 log D. 71 the ordinate can write OF of point OF = log Pp A. 89). log sum following three. D axis OX.FLYING WITH POWER ON Let us consider the equation 123 Pp = or As we have seen in chapter 6. Since evidently these segments can be added in any order whatever. D parallel to D gle oblique segment with an inclination of 3 on 1 and having . then log n parallel to n n and 5 log D. nlD 5 on uni- form abscissae and as us take these values. log P. as ordinates. of instead of drawing the diagram V p: nD as abscissae. on paper with logarithmic graduation (Fig. a = /"" 1 therefore -'( Now. in order to pass from the origin 0. can be replaced by a sin- then again . we can first take log V. let and those P by taking the values as ordinates of syr. Let us now consider a point on the curve P -lb = is ( V for instance. log n. to point 5 log following axis OF. and 3 log log n parallel to the axis of the ordinates. The abscissa of this point OX = conse " of the V log nD' but log V = nD log V ~ and is log n ~ log D ' quently we can consider OX as the algebraical log D. and finally P p Now it is evident that the two segments log n log and 3 log n corresponding to n.

124 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Analogously. We can definitely pass from origin to point A of the diagram. 5 log log D and segments SCALE D two D.p. by drawing four segments parallel respectively to . the to a length proportional to Jog n. D corresponding SCALE Uo 50 3 4x!0" 5x!0" 3 3 6xlO" 7xl0 3 &xl0 3 3 3 9xiO" 10xlO" I 60 70 80 90 100 J50 200 V. 89. can be replaced by a single oblique segment with inclination of 5 on 1 and having a length proportional to log D. FIG.m.h.

46 X p 10~ 12 deter- mines the scale of powers P p In order to find the scale of D.P. -^ = 2. Let us suppose that the origin of the scale n be 1800 r.p. the segments to be laid off parallel to the scales n and D. become zero.h. in feet and P p in H. and to axis OF. n. and so ] origin to the diagram by means of the sum of the two segments V and P p Then.89) 7i V is determined.p.12 thus. the axis OX at the point where ^ = the scale of i QQQ y = 7 5 0-0074. Pp . in revolutions per minute D. it must be marked on instance we go from .. In this way Corresponding to Fi g.FLYING WITH POWER ON axis 125 OX. In order to determine the relation between the scales of P V ^ and and those of V. 89 are: V. is evidently that the four corresponding D corresponding segments (added geometrically starting from the origin) terminate on the diagram. to an axis of inclina1. make n equal to 1800. The condition necessary and sufficient for a system of and Pp to be realizable with a propeller values of V. V = 100 m.5 have P p = 340 H. = D = P = 7.46 X U we shall 10.P.m. and Pp . for which the segment n is equal to zero. making n . D.p. in their respective scales. to the diagram. and which measure V. and that Then for n = 1800 and D = 7.5 the of scale D be 7. considering for only the speed V = 100 m. it is neces- sary to fix the origin of the scales of n and D. have (see diagram 1800 and of ^^ = 2. in miles per hour n. The units of measure selected for drawing the diagram of Fig. n. we . n. marking the value 340 in correspondence to .h. coordinates V ^ and P 3 J^ 5 evidently also measure V and Pp in fact for these particular values. and D. .5 ft. to tion 5 on an axis of inclination 3 on 1.

a segment O'D' = BC. in our case.126 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION giving V and P p instance V = 100 m. by selecting the same units of measure (Fig. by taking to the is . the scale of D is obtained. on the point D'. we can then draw that diagram by means of the scale n. we shall have 100 = 1800 3 X 2.2 X 10. (Fig.). 90).) by on the scale of D.P. starting from origin equal to n = 1800).p. 91). and the scale of the power shown in Fig. analogous construction corresponding to C' is V = and P p = 100. it is sufficient to make D = 100 m.p. and marking the value 6 ft. by taking to the scale of D. Thus. Now.5 the result is n = 1270. scale of n.06. then for Pp = 100 and D = 7. as Pp = 100 and n = 1800. which is easily determined in the engine testing room. 89).h.22 X 10~ 12 and consequently.m. on the point D". Then. we find -^ U TL p and by repeating that the segment BC' = 2. we can also draw the diagram p = f/ V \ \~j\r on the logarithmic paper. Finally. 89 (Fig. the scale of n defined.h.12 which gives D = 6 ft. this value is 2.p. by (for any two values whatever and P p = 100 H. a segment 0" (which by hypothesis 0"D" = BC' and marking is the value 1270 r.50 ft. Let us suppose that we know the diagram P 2 = / (n). means of the usual construction a segment BC is determined. to find the scale of n.5. which measures the diameter value of D The D results from the value ~Tn5 p 7 which is read on the diagram at point C. starting from origin 0' (which is supposed to correspond to D = 7. Disposing of the three diagrams n3 > 5 \nD -' . Analogously. 7.

91. of the speed. measuring D to the logarithmic scale We shall have of Fig. 91 be drawn on transparent paper. 92 shows how the operation is accomplished. 89. In fact let us draw in Fig. in magnitude and direction.0 feet. Fig. Supposing us take it to the diagram of Fig. The point of intersection A between the curves Pp and . that Fig. supposto be made coincident with V = 100 m. 89.FLYING WITH POWER ON 127 drawn on logarithmic paper. and ing let V V supposing D = 9.h. making V'x coincide with axis OX. starting from the origin segment equal to diameter D of the propeller adopted.p. and the point with any value V whatever. it is easy to find the values pP 2 corresponding to the values of V. a point V] then draw the horizontal line V'x. of the scale of n.

91. .128 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION r500 ^450 L400 L 350 r300 -150 -100 L FIG.

92.FLYING WITH POWER ON 129 40 50 60 TO 60 90 100 150 200 FIG. .

it The climbing speed will be maximum 1 In fact. the excess of power measured by the difference be- pP 2 and that pP 2 = For V = tween the values pP 2 and PI. 88. necessary.. Comparing. v = "w x is (pPz ~ pP 2 thus proportional to the difference PI. all the speed values lower than the maximum value 160 m. in Fig. or to the diagram of the power developed by the engine. this maximum Pi] is found for V = 95 and corresponding to it v = 33 ft. This has been done . H. ft. we now dispose of a power pP 2 consequently the climbing speed is given by that is. P and n corresponding to an even speed. a greater power to the one effectively developed by the engine at that speed.P. in this figure. the values of Pi corresponding to the various speeds. can be used for climbing.p. corresponding to the maximum value of pP 2 in our example. . = ^7. in fact for higher values of V. this value represents the maximum speed that the airplane under consideration can attain. would be required. as they are read on the logarithmic scales. a power of X W Ib. In fact in order to raise a weight v W W at a speed is v.h. We can then determine for each value of V. The climbing speed v is easily found when the weight of the machine is known. the disposable power on the propeller shaft is greater than the minimum power necessary for horizontal flight.p. which are comby the propeller. we see Pi for V = 160 m. oou X v X W PI. the corresponding value P 2 and we can obtain the values p X P 2 corresponding to those of V in Fig.h. point determines a pair of values of V patible either to the diagram of the power absorbed A and n.130 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION P 2 determines the values of 1 P 2. 93. per sec.

FLYING WITH POWER ON 131 x .s MS ^$ 8 luV --- TT ** %\<=> Sg i .

it may happen that by increasing the angle 0. W = 10. the speed of the airplane is less than that of the airplane in horizontal flight. 95 we have drawn. supposing We that the engine is run at full power. If the . and not to the maximum value of sin 0. the variation of the engine power by adIn fact. to which velocity pilot V corresponds. FIG. that is. . as we have already seen. for the already discussed exWe see as functions of V. by moving the elevator. ample. as being the angle which with the horizontal line (Fig. diagrams of v and sin = 0. and consequently that of V necessary for sustentation the airplane then automatically puts itself in the climbing line . consists in the variation of the angle of incidence of the airplane. for the value sin = that v is maximum for sin 0. which is less than the preceding value. 0. pilot reduces the power pP 2 then the difference pP 2 PI.4 XA7 2 Fixing the angle of incidence fixes the value of X. But the will decrease. let us suppose that the justing the fuel supply. 94. of path. pilot The maneuver that must be accomplished by the in order to increase or decrease the climbing speed. We then have v = V sin This equation shows that the maximum v corresponds maximum value of V sin 6. In fact. we have also see that in climbing. that is. has another means for maneuvering for height. In Fig.132 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ratio The y gives the value sin which defines the angle the ascending line of path makes 0. 94). the climbing speed will be decreasing instead of to the increasing. consequently decreasing V and sin 0.35. v = which represents the maximum of sin 29.425.

h. FIG. . but also upon the engine and propeller.M. 95. which depends essentially upon the characteristics of the airplane. 133 PI = power to a point where pP 2 = 0. varying from a minimum value. series of speeds. We see then the and sin by throttling the engine.45 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 V.FLYING WITH POWER ON pilot reduces the engine = 0. of flying at a whole 0. to a maximum value which depends not only upon the airplane.p. the result will be v possibility.

it is said that the In this forces way we naturally disregard the consideration of which have provoked the break of equilibrium. it is an limiting oneself to the flight in smooth to study the general conditions to which possible airplane must accede in order to have a more or less by great intrinsic stability. is in a state of stable equilibrium. The forces to which the airplane is subjected are: its weight W. either static or dynamic. and are such as to often substantially modify the resistance of the original acting forces. and let us suppose that we displace it a trifle from the position of equilibrium already mentioned. the propeller thrust T. From this analogy. the disturbing forces which provoke the break of a state of equilibrium.CHAPTER X STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY Let us consider a body in equilibrium. and the total air reaction R. Let us consider an airplane in normal rectilinear horizontal flight of speed V. if the system of forces applied to the body is such as to restore it body to the original position of equilibrium. some have defined the stability of the airplane as the "tendency to react on each break of equilibrium without the intervention of the pilot. therefore is no solid basis upon which to build a general theory of stability. air." Several constructors have attempted to solve the problem of stability *of the by using solely the above criterions as a basis. 134 . cannot be disregarded. airplane These forces are most variable. Nevertheless. The knowledge of them and there of their laws of variation is practically impossible. In reality in considering the stability of the airplane. especially in rough air.

in magnitude has the only effect of elevating or lowering the line of path of the airplane. If. Supposing now that the orientation of the airplane with respect to its line of path the control surfaces neutral is . in 135 one The axis of thrust T generally passes through the center of Then R also passes through the center of gravity. the airplane is For simplicity. of the angle of incidence. gravity. that is. the pitching axis. instead. are usually interesting only to corknow the different positions of the total resultant to the various values. but The variaalso in position. of If flight of the airplane is we suppose that the normal incidence of 3. leaving all the air reaction R will change not only in tion magnitude. varied abruptly. has the unstable. For the pitching movement. has the effect of returning establishing the original position. and the directional axis (see Chapter II). the displacements about the three principal axes of inertia. . responding it considered separately. the variation in position introduces a couple about gravity. the rolling axis. must be found on the Let us consider the two positions Gi and resultant E 3 G 2 If the center of gravity falls on Gi the machine is un- what has been .STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY These forces are in equilibrium. 96). the center of which tends to make If this the airplane turn. have been drawn only as a qualitative example. . effect however. 97 a group of straight lines corresponding to the various positions of the resultant R with the variation of the angle of incidence. is R In Fig. they meet point and their resultant is zero (Fig. of increasing the displacement. the center of gravity (because said before). the airplane it is stable.

in order to obtain a good stability. In general. the adoption of . the center of gravity the airplane. instead. because the raising would produce a partial raising of the center of gravity. stable. If. and also because of constructional restrictions. it is not possible to raise the wing surfaces much with respect to the center of gravity. falls in (j 2 . in fact for angles greater than 3 the resultant is displaced so as to have a tendency to further increase the incidence and vice versa. On the other hand. more so if we wish to let the axis of thrust pass near it. Then.136 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION stable. 97. as demonstrated in analogous is considerations. the position of the center of gravity can be displaced within very restricted limits. FIG.

in sary not pass through the center of Then. Naturally it is necessary that the intrinsic stability be not excessive. it is necessary gravity. thus facilitating the placing of the center of gravity within the zone of stability. let us take a group of segments parallel and equal to the various resultants Ri this. centric curve. to consider the case. 98).STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY stabilizers is usually resorted to. it is To examine . The preceding is applied to cases in which the axis of It is also necesthrust passes through the center of gravity. that necessary to consider the metathe enveloping curve of all the resultants is. generally situated behind the principal wing surfaces and making an angle of incidence smaller than that of the principal wing surface. be equal and opposite to the moment R X r of the Let us see which are the conditions air reaction (Fig. 99). that the moment of the thrust about the center of gravity T X t. (Fig. in order to have equilibrium. Starting from a point 0. which the axis of thrust does for stability. The effect of stabilizers is to raise the zone in which the meeting points of the various resultants are. which may happen in practice. 137 which (as we have seen in Chapter II) are supplementary wing surfaces. in order that the maneuvers be not too difficult or even impossible.

Starting from C point of the intersection of and R'i. and the equilibrium exists for a value of the angle of incidence. parallel to 1 . also quently. The joining line DD' { i} t is BB' now when i differs infinitely little from at point i. this . where Ri is draw oa R extreme We wish to demonstrate that the straight line oa is a locus of points such that if the center of gravity falls on it. Let us consider one of the resultants. Let us suppose that the center of gravity falls at G on oa. If we demonstrate that the moment of R' about G is equal to the moment of R the equilibrium will be demonstrated to be indifferent. Ri FIG. let us take two segments CD and CD' equal to Ri the value R and R'i respectively. and that the incidence varies from the value i (for which we have the equilibrium) to a value infinitely near i'. which is tangent to curve ft at let us B the equilibrium will exist for all the other values of incidence. ' to straight line ao. that is. Now point C.138 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION corresponding to the normal value of the speed. for instance Ri. b. In other words. we wish divides the stability zone from the instability zone. parallel to end of t tangent to the metacentric curve a. At point A. BB' becomes tangent to the curve conseDD' becomes parallel to tangent 6. (understanding the speed to be constant) to demonstrate that oa is a locus of the points corresponding to the indifferent equilibrium. and consequently it . if i' differs infinitely . 99.

). as they have common bases and have vertices situated on a line parallel to the bases: i. and consequently permitting the machine to fly with different values of the angle of incidence. On the other hand. and thus the entire zone of stability will be defined. calculation of the magnitude of the moments of stability. etc. In referring to the elevator. consequently dividing the line Ri into two half corresponding to the zones of stability and instability. even though varying its Practically. it will be easy to establish lines the half line which corresponds to the stability. depends upon the ratio between the value of the that stabilizing moments and that of the moments it is possible to produce by maneuvering the elevator. machine with A great stability is not very maneuverable. Nevertheless. it will be a point of indifferent '. is not so difficult when the metacentric curve The and the values R> for a given speed are known. All other conditions being the same (moment of inertia of the machine.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY little 139 (and consequently the segments GC with GA) then the two triangles GCD' and GCD (which measure the moment of Ri and R'< with respect to G). happens that the speed varies to a certain extent. suffices to suppose for a moment that the center of is. from is coincident with A that To it the equilibrium is indifferent. equilibrium. we have seen its function is to produce some positive and negative couples capable of opposing the stabilizing couples. it should be noted that these variations of speed are never instantaneous. which can alter the values of the restoring couple. it orientation with respect to the line of path. . find gravity falls on the intersection of the propeller axis and the resultant R i} then the center of gravity will be on R { and since A is on the line oa. become equal. the mobility of a machine in the longitudinal sense. then a new unknown factor is introduced. in Chapter II. braking moments. which are the zones of stability and instability. From what has already been said. The foregoing was based upon the supposition that the machine would maintain its speed constant.

it can be denned as the tendency of the machine to deviate so that the resultant of the forces of mass (weight. for any accidental cause whatever. which is not contained in the plane of symmetry. this should be easy by adopting a device to vary the In this way. To obtain a good lateral stability. it will instead. On account of this fact. drift force above or below the center of gravity. the other advantage would also be obtained of being able to decrease or increase the sensibility of the controls as the speed increases or decreases. the various applied forces are no longer in equilibrium. of Then the line of path is no longer contained in the plane symmetry and the airplane drifts. if the pilot does not intervene by maneuvering the ailerons. An ideal machine should. it is necessary that the axis of the drift component meet the plane of symmetry of . at the pilot's will. in which it will maintain itself. the line of action of which can pass through. an airplane inclines itself laterally. as it requires the continuous attention of the pilot. ratios of the controlling levers of the elevator. and which will be stabilizing if the axis of the drift force passes above the center of gravity. but there is a drift component. resort to having strong stabilizing couples prevail normally it being possible at the same time to imme- diately obtain great maneuverability in cases where it became necessary. consequently. In the first case.140 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a machine of great maneuverability can become dangerous. and forces of inertia) comes into the plane of symmetry of the airplane. but have a resultant. be an overturning moment if this axis passes below the center of gravity. the total air reaction on the airplane is no longer contained in the plane of symmetry. the moment due to the about the center of gravity is zero. be able to change the relative values of its stability and maneuverability. we could in the machine. When. the machine will gradually place itself in the course of drift. As to lateral stability. In the other two cases. Furthermore. the drift com- ponent will have a moment different from zero.

that is. If Center of Drift falls on this Zone the Machine isLaferalty Unstable excessive. we have Fig. can be applied to lateral stability. however. have good stability of direction is. Summarizing. This is obtained by adopting 100 and 101.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 141 in the plane of the machine at a point above the horizontal line contained symmetry and passing through the center of gravity. quadrant. or. that point is called the center of drift. that the center of drift fall behind the vertical line drawn through the The condition necessary stability. that this tively to the machine. or by adopting a vertical fin situated above the center of gravity. This result can be obtained by lowering the center of gravity. a rear fins. by giving the wings a transversal inclination usually called "dihedral". are provided with a great intrinsic stability. we may say that it is possible to build machines which. 101). 100). in calm air. so as not to decrease the maneuverability too much.falls on this Zone the Machine 'is Laterally Stable * it / FIG. Let us finally consider the directional series of airplane to considerations analogous to the preceding one. thus to obtain a good transversal stability it is necessary that the center of drift fall above the horizontal line drawn through the center of gravity (Fig. as it is generally done. regarding the convenience of not having If Center of Drift. 102 which shows that the center of drift must fall in the upper right By adding Figs. 100. Naturally what has been said of longi- tudinal stability. by a problems pertaining to for an center of gravity (Fig. having a tendency to react every time the line of path tends to change its orientation relaIt is necessary. .

142 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION tendency be not excessive. If Center of Drift falls on this lone the Machine has Directional Stability. In this case. Then the propeller thrust becomes equal to zero. . 102. the disappearance of the thrust will not bring any immediate disturbance in the first longitudinal equilibrium of the airplane. Thus far we have considered the flight with the engine running. But the equilibrium between . in order not to decrease the maneuverability which becomes an essential quality in rough air. Let us Zone within which the Center of Drift must in Order that the Machine be Tnansversallij and Directionallu Stable.^ Directional Instability. or when acrobatics are being accomplished. FIG. Let us now suppose that the engine is shut off. If Center of Drift falls on this Zone the Machine has.. 101. consider the case in which the axis of thrust passes through the center of gravity. FIG.

STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 143 .

the air reaction in normal flight and in gliding flight. calling R' and R" respectively. " 4 we will have or VjB" r \ When the axis of thrust does not pass through the center of gravity. in gliding instead. the air reaction must balance z and T. component of head resistance. being no longer balanced by the propeller thrust. that is. will act as a brake. and air reaction. 103). R^ R" and calling ~~ VW " . an increase of the angle of a stabilizing couple is then produced. will be broken. Practically. thus equi- librium between the component of sustentation of the air reaction and the weight is broken. thrust. as the engine is shut off a equal and of opposite direction to the moment is produced moment of the thrust Thus if with respect to the center of gravity. tending to restore the angle of incidence to its normal value. thereby reducing the speed of the airplane.144 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and the weight. caused. 2 W +T 2 I T 2 \ W W 2 V and V" the " respective speeds. Let us note that the glid- new ing speed in this case smaller than the speed in normal flight. and the line of path is. and is consequently equal to -i^T 2 is W \/W . it is equal to W] that is. tending to adjust the machine for the becomes descendent. in fact in normal flight. of the airplane then tends to restore itself. the axis . it will happen that this position (due to the fact that the impulse impressed on the airplane by the the stabilizing couple makes it go beyond of equilibrium) is not reached until after position a certain number of oscillations. that is incidence descent. as a consequence. the inclination of the line of path and the speed will increase until they reach such values that the air reaction The normal speed becomes equal and of opposite direction to the weight of the airplane (Fig. the reduction of speed brings a decrease in the sustaining force.

STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY of thrust passes will 145 above the center of gravity. etc. equilibrium. spinning. the pilot intervening by maneuvering the control surfaces can provoke a complete series of equilibrium. but attains it by going through a certain and thus. with an angle of incidence different from that in normal flight. is directly proportional to the stabilizing couple in calm air. and consequently That is why the pilot must have complete conto fall. the moment the airplane nose up. Naturally. as In' other words. not so much to start the maneuvers themselves. controls are energetic enough. the moment developed will tend to make the airplane nose down. it is necessary to dispose of the very energetic controls.. thus putting the machine in a position to probrake of the equilibrium. machines must be provided with great maneuverability in order that it may be possible. the oscillations diminish by degrees. of paths of descent. If developed instead. that is. sudden gusts of wind may be encountered which tend to increase the amplitude of the oscillations. a gliding course will be established. thereby greatly decreasing the pitching and rolling movements. stabilizing couple is introthe airplane does not immediately regain its original duced. if the well as to dampen the oscillations. the maneuvers accomplished by the pilot can counteract the periodic movements. and smaller in the opposite case. to counteract the disturbing couple. The speed of in the first case. it passes below the center of gravity. looping. and greater in the gliding second case than the speed obtainable when the axis of thrust passes through the center of gravity. voke a definite at the pilot's will. We have seen that when a number of oscillations of which the magnitude . In rough air. trol of the machine. instead. more or less rapidly according to the importance of the dampening couples of the machine. as to rapidly regain the . If tend to make the airplane is provided with intrinsic stability. In order to accomplish acrobatic maneuvers such as turning on the wing. and which will be greater in case the axis of thrust passes above the center of gravity. will be smaller.

be subjected to two forces. what is more important. are necessary. then. be balanced by a horizontal component of acceleration. Let us consider an airplane provided with intrinsic automatic stability. as the air reaction can have any direction whatever according to the orientation weight and of the airplane and the relative direction of the line of path. the component and the horizontal component. The airplane air reaction. its course in falling. that the pilot does not maneuver the controls. the machine will tend to leave the spiral fall. Thus. Naturally in order that this may happen. it will tend to orient itself in such a way as to have the line of path situated in its plane of symmetry and making an angle of incidence with the wing surface equal to the angle for which the longitudinal equilibrium is obtained. instead. can only subjected. now. and put itself in the normal gliding line of path. The disposable vertical space may happen to be insufficient to enable the machine to come out of crash will result. Let us consider two components of the air reaction. falls in a spiral line of path. and. it acts as a centripetal force. The vertical component partly balances the weight. a certain vertical space. may establish the equilibrium. in other words. which do not balance each other. That is. Let us suppose. an airplane left to itself. the difference between the weight and this component measures the forces of vertical acceleration to which the airplane is The horizontal component. if the machine is provided with intrinsic stability.146 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION of equilibrium if normal position for any reason whatever the necessity arises. in that case a see then what a great convenience the pilot has in able to dispose of the energetic controls which can being We . and tends to vertical make the airplane follow a circular line of path of such radius that the centrifugal force which is thereby developed. as being left in the air with a dead engine and will insufficient speed for its sustentation. a certain time. which is called spinning.

or sensible to the causes which produce them. Essentially. their use should be limited to that of replacing the pilot in normal flight. 3. and capable of operating. into three categories: 2. as a consequence of its sensibility. Naturally. thereby decreasing his nervous fatigue. We can group the various types of mechanical stabilizers. it is sufficient only to mention the landing maneuver to be convinced of the enormous difficulty offered by a mechanical apparatus intended to guide such a maneuver.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY be 147 properly used to decrease the space necessary for restoring the normal equilibrium. but their parts can always be referred to one of the three preceding categories. It is necessary that the airplane be provided with intrinsic stability in calm air. Anemometric. Summarizing. a servo-motor. we can mention the following general machine: 1. cannot replace the pilot in all maneuvers. There are also apparatus of compound type. We can then say at once that a mechanical stabilizer is but an apparatus sensible to the changes in equilibrium which is desired to be avoided. in order that it react automatically to small normal breaks in equilibrium. Clinometric. This stability must not be excessive in order that the maneuvers be not too slow or impossible. Their scope is to take the place of the pilot by operating the ordi- nary maneuvering devices through the medium of proper servo-motors. 1. up to date. 2. It is necessary that the maneuvering devices be such all as to give the pilot control of the machine at times. and Inertia stabilizer. apparatuses of this kind. and criterions regarding the intrinsic stability of a 3. without requiring an excessive nervous strain from the pilot. Before concluding the chapter it may not be amiss to say a few words about mechanical stabilizers. which in turn maneuvers the controls. especially during adverse atmospheric conditions. .

in fact. R will decrease. because of an increase or decrease of the motive power. instead. Such functioning is logical when the increase or decrease of the relative speed depends upon the airplane. Through rod S. euver would aggravate the effect of the gust. When the relative speed is equal to the normal one. air. as cause the airplane to offer it a greater hold. backward so as to further compress the spring.148 1. for instance. it would . 104. They are. 104). R increases and the small disk goes If. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION The anemometric stabilizers are. is no longer logical if the increase of relative speed depends upon an impetuous gust of wind which strikes the airplane from the bow. and under the The air thrust R. the square of the speed. Schematically an anemometric stabilizer consists of a small surface A (Fig. and into a descending path when the speed decreases. the speed decreases. sensible to the variations of the relative speed of the airplane with respect to the and consequently tend to keep that speed constant. is proportional to reaction of a spring S. and the FIG. speed stabilizers. this man- The maneuver. small disk will go forward under the spring reaction. if the speed increases. which can go forward or backward under the action of the air thrust R. in fact. a certain position of equilibrium is obtained. however. these movements control a proper servo- motor which maneuvers the elevator so as to put the airplane into a climbing path when the speed increases. principally.

which is until now. the mercury level. made of small masses which are utilized for the control of servo-motors. and to a couple. undergo relative displacement. including the centrifugal The relative movements of the airplane with respect to the gyroscope system. then the gyroscope insures the wanted inclination of the line of path. and to eliminate the effect of forces of force. enables the There is a small anemometric blade which fixes the airplane for the descent when the relative speed decreases. In consideration of this. is the stabilizer. and to-day considered the best in existence. with respect to the effects produced by it. to a force applied at the center of gravity. 3. . under the action of the inertia forces and reacting springs. and of which the scope is to block the small anemometric blade when the increase of relative speed is due to a gust of wind. and which. as usually said. The common The which Sperry fault of these stabilizers is that they are sensible to the forces of inertia. In general. control the servo-motor. is provided with certain small masses sensible to the inertia forces. which in turn actions the elevator and the horizontal stabilizing surfaces. whatever it may be. see that it an anemometric is stabilizer. one of the most successful of its kind ever built. the disturbing cause. can be reduced. etc. which lead to false maneuvers. used by can give. the pendulum. 2. counter-indications. A special lever. Several types of clinometric stabilizers have been proposed. It consists of four gyroscopes. A special pedal enables the detachment of the stabilizer and the control of the airplane in a normal way. inertia. The inertia stabilizers are. coupled so as to insure the perfect conservation of a horizontal plane. is best clinometric stabilizer that has been built. the Doutre stabilizer. inserted between the servo- pilot to fix his machine for climbing or descending. motor and the gyroscope. the gyroscope.STABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY 149 Thus we itself. in general.

transversal. which would and three angular six measure the aforesaid components. which originate three angular accelerations. The A complete inertia stabilizer should be provided with three linear accelerometers accelerometers. . be resolved into three component couples. The couple can (longitudinal.150 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION force admits three components parallel to three prinand consequently originates three accelerations cipal axes. having as axis the same principal axis of inertia. and vertical).

it is necessary to make the airbut in a direction AO making plane fly not in direction AB } an angle 5 with AB such that the resulting speed 151 U is in . Such wind has no influence upon the stability of the airplane. if from a point We V A point B. be the speed proper of the airplane. speed we wish to reach another Furthermore. with respect to the ground. in flight the airplane can be considered speed as a body suspended in a current of water. and the of the wind. and co is the angle which the wind direction makes with the line of path AB. but influences solely its speed relative to the ground. 105. 105) U = 7+ W W see then. that the existence of a wind changes not only in dimension but also in direction. speed U.CHAPTER XI FLYING IN THE WIND Let us first of all consider the case of a wind which is constant in direction as well as in speed. of which the Let V W FIG. becomes equal to the resultant of the two speeds V and W] we can then write (Fig.

152

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

the direction

AB.

By

a

known

geometrical theorem,

we

have

W
and

2

- 2UW cos (180 - 5 8

co)

sm

-^

W sin
.

co

A

simple diagram
co

is
5,

given in Fig. 106, which enables the

calculation of angle

angle

which the covered, is known.
This diagram
is

when the speeds V and W, and the wind makes with the line of flight to be
constituted of concentric circles, whose

radius represents the speed of the wind, and of a series of radii, of which the angles with respect to the line OA give the angles co between the line of path and the wind. Let

us find the angle 6 of drift, at which the airplane must fly, for example, with a 30 m.p.h. wind making 90 with the line of path (the drift angle of the trajectory must not be confused with the angle of drift of the airplane with respect
to the trajectory, of which we have discussed in the chapthe intersection Let us take point ter on stability).
of the circle of radius

30 with the line

B BC

which makes

90 with

OA making B
;

the center, and speed
shall

V

of the air-

plane the radius, which

we

suppose equal to 100 m.p.h.,

we

have point C which determines U and 5; in fact OC In our case U = equals U, and angle B CO equals d. 95.5 m.p.h., and sin 8 = 0.3. The speed of the wind varies within wide limits, and can
shall

rise to

110 miles per hour, or more; naturally it then becomes a violent storm. A wind of from 7 to 8 miles an hour is scarcely perceptible by a person standing still. A wind of from 13 to 14 miles, moves the leaves on the trees; at 20 miles it moves the small branches on the trees and is strong enough to cause a flag to wave. At 35 miles the wind already gathers strength and moves the large branches; at 80 miles, light
tiles, slate, etc.,

obstacles such as

are carried away; the big
of

storms, as

we have already mentioned, even reach a speed

FLYING IN THE WIND
110 miles an hour.

153

As airplanes have actually reached than 110 m.p.h. (even 160 m.p.h.), it would speeds greater be possible to fly and even choose direction from point to
point in violent wind storms.

But the landing maneuver,

consequently, becomes very dangerous. At least during the present stage of constructive technique, it is wise not to fly in a wind exceeding 50 to 60 m.p.h. After all, such winds are the highest that are normally had, the stronger

ones being exceptional and localized.

On

the contrary,

154
for the

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

aims of an organization, for instance, for aerial mail service, it would be useless to take winds higher than 30 to 40 m.p.h. into consideration. If we call the distance to be covered in miles, V the

M

the maximum speed speed of the airplane in m.p.h., and in m.p.h., of the wind to be expected, the travelling time in hours, when the wind is contrary, will be

W

v _
450

M

w

M

400

300

200

100

50

100

150

200

V

M.p.h

FIG. 107.

When

the wind

is

zero the travelling time will be

M
consequently
V

FLYING IN THE WIND

155

Supposing that we admit, for instance in mail service, a maximum wind of 35 m.p.h., a diagram can easily be drawn which for every value of speed V, will give the value
100
ling

Y which

measures the percent increase in the travel-

time (Fig. 107). This diagram shows that the travelling time tends to become infinite when V approaches the value of 35 m.p.h.

For each value of

V

lower than 35 m.p.h. the value 100

-f-

is negative; that is, the airplane having such a speed, and flying against a wind of 35 m.p.h. would, of course,

A

B

A'

FIG. 108.

retrocede.

As V

increases above the value 35, the term
for

100 Y
l>0

decreases;

V =

100

we have

for

instance

100
lo

=

154 per cent.; for

V

=130,

100^ = "o

137 per

see then, because of contrary wind, that the per cent increase in the travelling time, is inversely proportional to the speed.
cent., etc.

We

Before beginning a discussion on the effect of the wind upon the stability of the airplane, it is well to guard against an error which may be made when the speed of an airplane is measured by the method of crossing back and forth between two parallel sights. Let AA' and BE' be the two Let us suppose that a wind of parallel sights (Fig. 108). is blowing parallel to the line joining the parallel speed

W

sights.

Let

ti

be the time spent by the airplane in covering
in the direction of

the distance

D

AA'

to

BB' and
',

Z2

the

156

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

time spent to cover the distance in the opposite direction. It would be an error to calculate the speed of the airplane tz In fact the by dividing the space 2D by the sum fa in going from A A' to BB is equal to speed

+

.

f

and in going the other way

By adding the two above equations: member to member, we
have

that

is

Now this expression has a value absolutely different from
the other
-

2D -~r
2

For example: supposing

D=

2 miles,

ti

*i

=

0.015 hours,

and

t2

=

0.023 hours,

we

will

have

while

2D

+
When
and

t2

0.015

+

=
0.023

105 m.p.h,

the speed of the wind is constant in magnitude direction, the airplane in flight does not resent any effect as to its stability. But the case of uniform wind
is

The amplirare, especially when its speed is high. tude of the variation of normal winds can be considered Some observations proportionally to their average speed. made in England have given either above or below 23 per

cent, as the average oscillations; and either more or less than 33 per cent, as the maximum oscillation. In certain
cases, however, there can be of even greater amplitude.

brusque or sudden variations

FLYING IN THE WIND

157

Furthermore, the wind can vary from instant to instant also in direction, especially when close to broken ground. In fact, near broken ground, the agitated atmosphere produces the same phenomena of waves, suctions, and vortices, which are produced when sea waves break on the rocks. If the airplane should have a mass equal to zero, it would instantaneously follow the speed variations of the air in which it is located; that is, there would be a

complete
siderable

dragging

effect.

As airplanes have a con-

mass they consequently follow the disturbance

only partially. It is then necessary to consider beside the partial dragging effect, also the relative action of the wind on the airplane, action which depends upon the temporary variation of the
relative speed in

magnitude as well as

in direction.

The

upon the airplane takes a different value than the normal reaction, and the effect is that at the center
reaction of the air
of gravity of the airplane a force and a couple (and consequently a movement of translation and of rotation), are produced. We have seen that in normal flight the sustaining component L of the air reaction, balances the weight. That is,

we have
10- 4
If

\A7

2

the relative speed V varies in magnitude and direction, the second term of the preceding equation will become

10~ 4 X 1 A V' 2 and in general
,

we
2

will

have
2

10- 4

X'

XA X

V

A X V

2 4 $ 10- XA7

Consequently we
in sustentation

climbing or such an acceleration that the corresponding forces of inertia will balance the variation of sustentation.

shall have first of all, an excess or deficiency and then the airplane will take either a descending curvilinear path, and will undergo

158
If,

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
for instance, the sustentation

path will bend downward. masses composing the airplane, including the pilot, will undergo an acceleration g contrary to the acceleration due
line of
f

suddenly decreases, the In such a case, all the

to gravity
If

g.

of the pilot, his apparent weight will no be mg but m(g-g') if it were that g'>g, the relative longer weight of the pilot with respect to the airplane would become negative, and tend to throw the pilot out of the
;

m is the mass

comes the necessity of pilots and strapping themselves to their seats. passengers Let us suppose that an airplane having a speed V undergoes to a frontal shock of a gust increasing in intensity from
airplane.

Thence

W + ATF;

W

if

the mass of the airplane

is

big enough, the

relative speed (at least at the first instant), will pass from the value to that of ATF; the value of the air reaction 2 which was proportional to will become proportional to

V
2

V+

V

(V

+ ATF)
(V

;

the percentual variation of reaction on the wing

surface will then be

+

ATF)

2

- F =
2

2

X FX

A

W + (ATF

2

)

AW
v
that
is, it

/ATF\ 2

-\v~)

will

be inversely proportional to the s"peed of the

Great speeds consequently are convenient not airplane. for reducing the influence of the wind on the length only of time for a given space to be covered, but also in order to

become more independent

of the influence of the wind gusts. Let us now consider a variation in the direction of the wind. Let us first suppose that this variation modifies only the angle of incidence i; then the value X will change. For a given variation At of i, the percent variation of X will be inversely proportional to the angle i of normal flight.

From this point of view, it would be convenient to fly with high angles of incidence; this, however, is not possible, for reasons which shall be presented later.

FLYING IN THE WIND
Let us

159

now suppose
will

direction of the relative

that the gust be such as to make the wind depart from the plane of

then be an angle of drift. A force of drift will be produced, and if the airplane is stable in calm air, a couple will be produced tending to put the airplane

symmetry; there

against the wind and to bank it on the side opposite to that from which the gust comes. Naturally it is necessary that

phenomena be not too accentuated in order not to make the flight difficult and dangerous with the wind across.
these

We find here the confirmation of the statement that stabilizing couples be not excessive.

.

etc. the controlling surfaces. the landing gear. the ratio between the energy furnished to the first machine or mechanism and the useful energy given by the last machine or mechanism). the efficiency. The sustentation group comprises the wings. the whole efficiency (that is.PART III CHAPTER XII PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY Factors of Efficiency and Total Efficiency The efficiency of a machine is measured by the ratio between the work expended in making it function and the For a series of useful work it is capable of furnishing. machines and mechanisms which successively transform work. is equal to the product of the partial efficiencies of the successive transformations. that forms the actual airplane. There is no doubt supplied to it by the engine. The function of the sustentation group is to insure the lifting of the airplane weight. able to effect the calculation of efficiency in an airplane. is. necessary to consider two principal groups of apparatus: the engine-propeller group and the sustentait is To be of the significance of the engine-propeller group efficiency. it is the ratio between the useful power given by the propeller and the total power tion group. as it was previously defined. with a head resistance notably less than the weight itself.. the mass of apparatus which For the sustentation group. because neither supnor returned energy is found in it. has no significance. The ratio between the lifted weight plied energy 161 . the fuselage.

a ratio between two works. The lifted load of an airplane is given by the expression L = and the head resistances : 10.4 (5A+<r)V* the sustaining surface can be efficiency of L \A 5A D + o- If p is the propeller efficiency. this equation permits the deterof a corresponding value V for each value of i. the value of p as a function of V can be found and then it is easy to draw the diagram of r as a function of V. and p is a function of the speed V and of the number of revolutions n of the engine.162 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION resistance is and the head usually taken as the measure of the efficiency of the sustentation group. mining therefore the of . when the engine propeller group is fixed. the other to the parasite D = Thus the measured by 10. it is interesting is the value of r as a function of the speed. Practically. because the values of and p are not constant. one referring to the wing surface. as it contains the factor e which is always greater than 1. the product r = p X e can serve well enough to characterize the total efficiency of the Naturally the number r cannot be considered as airplane. and it differs from a true and proper efficiency (which is always smaller than unity) because it is in general greater than unity. Let us immediately note that the value of r is not constant. which possible by remembering the equation to know W In fact =L = 10.4 \AV 2 W being constant. and a diagram of efficiency e as a funcmaking tion of speed V. by what has already been mentioned in Chapter IX.4 XA7 2 resistance is equal to the sum of two terms. which vary with the variation of the angle of incidence i. In fact e is a function of X and 5. Moreover.

109.00267 P = WV -. 93 gives the values of Pi and p corresponding to the various speeds for the propeller which has already been considered in Chapter IX. of the W Let us draw.PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY It is possible to give r a 163 much simpler expression than the preceding one. thus obtaining \A and (dA W= 550Pi + <r) 4 from the equations 10- XA7 4 2 = r 1.. for instance. (2) Knowing W. the diagrams p = f(V) and PI = /(F). can then obtain the value of r We corresponding to each value of Fig.47 10- (dA + a) V s and substituting in (1) we have 0. V and draw the diagram of . 109. this diagram for the airplane example of Chapter IX. For this airplane we have = 2700 lb. consequently W Fig. V FIG. we can draw the diagram r = f(V).

Knowing n. intend to show that to measure the efficiency corresponding to the maximum climbing speed is not a difficult matter. 550p'~ . after which it decreases.. we would have an imperfect idea of the real total efficiency. V be the speed of translation meas- ured by one of the usual speedometers.9 V = 95 m. 3.p. Let us consider again formula (2) since Pi = pP 2 when .h.h. has an efficiency equal to less than one-half the efficiency it mum = the has at the speed of 95 m. Such power is absorbed partly by the airplane.p. to maximum climbing speed. Let us suppose in fact that the airplane makes a climbing test Now we and let n be the number Let of revolutions of the engine while climbing. thus calculating r based on the maximum speed of the airplane and on the maximum power of its engine. pr _ VV ^max. which can be measured by ordinary barographs. and partly by the work necessary to do the lifting. speed of the airplane under consideration) r that is r is equal to 45 per cent.00267 X W * V T2 of Practically then when we know the maximum speed the airplane and the corresponding maximum power of the engine. In other words our airplane running at its maximum speed. to which corresponds.p. The power absorbed by flying will be . This value is much lower than the maximum which the airplane can give. equa- r = 0. horizontally at tion (2) can also be written the airplane flies its maximum speed.12. = 160 m.164 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This diagram shows that r is maximum and equal to 6. Let vmax be the maximum climbing speed.h. for instance (which represents the maxifor V for a value of speed. it is possible to have the value of r corresponding to the maximum speed. we know the value P' 2 corresponding to the power developed by the engine. of the maximum value.

we 5 have P = 2 0.x Let us remember that \A We see that q = r it proportional to r and therefore efficiency of the airplane. by measuring possible to and by estimating p'. whose magnitude can be used to give an idea of the efficiency of the airplane.267 VA X w = 3 /^ q .267 10- 6 (dA +d)7 3 By eliminating V from the two preceding equations. W rv ""5507 that is is. Equation (3) can be written That is. V ~ (V is the hori- We then have rmaX> ~ r>/ V'W M ''max. q is measures the P = 2 0. Breguet has proposed an expression which he calls motive quality. value of the total efficiency.PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENCY where p is 165 the propeller efficiency which can be estimated with sufficient approximation knowing zontal speed corresponding to vmax .4 \A7 2 0. v and n.). Let us remember the two equations: mum = = PP 2 W 10.267 W* X -4= X VA is p X - +T -~ X (3) The motive quality q the expression q = P % . it have a value approximate enough to the maxiF'.

ft.P2 W Since we have W is r- the load per sq.695 g max =. . 0. In the preceding example . and its maximum value corresponds to the maximum of ascending speed max That is.267 TT* VA (P' \ _/ Z 550p' which can also be written 147 m "- IW vl y^^ '~ P 550. for instance W ~= consequently 10. v' = ' 33. 0. and P ^ is the weight per horsepower of the airplane.177 . we have by expressing vmax in ft. P = 0. per second that z. y= P' 7.267 Also q assumes various values. . g max is easily calculated.3. . of the wing surface.166 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION from which we have = 0. vmax and p' being known.

4 XA7 4 2 (1) 1. is it usually conrepresents an essential necessity. P 2 in H. as to its application in everyday life. In regard to propellers. P that if we wish to increase o-.(dA + <r)7 3 (2) by expressing gives. It is quite true that high speeds present real landing. high speeds present dangers incommensurably smaller than those which threaten a train or a trary it we have motor car running at high speed. A and of p is of the greatest importance not only in order to obtain a higher speed but also in order to improve the total efficiency. seen that the faster an airplane dangers when On is.CHAPTER XIII THE SPEED In ordinary means of locomotion.h. stands essentially upon its possibility of reaching average commercial speeds far superior to those of the most The rapid means of transportation. V we must increase and PZJ decrease 6. but in the airplane.47 10. speed sidered as a luxury. Let us remember that the two general equations of the flight of an airplane are: W 550 P X P 2 = = 10. for the whole phenomenon of sustentation is based upon the relative speed of the wing surfaces with respect to the surrounding air. we 167 The improvement .P. Equation (2) We see then. but modern speedy airplanes are designed so as to permit a strong reduction in speed when they must return to earth. future of the airplane.p. When the airplane is in flight. the con- the better fights against the wind. and V in m.

make proper verifications for each The value of 6 wing surface. p" p'" /D'"] the curves of the efficiencies p. } It is necessary then to successive case. . the propeller efficiency at that speed. Practically though. . p'" will be such that p' max p" max an d p'" max correspond to the three sider. 110). irnD if Now.. . also 2 is seen to be to the power and at first glance.> . irnD with a given machine we wish to have the maxiit is y" 1 mum convenient to select the propeller of such pitch and diameter so as to give the maximum In formula (3). -^=r ^ -^ < irnD (Fig. the speed horizontal speed. y ^. p". it depends upon the form and profile of the is smaller for the wings with very flat . have discussed influence upon and the factors which have and we have seen that p is a function of the ratio y ~r- irnD p as By drawing the diagram a function of . < J . to increase P 2 means adopting an engine of higher power. for instance. maximum value p max after which The value y ~ (to which the value p max . increase of p. D". we may think that for a perconsequently P K centual increase of P 2 the same may be applied as that which has been said for a per cent. corresponds) is directly proportional to the ratio ^y ---7 Let us con- V y" values -.168 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION their efficiency it. The increase of the motive power H P 2 is another means of increasing the speed. diameter D'. is seen to be to the efficiency power. of increase of the efficiency. H increases only by per cent. It is not possible to translate into a formula the relation which exists between P 2 d A and a. we see it that p passes through a decreases. three propellers of V" and of pitch p' r '. this means that for each 1 per cent. Thus the change of P 2 is reflected upon the terms 6 A and a. such that p'/D'<p"/D"< p". consequently of greater weight and different incumbrance.

THE SPEED 169 .

not to ex- . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and which for " For very this reason are usually called "wings for speed. 111). that is. From this point of view it would then be convenient to greatly increase the load per unit of the wing surface -rA. Naturally this convexity is smaller than that of the wing back (Fig. and the sustentation is then due to the excess of negative pressure on the back with respect to that on the bottom. speed it is possible to attain. W But remembering equation (1) we have that V = 100 This expression states that when WwV Vx lw _! -j- is given. F mi . 111. some designers have even adopted wings with convex instead of concave bottoms. / Conse- quently if we wish to keep the value of F min within reasonable limits of safety. of the X max which it is practione corresponding to i = 8 to Then the preceding formula gives the minimum value . We then also have a negative pressure below the bottom.170 aerofoil. fast machines. The decrease of sustaining surface upon the increase of speed. A also has influence FIG. it is necessary not to excessively increase the value of W -r- . Vx to A the minimum is speed at which the airplane can sustain itself directly proportional \A . the value of V is inversely proportional to Let us give X the maximum value cally possible to give (the 10). =100that is.

THE SPEED cessively reduce 171 W of the value of A.7. the value of A.= 200. per sq. Let us remember that = 2 sum KA of all the passive resistances that is. ft. Such machines are difficult to maneuver. . A = 340sq. A. see that while for p = 0. per sq. In order that the reader may have an idea of the influence of the five factors p. the value -T. and <r upon the speed. it is equal to the due to the various parts o.h. For the sake of interest we shall recall that in the Gordon Bennett race of 1913.8. For sport and touring -Tmachines. and a the preceding values. let Suppose p for instance that 2 = 0.8 it is above 136 m. 2. P = 350H. let us 2 .. must be lowered to values of 6 to W 4 and even 3 The Ib. For decreasing To reduce the coefficients of head resistance of the various parts to a minimum.. are the worst gliders. while the .p. and let us see how V varies with a variation of the 5th element. their practical use would have been excessively dangerous. consti- tutes one of the most interesting means (7 of increasing speed.6. giving P A. Then. draw the diagram of the equation = 3 V By making we 155 5 X 340 + 200 (Fig. Practically ft.p. P 2 5.7 to the value 0. To reduce the corresponding major sections to a minimum. that is.7.P. us suppose that for a given airplane any four of the above terms are known..is kept between 6 and 10 per sq. of the airplane. Ib.jo. decrease of o-. vary from the value 0.6 = 0.h.ft. the speed is about 130 m. 5. 112). ft. machines participated with a unit load up to 13 Ib. and naturally require a great mastery in landing.it is then necessary: 1. for p = 0. analogous to the increase of p.

V = f(A). V = /(). always for the constant terms.73 0.172 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION efficiency increases by 4.70 Offc 0. 114. .6 per cent. 115. and V -E CL E 130 0. Analogously the diagram V = /(<r). 112.00 P FIG.74 0.. 113.3 per cent. and 116. have been drawn respectively in Figs. adopting the preceding values and equal to the normal density. by 14. the speed increases = /(P 2 ).76 0. that All the foregoing presupposes the air density constant to the one correis.

FIG. 136 J34 V ><J\ A* 132 131 I3c feo 370 400 P 2 Hp. 113. 173 of water and to the tem- 59F.THE SPEED spending to the pressure of 33. the density of the air decreases as we rise in the atmosphere (see Chapter V). following a logarithas it is Now known mic law given by the equation H = 60720 P X 519 = 60720 log (1) .9 perature of 137 ft.

In Fig. and with a uniform scale on the abscissae. By . t is the Fahrenheit temperature at sea level. the density corresponding to a given height for a given value of the temperature at ground level. and and the V is the ratio between the density at height normal density denned above. 40. giving to t successively various values. 117 these lines are drawn for t = 0. 59 and 80F. 20. is easily found. H Equation (1) can be translated into linear diagrams by using a paper graduated with a logarithmic scale on the ordinates. using these diagrams.174 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Where H is the height in feet. p p^ is the ratio between the pressure at sea level and the pressure at height H.

THE SPEED Then let 175 us again take up the examination of the formula " for speed F = 155X T^7F 200 250 300 350 A 5c( Ft-. 115. and let us place in evidence the influence of the variation of the density on various parameters which appear in it. now this ratio is influenced by the vary. then also variation of the density. The efficiency p is a function of ^: nD . since P varies with a variation of /*. FIG. V and n We have already spoken of the influence of the density .

therefore the diagram f(V) changes completely with a variation of p. where we saw that the ratio between the power at height H and that at ground level is equal to /* \ \ JC cL \ \ \ J3I 130 150 160 170 ISO 190 200 FIG. Let us now consider pPz = . 116.176 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION on the motive power in Chapter V. The is useful power pP 2 given by the engine propeller group thus a function of the air density. In Chapter IX we saw how to draw that diagram when the density is normal. /* = 1. that is.

7 0. but also of and precisely that ratio proportional 25000 A\\ \\ \ VN NX eoooo 15000 AS 10000 \N 5000 0.4 0.8 09 1.10 120 FIG.0 1. In Fig. The ratio fj. to Consequently for each value of /> nee(i s t n a diagram be drawn.5 0.6 0. 89 of Chapter been drawn ona logarithmic scale for the propeller family IX refers. and for the values ^ = .] = <* is not only a function is =. 118 such diagrams have to which Fig.THE SPEED the case of of /* 111 < 1. 117.

119 we have taken up again the /*. to the heights of 0..25. for a temperature of 59 F. 120).0.000 and 28. 0. . drawing it for the precedn. ing values Then by the known grams P P = 2 construction.000 ft. we can draw /* the dia- f(V) for the preceding values of (Fig. The diagram which gives the motive power P 2 as function of the rrSOO number of revolutions is also to be decreased propor- E450 V m . h . FIG. 0.41. 16. p. 0. 118.55. of Fig. 24.178 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 1. corresponding. tional to diagram In Fig. 91 of Chapter IX.000.

THE SPEED r550 ^500 =450 179 HOO ^350 i-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 hO 50 .

180 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

55.47 X 10. or in other words on the power PI necessary to flying.47 XA7 2 = X 10. let us take up again the general equation of flight W= 550Pi 10~ 4 1. P. to simplify the interpretation of the diagram. 120). of the airplane is constant V and equal to 2700 possible according to what has been said also in Chapter IX.THE SPEED In order to 181 make evident the influence of the decrease of the air density on the parameter proper of the airplane. proceeding as follows: Let us consider the diagram A =/(1.47 f or ju X A) = 1 (Fig. consequently the preceding equations become a- W 550Pi that is. the value p ends of these segments. 6.55. parallel to W. From each point of this diagram let ju us draw segments parallel to the scale of and which meas- Let us join the 0.4 M (dA + er) V s remembering what has been said in Chapters VIII and IX _^=A and KKHP = 1.4 (8A + <r) 7 3 and make evident the influence of the air density. intend to demon(1. it is and /*.47A Then considerations analogous to those developed in the preceding chapters enable us to take /* into account by introducing a new scale with a slope of 1/1 on the axis of the abscissae and to pass from the origin to any point whatsoever of the diagram by summing geometrically four seg- ments equal and As the weight lb. We shall have a new diagram A = / = 0. and vary proportionally to ^. ures to this scale. We have seen in Chapter VII that X.47 A) corresponding to /* = We ..4 M XAF 2 1. = = 10.

will individuate These two straight lines will meet in A" and two segments 0' A" and A A" as measure study the flight at =/ ft.55 a parallel to the scale 2700 and = Then it will 0' corresponding to 2700 Ib.000 of the corresponding power and speed. In fact let us call A'" the meeting strate that point of the straight line A A of ju. we shall have in A' and A" respectively a pair of corresponding values of speed V of power PI for /* = 0.47A) for fA = 0. a height of 16. For the lower altitudes of the corresponding it is possible to draw the diagrams speeds (Fig.47 A) drawn. We then dispose. by adopting the same scales as said above.000 grams define the maximum value of the speed which the 0. extreme point of the segment A A"' corresponding to the value /* = 0.55. 0.182 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION if from any point whatsoever A of this diagram we draw a parallel to the scales of V and P. 16. which give the values of Pi and pP 2 corresponding to M = 1. maximum and minimum exclusively upon the airplane. The diagrams corresponding to the This means that for height of 28.000 ft.55. in Fig.41 and /* = 0.000 ft. do not intersect.. it is possible to use the diagram A (1.35.55. on the original diagram. and 28. for the heights of 0. the Let us suppose 0. have been drawn. '" drawn parallel to the scale By now construction A A"' for is equal to 0. that is at the height of 16. From the examination of . the airplane of our case the flight would not be possible at this height. if we wish to Thus. = 0"A'.41 airplane can reach with that given engine-propeller group at the various heights. Based upon analogous considerations the diagrams A = /(1. The meeting points of these dia24.000.55.000 ft.35. 120 of four pairs of diagrams. as A A" and 0. that we wish to find corresponding pairs of values /* V and PI W = be sufficient to draw from a parallel to the scale of power and from A. of speed. Let us note immediately that while the maximum speeds depend essentially upon the engine-propeller group and consequently can be varied with a variation of the characteristic of this group the minimum speeds depend 121). that is.

It is interesting to study the case (merely theoretical at the present stage of the technique of the engines) in which 175 150 125 Vmin 100 75 50 1.25 8 8 8 FIG. Let us suppose that this characteristic be the one of We can then draw by the usual construction the Fig. 121. it is then necis essary to extend the characteristics of the engine above 2200 revolutions per minute.0 0. We shall see immediately that in Ihis case the propeller will greatly increase the number of revolutions.75 0. H(t -59) the motive power not effected by the variation of the air density but keeps constant at the various heights.THE SPEED 183 the diagrams of Fig. 122.50 0. 120 we see that as we raise in the atmosphere the maximum speed which the airplane can reach diminishes gradually while the minimum flying speed increases accordingly. .

.184 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION fc. FIG. 122.

THE SPEED 185 .

We see how these . in which has been drawn only part of the diagrams containing the intersections which define the maximum speeds. 123. pairs of corresponding diagram.186 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION which give PI and pP 2 . This has been done in Fig.

000 ft.. The utmost we can suppose is that the power is kept constant for instance up to 12.000 ft.m. the speed remains about constant.h.p.000 ft. 28.THE SPEED speeds vary. Based on this hypothesis we have drawn the diagram likely hypothesis. Thus we also find that the ft.m.p.. furthermore after 12.h.p. 124 for the values M = 1.m. without risking or breaking it to pieces.000 ft. For our example we find that the speed at 28.64.000 ft. of Fig. 0.p. 0. If we could build propellers with diameter and pitch variable in flight. if the engine is designed for a maximum speed of say 1800 r.00.m. is equal to 265 m. . we shall suppose that the power is kept constant up to 12. and for greater altitudes. because the problem of propeller is one of the most serious obstacles to be overcome for the study of the devices which make it possible to feed the engine with air at normal pressure at least up to a certain altitude. and then decreases following the usual law of proportionality. is number of revolutions of the propeller at 2450 r.55. while at sea level it was 160 m. 0. the operation of the engine-propeller see then that as We we raise.000 Let us note first of all that in practice it would not be possible to run the engine at 2450 r.p. at sea level. group would be greatly improved and a great step would be made toward the solution of the aviation engine for high altitudes. as they increase and sible 187 how flight becomes poseven at 28. In second place we shall note that it would be practically impossible to build an engine or a special device such as to of keep the same power at any height whatsoever. after which it will natuIn order to make a more rally begin to decrease again.p. 0.41. against 1500 r.35 the speed increases but much less than in the preceding case.

of the climbing PI is maximum. and we have seen that the climbing speed pressed in feet per second). in the second place 2 P necessary that the propeller be selected so as to give 188 . 125. then first of that the airplane be built so that the mininecessary value of PI be the lowest possible. is v (ex- given 2 by 550 pP -Pi W pi.CHAPTER XIV THE CLIMBING seen that the climbing speed can be easily calculated as a function of V. the maximum value # max speed.f(y) FIG. = Thus if 2 550 (pP W . when the' power necesp X P 2 furnished by the propeller and the power PI for the sustentation of the airplane at that speed. Let us suppose that the power mum it is be given. we wish to increase sary to make the value (pP 2 all it is the climbing speed it is necesPi) max the maximum possible. are sary In Chapter IX we have known. obtained when the difference pP 2 is of interest to us . Pi) max. Practically.

55. maximum pP 2 difference PI. and then = /(/*) Referring to what has been said in the preceding Chapwhen the characteristics of the airplane for /* = 1 are known. to each one of which corresponds two special values for the maximum horizontal and climbing Naturally the selection of the propeller will according to whether preference is given to the horizontal speed or to the climbing speed. be made speed.0. 0. call ju Let us. it is pairs of curves corresponding to the easy to plot the diagram which gives . shows how this can be accomplished. At sea level ju = 1 and the maximum climbing speed is the one given by formula (1). it is possible to adopt an entire series of propellers on a machine. While the propeller p' is better for speed than p". Thus. as before. 0. the climbing of an airplane in the atmosphere. 125 of p/P is decidedly better for climbing. practically. the value n decreases (1) should be written *>max. 120 of the preceding chapter w*e have drawn these curves for the example of Chapter IX. 126. it is easy to draw for different values of /*.THE CLIMBING the 189 efficiency. the ratio between the air density at height H. M and for values of = 1. Comparing the same value of /*. As the formula airplane rises. not at the maximum speed of the but at lower speeds. these curves are reproduced in Fig. the curves ter P P =/(F)andP =/(7) 2 1 In Fig. the propeller which corresponds to the lower value Fig. the diagrams p' and p" correspond to two propellers having different ratio p/D. in order to increase the airplane. In order to study in full details.41 For convenience. and at sea level. it is necessary to study the influence the decrease of the air density has upon the climbing speeds.

190 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

which is easily obtained. giving the time spent by the airplane in reaching a certain height H. per sec. To construct this diagram it is necessary first of all to draw the diagram of the equation I = /(#) Fig.THE CLIMBING the climbing speed at the various heights. taking v max as abscissae 127 we and H It is interesting to draw the diagram t = f(H) 24000 20000 I6UOO 12000 8000 4000 10 "V 20 30 4O (max) ft. this diagram. v from = f(H) . In Fig. 127. 191 have drawn as ordinates. FIG. 128a.

128.30 -|t> 0.20 0.192 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0.40 0. .10 6000 12000 IQOOO 24000 1500 1000 500 6000 12000 15000 24000 H(Ft) FIG.

it gives the times on the abscissae and the heights the airplane practically the on the ordinates. b.THE CLIMBING 1 193 By integrating = f(H) we have t = f(H). (Fig. = f(H) v gives t. that of also tends and consequently that to say. In Fig. This chart gives the diagram directly means H=f(f) that is. that the airplane has reached its ceiling. it no longer rises. airplane said then. It is advisable to stop a little longer in studying the influence the various elements of the airplane have upon the ceiling* . In Fig. Since by increasing H is the value } tends toward of . In fact the elementary area of the diagram equal to 1 = f(H) is X dH dH v but consequently 1 v X dH = dt and '- (Jv that is. X dH = t the integration of diagram a. would take an ceiling is* Since to reach its ceiling. per minute. 129 an example of a barographic chart has been given. 128 we have drawn the scales of H f or t = t 59. infinitely long time. 128 6). usually defined as the height at which the ascending speed becomes less than 100 ft. toward <. That when the It is reaches a certain height. In actual practice the time of climbing is measured by of a registering barograph.tends toward zero.

194 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION -LH9I3H .

p /*. Supposing that we adopt a propeller best for climbing. Now 5. we can. it will correspond which makes the second term 267 X10.THE CLIMBING Let us again consider the formula v 195 = 550 X pP 2 -P W let us place in evidence the influence of /* on the difference pP 2 Pi.4 (SA + er)7 3 W thus eliminating = 10. one which gives the maximum efficiency correspond- and ing to the maximum ascending speed. can Be represented by MPP 2 As for Pi. 550Pi but = 1. since Pi the useful power available.4 XA7 2 V from the two preceding equations Pi = 267 X 10-' (SA + to ) X /*.3 of the preceding equation equal to zero.47 X 10. that is. Vj and X are proportional P! therefore = 267 X 10. is reached when v = 0.3 =: (5A and we can then write Since the ceiling to value //. with sufficient practical approximation. assume varies proportionally to constant.8 (/*SA + + M<r = 267 X 10. then. TF* That is *"*' xZ .

and with H . We then have five well-determined physical quantities which influence the value max As an example. 60.720 log gA+ ^ H where P W pr A. = 60.720 log We "can 1. W Equation (1) can also be put into the following form: " ffma*. a proceeding analogous to that adopted for the study of horizontal speed. P 2 and \A increases the ceiling of the airplane and vice versa. we shall study the influence of this variation upon H l .196 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Remembering that H the = . and similarly increases the ceiling and vice versa. a. 2. and then. X = = propeller efficiency lift coefficient of lifted per wing surface horsepower square foot of wing = = weight total resistance per surface. making them variable one by one. Every increase of p.720 log M maximum value #max = of ceiling will be # ma.720 X log 1 tf _= 60. we shall give to these parameters a series of values. W A T- = load per square foot of wing surface. Every -decrease of dA. that is 60. then enunciate the following general principles: .

7 078 0.74 0. X = 22 = dA 6 Ib.THE CLIMBING Let us suppose for instance that 197 ^ f* W A.3lx I. W p = 0.P. per sq.7Z 0.= 1pj22. . 35000 Hmax.I3x3.0x24l 3. 130.80 FIG.2 + = = 6 Ib.8.ft. 1.3L 1 34000 33000 0. per H.

from 6 to 14 per H.41 3.P.8 from 10 to 22 (Fig. K. 130) (Fig. 131.31 FIG. s.3k 1.7 to 0. = = /(P) for p variable jf(X) for X variable x .198 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION it is easy to draw the following diagrams on a paper the logarithmic graduation on the axis of the abhaving scissae OX. = /((W\ pT (Fig'. 131) Ib. ) for p' W variable from 0.8x2. and the normal graduation on the axis OY: Then Hmax= 0. 132) .13x3.

of the three elements which are always known in an We H . 133) H = /W\ f( ~A I ^ or ~A W va ^e from 6 to 9 Ib. per sq. . how. Pi and A maK gives that is. with sufficient practical approximation. ft. for the greatest . airplane. 134) w 132. In fact the values of p and X max . (Fig.THE CLIMBING 6 199 0- A for ] XA + A variable from 1. wish to show now.8 (Fig. it is possible to reduce the formula which to become solely a function of W.2 to 1.

31* 60900!og (8^ x 3. Let us furthermore remember that the head resistance 8 and sustaining force Rx are expressed by = 10~ 4 XAF 2 .200 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION parts of the airplanes are values differing but little from each other and which can be considered with sufficient approximation equal to P = 0. 133.75 - X = - 16 1 J H max= Man r8* 22 0x2 41 [ 3.31 A FIG.

THE CLIMBING and consequently ! 201 8A + \ 27000 V 25000 6.0 6. Assuming we have = 0. Now. value shall of -~ is between 0.15. the minimum 0.5 70 75 8.5 9. T-> in a well-constructed airplane.0 8.15 .0 _W_ FIG.18. 134.15 and 0.

135. W/P2 FIG. Then formula (2) becomes - H ^ x -. 60.202 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for X and = 16 dA = 2.720. log fin 790 i 75 ^ X 16 X 10+ 2 .4 Hmax 24000 : 2ZOOO ZOOOO 16000 14000 12000 \ sooo \ 6000 4000 2000 8 9 10 II 12 13> 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .

= 60. . with sufficient practical approximation when the weight.720 log 17 65 ' /W\* (A) Based on this formula. of the airplane are power and sustaining surface known. we have plotted the diagrams of find H max rapidly and Fig.THE CLIMBING that is 203 H^. 135 which makes it possible to .

single seater scout planes. the continuous increase of the dimensions of airplanes and of the power of From the small units of 30 engines. with which aviation started. incompatible with too high horizontal and climbing speeds. and more. We then find military machines. leaving as just ended.P. 136).CHAPTER XV GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS In studying the history of aviation.P. is decidedly marked. we have to-day attained engines which develop 600 H. has it gave a secondary the research of great loads and great cruising radii. that is the progress of aviation engines in 9 years (Fig. to 40 H. 204 . can barely carry a total load of 600 Ib. It is interesting to transfer to 'a diagram the history of the increase of the power of the engines from 1909 to the end of 1918. that with 300 H.P. while problems of aviation. The great war which has demanded great impulse to many that the high power available should be almost exclusively employed in raising the horizontal and ascending speeds under the urgency of military needs.

the great future of mercantile aviation. Let us start with the examination of the problem of useful load. It is necessary that the hundreds of j is carrying a load such as to make these crossings commercial. To-day then. To be able traverse great distances of land and sea with safety. each one having proper characteristics. and two seater machines that with 400 H. the vital problems of aviation are: the increase of the useful load j and the increase of the cruising. radius. Let us call load. this is only partially true. its entrance among the practical means j of locomotion. think that the two problems coincide. since U W the weight of the airplane and U the useful a fraction of W we can write is U = uW where u is naturally less than 1. and more can barely carry a total useful load of 1300 Ib. Now certainly it is not by carrying some hundred pounds of useful load and by having the possibility of covering two or three hundred miles without stopping.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 205 (including pilot. which is . gasoline and armament). as it will better be seen in the following At first glance one may part of this chapter. and to pounds become respectively thousands.00267 WV ^ ^ 2 we can also write U = That equation shows that load it is in order to increase the useful 7* necessary to increase u. that the airplane will j I be able to make miles. the ratio y.P. Remembering airplane the expression of total efficiency of the r = 0. coefficient and P 2- (a) The u = gives the per cent.

let us suppose that the weight be different for both. that is. the machine having less weight of structure is better calculated and designed than the other. and in that case the airplane having a lesser weight of structure. Let us consider two airplanes having equal dimensions and forms.W + eW + a W 2 and subtracting member from member Ui u2 = a2 ai That that less. can have the same factor of safety. if the airplanes are studied with the same criterions and calculated with the same method. and the useful loads instead be Then we. W respectively Let us further suppose that the engine be the same for both airplanes. if if u\ > u%. and if this is under the given it is limits. the weight of its structure will instead be Now the weight of the structures. we will have W W = u. and vice versa. shall have and equal to U\ and C7 2 . The effort of the designer must therefore be to find the maximum possible value of coefficient u. the weights of the airplanes properly speaking considered without engine and without useful load. Therefore. It may also happen that two machines having different weights of structure. \ shall have a 2 > ai. calling o'i X W ture. and in that case. assigning a given value to the .W = u W 2 + eW + a. undesirable to increase the value of u = ^ by diminishing the solidity of a machine.206 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION represented by the useful load with respect to the total weight of the airplane. is to say is. the useful load of the first machine is greater than W that of the second. also has a smaller factor of safety. the weights of the structhen. evidently characterize the solidity of the machine. and that its weight be equal to e X W] and a 2 X W. it may become dangerous to use it.

3 (which we have with the minimum minimum for the fastest machines. therefore u diminishes. In modern airplanes. to the value of 0. KQ FIG. of the value u. the forms and the various parts which permit obtaining this with quantity of material. is and In Chapter XII. . the coeffiweight. with a consequent reduction 2. be greater than that necessary for the slow ones.45 for slow machines.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS factor of safety dispositions of coefficient 207 and seeking the materials. we studied coefficient r and saw that was a function it Let us now study ratio y and find in the maximum value to be put in the formula of useful load. that is. The low value two causes: 1. of V. 137. there- 40 6O V 80'Vo V-- IOO V. fore the value of coefficient a in the fast machines is greater than in the slow ones. the importance of coefficient e increases. as for instance the military scouts). of u for the fastest machines depends upon The must factor of safety. That (b) it to say. A fast machine having the same power. cient u varies from the minimum value 0. necessary for very fast machines. must be lighter (see the than a slow machine formula of total efficiency).

ticular = example. This. 137 shows the diagram r The Fig. however. in general. From origin let us draw any secant whatever to the diagram. The value y- must be inversely proportional to the height In fact the equation r T to be reached. Then evidently r' =-.208 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION f(V) already given in diagram refers to a par- Fig. 109 of that chapter. its development. will be cut in two points A' and A"-. naturally one would choose only the values of speed 7'. which are greater. and V" exist. then necessary to choose a lower value of y- and corresponding to a speed Vi>V . draw tangent t from to point A of the diagram. Practically it is not possible to adopt the A* maximum value y-> as the airplane would be tangent. = 0. To =r = tana max .00267 2LL WV r* states that ^ y is proportional to ^-is W mum height H max a function of - a function of W *2 Now as the maxiit is p-> consequently also . and could thereit is fore scarcely sustain itself. rewhich individual- equal values of ratio y . r" == tana T Since we seek the r maximum in order to have value of y> two values and V it such that their ratios will be the will suffice to maximum origin possible. enables making some considerations of general character. y o Therefore infinite pairs of speeds spectively greater and smaller than T ize V V . let us call r' and V" the values of and r" the values of efficiency and V speeds corresponding to these points.

to demonstrate the impossibility of an its indefinite increase in the dimensions of the airplane. proportional sions. Then. sustained by some technical men. it is necessary that they have a similar value for the unit load of the sustaining surface -r W . constant. then aW = but a'A H W r A.00267 WV ^~ f\ . and of for the speed. therefore A is proportional to W and consequently we may write aW = a"W* . having the same coefficient of safety. as r = 0. The reasoning is the following: Consider a family of airplanes geometrically similar. In order that this be so. as it can be easily demonstrated by virtue noted principles in the science of constructions. naturally arises. will be proportional to P 2 the total weight of the airplane with a full load will be proportional to the power of the engine W W The weight is = pP 2 of airplanes geometricto the cube of the linear dimenally similar.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS (c) 209 We treat finally the problems - which relate to the increase of power P 2 The increase of motive of power has the natural consequence immediately increasing the dimensions of the airplane. and as that is r and V are constant. Let us furthermore suppose that the airplanes have the same total efficiency r. which is equivalent to the cube of the square root of of structure a X W the sustaining surface. "up to what limit is it possible to increase the dimensions of the airplane ?" First of all it is necessary to confute a reasoning false in The question premises and therefore in its conclusions.

000 lb. as the dimenincrease step by step. until coefficient sions of the machine which satisfies the u becomes zero for that value of W W equation 1 - e - a" y"W = that is TF-'A^V V / a. that is.210 that is AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a = a"W y ' Since the weight of the motor group tional to the power P 2 ." Thus the engine. = fe^V= 35. it is not at all airplanes be geometrically similar. that the In fact. = P so e xW =-W P = constant a -f -. useful load barely be capable of raising becomes zero and the airplane would its own dead weight and the a" So for example supposing e = 0.e that is e Then as u + 1 e = 1 we will have u = and - this formula states that the value of coefficient u diminishes step by step as increases. . . all the preceding reasoning has no practical foundabecause it is based on a false premise.25 = 0.004 we shall have ^ Now tion. that is. e X W is propor- e X W = e' XP 2 but p.

Now by distributing the masses respectively on the wing surface. that is. Nature has solved the problem of flying in various ways. the preceding demonstrates that to enlarge an airplane in georeasoning metrical ratio would be an error. from the bee to the dragon fly. on the contrary. from the sparrow to the eagle.. it should not be difficult for man. from the fly to the butterfly. For example. It may be protested that flying animals have weights far lower than those of airplanes. in flight must be considered as a beam subject to stresses uniformly distributed represented by the air reaction. there will be the possibility of obtaining the same factor of safety by greatly diminishing the dead weight of the structure. one of the criterions which should be of actual technical means followed in large aeronautical constructions is that of disThe wing surface of an airplane tributing the masses. we will understand that if nature has been able to solve the problem of flying within such vast his limits. solution. to create new structures and new dispositions of masses such as to make possible the construction of airplanes with dimensions far greater than the present average machines. For example. that alongside of insects weighing one ten thousandth of a pound. we obtain the same effect as for instance in a girder or bridge when we increase the supports. owing to knowledge. Another criterion which will is aeronautical constructions. in such a way wing spans. The multiplane field of research. dispositions also offer another very vast As we see.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS necessary that 211 it be so. probably prevail in large the disposition of the wing suras to avert the excessive faces in tandem. there are birds weighing 15 lb. and to concentrated forces represented by the various weights. so it is the scientist has numerous openings for the permissible to assume that with the in- . we find wing structures entirely different in order to obtain the maximum strength and elasticity with the minimum weight. but if we recall.

increasing the .212 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION crease of the airplane dimensions not only may it be possible to maintain constant the coefficient of proportionality Thus with the increase of it smaller. and let us call dW its variation in time dt. can cover. W W If P is the power of the engine and oil c its specific con- sumption (pounds of gasoline and consumption in time dt will be cPdt per horsepower).00267 . it varies from its maximum initial value Wi to a final value fy which is equal to the difference between Wi and the total quantity of gasoline and oil consumed. Concluding. and motive power. (6) T so as to increase the value of ratio y corresponding to the normal speed V. (c) Finally. we may say that the increase of useful load can be obtained in three ways u but even to make power we shall : (a) Perfecting the constructive technique of the airplane and of the engine. W . Let us consider the variable weight at the instant t. and let us propose to find a formula airplane which shows the elements having influence upon $ max The total weight of the airplane is not maintained constant during the flight because of the gasoline and oil consumption. be able to notably increase the useful load. reducing the percentage of passive resistance and increasing the wing efficiency and the propeller efficiency. Let us now pass to the problem of increasing the cruising Let us call AS max the maximum distance an radius. that is reducing the percentage of dead weights in order to increase u. we shall have dW = From cPdt (1) the formula of total efficiency we have P = 0. Perfecting the aerodynamical technique of the machine. the and since that of weight in the consumption is exactly equal to the decrease time dt.

can. we have already seen that it is a function of V. log e W f = - 0. = - 0. then the total efficiency will be r consumption of the engine. we shall now see that it is also a function of W. and c - W = W f for S = S we shall have. it would also vary Supposing now that a law which cannot be expressed by a certain P. 0. In fact. be considered constant for specific = 0.00267 T S max + log e that is . following simple mathematical equation. however.00267cTF r dt dS ~ dt .00267 'cdS J with sufficient the entire duration of the voyage. it will then also vary ratio W r. Thus the preceding integration becomes very simple. to make value r about constant and equal to the maximum possible value. W and p- consequently Practically. it is convenient. In fact.00267c r TF and integrating The value of c. approximation. Regarding r. as W= Wi for S = 0.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS then substituting that value in (1) 213 dW = and since 0. We can also consider an average constant value for r. let us suppose that we have assigned a certain value Vi to F. by regulating the motive power and therefore the speed.002677! W ~= const X W ~ is made variable.

2 1.214 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION of and introducing the decimal logarithm instead Napierian r < - the x lo g IP C=0. The cruising : Upon .1 1.43 (i) WL Wf 3600 3200 2600 2400 10 JJ sE 2000 x 1600 (f) 1200 800 400 v// 1. 1.9 2. radius therefore depends upon three factors the total aerodynamical efficiency. 138.0 1.0 "Wf FIG.6 1. This deis linear. that is to an increase of say 10 per pendency say.8 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.

GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS cent.9 2. of 215 aerodynamical efficiency.8 1. x a 2000 E ID 1600 1200 W/// 400 1.2 1. That dependency is inverse. Wi if for we could C=0. equally increases the maximum distance which can be covered by 10 per cent.54 3600 3200 2600 7f 2400 A -t. reduce the specific consumption to half.0 Wf FIG. 139. for example.6 1. Upon the ratio between the total weight of the airplane and this weight diminished by the quantity of gasoline and . 3.5 1. the radius of action would be doubled.3 1. Upon the specific consumption of the engine.7 1.0 1.4 1. thus. 2.

an element which did not even . consequently.60 3200 2800 2400 2000 7 V/ / 1600 / X 1200 500 400 i.2 1. We see.865 -3600 log C=0. That ratio depends essentially upon the construction of the airplane.3 1.o 1. 140. that is.9 2.4 1.5 1. that the essential difference between the formula of the useful load and that of the cruising radius is in the fact^that in the latter the total specific con- usmption of the engine.8 1.0 WL FIG.7 1.216 oil AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the airplane can carry. S max .6 1. upon the ratio between the dead weights and the useful load.

P.60 to 0. A decrease from 0.P.60. The use of the diagrams is most simple. has been supposed that c = 0.48 would lead. their low weight per horsepower (2 Ib.Wi Before closing this chapter. while gasoline engines have been constructed (for dirigibles). per H. intervenes and has a great importance. 140 c have a normal scale on the ordinates and a diagrams In Fig. c and ^-. In Table 6 the following elements are found: Wi = weight of the airplane with full load.P. for scouting. 138. = weight of the empty machine with crew and f instruments necessary for navigation. W f . per H.P. Starting from formula (1) grams of Figs. we have constructed the diaand 140 which give the values of 139 $max. hour. are known. 138 logarithmic scale on the abscissae. consists of gasoline and oil. by what we have seen above.60 per H.48 Ib.GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 217 appear in the other formula. day bombardment. almost all modern aviation engines leave much to be desired. it is interesting to examine as table resuming the characteristics of the best types of military airplanes adopted in the recent war. per H. From that point of view. to an increase in the cruising radius of 25 total The per cent. and even less). = 0.54 and in Fig. hour. and permits rapidly of finding the radius of action of an airplane when r. in fact they are enormously strained in their functioning and consequently their thermal efficiency is lowered. as a function of it W- -^ for the different values of r and c.56 to 0.47 Ib. reconnaissance.= ratio between initial weight and all final weight. . consumption per horsepower in gasoline and oil. com- prising military loads. which only consume 0. W ^~ W. We shall suppose therefore that the useful load. for modern engines is about 0. The hour. is obtained at a loss of efficiency. 139 c = 0. in Fig. and for night bombard- ment.

00267 V is -jr^pr the the total efficiency corre- sponding to V. -==^ W- respectively. A.00267= W W . S and S' = corresponding to Fmax . V V ^X - is efficiency cor- responding to r' 7max 0.. maximum ascending speed averaged from ft.75 X 550 is the power absorbed in horsepower to obtain the ascending speed umax . r'. ^max. supposing an allowance of is W' f = W +M f (W^ .^j- _ -- is the horizontal speed of the airplane for which ' we have the maximum the total ascending speed max. W p = = = load per unit of the wing surface. engine. = = the gain in distance covered. ground W p> _ _ V level to 10.= 1 weight per horsepower.218 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION -p P = maximum power of the W. supposing a propeller efficiency equal to 0.W<) the new value of the final weight. of the gain in weight is supposing that to reinforce the airplane so as to have the same necessary ^ factor of safety.r> maximum W- distances covered in miles ^ and 85 V.60..75. supposing Of ~- c = 0. p/ ip = Vmax .* r = 0. W'i plane 375 X r' X ' P is yf the total weight the air- speed excess power of 15 per cent. can lift at V . flying at speed V instead of V. ^max. r = the new ratio between the new initial weight . the the - maximum horizontal speed of the airplane.000 X v 0.

GREAT LOADS AND LONG FLIGHTS 219 .

of 1 The examination deductions: 1. than for the heavier types. quick airgain planes. Table 7 enables making the following of Whatever be the type machine it is fly at a reduced speed 7'. final weight. they The if their enormous excess of power could be renounced. -p-^ new load per horsepower. o// way little convenient to the cruising as to useful All war airplanes are utilized very load and consequently as to cruising radius. because in that radius increases. as for instance the scout machines. to S" = the maximum distance covered corresponding W- ^ and to r '. is naturally stronger for the more light. the the new load per unit of wing surface. .220 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION and the new W= ^ w= A. As column could have a radius of action far superior pTo shows. 2.

In that case the .PART FOUR DESIGN OF THE AIRPLANE CHAPTER XVI MATERIALS The most varied. for aviation materials used in the construction of an airplane are The more or less suitable quality of material can be estimated by the knowledge of three elements: specific weight. The higher the coefficients AI and A z the more suitable . measures the length in inches which a wire (also of constant section) of the material should have in order that its weight be under the action of capable of producing an elongation of 100 per cent. A 2 instead. a wire of constant section of a certain material should have in order to break its own weight. AI measures the linear length in inches which. Knowing coefficients these elements it is possible to calculate the ultimate strength in pounds per square inch specific weight in pounds per cubic inch and _ modulus The a coefficients of elasticity in pounds per square inch specific weight in pounds per cubic inch A\ and A z are not plain numbers. ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity. but have dimension. is a material for aviation. and a very simple physical interpretation can be given to them. 221 . that is. It may be that two materials have equal coefficients AI and A 2 but different specific weights. for instance.

Wood and veneers. steel and their manufactured products. In all of the following tables whenever possible. Various metals. or in order limited. plates. joints. : C. preference will be is given to the material of higher specific weight when space This because of structural reasons.. D. rubbers. B. Steel wires and cables are of enormous use in the construction of the airplane. 141. instead. grouping them into the following broad categories A. IRON. in tinned or leaded sheets for tanks. (fabrics. etc.). in sheets for fittings. glues. FIG. We shall briefly review the principal materials. in rolled form for bolts. Iron. to decrease head resistance. STEEL AND THEIR COMMON FORM AS USED IN AVIATION Iron and steel are employed in various forms and for various uses. of In Table 7 are shown the best characteristics required a given steel according to the use for which it is intended. Tables 8 and 9 give respectively tables of standardized wires and cables. . A. for forged or stamped pieces. we shall give the values of specific weight and coefficients AI and A.222 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION material of lower specific weight is preferable when there are no restrictions as to space. Various materials etc. varnishes.

MATERIALS 223 Ill >^ 4* o n ss d d o o_ g'T <- (N CO TH CO TH ill us o 10 o o * o o d d o o 00 00 Tt< o" o o o o 10 10 10 10 o o o o d odd 10 >0 10 o j I 3 o ^ o d o IO oo d d s d . H H < Alloy Alloy Cold .s O 00 CO 00 3^i in ^00 ilill W < col Ni. ? S S o d d d S3 ss o O O * 10 do oo K.3" S s r-l (N dd ^Milil' O CO l *O (N (N <N (N <M II II O O O O II II II >O (N N * 3'Ssr. Ni. or steel steel drawn X cc .5-.

6 Number of turns = diameter IE inches in dia.224 TABLE 8. WEIGHTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL WIRE English Units METRIC UNITS j-iie may minimum numoer 01 complete turns which a wire must withstand be computed from the formula: 2 7 68. in millimeters . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SIZES. .

depending on the diameter of the wire. 141. 142 shows the section of one of such wires. an easy attachment to make. 225 WEIGHTS. but the wire by reduces. We cables. flexible so that FIG. Their use Fig. It is foreseen though. the total resistance of 20 to 30 per cent. 142. is shall now take up the attachments of The attachment most commonly used It is it wires and for wires. not yet greatly broadened. however. . SIZES AND STRENGTH OF 7 X 19 FLEXIBLE CABLE The formation of cables is shown in Fig. The cable made of 7 strands of 19 wires each. The smaller diameters are extrais they can be used as control wires as they well adapt themselves in pulleys.MATERIALS TABLE 9. that the system will rapidly become has popular. steel streamline wires have been introduced to replace cables. the figure shows how these strands are formed. Recently. especially because their manufacture has until now not become generalized. the so-called "eye" (Fig. 143). in order to obtain a better air penetration.

which made either of stamped (Fig. of the wire resistance. FIG. are becoming of general use. 144). FIG. 143. 100 per cent. made The is best attachment of cables is made by aluminum so-called splicing after bending it around a thimble sheets or of (Fig. 146. 144. . FIG. 147). 146). The soldering is with tin in order to avoid the annealing of the wire.226 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Wires with larger threaded ends (called "tie rods") A very good (Fig. in this way an attachment is obtained which gives FIG. 145). can be obtained by covering the bent wire attachment with brass wire and soldering the whole with tin (Fig. 145.

MATERIALS Steel is 227 also much used cold rolled. 147. either seamless.62d Area FIG. 4 . Tables 11 and 12 give the standard measurements of round tubes with the values of weight in pounds per foot and the values of the polar moment of inertia in in. Table 10 gives the characteristics FIG. in tube form. of the steel of various tube types. or welded. 148. Perimeter = 6.

thus we have three classes of turnbuckles : Double eye end turnbuckle (Fig. the shanks have either eye or fork ends. The best profile (that is. 149c) . penetration) is also and air shows how it Tables 13 and 14 give all the above mentioned values. which is designed to give the necessary tension to strengthening or stiffening wires and cables. greatly used fitting in aeronautical construction is the turnbuckle. the area. and the moments of inertia I x and I y about the two principal axes as function of the smaller diameter d and thickness t.228 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Steel tubing having a special profile formed so as to give a minimum head resistance is also greatly used for interwhich must plane struts as well as for all other parts necessarily be exposed to the relative wind. and furthermore the weight per linear foot for the more commonly used dimensions. the profile which unites the best requisites of mechanical resistance. 149a) Eye and fork end turnbuckle (Fig. meter. lightness is given in Fig. 1496) Double fork end turnbuckle (Fig. 148 which and gives the formulae for obtaining the peridrawn. turnbuckle is made of a central barrel into A A which two shanks are screwed with inverse thread.

8 I . S 5 .MATERIALS 229 t~ mo m CO So o o in ic TJ< o* in o' in o o ^ ooooo TJ< -<f m o m 10 in in ^* ooooo' o "5 o o o o o' o d o 00 ooo o o o 5 ooooo O <0 00 00 00 3 3 OOOOO m m m s oo nm CO CO CO c> >> CO CO o 'is n s m H CO 1-1 7 '1 m N f m m 111 S a 3 S 3 s 3 s 8 * o 00 o ^^ : .

230 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MATERIALS 231 .

232 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MATERIALS 233 .

High resistance bronzes are used for the barrels of turnbuckles. and spruce are especially used.234 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION For turnbuckles as well as for bolts. bronze. radiators. Great attention must be exercised in the selection of the 1 Forest Service. B. yellow poplar. This table has been compiled by the Forest Products Laboratory. African mahogany. red wood. douglas fir. have not become of general because their tempering is very delicate and it is all. etc. either in solid species of extensively used in the construction of the form or in the form of veneer. tables of standard measurements with indications of breaking strength. Wisconsin. sugar maple. Tables 16 and 17 give the characteristics of the principal woods used in aviation. Yellow birch. red gum. although its specific weight is Tempered aluminum use at % C. We call especial attention to the untempered aluminum alloy which. Madison. mahogany (true). are especially used in manufacturing veneers. Aluminum is used rather exclusively to make the cowling which serves to cover the motor. not requiring any treatment. Copper and the relative piping systems. brass. aluminum. alloys. WOODS Wood is airplane. Aluminum can also be used for the tanks. U. that is. has a resistance and an elongation comparable to those of homogeneous that of iron.. and walnut are used especially for manufacturing propellers. easily lost if for any reason the piece is heated above 400F. copper. and brass are generally used for tanks. spruce. VARIOUS METALS Table 15 gives the physical and chemical characteristics of various metals most commonly used. S. silver maple. . l Cherry. For the wing structure. the reader may easily procure from the respective firms. mahogany. yellow poplar. iron. etc. duraluminum.

MATERIALS 235 .

as for instance the beams. it improves them if such seasoning is conducted at a temperature not above 100F. because between one stock of wood and another. they must be free from disease. especially for the long pieces. without knots and burly grain. Furthermore. let us suppose we design the section of a wing beam which has to . otherwise the resistance is decreased. great differences may usually be found. Artificial seasoning does not decrease the physical qualities of wood. but. is done with proper It is very important. PROPERTIES o Strength Values at 15 Per Cent. on the contrary. it is important to select by numerous laboratory tests the quality of the wood to be used. homogeneous. and precautions.236 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 16. and above all they must be thoroughly dry. that the fiber be parallel to the axis of the piece. As an example of the importance which the value of the density of wood has upon the major or minor convenience of its that use in the manufacture of a certain part. Mo timbers for aviation uses.

that is.0197 Ib.000 r For fir. for 237 HARD WOODS in Airplane Use Design resist. . per sq. for and example. with a density of 0. instead. per cu.-inch us suppose that the maximum space which it is possible to occupy with this section is that of a a base equal to 2. for the spruce with a weight per cu.MATERIALS F VARIOUS isture. inch.. We shall make a comparison between the use of spruce and the use of douglas fir. cu.2" and a height equal to rectangle having 2. for which the value of . 0. . in. let coefficient AI is about the same. ft.oe in. of 27 Ib.000 modulus TT7 - Ib. the section of the section will equal r 20. in.000 Ib. we shall have w. Since the maximum bending moment is equal to 20. | - 2 .8".- inch.0156 Ib. Table 17 gives a modu- lus of rupture of 7900 Ib. to a bending moment of 20.

of length..65" 3. in. 3 from which we have = A = For fir 0.8x.8s) (3 - 2x) 2 ] cu. 1800 in. the spruce beam will weigh 4.2" X 2. 2.0197 = 0. while the weight of the fir beams would be 1800 X . Consequently. M Let us call x the thickness of the Making the thickness of the web equal (2.29 X 0.069 Ib. per in... in.37 X 0.238 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 17.9" 4.069 = 124 Ib. in.8 2.2" X (2. in.37 sq. i.064 Ib. that the total length of the beams be 150 ft. 150a). while the fir beam will weigh 3.2 s 0.2 flange (Fig. the weight of the spruce beams would be 1800 X 0. Supposing then for instance.8" 2 -- - - 0. the section modulus and the area of the section will be respectively W = A = y* [2.53 in. to*0.0156 = 0. we shall have analogously = = A x 0.e. PROPERTIES Strength Values at 15 Per Cent..8z) X (3 - 2x) sq.29 sq. For spruce W = x W = 2.

0255 Ib. over the spruce. 1596) x = 0..44 sq. is of interest for the resistance of the piece. Let us suppose that the longeron has a square section of We then have " - 12* x . side x. a gain of 9 Ib. a case in which the piece is loaded only to compression and no limit fixed upon the space allowed its section.. for 239 OF VARIOUS CONIFERS Use in Airplane Design 0. in. that is.48" 2. If = 115 Ib. and a weight per cu. more than 7 per would be obtained. we would have (Fig. this for instance is the case of Then the product E X I (elastic modfuselage longerons. per sq.44 X 0.500 Ib. which has the same coefficient AI as the preceding woods.. that is. but a resistance of 12. we use elm. A = with a weight per inch of 2.0255 = 0.. a weight of 112 Ib.MATERIALS oisture. in.062 and for 1800 in. a gain of about 10 per cent. Let us now examine an inverse case.. of 0. ulus X moment of inertia) . in.064 cent.

ELM call 7\ and 7 2 the moments of inertia which the must have respectively. and suppose that coefficient A 2 be the same for both kinds.240 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Supposing that we have two kinds of wood of modulus EI and E 2 and specific weight Wi and TF 2 respectively. If we wish the piece to have the same resistance in both cases then Let us section . according as to whether it is made of one or the other quality of wood. 150. that is EI Ez FT' W* DOU6LAS FIR FIG.

specific weight. Thus. its structure is of longitudinal fibers so that its mechanical qualities change radically according to whether the direction of the fiber or the direction perpendicular to the fiber is considered. parallel and perpendicular to the fiber. consider the veneers. Wood is not. Vice versa. exactly to obtain a material which is nearly homogeneous in two directions. therefore it is convenient to use the material of smaller is. disposed so that the fibers . for shear stresses we have the reverse phenomenon. which have become of very great importance in the construction of airplanes. the resistance to shearing in a direc- tion perpendicular to th. of course.^-Xt* i from which W The weights per and l xS = 2 W 2 x^ (1) linear inch evidently will be in both cases W their ratio l X zi and TF 2 X x2 2 w will be W But from (1) 2 X Wi X xS = ~ 2 W consequently 2 X z2 that the piece having the greater section will weigh less.e fiber is much greater than in a Now the aim in using veneer parallel direction to the fiber.MATERIALS that is 241 AiWi i - xS = A 2 W. that is. as Let us now for instance. the resistance to tension parallel to the can be as much as 20 times that perpendicular to the fiber. Veneer is made by glueing together three or a greater is odd number of thin plies of wood. a metal from the foundry would be. homogeneous in all directions. for instance. and the elastic modulus can be from 15 to 20 times fiber higher.

have the greatest possible homogeneity in both it is advisable to increase the number directions. we see. If we wish to FIG. so that the finished panels may have from 10 to 15 per cent. but they must also satisfy the condition of not being too soft. Light material would also be convenient for the faces. odd and that the external plies or faces ber have the same thickness and be of the same quality of wood. of Considerations analogous to those given for the density wood. wishing to attain a it is better resistance in bending. of preferable to use plies fact. this also makes the joining more easy by means of screws or nails. of humidity. In Tables 18 and 19 we have gathered some of the tests . that is. 151). in order to withstand the wear due to external causes. It is advisable to control the humidity of the plies during the manufacturing process. the thickness of the panels will be inversely proportional to the density. therefore. portional the great advantage of having the. core made of light thick material. low density for the In and consequently the resistance to column loads are proto the cube of the thickness. the weight being the same. giving perfect symmetrical deformations. because the veneer offers a much better hold. lead to the conclusion that. so that they may all be influenced in the same way by humidity.242 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION It is necessary that the numcross each other (Fig. core. thus avoiding the deformation of the veneer as a whole. 151. but the moment of inertia. of plies to the ut- most. decreasing their thickness. of plies be.

MATERIALS 243 2 3 4* sq.(MOOl>(MOOI>i-T O5OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO of r-T c<r co" r-T c<T i-T r-T r-T .2 3 C5OC50000COO5rHOOOOOC500OOOO 111] O OQ L- oooooooooooooooo .2 oo oooooooooooooo COCO COQOCOCOT^cOCDCOiO i O PH 03 -tJ 02 la ft Ii a.2 l>C^t^>OOOO<Ni-(I>. 1000 per h J 4? I! 2& ail &a| Ill |p .-T 3* c^ r-T i-T r-T of 00000 .

s ^ '' -- .5 O" ^0 ! II oooooooooooooooo .244 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION gjrl H bfi <5 8 'o l W 005OO5 "tfCOCO CD O -CO^ -OS -Oi-i <MOO^til>O500 * si J 3-1 ooooo T-H 1 1 ooooo oocOTf ooo ooooooooo lOCOt^-COOT^O IS 1 0000000 0000000 .

MATERIALS TABLE 20. 245 HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .

" the veneers all three plies of the same thickness and the grain of successive plies was at right to which these tests refer were angles. Perkins' glue was used thicknesses of plies. 109 Forest Product Laboratory. Eight %" were tested..246 TABLE 21. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. from Mo" to throughout. Grand Rapids. Corp. Michigan. made at the " All material was rotary cut. In Tables 20 to 29 are quoted the characteristics of three-ply panels of the Haskelite Mfg. .

though sometimes of silk. Fabrics used for covering airplane wings are generally of linen or cotton. 247 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. The fabric is characterized by its resistance to tension and . this easily understood we consider the low density of spruce.MATERIALS TABLE 22. 109 One of the best veneers for aviation is is one obtained with if spruce plies. D. VARIOUS MATERIALS (a) Fabrics.

109 . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories PANELS Report No.248 TABLE 23.

109 . 249 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.MATERIALS TABLE 24.

109 . AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOE THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.250 TABLE 25.

251 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOB THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No. 109 .MATERIALS TABLE 26.

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories THREE-PLY PANELS Report No. 109 .252 TABLE 27.

MATERIALS TABLE 28. 109 . 253 PANELS HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION HASKELITE DESIGNING TABLE FOR THREE-PLY PANELS NOT SANDED Haskelite Research Laboratories Report No.254 TABLE 29. 109 .

MATERIALS OCO OOT-H 10 255 >!fc 00 OCO i 1 (N rH !>COCOt>-COtO iO I O CO <M T O} J J 00 00 00 CO O (N 00 CO O i-H 00 t <MCO O O Tt<l^OOO(Nl> O O CO 00 <N (N & 00 CO 00 CO OO I> <N 00 !> !> (N iO (N O 00 O O O O <N O O O O O O CO CO (N iO iO O O T-l 00 <N 00 !> n o3 mj3 So THOO l> (NrH CO eq o O o O '-i (M OCOCO(N ^^HC^C^ oooo OOCN-^Tti OOOO O O O O i-HCOCOO pq Q pq I d g C I I Mi o o o o ri "3 13 'o 'o d c c <t I fl fl I JJJJ pq i-HC<l CO OCOt>OOO5O .

to tearing. and weight. in fact the fabric on the wings is so disposed that the threads are at 45 to the ribs. the excess of resistance in the other direction resulting only in a useless weight. Fabric must be homogeneous and the difference between the resistance in warp and woof should not exceed 10 per FIG. the minor resistance should be taken as a basis. Both the inner and outer braids are wrapped over and under with three cord is or four threads. per square yard. made of a The rubber strands are square and are compound containing not less than 90 per cent. therefore. both in the direction of the weight Table 30 gives the characteristics of several types of In this table we find for various types the weight fabric. It is made of multiple strands of rubber tightly incased within two layers of cotton braid (Fig.256 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION woof and the warp. cent. We see that silk is the most con- venient material for lightness. For landing gears the so-called elastic universally adopted as a shock absorber. the cost of this material with respect to the gain in weight is so high as to render its use impractical. thus working equally in both directions and having con- sequently the same resistance: in the calculations. 152. . (6) Elastic Cords. of the total resistance. the resistance in pounds per square yard (referring to both woof and warp) and the ratio between the resistance and by its per square foot. 152).

153 and 154 show this clearly. 153 give$ the diagram of work of a mass of rubber strands without cotton wrapping and without initial tension. Z50 300 350 Loadm FIG.035 inch. work that the elastic can absorb.MATERIALS of the best Para rubber. 153. Fig. size of a single 257 strand is The rubber are subjected to strands are covered with cotton while they an initial tension. The diagrams of Figs. The between 0. . in order to increase the Initial Tension = Number of Elementary Si rands* m 550H4 ti*igM'p*rW 6& 350 250 200 150 100 50 100 150 200 Lbs.05 and 0.

scale of elongation into inches. FIG. elastic work absorbed by without initial tension and without 1280 lb. of elongation the of elastic cord cotton wrapping is cord with 127 per cent.-in.. 154 gives the diagram of the same mass of rubber strands with an initial tension of 127 per cent.727 Weight. In general.-in..200 lb. of initial elongation is equal to 20. be the maximum possible. Naturally to do this it is necessary to translate the per cent. 154. that is.258 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Fig. . and with the cotton wrapping. For 150 per 1 Ib. per Yard* Initial K 450 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Loading. that an elongation of 150 per cent. cent. of cord having initial tension and cotton wrapping compare it to that which can be absorbed by 1 Ib. in the second case a work about 16 times greater can be absorbed with the same weight. wrapping. It is then interesting to calculate the elastic and to elastic work which can be absorbed by 1 Ib. Pounds. which is easy when the weight per yard is known. 153 and 154. of cord without initial tension and without cotton 200 Tension* 127% Viameter=053lin Va of Elementary Strand 4.. The work can be easily calculated by measuring the shaded areas in Figs. while that absorbed by This shows the great convenience in using elastic cords with a high initial tension. let us suppose for instance. the elongation is limited for structural rea- sons.

increasing at the same time its resistance. and its resistance by 20 to 30 per cent. it is preferable to give a greater number of coats. In general for linen and cotton fabrics three to four coats of stretching varnish are sufficient. stretching varnishes are generally constituted of a solution of cellulose acetate in volatile solvents without chlorine compounds. into divided u two Varnishes used for airplane fabrics are classes: stretching varnishes (called dope")> and finishing varnishes. of acetate and using more concentrated solutions afterward. The cellulose acetate is usually contained in the proportion of 6 to 10 per cent. the whole varnish being dissolved in turpentine. The finishing varnishes are used on fabric which have already been coated with the stretching varnishes. and will increase the weight of the fabric by 30 per cent. A they good stretching varnish must render the cloth absolutely of oil proof.MATERIALS (c) 259 Varnishes. starting with a solution of 2 to 3 per cent. The finishing varnishes which are applied over the stretching varnishes have the scope of protecting these latter from atmospheric disturbances. and of smoothing the wing surfaces so as to diminish the resist- ance due to friction in the air. These have as base linseed oil with an addition of gum. The former are intended to give the necessary tension to the cloth and to make it waterproof. A good finishing varnish must be completely dry in less than 24 hours. Finally it should be noted that it is essential for the varnish to increase the inflammability of the fabric as little as The use gums must be possible. precisely for this reason the is cellulose nitrate used very seldom. The solvents mixtures must be such as not to alter the fabrics and not The to endanger the health of men who apply the varnish. absolutely excluded because conceal the eventual defects of the cellulose film. . for silk instead. notwithstanding its much lower cost when compared with cellulose acetate. presenting a brilliant surface after the drying.

(d) Glues. Beside having a resistance to shearing superior to that of wood. Glues are greatly used both in manufac- turing propellers and veneers. in. average resistance to .260 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION wash with a resistant to crumpling. There are glues which are applied hot (140F. and able to withstand a solution of laundry soap. a good glue must also resist humidity and heat.). per sq. and those which are applied cold. A good glue should have an shearing of 2400 Ib.

the general criterions do not vary. great climbing power. but the possibility of transporting heavy useful loads and great quantities of gasoline and in order to effectuate long journeys without stops. interesting to develop Rather than exposing the abstract criterions. more or less great cruising radius. there are certain elements on the basis of which it is necessary to imposed conduct the study of the other various elements of the When an design in order to obtain the best possible characteristics. often though. Whatever type is to be designed. us suppose that we wish to study a fast airplane to be used for sport races. it is more summarily in this and the following chapters. munitions. to each design as 261 . it appears. etc. the general outline of a project of a given type of airplane. the type of motor is imposed and that naturally limits the oil.). Airplanes can be divided into two main classes war air: planes and mercantile airplanes. For mercantile airplanes. those qualities are essentially desired which increase their war efficiency. etc. while the speed has the same great importance a high climbing power is not an essential condition. In the former. Usually the designer can select the type of engine from a more or less vast series. possibility of carrying given military loads (arms.CHAPTER XVII PLANNING THE PROJECT airplane is to be designed. bombs. making general remarks which are applicable let In order to fix this idea. good visibility. fields of possibility. on the contrary. assumes a capital importance. as for instance: high speed. facility in installing armament.

call its ft. the load per square foot of wing surface will have to equal 00 of the maximum value X max which it is possible to obtain with the aerofoil under consideration.p. the maximum hourly consumption of the engine. the designer may be the following to construct an airplane having the maximum possible speed and also embodying the following qualities: itself to : The problem which presents 1. A sustaining surface in sq. and C the total specific consumption of the engine in oil and gasoline. 3. beside the gasoline and oil necessary for Capable three hours flight.56 X max that is.3cP . etc.h. when running Let us at full W the total weight in pounds of the airplane W the useful load. which may serve to stimulate the designers The of airplanes as well as of engines efficiency and the research of all those factors towards the increase of which make flight safer.. P the power of the motor in horsepower. Capable of sustentation at the minimum speed of 75 m. imposed that the airplane sustain we must have . for machines intended for races the ultimate factor of safety. A 2.. An engine of which the total consumption in oil and gasoline does not surpass 180 Ib. 5 % The total useful load will equal W u = 180 4. Remembering that in normal flight W since the condition itself for is = 10- 4 XA7 2 V = 75 m. & and 4. the minimum speed..p. per hour at full power. can be imposed. W ~ < 0. of carrying a total useful load of 180 Ib.262 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION future aviation races will certainly be marked by imposed limits. (pilot accessories).h. u load in pounds. For instance. coefficient of ultimate resistance equal to 9.

we will have to select an engine having the minimum specific consumption c. it to the weight of the airplane. V Remembering the imposed condition that cP must not exceed 180 lb. expressing in m. call 263 W W R the weight of the motor including the the weight of the radiator and water. . we can therefore write W Then (1) A = aW pP can be written W that is = 180 + 3cP + + b ^ + aW W = of a type analogous to the Consequently in the outline of the is The machine we must design single-seater fighter.34.p. we can use the coefficients corresponding to that For these. A p W \ the weight of the airplane. by what we have Chapter V. project type.. of the radiator R= As ' V well-studied type safety. Then u \ p I It I A / Calling p the weight of the engine propeller group per horsepower we will have W The weight said in of p = pP and water. for airplanes of a certain and having a given ultimate factor of can be considered proportional to the total weight.h. at the same time the weight p per horsepower must be as small as possible. can be assumed proportional to the power the engine and inversely proportional to the speed. we can take b = 45. in order to have the maximum value of P.PLANNING THE PROJECT Let us propeller. also. the value of a is about 0.

400 V W as a approximation. = 2130 in the first approximation. 159 m. 180 Ibs.h. W 2130 Ibs. 75 m. c = 0.53.p. . Ill and No. is undoubtedly type Then formula p = 2. IV should without doubt be discarded since their hourly consumption is greater than the already imposed. 300 we have _!_ 0. 300 H.00248 ^we can take r WV (4) and that then for a machine making P = of great speed = 2.2.06) = W = V m&x = = ^min. p = 300. first (3) let us re- of total efficiency gives = 0. b = 45. making a becomes = 0. that the principal characteristics of our airplane will be Then V = 159 m.34.h.00248 V and substituting in that is. w 1992 840 -- (3) (1 W 0. Of the other engines the more convenient II for which the value of p is lower. P = .8.P. Consequently we can claim.264 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Let us suppose that four types of engines of the following characteristics are at our disposal: TABLE 31 It is clearly visible that engines No. To determine member that the formula r W = 1992 + 20. (2).h.p.p.

* .75 0.PLANNING THE PROJECT Let us 265 now determine the sustaining surface. where X max is the maximum value it is practical to obtain. we must have . at the same time gives a good efficiency at maximum speed. i 0. Q -3-2-1 I 2 3 4 5 =16 From the aerofoils at our disposition.25 10.5 0. 155.56 X max . Then as X max = 14. let us select one which. Let us suppose that we choose the aerofoil having the characteristics given in the diagram of Fig. We have seen that we must have ~-< 0.4. while permitting the realization of the above condition. 50 10 12.

266 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

668 Ib. 156. Useful Load Pilot Gasoline and oil .PLANNING THE PROJECT For 267 W -j- = 8 and W = 2130 Ib.. Ib. Ib.. 180 477 Ib.'. Ib. 11 Ib. Ib.. We can then compile the approximate table of weights. 251 5. Ib... A = 265 sq. control stick. Ib. 100 26 20 30 25 40 35 Ib. 276 Fuselage Body of fuselage Seat. Ib. Total 2. Let us select a type of biplane wing surface adopting a chord of 65". Ib. Ib. Ib. Cables Ib. and foot bar Gasoline tanks and distributing system Oil tanks and distributing system 155 25 40 6 Ib. Ib. The scheme will be that shown in Fig. Ib. Ib. 660 6 . Engine Propeller Group Dry engine and propeller Exhaust pipes Water in the engine Radiator and water . Ib... 30 125 821 Wing Truss Spars Ribs Horizontal struts and diagonal bracings Fittings and bolts Fabric and varnish Vertical struts Main diagonal bracing Total 4. Cowl and finishing 25 Total Ib. Total 3. Instruments .. ft. Landing Gear Wheels Axle and spindle Struts 32 25 15 4 Total. Ib. Ib. Ib. Ib. Ib. considering the following groups: 1. Ib.. . 76 . Ib..

268 6. That the center of gravity of the whole machine be on . we shall make the length equal adopt the ratio 0.6 to 18 ft. Then with the usual methods of graphic statics we determine separately the centers of that is. the ratio between the wing span and length usuSince we have assumed the ally varies from 0. we shall gravity of the fuselage (with truss.70. we have a certain margin. 8 Ib. 6 Ib. with the exception of the wings and landing gear. and of the landing gear.. of the wing then easy to combine the three drawings so that the following conditions be satisfied: 1.678. In determining the length of the airplane. We can then compile the following approximate table TABLE 32 schematic side view of the machine is then drawn in order to find the center of gravity as a first approximation. wing span equal to 26. 157) shows the various masses.. Total 38 Ib. 21b. It is all the loads).60 to 0. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Controls and Tail Group 12 Ib. 158 and 159. the distance of tail system from the center of gravity. Ailerons Fin Rudder Stabilizer Elevator. these are separately drawn in Figs. For machines of types analogous to those which we are studying. ft.. The side view (Fig. since it is possible to easily increase or A decrease the areas of the stabilizing and control surfaces. 10 Ib. or better.

PLANNING THE PROJECT 269 .

erf Weights". . FIG.0 Pounds.270 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 200 Pounds 100 Scale. 158. 12.

PLANNING THE PROJECT 271 Pounds FIG. 159. .

272 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION spuno<j .

Value a in our case can be taken equal . thus found. That the The superimposing has been made in Fig. not only must be on the vertical line passing by the center of pressure. 2. The ideal condition of equilibrium is that the center of gravity. Then. and elevator. if it falls that its distance from as the conditions of stability This shall be seen in Chapter XXI. if we have a greater margin above the axis of thrust it is advisable it be not greater than 4 or 5 inches instead it falls below the axis of thrust. then necessary to calculate the dimensions of the To do this.5 in. above the propeller axis. 160. rudder.PLANNING THE PROJECT the vertical line passing wings. that is. The center of gravity having been approximately determined we can draw the general outline (Figs. 161. 273 by the center of pressure of the axis of the landing gear be on a straight line passing through the center of gravity and inclined forward by 14. Practically a sufficient approximation is reached by coninstead of the moment of inertia. it falls 2. 162 at the maximum. whatever about the center of gravity (that surface the product of by the distance of center of thrust from the center of gravity) we shall have a M = X W 2 y- Value a can be assumed constant for machines of the same type. by about 25 per cent. it is easy to determine M. it would stabilizer. is The graphic determination of these moments certainly possible but it is a long and laborious task because of the great quantity and shape of masses which compose the airplane. fin. and 163). having determined a based on machines which have notably well chosen control surfaces. sidering the weight Then its calling M W the static moment its of any control surface is. improve. but must also be on the axis of thrust . It is be essential to know the principal moments of inertia of the airplane. In our case.

50 100 Inches FIG. . 50 100 Inches // FIG. 161. 163.274 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FIG. 162.

TABLE 33 . 2100 for the elevator. it is I is feet and S is the surface of the rudder elevator and ailerons in square feet.PLANNING THE PROJECT 275 to 3900 for the ailerons. Then possible to compile the following table where the lever arm in a and M have the above significance. taking as the units of measure pounds for W and feet per second for V. and 2500 for the rudder.

* beams can be made. 30 60In Scale of Lengths Fig. connected to one another by means of vertical and horizontal trussings. usually 276 .CHAPTER XVIII STATIC ANALYSIS OF MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL we shall limit SURFACES Owing ourselves to the broadness of the discussion to summarily resume the principal methods used in analyzing the various parts. For convenience the analysis of the vertical trussings is made separately from the analysis of the horizontal and upon these calculations the analysis of the main ones. In this chapter the static analysis of the wing truss and of the control surfaces is given. two top and two bottom ones. referring to the ordinary treaties on mechanics and resistance of materials for a more thorough discussion. 164 shows that the structure to be calculated is composed of four spars.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
First of all
it is

277

necessary to determine the system of the acting forces. An airplane in flight is subjected to three kinds of forces the weight, the air reaction and the pro:

peller thrust.

balanced by the sustaining component L, of the air reaction; the propeller thrust is balanced by the drag-component D. The weight and the propeller thrust
is

The weight

are forces which for analytical purposes can be considered as applied to the center of gravity of the airplane. The

components

L and D

instead, are uniformly distributed
-

on

the wing surface.

Practically, the ratio

assumes as

many

FIG. 165.

mum value, which
=
jr

different values as there are angles of incidence. is assumed in computations,
0.25.

The maxiis,

usually,

Thus

it

will

be

sufficient to

study the distributhe horizontal

tion of L, because,
stresses

when

this

is

known

can immediately be calculated. Let us suppose that the aerofoil be that of Fig. 165 and that the relative position of the spars be that indicated in this figure. The first step is to determine the load per linear inch of the wing. Fig. 164 shows that the linear

wing development of the upper wing is 320.48 inches while that of the lower wing is 288.58 inches. We know that the two wings of a biplane do not carry
equally because of the fact that they exert a disturbing influence on each other; in general the lower wing carries less than the upper one; usually in practice the load per
unit length of lower wing
is

assumed equal to

0.9 of that

278
of the

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

upper wing. of the upper wing
320.48

Then evidently the load per is given by

linear inch

+09X
wing

2858
=
3.29

'

and

for the lower

it is

given by
Ib.

0.9

X

3.66

per inch

these linear loads we must deduct the weight per inch of the wing truss, because this weight, being linear

From

0.43

L FIG. 166.

0.57

L

applied in a directly opposite direction to the air reaction, decreases the value of the reaction. In our case the figured

weight of the wing truss is 276 Ib.; thus the weight per linear inch to be subtracted from the preceding values will be 0.45 Ib. per linear inch. We shall then have ultimately:

Upper wing loading Lower wing loading

3.21 Ib. per linear inch 2.86 Ib. per linear inch

Knowing these loads, it is possible to calculate the distribution of loading upon the front spars and upon the rear For this it is necessary to know the law of variation spars. of the center of thrust.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
It is easily
is

279

understood that when the center of thrust

displaced forward, the load of the front spar increases, and that of the rear spar decreases; and that the contrary happens when the center of thrust is displaced backward.

We

suppose that in our case the center of thrust has a displacement varying from 29 per cent, to 37 per cent, In the first case the front of the wing cord (Fig. 166).
shall
will

spar will support 0.62 of the total load and the rear spar support 0.38; in the second case these loads will be

respectively 0.43

and 0.57 of the total load. Thus the normal loads per linear inch of the four spars can be summarized as follows:
Front spar upper wing. Bear spar upper wing Front spar lower wing Rear spar lower wing
Practically
it

1.98 Ib. per inch
1.82 Ib. per inch 1.75 Ib. per inch
1.62 Ib. per inch

is

convenient to

make

the calculations

using the breaking load instead of the normal load; in fact there are certain stresses which do not vary proportionally to the load but follow a power greater than unity, as we In our case, as the coefficient must be shall see presently. equal to 10, the breaking load must be equal to 10 times
the preceding values.

We can then initiate the calculation of the various trusses which make up the structure of the wings. We shall proceed
in the following order,
(a)

computing:

bending moments, shear stresses and spar reactions Determination of the neutral curve of at the supports.
the spars
(6)
(c)

and rear vertical trusses upper and lower horizontal trusses
front

unit stresses in the spars. loaded (a) The spars can be considered as uniformly continuous beams over several supports. In our case there are four supports for the upper spars as well as for the
(d)

lower ones; the uniformly distributed loadings are the
preceding.

280

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Let us note first, that in our case as in others, the distribution of the spans of the rear spars is equal to that of the spans of the front spars; thus the only difference between the front and rear spars is in the load per unit of length. It suffices then to calculate the bending moments, the shear
stresses

spars;

and the reactions at the supports for the front the same diagrams, by a proper change of scales,

can be used for the rear spars. In our case, the unit loading for the rear spars is equal to 0.92 of that for the front
spars.

o

as so in. Scale of Lengths

FIG. 167.

With this premise we shall give the graphic analysis based upon the theorem of the three moments, but we shall not explain the reason of the successive operations, referring the reader to treaties on the resistance of materials. First consider the upper front spar (Fig. 167); Jet be its

XY

length and A, B,

C D,
y

its

supports,

made by

the struts.

Let each span be divided into three equal parts by means of trisecting lines aa i} bbi, cci, etc. For each support with
the exception of the first and last ones, the difference between the third parts of its adjacent spans shall be deter-

mined; and that difference is layed off starting from the In our case we subtract support, toward the bigger span.
the third part of span

BC

from the third part

of

span AB,

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
and the Thus V
difference
is is

281

layed

off starting

from

B

toward A.

obtained.

The

line

mm\ drawn

through

V

per-

is called counter vertical of support. pendicular to one- third of BC is subtracted from one-third Analogously

XY

of

CD, and

its

difference

is

laid off

from C toward D,

fixing

a second counter vertical of support nni. Starting from A (Fig. 167) let us draw any straight line that will cut the trisecant bbi, and the first counter vertical

which prolonged will cut the Join first trisecant of the second span cci in the point G. G with F by a straight line which will cut X Y at the point H. This point is called the right-hand point of support B. Starting from H we draw any straight line that will meet the second trisecant of the second span ddi and the second and N respectively. Find diagonal nni at the points and the point P by prolonging the straight line between

of support mrrii in the points Draw the straight line

E and F respectively.

EB

M

M

C. Point 0, the right-hand point of the second support, and line XY. In is given by the intersection of line

NP

order to find the left-hand points for the supports C and which will interest the counter B, draw the straight line and Point R where the lines vertical nn\ at point Q.

PD

MQ

XY

intersect each other will

support C. Starting from R cut the first counter diagonal at point S.
point of intersection of lines

be the left-hand point of draw the line RG which will

SE

and

XY

will

Point T, the be the left-

hand point of support B. The right-hand and left-hand points being known, we
suppose that we load one span at a time, determining the bending moments which this load produces on all the Summing up at every support the moments due supports. to the separate loads, we shall obtain the moments originated by the whole load.
shall

The moment on the external supports is equal to that given by the load on the cantilever ends, as it cannot be influenced by the loads on the other spans, owing to the
fact that the cantilever

The load on

beam can rotate around its support. the cantilever spans however affects the other

282
spans.

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

To determine
is
I

this effect

we proceed

in the follow-

ing manner: Consider support
at this support
linear inch

A

(Fig. 168); the

moment
Ib.

equal to

^p

calling

w

the load in

per
off,

and

the length of the span in inches.

Lay

to

any

scale, the

segment

A A' = -^

wl 2

*

Let us then draw the straight line

AT;

it

will intersect

the vertical line through support B at point 1; the segment IB measures, to the scale of moments, the moment that the

load on the cantilevered span produces on support B.
320

M

In.

50

In.

8000

16000

In.l

Scale of Lengths.

Scale of Moments.

FIG. 168.

Then draw the

straight line IE; it will meet the vertical line through support C at 1'; the segment 1'C measures, always to the scale of moments, the moment originated on support

C by the

load of the cantilevered span. The moment in cannot be influenced by the cantilever load on X A.

D

Let us now determine the effect of the load on span AB, on the moment of the various supports. Draw FG perpendicular bisectrix of AB and Jay off, to the scale of moments,

- that is, equal to the moment o which would be obtained at the center point of AB, by a unit load w, if were a free-end span supported at the extremities. From T, the left-hand point of support B,
a segment

FG

equal to

;

AB

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES
raise a perpendicular
line

283

which cuts

line

GB

at

W.

Draw

meet the perpendicular through support T at point 2. The segment B2 read to scale, will give the moment on support B due to the load on AB. Point 2' is obtained by prolonging line 2R until it meets
the perpendicular through C at 2'. Segment C-2' represents to the scale of moments, the moment on support C due to
the load on

AW to

AB.
effect of the load of
is

In order to find the

span
off

BC

on the

other spans, proceed analogously; that
bisectrix of

lay

BC, equal

to scale, to the

moment

ML on the ML =
8

Let us find points and P as indicated in the figure and let us draw the line NP which prolonged will meet the perpendiculars on supports B and C at points 3 and 3'. Segments B-3 and C-3' read to the scale of moments, will give the moments produced by the load of span BC on the supports

N

B

and C

respectively.

XA and AB we obtain the moments originated on BC by the loads on spans CB and BY. The construction is clearly indicated in Fig. 168. Resuming, we shall have the moment originated by cantiProceeding as for spans
lever loads

on the supports

A

and D, and the moment
the different spans, on the

originated

by the loads on B and C. supports
For the point
of support
is

all

B the moment BC

due to the canti-

lever load

equal, read to the scale of moments, to distance B-l, the moment due to the load on is equal to the moment due to the load on is equal to B-3, B-2,

AB

the

moment due

to the load on

CD

is

equal to B-4 and

f

that due to the cantilever load on

we assume that
support

If is equal to J5-5'. the distances above the axis are positive

DY

XY

and those below are negative, the
B-l, B-2, B-3,
total
-4',

total

B will be equal to the algebraic
and
B-5'.

moment BB' on sum of the moments

Analogously the algebraic

moment on

C.

The

total

sum CC' will represent the moment on the external

supports will naturally remain the one due to cantilevers,

284

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

and DD'. In order to find the variations of the bending moment on all the spans, the load being uniformly distributed, we must draw the paraand consequently equal to
bending moments as though the spans were simply supported (Fig. 169).
bolse of the

A A'

25

50 Inches

Scale

of

Lengths
16000 InJbj.

8000

Scale of Moments

50 Inches 25 Scale of Leng+hs

8000

I6001n.lte:

Scale of Moments.

FIG. 170.

Then the difference between the ordinates of the parabolse and those of the diagram A A' E' C' D D give us the diagram XA r a' E' V C' c' D' YX which represents the diagram of
f

the bending

moment

(Fig. 169).

Knowing the diagram

of the

bending moments,

it is

easy

0 In x Scale at Lengths Scale of Moments _ Scale. to find the diagram of the shearing stresses. and which elastic curve (Fig. by double integration of the diagram of which obtain the deflections y. ot Peflecf ions Fia. In fact let us remember that the analytic expression of is the bending moment given by M R = E X = I X dx and consequently y that E B we is. 8000 16000 In. Furthermore. Ibs. by the ratio multiplying the basis between the scale of moments and that of the lengths. 171. In H Fig. 15.0 30. called We as it pause in the process of graphic integration. 25 50 In. 170 the scale of forces has supports the corresponding been drawn. from the diagram of bending moments we can obtain the elastic curve. and on the numerical values of the reactions have been marked. 171). and consequently the reactions on the supports (Fig. 170). we obtain the form is M the neutral axis of the spar assumes.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 285 through a process of derivation applying the common methods of graphic statics. can be found in treaties on graphic statics. that is. The scale of forces is obtained by of the derivation. shall not . which will be needed later.

developed.58Jn 20 401 Scale of Lengthi 6000 12000 In bs I Scale of Moments FIG. . 168. We shall make use of the elastic ZO 40 In - Scale of Lengths FIG.286 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION curve for the determination of the supplementary moments produced on the spars by the compression component of the vertical and horizontal trussings. 167. 173. beside the unit loads which are already known. the scale of the moments. these figures. 173. 2S3. of the lengths and of the forces are also indicated. 175 and 176 instead. On The preceding diagrams also give the bending moments. 169. the graphic analysis of the lower front spar is upper front spar. 174. 172. Figs. 170 of the and 171 refer to the calculation In Figs. 172.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 287 20 40 In 6000 12000 In lt. 20 40 In. 12 I421n*(n) Scale of Deflections FIG. 176. Scale of Lengths Scale of Moments FIG. Scale of Len 9 +h 6000 Seals. 741. of 12000 lalbs Moments 40 In 20 Scale of Lengths 6000 COOOlnjbs Scale of Xomen-te . .

special note should be made of the scales of ordinates A for the elastic curve. The vertical the counter diagonals relax and consequently do not work. in fact it suffices to multiply both the values of the forces and those of the moments by 0. one above. and the loads per linear inch of the rear spars are equal to 0. and since trussing the reactions on the supports are in the ratio 0. struts. for the purpose of calculation we can consequently consider the vertical of trussing as though it were made spars. these are inversely proportional to the product /.288 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION the shearing stresses and the reactions on the supports for the rear spars. Since the front has the same dimensions as the rear one.92. as evidently the stresses are also symmetrical (Fig. for simplicity we shall consider only one-half of it. In 177). and diagonals. and by bracings called counter diagonals which serve to stiffen the structure (Fig. (6) Knowing the reactions upon the supports. it suffices FIG. flight. the elastic modulus by the moment of EX inertia. But we speaking of the unit stresses in spars. 178). by bracings called diagonals. to calculate only the first. which must resist tension.92.92 of the loads of the front spars. 177. because only of the of the machine. furthermore. and consequently they vary from spar to shall return to this in spar. trussing is composed of two spars. connected by struts capable of resisting compression. as the spans are the same. it is possible to calculate the vertical trussings. and the other below. the plane of symmetry will naturally have to be considered as a plane of perfect fixedness. With that premise let us remember that for equilibrium symmetry it is first of all necessary that the resultant of the external .

be. BC. The values of the reactions on the supports individuated by zones ab. illustrated. 179). in BH we shall have the . Referring to treaties on graphic statics for the demonstration of the method. from B and C we draw two parallels to the truss members determined by the zones bh and ch respectively. CD. Moreover it is necessary that in any case the applied external force is (reaction at support). be in equilibrium with the internal reaction. equal to 5695 lb. for convenience. it is essential that the polygon of the external forces and of FIG. this force is balanced by that part of the weight of the machine which is supported at point A and which is exactly equal to 5695 lb. This consideration enables the determination of the various internal reactions through the construction of the stress diagram. and de are laid off to a given scale on AB. The reactions upon the supports are all vertical and directed from bottom to top their sum .MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 289 forces be equal to zero. that is. now. we shall here illustrate. 179. and DE (Fig. the various graphic operations. for our example. cd. 178.. in Fig. as it is usually expressed in graphic statics. the internal reactions close on itself.

Scale of Forces FIG. . 179.290 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION __ t_ 1000 2000 Ibs.

TRUSS DIAGRAM 22 44In Scale of Lengths 500 100 Ibs Scale of Forces FIG. 180. .MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES . 291 23 In.

in E ^ and (r^ we shall obtain the stresses in these members. signs for compression stresses. For this case. adopting + signs for tension stresses. from points E and G we draw the parallels to the members determined by zones ef and <//. In Fig. a resistance equal to half of that which is had in normal flight is generally admitted.292 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION member bh.92 we shall obtain the values of the stresses of the rear trussing. That table permits the calculation of the bracings and struts. and in CH that corremember ch. beside marking the scales of lengths and of forces. obtaining the corresponding stresses in GI and AI. By multiplying these stresses by 0. in Fig. The stress corresponding to sponding to the 7 of arrows of the stress diagram enable the easy determination which parts of the truss are subjected to tension and which to compression. 179. 180. Based upon the values found in the preceding construcTable 34 can be compiled. in fact not only does the diameter of the cable exposed to the wind corresponding resistance. which is absolutely exceptional. naturally the turnbuckles and attachments must have a it is of the cables selected for our example. we have marked the lengths and the stresses corresponding to the various parts. in normal function only in case of flying with the airplane upside down. From points H and D we draw the parallels to the members gh and gd] in HG and DG we shall have the stresses in hg and dg'. as is generally done in order to obtain a better penetration. The determination of stresses is analogous to that made for normal flight and is shown tion. finally from points G and A we draw the parallels to the members individuated by zones gi and ai. The calculation of the bracings presents no difficulties. sufficient to choose cables or wires having a breaking strength equal to or greater than that indicated in the table. and The counter diagonals which do not work flight. Table 35 gives the dimensions For the principal bracings we have adopted double cables. .

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 293 TABLE 34 TABLE 35 .

The theory gives the value 10 for coefficient a. In Chapter XVI a table has been given of oval tubes normally used for struts.294 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION but it result smaller. it is necessary to apply Euler's formula which by means that a solid of length gives the maximum load a moment of inertia 7 can support section having W I with a elastic In that formula a is a numerical coefficient and E is the modulus of the material of which the solid is made. We shall quickly see that practically it will be convenient to adopt a smaller coefficient in consideration of practical unforeseen factors. present a head resistance which must be reduced to a minimum by giving them a shape of good penetration as by reducing their dimensions to the minimum. relative moment of inertia. etc.37td the preceding formula can be written as follows W a XE 6. remembering them / = td*. being exposed to the wind. This last consideration shows. which can be considered as solids under compression. that for struts it is convenient to use materials which even having high coefficients AI and A 2 have a well as high specific weight. such as weight per unit of length. becomes possible to streamline the of wooden faring. area of section. Then the best material for struts is steel. two cables For the struts.37 X 1 . by what has been said in Chapter XVI. Let us remember that the struts. with the most important characteristics. We shall have = w with a ~p- Remembering then that the area of these struts is given sufficient approximation by the expression A = Q. where t is the thickness and d is the smaller axis. that for Let us apply Euler's formula to these tubes.

181. Adopting pounds and inches as the 3 X 10 7 and consequently unit. 4 llx!0 minimum dimension of 10 ~r~^ 47x 10 x 7T 7 10 20 30 40 i 50 60 TO 80 90 100 d FIG. and the the strut.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES where 295 W r -I = unit stress of the material = ratio between that portion of the length which can be considered as free ended. we have E = (1) W = 47 X 10 5 X a X 1 .

7 is the weight of one foot of strut of width d.296 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Naturally this formula can be applied only for high values of the ratio ^. Moreover infinite solutions exist. when the ultimate stress which a strut must withstand. However. For these values the line. it is seen that while in some tests a has a value higher than 10. 181 the diagram corresponding to the preceding formula is given. Evidently by increasing d. can be satisfied by infinite couples of W values A and d. In Fig. since formula (1) when and I are given. to determine its dimensions. and increases the power necessary to fly. k its coefficient of head resistance as was definitely stated in Chapter . practically below the value -3 = 60 this formula can no longer be relied upon. drawing the diagram with a dotted instead of a full line for the values of is -3 < 60. computation purposes. having large dimensions and small thicknesses. That depends upon the in general it gives lower values. struts being partly manufactured by hand and partly rolled. Therefore it becomes necessary to adopt that solution which requires the minimum power expension. With this premise it is simple. If |8 is the weight per horsepower lifted by the airplane. and also upon the thickness of the sheet and the dimensions Based on averof the sections being not always uniform. age values we can therefore assume that for properly manufactured struts a coefficient a = 8 can be adopted for at our works. and its length. practical diagram shown by a dot and dash In Tables 36 to 39 of the many tests we have tabulated the results of some on metal struts which have been made In these tables the practical value of coefficient a of Euler's formula has been calculated. the increase of d increases the head resistance of the airplane. are known. the value of A becomes smaller and consequently the weight of the strut diminishes from that point of view it would be convenient to use struts .

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 297 I 3 1 f a Al I V-/-.'$'$. s ^ Ml I O T I 00 1> CO CD O rH 2 ( r-lil t~} f^ ^ (^ ^^ f i f^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ CO CO CO - s ^ H 3 ^H * O5O5O CX)CDOOOOOCO'OOOOOCOC75QO odd CD C^ dddrH'rH'o'dddddd 1s* 00 oooo>oooooooo rH ^* O^ GO O^ !> O^ CD *O CD OO ccT c<f co" ^HOOOOOOOOOOCD COCOCOCOCOCOCO(N(N(N(NrH odd dddddddddooo oorHoo lO-^CO 10 10 CD^ co oo^ co co^ io_ i>^ os_ co^ CD_ cq_ o^ co^ i>t>. ^ 5 M feriHF-H ""o '%'$. i y -S -g ""O r-5 r-=< * X.i> i>oot>i>oot^i>-i>i>t>i>t> CD (M C1 CD ooo oooooooooooo O lOiOO CDOCDOfMO O fl cOcD^O cDCDcDCDcDCDcDcD'O'OcDcD odd ddddoooooodd odd dddddooooodo OcDOO H^COCO cDCDcDOiOOcDcDcDcOcDcDcO COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO .

II .298 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION AT 8 II EC . ^OQOppQOQQQQQO 100*0*000010000 ooocoooooi<Mcooocooo O T < *k1 I o os O O O (O' lOi 1 * 'i I 1 I CO t^ O^ O^ r ooooooooooooooo CO *O iO ^H C^ O5 O^ *O 00 "^ C^ H CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO <M CO CO CO rHCOOiTHi-(OOrHOpr-*T-( ooooooooooooooo OOOOOcOOOiOOOOOOOOOO a ooooooooooooooo Ot-IOrH^HOi-I'-lT-HrHOOOrHO .

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 299 d d 03 o3 a a 1J 'S ^^ '"C J c3 J c<3 'S 'S *"^ *"C3 O Q) 02 O 000000 00 r.t^ 1 r-H I-H (N (M GO >O GO 'f O5 GO rt< lO CO 00 IO iO l> O O 01 IO O O5 IO CO O5 i-H o rH CO to GO Oi CO GO CO CO <M t^ <N CO (N CO 1-1 CO 00 CO <N CO (N CQ (M CO O 100000 O O o o O O O 00 CO 00 GO CO CO ^8i O5 t>- l> O CO CO CO CO 1^ O O CO CO CO CO CO CO o o d o o o 0000000 CO CO O5 rt< T^ CO <N ^H rH 00 CO <N O5 TjH r*H 10 O (N (Nl^iO>OO(N tO OS) 00 COt^cOcDOOOJ lOiOtO^OT^-^ CO CD rJH 00 iO 10 CO iO (N (N O5 CO iO O Tt< >O O CO CO O O <N (N CO (N CO CM (NT^Tj<COOOOOCD oo CD co l> COOIOOOOOGO OOt^l>CO00001^ Ot^-t^OOOCOCO CO i i O O O *O O O O O O5 CD Tt< t-- O I s- O CO !~ i Is- ~ 00 IsI> CO CO 1 ' i~ i Is- Tf CO rJH Ol Ol O5 O5 O5 Ol IO iO iO *O O ^O o o o o o o Oi co O^ Oi Oi O5 O^ O5 O^ 000000 gcocoggcoco o ooooodd (N O5 00 O5 O5 CO >O tO 000000 CO (N CO CO (N CD O^ O^ O5 O^ O^ O^ (N <M (N (N CO <N o o o o o d o Oi O5 O5 O5 00 O5 Oi (N (N CO (N (N CO (N .CO 00 1 I-H O5 to T-H O CO CO 00 GO 00 GO CO Ol l> GO GO CO O O O t^ 1C IO O O O O (N CD rH O i 1 GO r.

300 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

5 for struts of the type which we are studying. A is expressed in square inches. . < l ( \dj shall have + me x 10.280 is Ib.36A 3 Now the weight 7 7 = equal to 12 X A X 0. the preceding total power (that is.9 d7 3 Formula (1) permits expressing A as function of d A consequently we 47 X 10 5 X a X . = Ib.. the designer's interest is to find the value of d Evidently that makes p minimum.6 X 10.h. In Chapter III we hav seen that k = 3. a.9 p /b^F u 3. Then.p. will 301 V the speed of the airplane in m.8 X WXl a 2 X ft XF 3 Let us remember that the symbols have the following significance : W I = maximum braking = length of strut. ]8 and V to equation gives the expression of resultant of the weight and head one foot of strut as function of the be known. I. load which a strut must support. absorbed by minor axis d of its section. but that value is the one which makes the derivative of the second term of the preceding equation equal to zero.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES VII. and p the propeller power p absorbed by a foot l efficiency. taking an average value p = 0. the one which satisfies the equation from which 13. the total of strut be equal to 1 p = P + X 267 X 10.*y Supposing W. the resistance). that is.75 we shall have where p = + ~ 103.

it is sufficient for the calculation.1. speed of the airplane. then t A = the thickness of the tube is 6. for r W= = 61.7 X 1 -77T. ratio between the total weight and power of the V = airplane.302 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION a = = coefficient of Euler's formula.76 9 W 2 I (2) X 10.37^ The computations example. since when W and I are known. . gives 3. to assume for these horizontal components 25 per cent.. have been made with these criterions.5 X 10a = 8. Then the preceding formula becomes: d3 Euler's formula. value 8. % horizontal trussings have the scope of balancing the horizontal components of the air reaction. As we have (c) The seen. a certain compression in the spars of the upper wings and a certain tension in the spars of the lower wings are developed. and its power is 300 H. The scope of these bracings is that of stiffening the wing truss easily obtained. Table 40. the foreseen speed Furthermore for a we can adopt the is about 158 m. (3) Equations (2) and (3) enable obtaining d and A.p. of the value of the vertical reactions. then = 7. Their calculation is usually made by admitting that they can absorb from Y^ to of the load on the struts. of the struts for the airplane in our and at the same time of establishing a connection between the diagonals of the principal vertical trussings.h. Before passing to the calculation of the horizontal trussings it is necessary to mention the vertical transversal trussings which serve to unite the front and rear struts (Fig. For our example the weight of the airplane is 2130 Ib. 182). As an effect of the stresses in the vertical trussings.P.

TABLE 40 FIG. of stresses as Consequently in the various spars there shown in Table 41. is a distribution . 182.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES As an effect of the stresses in the horizontal have a certain tension in the front spars and a pression in the rear spars. 303 trussings we certain com- TT O.

304 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 41 .

6TRES5 DIAGRAM FIG. In order to take the stress from it. in the other two spars instead the stresses add to each other. Usually these drag cables anchor the upper wings only. Sometimes also the lower ones. it is practical to adopt drag cables which anchor the wings horizontally. at least partially. 185. The We spar which is in the worst condition is the upper-rear one. Scale of 400 NX Scale of Forces STRESS DIAGRAM B-F FIG. which is doubly compressed.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 305 see then that while there is partial compensation of stresses in the upper-front and lower-rear spars. LOWER DRAG TRUSS DIAGRAM 13 24 In Lengths. 184. .

Let us suppose that in our case the sections be those indicated in Fig. by the planimeter or by the section on cross-section paper. Fig. The areas are determined either upper rear two principal methods of verification are used: The elastic curve method. As we have already seen. a certain number of horizontal transversal struts. In Figs. and A is the area of the section. They are made of spars. : 1. The Johnson's formula method. as they are entirely analogous to those described for the vertical trussing. After various attempts. 186. B. where P T is the sum of the stresses PL and PD originated in the considered part of the spar by vertical and horizontal load. The areas and the moment of inertia are determined first. The moment drawing of inertia is determined either by mathematical calculation or graphically by the methods illustrated in graphic statics. the most convenient section is determined. 183 the schemes of the horizontal trussings for the lower and upper wing are given. This analysis is usually made following an indirect method. under form of verification. in Fig. We fix certain sections for the spars and determine the unit load corresponding to the ultimate load of the airplane.306 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig. 2. 187 gives this graphic construction for the spar. we need not discuss them. This method consists of determining the total unit stress f T by adding the three following stresses Practically A. 184 and 185 the graphic analysis of the horizontal trussings of the lower and upper wings have been given. 1$3 the acting forces have been indicated equal to 25 per cent. of the vertical components. Analysis of the Unit Stresses in the Spars. that (d) is. Stress due to bending moments fM = ^r where M is the . and of steel wire cross bracing. Stresses of tension or of pure compression fc = f A. A.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 307 .

308 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES bending moment and 309 Z is the section modulus. A E= elastic modulus of the material. + A = area of the section. stress due to horizontal trussings. Fig. obtained by dividing the I by the distance of the farthest fiber of inertia this axis. is We shall remember that moment 3 . spruce and poplar. . stress For these stresses the sign has been adopted when they are compression stresses and the sign when they are tension stresses. adding the values fc fM and /A we obtain /r which is the total unit stress. Douglas fir. where PT is elastic modulus E of the material because this modulus enters into the equation which gives the scale of the elastic curve (see Figs. this modulus of rupture divided by Jf o /r gives the factor of safety. it is necessary to adopt bending an intermediate modulus of rupture. 171 and 176). all the preceding data for the sections of the spars most stressed has been collected. of For combined stresses and compression stresses. port- orford. In this table In Table 42 PL = PD = PT = due to vertical trussings. We have given in Chapter XVI the moduli of rupture to know to bending for various kinds of wood. 188 shows diagrams giving the modulus of rupture as function of ratio ~ JT for the four following kinds of wood. the modulus of rupture of the material. . modulus from the neutral Bending stress due to the compression stress /A = P V A - Z the compression stress and A is the maximum deflexion of the span which is obtained from the elastic In order to know A it is necessary to know the curve. in our case corresponding to a load equal to ten times the normal flying load. *%&. PL + PD = total stress due to both trussings. If we wish to determine the factor of safety of the section it is necessary By .

O 000 snjnpow o 10 vP o O ^9 o LO IO 8 LO O .J.310 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION O o uj-bg -isd-sqljn^-dny ^.o en|npow S 4*05 2 6 I Qi 1 o o IQ [000 9500 Q j ' CO o o O (0 .

B. this enables us to determine the modulus of rupture. = moment due to compression stress P T PT = unit stress due to the moment /A = . one fixed for both ends fixed the values of the quantities necessary by the Johnson's formula all for calculating the factor of safety method have been collected. Z = section modulus. fc//T ratio total stress. thence the factor of safety. with the exception of that corresponding to point B of the upper-rear-spar. We see that the factors of safety are about equal to those found by the preceding method. The Johnson's formula method is based upon John- son's formula: PT A + M PT KEI l* \ ) where I is the length of the span. is a numerical coefficient and the other symbols are those of the preceding method. o . S = s total shearing stress.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 311 = moment of inertia of the section. / /M A ~v unit stress A due to this bending moment. ratio 188. This . A. M = bending moment due to air pressure. = maximum deflexion of the span. originated by the compression stress. between the compression stress and By using the diagrams of Fig. The value of coefficient is dependent on end conditions and is K K = 10 = 24 = 32 In Table 43 for for hinged ends one hinged. = = = unit stress to shearing.

In fact. the calculation of the shearing stresses and of the bending moments which are developed in the ribs should be mentioned. 171). seen that point A curve of the upper is to be considered and consequently for this point the coefficient 32 should have been taken. as an actual fixed point. . as was assumed. Before leaving the calculation of the wing truss.312 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION * No bolt holes. the two methods are practically equivalent. With this single exception. K from an examination of the it is elastic spars (Fig. for this point discrepancy occurs because the coefficient should have been 32 instead of 24.

axis and adopting a doubled scale for the shearing stresses. In order . which is usually made graphically is illustrated in Figs. The integration of this diagram gives the diagram of the bending moments. In Fig. 189 whose ordinates correspond to the shearing stresses. 190 (6) referring it to a rectilinear 189. Fig.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 313 This calculation. the integration of this diagram gives diagram (6) of Fig. The rib can be considered as a small beam with two supports and 3 spans. 190. 189 gives the values of the pressures TABLE 42 (Continued) along the entire rib. the supports being made by the spars. The distributions of the shearing stresses and bending .to render this diagram more clearly it has been redrawn in Fig. 189 and 190. Diagram (a) of Fig. 190 (c). diagram (a) represents diagram (6) of Fig.

191 a general view of a very light type of rib is given. In Fig. 192 and 193 give respectively the assembly of the fin-rudder group and the stabilizer-elevator group. very easy when the distribution of the loads on the surface .314 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DO DC TABLE 43 B A B A * No bolt holes. and the control pass to the calculation of the tail system Figs. The calculation of their frame is shall We now surfaces. moments being known the dimensions rib flanges of the web and of the can easily be determined.

For instance. We suppose that the unit load decreases linearly on the fin as well as on the rudder. the hypothesis illustrated in the diagram of Fig. the distribution of the pressures on these surfaces is very TABLE 43 (Continued) 12220 78. that it suffices to follow any loading hypo- even if only approximate. Consequently only the procedure for the culation of these loads will be indicated. as it is usually done in practice.4 10. 194).021 4065 7890 7900 7850 7900 7900 12. Let us first of all consider the fin-rudder group (Fig. 979 6110 4300 3900 2930 1030 900 900 300 180 6110 455 160 150 44000.8 19. though. such high factors of safety are asfor them.9 17.0 complex and varies according to their form. in the fin it decreases from a maximum value u in the front part to a minimum . profile and their sumed thesis Practically.021 7800 5380 . 194 (c) can be adopted. In normal flight as well as during any maneuver whatever.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES is 315 cal- known.6X106 77200.

96 In. SHEAR DIAGRAM FIG. LOADING DIAGRAM TABLE OF AREA WEIGHTS IN POUNDS .olbs/lin. 28. 4.In.In.6 Scale of Lengths Scale of Loads Ibs/lin.Scale of Shears 168 336 Ibs 1 t i t i i i 1 2^3 456789 28 .3 8. 10 20 In. 189.88In. .4In. 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 7.54 In 64.56 112 Ibs Scale of Area Weights 12 13 14 15 16 17 H=16.316 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

MOMENT DIAGRAM 'UOOInlbs 550 Scale of Moments. Scale of Shears.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 317 SHEAR DIAGRAM j 10 i i (1) i 20 in 163 336 lb&. 190. Scale of Lengths' Scale of Shears W 168 Ibs. . FIG.

h.5 u in the rear In the rudder instead.p. practically for speeds between 100 and 200 m. the unit load decreases from u to zero. 1Q4 (&). we can assume u m = 0. If A is the total area. as the airplane faster. upon it will be evi- dently aku.167 expressing u m in pounds shall per square In our case foot. about u m = Then the and sections per sq. we Ibs. In order to determine the numerical value of u the average value u m of the unit load of the so is surfaces is usually given. divided into 194 (a)). surfaces of the are 25 fin rudder (Fig. we have Sa that is X k X A u = u = Xu m X k Za The value u having all been the determined. let us call a one of these areas and ku the corresponding unit load. and In our case they are as given in the table of Fig. part. we have .318 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION value equal to 0. have ft. is This average value assumed much greater. the load their areas are determined.

MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 310 JL .

320 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

[FiQ. .FT. 194.-. 23456 WEIGHTS 7 9 10 U 12 13 14 15 LOADING IN DIA6RAM POUNDS '.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 321 = Centers of Pressure of Elements r Fin and 123456-763 Rudder of Entire Surface of IO 10 Scale Scale of 20 Inches of Lengths 500 Weighted Are AREAS IN SQ.

195. of Elevator Center of Pre entire Sut7f( FIG.AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Centers of Pressure of Elements Centers of Pressure. .

X V per sq. that is. we table of Fig. which in our case are as given in the These loads being obtained. however. In Fig. easily determine: (a) the center of loads of the fin. then possible to determine the reactions on the various structures and consequently to make the calculation of their dimensions.22 that is. ft. in our case um = 35 Ibs. . the center of loads or center of pressure of the rudder. 194 (d). that for this group we usually assume u m = 0. 195 all the operations previously described are It is repeated for the stabilizer-elevator group.MAIN PLANES AND CONTROL SURFACES 323 elementary values aku. following the usual methods. what is usually termed the center of pressure of the fin. noting. (6) and (c) the center of loads of the entire system.

particular cases: (a) Let us consider the following Stresses in normal flight. (d) (e) Maximum stresses in flight. . maneuvering the rudder. flight (a) In normal as a beam supported the fuselage should be considered at the points where the wings are it and loaded at the various joints of the which make the frame of the fuselage. Let us consider the case of a fuselage made of veneer. As we have seen in the first part of this book. and of the bending gram moments flight. (6) Stresses while (c) Stresses while maneuvering the elevator. such a fuselage has a frame of horizontal longerons connected by wooden bracings. It is then easy to draw the diaof the shearing stresses (Fig. corresponding to the case of normal When the pilot maneuvers the elevator. this frame is covered with veneer. 196d). First the reactions of the various weights on the joints of the structure. which calculated if the moment of inertia of the fuselage 324 easily known.CHAPTER XIX STATIC ANALYSIS OF FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER A. In these trussing conditions it is easy to determine the shearing stresses and attached to the bending moments when the weight of the various parts composing the fuselage or contained in it are known. Stresses while landing. 1966). 196c). the fuselage is is subjected to an angular acceleration. 196a. glued and nailed to the longerons and bracings. Analysis of Fuselage. Let us suppose the frame to be the one shown in Fig. and the reactions on the supports are calculated (Fig. (6) is (Fig.

196. 20. Scale of Shears 5000 10000 lb5.75" 15. $ 7 = 9 | 16 uo In. 2 2> 4 5 e 7 6 9 10 II 12 MOMENT DIAGRAM FIG. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 325 2/5.60" .FUSELAGE.90" 17. (b) 4 SPACE DIAGRAM 30 60 In.50" 23.In.15" 23. 15.30" 10. Scale of Lengths 7617/^5 SHEAR DIAGRAM 250 500 Ibs. .50" 16.77/7.i M 3A5//7.30" _ 10.10" 24. Scale of Moments.201 2/80".

X inch 2 X inch shall have do.000 . since its results give a greater degree of safety. originated bending moments (Fig. 1986). However this approxi- mation is admissible. Thus. = 97. 197 the graphic determination of this moment of 2 inertia has been made. in fact for the calculation of the angular acceleration. its result is I = 97. Then remembering the equation of mechanics . in Fig. C = I X where C = = IP -IT acting couple polar moment of inertia = dt angular acceleration and as in our case C = 7 = we 1000 X 177 Ib. It is then easy to obtain the diagrams of the shear- ing stresses (Fig. when a force of 1000 and of the by the forces of inertia Ib. _. . acts suddenly upon the elevator.. dt~ "97^00" This angular acceleration originates a linear acceleration in each mass proportional to its distance from the center of gravity and in a direction tending to oppose the rotation originated by the couple C. each mass will be subto a force. . jected 198a. which appear in the various masses of the fuselage.000 Ib. X inch We shall suppose that a force equal to 1000 Ib. 177. 198c). is suddenly applied upon the elevator. the total moment of inertia of the airplane and not only that of the fuselage should have been introduced: therefore the angular acceleration found is greater than the effective one.000 Ib.326 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION In Fig.000 mass 177. Let us note that the stresses thus calculated are greater than those had in practice. as illustrated for our example.

000 Ik mass. 1= = H.FUSELAGE. 197.Y = 100*50x19. . LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 327 6Oin Lengfhs . x in 2 FIG.H'.4 97.

MOMENT FIG.328 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 400 800 Ibs. . Scale of Shears 10 It \Z 13 30000 feOOOO in/lbs Scale of Moments. 198. 30 Scale of Forces Scale erf 60 Lengths 400 800 Ibs.

199.ON RUDDER RUDDER AND ELEVATOR LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS. for the elevator. (d) In order to calculate the maximum breaking stresses elevator. FIG. let us suppose that the breaking load is applied at the same time upon the wings. in flight. the and the . 198 may also be used for this case. SHEAR DIAGRAM FORTEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS 8 2 9 10 II 12 13 3 4a 4b 5 O) SHEAR DIAGRAM FOR 752 LBSON ELEVATOR 6 7 8> 9 10 II 12 13 SHEAR DIAGRAM FOR 3OOLBS.FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR (c) AND PROPELLER 329 For maneuvering the rudder the same applies as The same diagrams of Fig.

FIG. 10. upon the rudder. upon -the elevator. to multiply the loads of the fuselage 2. 3 4<a 40 5 7 ONLY. Q 9 10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR 306 POUNDS RUDDER LOAD .330 rudder. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This : is equivalent to make by the following hypothesis 1. 200. to apply 309 Ib. Scale of Moments 2 3 4 4*> 5 6 7 10 ^ 9 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS ONLY. 3. to apply 762 Ib. II 12 3 4041? 5 6 7 762 3 10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR POUNDS ELEVATOR LOAD ONLY. 30 60 in Scale of Lengths 30000 60000 "!libs.

AND RUDDER LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSALAGE WEIGHTS . Scale of Moments 3 4a 4 b 5 & 7 8 9 10 II 12 '3 MOMENT DIAGRAM FO.FUSELAGE. 201. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 331 j l I 30 60 in Scale of Lengths.R COMBINATION OF ELEVATOR FIG. 10 II 12 13 MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR ELEVATOR LOADS AND TEN TIMES THE FUSELAGE WEIGHTS tl ti 40000 80000 /te.

600 "= ft 076 215. the bending moments are rudder). Fig. In Fig.332 It is AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION then easy to draw the diagrams of the shearing stresses in this case (Fig. c). necessary to consider separately those produced by vertical forces (loads on the fuselage and on the elevator). 202 the checking for section 4-5 has been effectuated. Let 1. 200 a. 199. it is necessary to determine their ellipse of inertia. the diagram of the total shearing stresses in flight (Fig. b. it is possible to proceed in the checking of the resistance of those sections. The stress due to shearing is given immediately. dividing the maximum shearing stress by the sections of the veneer. As for the stresses in the longerons. on the elevator. 2. shown due respectively to 10 times the loads on the fuselage. through their sum. ordinates Having obtained in this manner. c. a. inch. the diagrams of the m maximum shearing stresses and maximum bending moments corresponding to the various sections. 2016 shows the total diagram whose ordinates m" are equal to the hypotenuses of the right triangles having the sides corresponding to the and n of diagrams 200c and 20 la.600 and its plane of stress makes an angle x with the tana Ib. and to the load of 306 Ib. on the rudder. Fig. For simplicity it is customary to assume that the longerons resist to the bending and the veneer sides to the shearing stresses. 3 and 4 be the four longerons constituting section 4-5. and consequently. X verti- = Horizontal Vertical moment moment Then a certain section is the usual methods of static graphics the moments of inertia of the four assembled longerons with respect to horizontal axis 16. and those produced by horizontal forces (loads on the In Fig.300 fixed for the longerons and with == and to a vertical axis passing through the center of . to the load of 762 Ib. cal plain such that The maximum moment is equal to 216. 201a shows a diagram obtained by the algebraic sum of the first two diagrams. 199d). In order to calculate the it is maximum bending moments. b.

FUSELAGE. 202. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 333 (a) TRANSVERSE SECTION AT 4-5 Q 6 12 In Scale of Lengths. . 2 Maximum Extreme Fiber Stress* ^ -WOlbs/i* 2 in' Modulus of Rupture for Spruce =3700 Ibsjin Factor of Safety ^7^ -* 10 =2/7 Fia. i i i i i 400 800 In* Scale of Ellipse of Inertia Mrt (t>) ELLIPSE OF INERTIA AT SECTION 4-5 Maximum Moment at Section 216600 inlbs.

is then that shown in Fig. Let us consider the following particular cases: 2. N<i. that is. . and the member subjected to bending (axle and spindle). Landing on only one wheel. The vector the ellipse of inertia may be drawn (Fig. 205. with coefficient 1. 204 shows the diagrams of the shearing stresses and bending moments corresponding to that case. Nz and N*. flight. line OB 4 draw the parallels to OA. Figs. We can then compute the unit stresses and therefore the M M . 4. By dividing measured by O'A' by the largest of the 4 segments MiNi. is obtained. Landing with lateral wind. 203. r radius OA of such an ellipse which makes the angle a with the vertical gives the moments of inertia to be used in the In order to have the section modulus. Normal landing with airplane in line of Landing with tail skid on the ground. The system of acting forces. stresses result lower than the maximum considered in flight. M coefficient of safety. Since. 206. ' M M . 3. it will suffice to and verify that the In our case these sections of the fuselage are sufficient.334 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Then gravity of the system are determined (Fig. giving for each the tension on compression stresses. . In the fourth case horizontal stress it maximum is has been assumed that the not greater than 400 Ib. it is calculations. 207 and 208 illustrate respectively the construction for those four cases. gear and In landing. as it will be seen. the diagrams of the bending moments. laterally inclined by the maximum with the machine angle which can be allowed by the wings. the fuselage is supported by the landing by the tail skid. Analysis 1. the coefficient of resistance of the landing (e) usually taken between 5 and multiply the preceding stresses by 6 gear is 6. 202a). For necessary to draw B'O' 'the conjugate diameter to O'A of the four longerons draw OB paralthe center of gravity and 3 2 lel to diameter O'B'. from the four points Mi. of Landing Gear. B. . Fig. 4 N 4 the section modulus Z 2 A^ 2 MJVs. to meet the straight the moments of inertia in Ni. 202&).

Scale of Weights. FIG. . LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 335 is r~ 30 60in.FUSELAGE. 203. Scale of Lengths 20 O 4OO Lt>3.

336 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7 R oo 8 s 9 12 * 13 3b SHEAR DIAGRAM o 7500 tsooo in. Fia.lbs Scale of Moments MOMENT DIAGRAM. 204. .

inlin. . i AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM 8000 'Jibs. DIAGRAM OF LANDING GEAR 5OO LBS. 4000 Scale of Moments FIG. 1 AND PROPELLER 337 o JOOLBS _k> I SIDE ELEVATION HALF FRONT ELEVATION I. ^ FORCE POLYGONS 300 600 Iba Scale of Forces SPINDLES - Scale of Lengths. I i 20 40m Scale of Lengths. 205. LANDING GEAR CASE.FUSELAGE.

FRONT ELEVATION 20 40 in. Scale of Lengths AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM 4000 8000/ Scale of Moments FIG. 206. POLYGONS 300 600 Scale of Forces 20 in.338 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CASE 2. HALF SIDE ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF LANDING GEAR 500 LBS. I Scale of Lengths (b) FORCE. .

FUSELAGE.62 In 6000 12000 In. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 339 CASE 3 DIAGRAM OF LANDING 6EAR FORCES ACTI N6 ON SP1 NDLES 26.lbs Scale of Moments AXLE MOMENT DIAGRAM .

208. 1 SIDE DIAGRAM OF LANDING N I ELEVATION GEAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i o ciO o-f- 4O 1 in Scale 400 bs. FRONT I . CASE. 209 the sections of the various members have been given. grouped in table 44. the results of the analysis having been break.340 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION because with a great transversal load the wheel would In Fig. Lenq+hs FORCE POLYGONS 200 400 Ibs Scale o-f Forces FIG. for each member : The table gives the following elements M P = f compression or tension stress I Z A F c Fm F t = Bending moment = Moment of inertia = Section Modulus = Area of the section = unit load due to compression = Unit load due to bending = Total unit load of rupture or tension Modulus Coefficient of safety . 4-. .

FUSELAGE. .9 oo co^o CO CO CO ^^ 00 *O CO ^^ 00 J^O CO CO 00 *O C^l CO ^^ CO C^ CO '^ CO C^l CO ^^ CO _j CO CO 00 *O C^ CO '^ CO -J dddddddddddoNoodddoNpp ooooo oooco O^O OOC^I 11+1111+ +11 +11 1C rH i I <N 1 iC OO 1-1 1 . . LANDING GEAR o t AND PROPELLER 341 ^^ ^^ ^^ (MOOOO(MOO OO1>" OOI> ^HCO i-HO ^""* CO OiOOOOO 1^ * iC TH C^ 00 O O O O O <N OOO CO CO TH CO !> 1C i ( 00 II Of r-T C<I O rt< o O C^ CO :8 oT o" 00 CO ^^ CO !> -00 1s* 00 !> COOOGOOOCOOOOOOOCOOOOOC3 CO ^^ CO CO ^^ CO ^? 000000000000 COOOO^OCOO ~ OO OO JJ OOOO oooo o ooo ^) -| W o o oo CTJ >^< T-l 4) -| COCOOOCOCOOOCOCOOO.HCOCOOO.s d o .1 * g i 1^1 g .

211. Furthermore it gives six sections of the propeller which are reproduced on a larger scale in Figs. FIG. Analysis of the Propeller. HALF FRONT ELEVATION . Fig.342 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for the criterions to be followed in the selection and reference is to be computation of the shock absorbers.A. 212 and 213. will be seen that for the airplane of our example the adoption of a propeller having a diameter of 7. 890 Sec. C-C D-D SECTION! A. Supposing a propeller is chosen having the profile shown in Figs. 210. SECTION C-C AND D-'D. by first drawing the propeller based upon checking. dynamic criterions which have suggested that choice. It .65 ft. made to what has been said in Chapter XVI. it In the following chapter C. is convenient. This static analysis is usually undertaken as a that is. data furnished by experience and afterward verifying the sections by a method which will be explained now. 209. 211. DE ELEVATION. 212 and 213. In this chapter we shall limit ourselves to static analysis of the propeller. and a We shall then see the aeropitch of 9 ft. As 'Hinge at this Point O - O 4OIJ1 Scale of 51 Lencj+hs. 210 gives the assembly of only one half the propeller blade the other half being perfectly symmetrical.

FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 343 .

344 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

pp = power absorbed by the propeller when o> turning at N revolutions. In order to proceed in the computations. the forces which stress that section are then the resultants of the centrifugal forces and the resultants of the air reactions pertaining to that portion of the propeller included between and the periphery. resulting thereby in a greater lightness for the propeller. In general. but increases from the center toward the periphery until the maximum value of 9 feet is reached which is the one assumed to characterize the propeller. stresses.FUSELAGE. force. immediately seen that by giving a special curvature neutral axis or elastic axis of the propeller blade it is to the possible to equilibrate the bending moment in each section It is produced by the centrifugal the air reaction. it is necessary to fix the following elements : N = number of revolutions of the propeller. 2. with that produced by The stresses will then be those of tension and torsion. on that section produces in the most general Tension stresses. Bending Torsion stresses. 2. We and the curvature to be given to the neutral axis of the propeller blade. 1. = corresponding angular velocity. shall then proceed to find the total unit stresses. A so their action case: 1. If any section A of the propeller considered. 3. . LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 345 should be noted that in that type of propeller the pitch is not constant for the various sections. Air reactions which stress the various elements constiis tuting the blade surface. these resultants section do not pass through the center of gravity of section A. The forces which stress the propeller in its rotation can be grouped into two categories: Centrifugal forces which stress the various elements constituting the propeller mass.

2 is any section whatever of the propeller. in. d$ = 9 X co 2 X A X r r X dr = from which 2. In our case. as r is known.P. the d$ = since dM X co X we can place dM = . per cu. can be made of walnut. Ib. the propellers mahogany. Let us now find the expression for the centrifugal force d$ which stresses an element of mass dM and for the reaction of the air dR which stresses an element 1-dSoi the blade surface.3 X A X 2. Furthermore P p = 300 H.0252 . N = co 1800. The elementary expression centrifugal force d$ 2 has.3 X dr ~= dr one X A X r (1) Then by determining the areas of the various sections A. We shall then an infinitesimal increment have of the radius. Suppose that we choose walnut. and is . and therefore = 60 = 188 I/sec. cherry.346 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION is A = density of the material out of which the propeller to be made. we shall be able to draw the diagram A = f (r) of Fig. As for the material. 215). . 214.X A X where g is dr A dr the acceleration due to gravity = 386 in. for which A = 0. etc. /sec. which by means of formula (1) permits drawing the other whose which integration gives the total centrifugal forces $ stress the various sections (Fig.

215. 214. of the airdirection of these velocities being at right angles to each other we shall co U* = 2 X r2 +7 2 . The and of velocity of translation V. on the other hand. and U is the relative velocity of such a blade element with respect to the air. surface element of the blade. Calling I the variable width of the propeller blade.FUSELAGE. dS is a is K 24 2& 20 Radii -in Inches 32 FIG. we may make dS = 16000 I X dr 24 28 Radii in Inches FIG. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 347 The elementary sion air reaction dR has dS the following expres2 dR = where KX X U a coefficient which depends upon the profile of the blade element and upon the angle of incidence. velocity of rotation r U is the resultant of the velocity have plane.

may be kept constant for the practical approximation various sections and equal to an average value which will be determined. The expression -j. com- K ponent dR perpendicular to the plane of propeller rotation and component dR r contained in that plane of rotation t (Fig. We note that dR being inclined backward by about 4 with respect to the normal to the blade cord. 216). it will consequently be convenient to consider the two components of dR.348 therefore AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION dR = from which KX = 2 (co X r2 +7 X X 2 ) I XX Xr + 2 X I It is immediately seen that it would be very of difficult to take into consideration the variation coefficient K from one section to the other. 216.can also be put in the following form : KX co 2 X + ~) X I . and therefore with sufficient FIG. changes direction from section to section.

FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 349 .

Projecting D in E and F. the squares of 2 ^ +r 2 . in Fig. equal to CD. and the angular velocity r M the motive couple will equal OAA vx KQH - ^-= 800 Ib.350 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION co In our case per sec. X inch . = 2800 in.h. of It should be noted that the couple. that plotted in gives the For clarity. corresponding to the various sections. /(r) whose integration gives the value shearing stresses.= ^77* 1 . the diagrams of the bending moments t r and M t can easily be obtained.. X ft. = 9600 Ib. by means new integration. E r and E. these segments will give the terms -IT- BC" V . maximum value The = 188. so that Make -. Analogously by drawing BC' . 2 + AC 2 BC = 2 72 CO" + r? etc. 217 and the latter t. we shall have DE = We may CLfir r/T" -j^ and dr DF = - dr then draw the two diagrams = // \ /(r) (-"Kt and -j. these diagrams have been two separate figures for components R r and R the former having been plotted in Fig.at CD makes an angle of 4 with the prolongation of BC.. We shall evidently have CO On an axis AX lay off the various radii (Fig. except for the constant K. . of components is. of a M co The shearing stresses # r and R being known. = 188 and V = 156 m. 218.P.. equals one-half of the motive power being 300 H. from B draw segment BC. and = AB that is.= -lOOr = 1-49 perpendicular to AX. 217).p. V '2800 make AB = . In this manner may be calculated.

FUSELAGE. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 351 o CO <y S^ O O _G> m O <M ? il) 2 fe 0) 0) .

and the elementary forces d$ and dR applied to t The elementary force d$ follows a radial direction. while . are known. X inch. especially because they stress the blade in a direction in which the t Let us M greatest moment of inertia is smaller than that corresponding to the direction in which the blade is stressed by the bending moments Let us M r. V- VeJocify erf Aeroplane FIG. the coefficient Then. for each section. K the resultant stress due to the centrifugal force. manner and conse- quently that of the shearing stresses and thus the value of is also determined. M M t air reaction. call -^ the inclination of any point whatever of the neutral axis curve of the propeller. while the elementary force dR follows a direction perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the propeller (Fig. 219). it. moment produced in any section whatever by the centrifugal force is somehow made to be in equilibrium with the moments and the deflection stresses If the M r M t . the shearing stresses R r and R and the moments due to the r and t. will be avoided. first of all consider the moments which are the and consequently the most important. X moments is inch = 4800 Ib. 219. scale of fixed in this . consider any section whatever of the We shall then A propeller blade.352 therefore AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION M The r = |X96001b.

but falls at about 33 per cent. and for the moment we shall suppose dR applied to the center of gravity. t assume then the condition d$ dy 20 24 28 36 40 44 Radii in Inches FlG. all stressed only to tension. dr. supposing that this be true Under these for condi- AX dr of the propeller. and by an elementary torsion couple dT The effect of this couple will again be referred to. that the resultant of d$ and dR be tangent t to the neutral curve of the propeller blade. of the chord. from d& t known principles of mechanics. Since we may write every element the various sections will be dR it is ~ t dR /dr t easy to draw the diagram *=> w and. this force can be replaced by an elementary force dR applied to the center of gravity. 220. 220). However. tions. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 353 is applied to the center of gravity of the element A X the air reaction dR is not applied to the center of gravity. Let us t t . obtain y=f(r] which gives the shape that the center of gravity axis of the propeller blade must have in elevation (Fig. that is. . by graphically integrating this diagram.FUSELAGE.

in Inches FIG. 221. Thus the tral axis propeller may be designed. These stresses are of two types: 1. 210 the neu- has been drawn following this criterion. tive diagrams have been drawn for -v. 221. the reladij = f(r).354 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION With an analogous process. for every In Fig. in A they are equal to fact. section Tension stresses are easily calculated.= f(r) and y '. 222 the diagram of f l obtained by the preceding equation has been drawn. . the shape in plan is found by considering the forces d<$> and dR r in Fig. 20 24 Radii in 20 Inches FIG. 2. 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Radii. 222. Let us now determine the unit stresses corresponding to the case of normal flight. torsion stresses. tension stresses. In Fig.

223. 212 and 213) the values and ^ ff are given by the diagrams diagram of Figs. 211.FUSELAGE. 217. at 0. h the lever arm of the axis of dR with respect to the center of gravity. thus in Fig. they depend only upon the Let us consider a section and the air reac- A dR which acts upon the blade element Evidently 2 t I - dr correspond- ing to this section. of h are marked on the --T- sections (Figs. the elementary torslonal h moment 2 will be dT = and consequently X dR = h X (dR t + dR*)* The values .33 falls. f(r} and by integrating. 223 the drawn of may be dT = dF -. that of T = f(r) . we have seen. therefore dR will in general produce a torsion about the center of gravity. to the torsion stresses. LANDING GEAR AND PROPELLER 355 As tion air reaction. let us call point as of the The dR = (dR of application of dR + dR *)* r Inches FIG. 218. width of the blade Z.

356 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 01 2345 . 224. 226. 225.012345 FIG. FIG. <&' 40 3 4 8 12 16 20 24 25 32 36 40 44 FIG. 40 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 in. .

of the polar moment Ip and of Z p = -oc In Fig.65 X 2 (/i + 4 X -. LANDING GEAR It is AND PROPELLER 357 now necessary to determine the polar moments Ip of the various sections. then calling I x and I y the moments of inertia with inertia. which. the corresponding values of the total moment of torsion T by the values of the section modulus for torsion Z. may be concluded that the aforesaid . to this effect it suffices to determine the ellipse of inertia of the various sections by the usual methods of graphic analysis. however. As stress is equal to 1280 pounds per square inch.FUSELAGE. effect t In f = t 0. a safety factor between 4 and 5 is practically suffi- cient for propellers. to about J^ the value of the modulus of rupture. the total stress f is determined by the formula practice. it sections are sufficient. 2 X/ 2 2 )^ where a - 1 . we will have respect to the principal axis of For each section (Figs. 226). we have shown the values of the area.35 X /i + 0. 212 and 213). for each section. 225). the approximation which can be reached is practically sufficient.3 modulus of rupture in tension = modulus of rupture in shearing gives / ^**' / Then the diagram which may be drawn (Fig. does not correspond to though. as the torsion stresses represent a small fraction of the total stresses. When the unit stresses /i and /2 to tension and torsion are known. dent that this method is exact only when the neutral axis of the propeller is rectilinear and in the direction of the radius. Dividing. f t for the various sections It is seen that the value of the maximum that is. we shall have the values /2 of the It is immediately eviunit stresses to torsion (Fig. 224 the diagram Ip for the various sections and the diagram -7 oc = Zp have been drawn. 211.

speed in miles per hour. Let us assume.4 \AV 9 2 and 147 X 10~ (5A + <r)7 3 where = A = V = PI = = o- W weight in pounds. is often impossible. and it is therefore necessary to resort to numeric computation. that A = 10~ 4 XA A = 10. it becomes possible to determine its flying characteristics. Let us remember that the aerodynamical equations binding the variable parameters of an airplane are method for this W 550P! - = 10.4 (5A + (7) The preceding equations can then be written W ~V~2 =A / . theoretical power in coefficient of total 5 X and = coefficient of horsepower necessary for flight. A and A will also be functions of i. head resistance. and sustentation and of resistance of the wing surface. as in Chapter VIII. The best determination would undoubtedly be that of building a scale model of the designed airplane and of This. however. n^ = i47A 358 Since A and a are constant and X and 5 are functions of the angle of incidence i.CHAPTER XX DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS Once the airplane is calculated and designed. testing it in an aerodynamic laboratory. surface in square feet. .

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS I- 359 o o CO 1 .

Table 45 shows the values of K. It is then easy to compile Table 46 which gives a = 132. the value a can be determined approximately by calculation as has been mentioned above. an exact value of the coefficient obtained only by testing a model of the airplane in a wind <? However. Let us suppose that X and 8 are given by the diagram of The value of a is calculated by Fig. can be Thus.5 . it is equal to the sum of the head resistances of the various parts of which the airplane is composed. remembering that a = 2K X A that is. the couples of values corresponding to A and A and consequently enables us to draw the logarithmic diagram of A as function of A (Fig. if such experimental determination cannot be available. 5 being known. 227). 155 (Chapter XVII). and <r then be drawn. but it can be either greater or smaller. K This table gives constituting the airplane in our example. does not always hold true. This.360 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION X. because of the fact however. it is possible to obtain a pair of values of A and A corresponding to each value of of A as function of A can i. that the head resistance offered to each other by two or more bodies close and moving in the air is not always equal to the sum of the head resistances the bodies encounter when moving each one separately. TABLE 45 2KA = 132. and the logarithmic diagram Then.5. A and X A for the various parts tunnel.

p. gives Fmin = that necessary to draw the diagram which gives pP 2 as function of the various Thus it is necessary to know speeds.p. read on the 72 m. that the number of revolutions of the propeller may be selected. is.815. laying this segment off on the scale of speeds we have Fmax< It is also seen that the minimum segscale speed at which the airplane can sustain itself is given by the ment B'B" which. P V processes analogous to those used in Chapters VIII and IX.h.h. it is lower than the value 75 m. The diagram then enables us to immediately find the pair of values V and PI corresponding to sea level. we can reach an efficiency of p = 0..P. making PI = 244 we have A A" the segment = 153 m.P. imposed as a condition. .h.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS The this 361 and of l diagram are easily found with scales of W. this makes possible the immediate determination of the maximum speed which can be reached.) and the propeller efficiency. If we wish to study its climbing speed it is of speeds.815 X 300 = 244 H.p.. as it should always be. the characteristics of the engine and propeller. Thus power case is it is necessary to know the of the engine (which in our 300 H. which represents ^max. then the maximum useful power is 0.p. Then our airplane can fly at speeds between 72 and 153 m.h. supposing..

is developed at 1800 revolutions per power We 310 300 290 2&0 270 260 BO 240 230 220 210 200 190 I&O 13 14 15 16 15 R. 228. on the other hand.362 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION mum Let us suppose that the characteristics of the engine be see that the maxithe same as those given in Fig. certain ratio between the necessary to satisfy a translatory velocity of the air- .P. mum minute. of 300 H.815.p.m( Hundreds) FIG. 228. if we wish it is to reach the maxi- efficiency of P = 0.

propellers of the best known type a to-day.-3 10' iz V nD FIG. how- . 71 (Chapter VI). In Fig. with the indica- tion of the values V -~ = P and v corresponding to the value of maximum efficiency.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS^ 363 plane and the peripheric velocity of the propeller. 229 are shown the values of the maximum obtainable efficiencies with 10 . 229. which is repeated in Fig. adopting as units.

11-4 X 10. .12 Knowing that V = 153 and P = 300 H.p. whose values are defined by the preceding equations. Since the of revolutions it number of the engine.h.. it is necessary to know the characteristic curve of the propeller family to which it belongs. " j. and 28.we have seen that 7max = 153 m. we have as unknowns n. r. the diagrams of Fig.000 ft. Let the characteristics of a family to which our propeller belongs be those given in the logarithmic diagram of Fig. P .000. have the same characteristics (see Chapter IX). D ' . case to connect the propeller directly with the crank-shaft. found is very near to the be convenient in our average R. -I 10 - 2 ' 2 X 1Q . Since we want .h.P. XIII.m.000.m. 24. and XIV. It should be remembered that all propellers having the same blade profile and the same ratio between pitch and diameter. 230.p. p = 0.p. and feet for ever. this purpose the diagrams have been drawn in Fig. 7. Then with the same criterions which have been explained in Chapters. will Having obtained the propeller.815 we find eter of the propeller. m.92 feet. for V. 229 allow us to obtain the number of revolutions and the diamIn fact f or p = 0. D and p. 16.35 feet.p. for For instance. for P. it is possible to draw the diagram of pP 2 as a function of V for any altitude. H.P. 230. IX. for n. Solving these equations we obtain: D = p n = 1690 revolutions per minute. and consequently .364 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION p and D.815. the altitudes 0. and = 9.

Tn:p. 231 the diagrams of P 2 of the same heights. with a corresponding useful This depends upon the fact that a proof 225 H.h. drawn from which it is seen that the maximum velocity at sea level is only 150 m.-h. By power . 232 have been using these diagrams those of Fig.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 365 p which give the values IV J-J ^ corresponding to these altitudes and in Fig.p.P. FIG. 230. 4X10" 3 6x10 3 8xlO~ 3 lOxlO" 3 12x10" I4*IO~ 3 ifr 60 I i i i 70 i 80 i i 1 1 1 1 i 1 90 1 1 100 1 1 1 150 I 200 I I i i I 1 1 J i i I I V.

although .366 peller AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION has been directly connected which should have been used with a reduction gear having a ratio of TOQQ* We will immediately see that if we wish to adopt a direct connection it is more convenient to choose a propeller which.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 367 .

ities From ~ the diagram of (Fig. to first it is capable. t v = f(H) it is easy to obtain that of its = f(H) and therefore by integration.18. 234a). 227 and 230 we find with easy trials and by successive approximation that the most suitable propeller will have a diameter of 7.. the height of 28. in order to compare it to that of a smaller diameter. /(#). in 3000 seconds.. of diameter are at at 16. number and therefore as = 1. it velocity is equal to 29. 148 m. The diagrams of Fig. in 50 minutes. per second.000 at 24.p. is equal to 1.368 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION belonging to the same family.h. By using the diagram of Figs.h.000 150 m.92 ft. the airplane can reach a height of 28. the behavior of the propeller having a diameter of study 7. which gives the time of climbing can be seen that with this particular propeller.92 zontal velocities at the various altitudes with the propeller ft.65 ft.h.5 ft.000 ft. 138 m. ft. 232 show that the maximum hori- of which of 7... 144 m. equal to a little more second. per minute.000 ft.p. that is. we obtain that of (Fig. however.p. 233. is of smaller dimensions so as to permit the engine to reach the most advantageous number of revolutions and therefore to develop all the power It is interesting. than 100 ft. a pitch of about .000 ft.h. ft.p. These velocare plotted in Fig. Let us now suppose that a propeller is adopted of such diameter as to permit the engine to reach its maximum It = of revolutions.7 per that is. at 28. 2346). These diagrams allow us to obtain the differences pP 2 PI and therefore to compute the values of the maximum climbing velocities v at the various heights.000 ft. must then be considered as the ceiling of our airplane if equipped with the above propeller. on the ground the ascending At 28. ft.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 30 369 * 25 20 15 \ 10 10000 20000 30000 H=F+. FIG. 233. .

.370 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 0.6 30000 3200 2400 1600 &00 10000 30000 30000 H=Ft (*) FIG. 234.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 371 .

.372 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 35 30 25 20 15 10 10000 20000 30000 H=Fh FIG. 236.

-H 373 pe A 0. FIG.2 10000 ZOOOO 30000 3ZOO 24-00 1600 500 10000 ZOOOO H=Ft. .5 0.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS . 30000 . 237.3 r= n 0.4 O (D (f) ? 0.6 0.

this condition as Practically. which the airplane could lift. arises: is decidedly better than the one.P. ft. 238) for our airplane at the point corresponding to 244 H.000 156 155 150 144 m. of velocities. ft. is reached in 2400 seconds.P.p.815. the airplane cannot lift itself in it is necessary to have a certain excess of power in order to leave the ground.h. 236 = f(H) and = f(H) have been t plotted in figures and 237a& respectively. per second = 222 ft.. gives 7 = 132 m. The diagram of Fig. For such a propeller = f(H) and the logarithmic diagrams of P P 2 the diagram v . 28. those of 235. The corresponding velocity is measured by segment BD which.000 ft. The diagrams velocities are of Fig. however. at 16.. Supposing p = 0.p.p. The question now What is maximum load that can be lifted with our airplane? It is therefore necessary to suppose the efficiency of the propeller to be known.000 at 24. 235 show that the new maximum at ft.p. that is. in only 40 The diagram of Fig. the ceiling has become greater than 28.p. and which in our case would be about 7300 Ib. per minute. therefore. m.. then the maximum useful available power will be 244 H. Let us again examine the diagram A = /(1. minutes. read on the scales of velocity. .h. 236 shows that at an altitude of v = 3.000 at 28. m.. ft.h. The second the first propeller. on the scale of powers. 47 A) (Fig.000 ft.7 ft.000 ft. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION This propeller is the one for which the static analysis was given in the preceding chapter. 237 finally shows how the height of 28. that is..h.374 9 ft. draw a perpendicular to meet tangent t in B drawn from the diagram parallel to the scale From B draw the parallel BC to the scale of Point C gives the maximum -theoretical load powers. m.h.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 375 .

drawing from A.h. ft. V be obtained. Let us now study what the effect would be of a diminu- pendicular until '. to meet tangent t in B draw the parallel to the scale of power. H= for l 60. to 214.685.000 ft. from 0' raise the periu f f . therefore in this 10. 12.815 has been adopted. 239 have been drawn. that is. lifting surface is reduced from respectively. the parallel p to the scale of velocity. 178. . that sq.. and which in our The corresponding velocity is case is about 4100 Ib. . maximum scale of of drawing the tangent t parallel to the from each of the various curves the points tangency which determine the minimum velocities will velocities.P. let us then suppose that in each case a propeller having the maximum efficiency of 0. from C' draw the parallel to 00' up to C" this point defines the value of the maximum load which our airplane could lift up to 10. tion of the lifting surface. ft.5 H. the point which corresponds to this power. Now supposing this load is 14.376 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Supposing then we fix the condition that the airplane As should be able to sustain itself at a height of 10. For each of such hypotheses will be necessary to calculate the new values of A and A the results of these calculations are grouped in Table 47.685. per up to 10.P.000 we will have p becomes 0.815X0.P. 153 it and 134 sq. From origin of the diagram draw a segment 00' parallel to the scale of and which measures ju = 0. A =265 sq. Until now we had supposed a load of 8 increased Ib. and 16 Ib. it meets the horizontal line in C' drawn from BB'.5 case the useful power H.685X300 = 167. per sq. ft. successively. we had ft. ft.720 log = 0. By means of this table the diagrams of Fig. on the intersection with this line and the diagram we shall have the point which defines the . measured by B'D and is equal to 116 m.000 ft. Let us then draw a perpendicular from A' corre- H = From B sponding to 167. the 265 sq. The useful power will be 244 H. that is.p.

DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS 377 .

it also increases minimum power therefore a diminution in the climbing velocity ceiling.5 + a) Table 48 gives the values of the maximum and minivelocities corresponding to the various wing surfaces. This table sustains the point that while a reduction of mum surface increases the the values of the increase in the Figure 239 also clearly shows that a diminution of surface requires an maximum velocities. and and in the TABLE 48 . minimum velocities. necessary for flying. = A = 10~"(5A 132.378 A = io-"XA AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 47 a .

75 Ib. In the first assumption. . A. 1. per linear inch. with its component L stresses the vertical trusses. constructed so as not to interfere with the deformation of the wing truss.82 Ib. (Fig. The distribution of the load upon the wings must be made in such a manner that the reactions on the spars will be in the same ratio as those assumed in the computation. For the example of the preceding chapters it is well to remember that these reactions were due to the following loading: Upper Upper Lower Lower front spar rear spar front spar rear spar 379 1. During the test. per linear inch. and with its component D stresses the horizontal trusses.CHAPTER XXI SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS I The ultimate check on static computations giving the resistance to the various parts of the airplane.62 Ib. 240). In general customary to make separate tests (A) on the wing truss. is made either by tests to destruction of the various elements of the structure or by static tests it is upon the machine as. 1. the inverted machine is loaded with sand bags. so that the weight of the sand exerts the same action on the wings as the air reaction does in flight. a whole. per linear inch. Sand Tests on the Wing Truss. the .98 Ib. other loaded as in inverted flight. so that weight W. 1. In both cases the machine is placed so as to have an inclination of 25 per cent. per linear inch. the fuselage is supported by special trestles. (B) on the fuselage (C) on the landing gear and (D) on the control system. in the second assumption the machine is loaded with sand bags in the normal flying position. Two sets of tests are usually made on a wing truss to determine its strength one assuming the machine loaded as in normal flight.

380 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION .

A 15 35 35 30 30 25 ZO 20 20 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 LOADS IN POUNDS. These sand bags must be so placed that beside the preceding conditions. not exceeding a weight of 25 Ib. . in order to facilitate UPPER RIB A 15 35 40 35 35 30 25 20 20 15 10 10 10 5 5 5 LOADS IN POUNDS LOWER RIB. 241. they give a loading satisfying handling. FIG.DETERMINATION OF THE FLYING CHARACTERISTICS The sand is 381 usually contained in bags of various dimensions.

which gravitates upon the vertical trusses and therefore must be added to the weight of shown the sand. TABLE 49 . b. UPPER WING FIG. and tables 49 and 50. 242 and 243. has practical loading.382 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION for the diagram upper and lower rib analogous to those in Fig. while in actual flight to the air reaction. below the theoretical diagrams. 10 and 25 In the test corresponding to normal flight. 241 a. it has an opposite direction These weights must be taken into consideration in determining the sand load correspondin g to a coefficient of 1 Before starting a static test it is customary to prepare a diagram of each wing with a table showing the loads corresponding to the various coefficients. the machine being inverted. . 242. it is necessary to consider the weight of the wing truss. For the airplane of our example. In these figures. the Ib. using sand bags of 5. been sketched. these diagrams are shown in Figs.

9 I 2Q.9 . following the preceding instructions for a total load corresponding to a coefficient of 3. as the deformations are very small. FIG. Start loading the sand bags on the wings. Then proceed as follows 1. 243. minus the weight of the wing truss. elastic curve below a are subjected in order to determine their elastic curves In general the determination of an coefficient of 3 is disregarded. Naturally.4- 383 I 24O 24-.O LOWER WING.SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS 13. so as to compute the : effective deformation. it is necessary to take a preliminary reading of the intersections of the graduated rulers with the copper wire. . TABLE 50 Factor safety Table of loads for sand test During the progress of the test it is of maximum importance to measure the deformation to which the spars under various loadings.Q i eo. To measure the deformations small graduated rulers are usually attached to the spars in front of which a stretched copper wire is kept as a reference line. before applying the load. Z4.

Take another reading. take a reading of all the rulers. The various of the deformations with the load and those after readings basis unloading. B. Unload the wing truss gradually and completely. etc. it was seen that the principal flight. is approached. Take another reading with the machine unloaded. 5. etc. For the determination of the coefficient of safety the sum of the weights of these masses is taken as a basis. As the maximum coefficient for which the machine has been computed. so on for coefficients of 5. 6. portion of the fuselage. Unload the machine completely. 8. At the same time a load equal to the breaking load of the elevator itself is placed corresponding to the point at which the elevator is fixed. Load the machine again so as to reach a total load 1 equal to four times that corresponding to a coefficient of minus the weight of the wing truss. 244 clearly shows how the . 6. and that corresponding to which the ma- And chine will brake.. Consequently all the elements are had by means of which the unit stresses in the various parts of the wing truss under different loadings can be computed.384 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 2. test is prepared. 5. 7. Furthermore the deformations with the load. Sand Test of the Fuselage. and subsequently loading it with sand bags and lead weights so as to produce loads equal to 3. are usually put in tabular forms and serve as a for plotting the elastic curves. 7. When this entire load has been placed on the wings. it is not safe to take further readings as the falling of the load which follows the braking may endanger the observer. stresses are those pro- duced in made by suspending Therefore the fuselage sand test is usually it by the four fittings of the main diagonals of the wings. to equilibrate the moment due to this load the usual procedure is to anchor the forward Fig. times the weight of the various masses contained in the fuselage. 3. Take a new reading with the machine unloaded. In computing the fusel- age. 4. allow the computation of deformations sustained both by struts and diagonals. 4.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS 385 .

246. under the wheels. 245. and the second time with the nose of the machine on the ground (Fig. of loading which may Weighing the Airplane. with full load. and under the propeller hub for the case of Fig. Sand Test of Control Surfaces. Three scales are necessary for each weighing. the total weight will be W W W" W = W + W" + W" The vertical axis v' divides the distance passing through the center of gravity I between the axis of the wheels and . metry it is The contained in the plane of symthis it it. the first time with the tail on the ground (Fig. but also to determine the position of the center of gravity both with full load and with the various hypothesis. whose possible to plot the diagram of area fWdf gives the total work the shock absorbing system is capable of absorbing. " and to denote the weights read on the Using scales under the wheels and for that read on the scale supporting the tail skid. corresponding to each value of load W. and loaded with the criterion explained in Chapter XVIII. The load assumed coefficient is as a basis for the determination of the taken equal to the total weight of the airplane If. and one under the tail skid for the case of Fig. This test is made with the control surfaces mounted on the fuselage. W II The weighing of the airplane is not only to determine whether the effective necessary weights correspond to the assumed ones. the corresponding vertical deformation / is determined. is center of gravity of the airplane. it is as a function of /. D. AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Sand Test of the Landing Gear. 245). This is done with the landing gear in a position corresponding to the line of flight and by loading it with lead weights. To determine suffices to determine two vertical lines which contain and for this only necessary to weigh the aeroplane twice. two 246). happen in flight.386 C.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS

387

388

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

the point of support of the tail skid into two parts Xi and #2 so that

W + W"

for

which

W"

i

i/r////

SAND TESTS WEIGHINGFLIGHT TESTS

389

390

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
since
Xl

and

+ X2 =

I

and

W+W
=
I

"

+ W" =

W

we

shall

have
~\K7"'

x1

X

W

Let us proceed analogously for the case of Fig. 246. In this manner two lines v' and v" are obtained whose intersection defines the center of gravity. To eliminate eventual errors and to obtain a check

on the

work

it is

convenient to determine the third line

v'",

by

balancing the machine on the wheels; v"' will then be the vertical which passes through the axis of the wheels (Fig. The three lines v', v" and v'" must meet in a point 247).
(Fig. 248).

Ill

The

flight tests

include two categories of tests, that

is;

A. Stability and maneuverability tests. B. Efficiency test. A. The purpose of the stability tests is to verify the balance of aeroplane when (a) flying with engine going, and when volplaning, (6) in normal flight and during maneuvers.
.

Chapter XI has stated the necessary requisites for a wellbalanced airplane, therefore a repetition need not be given.

SAND TESTS WEIGHING FLIGHT TESTS

391

392

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
said of maneuverability tests,

The same may be
is

whose

to verify the good and rapid maneuverability of the scope airplane without an excessive effort by the pilot. of the efficiency tests is to determine the characteristics of the airplane, that is, the ascensional flying and horizontal velocities corresponding to various loads and

B.

The scope

eypes of propellers which might eventually be wanted for
txperiments. Table 51 gives examples of tables that show which factors of the efficiency tests are the most important to determine.

APPENDIX
following tables are given for the convenience of the designer: Tables 52, 53, 54, 55 and 56 giving the squares

The

and cubes of velocities. Table 57 giving the cubes of revoluTable 58 giving the 5th tions per minute and per second.
powers of the diameters in
TABLE
52.

feet.

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES

393

394

AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
TABLE
53.

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES

APPENDIX TABLE 54. 395 TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES .

TABLE OF SQUARES AND CUBES OP VELOCITIES .396 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 55.

397 TABLE OP SQUARES AND CUBES OF VELOCITIES .APPENDIX TABLE 56.

TABLE OF CUBES OF R.P. AND R. .398 AIRPLANE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TABLE 57.s.M.p.

COIOI> o^ T-H cq_ 10^ T-H T-H^ a^ c^cocOT-ioooOT-Haj <N Tt< O T-HCi^OOOO^fT-icOCOOO cO^b-OOCOI>-Tt tOcO CO CO CO ^^ Oi | T-H "^t* C^l C^l t>- COOSOit^-toOcOO t>T-H 1^ T-H CO CO T t t>T I 1 I O3 tO 00 T-H o T-H Tt^ -^ to GO <N r^ Oi o COOOOOr^(MtOOOCiiOl^-O T-HCOCOOcOtOOOiOOO CO tO l> T I 0^ to CO 1^ GO O5 T-I t^- 00 1> T-H CO IO O O 00 O O rH GO O CO ^ <M " T-H T-H <M 00 CO T-t t^ t^ CO CO to tOCOI>OOO5OT-H(McO .APPENDIX OT-HT-HOSCOT-IT-HOSOO o~ I 399 COt>OOOOOCO(NOOCO -~ cT to" i ft^-^HOiCOCOCOOOOi CO IO CO 00 l>- 00 rfrl CO IO T-( CO T-H co to i> o <NCO<NCOCOI>.O<N 001>.COail>OrtiO OOIMOCOOOCOOO <MtOCi"*l<M^OT-H T-H <N CO to l> !>-T-HOOdCOiO''^'^GOtOO OOOOOOO(MC<JCOCOTt<00 CO CO T-HOCO"*tr^lO"*OOT-HT-(O5 Q C5 O (M CO CO rH C^ CO "^ CO O5 t^. O iO CO O CO t>.CO rt< ^^ O5 CO CO (N iO rfi CO <N CO oo o oo ci >O CO iO 00 iO (N CO 00 O O CQI tOC^Ol>-T-HCOOI>>OCOCO rH<N'*oOCO'-HT-icOcO<N T-H CO T^ CO O5 COCOOT 'ooooiocococoT-i S s -> io T-Tco 5jri>^is^T!-rirroo~crTjr I> <M Tt^ Oi T-H (N CO TtH CO GO O O ^ 1-1 CO T-H O CT (N* r-T co" T-H" O^ O Cf T-H T-H T-H cf CO~ (M O5 O5 CO T-H T-H rH (M Tj< CO T^T-HOOJI^COT-HOOT-H o^ t^ co^ tq_ (NCOO5COC^O.

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for airplane. elements of. 19 sand test of. 51 function of. 1 of incidence. 189 speed. 191-194 Compressors. 214 Cubes. increasing the. Drag. 89 of. 256-258 curve method spar analy- Cables. 358-378 Flying in the wind. 273 position of. 211 construction Air of. pitching. 306-311 work absorbed by. 33 Dihedral angle. 247-256 Fifth powers table. 29 Flying characteristic determination. 188-203 Ceiling. 151-159 Flying tests. 51 center of gravity of. direction. 273 Climbing. 19 E Efficiency. 20 Engine. 226 characteristics of. -101 Ailerons. Canard type. tables of. 70 Control surfaces. 15 Elastic cord. at high altitudes. efficiency. 209 Dispersion. 1 of. uses of. 204-220 factors modifying. 314 Flat turning. 2 19 of sustaining group. 32 Biplane. definition Drift. 234 Cruising radius. 392 . angle of. 12 structure. 399 Fin computation. 35 pump uses pressure feed. factors influencing lift- drag efficiency. 322 function. 58 Aluminum. 161-166 of B Banking. 19 principal. 73 Distribution of masses. 68-71 types of. 19 rolling. 257-258 Elevator. 130-133 time of. 393-397 401 Fabrics. 31 angle of. 22 size of. 20 computation. 51 influence of air density on. 102 problems of. 27 195-203 Center of gravity. system.INDEX D Aerodynamical Laboratory. 35 Dimensions of airplane. 87. 89 Axis. 225 splicing. 56 sis. 234 234 Angle of drift. effects of. 90 Aerodynamics. 286 Copper.

39 Motive quality. 96-98 Rib construction. 168 . 6 landing gear. 47-48 binding of. 45 effect of. 342-357 Great loads. 16 Landing gear. 74 width R Incidence. 1 Principal axis. 384-385 law of variation value of. 386 stresses on. tank. 332 324-334 Oil tank. 137 Flying with power on. 39 K G Gasoline. multiple. 386 fuselage. 1 of. Rubber cord. 167-187 Marginal losses. 334-342 position of. 58 Pitot tube. 36 static analysis of. 72-85 efficiency of. 211 45-46 in. 47 Spar analysis. 390 INDEX Materials for Aviation. test. 39-40 value of for. blades. 79-85 75 104 111-114 pitch. spar analysis static analysis of. 58 types of. 74 profile of. 46 sand test of. 204-220 types of. 386 2 wing truss. 19 Propeller. control surface. Glues. of. 222-234 Radiators. 2 efficiency of. position of. 102-114 angle spiral. Sand 2 of. 10 means to increase. 261-275 piping for. Fuselage. 44 Leading edge. 276-288 Speed. 73 blades. 67 fuselage. 260 static analysis of. 221-260 Metacentric curve. 391 stability. 88-89 Iron and steel in aviation. types of. 315 6 Lift-drag ratio. of. 6 function Lift. feed.402 Flying maneuvrability. 47 Rudder. 36 balanced. 91 Planning the project. 379-384 Shock absorbers. 61-67 types of. feed. 115-133 Forces acting on airplane in flight. 37-43 reverse curve 39 sand test of. Monocoque Mufflers. 134-150 uses of. angle of. 60 Pressure zone. 58-60 Glide. 49 energy absorbed by. 44-50 analysis of. 62 Resistance coefficients. 384 of. 46-47 type of. 165 Multiplane surfaces. 47-48 M Maneuvrability.

analysis of. 12 Truss analysis. 276-314 Varnishes. 232-233 of. 225 Wood. function of. Stabilizer. 259 Veneers. of control surfaces. 73 W Weighing the airplane. 212 shape of. 111-114 Squares. 278. 121 Tie rods. tables. 9 elements of. 294-296 tables. 50 uses of. steel. 403 Transversal stability. 226 Trailing edge. 229-231 Triplane. 297-300 1 Sustentation phenomena. 224 streamline. 231 of weights for round. 20 function of. 246-254 computations. 50 Tail system computations. 379 unit stress on. 306-314 Wires. 314-323 Tandem Tangent surfaces. 230 tables of streamline. 139 intrinsic. 12. 234-254 characteristics of various. 141 zones of. system. 225 Struts. 141 147 140 transversal. effect 134-150 directional. effect of.INDEX Spiral gliding. 241-254 tables for Haskelite. 56 239 . 156 Wing. 389 Wind. tables of. Synchronizers. 20 Static analysis. 147-150 Useful load increase. 3 sand test of. 30 of. 288-292 Tubing. 393-397 Stability. table of moment of inertia for round. on stability. lateral. 49. 259 finishing. 322 U Unit loading. 9 236- Transmission gear. 211 flying. 137 20 279 mechanical. truss. 259 Streamline wire. fittings. action. efficiency. 276 Tail skid. effects of. computation dimension of. 315-323 of fuselage. element of. 324-334 of main planes. tables for round. 18 stretching.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .

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