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  • BOOK I
  • MARS
  • BOOK V
  • BOOK X
  • Buckles
  • 1.E.1
  • 1.E.8
  • 1.F.3
  • Section 3

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Iliad of Homer by Homer This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at http://www.gutenberg.org/license Title: The Iliad of Homer Author: Homer Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook 6130] Language: English


The Iliad of Homer

Translated by Alexander Pope, with notes by the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, M.A., F.S.A. and Flaxman's Designs. 1899

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUDING NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xlv 3 41 85 111 137 181 209 233 261 295 319 355 377 415 441 473 513 545 575 593 615 641 667 707 747

HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. . THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEPTUNE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, DISGUISED, INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. . . . . . . . VENUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map, titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the Plain of Troy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, WOUNDED IN THE HAND, CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. . DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. . . . . . . . JUNO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. . 6 13 16 23 27 32 35 38 39 43 66 103 105 108 109 113 135 154 155 175 178 198 201


The Iliad of Homer

BOWS AND BOW CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 IRIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.221 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS. . . . . . . . . . 231 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PLUTO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 GREEK GALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 PROSERPINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . 359 GREEK ALTAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . 380 GREEK EARRINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. . 427 GREEK SHIELD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 BACCHUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. . . . . . . . . 470 CASTOR AND POLLUX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Buckles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 DIANA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 ÆSCULAPIUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . 525 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM. . . . . . . . . . . 543

ix THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET. . . . . . . TRIPOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS. . . . . THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. . HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. . . . . . . . CENTAUR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. . . . THE BATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANDROMACHE FAINTING ON THE WALL. . . . . . THE FUNERAL PILE OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . . CERES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR'S BODY AT THE CAR OF ACHILLES. . . . THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRIS ADVISES PRIAM TO OBTAIN THE BODY OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUNERAL OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 552 . 556 . 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 564 577 592 597 614 628 662 663 677 705 709 710

. 715 . 744


Scepticism is as much the result of knowledge, as knowledge is of scepticism. To be content with what we at present know, is, for the most part, to shut our ears against conviction; since, from the very gradual character of our education, we must continually forget, and emancipate ourselves from, knowledge previously acquired; we must set aside old notions and embrace fresh ones; and, as we learn, we must be daily unlearning something which it has cost us no small labour and anxiety to acquire. And this difficulty attaches itself more closely to an age in which progress has gained a strong ascendency over prejudice, and in which persons and things are, day by day, finding their real level, in lieu of their conventional value. The same principles which have swept away traditional abuses, and which are making rapid havoc among the revenues of sinecurists, and stripping the thin, tawdry veil from attractive superstitions, are working as actively in literature as in society. The credulity of one writer, or the partiality of another, finds as powerful a touchstone and as wholesome a chastisement in the healthy scepticism of a temperate class of antagonists, as the dreams of conservatism, or the impostures of pluralist sinecures in the Church. History and tradition, whether of ancient or comparatively recent times, are subjected to very different handling from that which the indulgence or credulity of former ages could allow. Mere statements are jealously watched, and the motives of the writer form as important an ingredient in the analysis of his history, as the facts he records. Probability is a powerful and troublesome


The Iliad of Homer


test; and it is by this troublesome standard that a large portion of historical evidence is sifted. Consistency is no less pertinacious and exacting in its demands. In brief, to write a history, we must know more than mere facts. Human nature, viewed under an induction of extended experience, is the best help to the criticism of human history. Historical characters can only be estimated by the standard which human experience, whether actual or traditionary, has furnished. To form correct views of individuals we must regard them as forming parts of a great whole—we must measure them by their relation to the mass of beings by whom they are surrounded, and, in contemplating the incidents in their lives or condition which tradition has handed down to us, we must rather consider the general bearing of the whole narrative, than the respective probability of its details. It is unfortunate for us, that, of some of the greatest men, we know least, and talk most. Homer, Socrates, and Shakespere1
1 "What," says Archdeacon Wilberforce, "is the natural root of loyalty as distinguished from such mere selfish desire of personal security as is apt to take its place in civilized times, but that consciousness of a natural bond among the families of men which gives a fellow-feeling to whole clans and nations, and thus enlists their affections in behalf of those time-honoured representatives of their ancient blood, in whose success they feel a personal interest? Hence the delight when we recognize an act of nobility or justice in our hereditary princes

"'Tuque prior, tu parce genus qui ducis Olympo, Projice tela manu sanguis meus' "So strong is this feeling, that it regains an engrafted influence even when history witnesses that vast convulsions have rent and weakened it and the Celtic feeling towards the Stuarts has been rekindled in our own days towards the grand daughter of George the Third of Hanover. "Somewhat similar may be seen in the disposition to idolize those great lawgivers of man's race, who have given expression, in the immortal language of song, to the deeper inspirations of our nature. The thoughts of Homer or of Shakespere are the universal inheritance of the human race. In this mutual ground every man meets his brother, they have been bet forth by the providence of God to vindicate for all of us what nature could effect, and that, in these representatives of our race, we might recognize our common benefactors.'—Doctrine of the Incarnation, pp. 9, 10.



have, perhaps, contributed more to the intellectual enlightenment of mankind than any other three writers who could be named, and yet the history of all three has given rise to a boundless ocean of discussion, which has left us little save the option of choosing which theory or theories we will follow. The personality of Shakespere is, perhaps, the only thing in which critics will allow us to believe without controversy; but upon everything else, even down to the authorship of plays, there is more or less of doubt and uncertainty. Of Socrates we know as little as the contradictions of Plato and Xenophon will allow us to know. He was one of the dramatis personae in two dramas as unlike in principles as in style. He appears as the enunciator of opinions as different in their tone as those of the writers who have handed them down. When we have read Plato or Xenophon, we think we know something of Socrates; when we have fairly read and examined both, we feel convinced that we are something worse than ignorant. It has been an easy, and a popular expedient, of late years, to deny the personal or real existence of men and things whose life and condition were too much for our belief. This system—which has often comforted the religious sceptic, and substituted the consolations of Strauss for those of the New Testament—has been of incalculable value to the historical theorists of the last and present centuries. To question the existence of Alexander the Great, would be a more excusable act, than to believe in that of Romulus. To deny a fact related in Herodotus, because it is inconsistent with a theory developed from an Assyrian inscription which no two scholars read in the same way, is more pardonable, than to believe in the good-natured old king whom the elegant pen of Florian has idealized—Numa Pompilius. Scepticism has attained its culminating point with respect to Homer, and the state of our Homeric knowledge may be described as a free permission to believe any theory, provided we throw overboard all written tradition, concerning the author



The Iliad of Homer

or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey. What few authorities exist on the subject, are summarily dismissed, although the arguments appear to run in a circle. "This cannot be true, because it is not true; and, that is not true, because it cannot be true." Such seems to be the style, in which testimony upon testimony, statement upon statement, is consigned to denial and oblivion. It is, however, unfortunate that the professed biographies of Homer are partly forgeries, partly freaks of ingenuity and imagination, in which truth is the requisite most wanting. Before taking a brief review of the Homeric theory in its present conditions, some notice must be taken of the treatise on the Life of Homer which has been attributed to Herodotus. According to this document, the city of Cumae in Æolia, was, at an early period, the seat of frequent immigrations from various parts of Greece. Among the immigrants was Menapolus, the son of Ithagenes. Although poor, he married, and the result of the union was a girl named Critheis. The girl was left an orphan at an early age, under the guardianship of Cleanax, of Argos. It is to the indiscretion of this maiden that we "are indebted for so much happiness." Homer was the first fruit of her juvenile frailty, and received the name of Melesigenes, from having been born near the river Meles, in Boeotia, whither Critheis had been transported in order to save her reputation. "At this time," continues our narrative, "there lived at Smyrna a man named Phemius, a teacher of literature and music, who, not being married, engaged Critheis to manage his household, and spin the flax he received as the price of his scholastic labours. So satisfactory was her performance of this task, and so modest her conduct, that he made proposals of marriage, declaring himself, as a further inducement, willing to adopt her son, who, he asserted, would become a clever man, if he were carefully brought up." They were married; careful cultivation ripened the talents which nature had bestowed, and Melesigenes soon surpassed



his schoolfellows in every attainment, and, when older, rivalled his preceptor in wisdom. Phemius died, leaving him sole heir to his property, and his mother soon followed. Melesigenes carried on his adopted father's school with great success, exciting the admiration not only of the inhabitants of Smyrna, but also of the strangers whom the trade carried on there, especially in the exportation of corn, attracted to that city. Among these visitors, one Mentes, from Leucadia, the modern Santa Maura, who evinced a knowledge and intelligence rarely found in those times, persuaded Melesigenes to close his school, and accompany him on his travels. He promised not only to pay his expenses, but to furnish him with a further stipend, urging, that, "While he was yet young, it was fitting that he should see with his own eyes the countries and cities which might hereafter be the subjects of his discourses." Melesigenes consented, and set out with his patron, "examining all the curiosities of the countries they visited, and informing himself of everything by interrogating those whom he met." We may also suppose, that he wrote memoirs of all that he deemed worthy of preservation2 Having set sail from Tyrrhenia and Iberia, they reached Ithaca. Here Melesigenes, who had already suffered in his eyes, became much worse, and Mentes, who was about to leave for Leucadia, left him to the medical superintendence of a friend of his, named Mentor, the son of Alcinor. Under his hospitable and intelligent host, Melesigenes rapidly became acquainted with the legends respecting Ulysses, which afterwards formed the subject of the Odyssey. The inhabitants of Ithaca assert, that it was here that Melesigenes became blind, but the Colophomans make their city the seat of
Eikos de min aen kai mnaemoruna panton grapherthai. Vit. Hom. in Schweigh Herodot t. iv. p. 299, sq. Section 6. I may observe that this Life has been paraphrased in English by my learned young friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, and appended to my prose translation of the Odyssey. The present abridgement however, will contain all that is of use to the reader, for the biographical value of the treatise is most insignificant.



The Iliad of Homer

that misfortune. He then returned to Smyrna, where he applied himself to the study of poetry.3 But poverty soon drove him to Cumae. Having passed over the Hermaean plain, he arrived at Neon Teichos, the New Wall, a colony of Cumae. Here his misfortunes and poetical talent gained him the friendship of one Tychias, an armourer. "And up to my time," continued the author, "the inhabitants showed the place where he used to sit when giving a recitation of his verses, and they greatly honoured the spot. Here also a poplar grew, which they said had sprung up ever since Melesigenes arrived".4 But poverty still drove him on, and he went by way of Larissa, as being the most convenient road. Here, the Cumans say, he composed an epitaph on Gordius, king of Phrygia, which has however, and with greater probability, been attributed to
—I.e. both of composing and reciting verses for as Blair observes, "The first poets sang their own verses." Sextus Empir. adv. Mus. p. 360 ed. Fabric. Ou hamelei ge toi kai oi poiaetai melopoioi legontai, kai ta Omaerou epae to palai pros lyran aedeto. "The voice," observes Heeren, "was always accompanied by some instrument. The bard was provided with a harp on which he played a prelude, to elevate and inspire his mind, and with which he accompanied the song when begun. His voice probably preserved a medium between singing and recitation; the words, and not the melody were regarded by the listeners, hence it was necessary for him to remain intelligible to all. In countries where nothing similar is found, it is difficult to represent such scenes to the mind; but whoever has had an opportunity of listening to the improvisation of Italy, can easily form an idea of Demodocus and Phemius."—Ancient Greece, p. 94. 4 "Should it not be, since my arrival? asks Mackenzie, observing that "poplars can hardly live so long". But setting aside the fact that we must not expect consistency in a mere romance, the ancients had a superstitious belief in the great age of trees which grew near places consecrated by the presence of gods and great men. See Cicero de Legg II I, sub init., where he speaks of the plane tree under which Socrates used to walk and of the tree at Delos, where Latona gave birth to Apollo. This passage is referred to by Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. N. T. p. 490, ed. de Pinedo. I omit quoting any of the dull epigrams ascribed

pp. the pension was denied. c. They avowed their willingness to support him in the measure he proposed. Justice Talfourd rightly observes. Hom. 127. p. 38 in Encycl." says the writer. 62. Having made the speech. but one man observed that "if they were to feed Homers.5 Arrived at Cumae. Encouraged by this favourable reception. Coleridge. and procured him an audience in the council. See Welcker. he retired. "Melesigenes acquired the name of Homer. who aimed at the reputation of poetical genius. and Mackenzie's note. Casaub. p. Having to Homer for. Homerous doxei trephein autois. and allowed him a pittance. Cf. he declared that. and left them to debate respecting the answer to be given to his proposal. they would be encumbered with a multitude of useless people. by Diogenes Laert. as Mr. he would render their city most gloriously renowned. l. Homer was destined to experience another literary distress. on condition of the verses of the poet passing in his name." "From this circumstance. 7 Os ei tous." Lit of Greece. kept Homer in his own house. and delighted all by the charms of his poetry. Vit. 6 I trust I am justified in employing this as an equivalent for the Greek leschai."7 With a love of economy. omilon pollon te kai achreoin exousin. One Thestorides. Vit. The etymology has been condemned by recent scholars. Epische Cyclus. ed. p. with the purport of which our author has forgotten to acquaint us. he frequented the converzationes6 of the old men. xvii Cleobulus of Lindus. At Phocoea.INTRODUCTION. enteuthen de kai tounoma Homeros epekrataese to Melaesigenei apo taes symphoraes oi gar Kumaioi tous tuphlous Homerous legousin. [xiii] . p. "The authenticity of these fragments depends upon that of the pseudo Herodotean Life of Homer. p. 5 It is quoted as the work of Cleobulus. 311. from which they are taken. Metrop. for the Cumans call blind men Homers. Classic Poets. and the poet vented his disappointment in a wish that Cumoea might never produce a poet capable of giving it renown and glory. 317. xiv. which shows how similar the world has always been in its treatment of literary men. Cleob. The greater part of the assembly seemed favourable to the poet's demand. if they would allow him a public maintenance.

who."8 Homer continued his career of difficulty and distress. No vessel happened then to be setting sail thither. nothing is more unintelligible than the human heart. of the many things hidden from the knowledge of man.. acquainted him with the fact that Thestorides was pursuing a profitable livelihood by the recital of the very same poems. ouden aphrastoteron peletai noou anthropoisin. by his breach of hospitality. of Lit. ii. At his departure. like some would-be-literary publishers. and drove them away from Homer. The dogs barked on his approach. sqq. vi. Section 3. sq. Homer went on. For or some time he stood wondering how a blind man should have reached such a place alone. thnetoisin anoiston poleon per. p. reached the little hamlet of Pithys. During his stay at Phocoea. vol. and what could be his design in coming. He then Thestorides. Ibid. pp. 284. until some Chian merchants.xviii The Iliad of Homer [xiv] collected sufficient poetry to be profitable. and he prevailed upon the seamen to allow him to accompany them. neglected the man whose brains he had sucked. 272. Gr. c. which faces that island. 8 . a town of Ionia. Homer is said to have composed the Little Iliad. which we will continue in the words of our author. Lit. Homer is said to have observed: "O Thestorides. and prayed that he might be able to expose the imposture of Thestorides. had drawn down the wrath of Jove the Hospitable. l. ran up quickly. Homer fortunately met with a person who had known him in Phocoea. Here he met with an adventure. 315. attracted by the cries of some goats that were pasturing. 358. Glaucus (for that was the name of the goat-herd) heard his voice. This at once determined him to set out for Chios. See Muller's Hist. after some difficulty. and the Phocoeid. At Erythrae. struck by the similarity of the verses they heard him recite. he invoked a favourable wind. and left him. but he found one ready to Start for Erythrae. and he cried out.. and Mure. called off his dogs. p. by whose assistance he at length. Welcker. Having embarked. "Having set out from Pithys. Thestorides. 132.

Gr. Bibl. they banqueted10 afresh on conversation. nor thief nor wild beast will approach the fold. ed. Themist. This is so pretty a picture of early manners and hospitality. bade him sup. and he took him. he showed some tact in identifying Homer with certain events described in his poems.9 "The dogs. Glaucus resolved to go to his master. promising to return quickly. and blamed Glaucus for his stupidity in taking in and feeding maimed and enfeebled persons. See the fourteenth book. p. and of what he stood in need. xix went up to him. according to their usual habit. whilst they watch. In fact. a place near the farm. and having lit a fire. However. 168. since.INTRODUCTION. vi. and finding his mate. and how he had come to desolate places and untrodden spots. my friend. and marvelled at its author. p. by recounting to him the whole history of his misfortunes. he left Homer at home. Tim. logois gar estia. A common metaphor. prythee attend to my behest. and acquaint him with his meeting with Homer. that it is almost a pity to find that it is obviously a copy from the Odyssey. and inquired who he was. So Plato calls the parties conversing daitumones. 522 A. moved him with compassion. and telling of the cities he had visited. A 9 . Orat. kept barking at the stranger. First give the dogs their supper at the doors of the hut: for so it is better. or estiatores. Athenaeus vii p 275. Whereupon Homer addressed Glaucus thus: O Glaucus. 374. Having left the goats in charge of a fellow-servant. he told him the whole story respecting Homer and his journey. Choricius in Fabric. instead of eating. T. viii. but on the following morning. Homer. Having finished supper. i. Cf. and led him to his cot. he bade him bring the stranger to him. whoever was the author of this fictitious biography. At length they retired to rest. He paid little attention to what he said. Glaucus was pleased with the advice. and xvi. 851. P. 10 Dia logon estionto. Homer narrating his wanderings. Petav So diaegaemasi sophois omou kai terpnois aedio taen Thoinaen tois hestiomenois epoiei. and in eliciting from them the germs of something like a personal narrative. p. Having arrived at Bolissus.

The area is bounded by a low rim. as usual. where a view of the spot is given of which the author candidly says. which has already been mentioned:— "In his poetical compositions Homer displays great gratitude It was at Bolissus. and in the house of this Chian citizen. and about five yards over. car etant alle seul pour l'examiner je perdis mon crayon. et je fus oblige de m'en fier a ma memoire. Je ne crois cependant pas avoir trop a me plaindre d'elle en cette occasion. The whole is hewn out of the mountain. He married. the other married a Chian.— "Je ne puis repondre d'une exactitude scrupuleuse dans la vue generale que j'en donne. vol. or Battle of the Frogs and Mice. and probably of the most remote antiquity. or seat. without reason. p. She is represented. 92. one of whom died single." says Chandler. It is on the coast. Homer enjoyed considerable success as a teacher. P." 11 . vol.11 Besides the satisfaction of driving the impostor Thestorides from the island. and the Chian persuaded him to remain. i. referred to in the Voyage Pittoresque dans la Grece. The shape is oval. i. Conversation soon showed that the stranger was a man of much cleverness and general knowledge. 12 Chandler. In the town of Chios he established a school where he taught the precepts of poetry. and in the centre is the image of the goddess. the Epicichlidia. and on the back. indistinct. The chair has a lion carved on each side. northward. and appears to have been an open temple of Cybele. 61. that Homer realised a considerable fortune. and bade him follow him. and some other minor works. sitting. the School of Homer. The following passage betrays the same tendency to connect the personages of the poems with the history of the poet. "To this day. at some distance from the city." So successful was this school. formed on the top of a rock.xx The Iliad of Homer [xv] Glaucus told Homer what had taken place. and had two daughters. the head and an arm wanting. is rude. assuring him that good fortune would be the result.12 "the most curious remain is that which has been named. that Homer is said to have written the Batrachomyomachia. Travels. and to undertake the charge of his children.

in brief.14 he sent out for Samos. and for the character of Mentor itself. not to vouch for their reasonableness 13 A more probable reason for this companionship. and many persons advised him to visit Greece. xxx. and arrived at the island of Ios. now Ino. t.15 Such is. that it is scarcely necessary to point them out in detail. Mythol. He also testifies his gratitude to Phemius. In the spring he sailed for Athens. Xyland. 14 Vit. he earned a subsistence. it is said. de Hom.13 in return for the care taken of him when afflicted with blindness. Hom. whither his reputation had now extended. de Deo Socrat. he was handsomely received. and so broad are the evidences of its historical worthlessness. patient. Heraclid. the substance of the earliest life of Homer we possess. in the Odyssey. where he fell extremely ill. who had met with him in Chios. 15. Apul. s. Minerva. Section 28. In doing so." His celebrity continued to increase. of whose city he had hitherto made no mention. Hom. and learned—but by no means consistent—series of investigations has led. of Gale's Opusc. Halic. It is said that his death arose from vexation. viz. Alleg. Here being recognized by a Samian. with whose children he was very popular. whose name he has inserted in his poem as the companion of Ulysses. Opp. visiting the houses of the rich. xxi towards Mentor of Ithaca. I profess to bring forward statements. made some additions to his poems calculated to please the vanity of the Athenians. at not having been able to unravel an enigma proposed by some fishermen's children. Pont. which gave great satisfaction. ii. p. . 880. 15 The riddle is given in Section 35. is given by the allegorists. and invited to join in celebrating the Apaturian festival. He recited some verses. Poes.INTRODUCTION. and by singing the Eiresione at the New Moon festivals. The classical reader may compare Plutarch. 531-5. p. and died. Let us now consider some of the opinions to which a persevering. Dionys. Having.: the assumption of Mentor's form by the guardian deity of the wise Ulysses. f. c. p. who had given him both sustenance and instruction. Compare Mackenzie's note.

" Such are the words in which one of the most judicious German critics has eloquently described the uncertainty in which the whole of the Homeric question is involved. p. blessing and fertilizing. because they rose amidst darkness. If we were in possession of all the historical testimonies. We are perpetually labouring to destroy our delights. we should not expect in it perfect light. Compare Sir E. for the most part. our composure. 96. through many lands and nations. It were idle and foolish to shake the contents of a vase. 4. The creations of genius always seem like miracles. i. its fountains will ever remain concealed. let us pass on to the main question at issue. The majestic stream of his song. and. which shows as much insight into the depths of human nature as into the minute wire-drawings of scholastic investigation. some deny that there was ever one. The history of this poet and his works is lost in doubtful obscurity. "Homer appeared. as is the history of many of the first minds who have done honour to humanity. must have remained the secret of the poet. Bulwer's Caxtons v. If the period of tradition in history is the region of twilight. for their origin. flows like the Nile. like the sources of the Nile. in all essential points. our devotion to superior power. Of all the animals 16 17 Heeren's Ancient Greece. With no less truth and feeling he proceeds:— "It seems here of chief importance to expect no more than the nature of things makes possible.xxii The Iliad of Homer [xvi] or probability. we never could wholly explain the origin of the Iliad and the Odyssey. created far out of the reach of observation. because they are." 16 From this criticism. Was Homer an individual?17 or were the Iliad and Odyssey the result of an ingenious arrangement of fragments by earlier poets? Well has Landor remarked: "Some tell us there were twenty Homers. p. L. . in order to let them settle at last.

greatly as we admire the generous enthusiasm which rests contented with the poetry on which its best impulses had been nurtured and fostered. and to condescend to dry details. Before. the poetic age of Greece. Brodie or Sir Astley Cooper.) I must express my sympathy with the sentiments expressed in the following remarks:— "We cannot but think the universal admiration of its unity by the better. for a brief period. "There is some truth. The most exquisite anatomist may be no judge of the symmetry of the human frame: and we would take the opinion of Chantrey or Westmacott on the proportions and general beauty of a form.. How parts relate to parts.INTRODUCTION. entering into particulars respecting the question of this unity of the Homeric poems. the comprehensive conception of an harmonious whole. though some malicious exaggeration. in the lines of Pope. and to entreat our reader. almost conclusive testimony to its original composition. 387. examines bit by bit. without seeking to destroy the vividness of first impressions by minute analysis—our editorial office compels us to give some attention to the doubts and difficulties with which the Homeric question is beset. nor is it injustice to assert. Works.— "'The critic eye—that microscope of wit Sees hairs and pores. 18 [xvii] Pericles and Aspasia. xxiii on earth we least know what is good for us. Letter lxxxiv. to prefer his judgment to his imagination. p. or they to whole The body's harmony. (at least of the Iliad. the beaming soul." 18 But. . It was not till the age of the grammarians that its primitive integrity was called in question. My opinion is. rather than that of Mr. that the minute and analytical spirit of a grammarian is not the best qualification for the profound feeling. however. No man living venerates Homer more than I do. vol ii. that what is best for us is our admiration of good.

147. on the whole. In fact.xxiv The Iliad of Homer Are things which Kuster. 104. farewell! and oh! remember me Hereafter. iii. A hapless wanderer. and delights you most Oh! answer all. which deserve to be consulted. See Notes and Queries. when some stranger from the sea. the following beautiful passage.. and perhaps as satisfactory.20 the authenticity of which has been already disclaimed by modern critics. Who sings the sweetest. vol. And ask you. let us now see what are the discoveries to which more modern investigations lay claim. quoted in Fabric. they consist in an attempt to blend those hypotheses into something like consistency. v. oo dixa taes sphodrotaetos paramenei to megethos 22 See Tatian. Viz. may your isle explore. His own views are moderate. ii. Bibl. II t. Mackenzie has given three brief but elaborate papers on the different writers on the subject. maid. p. The grave and cautious Thucydides quoted without hesitation the Hymn to Apollo. Othen en tae Odysseia pareikasai tis an kataduomeno ton Omaeron haelio. Section 26. Longinus. ix.—'A blind old man and poor Sweetest he sings—and dwells on Chios' rocky shore.21 and. among a mass of ancient authors. of all the bards you boast.. p. At the end of the seventeenth century. no suspicion of the personal non-existence of Homer ever arose. No. Wasse. lxxxvii. Classic Poets.'"19 Long was the time which elapsed before any one dreamt of questioning the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. whose very names22 it would be tedious to detail. for the translation of which I am indebted to Coleridge.'" See Thucyd. Gr. 99. Burmann. rather than in advocating 21 . So far. shall see.. and we find Bentley remarking that Quarterly Review. in an oft quoted passage. Longin. 20 19 "Origias. de Sublim. and 221. v. merely expressed an opinion touching the comparative inferiority of the Odyssey to the Iliad.. doubts had begun to awaken on the subject. 171. as any of the hypotheses hitherto put forth. pp. When man's whole frame is obvious to a flea. 286. the voice of antiquity seems to be in favour of our early ideas on the subject. Mr.

xxv "Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies. turning to account the Venetian Scholia. p. of Greece. if realized by him. subsequently defended by Wolf with so much learning and acuteness. it is with the Wolfian theory that we have chiefly to deal. sqq. Wolf maintained that no written copies of either poem could be shown to have existed during the earlier times. until the days of Peisistratus. in the form of an epic poem. to be sung by himself. As a step towards that conclusion. 23 Letters to Phileleuth. which we will detail in the words of Grote24 — "Half a century ago. for small comings and good cheer. These loose songs were not collected together. 191. first opened philosophical discussion as to the history of the Homeric text. [xviii] . A considerable part of that dissertation (though by no means the whole) is employed in vindicating the position. vol. was thus one of the points in Wolf's case against the primitive integrity of the Iliad and any individual theory. Lips. A. about five hundred years after. neither the perfect symmetry of so complicated a work could have been originally conceived by any poet. which had then been recently published. the acute and valuable Prolegomena of F. that the separate constituent portions of the Iliad and Odyssey had not been cemented together into any compact body and unchangeable order. previously announced by Bentley. in the sixth century before Christ. amongst others. that we first meet with the germ of the theory. at festivals and other days of merriment. to which their composition is referred. 24 Hist. but it is in the "Scienza Nuova" of Battista Vico. till about Peisistratus' time. The absence of easy and convenient writing.INTRODUCTION. nor. transmitted with assurance to posterity. ii. Indeed. and with the following bold hypothesis. and that without writing. such as must be indispensably supposed for long manuscripts. among the early Greeks. Wolf."23 Two French writers—Hedelin and Perrault—avowed a similar scepticism on the subject.

Kallinus. but recited and heard. and it has been considered incumbent on those who defended the ancient aggregate character of the Iliad and Odyssey.—but upon the supposed necessity that there must have been manuscripts to ensure the preservation of the poems—the unassisted memory of reciters . "To me it appears. rest their case. The traces of writing in Greece. But much would undoubtedly be gained towards that view of the question. and the other early elegiac and lyric poets. the connection of the one with the other seems to have been accepted as he originally put it. are nowise admissible. admits this no less than Wolf himself. or at what time the practice of doing so became familiar. nor can we even assure ourselves whether Archilochus. we are unable to say. Tyrtaeus. committed their compositions to writing. The first positive ground which authorizes us to presume the existence of a manuscript of Homer. that the architectonic functions ascribed by Wolf to Peisistratus and his associates. if it could be shown. opposed as he is to the Wolfian hypothesis. we were driven to the necessity of admitting long written poems. and the early inscriptions are rude and unskilfully executed. in the ninth century before the Christian aera. Simonides of Amorgus. are exceedingly trifling. By Nitzsch. in order to controvert it. "Those who maintain the Homeric poems to have been written from the beginning. even in the seventh century before the Christian aera.xxvi The Iliad of Homer Odyssey. and Mr. We have no remaining inscription earlier than the fortieth Olympiad. can be more improbable. is in the famous ordinance of Solon. and other leading opponents of Wolf. with regard to the rhapsodies at the Panathenaea: but for what length of time previously manuscripts had existed. Few things. in reference to the Homeric poems. not upon positive proofs. that. Xanthus. in my opinion. to maintain that they were written poems from the beginning. Payne Knight. nor yet upon the existing habits of society with regard to poetry—for they admit generally that the Iliad and Odyssey were not read.

in the Odyssey. who must be prepared. alternately the odd and even lines—in short. not only to recite it consecutively. and when even suitable instruments and materials for the process are not obvious. uneducated man Blind Jamie who could actually repeat. whatever the passage required. Visiting at Naples a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments. that it could produce it under any form. at a very short warning.INTRODUCTION. either forwards or backwards. xxvii being neither sufficient nor trustworthy. in an age essentially non-reading and non-writing. if he had It is. in Scotland. identifies with Homer himself. in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo. But all this is nothing to two instances of our own day. 25 is far less astonishing than that of long manuscripts. Our informant went on to state that this singular being was proceeding to learn the Orlando Furioso in the same manner. for the existence of trained bards. which seemed to cling to the words much more than to the sense. be he who he may. for if such had been the fact. would amount to an immense number of lines. gifted with extraordinary memory. But even this instance is less wonderful than one as to which we may appeal to any of our readers that happened some twenty years ago to visit the town of Stirling. blindness would have been a disqualification for the profession. but also to repeat those stanzas in utter defiance of the sense. who had learned to repeat the whole Gierusalemme of Tasso.' night after night. indeed not easy to calculate the height to which the memory may be cultivated. The author of that hymn. Moreover. as from that of the blind bard of Chios. or from the eighth line to the first. parts which when laid together. there is a strong positive reason for believing that the bard was under no necessity of refreshing his memory by consulting a manuscript. To take an ordinary case. we might refer to that of any first rate actor. to 'rhapsodize. which we know that it was not. after a few minutes consideration any verse required from any part of the Bible—even the obscurest and most unimportant enumeration of mere 25 [xix] . he informed us that the day before he had passed much time in examining a man. not highly educated. the memory. and who held a distinguished rank among the men of letters in the last century. No such person can have forgotten the poor. But here we only escape a smaller difficulty by running into a greater. as well as the general tenor of Grecian legend. as well from the example of Demodokus. had it at such perfect command. whom Thucydides. could never have described a blind man as attaining the utmost perfection in his art.

had written copies been preserved. that quicksand upon which even the acumen of Bentley was shipwrecked. for instance. it could only have come down to us in a softened form. "At what period. for with them it was not only planted in the memory. If Chaucer's poetry. l. observing that. and of countless distracting affairs. but also interwoven with the feelings." The loss of the digamma. we may venture upon naming any more determinate period. that crux of critics.. and conceived in conjunction with all those flexions and proper names not excepted. and among a more single minded people?—Quarterly Review. or indeed any other Greek poems. If. but facts they are. We do not mention these facts as touching the more difficult part of the question before us. as much as it stands beneath them in merit. for the very reason that they are remembered. sqq. more like the effeminate version of Dryden." continues Grote. noble original. "these poems. first began to be written. But the songs of a nation are probably the last things which are committed to writing. in the absence of evidence. in these days of multifarious reading. p. fair judges of the perfection to which the invention and the memory combined may attain in a simpler age. 100. "The Dschungariade of the Calmucks is said to surpass the poems of Homer in length."— Ancient Greece. seems to prove beyond a doubt. are we. had not been written. though there is ground for assurance that it was before the time of Solon. a manuscript at its first commencement must have been intended to answer? For whom was a written Iliad necessary? Not for the rhapsodes. Heeren steers between the two opinions. than the rough. 143. Now it is certainly difficult to suppose that the Homeric poems could have suffered by this change. p.xxviii The Iliad of Homer [xx] been conscious that the memory of the bard was only maintained by constant reference to the manuscript in his chest. and if we find so much difficulty in calculating the extent to which the mere memory may be cultivated. the question a once suggests itself. must be matter of conjecture. What were the purposes which. c. . that the pronunciation of the Greek language had undergone a considerable change. and yet it exists only in the memory of a people which is not unacquainted with writing. quaint. in that state of society.

C. and which the naked manuscript could never reproduce. Such a change was important at a time when poetry was the only known mode of publication (to use a modern phrase not altogether suitable. Not for the general public—they were accustomed to receive it with its rhapsodic delivery. Simonides of Amorgus. yet the nearest approaching to the sense).INTRODUCTION. and there was in early Greece. It argued a new way of looking at the old epical treasures of the people as well as a thirst for new poetical effect. realize in their imaginations a sensible portion of the impression communicated by the reciter. from their own individual point of view. there is in all early societies. studious and curious men. and poetical compositions having been transferred from the epical past to the affairs of present and real life. on perusing the written words. may well be considered as desirous to study. If we could discover at what time such a class first began to be formed. 660 to B. a class of readers capable of analyzing the complicated emotions which they had experienced as hearers in the crowd. and other oral artifices which were required for emphatic delivery. Incredible as the statement may seem in an age like the present. I ground this supposition on the change then operated in the character and tendencies of Grecian poetry and music—the elegiac and the iambic measures having been introduced as rivals to the primitive hexameter. and competent to criticize. and who would. a time when no such reading class existed. we should be able to make a guess at the time when the old epic poems were first committed to writing. Kallinus. Now the period which may with the greatest probability be fixed upon as having first witnessed the formation even of the narrowest reading class in Greece. the written words of the . is the middle of the seventh century before the Christian aera (B. and the men who stood forward in it. xxix intonations of voice.C. and with its accompaniments of a solemn and crowded festival. the age of Terpander. &c. The only persons for whom the written Iliad would be suitable would be a select few. 630). Archilochus. pauses.

xxx The Iliad of Homer [xxi] Homeric rhapsodies."26 But even Peisistratus has not been suffered to remain in possession of the credit. sqq. which took place about the same period.—the Thebais and the Cypria. 1). There seems. as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey. II p. at least over the theory. and the faint echo. Anacreon. and Simonides were employed in the noble task of compiling the Iliad and Odyssey. therefore. when once formed. and the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce. 198. would furnish increased facilities for obtaining the requisite papyrus to write upon. manuscripts of the Homeric poems and other old epics. just as we are told that Kallinus both noticed and eulogized the Thebais as the production of Homer. though still comparatively few. that the Iliad was cast into its present stately and harmonious form by the directions of the Athenian ruler. ground for conjecturing that (for the use of this newly-formed and important. If the great poets. and formed a tribunal of reference against the carelessness of individual rhapsodes.C. and the number of manuscripts along with it. alas! we have inherited little more than the fame. fifty years afterwards. anomalies which no doubt arise out of our own ignorance of the language of the 26 Vol. who flourished at the bright period of Grecian song. of which. A reading class. . if Stesichorus. throw some suspicion over the whole history of the Peisistratid compilation. both readers and manuscripts. that it is almost incredible. might have attained a certain recognized authority. in our opinion.—began to be compiled towards the middle of the seventh century (B. so much must have been done to arrange. Whatever occasional anomalies may be detected. that stronger marks of Athenian manufacture should not remain. but very narrow class). would doubtless slowly increase. to connect. and we cannot help feeling the force of the following observations— "There are several incidental circumstances which. so that before the time of Solon. to harmonize.

finally. that in its leading outline. Knight suspects to be interpolations. the Iliad may be true to historic fact. at first sight. and connecting parts. however. Knight may have failed in reducing the Homeric language to its primitive form. to whom the name of Helen is said to have caused as much disquiet and distress as the fair one herself among the heroes of her age. the chieftain of Thessaly. in order to piece out an imperfect poem in the character of the original. the Athenians play a most subordinate and insignificant part. the preeminent value of the ancient poetry on the Trojan war may thus have forced the national feeling of the Athenians to yield to their taste. amid all the traditions of the glories of early Greece embodied in the Iliad. It is not quite in character with such a period to imitate an antique style. the Attic dialect may not have assumed all its more marked and distinguishing characteristics—still it is difficult to suppose that the language. from his valour and the number of his forces. of far inferior sublimity and popularity. Even the few passages which relate to their ancestors. that in the great maritime expedition of western Greece against the rival and half-kindred empire of the Laomedontiadae. It is possible. a Theseid would have been much more likely to have emanated from an Athenian synod of compilers of xxxi [xxii] . and it may fairly be suspected in earlier times. But. however the irregular use of the digamma may have perplexed our Bentleys. however Mr. may have been the most important ally of the Peloponnesian sovereign. however.INTRODUCTION. not even such faint and indistinct traces of Athenian compilation are discoverable in the language of the poems. "If. the total absence of Athenian national feeling is perhaps no less worthy of observation. Homeric age. as Sir Walter Scott has done in his continuation of Sir Tristram. or. Mr. should not more clearly betray the incongruity between the more ancient and modern forms of expression. indeed. no doubt. In later. The songs which spoke of their own great ancestor were. particularly in the joinings and transitions. the Athenians were more than ordinarily jealous of the fame of their ancestors.

to the questionable dignity of only having produced a leader tolerably skilled in the military tactics of his age.xxxii The Iliad of Homer ancient song. however. that throughout the whole poem the callida junctura should never betray the workmanship of an Athenian hand. as Grote observes. which related the wrath of Achilles. are rather augmented than otherwise. p. 204. Tlepolemus. While it is to be confessed. and the so-called sixteen poets concur in getting rid of the following leading men in the first battle after the secession of Achilles: Elphenor. "explains the gaps and contradictions in the narrative. and treats as ridiculous the belief that their amalgamation into one regular poem belongs to a period earlier than the age of Peisistratus. l. as they are sometimes called. c."27 To return to the Wolfian theory.—it is still surprising. the French. Notes and Queries. Pandarus. that Wolf's objections to the primitive integrity of the Iliad and Odyssey have never been wholly got over. but it explains nothing else. as to admit no rivalry. with all its direful consequences. than an Achilleid or an Olysseid." Moreover. Tancred would have been the hero of the Jerusalem. should submit with lofty self denial to the almost total exclusion of their own ancestors—or. we cannot help discovering that they have failed to enlighten us as to any substantial point. p. Berol. of the Lycians. vol. if we admit his hypothesis. were so far superior to the rest of the poetic cycle. Could France have given birth to a Tasso. Betrachtungen uber die Ilias. He divides the first twenty-two books of the Iliad into sixteen different songs. 28 27 . at least. Quarterly Review. p. and that the national spirit of a race. who have at a later period not inaptly been compared to our self admiring neighbours. we find no contradictions warranting this belief. 221. 1841. Nor is Lachmann's28 modification of his theory any better. the Homeric ballads. chief of the Euboeans. This.. of the Rhodians. See Grote. and that the difficulties with which the whole subject is beset. If. Odius. 131 sq. v.

" The discrepancy. and of Lachmann's modifications with the character of Peisistratus. and we can but agree with Colonel Mure. and not before his time." he continues. the close military array. the Amphiktyonic convocations.INTRODUCTION. the Oriental and Egyptian veins of religion. of the Thracians. the coined money. the mutual frequentation of religious festivals. These alterations Onomakritus. are essentially distinct. Grote. and we think with equal success. But he has also shown. or thought unworthy of attention. that the two questions relative to the primitive unity of these poems. None of these heroes again make their appearance. applying that term to the age of Peisistratus—nothing which brings to our view the alterations brought about by two centuries. "the whole tenor of the poems themselves confirms what is here remarked. who is represented as dead in the fifth book. "Moreover.. although not very distinct in stating his own opinions on the subject. the habits of writing and reading. either in the Iliad or Odyssey. weeps at his son's funeral in the thirteenth. the improved construction of ships. and the silence of the Alexandrine critics respecting the Peisistratic "recension. without recognising the age of Peisistratus as the period of its first compilation. this was either wanting. the unison of these parts by Peisistratus. or. Pirous and Acamas. can only be regarded as the result of an interpolation." The friends or literary employes of Peisistratus must have found an Iliad that was already ancient. that "it seems strange that any number of independent poets should have so harmoniously dispensed with the services of all six in the sequel. supposing that impossible. There is nothing. [xxiii] ." goes far to prove. "a man may believe the Iliad to have been put together out of pre-existing songs. in the Greek language. that. the despotisms and republican governments. has done much to clearly show the incongruity of the Wolfian theory. by which Pylaemenes. In short. familiar to the latter epoch. among the numerous manuscripts they examined. xxxiii of the Halizonians. &c. which savours of modernism.

as well internal as external. who is said first to have disposed the books of Homer in the 30 29 . enable us to judge.xxxiv The Iliad of Homer and the other literary friends of Peisistratus. pp." says Cicero. I must confess. 214 sqq. so it is also the most important attribute of the Homeric poems. that I can lay down nothing respecting the extent of his labours. and this ancient date. &c. both in substance and in language. "was more learned in that age. was the work of Peisistratus.. considered in reference to Grecian history. are pronounced to be such) betray no trace of the sixth century before Christ. for the first time.. could hardly have failed to notice. our first trustworthy mark of Grecian time. Vol. in their present form. as it is the best-authenticated fact. xxxvi. At the same time. xxxii. iii. p. that the labours of Peisistratus were wholly of an editorial character. or whose eloquence is reported to have been more perfected by literature than that of Peisistratus.. on the best grounds. let it be added. so far from believing that the composition or primary arrangement of these poems. had they then. belongs to an age two or three centuries earlier than Peisistratus. and to seize instructive contrasts between their former and their later condition. even without design. we seem warranted in believing that the Iliad and Odyssey were recited substantially as they now stand (always allowing for paitial divergences of text and interpolations) in 776 B.C. undertaken the task of piecing together many self existent epics into one large aggregate. Everything in the two great Homeric poems. I am inclined to believe. and may well have been heard by Archilochus and Kallinus—in some cases even by Arktinus and Hesiod—as genuine Homeric matter29 As far as the evidences on the case."30 On the whole. although. for they thus afford us an insight into the anti-historical character of the Greeks. I am rather persuaded that the fine taste and elegant mind of that Athenian31 would lead Prolegg. even the interpolations (or those passages which. ii. 34. enabling us to trace the subsequent forward march of the nation. 31 "Who. Indeed. de Orat.

with an attempt. and allusive to events passing around them. to unite them into something like consistency. that a poet flourished of the name of Melesigenes. occurrences likely to impress themselves. as it aided the memory considerably. about four hundred years after the war. and down to the beginning of the war with Troy. like the common sailors of some fifty years ago. "It was at this period. Then followed a species of recitative. with an intonation. like those of the negroes in the United States. besides which. or whether the art of writing was known in the time of their reputed author. Many of these. that the story which attributes the preservation of these poems to Lycurgus. It is as follows:— "No doubt the common soldiers of that age had. as the mystical legends of former times had done. upon their memory. the less satisfied we are upon either subject. while its historical probability must be measured by that of many others relating to the Spartan Confucius. rather than to patch and re-construct them according to a fanciful hypothesis. that the more we read. Section 33 [xxiv] . But what was passing around them? The grand events of a spirit-stirring war. were merely recitations. I will conclude this sketch of the Homeric theories. I will not repeat the many discussions respecting whether the poems were written or not.INTRODUCTION. Suffice it to say. or Moeonides. made by an ingenious friend. Tune next followed. however. a retentive memory was deemed a virtue of the first water. is little else than a version of the same story as that of Peisistratus. but most probably the former. I cannot. probably with an intoned burden. He saw that these order in which we now have them?" Compare Wolf's Prolegomena. and was cultivated accordingly in those ancient times. were extemporaneous. Ballads at first. some one qualified to 'discourse in excellent music' among them. xxxv him to preserve an ancient and traditional order of the poems. help thinking.

and then Peisistratus. or the Collector. ii. but this is rather a proof of his modesty and talent. remodelled from the archaic dialect of Crete. together with the eighth. great part of it. caused him to publish the poem under the same pseudonyme as his former work: and the disjointed lays of the ancient bards were joined together. and afterwards Aristoteles and others. vol. than of his mere drudging arrangement of other people's ideas. Notes and Queries. in which tongue the ballads were found by him. and so it has proved.' The author. recording the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. but no mere arrangers or compilers would be competent to do so. Mackenzie. then properly an Achilleis. connecting them by a tale of his own. 222 sqq. revised the poems. he met with a ballad."—Grote. which. did not affix his own name to the poem. the poems were destined to undergo many vicissitudes and corruptions. and the Achilleis32 grew under his hand. into a chronicle history. under the title of the 'Odyssea. Unity of design. and restored the works of Melesigenes Homeros to their original integrity in a great measure. R. H. in fact. as a collection. first. [xxv] . and agoras. His noble mind seized the hint that there presented itself. however. p. and. 235 33 K. This poem now exists. named the Iliad. he published these lays. p. however. seems to form the primary organization of the poem. He therefore called it the poem of Homeros. was. like those relating to the Cid. by the people who took to singing them in the streets. arguing for the unity of authorship."33 32 "The first book. for. 'a great poet might have re-cast pre-existing separate songs into one comprehensive whole. assemblies. However.xxxvi The Iliad of Homer ballads might be made of great utility to his purpose of writing a poem on the social position of Hellas.' "While employed on the wild legend of Odysseus. but. and the books from the eleventh to the twenty-second inclusive. as Grote has finely observed. Melesigenes knew that the poem was destined to be a lasting one. Solon first.

be he Homer or Melesigenes. I am inclined to set little store on its aesthetic value. I feel conscious that. considering the character of some of my own books. such an attempt would be gross inconsistency. would be an absurd and captious assumption. he would probably have adopted. but it is to a higher criticism that we must appeal. Moreover. while the whole weight of historical evidence is against the hypothesis which would assign these great works to a plurality of authors.INTRODUCTION. while I appreciate its importance in a philological view. although a mass of remarks. some of which. Indeed. I must still express my conviction as to the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. the most powerful internal evidence. also speaks eloquently to the contrary. . In maintaining the authenticity and personality of their one author. and that which springs from the deepest and most immediate impulse of the soul. xxxvii Having thus given some general notion of the strange theories which have developed themselves respecting this most interesting subject. those who are most exact in laying down rules of verbal criticism and interpretation. quocunque nomine vocari eum jus fasque sit. The minutiae of verbal criticism I am far from seeking to despise. and that the intrusive hand of the poetasters may here and there have inflicted a wound more serious than the negligence of the copyist. if we would either understand or enjoy these poems. To deny that many corruptions and interpolations disfigure them. especially in poetry. Three parts of the emendations made upon poets are mere alterations. have given us the history of a thousand minute points. I do not at this moment remember two emendations on Homer. had they been suggested to the author by his Maecenas or Africanus. without which our Greek knowledge would be gloomy and jejune. from Herodotus down to Loewe. Grammarians are not poets by profession. calculated to substantially improve the poetry of a passage. are often least competent to carry out their own precepts. But. but may be so per accidens.

in Schroeder's edition. and others. and inconsistent in everything but their wish to make out a case of unlawful affiliation. Justus Lipsius. they proceed to use the axe and the pruning knife by wholesale. Father Hardouin astonished the world with the startling announcement that the Æneid of Virgil. or till those. but not least. in an ultra-refined and consistent abandonment of good taste. till the author is reduced to a collection of fragments. be he Seneca or not. were literary deceptions.34 Now. One cuts a supposed knot by expunging what another would explain by omitting something else. and last. seems to revel in the imaginary discovery. Wolf. we shall feel better satisfied of the utter uncertainty of criticism than of the apocryphal position of Homer. . and the satires of Horace. mere grammarians. Nor is this morbid species of sagacity by any means to be looked upon as a literary novelty. One rejects what another considers the turning-point of his theory.xxxviii The Iliad of Homer [xxvi] But it is not on words only that grammarians. not only in their borrowed phraseology—a phraseology with which writers like Boethius and Saxo Grammaticus were more charmed than ourselves—in their freedom from real poetry. to produce not only these. that few writers of the present day would question the capabilities of the same gentleman. If we compare the theories of Knight. Now. without wishing to say 34 See his Epistle to Raphelingius. that the tragedies attributed to Seneca are by four different authors. Binding down an heroic or dramatic poet to the block upon which they have previously dissected his words and sentences. who fancied they possessed the works of some great man. a scholar of no ordinary skill. 4to. passage after passage. find that they have been put off with a vile counterfeit got up at second hand. Delphis. 1728. they cut out book after book. I will venture to assert. Lachmann. but a great many more equally bad. that these tragedies are so uniform.. With equal sagacity. will exercise their elaborate and often tiresome ingenuity.

that they demand too great a sacrifice of those feelings to which poetry most powerfully appeals. Our faith in the author of the Iliad may be a mistaken one. but as yet nobody has taught us a better. Nor can I help thinking. and to forget the ocean in the contemplation of a polypus.INTRODUCTION. While. the main fault in all the Homeric theories is. that the literary history of more recent times will account for many points of difficulty in the transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey to a period so remote from that of their first creation. the refined acuteness—which scholars. like some patron saint. I must express my fears. however. and there seems no more reason why corrupt and imperfect editions of Homer may not have been abroad in his day. But. after all. which makes our whole soul yearn with love and admiration for the blind bard of Chios. hovers round the bed of the poet. xxxix one word of disrespect against the industry and learning—nay. who. like Wolf. in the very name of Homer. than that the poems of Valerius Flaccus and Tibullus should have given so much trouble to Poggio. to elevate analytical judgment at the expense of the most ennobling impulses of the soul. have bestowed upon this subject. of posterity. I look upon the belief in Homer as one that has nature herself for its mainspring. Scaliger. rather than the instruction. does too much violence to that inward emotion. and which are its most fitting judges. To believe the author of the Iliad a mere compiler. is to degrade the powers of human invention. I have already expressed my belief that the labours of Peisistratus were of a purely editorial character. and even bestows rare gifts from that wealth of imagination which a host of imitators could not exhaust. that many of our modern Homeric theories will become matter for the surprise and entertainment. while I can join with old Ennius in believing in Homer as the ghost. The ingenuity which has sought to rob us of the name and existence of Homer. so to speak. and others.—still I am far from wishing to deny that the . There is a catholicity.

In fact. But unless there be some grand pervading principle—some invisible. Were faith no virtue. to compass the powers by which the greatest blessings of life have been placed at our disposal. what bad taste and tedium will not be the infallible result? A blending of popular legends. are features perfectly consistent with poetical originality. still less. yet most distinctly stamped archetypus of the great whole.xl The Iliad of Homer [xxvii] author of these great poems found a rich fund of tradition. Traditions the most picturesque. or reveal themselves in more substantial forms to the mind of the poet. we shall have nought but a scrap-book. may crowd in one mighty vision. except the power to create a grand whole. which will require little acuteness to detect. the most original writer is still drawing upon outward impressions—nay. Sensible as I am of the difficulty of disproving a negative. local associations teeming with the thoughts of gods and great men. a parterre filled with flowers and weeds strangling each other in their wild redundancy: we shall have a cento of rags and tatters. and aware as I must be of the weighty grounds there are for opposing my belief. But we are too well taught the contrary lesson. What consistency of style and execution can be hoped for from such an attempt? or. to which these shall be but as details and embellishments. But it is one thing to use existing romances in the embellishment of a poem. then we might indeed wonder why God willed our ignorance on any matter. another to patch up the poem itself from such materials. We are not by nature intended to know all things. episodes the most pathetic. it still seems to me that the Homeric question is one that is reserved for a higher criticism than it has often obtained. rather. a well-stocked mythical storehouse from whence he might derive both subject and embellishment. and a free use of the songs of other bards. a poem like the Iliad can never come to the birth. but. be present. even his own thoughts are a kind of secondary agents which support and feed the impulses of imagination. and it .

and sages have formed the character of other nations. No poet has ever. it was reserved to a poet to form that of the Greeks. the work of the poet had already been accomplished. who is evidently little disposed in favour of modern theories.INTRODUCTION. He held up before his nation the mirror. Long and habitual reading of Homer appears to familiarize our thoughts even to his incongruities. woo the same loves. This is a feature in their character which was not wholly erased even in the period of their degeneracy. burn with the same sense of injury. and they paid homage to his superior genius. to dwell upon the minute spots which mere analysis can discover. or rather. Prophets. which seems to bid us repulse the scepticism which would allegorize their existence into a pleasing apologue. but of the greatest writer that ever touched the hearts of men by the power of song. And it was this supposed unity of authorship which gave these poems their powerful influence over the minds of the men of old. And there is a kind of sacredness attached to the memory of the great and the good. and measure the giants of intellect by an homeopathic dynameter. we in imagination must fight over the same battles. as an Achilles or a Hector. we are too much dazzled. too deeply wrapped in admiration of the whole. Heeren. as a poet. And if we can but attain this degree of enthusiasm (and less enthusiasm will scarcely suffice for the reading of Homer). in which they were to behold the world of gods and heroes no [xxviii] . When lawgivers and sages appeared in Greece. we shall feel that the poems of Homer are not only the work of one writer. In reading an heroic poem we must transform ourselves into heroes of the time being. if we read in a right spirit and with a heartfelt appreciation. finely observes:— "It was Homer who formed the character of the Greek nation. lawgivers. xli seems as though our faith should be especially tried touching the men and the events which have wrought most influence upon the condition of humanity. exercised a similar influence over his countrymen.

wherever his immortal spirit may reside. are not included in Pope's translation. to see the nations from the fields of Asia to the forests of Hercynia. from another heaven than any of which he dreamed on earth. The monument itself (Towneley Sculptures. and country.xlii The Iliad of Homer less than of feeble mortals. to look down on his race. and will continue to enter. and not feel how much of pleasing association. No." p. As the hymns. this alone would suffice to complete his happiness. 36 35 . wife. and the more we think—think as becomes the readers of Homer. and to behold them reflected with purity and truth. the love of glory."35 Can we contemplate that ancient monument. if it is permitted to him to view the vast assemblage of grand. how much that appeals most forcibly and most distinctly to our minds. 101. which had been called into being by means of his songs. on which the "Apotheosis of Homer"36 is depictured. than seek to make it a mere centre around which to drive a series of theories. The best description of this monument will be found in Vaux's "Antiquities of the British Museum. every breast which cherishes the same sympathies. whole and entire. let us rather be thankful for the treasury of taste and eloquence thus laid open to our use.—the more rooted becomes the conviction that the Father of Poetry gave us this rich inheritance. on that passion which outweighs all others. Whatever were the means of its preservation. If it is granted to his immortal spirit. and some other poems usually ascribed to Homer. of glorious productions. of elevated. performing pilgrimages to the fountain which his magic wand caused to flow. 123) is well known. p. His songs were poured forth from a breast which sympathized with all the feelings of man. whose wildness is only equalled by their inconsistency with each other. on the love of children. I will content Ancient Greece. and therefore they enter. 198 sq. His poems are founded on the first feeling of human nature. is lost by the admittance of any theory but our old tradition? The more we read.

Knight infers from the usage of the word deltos. 276. so little did the Greeks. seems to reverse that order in the development of national taste. that any popularity would attend such a ridicule of war and the gods as is contained in this poem. 58. has almost ascertained to be a law of the human mind. before the age of the Ptolemies. from the pen of a writer who has done it full justice37 :— "This poem. others have attributed it to the same Pigrees. for aught we can see. that to suppose a work of mere burlesque to be the primary effort of poetry in a simple age. p. if no such intention to parody were discernible in it. "writing tablet. it is in a state of society much more refined and permanent than that described in the Iliad. the author of which was uncertain. "is a short mock-heroic of ancient date. As to this little poem being a youthful prolusion of Homer. know or care about that department of criticism employed in determining the genuineness of ancient writings. and is obviously disturbed and corrupt to a great degree. The text varies in different editions. 5. and even. and whose reputation for humour seems to have invited the appropriation of any piece of ancient wit. but of the numerous passages of the Iliad itself. "skin. was the material employed by the Asiatic Greeks for that purpose. Classic Poets. it is commonly said to have been a juvenile essay of Homer's genius. which the history of every other people in Europe. and the fact of there having existed three other poems of the same kind attributed. it seems sufficient to say that from the beginning to the end it is a plain and palpable parody. is a strong inducement to believe that none of them were of the Homeric age. and of many in Asia. with as much reason to Homer.INTRODUCTION. according to Herod. xliii myself with a brief account of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice." instead of diphthera. not only of the general spirit." which. that this poem was another 37 [xxix] Coleridge. the objection would still remain. mentioned above." says Coleridge. .

Pope was not a Grecian. If something like the general sense could be decorated with the easy gracefulness of a practised poet. that once was our most cherished companion. and on my own purpose in the present edition. and those who could read so good a poem as Pope's Iliad had fair reason to be satisfied. what is called literal translation was less cultivated than at present. rather than to dive deeply into the minute and delicate features of language. whose classical attainments were sounder than his own. therefore. and generally that the familiar mention of the cock (v. It would be absurd. Loewe. And in those days. There are. and . and his earliest acquaintance with the poet was through the version of Ogilby. but it is probable that these examinations were the result rather of the contradictory versions already existing.—a work which is as much a part of English literature as Homer himself is of Greek. His whole education had been irregular. We must be content to look at it as a most delightful work in itself. if the charms of metrical cadence and a pleasing fluency could be made consistent with a fair interpretation of the poet's meaning. than of a desire to make a perfect transcript of the original." [xxx] Having thus given a brief account of the poems comprised in Pope's design. It is not too much to say that his whole work bears the impress of a disposition to be satisfied with the general sense. merely because Buttmann. during the undertaking. to test Pope's translation by our own advancing knowledge of the original text. certain conventional anecdotes.xliv The Iliad of Homer offspring of Attic ingenuity. to be sure. which prove that Pope consulted various friends. 191) is a strong argument against so ancient a date for its composition. his words were less jealously sought for. I will now proceed to make a few remarks on his translation. Hence his whole work is to be looked upon rather as an elegant paraphrase than a translation. or our most looked-for prize. We must not be torn from our kindly associations with the old Iliad.

THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY.INTRODUCTION. will be found to convey as much as is wanted. and to give a few parallel passages from our English Homer. with the consciousness that they must have read a very great number of books before they have read its fellow. and my purpose was to touch briefly on antiquarian or mythological allusions. But Pope's version was no field for such a display.—far be it from. as far as the necessary limits of these volumes could be expected to admit. In the latter task I cannot pretend to novelty. I shall consider my wishes satisfactorily accomplished. rough old English. but if I have made Pope's translation a little more entertaining and instructive to a mass of miscellaneous readers. to notice occasionally some departures from the original. As to the Notes accompanying the present volume. but I trust that my other annotations. . But we can still dismiss Pope's Iliad to the hands of our readers. and mainly with the view of helping the general reader. I might have brought a large amount of accumulated matter. To write a commentary on Homer is not my present aim. and not a substantive. us to hold up his translation as what a translation of Homer might be. Having some little time since translated all the works of Homer for another publisher. Christ Church. sometimes of a critical character. bold. while utterly disclaiming high scholastic views. xlv Liddell have made us so much more accurate as to amphikupellon being an adjective. at least. Milton. they are drawn up without pretension. especially when we think of Chapman's fine. Far be it from us to defend the faults of Pope. to bear upon the text.


It is like a . The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him. learning. more entertained with. because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art. It is the invention that. in different degrees. than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature. And. the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one. Our author's work is a wild paradise. and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences. perhaps. where. which masters everything besides. art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity. and is. who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. is. which the common eye may better take in.[xxxi] POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. and without it judgment itself can at best but "steal wisely:" for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute: as in the most regular gardens. and industry. if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden. therefore. It furnishes art with all her materials. can never attain to this. Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment. and such a figure. distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets. but his invention remains yet unrivalled.

It is to the strength of this amazing invention we are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer. just thought. each according to his fancy. it brightens all the rubbish about it. and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity. is not discovered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its fullest splendour: it grows in the progress both upon himself and others. and is put in action. more . The course of his verses resembles that of the army he describes. by its own rapidity. this can overpower criticism. or a battle fought. you are not coldly informed of what was said or done as from a third person. which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind. Nay. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected. If a council be called. may have been found in a thousand. This fire is discerned in Virgil. the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the poet's imagination. remarkable. "They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before it. in another to a spectator. reflected from Homer. however." in a very few. to cultivate and beautify. where this appears. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil. What he writes is of the most animated nature imaginable. every thing moves. Exact disposition. and make us admire even while we disapprove." It is. it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. like a chariot-wheel. though attended with absurdities. Hoid' ar' isan hosei te puri chthon pasa nemoito. that his fancy. every thing lives. but discerned as through a glass.xlviii The Iliad of Homer [xxxii] copious nursery. correct elocution. polished numbers. till we see nothing but its own splendour. that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him. this "vivida vis animi. which is everywhere vigorous. out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants. and becomes on fire. and turns in one place to a hearer. but this poetic fire.

That which Aristotle calls "the soul of poetry. and as it is taken for fiction. he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination. like an accidental fire from heaven: but in Homer. and interrupted flashes: In Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force of art: in Shakspeare it strikes before we are aware. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem. in the violence of its course. and in him only. and the whole compass of nature. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as. in the common course of nature. drew all things within its vortex. and created a world for himself in the invention of fable. became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them. Fable may be divided into the probable. [xxxiii] ." or the like. battles. it burns everywhere clearly and everywhere irresistibly. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts. yet might. speeches. This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star. all the inward passions and affections of mankind. and crowded with a greater number of councils.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER xlix shining than fierce. but everywhere equal and constant: in Lucan and Statius it bursts out in sudden. to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in. "The return of Ulysses. and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem. though they did not happen. short. and episodes of all kinds. I shall here endeavour to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors. though they did. to supply his maxims and reflections. I shall begin with considering him in his part. the allegorical." was first breathed into it by Homer. Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events. or of such as. and the marvellous." the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. That of the Iliad is the "anger of Achilles. as it is naturally the first. which. the settlement of the Trojans in Italy.

supplied the want from other Greek authors. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour. where he had not led the way. what a new and ample scene of wonder may . If Ulysses visit the shades. as well as a greater length of time. and several others in the same manner. If he has funeral games for Patroclus. and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus. but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. destroy the unity of action. Virgil. and the taking of Troy. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer. as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius. they all draw up their forces in the same order. Virgil has the same for Anchises. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit. so is Æneas by Dido. and Rinaldo by Armida. and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. those secrets of nature and physical philosophy which Homer is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his allegories. and contracting the design of both Homer's poems into one. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention. but. was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander. Thus the story of Sinon. for want of so warm a genius. Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs.l The Iliad of Homer than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. To proceed to the allegorical fable—If we reflect upon those innumerable knowledges. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso. Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. The other epic poets have used the same practice. but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army. aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem.

and after all the various changes of times and religions. with so visible and surprising a variety. For when the mode of learning changed in the following ages. If Homer was not the first who introduced the deities (as Herodotus imagines) into the religion of Greece. that mankind have been ever since contented to follow them: none have been able to enlarge the sphere of poetry beyond the limits he has set: every attempt of this nature has proved unsuccessful. and especially the machines of the gods. it then became as reasonable in the more modern poets to lay it aside. The marvellous fable includes whatever is supernatural. But whatever cause there might be to blame his machines in a philosophical or religious view. are by no means for their invention in having enlarged his circle. and to introduce them into actions agreeable to the nature of the things they shadowed! This is a field in which no succeeding poets could dispute with Homer. constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it. he seems the first who brought them into a system of machinery for poetry. they are so perfect in the poetic. the virtues and vices. and here we shall find no author has ever drawn so many. and whatever commendations have been allowed them on this head.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER li this consideration afford us! How fertile will that imagination appear. in forms and persons. his gods continue to this day the gods of poetry. And perhaps it was no unhappy circumstance for Virgil. We come now to the characters of his persons. but for their judgment in having contracted it. and science was delivered in a plainer manner. as it was in Homer to make use of it. and such a one as makes its greatest importance and dignity: for we find those authors who have been offended at the literal notion of the gods. the qualifications of the mind. which as able to clothe all the properties of elements. that there was not in his time that demand upon him of so great an invention as might be capable of furnishing all those allegorical parts of a poem. or given us such lively and affecting [xxxiv] .

Nothing can be more exact than the distinctions he has observed in the different degrees of virtues and vices. and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergestus. of Hector. besides. they lie. as it is. in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one. and this quality also takes a different turn in each from the difference of his prudence. to which he takes care to give a tincture of that principal one. Hippomedon. characters of courage. Cloanthus. that no painter could have distinguished them more by their features. Tydeus.lii The Iliad of Homer impressions of them. and they are distinct in this. The characters of Virgil are far from striking us in this open manner. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds. that of Diomede forward. the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capaneus. the other upon experience. than the poet has by their manners. hidden and undistinguished. that an air of impetuosity runs through them all. For example: the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom. that the wisdom of one is artificial and various. in a great degree. and subject to command. or the rest. for one in the war depends still upon caution. yet listening to advice. that of Menelaus mixed with softness and tenderness for his people: we find in Idomeneus a plain direct soldier. That of Achilles is furious and intractable. even that of Turnus seems no way peculiar. but even in the under parts of it. that of Ajax is heavy and self-confiding. active and vigilant: the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by love of empire and ambition. They have a parity . but. In like manner it may be remarked of Statius's heroes. in a superior degree. Nor is this judicious and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main of each character. open. The single quality of courage is wonderfully diversified in the several characters of the Iliad. and regular. of the other natural. His characters of valour are much alike. where they are marked most evidently affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. &c. and. But they have. Every one has something so singularly his own.

has collected innumerable instances of this sort. that it was in this part Homer principally excelled.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER liii of character. being perfect or defective as they agree or disagree with the manners. and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts. everything is acted or spoken. that is. As many of his persons have no apparent characters. so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule of propriety. Homer makes us hearers. of those who utter them. he has not so many that are sublime and noble. [xxxv] . "Everything in it has manner" (as Aristotle expresses it). Longinus has given his opinion. I believe when the reader is led into this tract of reflection. and that the Roman author seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments where he is not fired by the Iliad. We oftener think of the author himself when we read Virgil. he will be convinced how infinitely superior. which makes them seem brothers of one family. in a work of such length. that they have so remarkable a parity with those of the Scripture. And it is with justice an excellent modern writer allows. If. how small a number of lines are employed in narration. What were alone sufficient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his sentiments in general. than when we are engaged in Homer. In Virgil the dramatic part is less in proportion to the narrative. in the next place. we take a view of the sentiments. that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that are low and vulgar. than in any other poem. in his Gnomologia Homerica. if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers. the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of his thoughts. all which are the effects of a colder invention. and Virgil leaves us readers. It is hardly credible. so there is of speeches. that interests us less in the action described. which might be equally just in any person's mouth upon the same occasion. the invention of Homer was to that of all others. in this point. is. The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters. As there is more variety of characters in the Iliad. Duport.

a weapon "thirsts" to drink the blood of an enemy. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet. horror. and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents." there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever. and it is evident of Virgil especially. that no one bears a likeness to another. that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master. which discovers itself to be laid on boldly. he not only gives us the full prospects of things. summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things. and touched with the greatest spirit. and individual of nature. images. we shall find the invention still predominant. though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him. where we see each circumstance of art. which [xxxvi] . We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction. and confusion. and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay. but justly great in proportion to it. It is. such different kinds of deaths. It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles. indeed. but several unexpected peculiarities and side views. in their various views presented themselves in an instant. and similes. and such a profusion of noble ideas. that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner. the strongest and most glowing imaginable. we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. he was the only poet who had found out "living words. that every battle rises above the last in greatness. unobserved by any painter but Homer. Aristotle had reason to say. and the like. An arrow is "impatient" to be on the wing. the first who taught that "language of the gods" to men. His expression is like the colouring of some great masters. and executed with rapidity. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort. yet his expression is never too big for the sense. which take up no less than half the Iliad. If we descend from hence to the expression.liv The Iliad of Homer If we observe his descriptions.

which grows to a greater magnitude. Lastly. and refines to a greater clearness. and so of others. and forms itself about it. We see the motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos. and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength. as that is more strong. He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece. so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. this will become more perspicuous. but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp. one of these epithets is a short description. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry. What he most affected was the Ionic. to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants. not only as it heightened the diction. With . only as the breath within is more powerful. for in the same degree that a thought is warmer. like glass in the furnace. the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos. which has a peculiar sweetness. which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lv rises with it. As a metaphor is a short simile. but searched through its different dialects with this particular view. from its never using contractions. if we consider his versification. and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention. an expression will be brighter. To throw his language more out of prose. and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. and the heat more intense.

Thus his measures. while we . and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of. at the same time. and even to give a further representation of his notions. and the turn and cadence of its verse. or takes off its accent. in his treatise of the Composition of Words. will find more sweetness.lvi The Iliad of Homer [xxxvii] this he mingled the Attic contractions. and the feebler Æolic. in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head. were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture. that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. which agree with the genius of no other language. instead of being fetters to his sense. and always full. They roll along as a plentiful river. than in any other language of poetry. Virgil was very sensible of this. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author's beauties in this kind. in particular. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers. the broader Doric. the only reason is. but the finest ear in the world. never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. always in motion. and majesty of sound. that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses. which often rejects its aspirate. and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words. variety. and. that they flow with so much ease. even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas). The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself. as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated. and. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman. with so much force and inspiriting vigour. This is so great a truth.

and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work. in what has been said of Virgil. his images and descriptions more full and animated. his manners more lively and strongly marked. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty. Virgil has in judgment. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer. In one we most admire the man. his speeches more affecting and transported. methinks the two poets resemble the heroes [xxxviii] . When we behold their battles. like a river in its banks. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lvii are borne away by a tide of verse. Homer was the greater genius. and as Homer has done this in invention. and yet the most smooth imaginable. and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other. the most rapid. than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them. pours out his riches with a boundless overflow. and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. and his numbers more rapid and various. like the Nile. each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides. Virgil. Homer. or that Virgil wanted invention. I have no way derogated from his character. Virgil the better artist. his expression more raised and daring. Homer scatters with a generous profusion. I hope. because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree. with a gentle and constant stream. Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment. because Homer possessed a larger share of it. with regard to any of these heads. Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. his sentiments more warm and sublime. in the other the work. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him. what principally strikes us is his invention. Nothing is more absurd or endless. and are only said to have less in comparison with one another.

Among these we may reckon some of his marvellous fictions. and firing the heavens: Virgil. like Æneas. and regularly ordering his whole creation. or the fault begins. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more. Thus Homer has his "speaking horses. disposes all about him. as with gigantic bodies. Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors. and shines more and more as the tumult increases." where the latter has not so much as contrived the easy intervention of a deity to save the probability. appears undisturbed in the midst of the action. so may a great judgment decline to coldness. and conquers with tranquillity. commit something near extravagance. laying plans for empires. as with great virtues. counselling with the gods. like the old heroes of that make. Virgil.lviii The Iliad of Homer they celebrate. we shall perceive the chief objections against him to proceed from so noble a cause as the excess of this faculty. like the same power in his benevolence. which. so may a great invention to redundancy or wildness. Homer. it is with great parts. bears all before him. shaking Olympus. As prudence may sometimes sink to suspicion. to become miracles in the whole. that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. amidst a series of glorious and inimitable performances. calmly daring. than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of . upon which so much criticism has been spent. It is owing to the same vast invention." and Virgil his "myrtles distilling blood. and it is often hard to distinguish exactly where the virtue ends. as surpassing all the bounds of probability. And when we look upon their machines. exerting themselves with unusual strength. exceed what is commonly thought the due proportion of parts. they naturally border on some imperfection. Perhaps it may be with great and superior souls. boundless and resistless as Achilles. and. If we look upon Homer in this view. But after all. scattering the lightnings. and as magnanimity may run up to profusion or extravagance.

those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in. His similes are like pictures. If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius. where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lix additional images. when a spirit of revenge and cruelty. but I must here speak a word of the latter. joined with the practice of rapine and robbery. which.38 "that those times and manners are so much the more excellent. are so managed as not to overpower the main one. in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity. who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. we ought to 38 [xxxix] Preface to her Homer. I would not be so delicate as those modern critics. and princesses drawing water from the springs. When we read Homer. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind. reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre. Such are his grosser representations of the gods. both by the censurers and defenders of Homer." Who can be so prejudiced in their favour as to magnify the felicity of those ages. and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side. and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes. however. to think with Madame Dacier. as they are more contrary to ours. as it is a point generally carried into extremes. than an excess of it. princes tending their flocks. when the greatest princes were put to the sword. . The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity. but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects. when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images.

complying with the custom of his country. indeed. will double their pleasure in the perusal of him. and had contracted a weight and veneration from the rites and solemn devotions in which they were used: they were a sort of attributes with which it was a matter of religion to salute them on all occasions." &c. the only true mirror of that ancient world. were obliged to add some other distinction of each person. By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish. And. Diogenes the Cynic. Mons. I shall add a further conjecture. has placed a fourth age. which some have censured as impertinent. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Edward the Black Prince. such as the names of Harold Harefoot.lx The Iliad of Homer reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world. dividing the world into its different ages." the "blue-eyed Pallas. Hesiod. Those of the gods depended upon the powers and offices then believed to belong to them." the "swift-footed Achilles. that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity. we have something parallel to these in modern times. and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found.. either naming his parents expressly. &c. between the brazen and . or the like: as Alexander the son of Philip. and those who consider him in this light. such as the "far-darting Phoebus. used such distinctive additions as better agreed with poetry. This consideration may further serve to answer for the constant use of the same epithets to his gods and heroes. Homer. If yet this be thought to account better for the propriety than for the repetition. profession. and tediously repeated. that they were in the nature of surnames. Boileau is of opinion. Edmund Ironside. therefore. and which it was an irreverence to omit. Edward Longshanks. &c. or his place of birth. and what usually creates their dislike. As for the epithets of great men. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more. for the Greeks having no names derived from their fathers. and repeated as such. will become a satisfaction.

and live by the care of Jupiter in the islands of the blessed. as because Achilles is not as good and perfect a prince as Æneas. as if one should think to raise the superstructure by undermining the foundation: one would imagine. pretending to a fairer proceeding. when the very moral of his poem required a contrary character: it is thus that Rapin judges in his comparison of Homer and Virgil. a divine race who fought at Thebes and Troy. are such as hardly deserve a reply. by the whole course of their parallels. and then triumph in the awkwardness of their own translations: this is the conduct of Perrault in his Parallels. and the action of the one more beneficial to his country than that of the other. What other cavils have been raised against Homer. actions or qualities. not to be mentioned without the solemnity of an epithet. and such as might be acceptable to them by celebrating their families. Lastly. Others select those particular passages of Homer which are not so laboured as some that Virgil drew out of them: this is the whole management of Scaliger in his Poetics. Many have been occasioned by an injudicious endeavour to exalt Virgil." Now among the divine honours which were paid them. or else they blame him for not doing what he never designed. for the same reasons which might set the Odyssey above the Æneis. as when they prefer the fable and moral of the Æneis to those of the Iliad. as that the hero is a wiser man. oftener from an ignorance of the graces of the original. they might have this also in common with the gods. Others quarrel with what they take for low and mean expressions. distinguish between the personal merit of . who. but will yet be taken notice of as they occur in the course of the work. of "heroes distinct from other men. are called demi-gods. sometimes through a false delicacy and refinement. a consideration which whoever compares these two poets ought to have always in his eye. there are others.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxi [xl] the iron one. that these critics never so much as heard of Homer's having written first. Some accuse him for the same things which they overlook or praise in the other. which is much the same.

flourishes. and if he has failed in some of his flights.) to be the causes of his fame. who yet confesses upon the whole that in whatever age Homer had lived. it was but because he attempted everything. A work of this kind seems like a mighty tree. &c. and that he may be said in his sense to be the master even of those who surpassed him.39 In all these objections we see nothing that contradicts his title to the honour of the chief invention: and as long as this (which is indeed the characteristic of poetry itself) remains unequalled by his followers. they make those accidents (such as the contention of the cities. is improved with industry. Homer not only appears the inventor of poetry. he still continues superior to them. but when they come to assign the causes of the great reputation of the Iliad.lxii The Iliad of Homer Homer. 155. which rises from the most vigorous seed. The same might as well be said of Virgil. and produces the finest fruit: nature and art conspire to raise it. A cooler judgment may commit fewer faults. but excels all the inventors of other arts. pleasure and profit join to make it valuable: and they who find the justest faults. This is the method of Mons. . vers. and that of his work. Lib. which were in reality the consequences of his merit. He showed all the stretch of fancy at once. de la Mott. they found it upon the ignorance of his times. and be more approved in the eyes of one sort of critics: but that warmth of fancy will carry the loudest and most universal applauses which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. What he has done admitted no increase. et Dier. it only left room for contraction or regulation. that he has swallowed up the honour of those who succeeded him. he must have been the greatest poet of his nation. Opp. or any great author whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation. and the prejudice of those that followed: and in pursuance of this principle. &c. in this. I. have only said that a few branches which run luxuriant through 39 [xli] Hesiod.

insolent hope of raising and improving their author. It is a great secret in writing. but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original. and simile. As it also breaks out in every particular image. to know when to be plain. It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect. the diction and versification only are his proper province. but the others he is to take as he finds them. might be lopped into form to give it a more regular appearance. there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile. I know no liberties one ought to take. as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however. there is often a light in antiquity. and sentiments. since these must be his own. such as the fable. it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole. whoever lessens or too much softens those. it remains to treat of the translation. without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is. takes off from this chief character. dull adherence to the letter. which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient. It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. no translator can prejudice it but by wilful omissions or contractions. that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard. It is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. If there be sometimes a darkness. manners. in any particular place. It is not to be doubted. with the same view to the chief characteristic. description. by deviating into the modern manners of expression. and . Having now spoken of the beauties and defects of the original. and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say. which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical. As far as that is seen in the main parts of the poem.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxiii a richness of nature. and for the rest.

to give in to several of those general phrases and manners of expression.lxiv The Iliad of Homer [xlii] when poetical and figurative. This pure and noble simplicity is nowhere in such perfection as in the Scripture and our author. on the one hand. some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle). as Homer is the author nearest to those. while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. others slowly and servilely creeping in his train. in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. and the rest of the world will call dulness. as he may gain by that character of style. with all respect to the inspired writings. others sunk into flatness. if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. as well as a bold and sordid one. and. and it is what Homer will teach us. induce a translator. However. but where his is plain and humble. and another not to be dressed at all. One may affirm. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer. that the Divine Spirit made use of no other words but what were intelligible and common to men at that time. let us raise ours as high as we can. which his friends must agree together to call simplicity. which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up. we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic. of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity. which have . This consideration (together with what has been observed of the parity of some of his thoughts) may. and in that part of the world. methinks. Where his diction is bold and lofty. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime. no author is to be envied for such commendations. his style must of course bear a greater resemblance to the sacred books than that of any other writer. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity.

seemed pleased with them as beauties. They have something venerable. which most of any other seems to require a venerable." or the like. and of his repetitions. those only excepted without which it is impossible to treat the subjects in any living language. those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects. on the other. a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight. and as I may say. As for the rest. antique cast. For a further preservation of this air of simplicity. oracular. to avoid those which have been appropriated to the Divinity. if done without too much affectation. such as "the cloud-compelling Jove. in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavouring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is. I speak of his compound epithets. But certainly the use of modern terms of war and government. such as "platoon. without violence to the ear or to the received rules of composition. (into which some of his translators have fallen) cannot be allowable. might not have an ill effect in a version of this particular work. junto. whenever any can be as fully and [xliii] . and in a manner consigned to mystery and religion. campaign. and those who are.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxv attained a veneration even in our language from being used in the Old Testament. as. Many of the former cannot be done literally into English without destroying the purity of our language. I believe such should be retained as slide easily of themselves into an English compound. and are become familiar through their use of them. Perhaps the mixture of some Graecisms and old words after the manner of Milton. There are two peculiarities in Homer's diction. as well as those which have received a sanction from the authority of our best poets. a more modern) turn in the paraphrase." &c.

according to the occasions on which they are introduced. or from higher powers to inferiors in concerns of state. as to preserve their full image by one or two words. it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. in respect of the darts and bow. and where the effects of the sun are described. the epithet of Apollo." is capable of two explications. with regard to the rays of the sun. nor to offend the reader too much on the other. and which." Others that admit of different significations. and of one verse or hemistitch. The repetition is not ungraceful in those speeches. a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment. I would make choice of the latter. would appear little or ridiculous translated literally "leaf-shaking. where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed.lxvi The Iliad of Homer significantly expressed in a single word as in a compounded one. we may divide them into three sorts: of whole narrations and speeches. as the epithet einosiphyllos to a mountain. and in doing this properly. the other allegorical. For example. the ensigns of that god. or where the ceremonial of religion seems to require it. . the course to be taken is obvious." but affords a majestic idea in the periphrasis: "the lofty mountain shakes his waving woods. in such places where Apollo is represented as a god in person. Some that cannot be so turned. may have justice done them by circumlocution. therefore. though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times. in the solemn forms of prayers. as neither to lose so known a mark of the author on the one hand. Upon the whole. may receive an advantage from a judicious variation. where the dignity of the speaker renders it a sort of insolence to alter his words. as in the messages from gods to men. one literal. hekaebolos or "far-shooting. I hope it is not impossible to have such a regard to these. of single sentences. I would use the former interpretation. is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them. As for Homer's repetitions.

312. or the like. in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity. where he has spun twenty verses out of two. We have only those of Chapman. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have. will see I have endeavoured at this beauty. and varying it on every new subject. or distance. and Virgil in the Latin. at which the repetitions are placed in the original: when they follow too close. when a writer is warm. that one might think he deviated on purpose. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines. Upon the whole. of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. notwithstanding which. and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek. His expression is involved [xliv] . I believe the best rule is. the author is to answer for it. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner. and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey. and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. Hobbes. In other cases. if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. it may reasonably be believed they designed this. ver. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxvii oaths. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse. a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer. and Ogilby. there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry. and fully possessed of his image: however. one may vary the expression. I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. whether a professed translator be authorized to omit any: if they be tedious. to be guided by the nearness. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author. but it is a question. insomuch as to promise. in his rhyming preface. It only remains to speak of the versification. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance.

of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks. as in the tragedy of Bussy d'Amboise. is too mean for criticism. in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense. and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the . and a small part of the sixth. which proceeds not from his following the original line by line. As for its being esteemed a close translation. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences. had he translated the whole work. but through carelessness. but from the contractions above mentioned. His poetry. Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general. But that which is to be allowed him. and an enthusiast in poetry.lxviii The Iliad of Homer [xlv] in fustian. or preserved the antiquities. It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it. He has left us only the first book. which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion. from his preface and remarks. to have been of an arrogant turn. a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings. and often omits the most beautiful. and which very much contributed to cover his defects. &c. shows with what negligence his version was performed. the nature of the man may account for his whole performance. However. In a word. into which no writer of his learning could have fallen. and is now and then guilty of mistakes. whose words he sometimes copies. His own boast. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them. I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. for he appears. it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in. is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation. as well as Ogilby's.

from whose . where the sense can bear any doubt. is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places. than from any commentaries. to follow the strongest and most poetical. ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer. to copy him in all the variations of his style. a warmth and elevation. how learned soever. neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. in the more sedate or narrative. and Bossu's admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world. a plainness and solemnity. since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern. to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients. a fulness and perspicuity. That which. in the speeches. a shortness and gravity. not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words. in the sentences. he must hope to please but a few. with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed. to study his author rather from his own text. and a pedant nothing that is not Greek. What I would further recommend to him is. as most agreeing with that character. in the more active or descriptive parts. nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. But after all. the Archbishop of Cambray's Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author. they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it. in my opinion. For to satisfy such a want either. What I have done is submitted to the public. and competent learning. Next these. and the different modulations of his numbers. and with Milton above all the moderns. those only who have at once a taste of poetry. is not in the nature of this undertaking. to preserve. or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxix commonwealth of letters.

. though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last. but none as they are malignant writers. that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay). they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend. who are most sensible of the weight of this task. the many friendly offices. that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. is no less extensive than his learning. I must also acknowledge. so poor. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task. Rowe.lxx The Iliad of Homer [xlvi] opinions I am prepared to learn. and Dr. Dr. who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity. Congreve. of Mr. so complete a praise: "Read Homer once. As for the worst. Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. Mr. and you can read no more. though I fear no judges so little as our best poets. with infinite pleasure. I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find. as well as sincere criticisms. and by persons for whom they can have no kindness. if an old observation be true. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs. whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric). I must add the names of Mr. whatever they shall please to say. Parnell. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me. while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. For all books else appear so mean. who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer.

and easy friendships. Mr. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence. or the vanities of . the present secretary of state. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged. Stanhope. which make the satisfaction of life. I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon. In short. and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence. I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted. than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning." lxxi That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me. that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general. the University of Oxford. will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death. from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. but their correction of several particulars of this translation. but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke. He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival. not more distinguished in the great scenes of business. has not refused to be the critic of these sheets. and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of "Heroic Love" has continued his partiality to me.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER And Homer will be all the books you need. as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties. The particular zeal of Mr. when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations.

lxxii The Iliad of Homer particular men. . nor disagreeable to myself. and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies. I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit. after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others. Whatever the success may prove.

.[001] THE ILIAD.


but commands him not to engage with the chief of the enemy's army. this friend weeps before him. corrected in a few particulars. is translated from Bitaube. and taken from thence two beautiful captives. In the war of Troy. entreats for vengeance from his god. in the tenth year of the siege. victory abandons the army. according to the proud obstinacy of his character. prepares to fight. and because he also fears for his friend's life. ARGUMENT. and the last to Achilles. and is. and for permission to go to the war in his stead. and the hero's arms become the prize of the conqueror. Chryses. because he reserves to himself the honour of that combat. Achilles calls a council. During this interval. retires to his tent. allotted the first to Agamemnon. The prohibition is forgotten. 40 . upon the successful termination of which the honour of their country depends. persists in his animosity. and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon. The hero. He lends his armour to his friend. comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her. the father of Chryseis. with which the action of the poem opens. and encourages Chalcas to The following argument of the Iliad. Chryseis and Briseis. at length opening his eyes to the fault which he had committed. perhaps. and priest of Apollo. and animated with a noble resentment. the neatest summary that has ever been drawn up:—"A hero. The general. This inexorable man has a friend. who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns. his corpse is brought back to the hero. The eloquence of friendship prevails more than the intercession of the ambassadors or the gifts of the general. and for a season withdraws himself and his troops from the war. and asks for the hero's arms. with commission to make compensation for the injury. The priest being refused. the army is again defeated.40 THE CONTENTION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. and is on the verge of entire destruction. the friend listens to nothing but his courage. given up to the most lively despair. he receives from a divinity new armour. injured by his general. and to tender magnificent presents.BOOK I. Then the hero. deputes the principal officers of his army to the incensed hero. which for nine years has been occupied in a great enterprise.

thirsting for glory and revenge. and such the will of Jove!42 is reconciled with his general and.41 Since great Achilles and Atrides strove. heavenly goddess. for Homer writes "a prey to dogs and to all kinds of birds. at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. The king. 41 Vultures: Pope is more accurate than the poet he translates. being obliged to send back his captive. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks. as he had the absolute command of the army. and lastly to Olympus. enters into a furious contest with Achilles. which Nestor pacifies. who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis. and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Æthiopians. he seizes on Briseis in revenge. 42 —i. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. enacts prodigies of valour.'—Coleridge. recovers the victory. till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. Jupiter. however. sqq. Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore. 177. honours his friend with superb funeral rites.e. which he buries with due solemnities. slays the enemy's chief. but finally appeased by the tears and prayers of the father of the slain warrior. [002] . to Greece the direful spring Of woes unnumber'd. sing! That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain. then changes to Chrysa. and exercises a cruel vengeance on the body of his destroyer. Such was the sovereign doom. But all kinds of birds are not carnivorous. and complaining to Thetis. Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore. Achilles' wrath. she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son. p. incenses Juno: between whom the debate runs high. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague. by giving victory to the Trojans. during the whole time of their striving the will of Jove was being gradually accomplished. granting her suit. restores to the old man the corpse of his son. one in the council and quarrel of the princes.4 The Iliad of Homer declare the cause of it.

" 43 5 Compare Milton's "Paradise Lost" i.44 And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead. But. The king of men his reverent priest defied.BOOK I. And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground. from what offended power Latona's son a dire contagion spread. or of Sinai. that on the secret top Of Horeb. —King of men: Agamemnon. yet let my presents move.e. For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain His captive daughter from the victor's chain. Suppliant the venerable father stands. 6 "Sing. Apollo's awful ensigns grace his hands By these he begs.45 And for the king's offence the people died. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings. Declare. And give Chryseis to these arms again. heavenly Muse. Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown He sued to all. And dread avenging Phoebus. . oh! relieve a wretched parent's pain. and lowly bending down. didst inspire That shepherd. O Muse! in what ill-fated hour43 Sprung the fierce strife. Apollo. of Atreus' royal race46 "Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown'd. son of Jove." 44 45 46 —Latona's son: i. May Jove restore you when your toils are o'er Safe to the pleasures of your native shore. If mercy fail. —Brother kings: Menelaus and Agamemnon.

and shall remain. and thus replied: "Hence on thy life. with thy laurel crown. Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god. and tears. The priest to reverence. he. presumptuous. Repulsed the sacred sire. Not so Atrides. . Nor ask. priest. and golden rod. In daily labours of the loom employ'd. shall plead in vain. Till time shall rifle every youthful grace. what the king detains Hence. And prayers. and bribes. Or doom'd to deck the bed she once enjoy'd Hence then. with kingly pride.6 The Iliad of Homer The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare." [003] HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. And age dismiss her from my cold embrace. Mine is thy daughter. Far from her native soil and weeping sire. and fly these hostile plains. to Argos shall the maid retire. and release the fair.

having halted for the night. and the Greeks destroy." i. Grote. Strabo. It should be. And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa's shores. a sister of Hippodamia.48 Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores. 49 A mistake. Avenge thy servant. And in the anguish of a father mourn'd. the Phrygian name for a mouse. 7 "O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona's line. and that. The god who darts around the world his rays. not daring to complain. a town of Troas near Thebe.49 Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain. God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ. to his god he prays. Silent he wander'd by the sounding main. 47 "If e'er I roofed thy graceful fane. If e'er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane. that when the Teucri were migrating from Crete. Disconsolate. where they should not be attacked by the original inhabitants of the land. p. dates before the earliest period of Aeolian colonization. in various parts of the Troad and its neighboring territory. The trembling priest along the shore return'd. 68. they were told by an oracle to settle in that place.47 Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine.BOOK I. they settled on the spot. slain by OEnomaus. Till." 48 —Cilla. safe at distance." for the custom of decorating temples with garlands was of later date. so called from Cillus. and raised a temple to Sminthean Apollo. "History of Greece. however. was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory." [004] —Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos. a number of field-mice came and gnawed away the leathern straps of their baggage. . and thongs of their armour. In fulfilment of the oracle. remarks that the "worship of Sminthean Apollo. says.

52 —Convened to council. Bent was his bow. ii. is a different character from the deity of the same name in the later classical pantheon. vol.51 And last. Inspired by Juno. there is no trace in either Iliad or Odyssey. 51 It has frequently been observed.50 Fierce as he moved. shot a dismal glare. he twang'd his deadly bow. For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain. Throughout both poems. for who could more appropriately impart to mortals what little foreknowledge Fate permitted of her decrees than the agent of her most awful dispensations? The close union of the arts of prophecy and song explains his additional office of god of music. through all the dusky air. And from Olympus' lofty tops descends. sq. all deaths from unforeseen or invisible causes. his silver shafts resound. On mules and dogs the infection first began. And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. a sudden night he spread. cut off in the germ of infancy or flower of youth. For nine long nights. are ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or Diana. "It is an assembly for talk.8 The Iliad of Homer Thus Chryses pray'd. p 92. The fleet in view. And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. no less naturally procured him that of god of archery. whatever may have existed in the more esoteric doctrine of the Greek sanctuaries. The pyres. that most pestilences begin with animals."—Mure. and that Homer had this fact in mind. Breathing revenge. p. the Grecian hearts to wound. of the old man dropping peacefully into the grave. while the arrows with which he and his sister were armed. thick-flaming. it must be borne in mind. 478. The public assembly in the heroic times is well characterized by Grote. Of any connection between Apollo and the Sun. i. the ravages of pestilence. symbols of sudden death in every age. 50 . But ere the tenth revolving day was run. or of the reckless sinner suddenly checked in his career of crime. The oracular functions of the god rose naturally out of the above fundamental attributes.—the favouring power attends. the vengeful arrows fix'd in man. the fate of the young child or promising adult. Thetis' godlike son Convened to council all the Grecian train. "History of Greek Literature." vol.52 —Bent was his bow "The Apollo of Homer.

Explore the cause of great Apollo's rage. for dreams descend from Jove. and sometimes for quarrel—but here its ostensible purposes end. the present. whose "Gnomologia Homerica" is full of curious and useful things." [005] He said. atoned. Let altars smoke. in maintenance of the belief that dreams had a divine origin and an import in which men were interested. rising o'er the rest. and hecatombs be paid. the Grecian priest and guide." 53 Old Jacob Duport. whose comprehensive view. So Heaven. And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more.53 If broken vows this heavy curse have laid. . quotes several passages of the ancients. and the future knew: Uprising slow. Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove By mystic dreams.BOOK I. But let some prophet. in which reference is made to these words of Homer. or some sacred sage. 'Tis time to save the few remains of war. of the people as listeners and sympathizers—often for eloquence. the venerable sage Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age: Communication and discussion to a certain extent by the chiefs in person. The assembly seated. Chalcas the wise. shall dying Greece restore. and sat: when Chalcas thus replied. And measure back the seas we cross'd before? The plague destroying whom the sword would spare. The past. Achilles thus the king of men address'd: 9 "Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore. That sacred seer.

" 54 Rather. For though we deem the short-lived fury past." Encouraged thus. and the god may spare. by thy power and sword: For I must speak what wisdom would conceal.10 The Iliad of Homer "Beloved of Jove. And whose bless'd oracles thy lips declare. Apollo's vengeance for his injured priest. our chief. and funeral fires increase. Long as Achilles breathes this vital air. 'Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last. and plight a prince's word Of sure protection. The king of kings. The priest may pardon. of all the numerous band. Not e'en the chief by whom our hosts are led. with added sacrifice and prayer. Nor will the god's awaken'd fury cease. Instruct a monarch where his error lies. But he. without a ransom paid. grown too wise. E'en by that god I swear who rules the day. nor slighted sacrifice. and speak without control. reveal.54 Perhaps. shall touch that sacred head." See the German critics quoted by Arnold. No daring Greek. Till the great king. . the blameless man replies: "Nor vows unpaid. Against his priest shall lift an impious hand. invidious to the great." To whom Pelides:—"From thy inmost soul Speak what thou know'st. And truths. To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey. when subjects. To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid. But plagues shall spread. provoked the raging pest. Achilles! would'st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow? First give thy faith. Bold is the task. "bright-eyed.

And heavenly charms prefer to proffer'd gold? A maid. rather than my people fall. Black choler fill'd his breast that boil'd with ire. Prophet of plagues. but fonder of the prize! Would'st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield. The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown The monarch started from his shining throne. Fond of the power. my beauteous maid. for ever boding ill! Still must that tongue some wounding message bring. I will resign. When first her blooming beauties bless'd my arms. the beauteous prize. Skill'd in each art. The due reward of many a well-fought field? 11 [006] . Is heaven offended. So dearly valued. and crown'd with every grace. Yet. To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord? For this with falsehood is my honour stain'd." "Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies). and a priest profaned. let her sail. Nor unrewarded let your prince complain. I hold. and so justly mine. And suffer. Our cares are only for the public weal: Let me be deem'd the hateful cause of all. My private loss let grateful Greece repair. That he alone has fought and bled in vain. Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra's charms. The prize. if the gods demand her. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living fire: "Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still. Because my prize. But since for common good I yield the fair.BOOK I. unmatch'd in manners as in face. And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king? For this are Phoebus' oracles explored.

the daughter of Cycnus. The prize given to Ajax was Tecmessa. The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite. or even thy own. as with toil we gain. And rage he may.55 Ulysses' spoils. The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign. and like a god in fight. Think not to rob me of a soldier's right. while Ulysses received Laodice." Then thus the king: "Shall I my prize resign With tame content. 55 [007] . But to resume whate'er thy avarice craves (That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves. but he shall rage in vain.12 The Iliad of Homer The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain. Such as a king might ask. The man who suffers. by Jove's decree. And some deputed prince the charge attend: This Creta's king. Or. Yet if our chief for plunder only fight. And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa's shores.—It now remains We launch a bark to plough the watery plains. We share with justice. be mine. and thou possess'd of thine? Great as thou art. Or grant me this. and with labouring oars. or Ajax shall fulfil. Whene'er. But this when time requires. At thy demand shall I restore the maid? First let the just equivalent be paid. and let it be A treasure worthy her. our conquering powers Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers. and worthy me. loudly may complain. With chosen pilots. Or wise Ulysses see perform'd our will. Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend. if our royal pleasure shall ordain. or with a monarch's claim This hand shall seize some other captive dame.

Whose fruitful soil luxuriant harvests grace. unworthy of a royal mind! What generous Greek. a voluntary throng. To Phthia's realms no hostile troops they led: Safe in her vales my warlike coursers fed. or shall lift the sword? What cause have I to war at thy decree? The distant Trojans never injured me. Let fierce Achilles. And walls of rocks. the hoarse-resounding main. Rich in her fruits. secure my native reign. The god propitiate. Shall form an ambush. and the pest assuage. replied: "O tyrant. . obedient to thy word. and in her martial race. frowning stern.BOOK I. dreadful in his rage. Hither we sail'd. Pelides. At this. Achilles' self conduct her o'er the main. ever join'd With fraud. To avenge a private. arm'd with insolence and pride! Inglorious slave to interest." 13 MARS. not a public wrong: What else to Troy the assembled nations draws. Far hence removed.

What spoils. If thou hast strength. and thy threats defy. Thine in each conquest is the wealthy prey. and took their origin from Myrmido. shall Atrides gain?" To this the king: "Fly. mighty warrior! fly. Rule thy own realms with arbitrary sway. threat thy earth-born Myrmidons:—but here56 The Myrmidons dwelt on the southern borders of Thessaly. Of all the kings (the god's distinguish'd care) To power superior none such hatred bear: Strife and debate thy restless soul employ. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? A prize as small. an ant. As thy own actions if compared to mine. I heed thee not. but prize at equal rate Thy short-lived friendship. ungrateful. son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa. And wars and horrors are thy savage joy.14 The Iliad of Homer [008] But thine. "because they imitated the 56 . It is fancifully supposed that the name was derived from myrmaex. But know. and thy groundless hate. O tyrant! match'd with thine. There want not chiefs in such a cause to fight. launch thy vessels. 'twas Heaven that strength bestow'd. And Jove himself shall guard a monarch's right. I'm thy slave no more. Thy aid we need not. Go. Haste. Some trivial present to my ships I bear: Or barren praises pay the wounds of war. Disgraced and injured by the man we serve? And darest thou threat to snatch my prize away. Though mine the sweat and danger of the day. For know. vain man! thy valour is from God. what conquests. proud monarch. fly with speed away. My fleet shall waft me to Thessalia's shore: Left by Achilles on the Trojan plain. and thy brother's cause? Is this the pay our blood and toils deserve.

Fierce as thou art. His heart swell'd high. with grief and rage oppress'd. Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruled. And hence. after Heraclides Ponticus and others. which resembles that of the ant: they bore a further resemblance to these little animals. and thine to fear. imperious prince! prepare. allegorizes this apparition. was intended to point out the sudden recollection that he would gain nothing by intemperate wrath. having no other retreats but dens and the cavities of trees. and curse the hour Thou stood'st a rival of imperial power. and now by reason cool'd: That prompts his hand to draw the deadly sword. the change from ants to men is founded merely on the equivocation of their name. in that instead of inhabiting towns or villages. Now fired by wrath. 'Tis mine to threaten. Know. and labour'd in his breast.BOOK I. as if the appearance of Minerva to Achilles. My bark shall waft her to her native land. if the god the beauteous dame demand. to all our hosts it shall be known. But then prepare. continually employed in cultivating the earth. and that it were best to restrain his anger. and like them were indefatigable." Achilles heard. Thy loved Briseis with the radiant eyes." 57 Eustathius."—Anthon's "Lempriere. "De Deo Socratis. and pierce their haughty lord. at first they commonly resided in the open fields. While half unsheathed appear'd the glittering blade. Hence shalt thou prove my might.57 15 [009] diligence of the ants. The same idea is rather cleverly worked out by Apuleius. and only gratify it by withdrawing his services. That kings are subject to the gods alone. to yield thy captive fair: Even in thy tent I'll seize the blooming prize. And calm the rising tempest of his soul. unseen by the rest. and settled them in more secure and comfortable habitations. until Ithacus brought them together. Force through the Greeks." . Just as in anguish of suspense he stay'd. This whispers soft his vengeance to control. prince.

to him alone confess'd. and sudden to the goddess cries. in her guardian care. "Descends Minerva. A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear From Atreus' son?—Then let those eyes that view The daring crime.16 The Iliad of Homer Minerva swift descended from above. Behind she stood. A sable cloud conceal'd her from the rest. He sees. behold the vengeance too. and by the golden hair Achilles seized. Sent by the sister and the wife of Jove (For both the princes claim'd her equal care)." . Known by the flames that sparkle from her eyes: MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES.

BOOK I. Or nobly face the horrid front of war? 'Tis ours. the chance of fighting fields to try. to the gods resign'd. And joins the sacred senate of the skies. obedient. Thou dog in forehead. The king and you are both the care of heaven. Hard as it is. To reason yield the empire o'er his mind." He said. And rob a subject. Thine to look on. But sheathe. The force of keen reproaches let him feel. "Forbear (the progeny of Jove replies) To calm thy fury I forsake the skies: Let great Achilles. but in heart a deer! When wert thou known in ambush'd fights to dare. Which thus redoubling on Atrides broke: "O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear. observant of the blue-eyed maid. For I pronounce (and trust a heavenly power) Thy injured honour has its fated hour." To her Pelides:—"With regardful ear. Command thy passions. than despoil a foe. 'Tis just. Nor yet the rage his boiling breast forsook. When the proud monarch shall thy arms implores And bribe thy friendship with a boundless store. thy revenging steel. and the gods obey. Then in the sheath return'd the shining blade. O goddess! I thy dictates hear. my vengeance I suppress: Those who revere the gods the gods will bless. By awful Juno this command is given. and bid the valiant die: So much 'tis safer through the camp to go. Then let revenge no longer bear the sway. The goddess swift to high Olympus flies. 17 [010] .

Hector comes to spread The purpled shore with mountains of the dead. Are tamed to wrongs. This sceptre. Forced to deplore when impotent to save: Then rage in bitterness of soul to know This act has made the bravest Greek thy foe." So Proverbs v. 3. sweet as honey. violent and base! Sent in Jove's anger on a slavish race. Slow from his seat arose the Pylian sage." He spoke." . ii: "Though his tongue Dropp'd manna. Experienced Nestor. By this I swear:—when bleeding Greece again Shall call Achilles. and furious hurl'd against the ground His sceptre starr'd with golden studs around: Then sternly silent sat. Words. "For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb. Which sever'd from the trunk (as I from thee) On the bare mountains left its parent tree. From whom the power of laws and justice springs (Tremendous oath! inviolate to kings). Then shall thou mourn the affront thy madness gave. she shall call in vain. When.18 The Iliad of Homer Scourge of thy people. To calm their passion with the words of age. Now by this sacred sceptre hear me swear." bk. lost to sense of generous freedom past. from his lips distill'd:58 58 Compare Milton. flush'd with slaughter. Who. in persuasion skill'd. form'd by temper'd steel to prove An ensign of the delegates of Jove. With like disdain The raging king return'd his frowns again. Which never more shall leaves or blossoms bear.—or this had been thy last. "Paradise Lost.

Two generations now had pass'd away. even these esteem'd me wise. or Ceneus' deathless name. the bravest. Nor think your Nestor's years and wisdom vain. and sovereign power preside. 19 [011] . That prize the Greeks by common suffrage gave: Nor thou. Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd. Such as no more these aged eyes shall view! Lives there a chief to match Pirithous' fame. Do you. Dryas the bold. Let kings be just. Fired with the thirst which virtuous envy breeds. When Nestor spoke. Ranged the wild deserts red with monsters' gore. like the gods in fight? With these of old. they listen'd and obey'd. and happy by his sway. Young as ye are. If in my youth. treat our prince with pride. hear my age advise. of the Grecian state. young warriors. And now the example of the third remain'd. Theseus. and the friends of Troy! That adverse gods commit to stern debate The best. to toils of battle bred. All view'd with awe the venerable man. And from their hills the shaggy Centaurs tore: Yet these with soft persuasive arts I sway'd. what woe is this to Greece! what joy To Troy's proud monarch. endued with more than mortal might. Atrides.BOOK I. Or Polyphemus. And smit with love of honourable deeds. Who thus with mild benevolence began:— "What shame. this youthful heat restrain. Wise by his rules. In early youth my hardy days I led. Achilles. Strongest of men. A godlike race of heroes once I knew. seize not on the beauteous slave. they pierced the mountain boar.

Forbid it. our chiefs. Rule thou thyself. gods! Achilles should be lost. whom the Grecians doom'd My prize of war. Before his pride must his superiors fall. Like gods in strength. O king! to calm Achilles' rage. I well deserved thy galling chain. the first honours of the war adorn. no respect control. and sceptred sons of Jove. No laws can limit. yet tamely see resumed. and still to serve in vain. And seize secure. thus. that unconquer'd soul. as more advanced in age. The pride of Greece. So shall authority with strength be join'd. But that imperious. Should I submit to each unjust decree:— Command thy vassals. The king of men replies: "Thy years are awful. And furious. he ceased. and of a goddess born. His word the law. Seize on Briseis." This said. Him. and he the lord of all? Him must our hosts. Let both unite with well-consenting mind. and interrupting spoke: "Tyrant. awful majesty exalts above The powers of earth.20 The Iliad of Homer Thee. Has foul reproach a privilege from heaven?" [012] Here on the monarch's speech Achilles broke. Leave me. The gods command me to forgive the past: But let this first invasion be the last: . no more Achilles draws His conquering sword in any woman's cause. but command not me. and bulwark of our host. and thy words are wise. ourself obey? What king can bear a rival in his sway? Grant that the gods his matchless force have given. To live thy slave.

To wait his will two sacred heralds stood. Menander. p. the pious train59 Are cleansed. Talthybius and Eurybates the good. Shall stream in vengeance on my reeking blade. if sea-water could not be obtained. when next thou darest invade.BOOK I. Achilles with Patroclus took his way Where near his tents his hollow vessels lay. hydati perriranai. Thence bear Briseis as our royal prize: Submit he must. With pure lustrations. Then swiftly sailing. For know. and with solemn prayers. "Haste to the fierce Achilles' tent (he cries). The army thus in sacred rites engaged. The sable fumes in curling spires arise. And bulls and goats to Phoebus' altars paid. phakois. in Clem. salt was thrown into the fresh water to be used for the lustration.713. Atrides still with deep resentment raged. The host to expiate next the king prepares. cut the liquid road. And sage Ulysses with the conduct graced: Safe in her sides the hecatomb they stow'd. And waft their grateful odours to the skies. or if they will not part. embalon alas. Along the shore whole hecatombs were laid. Wash'd by the briny wave. Alex. Hence. from its being supposed to possess certain fiery particles." 21 59 Salt water was chiefly used in lustrations. vii. Ourself in arms shall tear her from his heart. Meantime Atrides launch'd with numerous oars A well-rigg'd ship for Chrysa's sacred shores: High on the deck was fair Chryseis placed. thy blood." At this they ceased: the stern debate expired: The chiefs in sullen majesty retired. and cast the ablutions in the main. .

by constraint you came. heralds. haste. viii. In blood and slaughter shall repent at last. With gloomy aspect on his arm reclined. and men below! But first. 159. and speak their hard command. and they were believed to be under the especial protection of Jove and Mercury. Decent confusion! This the godlike man Perceived. The office was generally given to old men. and useless to his host. . But witness. but your imperious lord I blame. the hero in his tent they find. to your prince declare (That lawless tyrant whose commands you bear). and loudest. Pensive they walk along the barren sands: Arrived. Onom. Loth to advance. p. Not you." 60 The persons of heralds were held inviolable. Witness to gods above. Pollux. the fair Briseis bring.22 The Iliad of Homer [013] The unwilling heralds act their lord's commands. Blind to himself. and proclaim my vow. Conduct my captive to the haughty king. Though prostrate Greece shall bleed at every vein: The raging chief in frantic passion lost. Unskill'd to judge the future by the past. Unmoved as death Achilles shall remain. Ye sacred ministers of men and gods!60 I know your message. and they were at liberty to travel whither they would without fear of molestation. Patroclus. At awful distance long they silent stand. and thus with accent mild began: "With leave and honour enter our abodes.

and in pensive thought. 23 THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. Her children were all destroyed by fire through her attempts to see whether they were immortal. it was determined to wed her to a mortal. Not so his loss the fierce Achilles bore. as the heralds held her hand. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. O'er the wild margin of the deep he hung. with great difficulty. Fab. however. and Peleus. who was courted by Neptune and Jupiter. retiring to the sounding shore. Patroclus now the unwilling beauty brought.BOOK I. She. slow-moving o'er the strand. And of look'd back. Hygin. When. But sad. in soft sorrows. with the exception of that part of the heel by which she held him. Pass'd silent. That kindred deep from whence his mother sprung:61 There bathed in tears of anger and disdain. it was known that the son to whom she would give birth must prove greater than his father. as she eluded him by assuming various forms. 54 . Thus loud lamented to the stormy main: 61 [014] His mother. Thetis. succeeded in obtaining her hand. and Achilles would have shared the same fate had not his father rescued him. She afterwards rendered him invulnerable by plunging him into the waters of the Styx.

From Thebe. north of Adramyttium. But bright Chryseis. Intreating all. Held forth the sceptre and the laurel crown." Far from the deep recesses of the main. Sure to so short a race of glory born. Where aged Ocean holds his watery reign. And like a mist she rose above the tide. Beheld him mourning on the naked shores. And ill he pays the promise of a god. by too severe a doom. The priest of Phoebus sought by gifts to gain His beauteous daughter from the victor's chain. The waves divide. By vote selected. our conquering army came. . The fleet he reach'd. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings of Atreus' royal race: The generous Greeks their joint consent declare.24 The Iliad of Homer "O parent goddess! since in early bloom Thy son must fall. With treasure loaded and triumphant spoils. And thus the sorrows of his soul explores. Reveal the cause. heavenly prize! was led. Great Jove in justice should this span adorn: Honour and fame at least the thunderer owed." He deeply sighing said: "To tell my woe Is but to mention what too well you know. to the general's bed. and resumes my prize. 62 Thebe was a city of Mysia. If yon proud monarch thus thy son defies. The goddess-mother heard. Whose just division crown'd the soldier's toils. and trust a parent's care. lowly bending down. sacred to Apollo's name62 (Aetion's realm). and. "Why grieves my son? Thy anguish let me share. Obscures my glories.

When bold rebellion shook the realms above.63 And service. Urge all the ties to former service owed. the monarch storm'd. and justice. And points the crime. goddess! thou thy suppliant son attend. Defrauds the votes of all the Grecian train. arose. The sire insulted. . Then. defrauds me of the prize allotted me by their votes. Incensed he threaten'd. The priest to reverence. with wonted pride. and his gifts denied: The insulted sire (his god's peculiar care) To Phoebus pray'd. by mad ambition driven. Then rising in his wrath. To high Olympus' shining court ascend. and pierce the Grecian hearts. The traitor-gods. call'd by thee. But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms. Not so Atrides: he. the monster Titan came 63 25 [015] That is. The warlike maid. A prophet then. The undaunted guard of cloud-compelling Jove: When the bright partner of his awful reign. faith. and monarch of the main. That thou stood'st forth of all the ethereal host. With offer'd gifts to make the god relent. inspired by heaven. and release the fair. Oft hast thou triumph'd in the glorious boast. and Phoebus heard the prayer: A dreadful plague ensues: the avenging darts Incessant fly. and his threats perform'd: The fair Chryseis to her sire was sent. And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. plead in vain. But.BOOK I. Durst threat with chains the omnipotence of Heaven. and thence derives the woes: Myself the first the assembled chiefs incline To avert the vengeance of the power divine. And sue for vengeance to the thundering god.

To heap the shores with copious death. Of the gloomy destiny reigning throughout the Homeric poems. this to his remembrance call." "Unhappy son! (fair Thetis thus replies. at his tribunal fall. 65 . While tears celestial trickle from her eyes) Why have I borne thee with a mother's throes.64 This."—'Lectures on the Drama' v. men Ægeon name). "This power extends also to the world of gods— for the Grecian gods are mere powers of nature—and although immeasurably higher than mortal man. They dropp'd the fetters. goddess. Schlegel well observes. and nursed for future woes?65 So short a space the light of heaven to view! So short a space! and fill'd with sorrow too! 64 Quintus Calaber goes still further in his account of the service rendered to Jove by Thetis: "Nay more. 58. and bring The Greeks to know the curse of such a king. compared with infinitude. —To Fates averse. and adored. Not he that shakes the solid earth so strong: With giant-pride at Jove's high throne he stands. Conjure him far to drive the Grecian train. yet. trembled.26 [016] The Iliad of Homer (Whom gods Briareus. 67. and from which even the gods are not exempt. p. To Fates averse. And brandish'd round him all his hundred hands: The affrighted gods confess'd their awful lord. Through wondering skies enormous stalk'd along." s. And mourn in blood that e'er he durst disgrace The boldest warrior of the Grecian race. Let Agamemnon lift his haughty head O'er all his wide dominion of the dead. they are on an equal footing with himself. To hurl them headlong to their fleet and main. the fetters of Almighty Jove She loosed"—Dyce's "Calaber. Embrace his knees.

66 It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments. Meantime. O might a parent's careful wish prevail. 27 THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. And thou. Now mix with mortals. the danger shun Which now. secure within thy ships. On the warm limits of the farthest main. after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship. alas! too nearly threats my son. Far. from camps remote. from far Behold the field. Yet (what I can) to move thy suit I'll go To great Olympus crown'd with fleecy snow. not mingle in the war. and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon. serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes. and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days' absence. "that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. far from Ilion should thy vessels sail.BOOK I. nor disdain to grace The feasts of Æthiopia's blameless race. The sire of gods and all the ethereal train. The sacred ship 66 [017] . "I think." says Heeren.

Ulysses led to Phoebus' sacred fane. they lash the mast aside. vol. here receive the spotless fair. "Egyptian Antiquities" vol. sq. thus returning from the furrow'd main. In wild resentment for the fair he lost. reconciled. 98. and move The high tribunal of immortal Jove. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals. and is towed along by another boat. Where at his solemn altar. 1 p. (ed. In Chrysa's port now sage Ulysses rode. Her. Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter's visit to the Ethiopians. And may thy god who scatters darts around. as the maid He gave to Chryses. since.e. desist to wound. Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare. Chryseis last descending on the strand. . 67 —Atoned. It is therefore on its voyage. even according to the interpretation of antiquity. Atoned by sacrifice. of my edition. Then will I mount the brazen dome. which we will spare the reader. Eustathius. And dropp'd their anchors. 96. 1 p. i. Basil) gives this interpretation. Next on the shore their hecatomb they land. as may be seen from Taylor's remarks in Calmet's Dictionary. thus the hero said: "Hail.110. and his twelve days' absence."67 of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment. Returning with the twelfth revolving light. This is the proper and most natural meaning of the word. and likewise an allegorical one. Beneath the deck the destined victims stow'd: The sails they furl'd. And left him sorrowing on the lonely coast. and the pinnace tied.28 The Iliad of Homer Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite. reverend priest! to Phoebus' awful dome A suppliant I from great Atrides come: Unransom'd. p."—Long." The goddess spoke: the rolling waves unclose. Then down the steep she plunged from whence she rose.

it was killed with its throat toward the ground. Whose power incircles Cilla the divine. p. Then near the altar of the darting king. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake. Between their horns the salted barley threw." vol i. 293. but if made to the heroes. The quarry share.BOOK I. Disposed in rank their hecatomb they bring." Dryden's "Virgil. So sadly lost. Whose sacred eye thy Tenedos surveys. At this. the throat was bent upwards towards heaven. or infernal deities. Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil. at ease they dine. And. drawing back their necks while they cut their throats. so lately sought in vain. in the caldrons boil. the sire embraced the maid again. With water purify their hands. Some strip the skin. the victims slew:68 29 [018] 68 That is. And solemn voice. Restore their strength with meat.81."— "Elgin Marbles. While thus with arms devoutly raised in air. And smile propitious." So Chryses pray'd. with their heads to heaven. "The jolly crew. fired to vengeance at thy priest's request. unmindful of the past." i. Apollo heard his prayer: And now the Greeks their hecatomb prepare. and unbend thy bow. the priest directs his prayer: "God of the silver bow. some portion out the spoil. Stretch'd on the grassy turf. and cheer their souls with wine. their plenteous dinner haste. "If the sacrifice was in honour of the celestial gods. The limbs yet trembling. And gilds fair Chrysa with distinguish'd rays! If. thy ear incline. . Thy direful darts inflict the raging pest: Once more attend! avert the wasteful woe.

i. the grateful notes prolong.30 The Iliad of Homer The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. in double cauls involved with art. and hoist the mast: indulgent gales. The youths with wine the copious goblets crown'd. divide: On these. and sees the flames aspire. 'Twas night. Each takes his seat. —Crown'd. the chiefs beside their vessel lie. The parted ocean foams and roars below: Above the bounding billows swift they flew. When now the rage of hunger was repress'd.) Then part. Till rosy morn had purpled o'er the sky: Then launch.e. and roast the rest: Then spread the tables. The priest himself before his altar stands. And burns the offering with his holy hands. fill the swelling sails. where stretch'd along the winding bay. The custom of adorning goblets with flowers was of later date. and approves the song. (The crooked keel divides the yellow sand. Till now the Grecian camp appear'd in view. The milk-white canvas bellying as they blow.69 With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends. selected to the gods. filled to the brim. The assistants part. the repast prepare. Pours the black wine. and entrails dress'd. And. restored. The thighs. and each receives his share. The paeans lengthen'd till the sun descends: The Greeks. With pure libations they conclude the feast. pleased. The youth with instruments surround the fire: The thighs thus sacrificed. transfix. Apollo listens. The choicest morsels lay from every part. Far on the beach they haul their bark to land. 69 . dispense the flowing bowls around. Supplied by Phoebus.

and high above the rest. amidst his navy sat The stern Achilles. Leads the long order of ethereal powers. and one his knees embraced. and the Trojans rise. But wasting cares lay heavy on his mind: In his black thoughts revenge and slaughter roll. "If e'er. Twelve days were past. And pay in glory what in life you owe. or my actions aid. The thunderer sat. like the morning-mist in early day. where old Olympus shrouds His hundred heads in heaven. The ships and tents in mingled prospect lay. And scenes of blood rise dreadful in his soul. There. O father of the gods! (she said) My words could please thee. and now dishonour'd too. and now the dawning light The gods had summon'd to the Olympian height: Jove. When." [019] . nor in council join'd. Some marks of honour on my son bestow. O ever just and wise! Let Greece be humbled. Nor mix'd in combat. first ascending from the watery bowers. Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she placed Beneath his beard. 31 But raging still. stedfast in his hate. Till the proud king and all the Achaian race Shall heap with honours him they now disgrace.BOOK I. and props the clouds. Rose from the flood the daughter of the sea: And to the seats divine her flight address'd. Avenge this wrong. Fame is at least by heavenly promise due To life so short. far apart.

for what has Jove to fear? Or oh! declare. but Jove in silence held The sacred counsels of his breast conceal'd. the goddess closer press'd. and urged the dear request. and.32 The Iliad of Homer THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. Not so repulsed. Still grasp'd his knees. "O sire of gods and men! thy suppliant hear. thus the god replies. Thus Thetis spoke. sighing. Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies: . Refuse. Is wretched Thetis least the care of Jove?" She said. of all the powers above. or grant.

BOOK I. confirm'd. "When a friend inquired of Phidias what pattern he had formed his Olympian Jupiter. and from their thrones of state Arising silent. why should Jove engage In foreign contests and domestic rage. and Juno's fierce alarms. The stamp of fate and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took. aid the Trojan arms? Go. and this fulfils thy vows—" He spoke. fix'd. Jove to his starry mansions in the skies. wrapp'd in holy fear.71 Swift to the seas profound the goddess flies."— "Elgin Marbles. But part in peace.124. lest the haughty partner of my sway With jealous eyes thy close access survey. thereby signifying that the genius of Homer had inspired him with it. 71 "So was his will Pronounced among the gods." vol. &c. Those who beheld this statue are said to have been so struck with it as to have asked whether Jupiter had descended from heaven to show himself to Phidias. and gives the nod. he is said to have answered by repeating the lines of the first Iliad in which the poet represents the majesty of the god in the most sublime terms. secure thy prayer is sped: Witness the sacred honours of our head. . too partial. The nod that ratifies the will divine. irrevocable sign. and awful bends his sable brows. 351." "Paradise Lost" ii. and by an oath. The shining synod of the immortals wait The coming god. This seals thy suit. xii p. or whether Phidias had been carried thither to contemplate the god. 33 70 —He spoke. While I. That shook heav'n's whole circumference. The faithful. "What hast thou ask'd? ah.70 Shakes his ambrosial curls. The gods' complaints. And all Olympus to the centre shook.

From whence this wrath. "Say. Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky. Nor can the depths of fate be pierced by thee. artful manager of heaven (she cries). Who now partakes the secrets of the skies? Thy Juno knows not the decrees of fate. But thou. while Jove assumes the throne. nor they.34 The Iliad of Homer Before the majesty of heaven appear. but the god's imperious queen alone: Late had she view'd the silver-footed dame. What fatal favour has the goddess won. In close consult. say. thou the first shalt know. And all thy counsels take the destined course. To grace her fierce." [021] . And glut his vengeance with my people slain." Full on the sire the goddess of the skies Roll'd the large orbs of her majestic eyes. And thus return'd:—"Austere Saturnius. the silver-footed queen. shall search the thoughts that roll Deep in the close recesses of my soul. What favourite goddess then those cares divides. or who controls thy sway? Thy boundless will. for me. And all her passions kindled into flame. In vain the partner of imperial state. Which Jove in prudence from his consort hides?" To this the thunderer: "Seek not thou to find The sacred counsels of almighty mind: Involved in darkness likes the great decree. inexorable son? Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain. Trembling they stand. remains in force. The first of gods above. But 'tis for Greece I fear: for late was seen. What fits thy knowledge. Jove to his Thetis nothing could deny. and men below. All.

That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide. nor dare our will withstand. Goddess. that ought to be. Anxious to thee. But dread the power of this avenging hand: The united strength of all the gods above In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove. Vain is the search." 35 VULCAN.BOOK I. presumptuous and abhorr'd. . Let this suffice: the immutable decree No force can shake: what is. Then thus the god: "O restless fate of pride. and odious to thy lord. submit.

If you submit. Thus interposed the architect divine: "The wretched quarrels of the mortal state Are far unworthy. roused to rage. With hideous ruin and combustion" 72 . Dear as you are. be patient and obey. if Jove his arm extend. I can but grieve. i. with sorrow Vulcan saw His mother menaced. We. a vessel with a cup at both ends. The feast disturb'd. "Him th' Almighty power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th ethereal sky. A reverent horror silenced all the sky. p. the thunderer stands appeased. Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height. with our sire comply. and pleasure his design. "Goddess (he cried). in eternal peace and constant joy. gods! of your debate: Let men their days in senseless strife employ. Thou." i." Thus Vulcan spoke: and rising with a bound. Peace at his heart. The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown'd. Or lift his hand against the force of Jove? Once in your cause I felt his matchless might.73 —A double bowl. something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. 93 sq. 73 "Paradise Lost. 44. Nor break the sacred union of the sky: Lest. nor durst the queen reply. and the gods in awe.72 Which held to Juno in a cheerful way. goddess-mother. See Buttmann.36 The Iliad of Homer [022] The thunderer spoke. The gracious power is willing to be pleased. and dethrone the gods.e. Lexic. he shake the bless'd abodes. unable to defend What god so daring in your aid to move. Launch the red lightning.

The Sinthians were a race of robbers. they fabled. 37 [023] of ranks and duties. having previously cast Jove into a sleep.. was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. and hung her from the sky. Breathless I fell. in revenge. Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies. "Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. ed Gale." p. Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong. 'Ponticus. And unextinguish'd laughter shakes the skies. See Heraclides. fastened iron anvils to her feet. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. In feasts ambrosial. Which. and in his turn. attempting to relieve her. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction.BOOK I. Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground. and celestial song. 463 sq. had taken and pillaged Troy. the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan.74 He said. A summer's day and with the setting sun Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star . and to her hands the goblet heaved. Juno raised a storm. which drove him to the island of Cos. in giddy motion lost. and Vulcan. and in Ausonian land Men call'd him Mulciber. Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round. and its multitudinous banquets or festivals. its contentions for power and occasional revolutions. and how he fell From heaven. the white-arm'd queen received Then. to the rest he fill'd. to prevent him aiding his son. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements from morn To noon he fell. The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast." 74 The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this—After Hercules. its public meetings in the agora of Olympus. from noon to dewy eve. with a smile.75 Apollo tuned the lyre. the Muses round With voice alternate aid the silver sound. Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn. Jove.

463. JUPITER. And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed. vol i p. The shining monuments of Vulcan's art: Jove on his couch reclined his awful head. th' Aegean isle thus they relate. [024] On Lemnos. 738 It is ingeniously observed by Grote. roll'd down the rapid light: Then to their starry domes the gods depart." "Paradise Lost. its distribution 75 ." i. that "The gods formed a sort of political community of their own which had its hierarchy.38 The Iliad of Homer Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight Descending swift.



sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon.[025] BOOK II. The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles. several speeches made on the occasion. towards the end it removes to Troy. that he would propose a return to the soldiers. and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. Jupiter. THE TRIAL OF THE ARMY. who chastises the insolence of Thersites. and the late plague. and to divide them into their several nations. as well as by the length of time. in pursuance of the request of Thetis. who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance. They are detained by the management of Ulysses. which was to make a general muster of the troops. and at length the advice of Nestor followed. and run to prepare the ships. . This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans. but fears the army was discouraged by his absence. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. Then he assembles the whole host. ARGUMENT. before they proceeded to battle. and upon moving for a return to Greece. and upon the sea-shore. The assembly is recalled. AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. He first communicates his design to the princes in council. contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. and in a large catalogue. persuading him to lead the army to battle. they unanimously agree to it. The general.

77 . See Anthon and others." p. e'en now 'tis given him to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy.77 To Agamemnon's ample tent repair. (See Minucius Felix. was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's.) Coleridge." Dyce's "Select Translations from Quintus Calaber. Rep. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. p. well observes. 154. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. "When. And thus commands the vision of the night." 76 Plato. "Fly hence. Compare "Paradise Lost. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. deluding Dream! and light as air. the bane of her and Troy. Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie: The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above." v. All. being. 437. and at his other attacks on the character of the gods. For now no more the gods with fate contend. iii. Declare. I think. Section 22. a fraudful Dream Rush'd from the skies. 646: [026] "And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove. that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate will.76 To honour Thetis' son he bends his care. by Minerva sent. that he would fain sentence him to an honourable banishment." —Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter. And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war: Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight. Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train. Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain.10. p. Introd.42 The Iliad of Homer Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye. evidently personified as the god of dreams.

673. with all a monarch's cares oppress'd. "Canst thou. . Directs in council. and hovers o'er Atrides' head. Renown'd for wisdom. and in war presides. To whom its safety a whole people owes. and revered for age: Around his temples spreads his golden wing. And thus the flattering dream deceives the king. Swift as the word the vain illusion fled. O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge the rest?78 Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. 43 JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. what sleep can close Thy eye-lids?" —"Paradise Lost. Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage. 78 "Sleep'st thou.BOOK II. companion dear." v. Descends.

and numbers of the slain! Eager he rises. Awake. Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy: Vain as he was. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. What mighty toils to either host remain. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain. and mixes with the night. The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. For now no more the gods with fate contend. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. but waking this advice approve. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear." . then vanish'd from his sight. And last." The phantom said. 79 "Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem. and to the future blind.79 Monarch. First on his limbs a slender vest he drew. his arm the massy sceptre loads. E'en now. This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many a general and statesman of antiquity. Resolves to air. In just array draw forth the embattled train. Around him next the regal mantle threw. And trust the vision that descends from Jove. Thou. The starry falchion glitter'd at his side. Silius neatly translates it. claim his heavenly care. and thy glory. What scenes of grief. Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design'd.44 The Iliad of Homer [027] To waste long nights in indolent repose. A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ. and in fancy hears The voice celestial murmuring in his ears.

80 [028] —The same in habit. dost thou sleep. 'And. immortal.80 The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head. To waste long nights in indolent repose. A dream divine appear'd before my sight. "To whom once more the winged god appears. The king despatch'd his heralds with commands To range the camp and summon all the bands: The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey. Whose visionary form like Nestor came. While to the fleet Atrides bends his way. The same in habit.BOOK II. . To whom its safety a whole people owes. "Friends and confederates! with attentive ear Receive my words. and in mien the same. and in war presides. There calls a senate of the peers around: The assembly placed. iv. O Atreus' son? (he said) Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. the king of men express'd The counsels labouring in his artful breast." Dryden's Virgil. Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night. Lifts up her light. &c. 45 Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove. and the gift of gods. In his black ship the Pylian prince he found. Directs in council. 803. and opens day above. Unstain'd. and credit what you hear. His former youthful mien and shape he wears.

rising said. and yours the province to detain. and pass'd in air away. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. But first. And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain. For now no more the gods with fate contend. In just array draw forth the embattled train. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. This hear observant.) "Princes of Greece. Nor doubt the vision of the powers divine. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. Forbid it." . (Nestor. your faithful ears incline. Sent by great Jove to him who rules the host. Thou and thy glory claim his heavenly care. obey the god's alarms. Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war. heaven! this warning should be lost! Then let us haste. Unite. with caution. whom Pylos' sandy realms obey'd. To move the troops to measure back the main. and the gods obey!' The vision spoke. And join to rouse the sons of Greece to arms. valiant chiefs! since heaven itself alarms. try what yet they dare. Be mine. Now. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy.46 The Iliad of Homer Monarch. E'en now. and sat: when Nestor. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall." He spoke. and rouse the sons of Greece to arms.

suspend the listening crowd."—Grote. is also the forerunner of mischief ('Odyssey. p. 138). expatiate and confer Their state affairs. Thus spoke the sage: the kings without delay Dissolve the council. . And o'er the vale descends the living cloud. 91.BOOK II. from the tents and ships. to which men came elevated by wine. Rolling and blackening. Soon as the throngs in order ranged appear. darkens all the coast. ii. and their chief obey: The sceptred rulers lead. when The sun with Taurus rides. note.' iii. a lengthen'd train Spreads all the beach. Pour'd forth by thousands. With deeper murmurs and more hoarse alarms. swarms succeeding swarms. And fainter murmurs died upon the ear. or on the smoothed plank. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. New-nibb'd with balm. and claps her wings above. 768. The suburb of this straw-built citadel. 82 It was the herald's duty to make the people sit down. Fame flies before the messenger of Jove. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. So thick the very crowd Swarm'd and were straiten'd. As from some rocky cleft the shepherd sees Clustering in heaps on heaps the driving bees. Xviii. "A standing agora is a symptom of manifest terror (II. a close embodied crowd. The king of kings his awful figure raised: 81 47 [029] "As bees in spring-time. the following host. Dusky they spread. And shining soars."—"Paradise Lost" i. 246) an evening agora. Beneath their footsteps groans the trembling ground. proclaiming loud82 The monarch's will. Nine sacred heralds now.81 So. and wide o'ershades the plain: Along the region runs a deafening sound.

and last to Priam's lot it fell. and brothers of the war! Of partial Jove with justice I complain. Then pledged the chief in a capacious cup. triumphant. And artful thus pronounced the speech design'd: "Ye sons of Mars. like that of Judah (Genesis xlix. whose blessing is most efficacious in furthering the process of acquisition. To Pelops he the immortal gift resign'd. 9. is a type of the supreme and far-spread dominion of the house of the Atrides. By Vulcan form'd. and enrich'd with spoils. to be possess'd By Ilus he to great Laomedon Gave it. with his wealth. Subjects all Argos. Our blood. And left it. And now the mark of Agamemnon's reign. partake your leader's care. And heavenly oracles believed in vain A safe return was promised to our toils. when he espoused The Queen of Love). Compare Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Selections. Heroes of Greece. 83 This sceptre. 43). Renown'd. of celestial flame. To rich Thyestes next the prize descends. 10). the sire of gods bestow'd The cup on Dardanus. our treasure. which not with Atreus ends. and framed by art divine (a gift Which to Almighty Jove lame Vulcan brought Upon his nuptial day."—Grote. The immortal gift great Pelops left behind. he being the wealth giving god.83 On this bright sceptre now the king reclined. and our glory lost. p. and controls the main. The golden sceptre. Now shameful flight alone can save the host. "Thus the monarch spoke. "It is traced through the hands of Hermes.48 The Iliad of Homer High in his hand the golden sceptre blazed. In Atreus' hand. Golden. p. from Jove to Hermes came. 212. who gave it next To Ericthonius Tros received it then. See Thucydides i." . i.

From east and south when winds begin to roar. Since first the labours of this war begun: Our cordage torn. So roll the billows to the Icarian shore.000 men." His deep design unknown. your sails and oars employ. for ever leave the Trojan wall! Our weeping wives. 84 . Repulsed and baffled by a feeble foe. So small their number. then. that if wars were ceased. lasting shame in every future age! Once great in arms. And towns and armies humbles to the dust What shame to Greece a fruitful war to wage. resistless lord of all! At whose command whole empires rise or fall: He shakes the feeble props of human trust. Burst their dark mansions in the clouds. the common scorn we grow. Nichols makes a total of 135. And Troy prevails by armies not her own.000. and sweep 49 [030] Grote. 'Tis nature's voice. the hosts approve Atrides' speech. summon us away. And dream no more of heaven-defended Troy. Our shatter'd barks may yet transport us o'er. safety. And scarce insure the wretched power to fly. whole decades when they dine Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine. All rank'd by tens.BOOK II. So Jove decrees. and nature we obey. fly. to our native shore. duty.84 But other forces have our hopes o'erthrown. Fly. Now nine long years of mighty Jove are run. decay'd our vessels lie. And Greece triumphant held a general feast. i. Oh. 393. The mighty numbers move. Grecians. p. states the number of the Grecian forces at upwards of 100. Haste. our tender children call: Love. Safe and inglorious.

shall Priam. they sweat. With long-resounding cries they urge the train To fit the ships. Lie unrevenged on yon detested plain? No: let my Greeks." 85 "As thick as when a field Of Ceres." iv. . and thicken to the fleet. unmoved by vain alarms. thick clouds of dust arise. sqq."—Paradise Lost.50 The Iliad of Homer The whitening surface of the ruffled deep. The gathering murmur spreads. Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main. and the adulterous spouse. E'en then the Greeks had left the hostile plain. Haste. With nodding plumes and groves of waving spears. and launch into the main. in Helen's quarrel slain. But Jove's imperial queen their flight survey'd. 980. And as on corn when western gusts descend. Once more refulgent shine in brazen arms. And fate decreed the fall of Troy in vain. ripe for harvest. waving bends His bearded grove of ears. haste! the flying host detain. their trampling feet Beat the loose sands.85 Before the blast the lofty harvests bend: Thus o'er the field the moving host appears. And sighing thus bespoke the blue-eyed maid: [031] "Shall then the Grecians fly! O dire disgrace! And leave unpunish'd this perfidious race? Shall Troy. which way the wind Sways them. They toil. goddess. The doubling clamours echo to the skies. In peace enjoy the fruits of broken vows? And bravest chiefs.

Each prince of name. divine Laertes' son. The unwary Greeks his fury may provoke. Beware! for dreadful is the wrath of kings. or with persuasion moved. The monarch's will not yet reveal'd appears. "And is it thus. He runs. Thus fly the Greeks (the martial maid begun). but resents our fears. Your own resistless eloquence employ. or chief in arms approved. Not thus the king in secret council spoke. By brave examples should confirm the rest. And to the immortals trust the fall of Troy. attention and respect to gain." 51 .BOOK II. Still unrevenged. "Warriors like you. first in public cares. Pallas obeys. For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd: Oppress'd with generous grief the hero stood. he flies through all the Grecian train. He tries our courage. generous Ithacus! prevent the shame. a thousand heroes bleed! Haste. she found. and your chiefs reclaim. with strength and wisdom bless'd. And fame eternal leave to Priam's race? Shall beauteous Helen still remain unfreed. Ulysses heard. from Jove his honour springs. Nor drew his sable vessels to the flood. He fired with praise. from his hand Received the imperial sceptre of command. Thus graced. nor uninspired obey'd: Then meeting first Atrides. Jove loves our chief." The voice divine confess'd the warlike maid. Thus to their country bear their own disgrace. and from Olympus' height Swift to the ships precipitates her flight. Ulysses. Recall your armies.

The loudest silenced. The rocks remurmur and the deeps rebound. "Be still. wretch. in reproaches bold: With witty malice studious to defame."86 With words like these the troops Ulysses ruled. 86 [032] . Caligula. To one sole monarch Jove commits the sway.52 The Iliad of Homer But if a clamorous vile plebeian rose. and Domitian were particularly fond of it. and the fiercest cool'd. we find the maxim propounded by Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles. by no respect controll'd. and. "Ancient Greece. in an extended form. Back to the assembly roll the thronging train. And a still silence lulls the camp to peace." ch. Loquacious. as when old ocean roars. Be silent. and pour upon the plain. Thersites only clamour'd in the throng. what dastards would our host command! Swept to the war. and think not here allow'd That worst of tyrants. thou slave. The groaning banks are burst with bellowing sound. and laughter all his aim:— But chief he gloried with licentious style To lash the great. p. His are the laws. See some important remarks of Heeren. the noises cease. an usurping crowd. This sentiment used to be a popular one with some of the greatest tyrants. and to thy betters yield. Him with reproof he check'd or tamed with blows. and monarchs to revile. Desert the ships. Dion. the lumber of a land. 105. loud. who abused it into a pretext for unlimited usurpation of power. In scandal busy. Unknown alike in council and in field! Ye gods. and turbulent of tongue: Awed by no shame. And heaves huge surges to the trembling shores. At length the tumult sinks. and him let all obey. Scorn all his joy. Murmuring they move. vi.

Long had he lived the scorn of every Greek. or punish'd for his lust. The golden spoil. With all the wealth our wars and blood bestow. Thin hairs bestrew'd his long misshapen head. to bless thy kingly bed? Whate'er our master craves submit we must. Sharp was his voice. One eye was blinking. "Amidst the glories of so bright a reign. What grieves the monarch? Is it thirst of gold? Say. Thus at full ease in heaps of riches roll'd. His figure such as might his soul proclaim. wouldst thou seize some valiant leader's prize? Or. 53 . But royal scandal his delight supreme. and let him waste his store In loves and pleasures on the Phrygian shore. What moves the great Atrides to complain? 'Tis thine whate'er the warrior's breast inflames. which in the shrillest tone. Some captive fair. shall we march with our unconquer'd powers (The Greeks and I) to Ilion's hostile towers. Thy tents are crowded and thy chests o'erflow. and thine the lovely dames. Thus with injurious taunts attack'd the throne.BOOK II. Oh women of Achaia. but most the best: Ulysses or Achilles still his theme. if thy heart to generous love be led. And much he hated all. For Troy to ransom at a price too dear? But safer plunder thy own host supplies. yet still they heard him speak. and one leg was lame: His mountain shoulders half his breast o'erspread. Plagued with his pride. men no more! Hence let us fly. Vex'd when he spoke. And bring the race of royal bastards here. Say. Spleen to mankind his envious heart possess'd.

sacrificial processions. upbraids the most? Think not the Greeks to shameful flight to bring. With indignation sparkling in his eyes. and sternly thus replies: "Peace. the fearless. 75." p. asperse the sovereign reign. while we advance. one object appears as another disappears. dances.54 [033] The Iliad of Homer We may be wanted on some busy day. This mighty tyrant were no tyrant long. and where." Fierce from his seat at this Ulysses springs. resent that wrong. such as vases. With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate: Curb that impetuous tongue. Schlegel well observes. nor rashly vain. the two ends are withdrawn from our sight. and do not concern ourselves about what is to follow. And singly mad. and hence they also exhibit bas-reliefs on curved surfaces. so Homer's heroes advance.87 In generous vengeance of the king of kings. and may be continued ad infinitum. and the brave: And durst he. one by one. they are not grouped together."—"Dramatic Literature. It may be remarked. born to vex the state. and lines of combatants. on which account the ancients preferred for it such subjects as admitted of an indefinite extension. but that we are left to suppose something both to precede and to follow it. revolting and contemptible as it is. we lose sight of what precedes. or the frieze of a rotunda. The man who acts the least. either from before or behind. Reading Homer is very much like such a circuit. When Hector comes: so great Achilles may: From him he forced the prize we jointly gave. but follow one another. It has been remarked that the Iliad is not definitively closed. in succession before us. the present object alone arresting our attention. as he ought. slave! of all our host. Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes. the fierce. factious monster. where. Have we not known thee. He views the wretch. From him. by the curvature. 87 . serves admirably to develop the disposition of Ulysses in a new light. "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile. that the character of Thersites. and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief. in which mere cunning is less prominent. The bas-relief is equally without limit.

vol. The multitude who compose it are listening and acquiescent. Nor let those lips profane the name of king. what hast thou bestow'd? Suppose some hero should his spoils resign. and shrunk in abject fears. while the unpopularity of such a character is attested even more by the excessive pains which Homer takes to heap upon him repulsive personal deformities. While to his neighbour each express'd his thought: [034] "There cannot be a clearer indication than this description —so graphic in the original poem—of the true character of the Homeric agora. than by the chastisement of Odysseus he is lame. and cowering as the dastard bends. But grant the host with wealth the general load. p. is plainly set forth in the treatment of Thersites. 97. And let these eyes behold my son no more.BOOK II. And send thee scourged and howling through the fleet. not often hesitating. From his vile visage wiped the scalding tears. The weighty sceptre on his bank descends. this hand forbear To strip those arms thou ill deserv'st to wear. For our return we trust the heavenly powers."—Grote.88 On the round bunch the bloody tumours rise: The tears spring starting from his haggard eyes. Be that their care. 88 . Trembling he sat. could those spoils be thine? Gods! let me perish on this hateful shore. and squinting vision. The fate which awaits a presumptuous critic. Expel the council where our princes meet. to fight like men be ours." 55 He said. i. and never refractory to the chief. If. even where his virulent reproaches are substantially well-founded. crook-backed. of misshapen head. bald. on thy next offence. Art thou that hero. Except detraction.

but ah! forgotten now: Ne'er to return. His silence thus the prudent hero broke: "Unhappy monarch! whom the Grecian race With shame deserting. endure the wintry main? Few leagues removed. glorious in the field.) bade the crowds attend. The expecting crowds in still attention hung. rising. Behold them weeping for their native shore. Not such at Argos was their generous vow: Once all their voice. his celestial friend. pausing ere he spoke. Till Troy's proud structures should in ashes lie. . When the ship tosses. Such just examples on offenders shown. and assert the throne. heap with vile disgrace. But vanquish'd! baffled! oh. Sedition silence. Generous he rises in the crown's defence. What could their wives or helpless children more? What heart but melts to leave the tender train. Then deeply thoughtful. was then the common cry. one short month. Who. eternal shame! Expect the time to Troy's destruction given." 'Twas thus the general voice the hero praised. And. To curb the factious tongue of insolence. high the imperial sceptre raised: The blue-eyed Pallas.56 The Iliad of Homer "Ye gods! what wonders has Ulysses wrought! What fruits his conduct and his courage yield! Great in the council. To hear the wisdom of his heavenly tongue. (In form a herald. The tedious length of nine revolving years. we wish our peaceful seat. and the tempests beat: Then well may this long stay provoke their tears. Not for their grief the Grecian host I blame.

and hence we dare Trust in his omen. The topmost branch a mother-bird possess'd. Such was the will of Jove. of dire portent.90 'Ye Grecian warriors! lay your fears aside. Greece can witness bear. iii. Herself the ninth. "The god" would be more simple and emphatic. Compare Dryden's "Æneid. Seized by the beating wing. The drooping mother wail'd her children gone. and from the crumbling ground A mighty dragon shot. adopted a different fable to account for the stoppage at Aulis.89 And all who live to breathe this Phrygian air. And try the faith of Chalcas and of heaven. Full of his god. the reverend Chalcas cried. For while around we gazed with wondering eyes. i.e. And curl'd around in many a winding fold. Nor long survived: to marble turn'd. The altars heaved. Beside a fountain's sacred brink we raised Our verdant altars. Lucretius and others." vol. This wondrous signal Jove himself displays. and seem to have found the sacrifice of Iphigena better suited to form the subject of a tragedy. as he hung. The mother last. Apollo. both the sprig and the remains of the tree were exhibited in his time. The tragedians. and the victims blazed: 'Twas where the plane-tree spread its shades around. with miserable moan. What pass'd at Aulis. the serpent. and support the war. Stretch'd his black jaws and crush'd the crying young. he stands A lasting prodigy on Aulis' sands. the monster slew. 57 [035] According to Pausanias. 90 —Full of his god. Eight callow infants fill'd the mossy nest. While hovering near. 89 . as round the nest she flew. sqq. filled with the prophetic spirit.BOOK II. Straight to the tree his sanguine spires he roll'd.. From Jove himself the dreadful sign was sent. And trembling sought the powers with sacrifice.

And Troy's proud matrons render tear for tear. on the right. Encouraged hence. But wait the tenth. inglorious flight. when first the martial train. long labours. Big with the fate of Ilion. a prosperous signal sent. thus the Fates succeed. Jove. . But leave the few that dare resist thy laws. but eternal praise. As many birds as by the snake were slain. And view with envy our successful wars. Ye talk like children.58 The Iliad of Homer [036] Of long. The hollow ships each deafening shout rebound. No wonder Troy so long resists our powers. The mean deserters of the Grecian cause. not like heroes dare. Now vanish'd like their smoke: the faith of men! While useless words consume the unactive hours. Till Helen's woes at full revenged appear. maintain the glorious strife. We march to war. So many years the toils of Greece remain. To grudge the conquests mighty Jove prepares. ye Grecians! with submission wait. great Atrides! and with courage sway. Obey. if thou direct the way. Then Nestor thus—"These vain debates forbear. And thunder rolling shook the firmament." He said: the shores with loud applauses sound. Stand forth that Greek! and hoist his sail to fly. Where now are all your high resolves at last? Your leagues concluded. for Ilion's fall decreed:' Thus spoke the prophet. Before that day. Rise. if any Greek invite His country's troops to base. Till every soldier grasp a Phrygian wife. Nor let your flight avert the Trojan fate. your engagements past? Vow'd with libations and with victims then. On that great day. plough'd the main.

" To him the king: "How much thy years excel In arts of counsel. In tribes and nations to divide thy train: His separate troops let every leader call. who plunges those he hates In fierce contention and in vain debates: Now great Achilles from our aid withdraws. and heavy will the vengeance fall! But now. should have paid more attention to these lines. And die the dastard first. 91 . well refresh'd. If gods above prevent. What chief. which form a most natural introduction to their enumeration.BOOK II. and in speaking well! O would the gods. And soon should fall the haughty towers of Troy! But Jove forbids. Or bravely fights. By me provoked. or if our arms are slow. If fate resists. take a short repast. in love to Greece. or soldier. Each strengthen each. Let all excite the fiery steeds of war. Among those counsels. And every Grecian fix his brazen shield. decree But ten such sages as they grant in thee. or men below. But now. shall soon be known And what the cause of Ilion not o'erthrown. a captive maid the cause: If e'er as friends we join. who dreads to die. And. ye warriors. thou thyself despise. or ill obeys command. When thus distinct they war. 59 Those critics who have maintained that the "Catalogue of Ships" is an interpolation. His sharpen'd spear let every Grecian wield. let not mine be vain. O monarch! all thy chiefs advise:91 Nor what they offer. to bloody conflict haste. the Trojan wall Must shake. and all encourage all. Such wisdom soon should Priam's force destroy. of the numerous band.

Straight to the tents the troops dispersing bend. The fires are kindled. consecrated to particular deities. The goat to Bacchus. and straight a murmur rose. A steer of five years' age. this dreadful day. or a boar pig. With the huge shield each brawny arm depress'd. Apollo. The infernal and evil deities were to be appeased with black victims. A black bull. healthy. and Bacchus victims of advanced age might be offered." vol. Who dares to tremble on this signal day. That wretch. and to Venus the dove was consecrated. were offerings for Neptune. at a later time. and without blemish. Till bathed in sweat be every manly breast. and the dogs devour. The most acceptable of all sacrifices was the heifer of a year old. Who dares. Till darkness. The birds shall mangle. i."—"Elgin Marbles. The following observation will be useful to Homeric readers: "Particular animals were. no respite. and the smokes ascend. large limb'd. for Minerva. or till death.60 The Iliad of Homer [037] And all for combat fit the rattling car. or a sheep. It was to be perfect in every limb. This day. and let the mighty fall. Juno. till the shades descend. inglorious. A heifer. which had never borne the yoke. Loud as the surges when the tempest blows. 78. because he fed on vines. And foam and thunder on the stony shore. too mean to fall by martial power. Each aching nerve refuse the lance to throw. And each spent courser at the chariot blow. shall cover all: Let the war bleed. To Ceres a sow was sacrificed. and fed. To avert the dangers of the doubtful day. With hasty feasts they sacrifice.92 To Jove's high altars Agamemnon led: There bade the noblest of the Grecian peers." The monarch spoke. Ceres. 92 . An ox of five years old was considered especially acceptable to Jupiter. in his ships to stay. That dash'd on broken rocks tumultuous roar. p. Diana was propitiated with a stag. let each contend. as an enemy to corn. To Jupiter. a ram. and pray. No rest.

BOOK II. has found some curious meaning in what. Before the night her gloomy veil extends. In Hector's breast be plunged this shining sword. and doubled woes on woes. to sacrifice to Neptune the first creature that should present itself to his eye on the Cretan shore. son of Deucalion.93 and Tydeus' son. Was there any heroic rule of etiquette which prevented one brother-king visiting another without a formal invitation? . 94 —Tydeus' son. Even Plato. during a tempest.95 Then wise Ulysses in his rank was placed. as most advanced in years. Next came Idomeneus.96 The chiefs surround the destined beast. Be Priam's palace sunk in Grecian fires. appears to need no explanation. unbid. and toss'd in empty air: The God averse. And Menelaus came. And Nestor first. who was king of Salamis.e. 315. Having vowed. And slaughter'd heroes groan around their lord!" Thus prayed the chief: his unavailing prayer Great Jove refused. in this line. was king of Crete. on his return from Troy." p. and Ajax Telamon. his son fell a victim to his rash vow. Supreme of gods! unbounded. Prepared new toils. and alone! Hear! and before the burning sun descends. while yet the fumes arose. Their prayers perform'd the chiefs the rite pursue. Diomed.94 Ajax the less. Low in the dust be laid yon hostile spires. i. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake: When thus the king prefers his solemn prayer. 61 93 —Idomeneus. "Sympos. He must be distinguished from the other. the last. a Locrian. 95 That is. the son of Oileus. "O thou! whose thunder rends the clouded air. Ajax. 96 A great deal of nonsense has been written to account for the word unbid. to us. Who in the heaven of heavens hast fixed thy throne.

selected to the gods. and lighten'd all the field: Round the vast orb a hundred serpents roll'd. From the cleft wood the crackling flames aspire While the fat victims feed the sacred fire. The thighs thus sacrificed. Each takes his seat. The generous Nestor thus the prince address'd. Now seize the occasion. and entrails dress'd The assistants part. From rank to rank she darts her ardent eyes. The choicest morsels lie from every part. and roast the rest. and for the combat burn.62 [038] The Iliad of Homer The barley sprinkled. The thighs. Swells their bold hearts. "Now bid thy heralds sound the loud alarms. High in the midst the blue-eyed virgin flies. and the victim slew. Soon as the rage of hunger was suppress'd. On these. the hosts divide. No more they sigh. Jove's immortal shield. With this each Grecian's manly breast she warms." He said. divide. Then spread the tables. But breathe revenge. transfix. Form'd the bright fringe. and strings their nervous arms. And lead to war when heaven directs the way. in double cauls involved with art. And call the squadrons sheathed in brazen arms. and seem'd to burn in gold. Blazed on her arm. Straight the loud heralds call the gathering bands The chiefs inclose their king. the repast prepare. now the troops survey. . The dreadful aegis. the monarch issued his commands. and each receives his share. inglorious. The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. In tribes and nations rank'd on either side. to return.

and course in airy rounds. Dr. . as Wood. Juno. The legions crowd Scamander's flowery side. everything tends to identify it with Mendere. Along the river's level meads they stand. the yellow colour of whose waters attracts the attention of travellers. the Mendere is 40 miles long. on the highest part of Mount Ida. near its mouth. and flows through marshes. and blaze above. 98 —Scamander. were found in great numbers about the Asian Marsh. hence the three goddesses. towards its mouth it is very muddy. and traces the source of the river to the highest mountain in the chain of Ida. according to Strabo. and others maintain. Minerva. A gleamy splendour flash'd along the fields.97 Stretch their long necks. "yellow. Not less their number than the embodied cranes. nearly dry in the summer. 383. o'er the windings of Cayster's springs. Between the Scamander and Simois. 300 feet broad." vol. in the same hill with the Granicus and the OEdipus. was a river of Troas." was given to the Scamander. As on some mountain. and brazen shields. Homer's Troy is supposed to have stood: this river. The fires expanding. from the peculiar colour of its waters. Now tower aloft. and Venus. a fenny tract of country in Lydia. Now light with noise. still applicable to the Mendere. The waters of the Scamander had the singular property of giving a beautiful colour to the hair or wool of such animals as bathed in them. deep in the time of flood. formed by the river Cayster. rising. i. sq. Clarke successfully combats the opinion of those who make the Scamander to have arisen from the springs of Bounabarshy. was called Xanthus by the gods. as the winds arise. and falling into the sea at Sigaeum. bathed there before they appeared before Paris to obtain the golden apple: the name Xanthus. Scamander by men. and kindle half the skies: So from the polish'd arms. through the lofty grove.BOOK II. Thus numerous and confused. 63 [039] 97 Fresh water fowl. The crackling flames ascend.98 With rushing troops the plains are cover'd o'er. Shoot their long beams. "Georgics. especially swans. And thundering footsteps shake the sounding shore. and clap their rustling wings. receives the Simois in its course. according to Homer. with noise the field resounds. See Virgil. extending wide. or Scamandros. now Kusdaghy. Or milk-white swans in Asius' watery plains. That. Rennell.

" The torso of Neptune. and outshines them all. for heav'n hides nothing from thy view. 26. (vol. Say. So throng'd. that round the pastures leads His subject herds. seated round the throne divine. virgins. and thirst for Trojan blood." —"Gier. and forms the deepening lines. Or leaves the trees. Lib. All-knowing goddesses! immortal nine!100 99 It should be "his chest like Neptune. Musa. e di quai parti: Tu 'l sai.99 Jove o'er his eyes celestial glories spread. "Ma di' tu. drawn by milky steams. ma di tant' opra a noi si lunge Debil aura di fama appena giunge.) is remarkable for its breadth and massiveness of development. p. 27." No. Each leader now his scatter'd force conjoins In close array. Like some proud bull. Great as the gods. in the "Elgin Marbles. Not with more ease the skilful shepherd-swain Collects his flocks from thousands on the plain. majestically tall. The wandering nation of a summer's day: That. glittering in the sun. His strength like Neptune. ii. Towers o'er his armies. at evening hours. 103. and like Mars his mien. come i primi danni Mandassero a Cristiani. The king of kings. 19." iv. the exalted chief was seen. the monarch of the meads. the Grecian squadrons stood In radiant arms.64 The Iliad of Homer Thick as in spring the flowers adorn the land." —"Paradise Lost. From pail to pail with busy murmur run The gilded legions. . And dawning conquest played around his head. or thick as insects play. 100 "Say first. so close." i. In gather'd swarms surround the rural bowers.

in ordinary cases. and incidentally scattered over the thousands which follow: equally inexplicable were the pointed allusions occurring in this episode to events narrated in the previous and subsequent text. To count them all. with the remainder of the work. Or urged by wrongs. The composition of the Catalogue. What crowded armies.) O say what heroes."—Mure. necessarily presumes its author's acquaintance with a previously existing Iliad. But guess by rumour. their numbers. assist! inspired by you The mighty labour dauntless I pursue. a common practice in epic poems descriptive of great warlike adventures. and adamantine lungs." vol.101 65 [040] The hardy warriors whom Boeotia bred. from what climes they bring. And hell's abyss. . It were impossible otherwise to account for the harmony observable in the recurrence of so vast a number of proper names. most of them historically unimportant. "Language and Literature of Greece. still so minute a statistical detail can neither be considered as imperatively required. Daughters of Jove. (We. Yet there is scarcely any portion of the Iliad where both historical and internal evidence are more clearly in favour of a connection from the remotest period. fired by thirst of fame. nor perhaps such as would. 263. to Troy's destruction came. A throat of brass.BOOK II. Although the example of Homer has since rendered some such formal enumeration of the forces engaged. whensoever it may have taken place. hide nothing from your sight. several of which could hardly be of traditional notoriety. p. and not a few altogether fictitious: or of so many geographical and genealogical details as are condensed in these few hundred lines. demands a thousand tongues. but through the medium of the Iliad. i. led: 101 "The Catalogue is. suggest itself to the mind of a poet. Prothoenor. and but boast we know. Since earth's wide regions. and their chiefs I sing. heaven's umneasur'd height. perhaps. THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. Their names. Penelius. wretched mortals! lost in doubts below. Leitus. the portion of the poem in favour of which a claim to separate authorship has been most plausibly urged.

66 The Iliad of Homer NEPTUNE. .

And Eteon's hills. Full fifty ships they send. And Schoenos. and that very few. and Thisbe. which carried one hundred and twenty men each. With these Arcesilaus and Clonius stand. which the springs o'erflow. Copae. In short. Glissa for the vine. upon the foregoing average. Platea green. Or Thespia sacred to the god of day: Onchestus. Where Myde. The historian considers this a small force as representing all Greece. were probably meant to be the largest in the fleet. we have in the Homeric descriptions the complete picture of an Indian or African war canoe. Or Harma where Apollo's prophet fell. besides the chiefs. rose.BOOK II. famed for silver doves. The average would be eighty-five. although in point of fact there are only eleven hundred and eightysix in the Catalogue. and equal in command. carrying fifty each. went as mere passengers or landsmen. Or in the meads of Haliartus stray. Boeotia's utmost bound. These head the troops that rocky Aulis yields. and Nysa the divine. and each conveys Twice sixty warriors through the foaming seas. will be about a hundred and two thousand men. with purple harvests crown'd. the amount of the army. Equal in arms. thinks it so large as to prove the entire falsehood of the whole story. comparing it with the allied army at Platae. the smallest. Bryant. many of which are considerably larger than the largest scale assigned to those of the Greeks. and Thucydides supposes the troops to have rowed and navigated themselves. Those who in Peteon or Ilesion dwell. Heleon and Hyle. Neptune's celebrated groves. And Arne rich. Scholos. And Anthedon. And they whom Thebe's well-built walls inclose.102 67 [041] —Twice Sixty: "Thucydides observes that the Boeotian vessels. and those of Philoctetes. according to Thucydides. Eutresis. Graea near the main. 102 . and Ocalea low. Corone. And Medeon lofty. If the total number of the Greek ships be taken at twelve hundred. For flocks Erythrae. And Mycalessia's ample piny plain. and Hyrie's watery fields.

Or in fair Tarphe's sylvan seats reside: In forty vessels cut the yielding tide. the bold Boeotians' side. Daulis. and rich Cynos send. With equal oars. From Panopea. Epistrophus and Schedius head the war: From those rich regions where Cephisus leads His silver current through the flowery meads. and active in the fight. Cyparissus stood. Oileus' valiant son. Which Bessa. on the left. Thronus. Swift in pursuit. Where Anemoria's stately turrets shine. as their chief. and Scarphe's bands. the chosen troops attend. The Phocians next in forty barks repair. And fair Lilaea views the rising flood. Opus. Him. The strength of Mars the blushing maid compress'd) Their troops in thirty sable vessels sweep. . Who plough the spacious Orchomenian plain. the hoarse-resounding deep. ranged in order on the floating tide. Where Pytho. Calliarus. Whose virgin charms subdued the god of war: (In Actor's court as she retired to rest. Close. Two valiant brothers rule the undaunted throng.68 The Iliad of Homer To these succeed Aspledon's martial train. And where Boagrius floats the lowly lands. Ialmen and Ascalaphus the strong: Sons of Astyoche. Skill'd to direct the flying dart aright. the heavenly fair. Ajax the less. Fierce Ajax led the Locrian squadrons on. And those who dwell where pleasing Augia stands. Chrysa the divine. These.

Their hands dismiss not the long lance in air. The mighty offspring of the foodful earth. improved by length of days. 211. fierce in arms. For martial conduct bore an equal praise. and the Styrian ground. Menestheus! Greece could yield. p. The fair Caristos. Or close the embodied host in firm array. in arms they take their way From Chalcis' walls. But from the teeming furrow took his birth. as the years revolve."—Coleridge. To marshal armies in the dusty field. But with protended spears in fighting fields Pierce the tough corslets and the brazen shields. her altars blaze. Adored with sacrifice and oxen slain. Where. The Isteian fields for generous vines renown'd.BOOK II. 69 Euboea next her martial sons prepares. well worth a careful perusal. The extended wings of battle to display. sq. Where Dios from her towers o'erlooks the plain. And sends the brave Abantes to the wars: Breathing revenge. and his reasonings and calculations are. Which bold Elphenor. . That owed his nurture to the blue-eyed maid. Led by Menestheus through the liquid plain. commands. for their curiosity. (Athens the fair.) No chief like thee. and strong Eretria. And all the tribes resound the goddess' praise. Nestor alone. where great Erectheus sway'd. Twice twenty ships transport the warlike bands. And high Cerinthus views the neighbouring main. Him Pallas placed amidst her wealthy fane. Full fifty more from Athens stem the main. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hair.

and ample bay below. Next move to war the generous Argive train. High on the deck the king of men appears. 3. But chief Tydides bore the sovereign sway: In fourscore barks they plough the watery way. Corinth. 103 The mention of Corinth is an anachronism.103 Fair Araethyrea. Great Sthenelus. But Velleius. Cleone. [043] . And crowded nations wait his dread command. and Maseta's plain. And Epidaure with viny harvests crown'd: And where fair Asinen and Hermoin show Their cliffs above.70 The Iliad of Homer With these appear the Salaminian bands. From high Troezene. Great Agamemnon rules the numerous band. vol. And his refulgent arms in triumph wears. A hundred vessels in long order stand. And Ægion. and greater Diomed. And fair Ægina circled by the main: Whom strong Tyrinthe's lofty walls surround. as that city was called Ephyre before its capture by the Dorians. And those who dwell along the sandy shore. And Gonoessa's spires salute the sky. that the poet would naturally speak of various towns and cities by the names by which they were known in his own time. These by the brave Euryalus were led. And with the great Athenians join their force. In twelve black ships to Troy they steer their course. unrivall'd in his reign. Ornia's fruitful plain. The proud Mycene arms her martial powers. And where Pellene yields her fleecy store. well observes. Whom the gigantic Telamon commands. p. Where Helice and Hyperesia lie. Proud of his host. and Adrastus' ancient reign. with imperial towers. i.

and to vengeance warms The hardy Spartans. In sixty ships with Menelaus draws: Eager and loud from man to man he flies. and little Pteleon stand. And Helos. he strove To match the seed of cloud-compelling Jove! Too daring bard! whose unsuccessful pride The immortal Muses in their art defied.BOOK II. Where beauteous Arene her structures shows. His hand no more awaked the silver string. from Pylos' sandy coast. No more his heavenly voice was heard to sing. In ninety sail. While vainly fond. Nestor the sage conducts his chosen host: From Amphigenia's ever-fruitful land. on the margin of the main: These. His brother follows. Or Messe's towers for silver doves renown'd. in fancy oft he hears The fair one's grief. and snatch'd his voice away. And Thryon's walls Alpheus' streams inclose: And Dorion. vain of mortals' empty praise. o'er the bending ocean. In silent pomp he moves along the main. famed for Thamyris' disgrace. exercised in arms: Phares and Brysia's valiant troops. Superior once of all the tuneful race. Augia's happy ground. And those whom OEtylos' low walls contain. Helen's cause. The avenging Muses of the light of day Deprived his eyes. and those Whom Lacedaemon's lofty hills inclose. Laas. Revenge and fury flaming in his eyes. and sees her falling tears. 71 . Where Æpy high. Till. Amyclae.

supplied by Agamemnon's care. From Ripe. (Ancaeus' son) the mighty squadron led. The shaded tomb of old Æpytus stood. where fair Elis and Buprasium join.) Diores sprung from Amarynceus' line. and where Alisium flows. and that Teatus' son. crown'd with wood. Tegea's bordering towns. And bounded there.72 The Iliad of Homer [044] Where under high Cyllene. The first to battle on the appointed plain. Where the fat herds in plenteous pasture rove. Their ships. (Eurytus' this. One was Amphimachus. In separate squadrons these their train divide. And great Polyxenus. and Thalpius one. and Orchomenian downs. Those. Stratie. on her snowy cliffs reclined. Through roaring seas the wondering warriors bear. and Myrsinus confine. In sixty sail the Arcadian bands unite. glorious at their head. here. And high Enispe shook by wintry wind. Beneath four chiefs (a numerous army) came: The strength and glory of the Epean name. And fair Mantinea's ever-pleasing site. Parrhasia. Bold Agapenor. of force divine. Each leads ten vessels through the yielding tide. The Phenean fields. where o'er the valleys rose The Olenian rock. Whom Hyrmin. . And Stymphelus with her surrounding grove. But new to all the dangers of the main.

and chalky Calydon. . and Meleager dead! To Thoas' care now trust the martial train. But those who view fair Elis o'er the seas From the blest islands of the Echinades. These in twelve galleys with vermilion prores. beaten by the rolling deep. Begot by Phyleus. And Chalcis. Andraemon's valiant son.BOOK II. With those whom Cephalenia's line inclosed. and Zacynthus green. and the Olenian steep. Thoas came next. Or where fair Ithaca o'erlooks the floods. Where high Neritos shakes his waving woods. From Pleuron's walls. Crocylia rocky. For now the sons of OEneus were no more! The glories of the mighty race were fled! OEneus himself. In forty vessels under Meges move. And rough Pylene. His forty vessels follow through the main. And thence to Troy his hardy warriors led. in wisdom equal to a god. the beloved of Jove: To strong Dulichium from his sire he fled. 73 Ulysses follow'd through the watery road. He led the warriors from the Ætolian shore. Where Ægilipa's rugged sides are seen. Or till their fields along the coast opposed. Beneath his conduct sought the Phrygian shores. A chief.

[045] Tlepolemus. And rules them peaceful in a foreign land. Increased and prosper'd in their new abodes By mighty Jove. and Gortyna's bands. with everlasting sunshine bright. Of Gnossus. Where. eighty barks the Cretan king commands. constrain'd to quit his native place.74 The Iliad of Homer Next. His captive mother fierce Alcides bore From Ephyr's walls and Selle's winding shore. Idomeneus. On happy Rhodes the chief arrived at last: There in three tribes divides his native band. And Merion. Where mighty towns in ruins spread the plain. when to manly years he grew. the sun of Hercules. Lindus. And those who dwell where Rhytion's domes arise. Or where by Phaestus silver Jardan runs. With joy they saw the growing empire rise. And showers of wealth descending from the skies. beneath thy care. And saw their blooming warriors early slain. slew. For this. Alcides' uncle. The hero. Lyctus. the sire of men and gods. Jalyssus. Or white Lycastus glitters to the skies. . These march'd. A fleet he built. old Licymnius. and Camirus white. dreadful as the god of war. From Rhodes. Led nine swift vessels through the foamy seas. and with a numerous train Of willing exiles wander'd o'er the main. And shun the vengeance of the Herculean race. Crete's hundred cities pour forth all her sons. many seas and many sufferings past.

Since fair Briseis from his arms was torn. whom Aglae to Charopus bore. Nireus. Hellenians bear. bless'd With female beauty far beyond the rest. But now inglorious. 323. Sprung from the god by Thessalus the king. and small his strength in arms. Till great Alcides made the realms obey: These Antiphus and bold Phidippus bring. Myrmidons. Muse. The Achaians. Three ships with Nireus sought the Trojan shore. Next thirty galleys cleave the liquid plain. Full fifty ships beneath Achilles' care. Now. The loveliest youth of all the Grecian race. But few his troops. His sons. stretch'd along the shore. and Trechin's towers: From Phthia's spacious vales. Of those Calydnae's sea-girt isles contain. The noblest spoil from sack'd Lyrnessus borne. Cos. Alope. in faultless shape and blooming grace. Casus the strong. and Crapathus the fair. the goodliest man of men since born. Nireus. They hear the brazen voice of war no more.104 Pelides only match'd his early charms. recount Pelasgic Argos' powers. Thessalians all. the fairest of her daughters Eve. With them the youth of Nisyrus repair. and Hella. where Eurypylus possess'd the sway. and their chief the same.BOOK II.' —"Paradise Lost. No more the foe they face in dire array: Close in his fleet the angry leader lay. . though various in their name. From Alos." iv. 104 75 [046] "Adam. The same their nation.


The Iliad of Homer

Then, when the chief the Theban walls o'erthrew, And the bold sons of great Evenus slew. There mourn'd Achilles, plunged in depth of care, But soon to rise in slaughter, blood, and war.

To these the youth of Phylace succeed, Itona, famous for her fleecy breed, And grassy Pteleon deck'd with cheerful greens, The bowers of Ceres, and the sylvan scenes. Sweet Pyrrhasus, with blooming flowerets crown'd, And Antron's watery dens, and cavern'd ground. These own'd, as chief, Protesilas the brave, Who now lay silent in the gloomy grave: The first who boldly touch'd the Trojan shore, And dyed a Phrygian lance with Grecian gore; There lies, far distant from his native plain; Unfinish'd his proud palaces remain, And his sad consort beats her breast in vain. His troops in forty ships Podarces led, Iphiclus' son, and brother to the dead; Nor he unworthy to command the host; Yet still they mourn'd their ancient leader lost.

The men who Glaphyra's fair soil partake, Where hills incircle Boebe's lowly lake, Where Phaere hears the neighbouring waters fall, Or proud Iolcus lifts her airy wall, In ten black ships embark'd for Ilion's shore, With bold Eumelus, whom Alceste bore: All Pelias' race Alceste far outshined, The grace and glory of the beauteous kind,

BOOK II. The troops Methone or Thaumacia yields, Olizon's rocks, or Meliboea's fields, With Philoctetes sail'd whose matchless art From the tough bow directs the feather'd dart. Seven were his ships; each vessel fifty row, Skill'd in his science of the dart and bow. But he lay raging on the Lemnian ground, A poisonous hydra gave the burning wound; There groan'd the chief in agonizing pain, Whom Greece at length shall wish, nor wish in vain. His forces Medon led from Lemnos' shore, Oileus' son, whom beauteous Rhena bore. The Œchalian race, in those high towers contain'd Where once Eurytus in proud triumph reign'd, Or where her humbler turrets Tricca rears, Or where Ithome, rough with rocks, appears, In thirty sail the sparkling waves divide, Which Podalirius and Machaon guide. To these his skill their parent-god imparts, Divine professors of the healing arts. The bold Ormenian and Asterian bands In forty barks Eurypylus commands. Where Titan hides his hoary head in snow, And where Hyperia's silver fountains flow. Thy troops, Argissa, Polypoetes leads, And Eleon, shelter'd by Olympus' shades, Gyrtone's warriors; and where Orthe lies, And Oloosson's chalky cliffs arise. Sprung from Pirithous of immortal race, The fruit of fair Hippodame's embrace, (That day, when hurl'd from Pelion's cloudy head, To distant dens the shaggy Centaurs fled)



78 With Polypoetes join'd in equal sway Leonteus leads, and forty ships obey.

The Iliad of Homer

In twenty sail the bold Perrhaebians came From Cyphus, Guneus was their leader's name. With these the Enians join'd, and those who freeze Where cold Dodona lifts her holy trees; Or where the pleasing Titaresius glides, And into Peneus rolls his easy tides; Yet o'er the silvery surface pure they flow, The sacred stream unmix'd with streams below, Sacred and awful! from the dark abodes Styx pours them forth, the dreadful oath of gods! Last, under Prothous the Magnesians stood, (Prothous the swift, of old Tenthredon's blood;) Who dwell where Pelion, crown'd with piny boughs, Obscures the glade, and nods his shaggy brows; Or where through flowery Tempe Peneus stray'd: (The region stretch'd beneath his mighty shade:) In forty sable barks they stemm'd the main; Such were the chiefs, and such the Grecian train. Say next, O Muse! of all Achaia breeds, Who bravest fought, or rein'd the noblest steeds? Eumelus' mares were foremost in the chase, As eagles fleet, and of Pheretian race; Bred where Pieria's fruitful fountains flow, And train'd by him who bears the silver bow. Fierce in the fight their nostrils breathed a flame, Their height, their colour, and their age the same; O'er fields of death they whirl the rapid car, And break the ranks, and thunder through the war. Ajax in arms the first renown acquired, While stern Achilles in his wrath retired:


BOOK II. (His was the strength that mortal might exceeds, And his the unrivall'd race of heavenly steeds:) But Thetis' son now shines in arms no more; His troops, neglected on the sandy shore. In empty air their sportive javelins throw, Or whirl the disk, or bend an idle bow: Unstain'd with blood his cover'd chariots stand; The immortal coursers graze along the strand; But the brave chiefs the inglorious life deplored, And, wandering o'er the camp, required their lord. Now, like a deluge, covering all around, The shining armies sweep along the ground; Swift as a flood of fire, when storms arise, Floats the wild field, and blazes to the skies. Earth groan'd beneath them; as when angry Jove Hurls down the forky lightning from above, On Arime when he the thunder throws, And fires Typhoeus with redoubled blows, Where Typhon, press'd beneath the burning load, Still feels the fury of the avenging god. But various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, Speeds on the wings of winds through liquid air; In Priam's porch the Trojan chiefs she found, The old consulting, and the youths around. Polites' shape, the monarch's son, she chose, Who from Æsetes' tomb observed the foes,105 High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay. In this dissembled form, she hastes to bring


105 —Æsetes' tomb. Monuments were often built on the sea-coast, and of a considerable height, so as to serve as watch-towers or land marks. See my notes to my prose translations of the "Odyssey," ii. p. 21, or on Eur. "Alcest." vol. i. p. 240.


The Iliad of Homer

The unwelcome message to the Phrygian king. "Cease to consult, the time for action calls; War, horrid war, approaches to your walls! Assembled armies oft have I beheld; But ne'er till now such numbers charged a field: Thick as autumnal leaves or driving sand, The moving squadrons blacken all the strand. Thou, godlike Hector! all thy force employ, Assemble all the united bands of Troy; In just array let every leader call The foreign troops: this day demands them all!" The voice divine the mighty chief alarms; The council breaks, the warriors rush to arms. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train, Nations on nations fill the dusky plain, Men, steeds, and chariots, shake the trembling ground: The tumult thickens, and the skies resound. Amidst the plain, in sight of Ilion, stands A rising mount, the work of human hands; (This for Myrinne's tomb the immortals know, Though call'd Bateia in the world below;) Beneath their chiefs in martial order here, The auxiliar troops and Trojan hosts appear. The godlike Hector, high above the rest, Shakes his huge spear, and nods his plumy crest: In throngs around his native bands repair, And groves of lances glitter in the air.


BOOK II. Divine Æneas brings the Dardan race, Anchises' son, by Venus' stolen embrace, Born in the shades of Ida's secret grove; (A mortal mixing with the queen of love;) Archilochus and Acamas divide The warrior's toils, and combat by his side. Who fair Zeleia's wealthy valleys till,106 Fast by the foot of Ida's sacred hill, Or drink, Æsepus, of thy sable flood, Were led by Pandarus, of royal blood; To whom his art Apollo deign'd to show, Graced with the presents of his shafts and bow. From rich Apaesus and Adrestia's towers, High Teree's summits, and Pityea's bowers; From these the congregated troops obey Young Amphius and Adrastus' equal sway; Old Merops' sons; whom, skill'd in fates to come, The sire forewarn'd, and prophesied their doom: Fate urged them on! the sire forewarn'd in vain, They rush'd to war, and perish'd on the plain. From Practius' stream, Percote's pasture lands, And Sestos and Abydos' neighbouring strands, From great Arisba's walls and Selle's coast, Asius Hyrtacides conducts his host: High on his car he shakes the flowing reins, His fiery coursers thunder o'er the plains.


—Zeleia, another name for Lycia. The inhabitants were greatly devoted to the worship of Apollo. See Muller, "Dorians," vol. i. p. 248.


82 The fierce Pelasgi next, in war renown'd, March from Larissa's ever-fertile ground: In equal arms their brother leaders shine, Hippothous bold, and Pyleus the divine.

The Iliad of Homer

Next Acamas and Pyrous lead their hosts, In dread array, from Thracia's wintry coasts; Round the bleak realms where Hellespontus roars, And Boreas beats the hoarse-resounding shores. With great Euphemus the Ciconians move, Sprung from Troezenian Ceus, loved by Jove. Pyraechmes the Paeonian troops attend, Skill'd in the fight their crooked bows to bend; From Axius' ample bed he leads them on, Axius, that laves the distant Amydon, Axius, that swells with all his neighbouring rills, And wide around the floating region fills. The Paphlagonians Pylaemenes rules, Where rich Henetia breeds her savage mules, Where Erythinus' rising cliffs are seen, Thy groves of box, Cytorus! ever green, And where Ægialus and Cromna lie, And lofty Sesamus invades the sky, And where Parthenius, roll'd through banks of flowers, Reflects her bordering palaces and bowers. Here march'd in arms the Halizonian band, Whom Odius and Epistrophus command, From those far regions where the sun refines The ripening silver in Alybean mines.


BOOK II. There mighty Chromis led the Mysian train, And augur Ennomus, inspired in vain; For stern Achilles lopp'd his sacred head, Roll'd down Scamander with the vulgar dead. Phorcys and brave Ascanius here unite The Ascanian Phrygians, eager for the fight. Of those who round Maeonia's realms reside, Or whom the vales in shades of Tmolus hide, Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake, Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. There, from the fields where wild Maeander flows, High Mycale, and Latmos' shady brows, And proud Miletus, came the Carian throngs, With mingled clamours and with barbarous tongues.107 Amphimachus and Naustes guide the train, Naustes the bold, Amphimachus the vain, Who, trick'd with gold, and glittering on his car, Rode like a woman to the field of war. Fool that he was! by fierce Achilles slain, The river swept him to the briny main: There whelm'd with waves the gaudy warrior lies The valiant victor seized the golden prize. The forces last in fair array succeed, Which blameless Glaucus and Sarpedon lead The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields, Where gulfy Xanthus foams along the fields.


—Barbarous tongues. "Various as were the dialects of the Greeks—and these differences existed not only between the several tribes, but even between neighbouring cities—they yet acknowledged in their language that they formed but one nation were but branches of the same family. Homer has 'men of other tongues:' and yet Homer had no general name for the Greek nation."—Heeren, "Ancient Greece," Section vii. p. 107, sq.



ARGUMENT. THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS. The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellers observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. Thus by their leaders' care each martial band Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land. With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,108


The Iliad of Homer


With noise, and order, through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, And all the war descends upon the wing, But silent, breathing rage, resolved and skill'd109 By mutual aids to fix a doubtful field, Swift march the Greeks: the rapid dust around Darkening arises from the labour'd ground. Thus from his flaggy wings when Notus sheds A night of vapours round the mountain heads, Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade; While scarce the swains their feeding flocks survey, Lost and confused amidst the thicken'd day: So wrapp'd in gathering dust, the Grecian train, A moving cloud, swept on, and hid the plain. Now front to front the hostile armies stand, Eager of fight, and only wait command; When, to the van, before the sons of fame Whom Troy sent forth, the beauteous Paris came: In form a god! the panther's speckled hide Flow'd o'er his armour with an easy pride:
The cranes. "Marking the tracts of air, the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch'd neck his rank maintains, In marshall'd order through th' ethereal void." Lorenzo de Medici, in Roscoe's Life, Appendix. See Cary's Dante: "Hell," canto v.

Silent, breathing rage. "Thus they, Breathing united force with fixed thought, Moved on in silence." "Paradise Lost," book i. 559.

BOOK III. His bended bow across his shoulders flung, His sword beside him negligently hung; Two pointed spears he shook with gallant grace, And dared the bravest of the Grecian race.


As thus, with glorious air and proud disdain, He boldly stalk'd, the foremost on the plain, Him Menelaus, loved of Mars, espies, With heart elated, and with joyful eyes: So joys a lion, if the branching deer, Or mountain goat, his bulky prize, appear; Eager he seizes and devours the slain, Press'd by bold youths and baying dogs in vain. Thus fond of vengeance, with a furious bound, In clanging arms he leaps upon the ground From his high chariot: him, approaching near, The beauteous champion views with marks of fear, Smit with a conscious sense, retires behind, And shuns the fate he well deserved to find. As when some shepherd, from the rustling trees110 Shot forth to view, a scaly serpent sees, Trembling and pale, he starts with wild affright And all confused precipitates his flight: So from the king the shining warrior flies, And plunged amid the thickest Trojans lies.

"As when some peasant in a bushy brake Has with unwary footing press'd a snake; He starts aside, astonish'd, when he spies His rising crest, blue neck, and rolling eyes" Dryden's Virgil, ii. 510.


The Iliad of Homer


As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat, He thus upbraids him with a generous heat: "Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!111 So fairly form'd, and only to deceive! Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw'st the light, Or died at least before thy nuptial rite! A better fate than vainly thus to boast, And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host. Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see Their fears of danger undeceived in thee! Thy figure promised with a martial air, But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair. In former days, in all thy gallant pride, When thy tall ships triumphant stemm'd the tide, When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow, And crowds stood wondering at the passing show, Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien, You met the approaches of the Spartan queen, Thus from her realm convey'd the beauteous prize, And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen's eyes? This deed, thy foes' delight, thy own disgrace, Thy father's grief, and ruin of thy race; This deed recalls thee to the proffer'd fight; Or hast thou injured whom thou dar'st not right? Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know Thou keep'st the consort of a braver foe. Thy graceful form instilling soft desire, Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre, Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust, When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust: Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Dysparis, i.e. unlucky, ill fated, Paris. This alludes to the evils which resulted from his having been brought up, despite the omens which attended his birth.

BOOK III. Crush the dire author of his country's woe." His silence here, with blushes, Paris breaks: "'Tis just, my brother, what your anger speaks: But who like thee can boast a soul sedate, So firmly proof to all the shocks of fate? Thy force, like steel, a temper'd hardness shows, Still edged to wound, and still untired with blows, Like steel, uplifted by some strenuous swain, With falling woods to strew the wasted plain. Thy gifts I praise; nor thou despise the charms With which a lover golden Venus arms; Soft moving speech, and pleasing outward show, No wish can gain them, but the gods bestow. Yet, would'st thou have the proffer'd combat stand, The Greeks and Trojans seat on either hand; Then let a midway space our hosts divide, And, on that stage of war, the cause be tried: By Paris there the Spartan king be fought, For beauteous Helen and the wealth she brought; And who his rival can in arms subdue, His be the fair, and his the treasure too. Thus with a lasting league your toils may cease, And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace; Thus may the Greeks review their native shore, Much famed for generous steeds, for beauty more." He said. The challenge Hector heard with joy, Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst, athwart; and near the foe Advanced with steps majestically slow: While round his dauntless head the Grecians pour Their stones and arrows in a mingled shower.




The Iliad of Homer

Then thus the monarch, great Atrides, cried: "Forbear, ye warriors! lay the darts aside: A parley Hector asks, a message bears; We know him by the various plume he wears." Awed by his high command the Greeks attend, The tumult silence, and the fight suspend. While from the centre Hector rolls his eyes On either host, and thus to both applies: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What Paris, author of the war, demands. Your shining swords within the sheath restrain, And pitch your lances in the yielding plain. Here in the midst, in either army's sight, He dares the Spartan king to single fight; And wills that Helen and the ravish'd spoil, That caused the contest, shall reward the toil. Let these the brave triumphant victor grace, And different nations part in leagues of peace." He spoke: in still suspense on either side Each army stood: the Spartan chief replied: "Me too, ye warriors, hear, whose fatal right A world engages in the toils of fight. To me the labour of the field resign; Me Paris injured; all the war be mine. Fall he that must, beneath his rival's arms; And live the rest, secure of future harms. Two lambs, devoted by your country's rite, To earth a sable, to the sun a white, Prepare, ye Trojans! while a third we bring Select to Jove, the inviolable king. Let reverend Priam in the truce engage, And add the sanction of considerate age;

BOOK III. His sons are faithless, headlong in debate, And youth itself an empty wavering state; Cool age advances, venerably wise, Turns on all hands its deep-discerning eyes; Sees what befell, and what may yet befall, Concludes from both, and best provides for all. The nations hear with rising hopes possess'd, And peaceful prospects dawn in every breast. Within the lines they drew their steeds around, And from their chariots issued on the ground; Next, all unbuckling the rich mail they wore, Laid their bright arms along the sable shore. On either side the meeting hosts are seen With lances fix'd, and close the space between. Two heralds now, despatch'd to Troy, invite The Phrygian monarch to the peaceful rite. Talthybius hastens to the fleet, to bring The lamb for Jove, the inviolable king. Meantime to beauteous Helen, from the skies The various goddess of the rainbow flies: (Like fair Laodice in form and face, The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race:) Her in the palace, at her loom she found; The golden web her own sad story crown'd, The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize) And the dire triumphs of her fatal eyes. To whom the goddess of the painted bow: "Approach, and view the wondrous scene below!112



The following scene, in which Homer has contrived to introduce so brilliant a sketch of the Grecian warriors, has been imitated by Euripides, who in his "Phoenissae" represents Antigone surveying the opposing champions from a high tower, while the paedagogus describes their insignia and details their histories.


) The king the first. So dreadful late. In summer days. and furious for the fight. and most in Priam's grace. A bloodless race. and force a tender tear. the fate of combat tries. Thymoetes at his side." This said.92 The Iliad of Homer Each hardy Greek. once the strong. the many-coloured maid inspires Her husband's love. Clymene and Æthra. long in council tried. Ceased is the war. parents. Her country. Thy love the motive. and Hicetaon. Lampus and Clytius. Now rest their spears. wait Her silent footsteps to the Scaean gate. like grasshoppers rejoice. Her handmaids. and sage Ucalegon. And next. who no more in bloody fights engage. And. from the loom withdrew. But wise through time. softly sighing. and thy charms the prize. Panthus. or lean upon their shields. and valiant Trojan knight. Lean'd on the walls and bask'd before the sun: Chiefs. and narrative with age. O'er her fair face a snowy veil she threw. the wisest of the reverend throng. Paris alone and Sparta's king advance. [056] There sat the seniors of the Trojan race: (Old Priam's chiefs. Antenor grave. and wakes her former fires. Rush to her thought. all that once were dear. that send a feeble voice. and silent all the fields. . Each met in arms. In single fight to toss the beamy lance.

my child.BOOK III. but Heaven's disposing will. In secret own'd resistless beauty's power: They cried. when the Spartan queen approach'd the tower. and cried. Zeuxis. The friends and kindred of thy former years. and almost divine! Though some of larger stature tread the green. 7. 113 . "No wonder such celestial charms113 For nine long years have set the world in arms. is said to have appended these lines to his picture of Helen. These. But lift thy eyes. So tall. and grace thy father's side. the celebrated artist. so awful. the cause The gods these armies and this force employ." Thus ceased the king. O Heaven. None match his grandeur and exalted mien: He seems a monarch. Valer Max. and say. and thus the fair replied: —No wonder. &c. "Approach. Not thou. as a motto. iii." 93 The good old Priam welcomed her. convey that fatal face. What winning graces! what majestic mien! She moves a goddess. and she looks a queen! Yet hence. what Greek is he (Far as from hence these aged orbs can see) Around whose brow such martial graces shine. No crime of thine our present sufferings draws. The hostile gods conspire the fate of Troy. and his country's pride. And from destruction save the Trojan race. See on the plain thy Grecian spouse appears.

114 114 The early epic was largely occupied with the exploits and sufferings of women. to join them. A nation of courageous. and daughter left behind. dwelling apart from men. before my days of shame! And oh! that still he bore a brother's name!" With wonder Priam view'd the godlike man. When Priam wishes to illustrate emphatically the most numerous host in which he ever found himself included. When godlike Mygdon led their troops of horse. he tells us that it was assembled in Phrygia. you survey. indefatigable women. to Paris only kind! For this I mourn. and universally accepted as past realities in the Iliad. In ancient time. and a theme eminently popular with his hearers. and great in arts of sway: My brother once. or heroines. My brothers. when Otreus fill'd the throne. Atrides. I appear. stimulating to the fancy of the poet. for the purpose of renovating their numbers. for the purpose of resisting the formidable Amazons. Extoll'd the happy prince. With conscious shame and reverential fear. raised the Trojan force: Against the manlike Amazons we stood. False to them all. father. till grief or dire disease Shall waste the form whose fault it was to please! The king of kings. and thus began: "O bless'd Atrides! born to prosperous fate. burning out their right breast with a view of enabling themselves to draw the bow freely. And I. ere to these walk I fled. on the banks of the Sangarius. We find these warlike females constantly reappearing in the ancient poems. False to my country. the wives and daughters of the Grecian heroes. Ah! had I died. Successful monarch of a mighty state! How vast thy empire! Of your matchless train What numbers lost. this was at once a general type. hardy. what numbers yet remain! In Phrygia once were gallant armies known. Great in the war. and my nuptial bed. When Bellerophon is to be employed in a [057] . permitting only a short temporary intercourse. friends.94 The Iliad of Homer "Before thy presence.

And. 2. From rank to rank he moves. by those who prudently wished to procure his death. he is despatched against the Amazons. A barren island boasts his glorious birth. his shoulders larger spread. to plead the Grecian cause. greater reverence drew. i p." Then Helen thus: "Whom your discerning eyes Have singled out. His words succinct. O king! have seen that wondrous man When." Antenor took the word. and his expression plain. like Æneas. trusting Jove and hospitable laws. and both approved in arts. without a fault.BOOK III. 95 deadly and perilous undertaking.) My house was honour'd with each royal guest: I knew their persons. the Spartan most engaged our view. and admired their parts. And Sangar's stream ran purple with their blood. vol. But far inferior those. whose arms lie scatter'd on the plain? Broad is his breast. surveys them round. Erect. Though great Atrides overtops his head. 289. "What's he. . Nor yet appear his care and conduct small. To Troy he came. And strength of numbers. in martial grace. Ulysses seated. once more he view'd the warrior train. The stately ram thus measures o'er the ground. yet full. Just was his sense. master of the flock. His fame for wisdom fills the spacious earth. is Ithacus the wise. (Great Menelaus urged the same request. and orders all. 115 —Antenor. to this Grecian race.—Grote. and thus began:115 "Myself. Liv 1. Both brave in arms." This said. When Atreus' son harangued the listening train. had always been favourable to the restoration of Helen.

But when Ulysses rose. Our ears refute the censure of our eyes." 148. here merely denotes the ready fluency of Ulysses. See! bold Idomeneus superior towers Amid yon circle of his Cretan powers. It. with giant strength endued. (the beauteous queen replied. "Gnomol. Soft as the fleeces of descending snows." p. Duport. far exceed the rest? "Ajax the great. Nor raised his head. and yet more loud. Homer. Whose brawny shoulders. 116 "His lab'ring heart with sudden rapture seized He paus'd. As one unskill'd or dumb. of course. 117 . while the chiefs in still attention hung. nor graceful moves the hand: Then." The king then ask'd (as yet the camp he view'd) "What chief is that.96 The Iliad of Homer [058] He spoke no more than just the thing he ought. Pours the full tide of eloquence along. and sink into the heart! Wondering we hear. when he speaks. But.116 His modest eyes he fix'd upon the ground. Unskill'd and uninspired he seems to stand. in thought profound. he seem'd to stand. Melting they fall. Like thunders rolling from a distant cloud. and fix'd in deep surprise. what elocution flows! Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. well observes that this comparison may also be sarcastically applied to the frigid style of oratory. and whose swelling chest. And lofty stature. While from his lips the melting torrent flows. 20.) Himself a host: the Grecian strength and pride. 99. Louder the accents rise." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. with easy art.117 The copious accents fall. and on the ground in silence gazed. nor stretch'd his sceptred hand. Nor lifts the eye. Now stronger notes engage the listening crowd.

Whom long my eyes have sought. Perhaps their swords some nobler quarrel draws. All valiant chiefs. make them share immortality by turns. through the crowded town. In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. 97 —Her brothers' doom. Cf. and heard of wars no more. whilst besieging Sparta. For distant Troy refused to sail the seas. and end the dire debate. Perhaps the chiefs.118 Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb. 32. And who his rival shall in arms subdue. vi. 119 Idreus was the arm-bearer and charioteer of king Priam. Virgil and others. Silent they slept. Æn. O father of the Trojan state! The nations call. the same our native shore. With Menelaus on the Spartan shore. Meantime the heralds. They perished in combat with Lynceus and Idas." So spoke the fair. and men of mighty fame. See Hygin. Ashamed to combat in their sister's cause. 487. One house contain'd us.BOOK III. and one renown'd for horse. however. and Sparta's king advance.119 Who thus the venerable king address'd: "Arise. My brothers these. One bold on foot. but sought in vain: Castor and Pollux. and could in order name. thy joyful people wait To seal the truce. 22. 118 . Paris. Idaeus' arms the golden goblets press'd. Great as a god! I saw him once before. thy son. as one mother bore. Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. Poet Astr. Adorn'd with honours in their native shore. Yet two are wanting of the numerous train. slain during this war. from warlike toils at ease. The rest I know. first in martial force. nor knew her brothers' doom.

Much famed for generous steeds. and Tartarean gods. and the princes share. and with him rose the king of men. then draws the Grecian lord His cutlass sheathed beside his ponderous sword. The gentle steeds through Scaea's gates they guide:120 Next from the car descending on the plain. Antenor at his side." With grief he heard. Amid the Grecian host and Trojan train.e. and spreads his lifted hands: "O first and greatest power! whom all obey. rather Scaean gates. and on each monarch's hands Pour the full urn. Slow they proceed: the sage Ulysses then Arose. and all who falsely swear! —Scaea's gates. On either side a sacred herald stands. And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace: So shall the Greeks review their native shore. for beauty more. Who rule the dead. and his the treasure too. the left-hand gates. and view from pole to pole! Thou mother Earth! and all ye living floods! Infernal furies. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings.121 The heralds part it. Hence we find Iras descending to cut off the hair of Dido. He mounts the seat.98 [059] The Iliad of Homer His be the dame. From the sign'd victims crops the curling hair. Eternal Jove! and you bright orb that roll From east to west. 121 120 . The wine they mix. Then loudly thus before the attentive bands He calls the gods. and bade the chiefs prepare To join his milk-white coursers to the car. Who high on Ida's holy mountain sway. before which she could not expire. This was customary in all sacrifices. Thus with a lasting league our toils may cease. i.

reverend Priam rose. The rites now finish'd. And thus express'd a heart o'ercharged with woes: "Ye Greeks and Trojans. If by my brother's lance the Trojan bleed. let the chiefs engage. ye gods on high! And may their blood. Great Menelaus press the fatal plain. "Hear. Be his the wealth and beauteous dame decreed: The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. The vital spirit issued at the wound. Heaven only knows. Shed like this wine. and mingled with the wind. While thus their prayers united mount the sky. by Paris slain. Hear. and Mars decide the field." With that the chief the tender victims slew.BOOK III. who first the league confound. Arms must revenge. And Greece returning plough the watery deep. But spare the weakness of my feeble age: In yonder walls that object let me shun. Whose arms shall conquer and what prince shall fall. And all their lust be scatter'd as the dust!" Thus either host their imprecations join'd. for heaven disposes all." 99 [060] . This if the Phrygians shall refuse to yield. If. From the same urn they drink the mingled wine. mighty Jove! and hear. May all their consorts serve promiscuous lust. disdain the thirsty ground. and be witness. And add libations to the powers divine. And in the dust their bleeding bodies threw. And left the members quivering on the ground. Nor view the danger of so dear a son. The dame and treasures let the Trojan keep. Which Jove refused. And every age record the signal day.

o'er his shoulder tied. Then. O give that author of the war to fate And shades eternal! let division cease. Braced in and fitted to his softer breast. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: His youthful face a polish'd helm o'erspread. Bold Hector and Ulysses now dispose The lists of combat. the hoary king no longer stay'd. The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight. Paris.100 The Iliad of Homer This said. . And words like these are heard through all the bands: "Immortal Jove. with silver buckles bound: Lycaon's corslet his fair body dress'd. The people pray with elevated hands. by fatal chance Ordain'd the first to whirl the weighty lance. And joyful nations join in leagues of peace. And round the lists the generous coursers neigh. high Heaven's superior lord. thine leap'd forth. In gilded arms magnificently bright: The purple cuishes clasp his thighs around. by sacred lots prepare. But on his car the slaughter'd victims laid: Then seized the reins his gentle steeds to guide. and the ground inclose: Next to decide. A radiant baldric. Both armies sat the combat to survey." With eyes averted Hector hastes to turn The lots of fight and shakes the brazen urn. With flowers adorn'd. Antenor at his side. Beside each chief his azure armour lay. On lofty Ida's holy mount adored! Whoe'er involved us in this dire debate. Who first shall launch his pointed spear in air. And drove to Troy.

And guard from wrong fair friendship's holy name. Avenge the breach of hospitable laws! Let this example future times reclaim. And faintly tinkled on the brazen shield. the chiefs advance. the Greek and Trojan band. flutt'ring. 101 [061] Now round the lists the admiring armies stand. The waving horse-hair nodded on his head: His figured shield. ii. Which. on the ground. With javelins fix'd. near his flank descends. but first prefers his prayers: "Give me. Amidst the dreadful vale. Atrides then his massy lance prepares. to the mark it held. and but barely. his feeble hand a jav'lin threw." Dryden's Virgil. Just. And in his hand a pointed javelin shakes. 742." Be said. Nor pierced the brazen orb. . great Jove! to punish lawless lust. bending from the blow. "This said. The wary Trojan. he takes. blunted. seemed to loiter as it flew. and his garment rends. Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went. All pale with rage. Full on Atrides' ringing shield it flew. a shining orb. aid my righteous cause. The Trojan first his shining javelin threw. and poised in air the javelin sent. The Spartan hero sheathes his limbs in arms. and shake the threatening lance.BOOK III. With equal speed and fired by equal charms. but with a bound122 Leap'd from the buckler. 122 —Nor pierced. His corslet pierces. And lay the Trojan gasping in the dust: Destroy the aggressor. In act to throw. And glancing downward.

The raging warrior to the spacious skies Raised his upbraiding voice and angry eyes: "Then is it vain in Jove himself to trust? And is it thus the gods assist the just? When crimes provoke us. And left an empty helmet in his hand. came. (She seem'd an ancient maid. and burst the golden band. The brittle steel. well-skill'd to cull . Then had his ruin crown'd Atrides' joy." Furious he said. And gently laid him on the bridal bed. Heaven success denies. amidst the Greeks he threw. The dart falls harmless. In thirst of vengeance. In borrow'd form. the laughter-loving dame. But Venus trembled for the prince of Troy: Unseen she came. and strook Full on his casque: the crested helmet shook. dragg'd the chief along. The casque. With pleasing sweets his fainting sense renews. Broke short: the fragments glitter'd on the sand. o'er the walls reclined. Raised from the field the panting youth she led. The matchless Helen.102 The Iliad of Homer [062] Eludes the death. enraged. and towards the Grecian crew (Seized by the crest) the unhappy warrior drew. beset with Trojan beauties. And all the dome perfumes with heavenly dews. at his rival's heart. The Greeks with smiles the polish'd trophy view. while the embroider'd thong That tied his helmet. Meantime the brightest of the female kind. Struggling he followed. unfaithful to his hand. Then. and disappoints his foe: But fierce Atrides waved his sword. To her. as once more he lifts the deadly dart. The queen of love her favour'd champion shrouds (For gods can all things) in a veil of clouds. and the falchion flies.

Fair as a god. Safe from the fight.BOOK III. That shed perfumes. But some gay dancer in the public show. He lies. "Haste. with odours round him spread. happy nymph! for thee thy Paris calls. Not like a warrior parted from the foe." . The snowy fleece. in yonder lofty walls. and waits thee on the well-known bed. INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS.) The goddess softly shook her silken vest. and wind the twisted wool. and whispering thus address'd: 103 VENUS. DISGUISED.

Hence let me sail. And widely spread ambrosial scents around. For me. or slave.) An odious conquest and a captive wife. reach'd the ground. straight the lively red Forsook her cheek. Renounce the glories of thy heavenly state. the queen of love is known. 556. and mount the skies no more. Fair Venus' neck. to lawless love no longer led. from every Phrygian dame: Ill suits it now the joys of love to know. i. to new nations must I cross the main. and trembling. reveal'd the queen of soft desire. Be fix'd for ever to the Trojan shore. (victor in the strife. I scorn the coward." 123 [063] Reveal'd the queen. Too deep my anguish. by her graceful walk. And. . she turn'd and made appear Her neck refulgent and dishevell'd hair.123 Struck with her presence. Else should I merit everlasting shame. She scorn'd the champion. flowing from her shoulders.104 The Iliad of Homer She spoke. And breast. "Thus having said. Which. And keen reproach. and if thy Paris bear My absence ill. let Venus ease his care. but the man she loved. and too wild my woe. Or carry wars to some soft Asian plain? For whom must Helen break her second vow? What other Paris is thy darling now? Left to Atrides. His spouse. thus she said: "Then is it still thy pleasure to deceive? And woman's frailty always to believe! Say. and detest his bed. her eyes that sparkled fire. In length of train descends her sweeping gown. A handmaid goddess at his side to wait." Dryden's Virgil. and Helen's secret soul was moved.

Then thus incensed. lest I make thee more The world's aversion. the Paphian queen replies: "Obey the power from whom thy glories rise: Should Venus leave thee." . 105 VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. than their love before. Now the bright prize for which mankind engage. Fade from thy cheek.BOOK III. and languish in thy eye. of the public rage. every charm must fly. Than. Cease to provoke me. the sad victim.

The maids officious round their mistress wait. the fairest of her sex obey'd. who. Not thus I loved thee. And veil'd her blushes in a silken shade. Arrived. Nor add reproaches to the wounds I bear. and silent. all dispersing. the queen of love Had placed the beauteous progeny of Jove. once more thy rival's rage excite. and renew the fight: Yet Helen bids thee stay. when from Sparta's shore . lest thou unskill'd Shouldst fall an easy conquest on the field. divinely fair." The prince replies: "Ah cease. and thus began to say: "Is this the chief. The queen and goddess to the prince ascend. she turn'd away Her glowing eyes. Led by the goddess of the Smiles and Loves. Unseen. and enter'd at the palace gate. as he view'd her charms. from the train she moves. This day the foe prevail'd by Pallas' power: We yet may vanquish in a happier hour: There want not gods to favour us above. and yet survives his fame? O hadst thou died beneath the righteous sword Of that brave man whom once I call'd my lord! The boaster Paris oft desired the day With Sparta's king to meet in single fray: Go now. various tasks attend. lost to sense of shame. Provoke Atrides. Full in her Paris' sight.106 The Iliad of Homer [064] At this. Then. Late fled the field. Where. And kind embraces snatch the hasty joy. But let the business of our life be love: These softer moments let delights employ.

Him Helen follow'd slow with bashful charms. p. 107 [065] [066] —Cranae's isle.124 Mix'd with thy soul. impatient to destroy. Roars through the desert." vol. Even those had yielded to a foe so brave The recreant warrior. impatient for the joy. and all dissolved away!" Thus having spoke. the enamour'd Phrygian boy Rush'd to the bed. i. Athens. my willing heavenly prize I bore. Then speaking thus. Our brother's arms the just success have found: Be therefore now the Spartan wealth restor'd. his army's loud applauses rise." He ceased. The stern Atrides rages round the field: So some fell lion whom the woods obey. My forced. ii. Paris he seeks. And the long shout runs echoing through the skies. And clasp'd the blooming hero in her arms.e. The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay.BOOK III. the king of kings arose. Dardans. When first entranced in Cranae's isle I lay. Let Argive Helen own her lawful lord. Cranaus. hateful as the grave. While these to love's delicious rapture yield. This name was derived from one of its early kings. 124 . 338. all our generous foes! Hear and attest! from Heaven with conquest crown'd. "Ye Trojans. And age to age record this signal day. See the "Schol." and Alberti's "Hesychius. But seeks in vain along the troops of Troy. and demands his prey.

.108 The Iliad of Homer VENUS.

BOOK III. titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . 109 Map.


and exhorts the leaders. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline. ARGUMENT.[067] BOOK IV. and great numbers are slain on both sides. fresh with bloom divine. The gods. and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce. but cured by Machaon. assume their thrones of gold: Immortal Hebe. She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus. THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE. the powers employ Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy. And now Olympus' shining gates unfold. The golden goblet crowns with purple wine: While the full bowls flow round. with Jove. AND THE FIRST BATTLE. he reviews the troops. In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. The battle joins. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy. who is wounded. The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following. and almost to the end of the seventh book). The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war: they agree upon the continuation of it. some by praises and others by reproof. . Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general.

And through his gates the crowding nations flow. Or rouse the furies.125 But high in heaven they sit. Then say. Though great Atrides gain'd the glorious strife. The tame spectators of his deeds of war. And meditate the future woes of Troy. impotent of passion. Her act has rescued Paris' forfeit life. and gaze from far. in close consult engaged: Apart they sit. and awake the war? Yet. Saves in the moment of the last despair. And queen of war. their deep designs employ. Atrides soon might gain his beauteous bride. and finish all the fates! Shall Heaven by peace the bleeding kingdoms spare. Each danger wards. the queen of heaven. enraged.112 The Iliad of Homer [068] When Jove. Still Priam's walls in peaceful honours grow. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. broke Her sullen silence. and the martial maid. would the gods for human good provide. and with fury spoke: . Thus waked the fury of his partial queen. Imperial Juno. The queen of pleasures shares the toils of fight. disposed to tempt Saturnia's spleen." Thus while he spoke. "Two powers divine the son of Atreus aid. Not thus fair Venus helps her favour'd knight. ye powers! what signal issue waits To crown this deed. and constant in her care. But Juno. The prudent goddess yet her wrath suppress'd.

so called from her temple at Alalcomene in Boeotia. and thus replies: "Oh lasting rancour! oh insatiate hate To Phrygia's monarch. shook Ilion with alarms. the defender. my labours. Sighs from his inmost soul. In the original." The sire whose thunder shakes the cloudy skies. At length ripe vengeance o'er their heads impends. and the Phrygian state! What high offence has fired the wife of Jove? Can wretched mortals harm the powers above. set two worlds in arms? To spread the war. Loth as thou art to punish lawless lust.e. I flew from shore to shore. for this. Assembled nations. —The martial maid. But Jove himself the faithless race defends. and my hopes be vain? Have I. Not all the gods are partial and unjust. "Minerva Alalcomeneis. O tyrant of the ethereal reign! My schemes.BOOK IV. 125 [069] . The immortal coursers scarce the labour bore." i. "Shall then. 113 THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS.

114 The Iliad of Homer That Troy. and Jove his peace enjoy. of all the numerous towns that rise Beneath the rolling sun and starry skies. Which gods have raised. Then on the Thunderer fix'd them. and replies: "Three towns are Juno's on the Grecian plains. 453. The worship of Juno at Argos was very celebrated in ancient times. vi. and give the vengeance way. Met... Servius on Virg. whose guilt demands their fate.127 "Anything for a quiet life!" —Argos. And yon fair structures level with the ground! Haste. Æn. Apul. Presume not thou the lifted bolt to stay. Burst all her gates.126 When heaven no longer hears the name of Troy. Remember Troy." At this the goddess rolled her radiant eyes. Bleed all his sons. fulfil thy stern desire. and wrap her walls in fire! Let Priam bleed! if yet you thirst for more. And altars blaze with unextinguish'd fire. leave the skies. p. 28. But should this arm prepare to wreak our hate On thy loved realms. and Ilion float with gore: To boundless vengeance the wide realm be given. Till vast destruction glut the queen of heaven! So let it be. Mycenae. i. and Troy's whole race thou wouldst confound. No mortals merit more distinguish'd grace Than godlike Priam. For know. None stands so dear to Jove as sacred Troy. or than Priam's race. and she was regarded as the patron deity of that city. or earth-born men enjoy. Still to our name their hecatombs expire. and the Spartan wall. 127 126 . Argos. More dear than all the extended earth contains.

" The sire of men and monarch of the sky The advice approved. See ready Pallas waits thy high commands To raise in arms the Greek and Phrygian bands. Fired with the charge. So shall the gods our joint decrees obey. speaks of her as "Jovis germana et conjux. 70. from Saturnius sent To fright the nations with a dire portent." Dryden's "Virgil. 3.BOOK IV." i. Or trembling sailors on the wintry main. Of power superior why should I complain? Resent I may. Their sudden friendship by her arts may cease. and all her arts employ To make the breach the faithless act of Troy. the sister-wife of Jove. And the proud Trojans first infringe the peace. Dissolve the league. 64. These thou mayst raze. and so Horace. (A fatal sign to armies on the plain." .) 128 115 [070] —A wife and sister. And heaven shall act as we direct the way. nor I forbid their fall: 'Tis not in me the vengeance to remove. and both by terms comply. and bade Minerva fly. And styled the consort of the thundering Jove. The crime's sufficient that they share my love. As the red comet. So Apuleius. Nor thou a wife and sister's right deny. "conjuge me Jovis et sorore. but must resent in vain. Od. she headlong urged her flight. A goddess born. to share the realms above.128 Let both consent. who walk in awful state above The majesty of heav'n. "But I. And shot like lightning from Olympus' height. Yet some distinction Juno might require. l. c. Sprung with thyself from one celestial sire. iii.

(In shape a mortal. in the southern part of the chain of Ida.130 With flaming shields in martial circle stood. rising from Mount Cotyius. Like bold Laodocus. led from black Æsepus' flood. And shakes the sparkles from its blazing hair:129 Between both armies thus. To him the goddess: "Phrygian! canst thou hear A well-timed counsel with a willing ear? What praise were thine. 555. And fate now labours with some vast event: Jove seals the league. Who from Antenor traced his high descent. couldst thou direct thy dart. for strength renown'd. —Æsepus' flood. A river of Mysia. 130 . when vapours fired Impress the air. The warlike Pandarus. Whose squadrons.116 The Iliad of Homer With sweeping glories glides along in air. her course she bent. With eyes erect the gazing hosts admire The power descending." iv. the great arbiter of peace and wars. Amidst the ranks Lycaon's son she found. the gods this signal sent. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. to the Spartan's heart? What gifts from Troy. Jove. gleaming through the even On a sunbeam. in open sight Shot the bright goddess in a trail of light." —"Paradise Lost. and the heavens on fire! "The gods (they cried). Thy country's foe. the Grecian glory slain? 129 "Thither came Uriel. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds. from Paris wouldst thou gain. or bloodier scenes prepares. while Pallas through the Trojan throng." They said.) pass'd disguised along. Amidst his triumph.

Then offers vows with hecatombs to crown Apollo's altars in his native town. to the god of day. and joins the doubling ends. and madly at the motion pleased. and cause of future woes. Then seize the occasion. Till the barb'd points approach the circling bow. Sounds the tough horn. And beaten gold each taper point adorns. And swear the firstlings of thy flock to pay. address thy vow To Lycian Phoebus with the silver bow. . 131 117 [071] —Zelia. and twangs the quivering string. This. Screen'd by the shields of his surrounding friends: There meditates the mark. by the Greeks unseen. 'Twas form'd of horn. a town of Troas. One from a hundred feather'd deaths he chose. Close to his breast he strains the nerve below. On Zelia's altars. and smooth'd with artful toil: A mountain goat resign'd the shining spoil. Fits the sharp arrow to the well-strung bow. The impatient weapon whizzes on the wing. the warrior bends. Aim at his breast. at the foot of Ida. and may that aim succeed! But first. Drawn to an arch."131 He heard.BOOK IV. Who pierced long since beneath his arrows bled. His polish'd bow with hasty rashness seized. to speed the shaft. Now with full force the yielding horn he bends. The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead. and shaped the bended horns. And sixteen palms his brow's large honours spread: The workmen join'd. dare the mighty deed. Fated to wound. and couching low.

Pass'd the broad belt. The royal brother thus his grief express'd. and drew the purple gore. dear as life! did I for this agree The solemn truce. She turn'd the shaft. And razed the skin. Atrides! in that dangerous hour The gods forget not. when slumber seals his eye. nor thy guardian power. The watchful mother wafts the envenom'd fly. the plaited linen tore. . a fatal truce to thee! Wert thou exposed to all the hostile train. Just where his belt with golden buckles join'd. which. As when some stately trappings are decreed To grace a monarch on his bounding steed. while all the Greeks around With answering sighs return'd the plaintive sound. Then. As down thy snowy thigh distill'd the streaming flood. and saw the gushing tide: Nor less the Spartan fear'd. Pallas assists.118 The Iliad of Homer But thee. Where linen folds the double corslet lined. and the Tyrian dye: So great Atrides! show'd thy sacred blood. to be slain! The race of Trojans in thy ruin join. the king of men descried The shaft infix'd. With equal lustre various colours vie. and conquer. with a sigh. that heaved his manly breast. before he found The shining barb appear above the wound. A nymph in Caria or Maeonia bred. And grasp'd his hand. The shining whiteness. and (weakened in its force) Diverts the weapon from its destined course: So from her babe. To fight for Greece. and through the corslet drove. hissing from above. Stains the pure ivory with a lively red. With horror seized. [072] "Oh. The folds it pierced.

without my share of praise? Deprived of thee. Those hands we plighted. (And spurns the dust where Menelaus lies. alas! deserv'st a happier fate." He said: a leader's and a brother's fears Possess his soul. the heartless Greeks no more Shall dream of conquests on the hostile shore. And faith is scorn'd by all the perjured line. already. that great avenging day. Troy seized of Helen. confirm'd with wine and gore. And such the conquest of her king of kings! Lo his proud vessels scatter'd o'er the main. While some proud Trojan thus insulting cries. I see the Eternal all his fury shed.BOOK IV. But thou. When Priam's powers and Priam's self shall fall.) 'Such are the trophies Greece from Ilion brings. Thy bones shall moulder on a foreign coast. his mighty brother slain. O'erwhelm me. I see the god. Not thus our vows. When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. The day shall come. The feeble dart is guiltless of my fate: 119 . from the pole Bare his red arm. Still must I mourn the period of thy days. earth! and hide a monarch's shame. And one prodigious ruin swallow all. Jove but prepares to strike the fiercer blow. which thus the Spartan cheers: "Let not thy words the warmth of Greece abate. Such mighty woes on perjured princes wait. and bid the thunder roll. And only mourn. And shake his aegis o'er their guilty head. and those oaths we swore. and our glory lost. And unrevenged. Shall all be vain: when Heaven's revenge is slow.' Oh! ere that dire disgrace shall blast my fame.

wherein the one was represented as unrivalled in surgical operations. A grief to us. [073] . but Apollodorus professed to fix the exact date of his apotheosis. or whether he was first a man and then became afterwards a god. Their medical renown was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arktinus. His wounded brother claims thy timely care. Thus. be swift. the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. Throughout all the historical ages the descendants of Asklepius were numerous and widely diffused. Pierced with a winged shaft (the deed of Troy). Then thus: "Machaon. 248. i." 132 —Podaleirius and Machaon are the leeches of the Grecian army. and the Dardan's joy. may Heaven thy life defend! Now seek some skilful hand. "Galen appears uncertain whether Asklepius (as well as Dionysus) was originally a god. to the king repair." With hasty zeal the swift Talthybius flies. p.120 The Iliad of Homer Stiff with the rich embroider'd work around. a triumph to the foe. always thus. Pierced by some Lycian or Dardanian bow. and extract the dart. Herald. And finds Machaon. who devoted themselves to the study and practice of medicine. and who principally dwelt near the temples of Asklepius." To whom the king: "My brother and my friend. and bid Machaon bring His speedy succour to the Spartan king. called Asklepiads. whose powerful art May stanch the effusion. The Grecian's sorrow. but also as their actual progenitor."—Grote vol. where sublime he stands132 In arms incircled with his native bands. highly prized and consulted by all the wounded chiefs. It was Podaleirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax. Through the thick files he darts his searching eyes. The many families or gentes. the Iliou Persis. whither sick and suffering men came to obtain relief—all recognized the god not merely as the object of their common worship. My varied belt repell'd the flying wound.

BOOK IV. Or press'd the car with polish'd brass inlaid But left Eurymedon the reins to guide. the corslet from his breast unbraced. Nor had you seen the king of men appear Confused. Then suck'd the blood. and those reproves. No longer with his warlike steeds he stay'd. and sovereign balm infused. The heavy tidings grieved the godlike man Swift to his succour through the ranks he ran.133 Which Chiron gave. Once more the fields are fill'd with dire alarms. and Æsculapius used. He loosed. . At once the blood is stanch'd. Straight the broad belt with gay embroidery graced. And all the chiefs in deep concern around. with severe delight. His beating bosom claim'd the rising fight. Once more they glitter in refulgent arms." book 1. But fond of glory. the youth revives. unactive. or surprised with fear. The dauntless king yet standing firm he found. but left the head behind. The fiery coursers snorted at his side. and stands Tempering the juice between her ivory hands This o'er her breast she sheds with sovereign art And bathes with gentle touch the wounded part The wound such virtue from the juice derives. "Brave men!" he cries. On foot through all the martial ranks he moves And these encourages. Where to the steely point the reed was join'd. (to such who boldly dare 133 121 "The plant she bruises with a stone. While round the prince the Greeks employ their care. The shaft he drew. The Trojans rush tumultuous to the war." "Orlando Furioso.

a victim to his fear. To save a trembling. . dastard race?" This said. Whose crimes sit heavy on her perjured head. And her dead warriors strew the mournful plains. heartless. And bold Meriones excite the rear. but guilty Troy. and raise the warriors' souls. First in the fight and every graceful deed. To Crete's brave monarch and his martial throng. "Divine Idomeneus! what thanks we owe To worth like thine! what praise shall we bestow? To thee the foremost honours are decreed. Prepared for flight. Or thus the fearful with reproaches fires: "Shame to your country. when the generous bowls Restore our blood. but doom'd to fly in vain? Confused and panting thus. For this. the hunted deer Falls as he flies. Born to the fate ye well deserve to find! Why stand ye gazing round the dreadful plain." Thus with new ardour he the brave inspires. Jove is with Greece.122 The Iliad of Homer [074] Urge their swift steeds to face the coming war). scandal of your kind. High at their head he saw the chief appear. Till yon tall vessels blaze with Trojan fire? Or trust ye. Though all the rest with stated rules we bound. "Your ancient valour on the foes approve. 'Tis not for us. and let us trust in Jove. At this the king his generous joy express'd. And clasp'd the warrior to his armed breast. Her sons and matrons Greece shall lead in chains. he stalk'd with ample strides along. to dread. in banquets. Still must ye wait the foes. Jove a valiant foe shall chase. and still retire.

and so thick." To whom the Cretan thus his speech address'd: "Secure of me.BOOK IV. To mix in fight is all I ask of Heaven. Thy firm associate in the day of war. [075] Such. unmeasured. The cloud condensing as the west-wind blows: He dreads the impending storm. in arms a mighty name. Be still thyself. Slow from the main the heavy vapours rise. And next the troops of either Ajax views: In one firm orb the bands were ranged around. and enlarge thy fame. in every toil I share. And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields. the king his course pursues. With spears erect. Fix'd to thy side. Unmix'd. But let the signal be this moment given. A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground. . The field shall prove how perjuries succeed. Till black as night the swelling tempest shows. O king! exhort the rest. Maintain thy honours. and drives his flock To the close covert of an arching rock. And chains or death avenge the impious deed. a moving iron wood: A shady light was shot from glimmering shields. are thy goblets crown'd. Thus from the lofty promontory's brow A swain surveys the gathering storm below. Spread in dim streams. the embattled squadrons stood." 123 Charm'd with this heat. and sail along the skies.

" Then to the next the general bends his course. nor the ranks exceed: Before the rest let none too rashly ride. Nor seek unpractised to direct the car.124 The Iliad of Homer "O heroes! worthy such a dauntless train. . And with inspiring eloquence commands. Soon should our arms with just success be crown'd. mount the next in haste. The chiefs advises. With strictest order sets his train in arms. more than loud commands. By laws like these immortal conquests made. or fall. He gives command to "curb the fiery steed. round him wait. The horse and chariots to the front assign'd. And Troy's proud walls lie smoking on the ground. (His heart exults. Bias the good. nor left the power to fly. He whom the fortune of the field shall cast From forth his chariot. thus preserved their force. Nor cause confusion. and the soldiers warms. Ah! would the gods but breathe in all the rest Such souls as burn in your exalted breast. a firm embodied train. Whose godlike virtue we but urge in vain. But fight. Our great forefathers held this prudent course. The foot (the strength of war) he ranged behind. and glories in his force). Inclosed by both. The middle space suspected troops supply. no warrior turn the rein. Haemon. and Pelagon the great. but just in time. who raise your eager bands With great examples. Alastor. Thus ruled their ardour. be tried: The charge once made. No strength nor skill. There reverend Nestor ranks his Pylian bands. (Exclaim'd the king). Chromius. Content with javelins to provoke the war.

Let sage advice. And touch'd with transport great Atrides' heart. that wither human race. fell prostrate on the plain. when Ereuthalion. "Would heav'n (said he) my strength and youth recall. the palm of age." Dryden's Virgil. 742. What once thou wert. could mortal wish renew134 That strength which once in boiling youth I knew. Such as I was beneath Praeneste's wall— Then when I made the foremost foes retire." Thus to the experienced prince Atrides cried. "Oh! hadst thou strength to match thy brave desires. viii. slain Beneath this arm. And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire. And nerves to second what thy soul inspires! But wasting years." 125 So spoke the master of the martial art. When Herilus in single fight I slew." 134 [076] —Well might I wish. Exhaust thy spirits. The solemn council best becomes the old: To you the glorious conflict I resign. with action those: The field of combat fits the young and bold. . He shook his hoary locks. Such as I was. oh ever mightst thou be! And age the lot of any chief but thee. Whom with three lives Feronia did endue. and thy arms unbrace.BOOK IV. be mine. and thus replied: "Well might I wish. These years with wisdom crowns. But heaven its gifts not all at once bestows. And earth's proud tyrants low in ashes laid.

And fears Ulysses. with his subject bands. And next Ulysses. Then give thy warrior-chief a warrior's due. he said: "Take back the unjust reproach! Behold we stand Sheathed in bright arms. skill'd in every art? Why stand you distant." Ulysses heard: the hero's warmth o'erspread His cheek with blushes: and severe. nor knew so far The peace infringed. they stood intent To watch the motion. nor heard the sounds of war. With joy the monarch march'd before. If glorious deeds afford thy soul delight. and the rest expect To mix in combat which yourselves neglect? From you 'twas hoped among the first to dare The shock of armies. the king replies: . who saw their squadrons yet unmoved. The tumult late begun. And found Menestheus on the dusty shore. chiefs! without a blush survey Whole troops before you labouring in the fray? Say. Who dares to act whate'er thou dar'st to view. dubious of the event. Behold me plunging in the thickest fight. but the last in fight. is it thus those honours you requite? The first in banquets.126 The Iliad of Homer He said. With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved: "Can Peleus' son forget a warrior's part. To share the pleasures of the genial feast: And can you. For this your names are call'd before the rest. With whom the firm Athenian phalanx stands." Struck with his generous wrath. Remote their forces lay. and commence the war. The king. and but expect command.

one of the Epigoni. To this day. he approach'd the foes. The gods that make. Sage as thou art." He said. A peaceful guest. Thebes' hostile walls unguarded and alone. 136 —Forwarn'd the horrors. Haste to the fight. in arms a mighty name) Canst thou. With hands unactive. Still first in front the matchless prince appear'd: What glorious toils. Forgive the transport of a martial mind. the mingling hosts descry. and a careless eye? Not thus thy sire the fierce encounter fear'd. thy care and ardour are the same. shall keep the worthy.BOOK IV. nor aught to blame. sent by Greece from where Asopus flows. and learn'd in human kind. 127 —Sthenelus. 135 . His steeds and chariots wedged in firm array.136 Next. Forewarn'd the horrors of the Theban war. and is said to have been one of those who entered Troy inside the wooden horse. whose strength could tame The bounding steed. and armies had been given. and pass'd where great Tydides lay. Not we denied. While dreadful comets glaring from afar. what wonders they recite. secure of just amends.)135 To whom with stern reproach the monarch cried: "O son of Tydeus! (he. a son of Capaneus. Armies he ask'd. "O great in action. modern nations are not wholly free from this superstition. A fearless envoy. he sought Mycenae's towers. but Jove forbade from heaven. The same portent has already been mentioned. Nor need I to commend. remote. and in council wise! With ours. Who view'd him labouring through the ranks of fight? I saw him once. (The warlike Sthenelus attends his side. friends. when gathering martial powers. He was one of the suitors of Helen.

Boeotian Thebes. Ourselves to lessen. and in secret burn'd: Not so fierce Capaneus' undaunted son. But heard respectful. Such Tydeus was. which had seven gates. The tyrant feasting with his chiefs he found.137 In impious acts the guilty father died. He spared but one to bear the dreadful tale. the boaster thus begun: [078] "What needs. Mason the fierce. Stern as his sire. while our sire you raise? Dare to be just. To bar his passage fifty warriors lay. and hardy Lycophon. Gods! how the son degenerates from the sire!" No words the godlike Diomed return'd. though our fury less. and such his martial fire. Stung with the shame. Those fifty slaughter'd in the gloomy vale. and subdued before their haughty lord. And dared to combat all those chiefs around: Dared. Our glories darken their diminish'd name. Atrides! and confess Our value equal. . O monarch! this invidious praise. and demands the throne." 137 —Sevenfold city. for Heaven was on their side. Two heroes led the secret squadron on. For Pallas strung his arm and edged his sword. Far more than heirs of all our parents' fame. The sons subdued. And happier saw the sevenfold city fall. within the winding way. With fewer troops we storm'd the Theban wall.128 The Iliad of Homer Dauntless he enters.

'Tis ours to labour in the glorious fight. So to the fight the thick battalions throng. 736. and the king revere: His high concern may well excuse this rage. 138 129 —As when the winds. vii. but the chief's commands. Those only heard. Then roars the main. forbear. the chief disgrace his own. when a black-brow'd gust begins to rise. and ardent. ascending by degrees. and whose war we wage: His the first praise. Till. As when the winds. "Thus. with awe the rest obey. Dire was the clang.138 First move the whitening surface of the seas. To him Tydides thus: "My friend. from their host ascends A general shout that all the region rends. with the growing storm. the deeps arise. the billows mount the skies. Shields urged on shields. no whisper." Dryden's Virgil. The wave behind rolls on the wave before. were Ilion's towers o'erthrown. The billows float in order to the shore. As if some god had snatch'd their voice away. . Whose cause we follow. and dreadful from afar. on the trembling ground Sprung from his car: his ringing arms resound. White foam at first on the curl'd ocean fries. by the fury of the storm full blown. Not so the Trojans.BOOK IV. Of arm'd Tydides rushing to the war. Till. No sound. And. The muddy billow o'er the clouds is thrown. Let him the Greeks to hardy toils excite. Suppress thy passion. and thunder to the skies. if we fail. Foam o'er the rocks." He spoke. and men drove men along Sedate and silent move the numerous bands.

The groan still deepens. And discord raging bathes the purple plain. And shrilling shouts and dying groans arise. Small at her birth. and the combat burns. Victors and vanquish'd join'd promiscuous cries. and each a god inspires. and shakes the world around. To armour armour. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. The lambs reply from all the neighbouring hills: Such clamours rose from various nations round. where'er her steps she turns. While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound.139 The nations bleed. and those Minerva fires. These Mars incites. but rising every hour.130 The Iliad of Homer [079] As when the fleecy flocks unnumber'd stand In wealthy folds. and wait the milker's hand. and dreadful terror reign. 986. and confused the sound. Mix'd was the murmur. His stature reach'd the sky. Discord! dire sister of the slaughtering power. She stalks on earth." —"Paradise Lost. Host against host with shadowy squadrons drew." iv. lance to lance opposed. 139 "Stood Like Teneriffe or Atlas unremoved. with helmet helmet closed. The hollow vales incessant bleating fills. Each host now joins. Now shield with shield. . With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. Pale flight around.

In blooming youth fair Simoisius fell. and through his helmet drives. The war renews. Trojans and Greeks now gather round the slain. and spurns the field. The soul comes floating in a tide of gore. Agenor's javelin reach'd the hero's heart. As torrents roll. 140 131 [080] The Abantes seem to have been of Thracian origin. down their echoing hills Rush to the vales. Him. So sinks a tower.140 Seized to despoil. The nerves. Razed his high crest. To seek her parents on his flowery side. So mix both hosts. support his limbs no more. Roar through a thousand channels to the main: The distant shepherd trembling hears the sound. and dragg'd the corpse along: But while he strove to tug the inserted dart. whom his mother bore Amid the flocks on silver Simois' shore: The nymph descending from the hills of Ide. Warm'd in the brain the brazen weapon lies. . its walls besmear'd with blood. that long assaults had stood Of force and fire. And shades eternal settle o'er his eyes. and all is blood and rage. unbraced. the bold leader of the Abantian throng. and so their cries rebound. and pour'd along the plain. the warriors bleed again: As o'er their prey rapacious wolves engage. unguarded by his ample shield. The first who struck a valiant Trojan dead: At great Echepolus the lance arrives. Man dies on man. The bold Antilochus the slaughter led. increased by numerous rills. His flank. Admits the lance: he falls. With rage impetuous.BOOK IV. Fair Simoisius. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell.

He drops the corpse of Simoisius slain. once for all. with stately branches crown'd. And sinks a breathless carcase on the plain. And thence from Simois named the lovely boy. I may. He falls. smooth. and renders all their cares in vain! So falls a poplar.132 The Iliad of Homer Brought forth the babe. and with grief enraged. and thus neglected dies. The weapon entered close above his ear. he meditates the wound. To shape the circle of the bending wheel. their common care and joy. And Leucus. Simoisius lies Stretch'd on the shore. remark that Homer is most anatomically correct as to the parts of the body in which a wound would be immediately mortal. tall. and largely spread. Old Priam's son. With all its beauteous honours on its head There. that in watery ground Raised high the head. left a subject to the wind and rain. Struck at his sight the Trojans backward drew.141 With piercing shrieks the youth resigns his breath. The pointed lance with erring fury flew.) Cut down it lies. slew. Antiphus his javelin threw. A chief stood nigh. Democoon was his name. Strode where the foremost of the foes engaged. And scorch'd by suns. Cold through his temples glides the whizzing spear. 141 . it withers on the plain Thus pierced by Ajax. who from Abydos came. Arm'd with his spear. In act to throw. loved by wise Ulysses. Short was his date! by dreadful Ajax slain. but cautious look'd around. (Fell'd by some artist with his shining steel. And trembling heard the javelin as it flew. His eye-balls darken with the shades of death. This saw Ulysses. At Ajax.

. the rest tumultuous fled. Before his helpless friends. And through his navel drove the pointed death: His gushing entrails smoked upon the ground." Apollo thus from Ilion's lofty towers. by doom divine. 142 133 [081] —Ænus.BOOK IV. Your foaming steeds urge headlong on the foes! Nor are their bodies rocks. Ponderous he falls. be bold. nor ribb'd with steel. Have ye forgot what seem'd your dread before? The great. and crash'd the solid bone.)142 Full on his ankle dropp'd the ponderous stone. Slow he gave way. the fierce Achilles fights no more. The Greeks with shouts press on. Burst the strong nerves. Then great Diores fell. (Who from cold Ænus led the Thracian crew. and spoil the dead: But Phoebus now from Ilion's towering height Shines forth reveal'd. And the warm life came issuing from the wound. his clanging arms resound. and native bands. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. A broken rock the force of Pyrus threw. roused the Trojan powers: While war's fierce goddess fires the Grecian foe. Seized with affright the boldest foes appear. "Trojans. and force with force oppose. Your weapons enter. And shouts and thunders in the fields below. In vain his valour and illustrious line. The foe rush'd furious as he pants for breath. And spreads for aid his unavailing hands. Supine he tumbles on the crimson sands. and your strokes they feel. a fountain almost proverbial for its coldness. and animates the fight. Array'd in terrors. E'en godlike Hector seems himself to fear.

Stern Thoas. And swords around him innocently play. The Ætolian warrior tugg'd his weighty spear: Then sudden waved his flaming falchion round. So fought each host. The corpse now breathless on the bloody plain. Amid the lungs was fix'd the winged wood. Might darts be bid to turn their points away. And one the leader of the Epeian race. [082] . one the pride of Thrace. And counted heroes where he counted men. Had some brave chief this martial scene beheld. A grove of lances glitter'd at his breast. By Pallas guarded through the dreadful field. The Thracian bands against the victor press'd. Death's sable shade at once o'ercast their eyes. The war's whole art with wonder had he seen. glaring with revengeful eyes. Deep in his breast above the pap it went. With copious slaughter all the fields are red.134 The Iliad of Homer His lance bold Thoas at the conqueror sent. approaching near. In dust the vanquish'd and the victor lies. To spoil his arms the victor strove in vain. And heap'd with growing mountains of the dead. In sullen fury slowly quits the prize. with thirst of glory fired. And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired. Thus fell two heroes. And gash'd his belly with a ghastly wound. And quivering in his heaving bosom stood: Till from the dying chief.

135 Map of the Plain of Troy.BOOK IV. .


is wounded on the hand by Diomed. Mars rallies the Trojans. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars. xx. excepting Venus. the latter incites Diomed to go against that god.. e vi riduce Di giovinezza il bel purpureo lume. The first battle continues through this book. among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon. Lib. and they overthrow several of the Greeks. But Pallas now Tydides' soul inspires. THE ACTS OF DIOMED. ARGUMENT. Æneas joins Pandarus to oppose him. 7: "Nuovo favor del cielo in lui niluce E 'l fa grande. and Æneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus. Gl' empie d' honor la faccia.143 Fills with her force. The scene is the same as in the former. assisted by Pallas. Gier. et angusto oltre il costume. he wounds him." . and sends him groaning to heaven. but the goddess cures him. In the meantime Æneas is restored to the field. Pandarus wounds him with an arrow.[083] BOOK V. enables him to discern gods from mortals. Pandarus is killed. Apollo seconds her in his rescue. who. performs wonders in this day's battle. where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. and at length carries off Æneas to Troy. and warms with all her fires. 143 Compare Tasso. Diomed. and prohibits him from contending with any of the former. and assists Hector to make a stand. as she is removing her son from the fight.

The sons to toils of glorious battle bred. When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight. And had not Vulcan lent celestial aid. Left the rich chariot. from his arms. and stretch'd him on the plain. But in a smoky cloud the god of fire Preserved the son. Not so. and where the thickest rage. And crown her hero with distinguish'd praise. the fierce effulgence flow'd: Onward she drives him. He too had sunk to death's eternal shade. Idaeus fled.138 The Iliad of Homer Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise. Tydides on the plain. bathed in ocean. The steeds and chariot. A wealthy priest. High on his helm celestial lightnings play. Tydides. shoots a keener light. And spent in empty air its erring force. Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow'd. The sons of Dares first the combat sought. but rich without a fault. Increased the spoils of gallant Diomed. Where the fight burns. And. But pierced his breast. Seized with unusual fear. Such. Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies. In Vulcan's fane the father's days were led. The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies. [084] . These. These singled from their troops the fight maintain. furious to engage. from their steeds. in pity to the sire. to the navy led. flew thy lance in vain. His beamy shield emits a living ray. And first bold Phegeus cast his sounding spear. Fierce for renown the brother-chiefs draw near. and his brother dead. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course.

" Her words allay the impetuous warrior's heat. The god of arms and martial maid retreat. Struck with amaze and shame. Meantime. O Phaestus! doom'd to feel The great Idomeneus' protended steel. and bites the bloody sand. 139 . And whose the conquest. the sons of Dares view. the spirit wings its way. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground. Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging sire. mighty Jove decide: While we from interdicted fields retire. And some bold chieftain every leader slew: First Odius falls. and this speech address'd: "Stern power of war! by whom the mighty fall. And everlasting shades his eyes surround. And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. and shake the lofty wall! Let the brave chiefs their glorious toils divide. The Cretan javelin reach'd him from afar. Removed from fight. Whom Borus sent (his son and only joy) From fruitful Tarne to the fields of Troy. In dust the mighty Halizonian lay. the Greeks the Trojan race pursue. Or slain.BOOK V. or fled. The speedy javelin drove from back to breast. When by the blood-stain'd hand Minerva press'd The god of battles. Who bathe in blood. His arms resound. His death ennobled by Atrides' hand: As he to flight his wheeling car address'd. on Xanthus' flowery bounds They sat. Thy fate was next. and listen'd to the dying sounds. the Trojan crew.

Pallas did impart To him the shipwright's and the builder's art. And death in lasting slumber seals his eyes. Next artful Phereclus untimely fell. with forceful fury cast. Thy father's skill. In woods and wilds to wound the savage race. The fatal cause of all his country's woes. Nor saw his country's peril. the mystic will of heaven unknown. Beneath his hand the fleet of Paris rose. heavenly fair. Nursed the young stranger with a mother's care. Prone on his knees he falls with fruitless cries. Diana taught him all her sylvan arts. Whose generous spouse. Antenor's offspring from a foreign bed. From Menelaus' arm the weapon sent.140 The Iliad of Homer Then died Scamandrius. His brazen armour rings against the ground. and aim unerring darts: But vainly here Diana's arts he tries. Between the bladder and the bone it pass'd. The graceful fabric and the fair design. [085] . How vain those cares! when Meges in the rear Full in his nape infix'd the fatal spear. But he. Through his broad back and heaving bosom went: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. Through his right hip. The hapless artist. The fatal lance arrests him as he flies. while confused he fled. The spear of Merion mingled with the dead. For loved by Pallas. O Phereclus! was thine. To bend the bow. Bold Merion sent him to the realms of hell. nor his own. Theanor. From Meges' force the swift Pedaeus fled. expert in the chase.

" Dryden's Virgil ii. Who near adored Scamander made abode. and trees. Uproot the forest oaks. and the peasant's gains. Rapt through the ranks he thunders o'er the plain. and bursts the lofty bounds. Swift through his crackling jaws the weapon glides. The yellow harvests of the ripen'd year. Down sunk the priest: the purple hand of death Closed his dim eye. Pours on the rear. . Thus toil'd the chiefs. 408. an undistinguish'd prey. Thence glancing downwards. lopp'd his holy hand. amid the Trojan train. Now here. or lightens in their face. On him. descending on the plains. Which stain'd with sacred blood the blushing sand. generous and divine. and fate suppress'd his breath. On his broad shoulders fell the forceful brand. And flatted vineyards. Amid the Greek. Sprung from the brave Dolopion's mighty line. amidst the flying numbers found. folds. In every quarter fierce Tydides raged. and bear away Flocks. one sad waste appear!144 144 141 [086] "Or deluges. Through ruin'd moles the rushing wave resounds. and honoured as a god. Sweep o'er the yellow year. O'erwhelm's the bridge. Eurypylus inflicts a deadly wound. Thus from high hills the torrents swift and strong Deluge whole fields. And the cold tongue and grinning teeth divides. and sweep the trees along. Then died Hypsenor. destroy the pains Of lab'ring oxen. Priest of the stream. now there.BOOK V. he darts from place to place. in different parts engaged.

thy sacred succour yield. behind his car retired. Deep in his shoulder pierced. And lay the boaster grovelling on the shore." So spoke he. The purple current wandering o'er his vest: "O progeny of Jove! unconquer'd maid! If e'er my godlike sire deserved thy aid. If e'er I felt thee in the fighting field. Now. And all the labours of mankind are vain. When thus the king his guardian power address'd. So raged Tydides. boundless in his ire. Drove armies back. goddess. Whose forky point the hollow breastplate tore. now. Or Phoebus urged me to these fields in vain.142 The Iliad of Homer While Jove descends in sluicy sheets of rain. O give my lance to reach the Trojan knight. Not long the deathful dart he can sustain. Swift to the mark the thirsty arrow flew. ye Trojans." . hither drive your steeds! Lo! by our hand the bravest Grecian bleeds. Whose arrow wounds the chief thou guard'st in fight. The helping hand of Sthenelus required. The wounded chief. and mock'd the shooter's art. While the proud archer thus exulting cried: "Hither. That vaunts these eyes shall view the light no more. and drank the gore: The rushing stream his brazen armour dyed. boastful: but the winged dart Stopp'd short of life. and made all Troy retire. Swift from his seat he leap'd upon the ground. And tugg'd the weapon from the gushing wound. With grief the leader of the Lycian band Saw the wide waste of his destructive hand: His bended bow against the chief he drew.

" xi. Rush to the fight. through all the embattled plain. Yet more. in every combat shine. These see thou shun. he roars. he bathes with blood the ground. infused by me. Wild with delay. Nor rashly strive where human force is vain. Not with less fury stern Tydides flew.145 And set to view the warring deities. his languid spirits cheer'd. Then leaps victorious o'er the lofty mound.BOOK V. the blue-eyed virgin wing'd her flight. Amidst the field a brindled lion falls." With that. the shepherd dares not stay. . War be thy province. thy protection mine. from mortal mists I purge thy eyes. and more enraged by pain. "But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. and Minerva heard." "Paradise Lost. With tenfold ardour now invades the plain. Heaps fall on heaps. His beating bosom claim'd the promised fight. His nerves confirm'd. But trembling leaves the scattering flocks a prey. As on the fleecy flocks when hunger calls. and every foe control. Wake each paternal virtue in thy soul: Strength swells thy boiling breast. he rouses at the smart. He feels each limb with wonted vigour light. Thus pray'd Tydides. He foams. The hero rush'd impetuous to the fight. "Be bold. 145 143 [087] —From mortal mists. If Venus mingle in the martial band. Her shalt thou wound: so Pallas gives command. And all thy godlike father breathes in thee. (she cried). 411. If chance some shepherd with a distant dart The savage wound.

Could fate foresee. Glittering in arms. No mystic dream could make their fates appear. He leaps amidst them with a furious bound. [088] Two sons of Priam in one chariot ride. Though now determined by Tydides' spear. and Thoon felt his rage. and combat side by side. and mystic dreams unfold. Young Xanthus next. and these the only heirs Of all his labours and a life of cares. Bends their strong necks. The youths return'd not from the doubtful plain. . Astynous' breast the deadly lance receives. Sons of Eurydamus.144 The Iliad of Homer And two brave leaders at an instant slew. and by his side. Hypenor's shoulder his broad falchion cleaves. Astynous breathless fell. who. died. And leaves the father unavailing tears: To strangers now descends his heapy store. and tears them to the ground: So from their seats the brother chiefs are torn. And the sad father tried his arts in vain. wise and old. The race forgotten. good Hypenor. Their steeds and chariot to the navy borne. Those slain he left. As when the lordly lion seeks his food Where grazing heifers range the lonely wood. Cold death o'ertakes them in their blooming years. and the name no more. The joy and hope of Phaenops' feeble age: Vast was his wealth. and sprung with noble rage Abas and Polyidus to engage. His people's pastor.

Nor join'd swift horses to the rapid car. And. If 'tis a god. on foot I sought the war. I wing'd an arrow. The stroke had fix'd him to the gates of hell. Through the thick storm of singing spears he flies. Pandarus." To him the Lycian: "Whom your eyes behold. Exploring Pandarus with careful eyes. who quits the distant skies To punish Troy for slighted sacrifice. some guardian of the skies. some angry god withstands. if god. To whom the chief of Venus' race begun: "Where. Involved in clouds. protects him in the fray. Thy winged arrows and unerring bow. are all thy honours now. With deep concern divine Æneas view'd The foe prevailing. and so flames his shield. and his friends pursued. entreat to spare. So towers his helmet.BOOK V. he wears that chief's disguise: Or if that chief. And boasted glory of the Lycian name? O pierce that mortal! if we mortal call That wondrous force by which whole armies fall. oh avert from our unhappy state! For what so dreadful as celestial hate)? Whoe'er he be. (Which. And turns unseen the frustrate dart away. which not idly fell. His fate was due to these unerring hands. 145 . but some god. is Diomed the bold: Such coursers whirl him o'er the dusty field. propitiate Jove with prayer. destroy. At length he found Lycaon's mighty son. Thy matchless skill. If man. If right I judge. Skill'd in the bow. Or god incensed. thy yet unrivall'd fame.

And seized the quiver where it idly hung. and yet to thrift inclined. I heard his counsels with unheedful mind. The good old warrior bade me trust to these. [089] "Too late. And thought the steeds (your large supplies unknown) Might fail of forage in the straiten'd town." . shall feed the blazing flames. If e'er I see my spouse and sire again. But vain with youth. carry death no more. the spear and shield! If e'er with life I quit the Trojan plain. In vain they bleed: this unavailing bow Serves. So took my bow and pointed darts in hand And left the chariots in my native land. Broke by my hand. And through the ranks of death triumphant ride. Tydeus' and Atreus' sons their points have found. And twice ten coursers wait their lord's command. not to slaughter. once fatal. unfaithful to my glorious aims. aloft.146 The Iliad of Homer Ten polish'd chariots I possess'd at home. When first for Troy I sail'd the sacred seas. This bow. O friend! my rashness I deplore. the whirling car to guide. but provoke the foe. These shafts. And undissembled gore pursued the wound. Cursed be the fate that sent me to the field Without a warrior's arms. In fields. And still they grace Lycaon's princely dome: There veil'd in spacious coverlets they stand. In evil hour these bended horns I strung.

Who thus. Secure with these. Thy voice alone can animate their flight. Their fierce approach bold Sthenelus espied. nor Phoebus' honour'd gift disgrace. if. practised to their lord's command. the victor's prize. in triumph led. To whom the leader of the Dardan race: "Be calm. Now mount my seat. The horses. if to combat thy bold heart incline. the chariot's care be mine. seize the whip. But. encounter force with force. we desert the fight.BOOK V. Thine be the guidance. unhappy. To dare the shock. Haste. to stop. Or safe to Troy. Against yon hero let us bend our course. to great Tydides cried: 147 . hand to hand. Shall bear the rein. through fighting fields we go. and from the chariot's height Observe my father's steeds. be thine the task to guide. and answer to thy hand. alarm'd. or urge the rapid race. And these. Practised alike to turn. to chase." And now both heroes mount the glittering car. Or. Take thou the spear." "O prince! (Lycaon's valiant son replied) As thine the steeds. though here we need The rushing chariot and the bounding steed. The warrior's fury let this arm sustain. renown'd in fight. And. The distant dart be praised. if Jove assist the foe. then: with spear and shield Myself will charge this terror of the field. The bounding coursers rush amidst the war. and snatch the guiding rein. Else shall our fates be number'd with the dead.

Ascend thy car! And save a life. Nor shall yon steeds. the bulwark of our war. But if she dooms. Whose wombs conceived a more than mortal birth. that fierce to fight convey Those threatening heroes. . By substituting mares produced on earth. That both shall fall by one victorious hand. Who from their nostrils breathed ethereal fire. Thus front the foe. Then heed my words: my horses here detain. sprung from race divine! Enough is given to fame. bear them both away. Fix'd to the chariot by the straiten'd rein. Whom Circe stole from her celestial sire. One chief at least beneath this arm shall die. But while my nerves are strong. Dreadful they come. and thus he spoke: "Me dost thou bid to shun the coming fight? Me wouldst thou move to base. and forbids to fly. and if no god withstand. and emulate my sire. inglorious flight? Know. born of heav'nly breed. And great Æneas." At this the hero cast a gloomy look. 'tis not honest in my soul to fear. which once the thundering god146 146 —The race of those. And the long distance of the flying lance. I hate the cumbrous chariot's slow advance. Fix'd on the chief with scorn. And seize the coursers of ethereal breed.148 The Iliad of Homer [090] "O friend! two chiefs of force immense I see. The race of those. "A pair of coursers. Nor was Tydides born to tremble here. So Pallas tells me. Swift to Æneas' empty seat proceed. and bend their rage on thee: Lo the brave heir of old Lycaon's line. my force entire.

one. The spear may enter where the arrow fail'd. Pierced the tough orb. "He bleeds! the pride of Greece! (the boaster cries. Hence great Anchises stole a breed unknown.BOOK V. were the rich immortal prize our own. Ye 'scape not both. from fierce Laomedon: Four of this race his ample stalls contain. With hostile blood shall glut the god of war. and now my spear be tried. headlong from his car. and flung. the mighty warrior lies!" "Mistaken vaunter! (Diomed replied. On his broad shield the sounding weapon rung. For ravish'd Ganymede on Tros bestow'd. Through the wide world should make our glory known.) Thy dart has erred. then shook the ponderous lance." He said. The best that e'er on earth's broad surface run. thou art met. Beneath the rising or the setting sun.) Our triumph now." 149 Thus while they spoke. and in his cuirass hung. Though late in vain assail'd. And stern Lycaon's warlike race begun: "Prince. And two transport Æneas o'er the plain. By mortal mares." . These. the foe came furious on.

is by no means confined to Homer. Through both the tendons broke the rugged stone. Till the bright point look'd out beneath the chin. and cleft the tongue within. vii. sqq. Where to the hip the inserted thigh unites. As the grim lion stalks around his prey.150 The Iliad of Homer [091] He spoke. Crash'd all his jaws. and his arms resound. 147 . O'er the fall'n trunk his ample shield display'd. and rising hurl'd his forceful dart. pierced a vital part. Which. Watchful he wheels. and from the fields Heaved with vast force. Dryden's Virgil. And stripp'd the skin. Discharged the ponderous ruin at the foe. Full on the bone the pointed marble lights. He hides the hero with his mighty shade. protects it every way. driven by Pallas. The belief in the existence of men of larger stature in earlier times. gathering strength to throw. The starting coursers tremble with affright. Full in his face it enter'd. a rocky fragment wields. 386. and. Sunk on his knees. but forbear the prize. Æneas flies. Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. and crack'd the solid bone. His falling bulk his bended arm sustains. The soul indignant seeks the realms of night. To guard his slaughter'd friend. Then fierce Tydides stoops. And threats aloud! the Greeks with longing eyes Behold at distance. His spear extending where the carcase lies. Such men as live in these degenerate days:147 He swung it round. and betwixt The nose and eye-ball the proud Lycian fix'd. his helmet knocks the ground: Earth groans beneath him. and staggering with his pains. Headlong he falls.

But heavenly Venus.BOOK V. Nor Sthenelus. and feather'd flight Of sounding shafts. mindful of the love She bore Anchises in the Idaean grove. (Whom most he loved. Meanwhile (his conquest ravished from his eyes) The raging chief in chase of Venus flies: No goddess she. Like Pallas dreadful with her sable shield. No longer now a Trojan lord obey'd. Oppress'd had sunk to death's eternal shade. as brave men love the brave. While flames ascend. His danger views with anguish and despair. Lost in a dizzy mist the warrior lies. Safe through the rushing horse. resumed the rein. and the javelins fail. detains The heavenly coursers with the flowing manes: These in proud triumph to the fleet convey'd. A sudden cloud comes swimming o'er his eyes. 151 [092] . with unassisting hands. rushing to the Dardan spoil. The swords wave harmless. And follow'd where Tydides swept the plain. and mighty ruins fall. Screen'd from the foe behind her shining veil.) Then mounting on his car. Or fierce Bellona thundering at the wall. That charge to bold Deipylus he gave. Next. who mighty numbers sway'd. commission'd to the field. she bears him from the fight. Her arms whose whiteness match the falling snows. And guards her offspring with a mother's care. Remain'd unheedful of his lord's commands: His panting steeds. He fix'd with straiten'd traces to the car. removed from out the war. About her much-loved son her arms she throws. There the brave chief.

diseased. . Through breaking ranks his furious course he bends. Him Phoebus took: he casts a cloud around The fainting chief. Nor wine's inflaming juice supplies their veins:) With tender shrieks the goddess fill'd the place." 148 —Such stream. Her snowy hand the razing steel profaned. and wards the mortal wound. Such stream as issues from a wounded god. let thy own soft sex employ thy care. lull the coward. 339. Sanguine. or delude the fair. From the clear vein a stream immortal flow'd. And dropp'd her offspring from her weak embrace. The king insults the goddess as she flies: "Ill with Jove's daughter bloody fights agree. And the transparent skin with crimson stain'd. i. or blood of the gods." vi. And learn to tremble at the name of arms.152 The Iliad of Homer He knew soft combats suit the tender dame. And at the goddess his broad lance extends. The ambrosial veil which all the Graces wove. New to the field. Taught by this stroke renounce the war's alarms. terrestrial blood: (For not the bread of man their life sustains. The field of combat is no scene for thee: Go. Go." "Paradise Lost. the ichor. Then with a voice that shook the vaulted skies. Through her bright veil the daring weapon drove.e.148 Pure emanation! uncorrupted flood! Unlike our gross. "A stream of nect'rous humour issuing flow'd. such as celestial spirits may bleed. and still a foe to fame.

And in a moment scales the lofty skies: They stopp'd the car. who dares encounter heaven. A mortal man. And. Pale was her cheek. seized with dread. his foaming steeds before. To aid her. and there the coursers stood. Fed by fair Iris with ambrosial food. The war with Troy no more the Grecians wage. Confused. and livid look'd the wound. rein'd with gold. beheld her bleed. To Mars. Low at his knee. who sat remote. distain'd with gore. Before her mother. The goddess. they bent their way: Far. She mounts the seat. from the conflict fled. But with the gods (the immortal gods) engage. Wrapt in a mist above the warring crew. and dissolved in tears: She raised her in her arms. oppress'd with silent woe. An impious mortal gave the daring wound! Behold the deed of haughty Diomed! 'Twas in the son's defence the mother bled. love's bright queen appears. O'erwhelmed with anguish. swift the winged Iris flew. Tydides thus. And to her hand commits the golden rein. distracted." . to mount the distant skies. Beside him stood his lance. with clouds involved he lay. And show'd the wound by fierce Tydides given. she begg'd with streaming eyes Her brother's car. The queen of love with faded charms she found. Stern Mars attentive hears the queen complain. The lash resounds. on the left.BOOK V. the rapid chariot flies. And ask'd what god had wrought this guilty deed? 153 [093] Then she: "This insult from no god I found. Driven by the goddess of the painted bow.

—Amphitryon's son. Great Juno's self has borne her weight of pain. born to Jove by Alcmena. Dione then: "Thy wrongs with patience bear. Full thirteen moons imprison'd roar'd in vain. This was during the wars with the Titans. the wife of Amphitryon. WOUNDED IN THE HAND. The imperial partner of the heavenly reign. CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS.149 And lodged in brazen dungeons underground. 150 149 [094] . And men with woes afflict the gods again. Otus and Ephialtes held the chain: Perhaps had perish'd had not Hermes' care Restored the groaning god to upper air. And share those griefs inferior powers must share: Unnumber'd woes mankind from us sustain. Amphitryon's son infix'd the deadly dart. Hercules.150 And fill'd with anguish her immortal heart.154 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. The mighty Mars in mortal fetters bound.

Know thou. No infant on his knees shall call him sire. [095] . impious man! to stain the bless'd abodes. To Jove's high palace for a cure he fled. Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed. Assuaged the glowing pangs. The shaft found entrance in his iron breast. Pierced in his own dominions of the dead. and closed the wound. E'en hell's grim king Alcides' power confess'd. From fields of death when late he shall retire. Where Paeon. whoe'er with heavenly power contends. Short is his date. And drench his arrows in the blood of gods! 155 OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. and soon his glory ends.BOOK V. Rash. sprinkling heavenly balm around. "But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed).


The Iliad of Homer

Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found, To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground; Thy distant wife, Ægiale the fair,151 Starting from sleep with a distracted air, Shall rouse thy slaves, and her lost lord deplore, The brave, the great, the glorious now no more!"

This said, she wiped from Venus' wounded palm The sacred ichor, and infused the balm. Juno and Pallas with a smile survey'd, And thus to Jove began the blue-eyed maid:

"Permit thy daughter, gracious Jove! to tell How this mischance the Cyprian queen befell, As late she tried with passion to inflame The tender bosom of a Grecian dame; Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy, To quit her country for some youth of Troy; The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound, Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound."

The sire of gods and men superior smiled, And, calling Venus, thus address'd his child: "Not these, O daughter are thy proper cares, Thee milder arts befit, and softer wars; Sweet smiles are thine, and kind endearing charms; To Mars and Pallas leave the deeds of arms."
—Ægiale daughter of Adrastus. The Cyclic poets (See Anthon's Lempriere, s. v.) assert Venus incited her to infidelity, in revenge for the wound she had received from her husband.

BOOK V. Thus they in heaven: while on the plain below The fierce Tydides charged his Dardan foe, Flush'd with celestial blood pursued his way, And fearless dared the threatening god of day; Already in his hopes he saw him kill'd, Though screen'd behind Apollo's mighty shield. Thrice rushing furious, at the chief he strook; His blazing buckler thrice Apollo shook: He tried the fourth: when, breaking from the cloud, A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. "O son of Tydeus, cease! be wise and see How vast the difference of the gods and thee; Distance immense! between the powers that shine Above, eternal, deathless, and divine, And mortal man! a wretch of humble birth, A short-lived reptile in the dust of earth." So spoke the god who darts celestial fires: He dreads his fury, and some steps retires. Then Phoebus bore the chief of Venus' race To Troy's high fane, and to his holy place; Latona there and Phoebe heal'd the wound, With vigour arm'd him, and with glory crown'd. This done, the patron of the silver bow A phantom raised, the same in shape and show With great Æneas; such the form he bore, And such in fight the radiant arms he wore. Around the spectre bloody wars are waged, And Greece and Troy with clashing shields engaged. Meantime on Ilion's tower Apollo stood, And calling Mars, thus urged the raging god:




The Iliad of Homer

"Stern power of arms, by whom the mighty fall; Who bathest in blood, and shakest the embattled wall, Rise in thy wrath! to hell's abhorr'd abodes Despatch yon Greek, and vindicate the gods. First rosy Venus felt his brutal rage; Me next he charged, and dares all heaven engage: The wretch would brave high heaven's immortal sire, His triple thunder, and his bolts of fire." The god of battle issues on the plain, Stirs all the ranks, and fires the Trojan train; In form like Acamas, the Thracian guide, Enraged to Troy's retiring chiefs he cried: "How long, ye sons of Priam! will ye fly, And unrevenged see Priam's people die? Still unresisted shall the foe destroy, And stretch the slaughter to the gates of Troy? Lo, brave Æneas sinks beneath his wound, Not godlike Hector more in arms renown'd: Haste all, and take the generous warrior's part. He said;—new courage swell'd each hero's heart. Sarpedon first his ardent soul express'd, And, turn'd to Hector, these bold words address'd: "Say, chief, is all thy ancient valour lost? Where are thy threats, and where thy glorious boast, That propp'd alone by Priam's race should stand Troy's sacred walls, nor need a foreign hand? Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends, And the proud vaunt in just derision ends. Remote they stand while alien troops engage, Like trembling hounds before the lion's rage. Far distant hence I held my wide command, Where foaming Xanthus laves the Lycian land;

BOOK V. With ample wealth (the wish of mortals) bless'd, A beauteous wife, and infant at her breast; With those I left whatever dear could be: Greece, if she conquers, nothing wins from me; Yet first in fight my Lycian bands I cheer, And long to meet this mighty man ye fear; While Hector idle stands, nor bids the brave Their wives, their infants, and their altars save. Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten'd state, Or one vast burst of all-involving fate Full o'er your towers shall fall, and sweep away Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish'd prey. Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight; These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night; With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose; Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes." Stung to the heart the generous Hector hears, But just reproof with decent silence bears. From his proud car the prince impetuous springs, On earth he leaps, his brazen armour rings. Two shining spears are brandish'd in his hands; Thus arm'd, he animates his drooping bands, Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. They turn, they stand; the Greeks their fury dare, Condense their powers, and wait the growing war. As when, on Ceres' sacred floor, the swain Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain, And the light chaff, before the breezes borne, Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn; The grey dust, rising with collected winds, Drives o'er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:




The Iliad of Homer

So white with dust the Grecian host appears. From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers; The dusky clouds from labour'd earth arise, And roll in smoking volumes to the skies. Mars hovers o'er them with his sable shield, And adds new horrors to the darken'd field: Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil, In Troy's defence, Apollo's heavenly will: Soon as from fight the blue-eyed maid retires, Each Trojan bosom with new warmth he fires. And now the god, from forth his sacred fane, Produced Æneas to the shouting train; Alive, unharm'd, with all his peers around, Erect he stood, and vigorous from his wound: Inquiries none they made; the dreadful day No pause of words admits, no dull delay; Fierce Discord storms, Apollo loud exclaims, Fame calls, Mars thunders, and the field's in flames. Stern Diomed with either Ajax stood, And great Ulysses, bathed in hostile blood. Embodied close, the labouring Grecian train The fiercest shock of charging hosts sustain. Unmoved and silent, the whole war they wait Serenely dreadful, and as fix'd as fate. So when the embattled clouds in dark array, Along the skies their gloomy lines display; When now the North his boisterous rage has spent, And peaceful sleeps the liquid element: The low-hung vapours, motionless and still, Rest on the summits of the shaded hill; Till the mass scatters as the winds arise, Dispersed and broken through the ruffled skies.


BOOK V. Nor was the general wanting to his train; From troop to troop he toils through all the plain, "Ye Greeks, be men! the charge of battle bear; Your brave associates and yourselves revere! Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire, And catch from breast to breast the noble fire! On valour's side the odds of combat lie, The brave live glorious, or lamented die; The wretch who trembles in the field of fame, Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!" These words he seconds with his flying lance, To meet whose point was strong Deicoon's chance: Æneas' friend, and in his native place Honour'd and loved like Priam's royal race: Long had he fought the foremost in the field, But now the monarch's lance transpierced his shield: His shield too weak the furious dart to stay, Through his broad belt the weapon forced its way: The grisly wound dismiss'd his soul to hell, His arms around him rattled as he fell. Then fierce Æneas, brandishing his blade, In dust Orsilochus and Crethon laid, Whose sire Diocleus, wealthy, brave and great, In well-built Pherae held his lofty seat:152 Sprung from Alpheus' plenteous stream, that yields Increase of harvests to the Pylian fields. He got Orsilochus, Diocleus he, And these descended in the third degree. Too early expert in the martial toil, In sable ships they left their native soil, To avenge Atrides: now, untimely slain,


—Pherae, a town of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly.


The Iliad of Homer


They fell with glory on the Phrygian plain. So two young mountain lions, nursed with blood In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, Rush fearless to the plains, and uncontroll'd Depopulate the stalls and waste the fold: Till pierced at distance from their native den, O'erpowered they fall beneath the force of men. Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they. Great Menelaus views with pitying eyes, Lifts his bright lance, and at the victor flies; Mars urged him on; yet, ruthless in his hate, The god but urged him to provoke his fate. He thus advancing, Nestor's valiant son Shakes for his danger, and neglects his own; Struck with the thought, should Helen's lord be slain, And all his country's glorious labours vain. Already met, the threatening heroes stand; The spears already tremble in their hand: In rush'd Antilochus, his aid to bring, And fall or conquer by the Spartan king. These seen, the Dardan backward turn'd his course, Brave as he was, and shunn'd unequal force. The breathless bodies to the Greeks they drew, Then mix in combat, and their toils renew. First, Pylaemenes, great in battle, bled, Who sheathed in brass the Paphlagonians led. Atrides mark'd him where sublime he stood; Fix'd in his throat the javelin drank his blood. The faithful Mydon, as he turn'd from fight His flying coursers, sunk to endless night; A broken rock by Nestor's son was thrown: His bended arm received the falling stone;

BOOK V. From his numb'd hand the ivory-studded reins, Dropp'd in the dust, are trail'd along the plains: Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound; He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground: Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there The head stood fix'd, the quivering legs in air, Till trampled flat beneath the coursers' feet: The youthful victor mounts his empty seat, And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.


Great Hector saw, and, raging at the view, Pours on the Greeks: the Trojan troops pursue: He fires his host with animating cries, And brings along the furies of the skies, Mars, stern destroyer! and Bellona dread, Flame in the front, and thunder at their head: This swells the tumult and the rage of fight; That shakes a spear that casts a dreadful light. Where Hector march'd, the god of battles shined, Now storm'd before him, and now raged behind.

Tydides paused amidst his full career; Then first the hero's manly breast knew fear. As when some simple swain his cot forsakes, And wide through fens an unknown journey takes: If chance a swelling brook his passage stay, And foam impervious 'cross the wanderer's way, Confused he stops, a length of country pass'd, Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last. Amazed no less the great Tydides stands: He stay'd, and turning thus address'd his bands:


The Iliad of Homer

"No wonder, Greeks! that all to Hector yield; Secure of favouring gods, he takes the field; His strokes they second, and avert our spears. Behold where Mars in mortal arms appears! Retire then, warriors, but sedate and slow; Retire, but with your faces to the foe. Trust not too much your unavailing might; 'Tis not with Troy, but with the gods ye fight." Now near the Greeks the black battalions drew; And first two leaders valiant Hector slew: His force Anchialus and Mnesthes found, In every art of glorious war renown'd; In the same car the chiefs to combat ride, And fought united, and united died. Struck at the sight, the mighty Ajax glows With thirst of vengeance, and assaults the foes. His massy spear with matchless fury sent, Through Amphius' belt and heaving belly went; Amphius Apaesus' happy soil possess'd, With herds abounding, and with treasure bless'd; But fate resistless from his country led The chief, to perish at his people's head. Shook with his fall his brazen armour rung, And fierce, to seize it, conquering Ajax sprung; Around his head an iron tempest rain'd; A wood of spears his ample shield sustain'd: Beneath one foot the yet warm corpse he press'd, And drew his javelin from the bleeding breast: He could no more; the showering darts denied To spoil his glittering arms, and plumy pride. Now foes on foes came pouring on the fields, With bristling lances, and compacted shields; Till in the steely circle straiten'd round,


BOOK V. Forced he gives way, and sternly quits the ground. While thus they strive, Tlepolemus the great,153 Urged by the force of unresisted fate, Burns with desire Sarpedon's strength to prove; Alcides' offspring meets the son of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms each adverse chief came on. Jove's great descendant, and his greater son. Prepared for combat, ere the lance he toss'd, The daring Rhodian vents his haughty boast: "What brings this Lycian counsellor so far, To tremble at our arms, not mix in war! Know thy vain self, nor let their flattery move, Who style thee son of cloud-compelling Jove. How far unlike those chiefs of race divine, How vast the difference of their deeds and thine! Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul No fear could daunt, nor earth nor hell control. Troy felt his arm, and yon proud ramparts stand Raised on the ruins of his vengeful hand: With six small ships, and but a slender train, lie left the town a wide-deserted plain. But what art thou, who deedless look'st around, While unrevenged thy Lycians bite the ground! Small aid to Troy thy feeble force can be; But wert thou greater, thou must yield to me. Pierced by my spear, to endless darkness go! I make this present to the shades below."



—Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyochia. Having left his native country, Argos, in consequence of the accidental murder of Liscymnius, he was commanded by an oracle to retire to Rhodes. Here he was chosen king, and accompanied the Trojan expedition. After his death, certain games were instituted at Rhodes in his honour, the victors being rewarded with crowns of poplar.



The Iliad of Homer

The son of Hercules, the Rhodian guide, Thus haughty spoke. The Lycian king replied: "Thy sire, O prince! o'erturn'd the Trojan state, Whose perjured monarch well deserved his fate; Those heavenly steeds the hero sought so far, False he detain'd, the just reward of war. Nor so content, the generous chief defied, With base reproaches and unmanly pride. But you, unworthy the high race you boast, Shall raise my glory when thy own is lost: Now meet thy fate, and by Sarpedon slain, Add one more ghost to Pluto's gloomy reign." He said: both javelins at an instant flew; Both struck, both wounded, but Sarpedon's slew: Full in the boaster's neck the weapon stood, Transfix'd his throat, and drank the vital blood; The soul disdainful seeks the caves of night, And his seal'd eyes for ever lose the light. Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone Sarpedon's thigh, had robb'd the chief of breath; But Jove was present, and forbade the death. Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng, The wounded hero dragg'd the lance along. (His friends, each busied in his several part, Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.) The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired; Whose fall Ulysses view'd, with fury fired; Doubtful if Jove's great son he should pursue, Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew. But heaven and fate the first design withstand, Nor this great death must grace Ulysses' hand.

BOOK V. Minerva drives him on the Lycian train; Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew'd the plain, Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell:154 And numbers more his sword had sent to hell, But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight, Rush'd terrible amidst the ranks of fight. With joy Sarpedon view'd the wish'd relief, And, faint, lamenting, thus implored the chief: "O suffer not the foe to bear away My helpless corpse, an unassisted prey; If I, unbless'd, must see my son no more, My much-loved consort, and my native shore, Yet let me die in Ilion's sacred wall; Troy, in whose cause I fell, shall mourn my fall." He said, nor Hector to the chief replies, But shakes his plume, and fierce to combat flies; Swift as a whirlwind, drives the scattering foes; And dyes the ground with purple as he goes. Beneath a beech, Jove's consecrated shade, His mournful friends divine Sarpedon laid: Brave Pelagon, his favourite chief, was nigh, Who wrench'd the javelin from his sinewy thigh. The fainting soul stood ready wing'd for flight, And o'er his eye-balls swam the shades of night; But Boreas rising fresh, with gentle breath, Recall'd his spirit from the gates of death.



These heroes' names have since passed into a kind of proverb, designating the oi polloi or mob.



The Iliad of Homer

The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace, Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face; None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight, Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight. Who first, who last, by Mars' and Hector's hand, Stretch'd in their blood, lay gasping on the sand? Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown'd For managed steeds, and Trechus press'd the ground;, Next OEnomaus and OEnops' offspring died; Oresbius last fell groaning at their side: Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay, In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway, Where lakes surround low Hyle's watery plain; A prince and people studious of their gain.

The carnage Juno from the skies survey'd, And touch'd with grief bespoke the blue-eyed maid: "Oh, sight accursed! Shall faithless Troy prevail, And shall our promise to our people fail? How vain the word to Menelaus given By Jove's great daughter and the queen of heaven, Beneath his arms that Priam's towers should fall, If warring gods for ever guard the wall! Mars, red with slaughter, aids our hated foes: Haste, let us arm, and force with force oppose!"


She spoke; Minerva burns to meet the war: And now heaven's empress calls her blazing car. At her command rush forth the steeds divine; Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine.

BOOK V. Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe, ever young, The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung. On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel Of sounding brass; the polished axle steel. Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame; The circles gold, of uncorrupted frame, Such as the heavens produce: and round the gold Two brazen rings of work divine were roll'd. The bossy naves of sold silver shone; Braces of gold suspend the moving throne: The car, behind, an arching figure bore; The bending concave form'd an arch before. Silver the beam, the extended yoke was gold, And golden reins the immortal coursers hold. Herself, impatient, to the ready car, The coursers joins, and breathes revenge and war. Pallas disrobes; her radiant veil untied, With flowers adorn'd, with art diversified, (The laboured veil her heavenly fingers wove,) Flows on the pavement of the court of Jove. Now heaven's dread arms her mighty limbs invest, Jove's cuirass blazes on her ample breast; Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field, O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield, Dire, black, tremendous! Round the margin roll'd, A fringe of serpents hissing guards the gold: Here all the terrors of grim War appear, Here rages Force, here tremble Flight and Fear, Here storm'd Contention, and here Fury frown'd, And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. The massy golden helm she next assumes, That dreadful nods with four o'ershading plumes; So vast, the broad circumference contains



The Iliad of Homer

A hundred armies on a hundred plains. The goddess thus the imperial car ascends; Shook by her arm the mighty javelin bends, Ponderous and huge; that when her fury burns, Proud tyrants humbles, and whole hosts o'erturns. Swift at the scourge the ethereal coursers fly, While the smooth chariot cuts the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers,155 Heaven's golden gates, kept by the winged Hours;156 Commission'd in alternate watch they stand, The sun's bright portals and the skies command, Involve in clouds the eternal gates of day, Or the dark barrier roll with ease away. The sounding hinges ring on either side The gloomy volumes, pierced with light, divide. The chariot mounts, where deep in ambient skies, Confused, Olympus' hundred heads arise; Where far apart the Thunderer fills his throne, O'er all the gods superior and alone. There with her snowy hand the queen restrains The fiery steeds, and thus to Jove complains:


—Spontaneous open.

"Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, upspringing light Flew through the midst of heaven; th' angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th' empyreal road; till at the gate Of heaven arrived, the gate self-open'd wide, On golden hinges turning." —"Paradise Lost," v. 250.

"Till Morn, Waked by the circling Hours, with rosy hand Unbarr'd the gates of light." —"Paradise Lost," vi, 2.

BOOK V. "O sire! can no resentment touch thy soul? Can Mars rebel, and does no thunder roll? What lawless rage on yon forbidden plain, What rash destruction! and what heroes slain! Venus, and Phoebus with the dreadful bow, Smile on the slaughter, and enjoy my woe. Mad, furious power! whose unrelenting mind No god can govern, and no justice bind. Say, mighty father! shall we scourge this pride, And drive from fight the impetuous homicide?" To whom assenting, thus the Thunderer said: "Go! and the great Minerva be thy aid. To tame the monster-god Minerva knows, And oft afflicts his brutal breast with woes." He said; Saturnia, ardent to obey, Lash'd her white steeds along the aerial way Swift down the steep of heaven the chariot rolls, Between the expanded earth and starry poles Far as a shepherd, from some point on high,157 O'er the wide main extends his boundless eye, Through such a space of air, with thundering sound, At every leap the immortal coursers bound Troy now they reach'd and touch'd those banks divine, Where silver Simois and Scamander join There Juno stopp'd, and (her fair steeds unloosed) Of air condensed a vapour circumfused For these, impregnate with celestial dew, On Simois, brink ambrosial herbage grew.


—Far as a shepherd. "With what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities! He here measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. And who is there, that, considering the exceeding greatness of the space would not with reason cry out that 'If the steeds of the deity were to take a second leap, the world would want room for it'?"—Longinus, Section 8.


Smooth as the sailing doves they glide along.. in Stentor's sounding voice. Now issuing fearless they possess the plain.—Coleridge." &c. the terror of the wood Heaven's empress mingles with the mortal crowd. And shouts. aloud. While fierce in war divine Achilles raged. Stentor was an indispensable officer. 158 . Now win the shores. [105] The best and bravest of the Grecian band (A warlike circle) round Tydides stand. but the trumpet was known. the battle of Honain was restored by the shouts and menaces of Abbas. Such was their look as lions bathed in blood. Hence arose the value of a loud voice in a commander. 213.172 The Iliad of Homer Thence to relieve the fainting Argive throng. or any other instruments of sound." "No trumpets. are used in the Homeric action itself. endued with brazen lungs. "Inglorious Argives! to your race a shame.158 Whose throats surpass'd the force of fifty tongues. And only men in figure and in name! Once from the walls your timorous foes engaged. p.. Or foaming boars. In the early Saracen campaigns frequent mention is made of the service rendered by men of uncommonly strong voices. Stentor the strong. and is introduced for the purpose of illustration as employed in war. the uncle of Mohammed. and scarce the seas remain.

And scarce refrain'd when I forbade the war. thus her silence broke: "Degenerate prince! and not of Tydeus' kind. Alone. and confess thy aid. and vanquish'd. While near Tydides stood the Athenian maid. Not fear. and wash'd the clotted gore away. And feast. Hence. There braved.BOOK V. that o'er his shoulder lay. and sent thee forth to war: But thee or fear deters. Whose little body lodged a mighty mind. Whose ample belt. or sloth detains. Nor sloth hath seized me. Loth I gave way. incircled by the Theban foe. Such nerves I gave him. No drop of all thy father warms thy veins. (The wound inflicted by the Lycian dart. The goddess leaning o'er the bending yoke. Beneath his ponderous shield his sinews bend. unguarded. but thy word restrains: From warring gods thou bad'st me turn my spear. goddess! heedful of thy high commands. many a hardy knight. Foremost he press'd in glorious toils to share. The king beside his panting steeds she found. and warn'd our Argive bands: 173 . To cool his glowing wound he sat apart. once he dared to go. And Venus only found resistance here. and such force in fight.) Large drops of sweat from all his limbs descend. He eased. O'erspent with toil reposing on the ground. Beside his coursers. Thou too no less hast been my constant care." The chief thus answered mild: "Immortal maid! I own thy presence. Thy hands I arm'd. withholds me from the plains. Her speech new fury to their hearts convey'd. thou know'st.

159 "Long had the wav'ring god the war delay'd." vi. the homicide. she lash'd with all her force. sq. furious. blind. fear. and raging round the field. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends. Large promise makes. and breaks the promise made: Now gives the Grecians. to hide her heavenly visage. Fierce for revenge."159 She said.174 The Iliad of Homer For Mars. And every side of wavering combat tries." [106] Then thus Minerva:—"Brave Tydides. and Pallas lends thee force. So great a hero. hear! Not Mars himself. from these to those he flies. nor aught immortal. Full on the god impel thy foaming horse: Pallas commands. and so great a god. While Greece and Troy alternate own'd his aid. spread Black Orcus' helmet o'er her radiant head. With slaughter red. She snatch'd the reins. . And full on Mars impelled the foaming horse: But first. 761. now the Trojans aid. Rash. Drew from his seat the martial charioteer. and Diomed attends: The groaning axle bent beneath the load. and to the steeds approaching near. these eyes beheld." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus.

who slew him. Mars bellows with the pain: Loud as the roar encountering armies yield. and caused to glance Far from the car the strong immortal lance. [107] . and at Tydides flies. leaves his prostrate prize Stretch'd where he fell. in equal arms appear The daring Greek. The javelin hiss'd. The strongest warrior of the Ætolian train. above his courser's head. the goddess urged it on: Where the broad cincture girt his armour round. Pregnant with plagues. Both armies start. It pierced the god: his groin received the wound. 175 DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. And earth and heaven re-bellow to the sound. Just then gigantic Periphas lay slain. From the rent skin the warrior tugs again The smoking steel. As vapours blown by Auster's sultry breath. Then threw the force of Tydeus' warlike son. From Mars's arm the enormous weapon fled: Pallas opposed her hand. Now rushing fierce. the dreadful god of war! Full at the chief. When shouting millions shake the thundering field.BOOK V. The god. and trembling gaze around. and shedding seeds of death.

and heaving under loads of slain! Or pierced with Grecian darts. the god of fight.176 The Iliad of Homer Beneath the rage of burning Sirius rise. and thy behests obey: 'Tis hers to offend. Against the immortals lifts his raging hand: The heavenly Venus first his fury found. regardless of the right." . and thou so partial grown. Condemn'd to pain. Heap'd round. though fated not to die. wild. Thou gavest that fury to the realms of light. at her command. Choke the parch'd earth. Pernicious. O father! all these ills we bear. Well may we deem the wondrous birth thy own. Me next encountering. Else hadst thou seen me sink on yonder plain. and with a groan Thus pour'd his plaints before the immortal throne: "Can Jove. And thy fell daughter with the shield and spear. Show'd the celestial blood. There sullen sat beneath the sire of gods. Thy voice we hear. thy distinguish'd care: So boundless she. Vanquish'd I fled. and blacken all the skies. Wild with his pain. And gods on gods exert eternal rage: From thee. Now frantic Diomed. From mortal madness scarce was saved by flight. even I. he sought the bright abodes. and even offending share Thy breast. High o'er the dusky whirlwind scales the heaven. flagitious facts survey. In such a cloud the god from combat driven. me he dared to wound. for ages lie. thy counsels. And brook the furies of this daring day? For mortal men celestial powers engage. All heaven beside reveres thy sovereign sway. supine.

and her son pursues. and so soon. And heal'd the immortal flesh.160 With gentle hand the balm he pour'd around. Such. 177 Him thus upbraiding. infused in cream. and closed the wound. most odious in our eyes! Inhuman discord is thy dire delight. in vain our power we use. thy fiery temper quells. Glorious he sat. As when the fig's press'd juice. To curds coagulates the liquid stream. . singed with lightning. Cleansed from the dust and gore. and the rage of fight. The waste of slaughter. Where chain'd on burning rocks the Titans groan. She gives the example. Their task perform'd. in majesty restored. no law. Sprung since thou art from Jove. Sudden the fluids fix the parts combined. Thou most unjust." [108] Thus he who shakes Olympus with his nod. fair Hebe dress'd His mighty limbs in an immortal vest. the ethereal texture join'd. hadst thou hence been thrown. In vain our threats. with a wrathful look The lord of thunders view'd. Then gave to Paeon's care the bleeding god. Fast by the throne of heaven's superior lord. No bounds. and stern bespoke: "To me. Yet long the inflicted pangs thou shall not mourn. and heavenly-born. and mix among the gods.BOOK V. Else. perfidious! this lamenting strain? Of lawless force shall lawless Mars complain? Of all the gods who tread the spangled skies. Juno and Pallas mount the bless'd abodes. And all thy mother in thy soul rebels.

.178 The Iliad of Homer JUNO.

BOOK V. 179 —Paeon seems to have been to the gods. what Podaleirius and Machaon were to the Grecian heroes. 160 .


and. The gods having left the field. While Troy's famed streams. Helenus. AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. of the friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors. the Grecians prevail. Hector. that bound the deathful plain On either side. THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED. they make exchange of their arms. hastens again to the field. in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva. Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield To human force and human skill the field: Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes. now there. between the rivers Simois and Scamander. the tide of combat flows. run purple to the main. the chief augur of Troy. having performed the orders of Helenus. Now here. The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector. prevails upon Paris to return to the battle. coming to the knowledge. . taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache. and then changes to Troy. Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies. The scene is first in the field of battle.[109] BOOK VI. where. to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight. commands Hector to return to the city. ARGUMENT.

His thundering arm a deadly stroke impress'd Where the black horse-hair nodded o'er his crest. In secret woods he won the naiad's grace. By great Euryalus was Dresus slain. Fix'd in his front the brazen weapon lies.182 The Iliad of Homer [110] Great Ajax first to conquest led the way. Axylus. No friend to guard him in the dreadful day! Breathless the good man fell. The Thracian Acamas his falchion found. and relieved the poor. and young. And next he laid Opheltius on the plain. his ever-open door Obliged the wealthy. Broke the thick ranks. . And hew'd the enormous giant to the ground. And two fair infants crown'd his strong embrace:) Here dead they lay in all their youthful charms. rich. Fast by the road. and by his side His faithful servant. 161 —Arisbe. That monarch's first-born by a foreign bed. bold. a colony of the Mitylenaeans in Troas. The ruthless victor stripp'd their shining arms. From a fair naiad and Bucolion sprung: (Laomedon's white flocks Bucolion fed. To stern Tydides now he falls a prey. beautiful. and turn'd the doubtful day. and good: In fair Arisbe's walls (his native place)161 He held his seat! a friend to human race. Two twins were near. And seals in endless shades his swimming eyes. hospitable. old Calesius died. Next Teuthras' son distain'd the sands with blood.

a town near Pylos. Coined money is unknown in the Homeric age—the trade carried on being one of barter. The fallen chief in suppliant posture press'd The victor's knees. and thus his prayer address'd: "O spare my youth. precipitate in flight. 163 162 . leader of the brave. —Rich heaps of brass. resistless as the wind. Wide o'er the field. copper.163 183 —Pedasus. while large stocks of yet unemployed metal—gold. Astyalus by Polypoetes fell. When fame shall tell. "The halls of Alkinous and Menelaus glitter with gold. Unbless'd Adrastus next at mercy lies Beneath the Spartan spear. And Nestor's son laid stern Ablerus dead. Great Agamemnon. The mortal wound of rich Elatus gave. it deserves to be remarked. that. Melanthius by Eurypylus was slain. Prone on his face he sinks beside the wheel: Atrides o'er him shakes his vengeful steel.BOOK VI. and leave their lord behind. and broke The shatter'd chariot from the crooked yoke. not in battle slain.162 And till'd the banks where silver Satnio flow'd. By Teucer's shaft brave Aretaon bled. Thy hollow ships his captive son detain: Rich heaps of brass shall in thy tent be told. Scared with the din and tumult of the fight. and electrum. His headlong steeds. And Phylacus from Leitus flies in vain. and iron are stored up in the treasure-chamber of Odysseus and other chiefs. Rush'd on a tamarisk's strong trunk. copper. Who held in Pedasus his proud abode. a living prize. For Troy they fly. In reference also to the metals. Ulysses' spear Pidytes sent to hell. and for the life I owe Large gifts of price my father shall bestow.

Can innocents the rage of parties know. and to curb the great!" that the Homeric descriptions universally suppose copper. and bury all. impatient of delay. i. and persuasive gold. we do not know." [111] He said: compassion touch'd the hero's heart He stood."—Thirlwall. shall fall. p."—Grote. except with a view to the ransom of the prisoner. "In battle. suspended with the lifted dart: As pity pleaded for his vanquish'd prize. so as to serve the purpose of the warrior. vol. her infants at the breast. 164 —Oh impotent. And. Her babes.184 The Iliad of Homer And steel well-temper'd. 181 165 "The ruthless steel. And cropt the wailing infant at the birth. nor age. 142. furious. both offensive and defensive. It struck the bending father to the earth.165 A dreadful lesson of exampled fate. ii. and himself puts the suppliant to the sword. thus: "Oh impotent of mind!164 Shall these. quarter seems never to have been given. Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus with unmanly softness. And well her natives merit at thy hand! Not one of all the race. By what process the copper was tempered and hardened. nor sex. And they who ne'er offended find a foe?" Rowe's Lucan. to be employed for arms. . Stern Agamemnon swift to vengeance flies. shall these Atrides' mercy find? Well hast thou known proud Troy's perfidious land. vol. ii. when he is on the point of sparing a fallen enemy. To warn the nations. but the use of iron for these objects belongs to a later age. and not iron. Forbade the sire to linger out the day. Shall save a Trojan from our boundless rage: Ilion shall perish whole. p. bk. &c.

Old Nestor saw. No son of Mars descend. and sore of former fight. The monarch spoke. with great Æneas join'd. The monarch's javelin stretch'd him in the dust. Had not sage Helenus her state redress'd. to the town retire. your country's hopes depend. To rigid justice steel'd his brother's breast Fierce from his knees the hapless chief he thrust.BOOK VI. Ourselves. Wise to consult. here fix'd. will make the dangerous stand. then reward the toil. Taught by the gods that moved his sacred breast. These straits demand our last remains of might. the words. Forth from the slain he tugg'd the reeking dart. heroes! thus the vigorous combat wage." And now had Greece eternal fame acquired. Press'd as we are. To touch the booty. while a foe remains. Meanwhile thou. "Thus. your brave efforts unite. and forbid the flight. When your commands have hearten'd every band. The sport and insult of the hostile train. And frighted Troy within her walls. and roused the warrior's rage. Turn back the routed. Then pressing with his foot his panting heart. Ere yet their wives' soft arms the cowards gain. The seer reveal'd the counsels of his mind: "Ye generous chiefs! on whom the immortals lay The cares and glories of this doubtful day. 185 [112] . Hector. Behold yon glittering host. and active to defend! Here. your future spoil! First gain the conquest. retired. Where Hector stood. for servile gains. at our gates. On whom your aids. with warmth address'd.

they thought. Not thus resistless ruled the stream of fight. and unmatch'd in might. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. Our wives. Leap'd from his trembling chariot to the ground.166 Unbar the sacred gates. All Greece recedes. i. In hopes to reconcile their heav'nly foe: They weep. With rage recruited the bold Trojans glow. 670 . and our city spare. atoned by fervent prayer. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. our infants. And bids the thunder of the battle rise.186 The Iliad of Homer And teach our mother what the gods require: Direct the queen to lead the assembled train Of Troy's chief matrons to Minerva's fane. Sprung though he was from more than mortal bed. And rich embroider'd vests for presents bear. who ruled the fate of wars. and seek the power." Hector obedient heard: and. and makes all Troy retire. in Ilion's topmost tower. And turn the tide of conflict on the foe: Fierce in the front he shakes two dazzling spears. and labour'd o'er with gold. The largest mantle her rich wardrobes hold. 166 "Meantime the Trojan dames. Through all his host inspiring force he flies. they rend their hair. and 'midst her triumphs fears. With offer'd vows. And twelve young heifers to her altars led: If so the power. That mows whole troops. they beat their breasts. Most prized for art." Dryden's Virgil. with a bound. Not thus Achilles taught our hosts to dread. Some god. oppress'd with woe. In rage unbounded. To Pallas' fane in long procession go.

with ample strides the hero pass'd.167 Where daring Glaucus and great Tydeus' son Between both armies met: the chiefs from far Observed each other. and victims fall: Nor shall. and Hector asks no more. as a general rule. Near as they drew. And as he march'd the brazen buckler rung. A certain interval is allowed them for reaching the appointed scene of action. which interval is dramatised." . His neck o'ershading. also. Where. either by a temporary continuation of the previous narrative. Shot down avenging from the vault of stars. to his ankle hung." This said. illustrates in a curious manner his tact in the dramatic department of his art. I trust.BOOK VI. One hour demands me in the Trojan wall. at the close of which the further account of the mission is resumed. immediately described. seek the gods in vain. vol. And reverend elders. the matrons' holy train. Be still yourselves. for example. or by fixing attention for a while on some new transaction. as it were. is well illustrated by the following remarks of Mure. one or more heroes are despatched on some commission. The shield's large orb behind his shoulder cast. i. Now paused the battle (godlike Hector gone). p. to be executed at a certain distance of time or place. hear! And you whom distant nations send to war! Be mindful of the strength your fathers bore. 187 Then thus aloud: "Ye dauntless Dardans. the fulfilment of this task is not.298: "The poet's method of introducing his episode. Tydides thus began: 167 [113] The manner in which this episode is introduced. and had mark'd for war. To bid our altars flame.

Not long Lycurgus view'd the golden light. and born of luckless sires. and human be thy birth. Bacchus. Cheerless he breathed. While Bacchus headlong sought the briny flood. and hated by the gods! I brave not heaven: but if the fruits of earth Sustain thy life. Then sunk unpitied to the dire abodes.) can Tydeus' son inquire? Like leaves on trees the race of man is found. and successive rise: . (Replied the chief. Yet far before the troops thou dar'st appear. A wretch accursed. Now green in youth. With brandish'd steel. boldest of the race of man? Our eyes till now that aspect ne'er beheld. And Thetis' arms received the trembling god. Another race the following spring supplies. and Bacchus' votaries. and wander'd in the gloom. thou descend. That daring man who mix'd with gods in fight. he drove. Know with immortals we no more contend. or who my sire." "What. too prodigal of breath. With curling vines and twisted ivy bound. or from whence I am. celestial. Unhappy they.) Deprived of sight by their avenging doom. Who tempt our fury when Minerva fires! But if from heaven.188 The Iliad of Homer "What art thou. Where fame is reap'd amid the embattled field. Nor fail'd the crime the immortals' wrath to move. now withering on the ground. They fall successive. Approach. Bold as thou art. (The immortals bless'd with endless ease above. And meet a lance the fiercest heroes fear. and enter the dark gates of death. from Nyssa's sacred grove: Their consecrated spears lay scatter'd round.

For him Antaea burn'd with lawless flame. and truth. So flourish these. father of Bellerophon. Then mighty Praetus Argos' sceptre sway'd. "A city stands on Argos' utmost bound. when those are pass'd away. And the brave prince in numerous toils engaged. Then call'd Ephyre: Glaucus was his son. for warlike steeds renown'd. and nine bulls he slew. These probably were only devices of a hieroglyphical character. p.168 Now bless'd by every power who guards the good. But if thou still persist to search my birth. Who o'er the sons of men in beauty shined. Fired at his scorn the queen to Praetus fled. With tablets seal'd. Loved for that valour which preserves mankind. 192.BOOK VI. But hospitable laws restrain'd his hate: To Lycia the devoted youth he sent. Then hear a tale that fills the spacious earth. 168 . sacred fear. With direful jealousy the monarch raged. Endued with wisdom. Nine days he feasted. And strove to tempt him from the paths of fame: In vain she tempted the relentless youth. In ancient time the happy wall possess'd. vol ii. resolving on his fate. And begg'd revenge for her insulted bed: Incensed he heard. with wisdom bless'd. So generations in their course decay. See Grote.) Aeolian Sisyphus. sqq. (Argos the fair. The chief arrived at Xanthus' silver flood: There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due. Whose hard commands Bellerophon obey'd. Great Glaucus. Whether writing was known in the Homeric times is utterly uncertain. that told his dire intent. 189 [114] —With tablets sealed.

His daughter gave. and return'd no more. With two brave sons and one fair daughter bless'd. With levell'd spears along the winding shore: There fell they breathless. with vineyards. First. Her gaping throat emits infernal fire. With woods. "Nor ended here his toils: his Lycian foes. dire Chimaera's conquest was enjoin'd. and god-descended chief. Confess'd the gods. a treacherous ambush rose. A mingled monster of no mortal kind! Behind. . (for he read the skies. Next the bold Amazons' whole force defied.) and those the warrior slew. a dragon's fiery tail was spread. "At length the monarch. "This pest he slaughter'd. 169 [115] —Solymaean crew. The faithful youth his monarch's mandate show'd: The fatal tablets. with repentant grief. a people of Lycia.190 The Iliad of Homer But when the tenth bright morning orient glow'd. A goat's rough body bore a lion's head.169 (Fiercest of men. till that instant seal'd. the stranger to detain. And conquer'd still. At his return. and with harvests crown'd.) Then met in arms the Solymaean crew. With half the honours of his ample reign: The Lycians grant a chosen space of ground. The deathful secret to the king reveal'd. And trusted heaven's informing prodigies. Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire. There long the chief his happy lot possess'd. for heaven was on his side.

Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray. p. (Fair e'en in heavenly eyes: her fruitful love Crown'd with Sarpedon's birth the embrace of Jove. Then friendly. OEneus the strong. The parting heroes mutual presents left. forlorn. The "Aleian field. and transport fill'd Tydides' heart. In combat on the Solymaean plain." was situated between the rivers Pyramus and Pinarus. The honour'd author of my birth and name. In earth the generous warrior fix'd his dart. Bellerophon the bold: Our ancient seat his honour'd presence graced. By his instructions learn to win renown. Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race." See my notes in my prose translation. . 112. hypochondria received the name of "Morbus Bellerophonteus.) But when at last. Forsook by heaven. Before my eyes my mighty sires to place. uncomfortable way!170 Woes heap'd on woes consumed his wasted heart: His beauteous daughter fell by Phoebe's dart. with kind embrace." i. 191 170 From this "melancholy madness" of Bellerophon. distracted in his mind." He spoke. chief.BOOK VI. His eldest born by raging Mars was slain. forsaking humankind. Where twenty days in genial rites he pass'd. And emulate the glories of our race. our grandsires have been guests of old. thus the Lycian prince address'd: "Welcome.e. in Cilicia. To add new honours to my native land. Know. To stand the first in worth as in command. A long. By his decree I sought the Trojan town. "the plain of wandering. my brave hereditary guest! Thus ever let us meet. Hippolochus survived: from him I came.

Their hands they join.) For Diomed's brass arms. (This from his pledge I learn'd. safely stored Among my treasures.192 The Iliad of Homer A golden goblet was thy grandsire's gift. still adorns my board: For Tydeus left me young. of mean device. —His own. (Jove warm'd his bosom. This bad bargain has passed into a common proverb. Brave Glaucus then each narrow thought resign'd. See Aulus Gellius. Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield. in friendship let us join." [116] Thus having said. That rich with Tyrian dye refulgent glow'd. My guest in Argos thou. ii.) Mindful of this. But thou and Diomed be foes no more. Now change we arms. OEneus a belt of matchless work bestowed. In the full harvest of yon ample field. and prove to either host We guard the friendship of the line we boast. 171 . For which nine oxen paid. of gold. (a vulgar price. 23. which. If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline. of gold divinely wrought. and enlarged his mind. their mutual faith they plight. the gallant chiefs alight. Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore. when Thebe's wall Beheld the sons of Greece untimely fall.) He gave his own. and I in Lycia thine.171 A hundred beeves the shining purchase bought.

and of polish'd stone. O'er these a range of marble structure runs. i e.) The ports of plated gold. (With her Laodice. what great occasion calls My son from fight.658 . and hung with spoils." Dryden's Virgil. 172 173 193 —Scaean. And seek the gods. He bids the train in long procession go. engaged in war. And now to Priam's stately courts he came. Of equal beauty. Hither great Hector pass'd. —In fifty chambers. Rais'd on arch'd columns of stupendous frame. from Ilion's lofty tower? Stay. Twelve domes for them and their loved spouses shone. And press'd his hand. ii. In fifty chambers lodged: and rooms of state. Meantime the guardian of the Trojan state. whose beauteous face Surpass'd the nymphs of Troy's illustrious race. all press'd with pious care For husbands.) Long in a strict embrace she held her son.173 Opposed to those. enter'd at the Scaean gate. sons. brothers.172 Beneath the beech-tree's consecrated shades. (such hopes had he. Great Hector. when Greece surrounds our walls. to avert the impending woe. his mother-queen. The Trojan matrons and the Trojan maids Around him flock'd. nor pass'd unseen Of royal Hecuba.BOOK VI. So large a promise of a progeny. "The fifty nuptial beds. The rich pavilions of his fifty sons. and tender thus begun: "O Hector! say. left hand. till I bring the cup with Bacchus crown'd. where Priam's daughters sate. Com'st thou to supplicate the almighty power With lifted hands.

our infants. to sprinkle on the ground. Then with a plenteous draught refresh thy soul. And pay due vows to all the gods around. And twelve young heifers to her altar led. and our city spare. irregular burst of popular indignation to which Hector alludes. Spent as thou art with long laborious fight. its better use. The brave defender of thy country's right.194 The Iliad of Homer In Jove's high name. By me that holy office were profaned. "It is apparently a sudden. The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold. The recreant warrior hear the voice of fame. pernicious to mankind. and spare the sacred juice To sprinkle to the gods. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. Or offer heaven's great Sire polluted praise. And draw new spirits from the generous bowl. would kind earth the hateful wretch embrace. when he regrets that the Trojans 174 [117] . Let chiefs abstain. your religious care: I go to rouse soft Paris to the war. You. and dulls the noble mind. So may the power. To the pure skies these horrid hands to raise.) Inflaming wine. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. and makes all Troy retire. Be this. with your matrons. with human gore distain'd. &c. that ruin of our race!174 —O would kind earth. atoned by fervent prayer. That pest of Troy. (the chief rejoin'd. And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane. Oh." "Far hence be Bacchus' gifts. If yet not lost to all the sense of shame. and labour'd o'er with gold. go! a spotless train. O mother. Ill fits it me. Unnerves the limbs. Our wives. Who mows whole troops. Most prized for art.

With hands uplifted and imploring eyes. This. Though Homer makes no mention of this horrible usage. She chose a veil that shone superior far. however. With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore. p. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part. was also one of the ordinary formal modes of punishment for great public offences. And awful reach the high Palladian dome. Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore. The train majestically slow proceeds. vol. she gave command: and summon'd came Each noble matron and illustrious dame. with a scantling of food by their side." This heard. Here."—Thirlwall's Greece. sq. .BOOK VI. and unbars the gates. It may have been originally connected with the same feeling—the desire of avoiding the pollution of bloodshed—which seems to have suggested the practice of burying prisoners alive. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. Antenor's consort. The priestess then the shining veil displays. fair Theano. waits As Pallas' priestess. 171. i. The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. the example of the Roman Vestals affords reasons for believing that. They fill the dome with supplicating cries. Deep to the dark abyss might he descend. Placed on Minerva's knees. Sophocles followed an authentic tradition. Troy yet should flourish. as the queen revolved with careful eyes The various textures and the various dyes. There lay the vestures of no vulgar art. in ascribing it to the heroic ages. Herself with this the long procession leads. Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come. and my sorrows end. and thus she prays: 195 [118] had not spirit enough to cover Paris with a mantle of stones.

unconquer'd Pallas. and it is. 175 . Beside him Helen with her virgins stands. His eyes delighting with their splendid show. While these appear before the power with prayers. i. and let him fall Prone on the dust before the Trojan wall! So twelve young heifers. vol. It seems indeed probable. p. A spear the hero bore of wondrous strength. Brightening the shield. Near Priam's court and Hector's palace stands The pompous structure. at each motion shined Thus entering. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. perhaps. which are oftenest described. Hector to Paris' lofty dome repairs. but they vow'd in vain. Troy's strong defence. aid! Break thou Tydides' spear. guiltless of the yoke. Shall fill thy temple with a grateful smoke. whose useless arms lay round. The steely point with golden ringlets join'd. in speaking of the fair house which Paris had built for himself with the aid of the most skilful masons of Troy. "With respect to the private dwellings. So vow'd the matrons. and affords no conception of the style which prevailed in them or of their effect on the eye.175 Himself the mansion raised. and our city spare!" So pray'd the priestess in her holy fane. from the manner in which he dwells on their metallic ornaments that the higher beauty of proportion was but little required or understood. and polishing the bow. atoned by penitence and prayer. and the town commands. Ourselves. But thou."—Thirlwall's Greece. Before him brandish'd. from every part Assembling architects of matchless art. —Paris' lofty dome. our infants. rather than elegance. strength and convenience. 231. that he means to commend. in the glittering rooms he found His brother-chief. the poet's language barely enables us to form a general notion of their ordinary plan.196 The Iliad of Homer "Oh awful goddess! ever-dreadful maid.

'Tis now enough. For thee great Ilion's guardian heroes fall. with an ardent look The prince beheld. and thy country's foe!) Paris and Greece against us both conspire. Him thus inactive. is this the time to show? (O wretch ill-fated. Guides their rich labours. (replied the beauteous youth. contain thy ardent mind. nor answer'd Priam's warlike son. But while I arm. Or go. When Helen thus with lowly grace begun: . For thee the soldier bleeds. and our toils to share? Rise. or behold the conquering flames ascend. than conscious shame and grief: Here. O generous chief! On hate to Troy. Conquest to-day my happier sword may bless. Till heaps of dead alone defend her wall.BOOK VI. And beauteous Helen calls her chief to arms." "Brother. now glory spreads her charms. and high-resenting spoke. but heaven's to give success.) Thy free remonstrance proves thy worth and truth: Yet charge my absence less. and instructs their hands. Thy close resentment. And wasteful war in all its fury burns. and their vengeful ire. 'tis just. 'Tis man's to fight. thy brother sate. in secret. the matron mourns." 197 [119] He said. And mourn'd. And all the Phrygian glories at an end. Our troops to hearten. Ungrateful man! deserves not this thy care. "Thy hate to Troy. hid from human eyes. and Paris shall not lag behind. his and Ilion's fate.

"Oh. some regard of fame! Now tired with toils. and infamy to come: Wide shall it spread. And midst the roarings of the waters died? Heaven fill'd up all my ills. The day that show'd me to the golden sun Had seen my death! why did not whirlwinds bear The fatal infant to the fowls of air? Why sunk I not beneath the whelming tide. thy fainting limbs recline. Example sad! and theme of future song. and last through ages long. ere all these dreadful deeds were done. Our present woe. Warm'd with some virtue. and I accursed Bore all. Helen at least a braver spouse might claim." [120] . With toils. sustain'd for Paris' sake and mine The gods have link'd our miserable doom. and Paris of those ills the worst.198 The Iliad of Homer HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. generous brother! (if the guilty dame That caused these woes deserve a sister's name!) Would heaven.

BOOK VI. The chief replied: "This time forbids to rest; The Trojan bands, by hostile fury press'd, Demand their Hector, and his arm require; The combat urges, and my soul's on fire. Urge thou thy knight to march where glory calls, And timely join me, ere I leave the walls. Ere yet I mingle in the direful fray, My wife, my infant, claim a moment's stay; This day (perhaps the last that sees me here) Demands a parting word, a tender tear: This day, some god who hates our Trojan land May vanquish Hector by a Grecian hand." He said, and pass'd with sad presaging heart To seek his spouse, his soul's far dearer part; At home he sought her, but he sought in vain; She, with one maid of all her menial train, Had hence retired; and with her second joy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy, Pensive she stood on Ilion's towery height, Beheld the war, and sicken'd at the sight; There her sad eyes in vain her lord explore, Or weep the wounds her bleeding country bore. But he who found not whom his soul desired, Whose virtue charm'd him as her beauty fired, Stood in the gates, and ask'd "what way she bent Her parting step? If to the fane she went, Where late the mourning matrons made resort; Or sought her sisters in the Trojan court?" "Not to the court, (replied the attendant train,) Nor mix'd with matrons to Minerva's fane: To Ilion's steepy tower she bent her way, To mark the fortunes of the doubtful day.



The Iliad of Homer

Troy fled, she heard, before the Grecian sword; She heard, and trembled for her absent lord: Distracted with surprise, she seem'd to fly, Fear on her cheek, and sorrow m her eye. The nurse attended with her infant boy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy."


Hector this heard, return'd without delay; Swift through the town he trod his former way, Through streets of palaces, and walks of state; And met the mourner at the Scaean gate. With haste to meet him sprung the joyful fair. His blameless wife, Aetion's wealthy heir: (Cilician Thebe great Aetion sway'd, And Hippoplacus' wide extended shade:) The nurse stood near, in whose embraces press'd, His only hope hung smiling at her breast, Whom each soft charm and early grace adorn, Fair as the new-born star that gilds the morn. To this loved infant Hector gave the name Scamandrius, from Scamander's honour'd stream; Astyanax the Trojans call'd the boy, From his great father, the defence of Troy. Silent the warrior smiled, and pleased resign'd To tender passions all his mighty mind; His beauteous princess cast a mournful look, Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke; Her bosom laboured with a boding sigh, And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.




"Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run? Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and son! And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, A widow I, a helpless orphan he? For sure such courage length of life denies, And thou must fall, thy virtue's sacrifice. Greece in her single heroes strove in vain; Now hosts oppose thee, and thou must be slain. O grant me, gods, ere Hector meets his doom, All I can ask of heaven, an early tomb! So shall my days in one sad tenor run, And end with sorrows as they first begun. No parent now remains my griefs to share, No father's aid, no mother's tender care. The fierce Achilles wrapt our walls in fire, Laid Thebe waste, and slew my warlike sire! His fate compassion in the victor bred;



The Iliad of Homer

Stern as he was, he yet revered the dead, His radiant arms preserved from hostile spoil, And laid him decent on the funeral pile; Then raised a mountain where his bones were burn'd, The mountain-nymphs the rural tomb adorn'd, Jove's sylvan daughters bade their elms bestow A barren shade, and in his honour grow. "By the same arm my seven brave brothers fell; In one sad day beheld the gates of hell; While the fat herds and snowy flocks they fed, Amid their fields the hapless heroes bled! My mother lived to wear the victor's bands, The queen of Hippoplacia's sylvan lands: Redeem'd too late, she scarce beheld again Her pleasing empire and her native plain, When ah! oppress'd by life-consuming woe, She fell a victim to Diana's bow. "Yet while my Hector still survives, I see My father, mother, brethren, all, in thee: Alas! my parents, brothers, kindred, all Once more will perish, if my Hector fall, Thy wife, thy infant, in thy danger share: Oh, prove a husband's and a father's care! That quarter most the skilful Greeks annoy, Where yon wild fig-trees join the wall of Troy; Thou, from this tower defend the important post; There Agamemnon points his dreadful host, That pass Tydides, Ajax, strive to gain, And there the vengeful Spartan fires his train. Thrice our bold foes the fierce attack have given, Or led by hopes, or dictated from heaven. Let others in the field their arms employ, But stay my Hector here, and guard his Troy."



The chief replied: "That post shall be my care, Not that alone, but all the works of war. How would the sons of Troy, in arms renown'd, And Troy's proud dames, whose garments sweep the ground Attaint the lustre of my former name, Should Hector basely quit the field of fame? My early youth was bred to martial pains, My soul impels me to the embattled plains! Let me be foremost to defend the throne, And guard my father's glories, and my own. "Yet come it will, the day decreed by fates! (How my heart trembles while my tongue relates!) The day when thou, imperial Troy! must bend, And see thy warriors fall, thy glories end. And yet no dire presage so wounds my mind, My mother's death, the ruin of my kind, Not Priam's hoary hairs defiled with gore, Not all my brothers gasping on the shore; As thine, Andromache! Thy griefs I dread: I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led! In Argive looms our battles to design, And woes, of which so large a part was thine! To bear the victor's hard commands, or bring The weight of waters from Hyperia's spring. There while you groan beneath the load of life, They cry, 'Behold the mighty Hector's wife!' Some haughty Greek, who lives thy tears to see, Imbitters all thy woes, by naming me. The thoughts of glory past, and present shame, A thousand griefs shall waken at the name! May I lie cold before that dreadful day, Press'd with a load of monumental clay! Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,



The Iliad of Homer

Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep." Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then kiss'd the child, and, lifting high in air, Thus to the gods preferr'd a father's prayer: "O thou! whose glory fills the ethereal throne, And all ye deathless powers! protect my son! Grant him, like me, to purchase just renown, To guard the Trojans, to defend the crown, Against his country's foes the war to wage, And rise the Hector of the future age! So when triumphant from successful toils Of heroes slain he bears the reeking spoils, Whole hosts may hail him with deserved acclaim, And say, 'This chief transcends his father's fame:' While pleased amidst the general shouts of Troy, His mother's conscious heart o'erflows with joy." He spoke, and fondly gazing on her charms, Restored the pleasing burden to her arms; Soft on her fragrant breast the babe she laid, Hush'd to repose, and with a smile survey'd. The troubled pleasure soon chastised by fear, She mingled with a smile a tender tear. The soften'd chief with kind compassion view'd, And dried the falling drops, and thus pursued:

BOOK VI. "Andromache! my soul's far better part, Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart? No hostile hand can antedate my doom, Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb. Fix'd is the term to all the race of earth; And such the hard condition of our birth: No force can then resist, no flight can save, All sink alike, the fearful and the brave. No more—but hasten to thy tasks at home, There guide the spindle, and direct the loom: Me glory summons to the martial scene, The field of combat is the sphere for men. Where heroes war, the foremost place I claim, The first in danger as the first in fame."



Thus having said, the glorious chief resumes His towery helmet, black with shading plumes. His princess parts with a prophetic sigh, Unwilling parts, and oft reverts her eye That stream'd at every look; then, moving slow, Sought her own palace, and indulged her woe. There, while her tears deplored the godlike man, Through all her train the soft infection ran; The pious maids their mingled sorrows shed, And mourn the living Hector, as the dead.

But now, no longer deaf to honour's call, Forth issues Paris from the palace wall. In brazen arms that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the warrior bends his way.


The Iliad of Homer

The wanton courser thus with reins unbound176 Breaks from his stall, and beats the trembling ground; Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted tides, And laves, in height of blood his shining sides; His head now freed, he tosses to the skies; His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies; He snuffs the females in the distant plain, And springs, exulting, to his fields again. With equal triumph, sprightly, bold, and gay, In arms refulgent as the god of day, The son of Priam, glorying in his might, Rush'd forth with Hector to the fields of fight. And now, the warriors passing on the way, The graceful Paris first excused his stay. To whom the noble Hector thus replied: "O chief! in blood, and now in arms, allied! Thy power in war with justice none contest; Known is thy courage, and thy strength confess'd. What pity sloth should seize a soul so brave, Or godlike Paris live a woman's slave! My heart weeps blood at what the Trojans say, And hopes thy deeds shall wipe the stain away. Haste then, in all their glorious labours share, For much they suffer, for thy sake, in war. These ills shall cease, whene'er by Jove's decree We crown the bowl to heaven and liberty: While the proud foe his frustrate triumphs mourns,


—The wanton courser.

"Come destrier, che da le regie stalle Ove a l'usa de l'arme si riserba, Fugge, e libero al fiu per largo calle Va tragl' armenti, o al fiume usato, o a l'herba." Gier, Lib. ix. 75.

BOOK VI. And Greece indignant through her seas returns."




The Iliad of Homer



ARGUMENT THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX. The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor purposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax, the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain and one more in building the fortification before the ships. So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.


The Iliad of Homer

So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state, Then rush'd impetuous through the Scaean gate. Him Paris follow'd to the dire alarms; Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms. As when to sailors labouring through the main, That long have heaved the weary oar in vain, Jove bids at length the expected gales arise; The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies. So welcome these to Troy's desiring train, The bands are cheer'd, the war awakes again. Bold Paris first the work of death begun On great Menestheus, Areithous' son, Sprung from the fair Philomeda's embrace, The pleasing Arne was his native place. Then sunk Eioneus to the shades below, Beneath his steely casque he felt the blow177 Full on his neck, from Hector's weighty hand; And roll'd, with limbs relax'd, along the land. By Glaucus' spear the bold Iphmous bleeds, Fix'd in the shoulder as he mounts his steeds; Headlong he tumbles: his slack nerves unbound, Drop the cold useless members on the ground. When now Minerva saw her Argives slain, From vast Olympus to the gleaming plain Fierce she descends: Apollo marked her flight, Nor shot less swift from Ilion's towery height. Radiant they met, beneath the beechen shade; When thus Apollo to the blue-eyed maid:
—Casque. The original word is stephanae, about the meaning of which there is some little doubt. Some take it for a different kind of cap or helmet, others for the rim, others for the cone, of the helmet.


BOOK VII. "What cause, O daughter of Almighty Jove! Thus wings thy progress from the realms above? Once more impetuous dost thou bend thy way, To give to Greece the long divided day? Too much has Troy already felt thy hate, Now breathe thy rage, and hush the stern debate; This day, the business of the field suspend; War soon shall kindle, and great Ilion bend; Since vengeful goddesses confederate join To raze her walls, though built by hands divine." To whom the progeny of Jove replies: "I left, for this, the council of the skies: But who shall bid conflicting hosts forbear, What art shall calm the furious sons of war?" To her the god: "Great Hector's soul incite To dare the boldest Greek to single fight, Till Greece, provoked, from all her numbers show A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe." At this agreed, the heavenly powers withdrew; Sage Helenus their secret counsels knew; Hector, inspired, he sought: to him address'd, Thus told the dictates of his sacred breast: "O son of Priam! let thy faithful ear Receive my words: thy friend and brother hear! Go forth persuasive, and a while engage The warring nations to suspend their rage; Then dare the boldest of the hostile train To mortal combat on the listed plain. For not this day shall end thy glorious date; The gods have spoke it, and their voice is fate."



The Iliad of Homer


He said: the warrior heard the word with joy; Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst athwart. On either hand The squadrons part; the expecting Trojans stand; Great Agamemnon bids the Greeks forbear: They breathe, and hush the tumult of the war. The Athenian maid, and glorious god of day,178 With silent joy the settling hosts survey: In form of vultures, on the beech's height They sit conceal'd, and wait the future fight. The thronging troops obscure the dusky fields, Horrid with bristling spears, and gleaming shields. As when a general darkness veils the main, (Soft Zephyr curling the wide wat'ry plain,) The waves scarce heave, the face of ocean sleeps, And a still horror saddens all the deeps; Thus in thick orders settling wide around, At length composed they sit, and shade the ground. Great Hector first amidst both armies broke The solemn silence, and their powers bespoke: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What my soul prompts, and what some god commands. Great Jove, averse our warfare to compose, O'erwhelms the nations with new toils and woes; War with a fiercer tide once more returns, Till Ilion falls, or till yon navy burns. You then, O princes of the Greeks! appear; 'Tis Hector speaks, and calls the gods to hear: From all your troops select the boldest knight, And him, the boldest, Hector dares to fight. Here if I fall, by chance of battle slain,

—Athenian maid: Minerva.

BOOK VII. Be his my spoil, and his these arms remain; But let my body, to my friends return'd, By Trojan hands and Trojan flames be burn'd. And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust; If mine the glory to despoil the foe; On Phoebus' temple I'll his arms bestow: The breathless carcase to your navy sent, Greece on the shore shall raise a monument; Which when some future mariner surveys, Wash'd by broad Hellespont's resounding seas, Thus shall he say, 'A valiant Greek lies there, By Hector slain, the mighty man of war,' The stone shall tell your vanquish'd hero's name. And distant ages learn the victor's fame."


This fierce defiance Greece astonish'd heard, Blush'd to refuse, and to accept it fear'd. Stern Menelaus first the silence broke, And, inly groaning, thus opprobrious spoke:

"Women of Greece! O scandal of your race, Whose coward souls your manly form disgrace, How great the shame, when every age shall know That not a Grecian met this noble foe! Go then! resolve to earth, from whence ye grew, A heartless, spiritless, inglorious crew! Be what ye seem, unanimated clay, Myself will dare the danger of the day; 'Tis man's bold task the generous strife to try, But in the hands of God is victory."



The Iliad of Homer

These words scarce spoke, with generous ardour press'd, His manly limbs in azure arms he dress'd. That day, Atrides! a superior hand Had stretch'd thee breathless on the hostile strand; But all at once, thy fury to compose, The kings of Greece, an awful band, arose; Even he their chief, great Agamemnon, press'd Thy daring hand, and this advice address'd: "Whither, O Menelaus! wouldst thou run, And tempt a fate which prudence bids thee shun? Grieved though thou art, forbear the rash design; Great Hectors arm is mightier far than thine: Even fierce Achilles learn'd its force to fear, And trembling met this dreadful son of war. Sit thou secure, amidst thy social band; Greece in our cause shall arm some powerful hand. The mightiest warrior of the Achaian name, Though bold and burning with desire of fame, Content the doubtful honour might forego, So great the danger, and so brave the foe." He said, and turn'd his brother's vengeful mind; He stoop'd to reason, and his rage resign'd, No longer bent to rush on certain harms; His joyful friends unbrace his azure arms. He from whose lips divine persuasion flows, Grave Nestor, then, in graceful act arose; Thus to the kings he spoke: "What grief, what shame Attend on Greece, and all the Grecian name! How shall, alas! her hoary heroes mourn Their sons degenerate, and their race a scorn! What tears shall down thy silvery beard be roll'd, O Peleus, old in arms, in wisdom old!

Lament inglorious Greece. Phoebus. each action. nor bent the twanging bow. and each hero's sire! Gods! should he see our warriors trembling stand. 179 215 [131] —Celadon. with this. a river of Elis. and pleased inquire Each name. known from shore to shore By the huge. Furious with this he crush'd our levell'd bands. I led my troops to Phea's trembling wall. knotted. where Jardan's waters fall. How would he lift his aged arms on high. Him not by manly force Lycurgus slew. Nor aught the warrior's thundering mace avail'd. my youth renew. iron mace he bore. Great Areithous.BOOK VII.179 There Ereuthalion braved us in the field. and almighty Jove! Years might again roll back. now the victor bore: But when old age had dimm'd Lycurgus' eyes. Whose guileful javelin from the thicket flew. No lance he shook. And dared the trial of the strongest hands. . To Ereuthalion he consign'd the prize. And trembling all before one hostile hand. Participate their fame. And give this arm the spring which once it knew When fierce in war. Supine he fell: those arms which Mars before Had given the vanquish'd. Once with what joy the generous prince would hear Of every chief who fought this glorious war. the battle of the foe. Minerva. And with the Arcadian spears my prowess tried. But broke. Proud Areithous' dreadful arms to wield. Where Celadon rolls down his rapid tide. Deep in a winding way his breast assailed. and beg to die! Oh! would to all the immortal powers above.

O were your Nestor now! Not Hector's self should want an equal foe. What then I was. youngest. and desert the day?" His warm reproofs the listening kings inflame. And wise Ulysses closed the daring band. And. Idomen was there. met whom all our army fear'd. Sprung from such fathers. the examples of our host. be his the chance to raise His country's fame. Whom heaven shall choose. What chief shall combat. Demand the fight. dreadful as the god of war: With these Eurypylus and Thoas stand. To whom the Pylian sage: "Lest thirst of glory your brave souls divide. his huge tempestuous sway Till I.216 The Iliad of Homer Nor could the strongest hands his fury stay: All saw. who such numbers sway. But. and fear'd. And nine. the youngest of the host.180 And Merion. the noblest of the Grecian name. Can you stand trembling. his own immortal praise. Oileus follow'd. you that youthful vigour boast. let the gods decide. alike inspired with noble rage. warriors. Up-started fierce: but far before the rest The king of men advanced his dauntless breast: Then bold Tydides. I fought the chief: my arms Minerva crown'd: Prone fell the giant o'er a length of ground. appear'd. All these." . appear'd. great in arms. The flower of Greece. And next his bulk gigantic Ajax rear'd.

i. lest the foes should hear. A worthy champion for the Grecian state: This task let Ajax or Tydides prove. the son of Oileus. of every Greek desired. Lives there a chief whom Ajax ought to dread? Ajax. and with transport cries: "Warriors! I claim the lot. in which they were well shaken up. The lots produced." 217 —Oileus. with lifted eyes and hands. your vows declare In such a voice as fills the earth and air. And vows like these ascend from all the bands: "Grant." Old Nestor shook the casque. born to combats. Said I in secret? No. By heaven inspired. beloved by Jove. in all the toils of battle bred! From warlike Salamis I drew my birth. and arm with joy. Or he. Held out in order to the Grecian peers. 180 . in contradistinction to Ajax. 181 —In the general's helm.BOOK VII. And deem your prayers the mean effect of fear. Be mine the conquest of this chief of Troy. To Saturn's son be all your vows address'd: But pray in secret. fear no force on earth. Till godlike Ajax finds the lot his own. Now while my brightest arms my limbs invest. each man then took his choice. Leap'd forth the lot. son of Telamon.181 The people pray. It was customary to put the lots into a helmet. each hero signs his own: Then in the general's helm the fates are thrown.e. Each to his rival yields the mark unknown. thou Almighty! in whose hand is fate. And. the king of kings. Then casts before him. Ajax. This from the right to left the herald bears. Surveys the inscription with rejoicing eyes.

v." ii. Supreme of gods! unbounded and alone: Grant thou. So stalks in arms the grisly god of Thrace. Mars." —Carey's Dante: Hell. the bulwark of the Grecian band. and that both may share. earth trembled as he strode:183 His massy javelin quivering in his hand. Implore the god whose thunder rends the skies: "O father of mankind. Thus march'd the chief. He stood.218 The Iliad of Homer He said.182 When Jove to punish faithless men prepares. Through every Argive heart new transport ran. And gives whole nations to the waste of wars. Sheathed in bright steel the giant-warrior shone: He moves to combat with majestic pace. tremendous as a god." —"Paradise Lost. All Troy stood trembling at the mighty man: Even Hector paused. 845. "And death Grinn'd horribly a ghastly smile. if illustrious Hector be thy care. and with new doubt oppress'd. Hence "Mavortia Moenia. or Mavors. The troops with elevated eyes. superior lord! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored: Who in the highest heaven hast fix'd thy throne. Grimly he smiled. That both may claim it." Now Ajax braced his dazzling armour on. that Telamon may bear away The praise and conquest of this doubtful day. 182 [133] . "There Mavors stands Grinning with ghastly feature. according to his Thracian epithet. Felt his great heart suspended in his breast: —God of Thrace. Or." 183 —Grimly he smiled.

I come to prove thy might. of solid brass the last. To right. wouldst thou fright. Achilles shuns the fight. and the foe drew near. who in Hyle dwell'd And in all arts of armoury excell'd." 219 . 'Twas vain to seek retreat. thy country's pride! (To Ajax thus the Trojan prince replied) Me.) This Ajax bore before his manly breast." "O son of Telamon. thus his adverse chief address'd: "Hector! approach my arm. Stern Telamon behind his ample shield. (The work of Tychius. o'erlook'd the field. And sends thee one. Indulge his wrath. as a boy. and answer every call of war. with seven thick folds o'ercast. and begin the fight. Whole troops of heroes Greece has yet to boast. charge. As from a brazen tower. And bear thick battle on my sounding shield But open be our fight. and trembling at the fight? Thou meet'st a chief deserving of thy arms. the dexterous lance I wield. I steal no conquest from a noble foe. and bold each blow. to left. and not unskill'd in war: Let him. Of tough bull-hides. No more—be sudden. To combat born. unactive on the sea-beat shore. Himself had challenged. or woman. remount the car. a sample of her host. Turn. and vain to fear. yet some there are. Huge was its orb. New to the field.BOOK VII. threatening. Not void of soul. and aid our arms no more. and bred amidst alarms: I know to shift my ground. and singly know What strength thou hast. Such as I am. And. and what the Grecian foe.

and restored to fight. Full on the brazen boss the stone descends. Applied each nerve. Black. watchful as his foe drew near. The hollow brass resounded with the shock: Then Ajax seized the fragment of a rock. Drove through the Trojan targe the knotty spear. near his flank descends. and the charge renew. the terror of the wood. Hector his long lance extends. Then close impetuous. From their bored shields the chiefs their javelins drew. His corslet enters. disappoints the blow. high above the field Whirl'd the long lance against the sevenfold shield. vast: to this his force he bends. let the ruin fly. Great Hector falls extended on the field. The huge stone thundering through his buckler broke: His slacken'd knees received the numbing stroke. The blunted point against the buckler bends. but stooping down. craggy.220 The Iliad of Homer [134] He said. The wary Trojan shrinks. . with matchless strength impell'd! Spouts the black gore. His bulk supporting on the shatter'd shield: Nor wanted heavenly aid: Apollo's might Confirm'd his sinews. Through Hector's shield the forceful javelin flew. Till in the seventh it fix'd. And glancing downwards. With force tempestuous. Yet ceased not Hector thus. But Ajax. Fierce as the mountain-lions bathed in blood. and swinging round on high. At Ajax. and his garment rends. Full on the brass descending from above Through six bull-hides the furious weapon drove. and dims his shining shield. Then Ajax threw. and bending low Beneath his buckler. It reach'd his neck. In his strong hand up-heaved a flinty stone. Or foaming boars. and rising.

But now the Night extends her awful shade. The sacred ministers of earth and heaven: Divine Talthybius. Both dear to men. and both beloved of Jove. whom the Greeks employ. . incomincio Pindoro. And sage Idaeus on the part of Troy. Between the swords their peaceful sceptres rear'd. The goddess parts you. and war is all your own. "Forbear. Con pari honor di pari ambo possenti. And now both heroes their broad falchions drew In flaming circles round their heads they flew. be the night obey'd. To either host your matchless worth is known.BOOK VII. But then by heralds' voice the word was given. Each sounds your praise. my sons! your further force to prove."184 184 "Sete o guerrieri. And first Idaeus' awful voice was heard: 221 [135] HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.

on this memorable day. to thy Grecian friends. vi. that the Phrygian train. and Trojan wife. 'Not hate. and the sheath enchased. Dunque cessi la pugna. Return.222 The Iliad of Homer To whom great Ajax his high soul express'd: "O sage! to Hector be these words address'd. Then with majestic grace they quit the plain. And cease the strife when Hector shows the way. e de la notte. made these chiefs contend. Lib. and with worth of mind! Now martial law commands us to forbear. . Let him. This seeks the Grecian. Some future day shall lengthen out the strife. brave Ajax. Exchange some gift: that Greece and Troy may say. a sword with stars of silver graced. But let us. 51. who first provoked our chiefs to fight. be the night obey'd. e non sian rotte Le ragioni. And heaven enjoins it. the night extends her gloomy shade. And let the gods decide of death or life! Since." —Gier. The generous Greek bestow'd A radiant belt that rich with purple glow'd." "O first of Greeks! (his noble foe rejoin'd) Whom heaven adorns. but glory. superior to thy kind. If first he ask'd it. I content obey. With strength of body. The baldric studded. Hereafter we shall meet in glorious war. e 'l riposo.'" With that. As I shall glad each chief. And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. And joy the nations whom thy arm defends. then. Let him demand the sanction of the night. He gave the Greek. Who wearies heaven with vows for Hector's life.

Thus Benjamin was honoured with a "double portion. glorying in his hardy deed. To Troy's high gates the godlike man they bear Their present triumph. and each receives his share. But Ajax. Alive. The well-arm'd Greeks to Agamemnon lead. Then spread the tables. The Trojan bands returning Hector wait. 223 [136] It was an ancient style of compliment to give a larger portion of food to the conqueror.185 When now the rage of hunger was removed. The victim falls. What Greeks are perish'd! what a people lost! What tides of blood have drench'd Scamander's shore! What crowds of heroes sunk to rise no more! Then hear me. 34. the repast prepare. or person to whom respect was to be shown. and the joints divide. The king himself (an honorary sign) Before great Ajax placed the mighty chine. viii. in each persuasive art approved. Each takes his seat. unarm'd. See Virg. 181. they strip the smoking hide. Æn. Nestor.BOOK VII. A steer for sacrifice the king design'd. 185 . O kings! this fatal day has cost. While we to flames our slaughter'd friends bequeath. they survey him round. as their late despair. xliii. In words like these his prudent thought express'd: "How dear. The sage whose counsels long had sway'd the rest. Escaped great Ajax. chief! nor let the morrow's light Awake thy squadrons to new toils of fight: Some space at least permit the war to breathe. and vigorous from his wound. Of full five years. And hail with joy the Champion of their state. The beast they quarter. From the red field their scatter'd bodies bear. and of the nobler kind." Gen.

So hope success. Meanwhile. and a trench profound. or reject. And Argive Helen own her ancient lord. The Trojan peers in nightly council sate." . A senate void of order. as of choice: Their hearts were fearful. or dread the dire effect. And pious children o'er their ashes weep. hear! 'Tis heaven the counsel of my breast inspires. where on one promiscuous pile they blazed. Next. Raise an embattled wall.224 The Iliad of Homer And nigh the fleet a funeral structure rear. Nor fear the fierce incursions of the foe. Our impious battles the just gods provoke. The ties of faith. the sworn alliance. As this advice ye practise. broke. with lofty towers. And I but move what every god requires: Let Sparta's treasures be this hour restored. and confused their voice." 'Twas thus the sage his wholesome counsel moved. For passing chariots. So decent urns their snowy bones may keep. convened at Priam's palace-gate. Here. From space to space be ample gates around. Antenor. to secure our camp and naval powers. The sceptred kings of Greece his words approved. High o'er them all a general tomb be raised. rising. thus demands their ear: "Ye Trojans. So Greece to combat shall in safety go. Dardans. and auxiliars.

and these pacific words ensue: "Ye Trojans. Slow from his seat the reverend Priam rose: His godlike aspect deep attention drew: He paused. Till the new sun restores the cheerful light. more sound advice hast given. But wisdom has its date. mighty Jove decide!" . Dardans. assign'd by heaven. To whom replied The graceful husband of the Spartan bride: "Cold counsels. Thy words express the purpose of thy heart." 'Twas then. I will resign. and their bones inurn. Next let a truce be ask'd. Guard well the walls. the growing discord to compose. for peace. but not the dame. that Troy may burn Her slaughter'd heroes. may become thy years But sound ungrateful in a warrior's ears: Old man. Before their ships proclaim my son's intent. 225 The senior spoke and sate. Thou. Trojan.BOOK VII. if void of fallacy or art. But be this bright possession ever mine. Then hear me. to the Atrides sent. My treasures too. in thy time. That done. relieve the watch of night. princes of the Trojan name! Their treasures I'll restore. once more the fate of war be tried. and auxiliar bands! Now take refreshment as the hour demands. Then shall our herald. And whose the conquest.

nor even the Spartan dame. The spoils and treasures he to Ilion bore (Oh had he perish'd ere they touch'd our shore!) He proffers injured Greece: with large increase Of added Trojan wealth to buy the peace. There. declares. Pleased may ye hear (so heaven succeed my prayers) What Paris. give ear! The words of Troy. to the sons of Mars. And Troy already totters to her fall. take not." . hear. He raised his voice: the host stood listening round. and their bones inurn. but none the silence broke. "Ye sons of Atreus. once more the fate of war be tried. This Greece demands.226 The Iliad of Homer The monarch spoke: the warriors snatch'd with haste (Each at his post in arms) a short repast. and Troy requests in vain. in council found. But to restore the beauteous bride again. and Troy's great monarch. Their proffer'd wealth. Soon as the rosy morn had waked the day. Let conquest make them ours: fate shakes their wall. And whose the conquest. friends! defrauded of your fame. mighty Jove decide!" [138] The Greeks gave ear. At length Tydides rose. and ye Greeks. That done. To the black ships Idaeus bent his way. author of the war. Next. and rising spoke: "Oh. O ye chiefs! we ask a truce to burn Our slaughter'd heroes.

Hew'd the green forests. With dust dishonour'd. In mingled throngs the Greek and Trojan train Through heaps of carnage search'd the mournful plain. And. their pious tears they shed. To sacred Troy. Straight to their several cares the Trojans move. With general shouts return'd him loud acclaim. where all her princes lay To wait the event. sadly slow. but the truce obtain'd.BOOK VII. and the bodies bore. descending on the shore. To shed his sacred light on earth again. Jove. Sage Priam check'd their grief: with silent haste The bodies decent on the piles were placed: With melting hearts the cold remains they burn'd. The wounds they wash'd. the herald bent his way. Then thus the king of kings rejects the peace: "Herald! in him thou hear'st the voice of Greece For what remains. and standing in the midst. He came. Nor less the Greeks their pious sorrows shed. deplored the dead. And now from forth the chambers of the main. 227 . whose thunder rolls on high!" He said. And. And gratify the manes of the slain. Some search the plains. and rear'd his sceptre to the sky. and all the Grecian name. Scarce could the friend his slaughter'd friend explore. The admiring chiefs. explain'd The peace rejected. Arose the golden chariot of the day. to sacred Troy return'd. some fell the sounding grove: Nor less the Greeks. let funeral flames be fed With heroes' corps: I war not with the dead: Go search your slaughtered chiefs on yonder plain. laid along their cars. and deformed with gore. And tipp'd the mountains with a purple ray. Be witness.

So toil'd the Greeks: meanwhile the gods above. And slowly. or rather this peculiar crisis of it. For passing chariots. in the battles previous to the eighth book. i. . the terror of his name sufficed to keep every foe at a distance. ere the morn had streak'd with reddening light The doubtful confines of the day and night.. Amazed beheld the wondrous works of man: Then he. 257. vol. Here. Strong piles infix'd stood adverse to the foe. the destiny of Achilles. "Another essential basis of mechanical unity in the poem is the construction of the rampart.228 The Iliad of Homer [139] And decent on the pile dispose the dead. This takes place in the seventh book.' The disasters consequent on his secession first led to the necessity of other means of protection. They raised embattled walls with lofty towers:186 From space to space were ample gates around. in all those which follow it forms a prominent feature. About the dying flames the Greeks appear'd. sadly. p. In shining circle round their father Jove. Now. Accordingly. is a purely poetical one: 'So long as Achilles fought. to their fleet repair. whose trident shakes the earth. in the midst of a hostile country. began: 186 —Embattled walls. in the anomaly as in the propriety of the Iliad. The cold remains consume with equal care. The reason ascribed for the glaring improbability that the Greeks should have left their camp and fleet unfortified during nine years. forms the pervading bond of connexion to the whole poem. Then. and a trench profound Of large extent. And round the pile a general tomb they rear'd. no allusion occurs to a rampart. then. to secure the camp and naval powers. and deep in earth below."—Mure.

&c. If the proud Grecians thus successful boast Their rising bulwarks on the sea-beat coast? See the long walls extending to the main. and no victim slain! Their fame shall fill the world's remotest ends. But yon proud work no future age shall view. No trace remain where once the glory grew. Shall. . and thy thoughtless reign?" Dryden's Virgil. Wide as the morn her golden beam extends. and the name no more. our oracles implore. Thy power is honour'd. 229 The almighty Thunderer with a frown replies. in long oblivion sleep. and thy fame shall last. Our fanes frequent. That clouds the world. iv. whose rage can make The solid earth's eternal basis shake! What cause of fear from mortal works could move187 The meanest subject of our realms above? Where'er the sun's refulgent rays are cast. "Seest thou not this? Or do we fear in vain Thy boasted thunders.BOOK VII. And. and blackens half the skies: "Strong god of ocean! thou. Those radiant structures raised by labouring gods." Thus spoke the hoary monarch of the deep. drop the huge wall: Vast drifts of sand shall change the former shore: The ruin vanish'd. 304. razed and lost. No god consulted. The sapp'd foundations by thy force shall fall. "What mortals henceforth shall our power adore. While old Laomedon's divine abodes." 187 —What cause of fear. whelm'd beneath the waves.

(Eunaeus. These lines are referred to by Theophilus. With Bacchus' blessings cheered the generous bands. But Jove averse the signs of wrath display'd. iii. refresh'd with sleep from toils of fight. 188 . o'er the Grecian train. Back from the tents the savoury vapour flew. or slave. as exhibiting the most ancient mention of barter. the Roman lawyer. tit. xxiii. and these within their towers.) The rest they purchased at their proper cost. proportion'd treasures gave.230 The Iliad of Homer [140] Thus they in heaven: while. Their bulls they slew. some. And large libations drench'd the thirsty ground: Then late. The rolling sun descending to the main Beheld the finish'd work. Enjoy'd the balmy blessings of the night. shepherd of his people. And well the plenteous freight supplied the host: Each. While the deep thunder shook the aerial hall. an ox. pale horror seized on all. whom Hypsipyle of yore To Jason. —In exchange. brass or iron.188 Some. Section 1. Of fragrant wines the rich Eunaeus sent A thousant measures to the royal tent. the Greek and Trojan powers: Those on the fields. bore. arrived from Lemnos' strands. All night they feast. And shot red lightnings through the gloomy shade: Humbled they stood. in exchange. Each pour'd to Jove before the bowl was crown'd. And now the fleet.



p 257. is the decree issued by Jupiter. AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS. Hector continues in the field. The night puts an end to the battle."—Mure. Section 6. No interposition takes place but on the part of the specially authorised agents of Jove.189 his balances the fates of both. 252. and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. but checked and reprimanded for their disobedience. i. repeatedly allude to the supreme edict as the cause of their present inactivity. THE SECOND BATTLE. while the other divine warriors. and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels. or on that of one or two contumacious deities. vol." ch. are excellently described.) and gives orders to keep the watch 189 "A similar bond of connexion. but in vain. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians. "Greek Literature. Muller. and Grote. Jupiter assembles a council of the deities. . and those of Hector. and carried off. ii. See however. but are restrained by Iris. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him. against any further interference of the gods in the battles. The acts of Teucer. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks. sent from Jupiter. at the commencement of the eighth book. in the military details of the narrative. vol. who is at length wounded by Hector. In the opening of the twentieth book this interdict is withdrawn. v. described as boldly setting his commands at defiance. whose exploits. ARGUMENT. During the twelve intermediate books it is kept steadily in view. p. (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships.[141] BOOK VIII. who in the previous and subsequent cantos are so active in support of their favourite heroes.

With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors. Hear our decree. oh far. ye powers. and pass the night under arms. When Jove convened the senate of the skies. Gash'd with dishonest wounds. Who yields assistance. They kindle fires through all the fields. Back to the skies with shame he shall be driven. from steep Olympus thrown. The fix'd decree which not all heaven can move. The sire of gods his awful silence broke. approve! What god but enters yon forbidden field. Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn. Or far. Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan. Tanto e piu in su de la stellata spera" . Thou. The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke: "Celestial states! immortal gods! give ear." —"Paradise Lost. or but wills to yield. fair daughter of the dawn.234 The Iliad of Homer all night in the camp. to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight. and reverence what ye hear. Aurora now. The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book. As deep beneath the infernal centre hurl'd.190 190 [142] "As far removed from God and light of heaven. As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. Where high Olympus' cloudy tops arise. the scorn of heaven. And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors." "E quanto e da le stelle al basso inferno. The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore. fate! fulfil it! and.

and the land. and try the omnipotence of Jove." The all-mighty spoke. vol. and main Strive all.BOOK VIII. League all your forces. And such are men. 217. And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! For such I reign. by this. 191 "Now lately heav'n. i. nor durst the powers reply: A reverend horror silenced all the sky. unbounded and above. "Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal. link'd in a golden chain To that side heav'n. Yet it would seem. and earth. the ocean. another world Hung e'er my realm. in which it was not attached to any geographical site—seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain. As from that centre to the ethereal world."—Thirlwall's Greece. and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aerian regions above The idea of a seat of the gods—perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition. p. then. Let down our golden everlasting chain191 Whose strong embrace holds heaven. i. 235 —Gier. ye powers above. I heave the gods. Lib." ii." —"Paradise Lost. earth. But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally. I fix the chain to great Olympus' height. 1004. who holds the lofty pillars which keep earth and heaven asunder. the Almighty is the god of gods. Join all. from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tartarus. Let him who tempts me. and gods. that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth. dread those dire abodes: And know. 7. nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atlas. compared to Jove. To drag. . of mortal and immortal birth. the Thunderer down to earth Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand. sq.

Refulgent. The stedfast firmament beneath them shook: Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot roll'd. His fane breathed odours. At length his best-beloved. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. our father and our lord! But. at least lament their fate. High on the cloudy point his seat he placed. and tents. High on the throne he shines: his coursers fly Between the extended earth and starry sky.) Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised. and navigable seas. The town. Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move. the sacred sire Of gods and men released the steeds of fire: Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced. But when to Ida's topmost height he came. and his chariot took. And smiled superior on his best beloved. Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys. Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove. their curling manes of gold: Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array." [143] The cloud-compelling god her suit approved. Then call'd his coursers. flash'd intolerable day. spoke: "O first and greatest! God. and his altar blazed: There. . by gods adored We own thy might. the power of wisdom. Brass were their hoofs.236 The Iliad of Homer Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look. ah! permit to pity human state: If not to help. and of savage game. (Fair nurse of fountains. from his radiant car. With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain.

shields to shields opposed. sole arbiter of peace and war. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew. And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. "Jove now. Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain: Men. increasing bright. by turns they both prevail. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. Till Troy descending fix'd the doubtful scale. "Th' Eternal. Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast. And buckled on their shining arms with haste. now ponders all events. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. The tumult thickens. O'er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light. Battles and realms. Troy roused as soon. Held forth the fatal balance from afar: Each host he weighs. The sequel each of parting and of fight: . steeds.192 192 237 [144] —His golden scales. Wherein all things created first he weighed. In these he puts two weights. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. and chariots shake the trembling ground. for on this dreadful day The fate of fathers. wives. Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries. The pendulous round earth. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise. to prevent such horrid fray. But when the sun the height of heaven ascends. Host against host with shadowy legends drew. Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales. v 687. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and infants lay. and the skies resound. Long as the morning beams. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train.BOOK VIII. sqq. The sire of gods his golden scales suspends. with balanced air In counterpoise. To lances lances.

Fix'd in the forehead. it stung him to the brain. Scarce had his falchion cut the reins. and the skies on fire. thunderbolts of war: Nor he. and poised the mighty weight: Press'd with its load. That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand The hoary monarch of the Pylian band. the king of war. When dreadful Hector. for Paris' dart Had pierced his courser in a mortal part. thundering through the war. flight unworthy great Laertes' son! The latter quick up flew. Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire. the muttering thunder rolls. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear. But Diomed beheld. The gods in terrors. Mad with his anguish. where the springing man Curl'd o'er the brow. oh whither does Ulysses run? Oh. and freed The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed." "Paradise Lost. the alarm sustain'd Nestor alone. Nor each stern Ajax. amidst the storm remain'd. from forth the crowd He rush'd. he begins to rear. Paw with his hoofs aloft. the Trojan strikes the skies.238 The Iliad of Homer With equal hand: in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy. and unmans their souls. The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads. and on Ulysses call'd aloud: "Whither. Unwilling he remain'd. Their strength he withers. ." iv. and kick'd the beam. Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car. Thick lightnings flash. and lash the air. 496. Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads.

renown'd in war. and shelters there. Pierced in the back. a vile. With these against yon Trojans will we go. These younger champions will oppress thy might. Before the coursers with a sudden spring He leap'd. and thy coursers slow. skill'd in war. or urge the rapid race: These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein. even he may learn to fear The thirsty fury of my flying spear. to stop. unknowing how to fear. ascend my seat. Fierce as he is. dishonest wound? Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage The glory of the Greeks. To dare the fight. Ulysses seeks the ships. and Nestor. and from the car Observe the steeds of Tros." Thus said the chief. And strains his aged arm to lash the horse. But bold Tydides to the rescue goes. Practised alike to turn. their trusty servants hold. Thy veins no more with ancient vigour glow. and Sthenelus the bold: The reverend charioteer directs the course.BOOK VIII." His fruitless words are lost unheard in air. Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found. to chase. father! wait the unequal fight. and anxious thus bespoke the king: "Great perils. Hector they face. Eurymedon. 239 [145] . Fierce he drove on. Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train. Then haste. and ascends the car: The steeds he left. Approves his counsel. Tydides whirl'd his spear. A single warrior midst a host of foes. Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe. Weak is thy servant. the Pylian sage.

to supply his place and rule the car. turning. 'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move: The great will glory to submit to Jove. 669. And now had death and horror cover'd all. Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd. Some other sun may see the happier hour. The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue." 193 —And now.. Till. Rose Archeptolemus. Had not th' Almighty Father. the fierce in war.. foreseen.193 Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound: Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew. But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay." vi. &c. the sovereign of the skies Assists great Hector. The steeds fly back: he falls. His opening hand in death forsakes the rein. Thus." —"Paradise Lost. . averse. The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight. and our palm denies. where he sits . This day. with ruin overspread. Yet unrevenged permits to press the field. shook with sacred dread. and spurns the plain. and urge the chariot hence.240 The Iliad of Homer The spear with erring haste mistook its way. When Greece shall conquer by his heavenly power. warn'd the intrepid Diomed: "O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised. And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright: He dropp'd the reins: and. "And now all heaven Had gone to wrack.

yet bleeding in her heroes lost.BOOK VIII. and thy words are wise. O'erwhelm me. the Dardan host. Venet. Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. Not even a Phrygian dame. viii. Thrice turn'd the chief. Nor Troy. But ah. 194 . but who shall heed the boast? Not those who felt thy arm. and. and to stand the fight. revered. and thrice imperial Jove 241 [146] —Gerenian Nestor. Strabo. or merely signifies honoured. earth. The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind. B." Now fears dissuade him. and stretch thee dead. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place in which Nestor was educated. This arm shall reach thy heart. lamented lord. mighty hero! graced above the rest In seats of council and the sumptuous feast: Now hope no more those honours from thy train. what grief! should haughty Hector boast I fled inglorious to the guarded coast. 340. to wrap our towers in flames. and now hopes invite. and hide a warrior's shame!" To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied:194 "Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride? Hector may vaunt. presumptuous prince! are fled. Hector braves the warrior as he flies. Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies. Go less than woman. Thy once proud hopes. in the form of man! To scale our walls. The storm of hissing javelins pours behind. 336. To lead in exile the fair Phrygian dames. "O reverend prince! (Tydides thus replies) Thy years are awful." He said. who dreads the sword That laid in dust her loved. p. o'er the gasping throng Drives the swift steeds: the chariot smokes along. Pleased. in II. To stop his coursers. "Go. See Schol. hasty.

encompass'd. Encouraged his proud steeds. From Tydeus' shoulders strip the costly load. High o'er their slighted trench our steeds shall bound. For this my spouse. Till. while thus he spoke: "Now. All Greece. Great Hector heard.242 The Iliad of Homer On Ida's summits thunder'd from above. And pass victorious o'er the levell'd mound. Xanthus. high-fed. Soon as before yon hollow ships we stand. now thunder uncontroll'd: Give me to seize rich Nestor's shield of gold. Served with pure wheat. And thou.) and thus urged the fight: "Hear. this important day. urge the chase. Vulcanian arms. Lampus. Dardan band. and toss the blazing brand. Fight each with flames. in plenteous stalls ye stand. For this. Weak bulwarks. and your own. ye powers! [147] . and dreadful hand to hand. Your great forefathers' glories. of great Aetion's line. then victory. Lycian. Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won. in one blaze expires. Now swift pursue. (The sign of conquest. Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame Await on Troy. And all your master's well-spent care repay. he saw the flashing light. Æthon." Furious he said. on Greece eternal shame. In vain they skulk behind their boasted wall. be fearless. then bending o'er the yoke. and by a princess' hand. the labour of a god: These if we gain. every Trojan. Be fleet. destined by this arm to fall. Podargus! prove thy generous race. their proud navy wrapt in smoke and fires. So oft has steep'd the strengthening grain in wine. All famed in war.

what madness. Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array. that shook the starry pole: And thus to Neptune: "Thou. to whose matchless might Jove gave the glory of the destined fight. Toil'd through the tents. Helice. Where the deep trench in length extended lay. by Juno's self inspired. Would all the deities of Greece combine. Seest thou the Greeks by fates unjust oppress'd. Nor swells thy heart in that immortal breast? Yet Ægae. and fills the fields With close-ranged chariots. Squadrons on squadrons drives. with scarce a god to friend. Ungrateful prospect to the sullen power!" Neptune with wrath rejects the rash design: "What rage. Helice. And see his Trojans to the shades descend: Such be the scene from his Idaean bower. This night. Both these towns were conspicuous for their worship of Neptune. whose force can make The stedfast earth from her foundations shake. The king of men. 195 . furious queen! is thine? I war not with the highest. the fleet is ours!" That heard. She shook her throne. 243 —Ægae. In vain the gloomy Thunderer might repine: Sole should he sit. and all his army fired. deep anguish stung Saturnia's soul. All above Submit and tremble at the hand of Jove.195 And gifts unceasing on thine altars lay.BOOK VIII. and with thicken'd shields. and threat With long-destroying flames the hostile fleet. this glorious night. thy power obey. A dreadful front! they shake the brands." Now godlike Hector.

bright ensign of command. by happy signs declares. Whose distant ships the guarded navy bound. Who paid their vows to Panomphaean Jove. . like me oppress'd? With power immense. in bitterness of soul preferr'd: The wrath appeased. and while the goblet flows. sacred bird of heaven! he sent. with justice arm'd in vain. Your hasty triumphs on the Lemnian shore? Each fearless hero dares a hundred foes. he lifted in his hand His purple robe. My glory ravish'd. And gives the people to their monarch's prayers. Now. While the feast lasts. from Ulysses' deck. High on the midmost bark the king appear'd: There. And ask'd destruction to the Trojan name. And save the relics of the Grecian land!" Thus pray'd the king. his voice was heard: To Ajax and Achilles reach'd the sound. His eagle. A fawn his talons truss'd.244 The Iliad of Homer [148] Swift as he moved. Give these at least to 'scape from Hector's hand. gracious god! far humbler our demand. When the fight rages. What altar smoked not with our victims' gore? With fat of bulls I fed the constant flame. "O Argives! shame of human race! (he cried: The hollow vessels to his voice replied. and my people slain! To thee my vows were breathed from every shore.) Where now are all your glorious boasts of yore. (divine portent!) High o'er the wondering hosts he soar'd above. But who to meet one martial man is found. and the flames surround? O mighty Jove! O sire of the distress'd! Was ever king like me. and heaven's great father heard His vows.

BOOK VIII. their strongest battle tore. the Phrygian fell oppress'd. Tydides first. the Ajaces next succeed: Meriones. now passed the mound. the troops revive. then fell Ormenus dead: The godlike Lycophon next press'd the plain. when fear alarms. the passage freed. Pierced the deep ranks. And fierce on Troy with doubled fury drive. Who first by Teucer's mortal arrows bled? Orsilochus. The bloody pile great Melanippus crown'd. Young Agelaus (Phradmon was his sire) With flying coursers shunn'd his dreadful ire. With every shaft some hostile victim slew. and transport seized on all: Encouraged by the sign. Thus Ajax guards his brother in the field. Evaemon's son next issues to the foe. 245 [149] . and issued at his breast: Headlong he quits the car: his arms resound. O'er the broad ditch impell'd his foaming horse. Then let the prey before his altar fall. like Mars in arms renown'd. Moves as he moves. With Chromius. Then close beneath the sevenfold orb withdrew: The conscious infant so. Secure behind the Telamonian shield The skilful archer wide survey'd the field. Ophelestes slain: Bold Hamopaon breathless sunk to ground. And dyed his javelin red with Trojan gore. The Greeks beheld. Retires for safety to the mother's arms. The Atridae first. Forth rush a tide of Greeks. Struck through the back. The dart drove on. His ponderous buckler thunders on the ground. Daetor. and turns the shining shield. of all the Grecian force. And last young Teucer with his bended bow. And godlike Idomen.

always thus." . Thy country's saviour. Thy brave example shall retrieve our host.246 The Iliad of Homer Heaps fell on heaps. The next rich honorary gift be thine: Some golden tripod. whom thy eyes approve. A Trojan ghost attending every dart. Now hear a monarch's vow: If heaven's high powers Give me to raze Troy's long-defended towers. Still aim'd at Hector have I bent my bow: Eight forky arrows from this hand have fled. And eight bold heroes by their points lie dead: But sure some god denies me to destroy This fury of the field. With coursers dreadful in the ranks of war: Or some fair captive. Since rallying from our wall we forced the foe. this dog of Troy. be now in battle tried. or distinguished car. Shall recompense the warrior's toils with love. Great Agamemnon views with joyful eye The ranks grow thinner as his arrows fly: "O youth forever dear! (the monarch cried) Thus. thy early worth be tried." To this the chief: "With praise the rest inspire. he own'd the generous flame. Till every shaft in Phrygian blood be dyed. And the brave son repays his cares with fame. Nor urge a soul already fill'd with fire. What strength I have. Whatever treasures Greece for me design. sad trophies of his art. The vigorous offspring of a stolen embrace: Proud of his boy. and thy father's boast! Sprung from an alien's bed thy sire to grace.

Touch'd where the neck and hollow chest unite. 85. The weapon flies At Hector's breast. E in atto si gentil languir tremanti Gl' occhi. 196 247 [150] —As full blown.) Yet fell not dry or guiltless to the ground: Thy breast. Dreadful he shouts: from earth a stone he took. And dipp'd its feathers in no vulgar gore. . So sinks the youth: his beauteous head. (From Hector. ix. Hector with grief his charioteer beheld All pale and breathless on the sanguine field: Then bids Cebriones direct the rein. The feather in his hand. but pierced Gorgythio's heart. where the juncture knits the channel bone. depress'd Beneath his helmet. And drench'd in royal blood the thirsty dart. and drooping kiss the plain.) As full-blown poppies. and issues on the plain. And rush'd on Teucer with the lifted rock. and sings along the skies: He miss'd the mark. Lib. He said. drops upon his breast. The youth already strain'd the forceful yew. Quits his bright car. and twang'd the string. Another shaft the raging archer drew. just wing'd for flight. that startle at his sounding arms. overcharged with rain. nymph of form divine. (Fair Castianira. "Il suo Lesbia quasi bel fior succiso.BOOK VIII. e cader siu 'l tergo il collo mira.196 Decline the head. This offspring added to king Priam's line. That other shaft with erring fury flew. &c. Headlong he falls: his sudden fall alarms The steeds. The shaft already to his shoulder drew. Phoebus turn'd the flying wound. There. brave Archeptolemus! it tore." Gier.

With terror clothed. Till great Alaster. and Mecistheus. Thus following. With beating bosom. First of the foe. And his numb'd hand dismiss'd his useless bow. or fastens on his heels. Thus oft the Grecians turn'd. and more than mortal strong. As the bold hound. The Greeks repulsed. and circles as he wheels. He arm'd their hands. When flying they had pass'd the trench profound.248 The Iliad of Homer The furious chief discharged the craggy stone: The bow-string burst beneath the ponderous blow. Fierce on his rattling chariot Hector came: His eyes like Gorgon shot a sanguine flame That wither'd all their host: like Mars he stood: Dire as the monster. and fill'd their breasts with fire. Troy yet found grace before the Olympian sire. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground. retreat behind their wall. He fell: but Ajax his broad shield display'd. Or in the trench on heaps confusedly fall. great Hector march'd along. and called the gods to aid. and with eager pace. Then pensive thus. Guards as he turns. Before the ships a desperate stand they made. dreadful as the god! Their strong distress the wife of Jove survey'd. And screen'd his brother with the mighty shade. Hangs on his haunch. bore The batter'd archer groaning to the shore. And fired the troops. Hector still the hindmost slew. to war's triumphant maid: . that gives the lion chase. but still they flew.

The triple dog had never felt his chain. Shall wretched Greece no more confess our care. and still grows the rage!" So spake the imperial regent of the skies. he may be moved . I shot from heaven. Stretch'd by some Argive on his native shore: But he above. Mocks our attempts. And drain the dregs of heaven's relentless hate? Gods! shall one raging hand thus level all? What numbers fell! what numbers yet shall fall! What power divine shall Hector's wrath assuage? Still swells the slaughter. and my Greeks undone. in deep dismay. and slights our just demands. nor hell explored in vain. and gave his arm the day. perhaps. At Thetis' suit the partial Thunderer nods. his favourite son distress'd. To grace her gloomy. 249 "O daughter of that god. fierce. Some future day. Condemn'd to suffer the full force of fate. in this moment of her last despair. with tears he begg'd. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. By stern Eurystheus with long labours press'd? He begg'd. Averse to me of all his heaven of gods. The stubborn god. Oh had my wisdom known this dire event. To whom the goddess with the azure eyes: "Long since had Hector stain'd these fields with gore. inflexible and hard. withstands. resenting son. the sire of heaven. Nor Styx been cross'd. Forgets my service and deserved reward: Saved I. My hopes are frustrate. When to grim Pluto's gloomy gates he went.BOOK VIII. for this. and shake the sable shield! Now.

The sun's bright portals and the skies command. the clouds divide. strong! that when her fury burns Proud tyrants humbles. with art immortal crown'd. and Juno rein'd the steeds with care: (Heaven's awful empress. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers. All dreadful in the crimson walks of war! What mighty Trojan then. Heaven's golden gates. on yonder shore. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends: Shook by her arm. launch thy chariot. Close. Saturn's other heir:) Pallas.250 The Iliad of Homer To call his blue-eyed maid his best beloved. and spreads the court of Jove. that man of men) When Juno's self. Smooth glides the chariot through the liquid sky. Expiring. and thunder at thy side. or unfold. goddess! say. The sounding hinges ring. pale. shall Hector glory then? (That terror of the Greeks. her various veil unbound. and terrible no more. The radiant robe her sacred fingers wove Floats in rich waves. Her father's arms her mighty limbs invest. Haste. the eternal gates of day Bar heaven with clouds. kept by the winged Hours. and glut the dogs with gore?" She ceased. and Pallas shall appear. With flowers adorn'd. [152] . Myself will arm. through yon ranks to ride. Commission'd in alternate watch they stand. and whole hosts o'erturns. Shall feast the fowls. the massy javelin bends: Huge. meanwhile. or roll those clouds away. Saturnia lends the lash. Then. Prone down the steep of heaven their course they guide. the coursers fly. ponderous. His cuirass blazes on her ample breast.

scatter'd o'er the sky: My lightning these rebellious shall confound. "Thaumantia! mount the winds. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire." [153] . But Jove. headlong. So shall Minerva learn to fear our ire. incensed. She claims some title to transgress our will. headstrong and imperious still. And thus enjoin'd the many-colour'd maid. Against the highest who shall wage the war? If furious yet they dare the vain debate. and what I speak is fate: Their coursers crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. from Ida's top survey'd. For Juno. to the ground. and stop their car. Condemn'd for ten revolving years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. 251 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS.BOOK VIII. Their car in fragments. Thus have I spoke. And hurl them flaming.

flaming. and shake the dreadful shield No more let beings of superior birth Contend with Jove for this low race of earth. Your car in fragments scatter'd o'er the sky. And hurl ye headlong. "What frenzy goddesses! what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist. There meets the chariot rushing down the skies. and Juno thus her rage resign'd: "O daughter of that god. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt.252 The Iliad of Homer Swift as the wind. Your horses crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. and know his word shall stand: His lightning your rebellion shall confound. Yourselves condemn'd ten rolling years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. obedient to his high command: This is his word. And. And speaks the mandate of the sire of gods. So shall Minerva learn to fear his ire. ever rule mankind. For Juno. to the ground." . now miserably slain. what desperate insolence has driven To lift thy lance against the king of heaven?" Then. They breathe or perish as the fates ordain: But Jove's high counsels full effect shall find. To great Olympus' shining gate she flies. mounting on the pinions of the wind. headstrong and imperious still. She flew. She claims some title to transgress his will: But thee. the various-colour'd maid From Ida's top her golden wings display'd. Restrains their progress from the bright abodes. ever constant. Triumphant now.

they rest in high celestial stalls. There tied. The pensive goddesses. The Hours unloosed them. 'Twas Neptune's charge his coursers to unbrace. And fix the car on its immortal base. and reach the sky. abash'd. and heavenly bright.BOOK VIII. 253 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. controll'd. The chariot propp'd against the crystal walls. and fill their seats of gold. Till with a snowy veil he screen'd the blaze. There stood the chariot. And heap'd their mangers with ambrosial food. the wheels instinctive fly. Mix with the gods. beaming forth its rays. And now the Thunderer meditates his flight From Ida's summits to the Olympian height. and backward turn'd her steeds of light. She spoke. Adorn'd with manes of gold. [154] . Swifter than thought. panting as they stood. Flame through the vast of air.

And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes. replies: "What hast thou said. if our arms we take. High heaven the footstool of his feet he makes. But know. [155] . Cut off. With arms unaiding see our Argives slain. For Greece we grieve.254 The Iliad of Homer He. The prudent goddess yet her wrath repress'd." Juno and Pallas grieving hear the doom. Trembling afar the offending powers appear'd. But feast their souls on Ilion's woes to come. and in your wrath expired. whose all-conscious eyes the world behold. On this our hill no more shall hold his place. Yet grant our counsels still their breasts may move. Confused and silent. What power soe'er provokes our lifted hand. and exiled from the ethereal race. impotent of rage. O tyrant of the skies! Strength and omnipotence invest thy throne. But Juno. He saw their soul. abandon'd by her fate To drink the dregs of thy unmeasured hate. 'Tis thine to punish. whoe'er almighty power withstand! Unmatch'd our force. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. ours to grieve alone. for his frown they fear'd. and what I speak shall stand. enthroned in gold. why heave your hearts? Soon was your battle o'er: proud Troy retired Before your face. unconquer'd is our hand: Who shall the sovereign of the skies control? Not all the gods that crown the starry pole. and thus his word imparts: "Pallas and Juno! say. The eternal Thunderer sat. And each immortal nerve with horror shake. For thus I speak. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. Your hearts shall tremble.

for what I will. And arm in vain. Shall see the almighty Thunderer in arms. and view in vain. The navy flaming. Those radiant eyes shall view. Where on her utmost verge the seas resound. shall stand. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there. and thus the god replies. if thy wilt. Who swells the clouds. Fast by the brink. Even till the day when certain fates ordain That stern Achilles (his Patroclus slain) Shall rise in vengeance. What heaps of Argives then shall load the plain. and blackens all the skies: "The morning sun." 255 The goddess thus. . awaked by loud alarms. to earth's remotest bound. Nor shall great Hector cease the rage of fight. Where cursed Iapetus and Saturn dwell. Lest all should perish in the rage of Jove. and lay waste the plain. nor canst thou turn its course With all thy rage.BOOK VIII. For such is fate. And drew behind the cloudy veil of night: The conquering Trojans mourn his beams decay'd. No cheerful gales refresh the lazy air: There arm once more the bold Titanian band. and thy Greeks in flight. The Greeks rejoicing bless the friendly shade." Now deep in ocean sunk the lamp of light. within the streams of hell. Fly. with all thy rebel force.

Greece on her sable ships attempt her flight. Obey the night. thus reveal'd his mind: "Ye valiant Trojans. Where thinly scatter'd lay the heaps of dead. we hoped. And strengthening bread and generous wine be brought Wide o'er the field.256 The Iliad of Homer The victors keep the field. give ear! This day. that long hence may ask their spouses' care. with attention hear! Ye Dardan bands. But darkness now. and their prince surround. Not unmolested let the wretches gain Their lofty decks. Wounds. [156] . A massy spear he bore of mighty strength. or safely cleave the main. Attend his order. and crown our toils with fame. and refresh our powers. to save the cowards. high blazing to the sky. Straight from the town be sheep and oxen sought. Fix'd to the wood with circling rings of gold: The noble Hector on his lance reclined. And. falls. Till the bright morn her purple beam displays. Let numerous fires the absent sun supply. And guards them trembling in their wooden walls. The flaming piles with plenteous fuel raise. would wrap in conquering flame Greece with her ships. Some hostile wound let every dart bestow. Some lasting token of the Phrygian foe. The point was brass. in the silence and the shades of night. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. and generous aids. These to Scamander's bank apart he led. descending on the ground. Lest. and use her peaceful hours Our steeds to forage. The assembled chiefs. and Hector calls A martial council near the navy walls. refulgent to behold. bending forward.

Like Pallas worshipp'd. The gods. Suffice. To bid the sires with hoary honours crown'd.BOOK VIII. these orders to obey. the watery way: For Trojan vultures a predestined prey. the last they shall enjoy. From age inglorious. oh! might my days endure. Let sacred heralds sound the solemn call. Then. Sheathed in bright arms let every troop engage. Firm be the guard. The insidious foe the naked town invade. while distant lie our powers. and black death secure. Our common safety must be now the care. shall give to Hector's hand From these detested foes to free the land. And let the matrons hang with lights the towers. and end the woes of Troy. like the sun renown'd! As the next dawn. with fates averse. And beardless youths. A nobler charge shall rouse the dawning day. Lest. I trust. under covert of the midnight shade. And the fired fleet behold the battle rage. to-night. Certain as this. And warn their children from a Trojan war. Shall crush the Greeks. 257 . our battlements surround. With this keen javelin shall his breast be gored. Now through the circuit of our Ilion wall." The leader spoke. Who plough'd. And prostrate heroes bleed around their lord. But soon as morning paints the fields of air. So might my life and glory know no bound. then shall Hector and Tydides prove Whose fates are heaviest in the scales of Jove. To-morrow's light (O haste the glorious morn!) Shall see his bloody spoils in triumph borne. From all his host around Shouts of applause along the shores resound.

198 O'er heaven's pure azure spreads her sacred light. "Struck by the lab'ring priests' uplifted hands The victims fall: to heav'n they make their pray'r. 198 "As when about the silver moon. When the unmeasured firmament bursts to disclose her light. because the cause in which they were engaged was unjust. and all-sustaining bread. . The curling vapours load the ambient air. When not a breath disturbs the deep serene." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. The troops exulting sat in order round. But vain their toil: the pow'rs who rule the skies Averse beheld the ungrateful sacrifice.258 The Iliad of Homer [157] Each from the yoke the smoking steeds untied. And beaming fires illumined all the ground. and her guilty race. And fix'd their headstalls to his chariot-side. refulgent lamp of night. 527. And all the signs in heaven are seene. With generous wine. And stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole. And even the lowly valleys joy to glitter in their sight. Around her throne the vivid planets roll." Chapman. that glad the shepherd's heart. vi. Ungrateful offering to the immortal powers!197 Whose wrath hung heavy o'er the Trojan towers: Nor Priam nor his sons obtain'd their grace. sqq. As when the moon. Proud Troy they hated. Full hecatombs lay burning on the shore: The winds to heaven the curling vapours bore. And stars shine cleare. Fat sheep and oxen from the town are led. O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed. And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene. when aire is free from winde. 197 —Ungrateful. to whose sweet beams high prospects on the brows Of all steepe hills and pinnacles thrust up themselves for shows.

And lighten glimmering Xanthus with their rays. Eye the blue vault. And shoot a shady lustre o'er the field. rejoicing in the sight. and tremble on the spires. And ardent warriors wait the rising morn. by fits. Loud neigh the coursers o'er their heaps of corn. the rocks in prospect rise. A thousand piles the dusky horrors gild. 259 [158] . The long reflections of the distant fires Gleam on the walls. Full fifty guards each flaming pile attend. thick flashes send. And tip with silver every mountain's head: Then shine the vales. Whose umber'd arms. and bless the useful light. So many flames before proud Ilion blaze.BOOK VIII. A flood of glory bursts from all the skies: The conscious swains.

.260 The Iliad of Homer THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES.

ARGUMENT. They make. and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles. on the Grecian part. and the troops betake themselves to sleep. and return to their country. Sat on each face. and Nestor seconds him. caused by Hector and the Trojans. which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem. but are rejected with roughness by Achilles. This book. 358. THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES.199 And heaven-bred horror. Thus joyful Troy maintain'd the watch of night. the station of the Grecian ships. very moving and pressing speeches. proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege." 199 . after the last day's defeat. p. Agamemnon. and sadden'd every heart. pale comrade of inglorious flight. but with the approval of Jove. in order to move him to a reconciliation. The scene lies on the sea-shore. Lexil. This flight of the Greeks. each of them. Diomed opposes this. was not a supernatural flight caused by the gods. according to Buttmann. He orders the guard to be strengthened. who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of. take up the space of one night. but "a great and general one.[159] BOOK IX. Agamemnon pursues this advice. and the next following. who are accompanied by old Phoenix. While fear. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp. and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. praising his wisdom and resolution.

Who shakes the feeble props of human trust. So Jove decrees. Words. . A safe return was promised to our toils. almighty lord of all! Jove.262 The Iliad of Homer [160] As from its cloudy dungeon issuing forth. Heaps waves on waves. Spread all your canvas. Himself his orders to the heralds bears. Our wealth. and bids the Ægean roar: This way and that the boiling deeps are toss'd: Such various passions urged the troubled host. And heavenly oracles believed in vain. mix'd with sighs. And towers and armies humbles to the dust. Haste to the joys our native country yields. all your oars employ. A double tempest of the west and north Swells o'er the sea. from a rock's tall head. and our glory lost. With more than vulgar grief he stood oppress'd. So silent fountains. Haste then. Great Agamemnon grieved above the rest. In solemn sadness and majestic grief. In sable streams soft-trickling waters shed. But bid in whispers: these surround their chief. at whose nod whole empires rise or fall. Superior sorrows swell'd his royal breast. With conquest honour'd and enrich'd with spoils: Now shameful flight alone can save the host. our people. Fellows in arms and princes of the war! Of partial Jove too justly we complain. To bid to council all the Grecian peers. thus bursting from his breast: "Ye sons of Greece! partake your leader's care. from Thracia's frozen shore. for ever quit these fatal fields. The king amidst the mournful circle rose: Down his wan cheek a briny torrent flows.

The laws of council bid my tongue be bold. The gods have made thee but by halves a king: They gave thee sceptres. if all Greece retire. To combat. A noble care the Grecians shall employ. and thus begun: "When kings advise us to renounce our fame. inglorious! from the embattled plain. that would suggest Fears like his own to every Grecian breast? Confiding in our want of worth." . and Sthenelus. Myself. Here Greece shall stay. A pensive scene! till Tydeus' warlike son Roll'd on the king his eyes. and a wide command. O chief! from whom our honours spring. Ships thou hast store. Is this a general's voice. till Troy or I expire. They gave dominion o'er the seas and land. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. and 'twas with God we came. Silent." 263 He said: deep silence held the Grecian band. Thou first. The Greeks stood witness. 'tis what our king commands. and defame my might: Nor from a friend the unkind reproach appear'd. all our army heard. First let him speak who first has suffer'd shame. and thou alone. he stands. The noblest power that might the world control They gave thee not—a brave and virtuous soul. The gods. Durst brand my courage. And if we fly. conquer. God bade us fight. Go thou. prince! thy wrath withhold. will fight for fame. Myself shall stay.BOOK IX. and extirpate Troy. and nearest to the main. in fields of fight. If I oppose thee. unmov'd in dire dismay they stand. or.

because with truth.264 The Iliad of Homer [161] He ceased. Applauding Greece with common voice approves. That wretch. A thought unfinish'd in that generous mind. p. and whose horrid joy. that monster. Kings thou canst blame. unworthy light." 200 . He spoke: the host in still attention heard:200 "O truly great! in whom the gods have join'd Such strength of body with such force of mind: In conduct. as in courage. and his kind destroy! This night. And voice to voice resounds Tydides' praise. assembled not with any power of peremptorily arresting mischievous resolves of the king. And yet those years that since thy birth have run Would hardly style thee Nestor's youngest son. These wholesome counsels which thy wisdom moves. refresh and fortify thy train. Wise Nestor then his reverend figure rear'd. or private care. Age bids me speak! nor shall the advice I bring Distaste the people. a bold but prudent youth: And blame even kings with praise. ii. you excel. Whose lust is murder. "The Homeric Council is a purely consultative body. who delights in war. observes. 91. Still first to act what you advise so well. Unfit for public rule. Then let me add what yet remains behind. or offend the king: "Cursed is the man. Unworthy property. but solely for his information and guidance. vol. To tear his country. and void of law and right. the Greeks loud acclamations raise. after noticing the modest calmness and respect with which Nestor addresses Agamemnon. Between the trench and wall let guards remain: Grote.

And Lycomed of Creon's noble line." Thus spoke the hoary sage: the rest obey. For happy counsels flow from sober feasts. Aphareus. 265 [162] . for wisdom long approved. But thou. Merion join. stood. And each bold chief a hundred spears commands. to short repasts they fall. Great is thy sway. The king of men. Then Nestor spoke. Convened the princes in his ample tent. And slowly rising. Wise. in arms renown'd: Next him. Swift through the gates the guards direct their way. or Greece must fall. Some line the trench. The fires they light. on public counsels bent. Troy must flame. and can close to-night? This dreadful interval determines all. Ialmen. Thy high commands must spirit all our wars. to council call the old. unmoved.BOOK IX. Ascalaphus. To-morrow. How near our fleet approach the Trojan fires! Who can. With Thracian wines recruit thy honour'd guests. The double offspring of the warrior-god: Deipyrus. Each seized a portion of the kingly feast. See what a blaze from hostile tents aspires. Seven were the leaders of the nightly bands. His son was first to pass the lofty mound. The generous Thrasymed. And such a monarch as can choose the best. and weighty are thy cares. behold the dreadful light? What eye beholds them. and others man the wall. But stay'd his hand when thirst and hunger ceased. O king. weighty counsels aid a state distress'd. thus the council moved. Be that the duty of the young and bold.

and lords of earth obey. Nor. Hear then a thought. Fain would my heart. which err'd through frantic rage. Bless'd in his love.201 Hear. O king! the counsels of my age attend. Heaven fights his war. by men and gods admired: Now seek some means his fatal wrath to end. with thee must end. At once my present judgment and my past. it is not unfrequent for the king to receive presents to purchase freedom from his wrath. To see no wholesome motion be withstood. Thee. And ratify the best for public good. though a meaner give advice. this wondrous hero stands. And millions own the care of thee and Heaven. durst dissuade. With prayers to move him. You wronged the man. and himself a host. But bold of soul. In the heroic times. If gifts immense his mighty soul can bow. and faithful. or with gifts to bend. That happy man. The wrathful chief and angry gods assuage. (Tacit." To whom the king. all ye Greeks. I first opposed. and I with reason own. Pronounce with judgment. not now conceived in haste. repine. whom Jove still honours most. and formed the income of the German. "With justice hast thou shown A prince's faults. Such gifts gradually became regular. and humbles all our bands. When from Pelides' tent you forced the maid. and make the wisdom thine. or immunity from his exactions. prince! it fits alike to speak and hear. With thee my cares begin. But follow it. when headlong fury fired.266 The Iliad of Homer "Monarch of nations! whose superior sway Assembled states. Germ. and witness what I vow. The laws and sceptres to thy hand are given. Is more than armies. with regard give ear. 201 [163] .

of which they for a long time answered the purpose. And still victorious in the dusty course. Purity. Briseis I resign. When Lesbos sank beneath the hero's arms: All these. 4). and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. brief as is the mention of Briseis in the Iliad.' (Hallam. and guiltless of my loves." &c. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. Middle Ages. Then shall he store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass his loaded navy's sides: Besides. (De Rep. says.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. 202 It may be observed. to buy his friendship. are features well contrasted with the rough. when counselling him to accept of presents and assist the Greeks. uninjured she removes. nor again. iii. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould: Seven sacred tripods. and other kings. ch. And solemn swear those charms were never mine. without presents. too. nor has felt the flame. the tutor of Achilles. 189) This fact frees Achilles from the apparent charge of sordidness. Pure from my arms. not to desist from his wrath. (Herodot. shall be paid.BOOK IX. Untouch'd she stay'd. or approve of his being so covetous as to receive presents from Agamemnon. Twelve steeds unmatch'd in fleetness and in force. unmatch'd in form divine. With all her charms. Skill'd in each art. should we commend Achilles himself. vi. x. but tender disposition of the hero. and small the part she plays—what little is said is pre-eminently calculated to enhance her fitness to be the bride of Achilles. p. pt. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. 'The feudal aids are the beginning of taxation.202 These instant shall be his. as if he spoke correctly. So. however.89). and retiring delicacy. (Rich were the man whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. Plato. 1. "We cannot commend Phoenix. . And join'd with these the long-contested maid. The same I chose for more than vulgar charms. that. in the middle ages. but. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race 267 Section 15) Persian.

who would enrich their lord by presents and tribute. And each well worthy of a royal bed. and Pherae him obey. I ask no presents. the Dolopes of Phthia. Him Enope. no reward for love: Myself will give the dower. 162. when he offers to transfer to Achilles seven towns inhabited by wealthy husbandmen. with power and justice crown'd. Along the verdant margin of the main There heifers graze. our honours share. There shall he reign. note. There shall he live my son. Æpea fair. And with Orestes' self divide my care. vol. than an authority over them. 203 —Laodice. And rule the tributary realms around. If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. and labouring oxen toil. Such as himself will choose. 204 "Agamemnon. the pastures Hira yields. And sacred Pedasus for vines renown'd. on Phoenix. . so vast a store As never father gave a child before. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields:204 The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain.203 And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair. Laodice and Iphigenia fair. or Iphigenia. Yet more—three daughters in my court are bred. And the same thing may be intimated when it is said that Peleus bestowed a great people. Seven ample cities shall confess his sway. who yield to none. Her let him choose whom most his eyes approve. Bold are the men. i Section 6. seems likewise to assume rather a property in them. is not mentioned by Homer. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. among the daughters of Agamemnon.268 The Iliad of Homer [164] With copious love shall crown his warm embrace. p."—Thirlwall's Greece. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. and generous is the soil. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. Iphianassa.

And sure all this may move his mighty soul. it fits him to obey. Since more than his my years. the grisly god. Let chosen delegates this hour be sent (Myself will name them) to Pelides' tent. and who hears no prayers. And such as fits a generous king to make. Great Ajax next. Lives dark and dreadful in deep hell's abodes. The reverend Nestor then: "Great Agamemnon! glorious king of men! Such are thy offers as a prince may take."206 [165] —Pray in deep silence." 206 —Purest hands. And mortals hate him.205 and with purest hands.BOOK IX. Yet more to sanctify the word you send. Pray in deep silence." 269 The monarch thus. as the worst of gods Great though he be. and Ithacus the sage. Rather: "use well-omened words. who never spares. All this I give. by offending the god. as Kennedy has explained it. his vengeance to control. Now pray to Jove to grant what Greece demands. Who feels no mercy. revered for hoary age. and more my sway. 205 . and one founded as much in nature as in tradition. Pluto. might defeat the object of their supplications. This is one of the most ancient superstitions respecting prayer. Let Hodius and Eurybates attend. Let Phoenix lead." or. which. "Abstain from expressions unsuitable to the solemnity of the occasion.

.270 The Iliad of Homer PLUTO.

And now. Then from the royal tent they take their way. where on the sandy bay The Myrmidonian tents and vessels lay. arrived. 271 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. The heralds bring The cleansing water from the living spring. . The youth with wine the sacred goblets crown'd. Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound. Much he advised them all. their embassy to bless. Forbids to offend. instructs them to apply. and all approved. Ulysses most. the godlike man they found. And large libations drench'd the sands around. They pour forth vows. ruler of the seas profound. The rite perform'd. the chiefs their thirst allay. and hear the roar Of murmuring billows on the sounding shore.BOOK IX. To deprecate the chief. He said. Through the still night they march. and save the host. Amused at ease. Whose liquid arms the mighty globe surround. To Neptune. Wise Nestor turns on each his careful eye. And calm the rage of stern Æacides.

To me more dear than all that bear the name. With like surprise arose Menoetius' son: Pelides grasp'd their hands." With that. And placed in seats with purple carpets spread. the chiefs beneath his roof he led. Or strong necessity. or urgent fear. Then thus—"Patroclus. crown a larger bowl. Placed in his tent. In silence waiting till he ceased the song. Of all the warriors yonder host can send. Leap'd from his seat. Unseen the Grecian embassy proceeds To his high tent. Mix purer wine. Patroclus only of the royal train. Welcome. as the chiefs he spied. Of polish'd silver was its costly frame. and open every soul. all hail! whatever brought you here. and listen'd long. and laid the harp aside. attends the lofty strain: Full opposite he sat. and these thy friend. Achilles starting." . the great Ulysses leads. and sings The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings.272 The Iliad of Homer [166] (The well wrought harp from conquered Thebae came. though Greeks! for not as foes ye came. and thus begun: "Princes. Thy friend most honours these.) With this he soothes his angry soul.

Achilles at the genial feast presides. to Phoenix Ajax gave the sign: Not unperceived. indulging in the social feast. Himself. and with skill divides. and orders every rite. Meanwhile Patroclus sweats. Amidst the greedy flames Patroclus threw. Each portion parts. and for the living fear. What scenes of slaughter in yon fields appear! The dead we mourn. His speech addressing to the godlike man. and instant thus began.BOOK IX. With bread the glittering canisters they load. But greater cares sit heavy on our souls. sheep. Ulysses crown'd with wine The foaming bowl. opposed to Ulysses full in sight. Greece on the brink of fate all doubtful stands. 273 [167] . The tent is brighten'd with the rising blaze: Then. That. and goat contains. The first fat offering to the immortals due. Agamemnon's regal tent affords. He strows a bed of glowing embers wide. Above the coals the smoking fragments turns And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urns. His thirst and hunger soberly repress'd. the fire to raise. when the languid flames at length subside. Which flesh of porker. Nor eased by banquets or by flowing bowls. The parts transfixes. "Health to Achilles! happy are thy guests! Not those more honour'd whom Atrides feasts: Though generous plenty crown thy loaded boards. Then each. He said: Patroclus o'er the blazing fire Heaps in a brazen vase three chines entire: The brazen vase Automedon sustains. That done. Which round the board Menoetius' son bestow'd.

Their threatening tents already shade our wall: Hear how with shouts their conquest they proclaim. and this the fatal day? Return. If in that heart or grief or courage lies. Rise to redeem. yet to conquer. with glory. O prince divinely brave! Those wholesome counsels which thy father gave. Thy arms may Juno and Minerva bless! Trust that to Heaven: but thou. And point at every ship their vengeful flame! For them the father of the gods declares. and success. Lest Fate accomplish all his rage design'd! And must we. Achilles: oh return.274 The Iliad of Homer And owns no help but from thy saving hands: Troy and her aids for ready vengeance call. Heavens! how my country's woes distract my mind. When Peleus in his aged arms embraced His parting son. the Greeks. avenging Hector rise! See! heaven and earth the raging chief defies. and stop the course of Fate. . To save thy Greeks. gods! our heads inglorious lay In Trojan dust. what lightning in his eyes! He waits but for the morn. and all the Grecian name. full of Jove. Theirs are his omens. What fury in his breast. to sink in flame The ships. when. ah. thy cares engage To calm thy passions. rise! The day may come. and subdue thy rage: From gentler manners let thy glory grow. That young and old may in thy praise combine. See. and his thunder theirs. all our warriors slain. And shun contention. these accents were his last: "'My child! with strength. that courage rise in vain: Regard in time. That heart shall melt. the sure source of woe. though late.

and guiltless of his loves. All these. to buy thy friendship shall be paid. Gifts worthy thee his royal hand prepares. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. Skill'd in each art. Pure from his arms. The same he chose for more than vulgar charms. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould.BOOK IX. 275 [168] . whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race With copious love shall crown thy warm embrace. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. With all her charms. while I number o'er The proffer'd presents. And solemn swear those charms were only thine. the long-contested maid. uninjured she removes.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. Such as thyself shall chose. and be truly brave. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. unmatch'd in form divine. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. Untouch'd she stay'd. Then shalt thou store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass thy loaded navy's sides. And. If thou wilt yield to great Atrides' prayers. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. The virtues of humanity be thine—' This now-despised advice thy father gave. When Lesbos sank beneath thy conquering arms. If not—but hear me. Briseis he'll resign. Seven sacred tripods. Besides. Twelve steeds unmatched in fleetness and in force. (Rich were the man. nor has felt the flame. an exhaustless store. join'd with these. And still victorious in the dusty course. Ah! check thy anger. who yield to none. These instant shall be thine.

his honour share. Such the repentance of a suppliant king. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields. the unequal fight demands. The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. and whole hosts retire. relentless. There shalt thou reign. now.276 The Iliad of Homer [169] If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. the pastures Hira yields. Such are the proffers which this day we bring. The Enope and Pherae thee obey. with power and justice crown'd. and labouring oxen toil. Hear thy own glory. Yet more—three daughters in his court are bred. And each well worthy of a royal bed: Laodice and Iphigenia fair. amongst her guardian gods. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. Seven ample cities shall confess thy sway. and the voice of fame: For now that chief. for vines renown'd: Æpea fair. and generous is the soil. thou disdain. no reward for love: Himself will give the dower. And with Orestes' self divide his care. And sacred Pedasus. If no regard thy suffering country claim. And rule the tributary realms around. And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair: Her shalt thou wed whom most thy eyes approve. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. Along the verdant margin of the main. Yet some redress to suppliant Greece afford. Proud Hector. There heifers graze. He asks no presents. There shalt thou live his son. But if all this. whose unresisted ire Made nations tremble. And be. . adored. If honour and if interest plead in vain. Bold are the men.

From danger guards them. hear A faithful speech. that the war at Troy was not a settled siege. The wretch and hero find their prize the same. From the following verses. Fight or not fight.BOOK IX. Such a one was that of which Achilles now speaks. Of all my dangers. Long toils.207 277 It must be recollected. Let Greece then know. Long sleepless nights in heavy arms I stood. it is evident that fruits of these maraudings went to the common support of the expedition. A life of labours. a like reward we claim. and that many of the chieftains busied themselves in piratical expeditions about its neighborhood. Which nor Atrides nor his Greeks can bend. And with the untasted food supplies her care: For thankless Greece such hardships have I braved. My tongue shall utter. And sweat laborious days in dust and blood. lo! what fruit remains? As the bold bird her helpless young attends. or who bravely dies. and from want defends. But now the unfruitful glories charm no more. all my glorious pains. What in my secret soul is understood. My heart detests him as the gates of hell. her infants. long perils in their cause I bore. In search of prey she wings the spacious air. I sack'd twelve ample cities on the main. And only triumphs to deserve thy hands. by my labours saved. that knows nor art nor fear. my purpose I retain: Nor with new treaties vex my peace in vain. Who yields ignobly. "Then thus in short my fix'd resolves attend. Alike regretted in the dust he lies. and my deeds make good. and another tell. 207 . Who dares think one thing." Then thus the goddess-born: "Ulysses. Her wives. and not to the successful plunderer.

of Greece to Troy? What to these shores the assembled nations draws. Your mighty monarch these in peace possess'd. What calls for vengeance but a woman's cause? Are fair endowments and a beauteous face Beloved by none but those of Atreus' race? The wife whom choice and passion doth approve. Deceived for once. Ulysses. And every prince enjoys the gift he made: I only must refund. let him (as he may) enjoy. Wrong'd in my love. Your king. See what pre-eminence our merits gain! My spoil alone his greedy soul delights: My spouse alone must bless his lustful nights: The woman. nor dared to wait . all proffers I disdain. to every prince was paid. and the spoils I made. Slave as she was. But what's the quarrel. What needs he the defence this arm can make? Has he not walls no human force can shake? Has he not fenced his guarded navy round With piles. I trust not kings again. himself the rest. too. Ye have my answer—what remains to do. Some present. then. of all his train. Sure every wise and worthy man will love.278 The Iliad of Homer [170] And twelve lay smoking on the Trojan plain: Then at Atrides' haughty feet were laid The wealth I gathered. and a trench profound? And will not these (the wonders he has done) Repel the rage of Priam's single son? There was a time ('twas when for Greece I fought) When Hector's prowess no such wonders wrought. my soul adored the dame. may consult with you. He kept the verge of Troy. Nor did my fair one less distinction claim. Some few my soldiers had. with ramparts.

No—let the stupid prince. run where frenzy drives. whom Jove deprives Of sense and justice. Not though he proffer'd all himself possess'd.BOOK IX. all commerce I decline. all terms. the steel. The third day hence shall Pthia greet our sails. One only valued gift your tyrant gave. And meditates new cheats on all his slaves. And hear with oars the Hellespont resound. and scarce was saved by fate. He tried it once. And all his rapine could from others wrest: Not all the golden tides of wealth that crown 208 279 [171] —Pthia.) Tell him. His gifts are hateful: kings of such a kind Stand but as slaves before a noble mind. But now those ancient enmities are o'er. And that resumed—the fair Lyrnessian slave. and shining brass: My beauteous captives thither I'll convey. Though shameless as he is. And all that rests of my unravish'd prey. Then tell him: loud. For once deceiv'd. was his. Then shall you see our parting vessels crown'd. but twice were mine. To-morrow we the favouring gods implore. And learn to scorn the wretch they basely fear. . mankind he braves. (For arm'd in impudence. The ruddy gold. nor his battle join. Pthia to her Achilles shall restore The wealth he left for this detested shore: Thither the spoils of this long war shall pass. Nor share his council. Achilles' fury at the Scaean gate. that all the Greeks may hear.208 If mighty Neptune send propitious gales. the capital of Achilles' Thessalian domains. to face these eyes Is what he dares not: if he dares he dies.

The reverend Peleus shall elect my wife. was a sufficient reason for its prosperity and decay. 181).) 210 The phrase "hundred gates. Content with just hereditary sway. or sands along the shore. 162. the water accumulated in such a degree as to occupy the soil of more than one ancient islet. Like golden Venus though she charm'd the heart.210 Though bribes were heap'd on bribes. Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars From each wide portal issuing to the wars). a large portion of the lake was in the condition of alluvial land.280 The Iliad of Homer [172] The many-peopled Orchomenian town. p. Bless'd in kind love. If heaven restore me to my realms with life. But when the channels came to be either neglected. And kings that sue to mix their blood with mine. "situated.. p. seems to be merely expressive of a great number. 'Tis he that offers. And vied with Pallas in the works of art. Should all these offers for my friendship call. or designedly choked up by an enemy. And pours her heroes through a hundred gates. "on the northern bank of the lake Æpais. The world's great empress on the Egyptian plain (That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states. —Orchomenian town. my years shall glide away. 209 . pre-eminently rich and fertile. in number more Than dust in fields. The topography of Orchomenus. See notes to my prose translation. but also other rivers from Parnassus and Helicon" (Grote.209 Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain. which receives not only the river Cephisus from the valleys of Phocis. Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace." (Ibid. Atrides' daughter never shall be led (An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed. I hate alliance with a tyrant's race." &c. and to occasion the change of the site of Orchomenus itself from the plain to the declivity of Mount Hyphanteion." as it was. vol. in Boeotia. Thessalian nymphs there are of form divine. and I scorn them all. "As long as the channels of these waters were diligently watched and kept clear.

and his will be free. Go then—digest my message as ye may— But here this night let reverend Phoenix stay: His tedious toils and hoary hairs demand A peaceful death in Pthia's friendly land. proposed. their native seats enjoy. There. His age be sacred. all your arts conspire. And warn the Greeks the wiser choice to make. I find my fond mistake. Convinced. from fire. Returns no more to wake the silent dead. And each alternate. Let all your forces. though late. But whether he remain or sail with me. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. and others will: Ye find. Go then to Greece.BOOK IX. but deathless my renown: If I return. I quit immortal praise For years on years. One stratagem has fail'd. and long-extended days. To quit these shores. Achilles is unconquer'd still. Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain. if I stay. in peace and pride of sway. Short is my date. all your armies join. Jove's arm display'd asserts her from the skies! Her hearts are strengthen'd. Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold. the chiefs. To save the ships. before the Trojan town. Or Troy once held. And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled. Here. the troops." 281 . Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold. life or fame. Enjoy the dear prerogative of life. deaf for ever to the martial strife. and her glories rise. report our fix'd design. My fates long since by Thetis were disclosed. Bid all your counsels.

Then Phoenix rose. Attend the stern reply.282 The Iliad of Homer GREEK GALLEY. .) And while the fate of suffering Greece he mourn'd. (Down his white beard a stream of sorrow flows. The son of Peleus ceased: the chiefs around In silence wrapt. in consternation drown'd. With accent weak these tender words return'd.


Then meditate my flight: my friends in vain With prayers entreat me. our fleets on fire? If wrath so dreadful fill thy ruthless mind. that breathed my life. adored a stranger's charms.284 The Iliad of Homer [173] "Divine Achilles! wilt thou then retire. ah. 'Ye furies! barren be his bed. thy Phoenix. Thy youth as then in sage debates unskill'd. They daily feast. On fat of rams. .' Infernal Jove. confirm'd his vow. My father faithless to my mother's arms. and no fate divide. Despair and grief distract my labouring mind! Gods! what a crime my impious heart design'd! I thought (but some kind god that thought suppress'd) To plunge the poniard in my father's breast. never let me leave thy side! No time shall part us. Not though the god. I tried what youth could do (at her desire) To win the damsel. and brawny swine. black bulls. And leave our hosts in blood. How shall thy friend. with draughts of fragrant wine. And ruthless Proserpine. restore The bloom I boasted. and watch'd nine nights entire. Strong guards they placed. the vengeful fiends below. Never. And new to perils of the direful field: He bade me teach thee all the ways of war. My sire with curses loads my hated head. and with force detain. When Greece of old beheld my youthful flames (Delightful Greece. and the port I bore. And cries. Old as he was. when from Pthia's coast He sent thee early to the Achaian host. stay behind? The royal Peleus. To shine in councils. and prevent my sire. the land of lovely dames). and in camps to dare.

II ix. but a hero gave. From thy sweet lips the half articulate sound Of Father came. Your sire received me. No food was grateful but from Phoenix' hand. Mewling and puking didst thou drench my tunic. And early wisdom to thy soul convey'd: Great as thou art." "And the wine Held to thy lips." "This description. and oft. With gifts enrich'd. artificial taste. The strong Dolopians thenceforth own'd my reign. I forced the gates. affecting) circumstance. and many a time in fits Of infant frowardness the purple juice 211 . 121) "is taken from the passage of Homer. unseen of all: And. And all the coast that runs along the main.— "Many gifts he gave. omits the natural (and. as children use. by Phoenix wouldst thou stand.211 285 [174] Compare the following pretty lines of Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Select Translations. thee in his arms He brought an infant." observes my learned friend (notes. The roofs and porches flamed with constant fire. in translating which. p 88). and o'er Dolopia bade me rule. I fail'd not in my trust And oft. while round my neck thy hands were lock'd. In Phthia's court at last my labours end. favour'd by the night. The tenth. my lessons made thee brave: A child I took thee. as his son caress'd. Still in my arms (an ever-pleasing load) Or at my knee. and with possessions bless'd. and anxiously enjoin'd That I should rear thee as my own with all A parent's love. which distinguished the age of Anne. Pope. p. on my bosom laid The precious charge. My travels thence through spacious Greece extend. let me add. By love to thee his bounties I repaid.BOOK IX. Thy infant breast a like affection show'd. with that squeamish. o'erleap'd the wall.

O let not headlong passion bear the sway These reconciling goddesses obey Due honours to the seed of Jove belong. and tramples o'er mankind. and with dejected eyes. Injustice swift. With humble mien. Now be thy rage. thy fatal rage. Constant they follow.286 The Iliad of Homer [175] I pass my watchings o'er thy helpless years. Were rage still harbour'd in the haughty king. erect. Who hears these daughters of almighty Jove. For him they mediate to the throne above When man rejects the humble suit they make. Prayers are Jove's daughters. From Jove commission'd." —Cowper. and bend the strong. and sacrifice. resign'd. and only wise) Are moved by offerings. where injustice flies. Were these not paid thee by the terms we bring. the compliant cares. The sire revenges for the daughters' sake. The gods (I thought) reversed their hard decree. While Prayers. And daily prayers atone for daily sins. Sweeps the wide earth. Due honours calm the fierce. move slow behind. And promised comfort to my silver hairs. and unconfined. to heal her wrongs. And fill'd my bosom. . of celestial race. Offending man their high compassion wins. And Phoenix felt a father's joys in thee: Thy growing virtues justified my cares. and wrinkled is their face. The tender labours. fierce injustice then Descends to punish unrelenting men. A cruel heart ill suits a manly mind: The gods (the only great. Rejecting thou hast deluged all my vest. Lame are their feet. vows.

Strong as they were. p. The best and noblest of the Grecian train. —Where Calydon. and sue in vain! Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold. a new debate arose. for his spoils. Then. and for the authorities. vol. too long to be inserted here. Hear what our fathers were. 195. Nor Greece nor all her fortunes should engage Thy friend to plead against so just a rage.BOOK IX. 287 "Where Calydon on rocky mountains stands212 Once fought the Ætolian and Curetian bands. While Meleager's thundering arm prevail'd: Till rage at length inflamed his lofty breast (For rage invades the wisest and the best).. But since what honour asks the general sends. On OEneus fields she sent a monstrous boar. and what their praise. see my notes to the prose translation. p. To guard it those. Who conquer'd their revenge in former days. sqq. And sends by those whom most thy heart commends. For a good sketch of the story of Meleager. And mutual deaths were dealt with mutual chance. the bold Curetes fail'd. i. see Grote. The silver Cynthia bade contention rise. In vengeance of neglected sacrifice. Permit not these to sue. and whole forests tore: This beast (when many a chief his tusks had slain) Great Meleager stretch'd along the plain. The neighbour nations thence commencing foes. That levell'd harvests. A great example drawn from times of old. to conquer. 166. these advance. 212 .

From Cleopatra changed their daughter's name.288 The Iliad of Homer [176] "Cursed by Althaea. divinely fair. And call'd Alcyone. Half pasture green. and thunders at her gates. more than man in war: The god of day adored the mother's charms. sues. and supplicating tears. and call'd the powers beneath On her own son to wreak her brother's death. Priests of the gods. . his friends before him fall: He stands relentless. the mourning mother's woe. War shakes her walls. a name to show The father's grief. In vain Ætolia her deliverer waits. But found no peace from fierce Althaea's hate: Althaea's hate the unhappy warrior drew. Meanwhile the victor's shouts ascend the skies. She sent ambassadors. Besought the chief to save the sinking state: Their prayers were urgent. She beat the ground. Whose luckless hand his royal uncle slew.) To her the chief retired from stern debate. With piercing cries. their sorrows to proclaim. to his wrath he yields. Against the god the father bent his arms: The afflicted pair. The walls are scaled. and their proffers great: (Full fifty acres of the richest ground. and rejects them all. And the red fiends that walk the nightly round. His sisters follow'd. came. the rolling flames arise. even the vengeful dame. Hell heard her curses from the realms profound. Althaea. And matchless Idas. At length his wife (a form divine) appears. (She from Marpessa sprung. aged OEneus. and half with vineyards crown'd:) His suppliant father. and elders of the land. And in his wife's embrace forgets the fields. a chosen band.

betimes to curb pernicious ire. Accept the presents. and favours my designs. 'tis a generous part.BOOK IX. and my reverend guide: Thy friend. believe me. he vanquish'd. And asks no honours from a mortal's hands. One should our interests and our passions be. and lodge it in thy heart: No more molest me on Atrides' part: Is it for him these tears are taught to flow. the palaces o'erthrown. The heroes slain. with one resentment glows. draw thy conquering sword. Burns with one love. and he saved." . Jove honours me. and his will confines. or our stay. my Phoenix. And share my realms. For him these sorrows? for my mortal foe? A generous friendship no cold medium knows. The Ætolians. no such gifts demands. My friend must hate the man that injures me. the whole race enslaved: The warrior heard. She paints the horrors of a conquer'd town." 289 Thus he: the stern Achilles thus replied: "My second father. The matrons ravish'd. And here I stay (if such his high behest) While life's warm spirit beats within my breast. Nor stay till yonder fleets ascend in fire. Learn hence. Yet hear one word. my honours. And be amongst our guardian gods adored. and my heart. Do this. His pleasure guides me. Rest undetermined till the dawning day. And left the chief their broken faith to mourn. Let these return: our voyage. long disdain'd. now took their turn.

and his friends disdains. then order'd for the sage's bed A warmer couch with numerous carpets spread." "Gifts can conquer"—It is well observed by Bishop Thirlwall." vol. his words we must relate. Achilles! be of better mind. And cursed thee with a mind that cannot yield. On just atonement. and to thy guests be kind. Stern and unpitying! if a brother bleed. 180. the murderer lives: The haughtiest hearts at length their rage resign.290 The Iliad of Homer He ceased. "Greece. Proud as he is. nor to conceive that it left a stain which could only be washed away by blood. With that. we remit the deed." 213 . One woman-slave was ravish'd from thy arms: Lo. that iron heart retains Its stubborn purpose. i. Revere thy roof. A sire the slaughter of his son forgives. impatient. Even for real and deep injuries they were commonly willing to accept a pecuniary compensation. And know the men of all the Grecian host. And gifts can conquer every soul but thine. to Ulysses spoke: [177] "Hence let us go—why waste we time in vain? See what effect our low submissions gain! Liked or not liked. that the law of honour among the Greeks did not compel them to treasure up in their memory the offensive language which might be addressed to them by a passionate adversary. and our heroes wait. and prize thy valour most. seven are offer'd. p.213 The gods that unrelenting breast have steel'd. Then hear. The Greeks expect them. Who honour worth. The price of blood discharged. stern Ajax his long silence broke. and of equal charms. And thus.

Achilles to his friend consign'd her charms When Scyros fell before his conquering arms. "O soul of battles.BOOK IX. then. The chiefs return. dishonour'd. each prince a double goblet crown'd. divine Ulysses leads." 291 This said. an ampler space. through the gloomy shades. and becomes the brave: Disgraced. Just there. And cast a large libation on the ground. Then to their vessels. Not till. but at the tyrant's name My rage rekindles. In slumber sweet the reverend Phoenix lay. and my soul's on flame: 'Tis just resentment. carpets. like the vilest slave! Return. and thy people's guide! (To Ajax thus the first of Greeks replied) Well hast thou spoke. heroes! and our answer bear. The blood of Greeks shall dye the sable main. the impetuous homicide shall stand. Achilles slept. The glorious combat is no more my care. and soft linen spread: There. by Hector's fury thrown. and there feel our hand. Meantime Achilles' slaves prepared a bed. [178] . till the sacred morn restored the day. But in his inner tent. and approach my own. With fleeces. Whose nightly joys the beauteous Iphis shared. and in his warm embrace Fair Diomede of the Lesbian race. amidst yon sinking navy slain. for Patroclus was the couch prepared. Last. There cease his battle. Consume your vessels. Not till the flames.

Beneath his oars the whitening billows fly. His age is sacred. with goblets in their hands. The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands Hail'd their return: Atrides first begun: "Say what success? divine Laertes' son! Achilles' high resolves declare to all: "Returns the chief. These sacred heralds and great Ajax heard. and reach'd the royal tent. thy proposals scorns. Pass'd through the hosts. and our fleets to free. Us too he bids our oars and sails employ. Your eyes shall view. He slights thy friendship." . To save our army. unconquer'd is his pride. Safe to transport him to his native plains When morning dawns. Nor hope the fall of heaven-protected Troy. Such was his word: what further he declared. or must our navy fall?" "Great king of nations! (Ithacus replied) Fix'd is his wrath. with fiercer fury burns. and his choice is free. thus implored. and bids her glory shine. Then rising all. if other he decree. when morning paints the sky. but left to Greece and thee. Is not his care. For Jove o'ershades her with his arm divine. But Phoenix in his tent the chief retains. And.292 The Iliad of Homer And now the elected chiefs whom Greece had sent. Inspires her war.

Ranged at the ships. in consternation lost. Tydides broke The general silence. With sorrow seized.BOOK IX. Our battles let him or desert or aid. The first in danger." 293 [179] Shouts of acclaim the listening heroes raise. "Why should we gifts to proud Achilles send. Ulysses ceased: the great Achaian host. Attend the stern reply. Then each to Heaven the due libations pays."—Milton . descending o'er the tents."214 214 "The boon of sleep. as in high command. And prayers will burst that swelling heart with pride. Till sleep. let all our squadrons shine In flaming arms. Be the fierce impulse of his rage obey'd. a long-extended line: In the dread front let great Atrides stand. to his madness. or to Heaven commit: What for ourselves we can. Or strive with prayers his haughty soul to bend? His country's woes he glories to deride. bestows The grateful blessings of desired repose. This night. And those are owed to generous wine and food. Then let him arm when Jove or he think fit: That.) But when the rosy messenger of day Strikes the blue mountains with her golden ray. let due repast refresh our powers. and undaunted spoke. (For strength consists in spirits and in blood. is always ours.

294 The Iliad of Homer ACHILLES. .

[180] BOOK X. the scene lies in the two camps. Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army. with which they return in triumph to the camp. 767. ARGUMENT. and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. In their passage they surprise Dolon. Ulysses. the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. The same night continues. and the Thracians who were lately arrived. but passes through the camp. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise. and seize the famous horses of that prince. Menelaus. And lost in sleep the labours of the day: All but the king: with various thoughts oppress'd. and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. They call a council of war. and particularly of Rhesus. From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces. He takes no rest that night. and determine to send scouts into the enemies' camp. awaking the leaders. iv. Nestor. and contriving all possible methods for the public safety. to learn their posture." —Dryden's Virgil. with several of his officers. .215 215 "All else of nature's common gift partake: Unhappy Dido was alone awake. kill Rhesus. All night the chiefs before their vessels lay. They pass on with success. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES. whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians. and discover their intentions.

or weighty shower. He rose. in sacrifice to Jove. And heaven flames thick with momentary fires: So bursting frequent from Atrides' breast. dejected. Next on his feet the shining sandals bound. His warlike hand a pointed javelin held. And marks distinct the voices of the foe. in wholesome counsels. With him. that in his cause before So much had suffer'd and must suffer more. A leopard's spotted hide his shoulders spread: A brazen helmet glitter'd on his head: . and wage a double war. Sighs following sighs his inward fears confess'd. to debate What yet remains to save the afflicted state. As when by lightnings Jove's ethereal power Foretels the rattling hail. Alike denied the gifts of soft repose. Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar. and first he cast his mantle round. press'd with equal woes. while glory and despair Divide his heart. Or sends soft snows to whiten all the shore. To seek sage Nestor now the chief resolves. A lion's yellow spoils his back conceal'd. he surveys From thousand Trojan fires the mounting blaze. And sues to him that ever lives above: Inly he groans. He rends his hair. Now looking backwards to the fleet and coast. Anxious he sorrows for the endangered host. Laments for Greece. A thousand cares his labouring breast revolves. Hears in the passing wind their music blow.296 The Iliad of Homer [181] His country's cares lay rolling in his breast. Meanwhile his brother. By fits one flash succeeds as one expires. Now o'er the fields.

His armour buckling at his vessel's side. And we beheld. alone. What eye has witness'd. Greece to preserve. deep design. To keep the guards on duty be his care. the last revolving sun What honours the beloved of Jove adorn! Sprung from no god. and the prince of Crete. what hero shall sustain that task? Such bold exploits uncommon courage ask.BOOK X. by one great arm achieved. Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair." 297 To whom the king: "In such distress we stand. And bows his head to Hector's sacrifice. There call great Ajax. Already waked. Guideless. But asks high wisdom. In one great day. Thus (with a javelin in his hand) he went To wake Atrides in the royal tent. is now no easy part. amidst these silent hours. Such wondrous deeds as Hector's hand has done. Joyful they met. "Now speed thy hasty course along the fleet. And midst a hostile camp explore the foe. and of no goddess born. our humble prayer denies. or what ear believed. Yet such his acts. Atrides he descried. and watch the Trojan powers? But say. To try yon camp. And curse the battle where their fathers fell. No vulgar counsel our affairs demand. For Jove. and art. [182] . averse. through night's dark shade to go. the Spartan thus begun: "Why puts my brother his bright armour on? Sends he some spy. as Greeks unborn shall tell.

") To whom the Spartan: "These thy orders borne. Not titles here. The sage protector of the Greeks he found Stretch'd in his bed with all his arms around The various-colour'd scarf. Forget we now our state and lofty birth. each parted to his several cares: The king to Nestor's sable ship repairs. The paths so many.298 The Iliad of Homer (For Nestor's influence best that quarter guides. The shining helmet. The hoary monarch raised his eyes and said: "What art thou. but thy purpose tell. or with despatch return?" "There shall thou stay. That. without a guide. and the pointed spears. old in arms. o'er the watch presides." . shall I stay. To labour is the lot of man below. Seek'st thou some friend or nightly sentinel? Stand off. he gave us woe.) Else may we miss to meet. leaning on his hand his watchful head. thus range the camp alone. Whose son with Merion. While others sleep. Then." This said. must prove our worth. the shield he rears. The dreadful weapons of the warrior's rage. and the camp so wide. (the king of men replied. approach not. Urge by their fathers' fame their future praise. Still. speak. with your voice the slothful soldiers raise. And when Jove gave us life. disdain'd the peace of age. Say. that on designs unknown. but works.

And scarce my heart support its load of pain. Nor think proud Hector's hopes confirm'd by Jove: How ill agree the views of vain mankind. deprive thy soul of rest. like mine. Diomed. And all my people's miseries are mine. What toils attend thee. 299 [183] . Confused. No taste of sleep these heavy eyes have known. The unhappy general of the Grecian bands. If aught of use thy waking thoughts suggest. Else may the sudden foe our works invade." To him thus Nestor: "Trust the powers above. Some other be despatch'd of nimbler feet. Whom Jove decrees with daily cares to bend. if the gods ordain That great Achilles rise and rage again.BOOK X. (Since cares. remotest of the fleet. The care is next our other chiefs to raise: Ulysses. Tired with the toils of day and watch of night. here the wretched Agamemnon stands. with no fix'd design. With fears distracted. I wander thus alone.) Impart thy counsel. "O son of Neleus. and sad. (thus the king rejoin'd. that only with his life shall end! Scarce can my knees these trembling limbs sustain. and assist thy friend. we chiefly need. Oileus famed for speed.) Pride of the Greeks. and what woes remain! Lo. Meges for strength. So near. and glory of thy kind! Lo. To those tall ships. And woes. At every gate the fainting guard excite. and favour'd by the gloomy shade. And the wise counsels of the eternal mind! Audacious Hector. faithful Nestor thy command obeys. Now let us jointly to the trench descend.

" With that. Then rushing from his tent. Warm with the softest wool. Through too much deference to our sovereign sway. Stopp'd at Ulysses' tent. For great examples justify command. He seems remiss." "Then none (said Nestor) shall his rule withstand. Near the night-guards. Long ere the rest he rose. yet learn to spare them now: My generous brother is of gentle kind. For strong necessity our toils demands. Claims all our hearts. Yet must I tax his sloth. Content to follow when we lead the way: But now. and sought my tent." To whom the king: "With reverence we allow Thy just rebukes. Preventing every part perform'd by you. already at his call. The shining greaves his manly legs enclose. our chosen council waits. The camp he traversed through the sleeping crowd. 216 —The king of Crete: Idomeneus. Assembling there. and call'd aloud.300 The Iliad of Homer Where lie great Ajax and the king of Crete. . that lighten'd as he pass'd. and doubly lined. and urges all our hands. Prepare to meet us near the navy-wall. His purple mantle golden buckles join'd. but bears a valiant mind. our ills industrious to prevent. and dear to thee. he snatch'd in haste His steely lance.216 To rouse the Spartan I myself decree. between the trench and gates. The chiefs you named. that claims no share With his great brother in his martial care: Him it behoved to every chief to sue. Dear as he is to us. the venerable warrior rose.

what sudden cause of fright. extended on the field. Then join'd the chiefs. Thus leads you wandering in the silent night?" "O prudent chief! (the Pylian sage replied) Wise as thou art. "What new distress. The warrior saw the hoary chief. and took his painted shield. when from yon hill the foe Hangs o'er the fleet. Without his tent. A bull's black hide composed the hero's bed. starts up. A splendid carpet roll'd beneath his head. fix'd upright. Let younger Greeks our sleeping warriors wake. Shot from their flashing points a quivering light. Ill fits thy age these toils to undertake. old Nestor gently shakes The slumbering chief. But sleep'st thou now. Though years and honours bid thee seek repose. son of Tydeus! to the brave and strong Rest seems inglorious. soft slumber from his eyelids fled. Awakes. and follow'd through the field. Ulysses. and the night too long. sudden as the voice was sent." 301 [184] . and shades our walls below?" At this. all depend on this important night!" He heard. Whatever counsels can inspire our thought. His head reclining on his bossy shield. with his foot. Whatever methods. A wood of spears stood by. or to fly or fight. All sheathed in arms. Then.BOOK X. be now thy wisdom tried: Whatever means of safety can be sought. his brave companions round: Each sunk in sleep. and issues from his tent. that. and said: "Wondrous old man! whose soul no respite knows. and in these words awakes: "Rise. return'd. All. bold Diomed they found.

So faithful dogs their fleecy charge maintain. He serves me most. A wakeful squadron. The warrior roused.) generous is thy care.302 The Iliad of Homer "My friend. When the gaunt lioness. These toils. in this conclusive strife. and more loud. And now the chiefs approach the nightly guard. Watch every side. they gaze around. Succeed to these my cares. Springs from the mountains toward the guarded fold: Through breaking woods her rustling course they hear. my subjects and my sons might bear. with hunger bold. drew their ears and eyes: Each step of passing feet increased the affright. each in arms prepared: The unwearied watch their listening leaders keep. that to his ankles hung. Then seized his ponderous lance." This said. And. the hero o'er his shoulders flung A lion's spoils. Loud. couching close. Their loyal thoughts and pious love conspire To ease a sovereign and relieve a sire: But now the last despair surrounds our host. who serves his country best. Meges the bold. the clamours strike their ear Of hounds and men: they start. if my years thy kind regard engage. [185] . repel invading sleep. and strode along. cautious of surprise. each motion. Employ thy youth as I employ my age. With toil protected from the prowling train. with Ajax famed for speed. and to the entrenchments lead. and turn to every sound. no moment must be lost. Stands on the sharpest edge of death or life: Yet. Each single Greek. No hour must pass. (he answered. and rouse the rest. Thus watch'd the Grecians. Each voice.

A place there was. And pass unharm'd the dangers of the night. and his country save? Lives there a man. Nestor with joy the wakeful band survey'd. And thus accosted through the gloomy shade. from his vengeful hand Reprieved the relics of the Grecian band: (The plain beside with mangled corps was spread. When night descending. What fame were his through all succeeding days. or seize some straggling foe? Or favour'd by the night approach so near. and to our peers recite. Then o'er the trench the following chieftains led. And hostile Troy was ever full in sight. Their speech. His son. His life to hazard. While Phoebus shines. yet undefiled with gore. The spot where Hector stopp'd his rage before. The council opening. who singly dares to go To yonder camp. march'd behind (For these the princes to their council join'd). Or Troy once more must be the seat of war? This could he learn. And all his progress mark'd by heaps of dead:) There sat the mournful kings: when Neleus' son. their counsels. and godlike Merion. the assembled kings around In silent state the consistory crown'd. in these words begun: "Is there (said he) a chief so greatly brave." The hero said. my sons! your nightly cares employ. and designs to hear? If to besiege our navies they prepare. Watch thus. "'Tis well. and Greece shall live. or men have tongues to praise! What gifts his grateful country would bestow! What must not Greece to her deliverer owe? 303 . Else must our host become the scorn of Troy. The trenches pass'd.BOOK X.

Tydides spoke—"The man you seek is here." Contending leaders at the word arose.304 The Iliad of Homer A sable ewe each leader should provide. Then thus the king of men the contest ends: "Thou first of warriors. And inly trembled for his brother's sake. Undaunted Diomed! what chief to join In this great enterprise. To birth. The Spartan wish'd the second place to gain. without affection made. and great discoveries made." The monarch spake. untaught to fear. At every rite his share should be increased. or office." [186] Fear held them mute: alone. And one brave hero fans another's fire. And his the foremost honours of the feast. Each generous breast with emulation glows. Bold Merion strove. But let some other chosen warrior join. With each a sable lambkin by her side. Through yon black camps to bend my dangerous way. is only thine. and second my design. nor wish'd in vain. . Great deeds are done. and thou best of friends. Let worth determine here. To raise my hopes. no respect be paid. Just be thy choice. and I obey. And great Ulysses wish'd. So brave a task each Ajax strove to share. and Nestor's valiant heir. By mutual confidence and mutual aid. Some god within commands. The wise new prudence from the wise acquire.

or censure from a foe. 305 [187] —Soft wool within. i e. without. Meriones. So famed. (Replied the sage. The reddening orient shows the coming day. And ample buckler. while great Ulysses stands To lend his counsels and assist our hands? A chief. and with no plume o'erspread: (Such as by youths unused to arms are worn:) No spoils enrich it. whose safety is Minerva's care. with bright arrows stored: A well-proved casque. to Tydides gave: Then in a leathern helm he cased his head. with generous ardour press'd.) his temples crown'd. Short of its crest. rich Ormenus' son. with leather braces bound. "Then thus (the godlike Diomed rejoin'd) My choice declares the impulse of my mind. Wisdom like his might pass through flames of fire. pressed in between the straps." "It fits thee not. before these chiefs of fame.BOOK X. (Thy gift. and make the helmet fit close. Soft wool within. How can I doubt. Are lost on hearers that our merits know." Thus having spoke. in order spread. Next him Ulysses took a shining sword. And of night's empire but a third remains. to protect the head. A two-edged falchion Thrasymed the brave. A bow and quiver. In arms terrific their huge limbs they dress'd.217 A boar's white teeth grinn'd horrid o'er his head. 217 . or to blame: Praise from a friend.) to praise me. a kind of woollen stuffing. so dreadful. But let us haste—Night rolls the hours away. This from Amyntor. I no aid require. The stars shine fainter on the ethereal plains. in the works of war: Bless'd in his conduct. and no studs adorn.

unconquer'd Pallas! hear. And let some deed this signal night adorn. The helmet next by Merion was possess'd. When on Æsopus' banks the banded powers Of Greece he left. By the shrill clang and whistling wings they knew. Peace was his charge. And gave Amphidamas. the council they forsake. and shake the dreadful shield! O thou! for ever present in my way. He went a legate. He fought with numbers. though surrounding shades obscured their view. defend the son. Who all my motions. and sought the Theban towers. Ulysses pray'd. Great queen of arms. and address'd the maid: "O daughter of that god whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. Just then. Hail'd the glad omen. A long-wing'd heron great Minerva sent: This. So now be present. Thus sheathed in arms. As thou defend'st the sire. whose favour Tydeus won. To claim the tears of Trojans yet unborn. but return'd a foe: Then help'd by thee." Then godlike Diomed preferr'd his prayer: "Daughter of Jove. received with peaceful show. and cover'd by thy shield. And dark through paths oblique their progress take. O celestial maid! . from him the prize Molus received. in sign she favour'd their intent.306 The Iliad of Homer Autolycus by fraudful rapine won. and made numbers yield. And now Ulysses' thoughtful temples press'd. all my toils survey! Safe may we pass beneath the gloomy shade. Safe by thy succour to our ships convey'd. As from the right she soar'd. the pledge of social ties.

for high attempts prepared. Whose taper tops refulgent gold adorns. Of all the plunder of the vanquish'd host. o'er arms. So still continue to the race thine aid! A youthful steer shall fall beneath the stroke. Dares greatly venture for a rich reward? Of yonder fleet a bold discovery make. spent with toil. Now. His the fair steeds that all the rest excel." The heroes pray'd. What watch they keep. With dreadful thoughts they trace the dreary way. Who thus the counsels of his breast proposed: "What glorious man. Through the black horrors of the ensanguined plain. The assembled peers their lofty chief enclosed. and the sons of Troy. Through dust. unconscious of the galling yoke. and hills of slain. On high designs the wakeful hours employ. succeeds their enterprise. 307 Nor less bold Hector. and Pallas from the skies Accords their vow. like two lions panting for the prey." [188] . neglect the watch of night? His be the chariot that shall please him most. And his the glory to have served so well.BOOK X. And. and with spreading horns. through blood. Untamed. and what resolves they take? If now subdued they meditate their flight. With ample forehead.

Fulfil thy wish. Eumedes' only boy. A wolf's grey hide around his shoulders hung. A ferret's downy fur his helmet lined. Encouraged thus.) Rich was the son in brass." Thus Hector swore: the gods were call'd in vain. Then (never to return) he sought the shore. And all their counsels. (Still bending forward as he coursed along.) . Not bless'd by nature with the charms of face. all their aims betray. The immortal coursers. no idle scout I go. (Five girls beside the reverend herald told. Scarce had he pass'd the steeds and Trojan throng." The chief then heaved the golden sceptre high. Attesting thus the monarch of the sky: "Be witness thou! immortal lord of all! Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall: By none but Dolon shall this prize be borne. And trod the path his feet must tread no more. and the glittering car. Dolon his name. Even to the royal tent pursue my way. But the rash youth prepares to scour the plain: Across his back the bended bow he flung.308 The Iliad of Homer A youth there was among the tribes of Troy. "Hector! (he said) my courage bids me meet This high achievement. and matchless in the race. and explore the fleet: But first exalt thy sceptre to the skies. And him alone the immortal steeds adorn. But swift of foot. and rich in gold. And in his hand a pointed javelin shined. And swear to grant me the demanded prize. their whole intention know. That bear Pelides through the ranks of war.

Till scarce at distance of a javelin's throw. they intercept his way. the approaching tread Ulysses mark'd. And mingles with the guards that watch the walls. "O friend! I hear some step of hostile feet. (To whom the hind like shares of land allows. or hastening to the fleet. perhaps. As when two skilful hounds the leveret wind. And intercept his hoped return to Troy. Some spy. So close. the bold Greeks pursue. and with such fears. 309 [189] . to lurk beside the main. (As Dolon pass'd. And from the herd still turn the flying prey: So fast. Now lost. at just distance. he perceived the foe. No voice succeeding. Now almost on the fleet the dastard falls. Hector (he thought) had sent. Moving this way. both the chiefs pursue.) When now new furrows part the approaching ploughs.) behind a heap of dead: Along the path the spy unwary flew. listening. But if too swift of foot he flies before. Or chase through woods obscure the trembling hind." With that they stepp'd aside.BOOK X. Then rush behind him. As when two teams of mules divide the green. on the hollow way. and thus to Diomed. and stoop'd their head. So distant they. and prevent his pace. Now Dolon. heard them as they pass'd. the Trojan flew. so constant. Yet let him pass. and win a little space. Soft. and such the space between. Or nightly pillager that strips the slain. Confine his course along the fleet and shore. now seen. Betwixt the camp and him our spears employ. and check'd his haste. When.

And with unmanly tears his life demands. Then thus aloud: "Whoe'er thou art. and high in air the weapon cast. a gen'rous thought (Inspired by Pallas) in his bosom wrought. A sudden palsy seized his turning head. to despoil the dead?" . and his colour fled. and o'er his shoulder pass'd. What moves thee. Lest on the foe some forward Greek advance. By Hector prompted. be bold. say. and quiver'd as he stood. And steel well-temper'd and refulgent gold. when sleep has closed the sight. or thy daring mind? Or art some wretch by hopes of plunder led. To roam the silent fields in dead of night? Cam'st thou the secrets of our camp to find. Large gifts of price my father shall bestow: Vast heaps of brass shall in your ships be told." To whom Ulysses made this wise reply: "Whoe'er thou art. Against the trembling wood The wretch stood propp'd. Through heaps of carnage. This javelin else shall fix thee to the plain. Which wilful err'd.310 The Iliad of Homer When brave Tydides stopp'd. The panting warriors seize him as he stands. nor fear to die. and for the breath I owe. His loose teeth chatter'd. remain. "O spare my youth. And snatch the glory from his lifted lance." He said. Then fix'd in earth.

be faithful. Even great Achilles scarce their rage can tame. what their counsels are. Or back to Ilion's walls transfer the war?" Ulysses thus. And. Achilles sprung from an immortal dame. And scorn the guidance of a vulgar hand. from the danger far. you fix your hopes on flight. his limbs with horror shook:) "Hither I came. Discharge their souls of half the fears of war. tired with toils." "Bold was thy aim. by Hector's words deceived. Where'er yon fires ascend. rashly I believed: No less a bribe than great Achilles' car. the peers assembling in his tent. Urged me. with a fearful look: (Still.BOOK X.) Far other rulers those proud steeds demand. neglect the watch of night. Much did he promise. the Trojans wake: Anxious for Troy. And those swift steeds that sweep the ranks of war. Safe in their cares. Or here to combat. this attempt to make. his faithful tongue shall own. replies. (Ulysses. No certain guards the nightly watch partake. But say. and thus Eumedes' son: "What Dolon knows. since this conquest. unwilling. as he spoke. what resolves you take: If now subdued." 311 . To learn what counsels. Hector. Whose wives and infants. and the truth recite! Where lies encamp'd the Trojan chief to-night? Where stand his coursers? in what quarter sleep Their other princes? tell what watch they keep: Say. the guard the natives keep. A council holds at Ilus' monument. the auxiliar forces sleep. from their city far. with a scornful smile. and glorious was the prize. Then thus pale Dolon.

Rich silver plates his shining car infold. Led on by Rhesus. Swift as the wind." To this Tydides. to grace a god! Let me. The Carians." . Or leave me here. thou betray'st no more.312 The Iliad of Homer [191] "Then sleep those aids among the Trojan train. the Pelasgian host. And Leleges. and white as winter-snow. And Phrygia's horse. by Thymbras' ancient wall. in some future strife To risk more bravely thy now forfeit life? Or that again our camps thou may'st explore? No—once a traitor. Celestial panoply. In cruel chains. encamp along the coast. though all the truth be shown: Shall we dismiss thee. a captive's fate to mourn. No mortal shoulders suit the glorious load. Mysian. Caucons. lie higher on the land The Lycian. (Inquired the chief. till your return reveal The truth or falsehood of the news I tell. The Thracians utmost. and apart from all. to your fleet be borne. refulgent. Not distant far. unhappy. These Troy but lately to her succour won. and Maeonian band. flame with gold. His solid arms. great Eioneus' son: I saw his coursers in proud triumph go. dreadful with their bended bows. with a gloomy frown: "Think not to live.) or scattered o'er the plain?" To whom the spy: "Their powers they thus dispose The Paeons.

with the arms of gold. the unbended bow and spear. High on a spreading tamarisk he placed. the spoils. receive this hostile spoil. Like lightning swift the wrathful falchion flew. stretch'd in sleep profound. One instant snatch'd his trembling soul to hell. Slippery with blood. 313 . o'er arms and heaps of shields. Through the still night they cross the devious fields. To guide their footsteps to the place again. "The man. And points to Diomed the tempting prize. Through the brown shade the fulgid weapons shined: Amidst lay Rhesus. and as the wretch prepared With humble blandishment to stroke his beard. we praise. These great Ulysses lifting to the skies. The welcome sight Ulysses first descries. mutter'd as it fell. Thee. And eased in sleep the labours of the day. yet speaking. the coursers. first of all the heavenly host. O speed our labours. Ranged in three lines they view the prostrate band: The horses yoked beside each warrior stand. Their arms in order on the ground reclined. Then heap'd with reeds and gathered boughs the plain. and the car behold! Described by Dolon. And the white steeds behind his chariot bound. with dropping gore defaced. The head. and cuts the nerves in two. and direct our ways!" This said. Sternly he spoke. Divides the neck.BOOK X. Arriving where the Thracian squadrons lay. The furry helmet from his brow they tear. And let the Thracian steeds reward our toil. To favouring Pallas dedicates the prize: "Great queen of arms. The wolf's grey hide.

dyed the fields with gore. he wisely cleared the way: Lest the fierce steeds. Where'er he pass'd. Should start. Bathed all his footsteps. Urge thou the slaughter. Now twelve despatch'd. fat with hostile blood. as his partner slew. while I seize the steeds. for a man in his condition awakes no farther than to see confusedly what environs him.218 "All the circumstances of this action—the night. Breathed in his heart." Pallas (this said) her hero's bosom warms. And a low groan remurmur'd through the shore. and to think it not 218 [192] . brave Tydides! now thy courage try. Just then a deathful dream Minerva sent. and strung his nervous arms. Whose visionary steel his bosom tore: So dream'd the monarch. and awaked no more. Nor stopp'd the fury of his vengeful hand. and foaming rends the guardless prey. which represents Rhesus lying fast asleep. The milk-white coursers studious to convey Safe to the ships. On sheep or goats. and tremble at the heaps of dead. This image is very natural. as it were. O'erleaps the fences. beholding his enemy in a dream. not yet to battles bred. from his nightly den. Back by the foot each slaughter'd warrior drew. So the grim lion.314 The Iliad of Homer Now. a purple stream pursued His thirsty falchion. A warlike form appear'd before his tent. Till twelve lay breathless of the Thracian band. Or if thy soul aspire to fiercer deeds. Rhesus buried in a profound sleep. and Diomede with the sword in his hand hanging over the head of that prince—furnished Homer with the idea of this fiction. resistless in his way. Approach the chariot. the monarch last they found. and. plunging the sword into his bosom. and invades the pen. He falls. and the steeds untie. Tydides' falchion fix'd him to the ground. Ulysses following.

Swift to the Trojan camp descends the power. Regard thy safety. from further slaughter cease. But him. Drag off the car where Rhesus' armour lay. with his bow unbent. and white as winter-snow.BOOK X. "There's one did laugh in his sleep. These. the gotten spoils enjoy. he lash'd along. . Doubtful he stood. The coursers fly before Ulysses' bow. new dangers. Pallas appears. and mark'd Minerva's flight. And leads them. Nor tempt too far the hostile gods of Troy. Saw Tydeus' son with heavenly succour bless'd. While unresolved the son of Tydeus stands. a reality but a dream. (The scourge forgot. They wak'd each other. or with his reeking blade To send more heroes to the infernal shade. Ulysses now the snowy steeds detains. Swift as the wind. and thus her chief commands: "Enough. And vengeful anger fill'd his sacred breast. Not unobserved they pass'd: the god of light Had watch'd his Troy. new achievements fire. Haste to the ships. on Rhesus' chariot hung." 315 [193] —Macbeth. Or heave with manly force. and her word obey'd."—Pope. fasten'd by the silver reins. and one cry'd murder. and lift away." The voice divine confess'd the martial maid. and depart in peace. In haste he mounted. my son.) Then gave his friend the signal to retire.

but for his Rhesus most: Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. dropping yet with Dolon's gore: Then mounts again. and instructive friend. again their nimbler feet The coursers ply. A faithful kinsman. Meanwhile the chiefs. DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. The yet-warm Thracians panting on the coast. On heaps the Trojans rush.316 The Iliad of Homer And wakes Hippocoon in the morning-hour. An empty space where late the coursers stood.) He rose. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain. to him Tydides bore The trophy. Ulysses stopp'd. and thunder towards the fleet. (On Rhesus' side accustom'd to attend. with wild affright. arriving at the shade Where late the spoils of Hector's spy were laid. For each he wept. and saw the field deform'd with blood. And wondering view the slaughters of the night. .

and favourites of the skies. Thickening this way. And daily mingle in the martial field. even now pursued. Some god. and gathering on my ear. the Greeks dismiss their fear: With words of friendship and extended hands They greet the kings. The spoil of foes. when. I deem. so radiant and so gay. And spring to earth. to age I scorn to yield. But sure till now no coursers struck my sight Like these. ye gods! my pious hopes succeed) The great Tydides and Ulysses bear. Bespeaking thus the Grecian peers around: "Methinks the noise of trampling steeds I hear. and Nestor first demands: "Say thou. Bless'd as ye are. Old as I am. And her. they seek the shore. Old Nestor first perceived the approaching sound. conspicuous through the ranks of fight. Return'd triumphant with this prize of war. whose praises all our host proclaim. Perhaps some horses of the Trojan breed (So may. Perhaps." 317 [194] Scarce had he spoke. oh! perhaps those heroes are no more. or present of a god? Not those fair steeds. conferred the glorious prize. The care of him who bids the thunder roar. That draw the burning chariot of the day. Yet much I fear (ah. whose fury bathes the world with gore. Or." . may that fear be vain!) The chiefs outnumber'd by the Trojan train. Thou living glory of the Grecian name! Say whence these coursers? by what chance bestow'd.BOOK X. lo! the chiefs appear.

These other spoils from conquer'd Dolon came. to his ships convey'd. But Dolon's armour. The matchless steeds his ample stalls adorn: The neighing coursers their new fellows greet. (sage Ithacus rejoin'd. And first to Pallas the libations pour: They sit. . Now from nocturnal sweat and sanguine stain They cleanse their bodies in the neighb'ring main: Then in the polished bath. In due repast indulge the genial hour. And twelve beside lay gasping on the ground. High on the painted stern Ulysses laid. Sleeping he died. He now lies headless on the sandy shore. whose swiftness was his only fame. Whose hostile king the brave Tydides slew. Of Thracian lineage are the steeds ye view. And the full racks are heap'd with generous wheat. The joyful Greeks with loud acclaim pursue. By Hector sent our forces to explore.318 The Iliad of Homer "Father! not so. with all his guards around. A wretch. A trophy destin'd to the blue-eyed maid. And the crown'd goblet foams with floods of wine.) The gifts of heaven are of a nobler kind. Their joints they supple with dissolving oil. refresh'd from toil." Then o'er the trench the bounding coursers flew. Straight to Tydides' high pavilion borne. rejoicing in her aid divine.

AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON. on his return. Juno. and rallies the Greeks. Hector comes against Ajax. while Jupiter. is pierced with an arrow by Paris. or at least to permit him to do it. having armed himself. Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him for a time but the latter. clad in Achilles' armour. is obliged to desert his companion. till the king shall be wounded and retire from the field. with its various actions and adventures is . in the other wing of the army. ARGUMENT THE THIRD BATTLE. till Menelaus and Ajax rescue him. and assists him in that distress.[195] BOOK XI. being wounded by Paris. and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. Agamemnon. He then makes a great slaughter of the enemy. This book opens with the eight and-twentieth day of the poem. and in the utmost danger. Nestor entertains him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day. Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them. and Minerva give the signals of war. wounded. tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his countrymen. and the same day. Patroclus. In the meantime Machaon. Agamemnon bears all before him and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement. leads the Grecians to battle. meets Eurypylus also wounded. and a long recital of some former wars which he remembered. but that hero alone opposes multitudes. Achilles (who overlooked the action from his ship) sent Patroclus to inquire which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. who is encompassed by the Trojans.

" Dryden's Virgil. seventeenth. [196] Even Ajax and Achilles heard the sound. And. The scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus.219 Now rose refulgent from Tithonus' bed. Through the red skies her bloody sign extends. The saffron morn. thirteenth. With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. sent by Jove's command. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light: When baleful Eris. with early blushes spread. wrapt in tempests. remote.320 The Iliad of Homer extended through the twelfth. inglorious to return. and thunder'd through the seas and land. The torch of discord blazing in her hand. Thence the black fury through the Grecian throng With horror sounds the loud Orthian song: The navy shakes. iv. the guarded navy bound. fourteenth. and for the combat burn. High on Ulysses' bark her horrid stand She took. 219 "Aurora now had left her saffron bed. and part of the eighteenth books. fifteenth. No more they sigh. 639 . Whose ships. sixteenth. And beams of early light the heavens o'erspread. each warrior starts to arms. and at the dire alarms Each bosom boils. o'er the fleet descends. But breathe revenge.

'Twas then. The beaming cuirass next adorn'd his breast. The same which once king Cinyras possess'd: (The fame of Greece and her assembled host Had reach'd that monarch on the Cyprian coast. And first he cased his manly legs around In shining greaves with silver buckles bound. Twice ten of tin. This glorious gift he sent. the friendship of the chief to gain. himself before the rest His mighty limbs in radiant armour dress'd. Whose imitated scales against the skies Reflected various light. nor sent in vain:) Ten rows of azure steel the work infold. and twelve of ductile gold. Three glittering dragons to the gorget rise. 321 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. and arching bow'd. with great example fires! Himself first rose. The king of men his hardy host inspires With loud command. Like colour'd rainbows o'er a showery cloud .BOOK XI.

That round the warrior cast a dreadful shade. High o'er the chief they clash'd their arms in air. of three celestial dies. Close to the limits of the trench and mound. His azure length in easy waves extends. Now shouts and tumults wake the tardy sun. o'er his shoulder tied. And twice ten bosses the bright convex crown'd: Tremendous Gorgon frown'd upon its field. and the martial maid. . With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. Till in three heads the embroider'd monster ends. As with the light the warriors' toils begun. His buckler's mighty orb was next display'd. Ten zones of brass its ample brim surround. A radiant baldric. and golden hangers graced. On which a mimic serpent creeps along. leaning from the clouds. And circling terrors fill'd the expressive shield: Within its concave hung a silver thong. The fiery coursers to their chariots bound The squires restrain'd: the foot. That blaze to heaven.322 The Iliad of Homer [197] (Jove's wondrous bow. In happy thunders promised Greece their aid. And in his hands two steely javelins wields. The squadrons spread their sable wings behind. a silver sheath encased The shining blade. Last o'er his brows his fourfold helm he placed. and lighten all the fields. To second these. And. rush forward to the field. That instant Juno. with those who wield The lighter arms. Placed as a sign to man amidst the skies). expect the war. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: Gold was the hilt. in close array combined.

"This phenomenon. Thick fall the heapy harvests at their feet: So Greece and Troy the field of war divide.221 323 [198] 220 —Red drops of blood. It is one. Plies all the troops. And all the slaughters that must stain the day. The brother-warriors of Antenor's line: With youthful Acamas. 493. None stoop'd a thought to base inglorious flight. Gier. whose beauteous face And fair proportion match'd the ethereal race. Great Hector. of ascertained reality. and now in night retires. i p. might seem arbitrary or far-fetched. as lightning from the skies. their crooked weapons wield. till their labours meet. Thus through the ranks appear'd the godlike man. honour'd as a guardian god. Lib. Cf. distill'd Red drops of blood o'er all the fatal field. And falling ranks are strow'd on every side. if a mere fruit of the poet's imagination. or blazing in the van. and of no uncommon occurrence in the climate of Greece. While streamy sparkles. restless as he flies. Bold Polybus. The Trojan lines possess'd the rising ground: There wise Polydamas and Hector stood. Flash from his arms. cover'd with his spacious shield. in order ranged around. whose thunder spoke his wrath.220 The woes of men unwilling to survey. Agenor the divine."—Mure. As the red star now shows his sanguine fires Through the dark clouds. however. Tasso. e sanguigne. Bear down the furrows.BOOK XI. As sweating reapers in some wealthy field. ix." 221 . Near Ilus' tomb. 15: "La terra in vece del notturno gelo Bagnan rugiade tepide. Ranged in two bands. Plunged in the rear. and orders all the field. Æneas. Even Jove.

but none resign the day. and man to man they fight. Each wounds. Meanwhile apart. And fix'd. . The sea with ships. None of retreat. Commutual death the fate of war confounds.324 The Iliad of Homer But horse to horse. And each accused the partial will of Jove. fulfill'd the just decrees of fate. The victor's rage. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. 236. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. of all the immortal train. on his awful throne. Discord with joy the scene of death descries. Wrapt in the blaze of boundless glory sate. and the dead. And mark'd the spot where Ilion's towers arise. and alone. On earth he turn'd his all-considering eyes. But not till half the prostrate forests lay Stretch'd in long ruin. superior. Swells the red horrors of this direful plain: The gods in peace their golden mansions fill. And drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes: Discord alone. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill: But general murmurs told their griefs above. Not rabid wolves more fierce contest their prey. and exposed to day) "No thought of flight. The eternal Monarch. each bleeds. When his tired arms refuse the axe to rear. increasing bright. But now (what time in some sequester'd vale The weary woodman spreads his sparing meal. And claim a respite from the sylvan war. O'er heaven's pure azure spread the glowing light." —"Paradise Lost." vi. the dying. the fields with armies spread. Thus while the morning-beams.

On Ida's tops. 114. one of marriage. Which pierced his brain. Atrides spoil'd. And slew Bienor at his people's head: Whose squire Oileus. And captive led. and naked to the sky. with pliant osiers bound. Then. nor till then. Then to their sire for ample sums restored. Grote. their father's fleecy sheep. The Trojans see the youths untimely die. But helpless tremble for themselves. Priam appears to be the only one of whom polygamy is directly asserted in the Iliad. And. and stretch'd him on the ground. their glittering armour vain: Now soil'd with dust. This took the charge to combat. and fly. note. Although a bastard brother received only a small portion of the inheritance. ii. he was commonly very well treated. the Greeks' impulsive might Pierced the black phalanx. Swift to the spoil the hasty victor falls. But in his front he felt the fatal wound. 325 [199] 222 —One of love.BOOK XI. vol. and let in the light. one of love:222 In the same car the brother-warriors ride. But now to perish by Atrides' sword: Pierced in the breast the base-born Isus bleeds: Cleft through the head his brother's fate succeeds. The product. . stript. Two sons of Priam next to battle move. that to guide: Far other task. Their snowy limbs and beauteous bodies lie. Leap'd from the chariot to revenge his king. These on the mountains once Achilles found. So when a lion ranging o'er the lawns. than when they wont to keep. p. and left them on the plain: Vain was their youth. their features to his mind recalls. with a sudden spring. Great Agamemnon then the slaughter led.

" These words. Large heaps of brass in ransom shall be told. The sons of false Antimachus were slain." [200] . and dares not stay. And steel well-tempered. die. not in battle slain. Atrides mark'd. that. and pay the forfeit of your race. And thus with lifted hands for mercy call: "O spare our youth. Amidst the tumult of the routed train. as these their safety sought. and persuasive gold. And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold. Their bones he cracks. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood. For proffer'd peace! and sues his seed for grace? No. But swift through rustling thickets bursts her way. on some grassy lair. They shook with fear. And slew the children for the father's fault. Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow: Soon as he hears. the couching fawns. ye die. Their headstrong horse unable to restrain. and for the life we owe. and dropp'd the silken rein. All drown'd in sweat. The youths address'd to unrelenting ears: The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply: "If from Antimachus ye spring. He who for bribes his faithless counsels sold. their reeking vitals draws. The frighted hind beholds. The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. And grinds the quivering flesh with bloody jaws. And the big tears roll trickling from her eyes. the panting mother flies. attended with the flood of tears. Then in the chariot on their knees they fall.326 The Iliad of Homer Finds.

Still slaughtering on. And o'er the forests roll the flood of fire. And the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. and proud heads lie low. And pierced his breast: supine he breathed his last. But Jove and destiny prolong'd his date. now lighted of its lord. Now by the foot the flying foot were slain. and intercept the skies.BOOK XI. the care of heaven he stood. and crushing out their souls. Breaking their ranks. The trenchant falchion lopp'd his hands away. but. the victor flew. rolling. as he lay. and dust. Amidst alarms. 327 . Whole squadrons vanish. the king of men proceeds. The steeds fly trembling from his waving sword. And many a car. Wide o'er the field with guideless fury rolls. Pisander from the car he cast. The king's example all his Greeks pursue. And. Shade the black host. Then. In blazing heaps the grove's old honours fall. Horse trod by horse. His brother leap'd to earth. and death. Safe from the darts. This said. The distanced army wonders at his deeds. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise. now. More grateful. and blood. While his keen falchion drinks the warriors' lives. to vultures than their wives! Perhaps great Hector then had found his fate. The brass-hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. And one refulgent ruin levels all: Before Atrides' rage so sinks the foe. His sever'd head was toss'd among the throng. lay foaming on the plain. As when the winds with raging flames conspire. where the thickest fought. drew a bloody train along.

And down their summits pour'd a hundred rills: The unkindled lightning in his hand he took. disorder'd. but issue forth commands. Hot with his toil.328 The Iliad of Homer [201] Now past the tomb where ancient Ilus lay. On heaps they tumble with successless haste. The path they take. and his associates waits. draws. and depart. and bathed in hostile blood. And thus the many-coloured maid bespoke: "Iris. Hurl'd from their cars the bravest chiefs are kill'd. Now near the beech-tree. Atrides with loud shouts pursued. Not with less fury stem Atrides flew. . And rage. The hero halts. and rends the last. That chief shall mount his chariot. Through the mid field the routed urge their way: Where the wild figs the adjoining summit crown. and carnage load the field. As swift. and the Scaean gates. and death. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. Bid him give way. Fights in the front. with haste thy golden wings display. Still press'd the rout. Surveys the towers. Now storms the victor at the Trojan wall. So flies a herd of beeves. To godlike Hector this our word convey— While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. and still the hindmost slew. that hear dismay'd The lion's roaring through the midnight shade. The savage seizes. fly the Trojan train. But Jove descending shook the Idaean hills. or wounded by the spear or dart. Dispersed. Meanwhile on every side around the plain. and speed to reach the town. and meditates their fall. and bathes with blood the ground.

Then Jove shall string his arm. New force." She said. and wait the coming war. hear! From Jove I come. And sacred night her awful shade extend. Hector. with a bound. and his high mandate bear. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. And sacred night her awful shade extend.BOOK XI. Till to the main the burning sun descend. and speeds from band to band. and Iris at his word obey'd. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. And learn from him to conquer. to each breast returns. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. new spirit." He spoke. and vanish'd. While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. turns their steps from flight. 329 [202] . Condense their powers. or wounded by the spear or dart. The chief she found amidst the ranks of war. Abstain from fight. Till to the main the burning sun descend. In clanging arms: he grasps in either hand A pointed lance. On wings of winds descends the various maid. The chief shall mount his chariot. Revives their ardour. Close to the bulwarks. and fire thy breast. And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. yet issue forth commands. Springs from his chariot on the trembling ground. on his glittering car. or to die. Then Jove shall string thy arm. Fights in the front. The goddess then: "O son of Priam. They stand to arms: the Greeks their onset dare. The fight renew'd with fiercer fury burns: The king leads on: all fix on him their eye. and fire his breast. and depart. and bathes with blood the ground.

But call'd by glory to the wars of Troy. the youth directs his dart: But the broad belt. Atrides stands. grasp'd with force. though in vain! No more the youth shall join his consort's side. he wrench'd it from his hands. Stretch'd in the dust the unhappy warrior lies. The point rebated. And early honour warm his generous breast. before the ranks he springs. From his loved bride departs with melting eyes. With all his strength. the bold and young. at the monarch's heart. and virtuous. Now fierce for fame. that fell'd him to the ground. and braves the king of kings. And nursed in Thrace where snowy flocks are fed. Then near the corslet. the javelin pass'd in air. When the kind sire consign'd his daughter's charms (Theano's sister) to his youthful arms. From sage Antenor and Theano sprung.330 The Iliad of Homer Ye sacred nine! celestial Muses! tell. At once his weighty sword discharged a wound Full on his neck. Oh worthy better fate! oh early slain! Thy country's friend. with plates of silver bound. He leaves untasted the first fruits of joy. Encumber'd with the dart. Towering in arms. Who faced him first. and by his prowess fell? The great Iphidamas. and at once a bride! . At once a virgin. Scarce did the down his rosy cheeks invest. Thence took the long laborious march by land. Whom from his youth his grandsire Cisseus bred. Till. And sleep eternal seals his swimming eyes. The Trojan stoop'd. and repell'd the wound. With twelve black ships he reach'd Percope's strand. And swift to aid his dearer country flies. Atrides first discharged the missive spear.

331 [203] . his time he took.BOOK XI. Surprised the monarch feels. While pierced with grief the much-loved youth he view'd. And the pale features now deform'd with blood. This. unseen. yet void of fear On Coon rushes with his lifted spear: His brother's corpse the pious Trojan draws. And through his arm stood forth the barbed dart. marking an unguarded part. Then. Or lay the spoils of conquest at her feet. The thrilling steel transpierced the brawny part. Coon. lavish of his store. and near his elbow strook. Antenor's eldest hope. Whole ranks are broken. on the plain he lay. And o'er the body spreads his ample shield. and whole troops o'erthrown. Bestow'd so much. On whom his passion. While the proud victor bore his arms away. The vengeful victor rages round the fields. came starting from his eye. the sword. With every weapon art or fury yields: By the long lance. Transfix'd the warrior with his brazen dart. Aim'd at the king. But when the wound grew stiff with clotted blood. Prone on his brother's bleeding breast he lay. And calls his country to assert his cause. and vainly promised more! Unwept. was nigh: Tears. Defends him breathless on the sanguine field. at the sight. The monarch's falchion lopp'd his head away: The social shades the same dark journey go. or ponderous stone. And join each other in the realms below. while yet warm distill'd the purple flood. Atrides. uncover'd. with his spear. No more with presents her embraces meet.

all-panting with the pain. the chariot smokes along. Jove himself declares the conquest ours! Now on yon ranks impel your foaming steeds. And. No sooner Hector saw the king retired. And from their sides the foam descends in snow. and gives his squire the rein.332 The Iliad of Homer Then grinding tortures his strong bosom rend. Proceed. The horses fly. all ye Lycian race! Famed in close fight. thus exhorts the throng: "O friends! O Greeks! assert your honours won. and dreadful face to face: Now call to mind your ancient trophies won. and finish what this arm begun: Lo! angry Jove forbids your chief to stay. sure of glory. The wounded monarch at his tent they place. Sad mothers of unutterable woes!) Stung with the smart. Then with a voice which fury made more strong. the general flies! deserts his powers! Lo. and your own. Less keen those darts the fierce Ilythiae send: (The powers that cause the teeming matron's throes. He mounts the car. And envies half the glories of the day. all ye Dardan." He said: the driver whirls his lengthful thong. But thus his Trojans and his aids he fired: "Hear. Your great forefathers' virtues. Clouds from their nostrils the fierce coursers blow." . Shot through the battle in a moment's space. Behold. And pain augmented. dare immortal deeds.

Drives the wild waves. Say. Dolops. violent and strong. Opites next was added to their side. His soul rekindled. Now Greece had trembled in her wooden walls. and every bosom warms. Now the last ruin the whole host appals.BOOK XI. Muse! when Jove the Trojan's glory crown'd. Now breaks the surge. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. charged with storms. Then brave Hipponous. Dispels the gather'd clouds that Notus forms: The gust continued. "And stand we deedless. and tosses all the deeps. Beneath his arm what heroes bit the ground? Assaeus. Nor prompts alone. As the bold hunter cheers his hounds to tear The brindled lion. As from the cloud's deep bosom. sunk to endless night. On the black body of the foe he pours. But wise Ulysses call'd Tydides forth. Writh words like these the fiery chief alarms His fainting host. Agelaus. raging Hector. As when a western whirlwind. The rest were vulgar deaths unknown to fame. And springs the foremost with his lifted dart: So godlike Hector prompts his troops to dare. Now to the skies the foaming billows rears. Orus. all chiefs of name. but leads himself the war. with resistless hands. O'erturns. famed in many a fight. Opheltius. and Autonous died. swell'd with showers. confounds. and awaked his worth. Rolls sable clouds in heaps on heaps along. and scatters all their bands. Æsymnus. and wide the bottom bares: Thus. O eternal shame! Till Hector's arm involve the ships in flame? 333 . or the tusky bear: With voice and hand provokes their doubting heart.

The sons of Merops shone amidst the war. Had warn'd his children from the Trojan field. Fate urged them on: the father warn'd in vain. no danger fear. and perish'd on the plain. Jove our foe. By Tydeus' lance Agastrophus was slain. on foot he strove to fly. pursued his lord. and the foe too nigh: [205] . So two wild boars outstrip the following hounds. they left them in eternal night. His death ennobled by Ulysses' sword. And level hangs the doubtful scale of fight. the charioteer. But Jove with conquest crowns the Trojan train: And. His steeds too distant. There slain." He sigh'd. but. They rush'd to fight." The warrior thus. and Greece respired again. I wait his fury here. and combat side by side. Hypirochus by great Ulysses dies. all human force is vain. Wing'd with his fears. Then plunged amidst the thickest ranks of fight. Let Hector come. And rich Hippodamus becomes his prize. and wounds return for wounds. sighing. The stern Tydides strips their shining arms. Then swift revert. And from his car the proud Thymbraeus fell: Molion. Towering they rode in one refulgent car: In deep prophetic arts their father skill'd. and thus the friend replied: "No martial toil I shun. Their breasts no more the vital spirit warms. raised his vengeful steel. The far-famed hero of Paeonian strain. Stern Hector's conquests in the middle plain Stood check'd awhile. let us join.334 The Iliad of Homer Haste. Great Jove from Ide with slaughter fills his sight.

Safe in his helm (the gift of Phoebus' hands) Without a wound the Trojan hero stands. And oft that partial power has lent his aid. and thence obliquely glanced. Shouts. staggering on the plain. this day. Or thank that swiftness which outstrips the death. swifter than the wind. and herds amidst the crowd: The Greek pursues him. If any god assist Tydides' hand. the crystal regions rend. But yet so stunn'd. Great Diomed himself was seized with fear. Tydides followed to regain his lance. recover'd from the trance. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Mark how this way yon bending squadrons yield! The storm rolls on. Well by Apollo are thy prayers repaid. He fled. as his experienced eyes Traverse the files. This Hector sees. Remounts his car. Thou shall not long the death deserved withstand. that. While Hector rose."—The warrior said. His arm and knee his sinking bulk sustain. Nor miss'd its aim. but flying left his life behind." 335 .BOOK XI. Swift at the word his ponderous javelin fled. O'er his dim sight the misty vapours rise. and exults aloud: "Once more thank Phoebus for thy forfeit breath. as he pass'd. Through broken orders. and to the rescue flies. And moving armies on his march attend. Fly then. but where the plumage danced Razed the smooth cone. Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. and Hector rules the field: Here stand his utmost force. inglorious! but thy flight. And a short darkness shades his swimming eyes.

while he triumph'd. Fate wings its flight. with a joyful spring. Agastrophus's crest To seize. and death is on the steel: Where this but lights. Thou woman-warrior with the curling hair. and drew the corslet from his breast. which thou may'st one day feel." . Paris eyed from far. (The spouse of Helen. Leaps from his ambush. As scatter'd lambs the rushing lion fear." He dauntless thus: "Thou conqueror of the fair. and nail'd it to the plain. bathes the cheeks of sires. Unskill'd in arms to act a manly part! Thou hast but done what boys or women can. From ancient Ilus' ruin'd monument: Behind the column placed.) Around the fields his feather'd shafts he sent. A coward's weapon never hurts the brave. Vain archer! trusting to the distant dart. relieved from that wide-wasting hand. And wing'd an arrow at the unwary foe. he bent his bow. The bowstring twang'd. gluts the birds of air. the fair cause of war. And leaves such objects as distract the fair. nor flew the shaft in vain. but not incense a man. Such hands may wound. The laughing Trojan. Nor boast the scratch thy feeble arrow gave. Should breathe from slaughter and in combat stand: Whose sons now tremble at his darted spear. "He bleeds! (he cries) some god has sped my dart! Would the same god had fix'd it in his heart! So Troy. some noble life expires. But pierced his foot.336 The Iliad of Homer [206] Him. Just as he stoop'd. Steeps earth in purple. Not so this dart. Its touch makes orphans. and insults the king.

These. The brave meets danger. the Trojans pouring on. And. Near. To die or conquer. proves a hero's heart. the shady cohorts press'd. and bending draws the dart: Forth flows the blood. and more near. I know a soldier's part. 337 Now on the field Ulysses stands alone. Before him steps. he foams with ire. knowing this. Ulysses hastens with a trembling heart. and whole. So fares a boar whom all the troop surrounds Of shouting huntsmen and of clamorous hounds. He grinds his ivory tusks. But stands collected in himself. and to the navy speeds. Tydides mounts.BOOK XI. inglorious if I quit the plain? What danger. their own fate enclose. what hopes remain? What shame. His sanguine eye-balls glare with living fire. And questions thus his own unconquer'd soul: "What further subterfuge. [207] . an eager pang succeeds. And round him deep the steely circle grows. and the coward flies. all the foes around? Yet wherefore doubtful? let this truth suffice. singly if I stand the ground. in the warrior. The Greeks all fled. My friends all scatter'd." Such thoughts revolving in his careful breast.

the spear. By Pallas' care. Chersidamas. But. The wound not mortal wise Ulysses knew. Fate calls thee hence and finish'd is thy race. Next Ennomus and Thoon sank to hell. Plough'd half his side. and grasps the bloody dust. And the red slaughter spreads on every side. Near as he drew. to endless darkness go. Socus the brave. though deep infix'd. by those. and the wise. Nor longer check my conquests on the foe. Ulysses reach'd him with the fatal spear. pierced by this. was near. first Deiopis fell.338 The Iliad of Homer By these. the warrior thus began: "O great Ulysses! much-enduring man! Not deeper skill'd in every martial sleight. nor with his entrails mix'd. and forceful pierced his spacious shield: Through the strong brass the ringing javelin thrown. the generous. Then furious thus (but first some steps withdrew): "Unhappy man! whose death our hands shall grace. Falls prone to earth. on every part is plied. Than worn to toils. But to his aid his brother Socus flies. And end at once the great Hippasian race. beneath the navel thrust." He said. and bared it to the bone. and active in the fight! This day two brothers shall thy conquest grace. And add one spectre to the realms below!" . Or thou beneath this lance must press the field. Pierced through the shoulder. Charops. Stopp'd short of life. the son of Hippasus.

Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date. Oppress'd by multitudes. But hungry birds shall tear those balls away." 339 [208] . to Ajax Telamon he cried. Thy dying eyes no tender mother close. Distressed he seems. Ah. Greece robb'd of him must bid her host despair. The well-known voice thrice Menelaus hears: Alarm'd. Strong as he is. Me Greece shall honour. gazing on the slain: "Famed son of Hippasus! there press the plain. yet one opposed to all. and turn'd his back to flight." Then raging with intolerable smart. He falls. while Socus. And feel a loss not ages can repair. Between his shoulders pierced the following dart. Thrice to its pitch his lofty voice he rears. He spoke. and extracts the dart.BOOK XI. And gladden'd Troy with sight of hostile blood. and loudly calls for aid. Now troops on troops the fainting chief invade. Trembling gave way. wretch! no father shall thy corpse compose. when I meet my doom. There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate. With solemn funerals and a lasting tomb. seized with sudden fright. Forced he recedes. Then thus Ulysses. Who shares his labours. The dart a tide of spouting gore pursued. the best may fall. And hovering vultures scream around their prey. his armour rings against the ground. And held its passage through the panting heart: Wide in his breast appear'd the grisly wound. He writhes his body. and defends his side: "O friend! Ulysses' shouts invade my ear. and no assistance near.

unconquer'd by his pains. The wolves. The prudent chief in sore distress they found. Wild mountain-wolves the fainting beast surround: Just as their jaws his prostrate limbs invade. The lordly savage vindicates his prey. Ulysses thus. On strong Pandocus next inflicts a wound. attends. And his light knees have power to move: but (maistred by his wound) Embost within a shady hill. he slew. . to his car conveys. where the cry directs. whilst his warm blood doth flow. with a flying spear. With bands of furious Trojans compass'd round. though hungry. and scuds from hills to hills. Till life's warm vapour issuing through the wound. And teare his flesh—when instantly fortune sends in the powers Of some sterne lion." —Chapman. He bounds aloft.340 The Iliad of Homer Then. Victorious Ajax plies the routed crew. And first Doryclus. And. Great Ajax. like the god of war. with whose sighte they flie and he devours. So they around Ulysses prest. A single warrior half a host sustains: But soon as Ajax leaves his tower-like shield. scour dispersed away. From the blind thicket wounds a stately deer. Priam's son.223 As when some huntsman. 223 "Circled with foes as when a packe of bloodie jackals cling About a goodly palmed hart. The lion rushes through the woodland shade. while fresh the blood distils. Down his cleft side. Atrides' arm the sinking hero stays. hurt with a hunter's bow Whose escape his nimble feet insure. his course he bends. And lays Lysander bleeding on the ground. saved from numbers. the jackals charge him round. The scattered crowds fly frighted o'er the field.

The spouse of Helen. Raged on the left. old Neleus' valiant son! Ascend thy chariot. the steeds with sounding feet Shake the dry field. 341 But Hector. As when a torrent. beside him rode The wounded offspring of the healing god. A wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. and chariots. or from the chariot's height. from this scene of slaughter far. And pines and oaks. A country's ruins! to the seas are borne: Fierce Ajax thus o'erwhelms the yielding throng. And deep Scamander swells with heaps of slain. There fierce on foot. swell'd with wintry rains. roll in heaps along. To Nestor then Idomeneus begun: "Glory of Greece. from their foundations torn. Is more than armies to the public weal. And great Machaon to the ships convey. Men. and ruled the tide of war: Loud groans proclaim his progress through the plain. steeds. dealing darts around.BOOK XI. Had pierced Machaon with a distant wound: In his right shoulder the broad shaft appear'd. [209] . He lends the lash. And trembling Greece for her physician fear'd. there the battle glows." Old Nestor mounts the seat. and thunder toward the fleet. Pours from the mountains o'er the deluged plains. His sword deforms the beauteous ranks of fight. haste with speed away. There Nestor and Idomeneus oppose The warrior's fury.

O'er heaps of carcases. But partial Jove. There danger calls. And groans of slaughter mix with shouts of fight. Stung by the stroke. Before great Ajax see the mingled throng Of men and chariots driven in heaps along! I know him well.342 The Iliad of Homer But now Cebriones. glaring round. And. or ponderous stone." Thus having spoke. the coursers scour the fields. Confused. purple all the car before. plunging through the thickest fight. Shot heaven-bred horror through the Grecian's heart. There horse and foot in mingled deaths unite. from Hector's car. Amazed he stood. O'er his broad back his moony shield he threw. the sword. Thither. O Hector. Thus the grim lion his retreat maintains. dashing. Broke the dark phalanx. espousing Hector's part. Swift through the ranks the rapid chariot bounds. The groaning axle sable drops distils. distinguish'd o'er the field By the broad glittering of the sevenfold shield. Trojans on Trojans yonder load the plain. the driver's lash resounds. Survey'd the various fortune of the war: "While here (he cried) the flying Greeks are slain. And fears that arm whose force he felt so late. and there the combat bleeds. and let in the light: (By the long lance. And mangled carnage clogs the rapid wheels. and hills of shields. Here Hector. through all the dire debate. with terrors not his own. by tardy steps withdrew. [210] . unnerved in Hector's presence grown. thither urge thy steeds. And. The horses' hoofs are bathed in heroes' gore. The ranks he scatter'd and the troops o'erthrown:) Ajax he shuns.

Thick on his hide the hollow blows resound. Fix'd as the bar between two warring powers. and missile fires. Then sourly slow the indignant beast retires: So turn'd stern Ajax. Its surface bristled with a quivering wood. And his slack knees desert their dying load. Beset with watchful dogs. Though rage impels him. Marks the dry dust. and lays waste the plain. and though hunger calls. As the slow beast. Great Apisaon felt the fatal blow. Repulsed by numbers from the nightly stalls. with heavy strength endued. yet hardly seems to fly. The patient animal maintains his ground. The strokes redoubled on his buckler rung. And many a javelin. While his swoln heart at every step rebell'd. Now stiff recedes. Whose eager javelin launch'd against the foe. From his torn liver the red current flow'd. Now turns. Long stands the showering darts. by whole hosts repell'd. Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased. But bold Eurypylus his aid imparts.BOOK XI. 343 . and thirsts for blood in vain. Confiding now in bulky strength he stands. Though round his sides a wooden tempest rain. While hissing darts descend in iron showers: In his broad buckler many a weapon stood. And stirs but slowly when he stirs at last: On Ajax thus a weight of Trojans hung. guiltless on the plain. and shouting swains. Crops the tall harvest. and backward bears the yielding bands. In some wide field by troops of boys pursued. And threats his followers with retorted eye. And dauntless springs beneath a cloud of darts.

great Machaon. From Paris' bow a vengeful arrow fled. His feasted eyes beheld around the plain The Grecian rout. And fix'd the date of all his woes to come. While Nestor's chariot far from fight retires: His coursers steep'd in sweat. but broken was the wood. This hour he stands the mark of hostile rage. To guard their wounded friend: while thus they stand With pious care. Thus raged both armies like conflicting fires. His friend Machaon singled from the rest." Thus urged the chief: a generous troop appears. The hero rallies. In evil hour! Then fate decreed his doom. Straight to Menoetius' much-loved son he sent: Graceful as Mars. and renews the fight. Patroclus quits his tent. great Ajax joins the band: Each takes new courage at the hero's sight. bore. Yet thus retreating. O Grecians! has your hearts dismay'd? Oh. his associates fired: "What god. turn to arms. A transient pity touch'd his vengeful breast. and advance their spears. and stain'd with gore. the slaying. and the slain. Who spread their bucklers. from the topmost height Of his proud fleet. [211] . Fix'd in his nervous thigh the weapon stood. The Greeks' preserver. from the gloomy grave The warrior rescue.344 The Iliad of Homer The victor rushing to despoil the dead. That hour Achilles. 'tis Ajax claims your aid. and your country save. And this the last brave battle he shall wage: Haste. o'erlook'd the fields of fight. Back to the lines the wounded Greek retired. join your forces. Fix'd was the point.

Here paused a moment. 345 [212] . The warriors standing on the breezy shore. Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced. Patroclus shall obey. the sacred flour of wheat." "O first of friends! (Pelides thus replied) Still at my heart. discern his face. Nor could I. His form recall'd Machaon to my mind. His friend obey'd with haste. And took their seats beneath the shady tent. Then to consult on farther methods went. Go now to Nestor. fair Hecamede prepares. The chiefs descending from their car he found: The panting steeds Eurymedon unbound. a royal slave. Greece. Through intermingled ships and tents he pass'd. and from him be taught What wounded warrior late his chariot brought: For. The draught prescribed.BOOK XI. Whate'er thy will. Arsinous' daughter. To dry their sweat." The hero said. graced with golden hairs: (Whom to his aged arms. and wash away the gore. seen at distance. And wholesome garlic. crown'd the savoury treat. and but seen behind. Honey new-press'd. and ever at my side! The time is come. through yon cloud. The coursers pass'd me with so swift a pace. while the gentle gale Convey'd that freshness the cool seas exhale. as the prize of Nestor's wisdom gave:) A table first with azure feet she placed. And proud Atrides tremble on his throne. "Why calls my friend? thy loved injunctions lay. when yon despairing host Shall learn the value of the man they lost: Now at my knees the Greeks shall pour their moan.

what hero. bending o'er the brink. my hasty course I bend. Who asks. two turtles seem to drink: A massy weight. yet heaved with ease by him. by Achilles sent. Was borne from combat by thy foaming steeds? With grief I see the great Machaon bleeds. and four handles hold. To great Achilles this respect I owe. Thou know'st the fiery temper of my friend. and stood before the tent. This to report. the hero led To his high seat: the chief refused and said: "'Tis now no season for these kind delays. With goat's-milk cheese a flavourous taste bestows. On each bright handle. Old Nestor. the nymph of form divine Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine." "Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd) Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Seeks he the sorrows of our host to know? This is not half the story of our woe. In sculptured gold. When the brisk nectar overlook'd the brim. And pleasing conference beguiles the day. rising then.346 The Iliad of Homer Next her white hand an antique goblet brings. Two feet support it. wounded by the foe. The great Achilles with impatience stays. Temper'd in this. A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings From eldest times: emboss'd with studs of gold. Unheard approached. . And last with flour the smiling surface strows: This for the wounded prince the dame prepares: The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares: Salubrious draughts the warriors' thirst allay. Meantime Patroclus.

My sire three hundred chosen sheep obtain'd. And waits the rising of the fatal blaze. And ours was all the plunder of the plains: Fifty white flocks. but derides our pain: Even till the flames consume our fleet he stays. Diomed. Thus Elis forced.BOOK XI. When this bold arm the Epeian powers oppress'd. Ulysses. These. ah! what flattering hopes I entertain! Achilles heeds not. Calm he looks on. Agamemnon. and of generous breeds. we arm'd. not great Machaon bleeds alone. her long arrears restored. Now the slow course of all-impairing time Unstrings my nerves. And stern Eurypylus. For prize defrauded. and insulted fame. I alone remain! Oppress'd. Our bravest heroes in the navy groan. The state of Pyle was sunk to last despair. and ends my manly prime. Old Neleus gloried in his conquering son. Tell him. But. And shares were parted to each Pylian lord. (That large reprisal he might justly claim. And stretch'd the great Itymonaeus dead! Then from my fury fled the trembling swains. and every death enjoys. The bulls of Elis in glad triumph led. All teeming females. Oh! had I still that strength my youth possess'd. as many lowing kine: And thrice the number of unrivall'd steeds. Of twelve bold brothers. as my first essay of arms. As many goats. already bleed. I won. Chief after chief the raging foe destroys. When the proud Elians first commenced the war: For Neleus' sons Alcides' rage had slain. and now this conquest gain'd. full fifty herds of swine. 347 [213] .

with all-revealing ray.) The rest the people shared. Myself the foremost. but my sire denied. There first to Jove our solemn rites were paid. "Along fair Arene's delightful plain Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main: There. when Elis rose to war. ere the sun advanced his noon-day flame. With many a courser. To great Alphaeus' sacred source we came. and detain'd my arms. . Each burns for fame. at the public course. descending in the shades of night. and with many a car. A bull. Detain'd his chariot. and victorious horse. Three days were past. And sheathed in arms. and swells with martial pride.348 The Iliad of Homer When Elis' monarch. and due victims paid. Alphaeus. the Pylian troops unite. horse and foot. Fear'd for my youth. My sire denied in vain: on foot I fled Amidst our chariots. Soon as the sun. Pallas. and a bull was slain To the blue monarch of the watery main. High on the rock fair Thryoessa stands. expect the dawning light. Alarms the Pylians and commands the fight. The sons of Actor at their army's head (Young as they were) the vengeful squadrons led. Our utmost frontier on the Pylian lands: Not far the streams of famed Alphaeus flow: The stream they pass'd. And stopp'd my chariot. An untamed heifer pleased the blue-eyed maid. myself survey'd The just partition. for the goddess led. exposed to stern alarms. In arms we slept. While round the town the fierce Epeians stood. Thence. beside the winding flood. and pitch'd their tents below.

but Neptune shrouds The youthful heroes in a veil of clouds. when to the eternal shade Her hosts shall sink. and works of war appear. The first who fell. When. beneath my javelin bled. The nations meet. of mankind. Elis here. gathering aids along the Grecian sea. Such then I was. Fierce as the whirlwind now I swept the field: Full fifty captive chariots graced my train. Two chiefs from each fell breathless to the plain. their bravest warrior kill'd. Then back to Pyle triumphant take my way. Collecting spoils. "Achilles with unactive fury glows. impell'd by youthful blood. they trembled. and spouse of Agamede: (She that all simples' healing virtues knew. O'er heapy shields. And gives to passion what to Greece he owes. Till Pallas stopp'd us where Alisium flows. the van of battle led. How shall he grieve. Bright scenes of arms. to Nestor. There to high Jove were public thanks assign'd. The Epeians saw. As first of gods. and slaughtering all along. And the same arm that led concludes the day. and gave the day. 349 [214] . King Augias' son. And every herb that drinks the morning dew:) I seized his car. Through wide Buprasian fields we forced the foes. nor his the power to aid! 0 friend! my memory recalls the day. Where o'er the vales the Olenian rocks arose. Even there the hindmost of the rear I slay. and they fled.BOOK XI. there Pylos. Then Actor's sons had died. The foe dispersed. Flamed in the front of Heaven. So proved my valour for my country's good. and o'er the prostrate throng.

Your ancient fathers generous precepts gave.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court: Words now forgot. and from the tent Along the shore with hasty strides he went. Press'd by fresh forces." This touch'd his generous heart. And entered Peleus' hospitable court. Thyself. Let thy just counsels aid. If thou but lead the Myrmidonian line. touch'd at Phthia's port. Though deaf to glory. Soon as he came. and share the genial rites. turn'd the fragments on the fire. to the feast invites. Achilles sees us. and of race divine. on the crowded strand. and Ulysses. Urged you to arms. he may yield to love. . A bull to Jove he slew in sacrifice. and Greece respire again. and thy reverend sire Menoetius.350 The Iliad of Homer [215] I. and desist from war. Peleus said only this:—'My son! be brave. if thou appear. her o'er-labour'd train Shall seek their walls. Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend. Social we sit. If aught from Heaven withhold his saving arm. and rule thy friend. Clad in Achilles' arms. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. Ah! try the utmost that a friend can say: Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey. and found you fierce for fame. Proud Troy may tremble.' Menoetius thus: 'Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. If some dire oracle his breast alarm. And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs. Some favouring god Achilles' heart may move. where. though now of vast import. Achilles. We then explained the cause on which we came.

And this the period of our wars and fame?" Eurypylus replies: "No more. As faintly reeling he confess'd the smart. thus his bleeding friend address'd: "Ah. An arrow's head yet rooted in his wound. Even to the ships victorious Troy pursues. and Achilles thee. my friend. And altars to the guardian gods arise. sad. Divine compassion touch'd Patroclus' breast. he met the brave Euaemon's son. to glut the dogs with gore. Such as sage Chiron. and from your native shore? Say. hapless leaders of the Grecian host! Thus must ye perish on a barbarous coast? Is this your fate. Weak was his pace. Lead to my ships. thou. There. sire of pharmacy. Large painful drops from all his members run. The sable blood in circles mark'd the ground.BOOK XI. that used her utmost rage to meet. Greece is no more! this day her glories end. Once taught Achilles. Her force increasing as her toil renews. With healing balms the raging smart allay. Lie pierced with wounds. But. Who. Of two famed surgeons. Where the tall fleet of great Ulysses lies. and bleeding in the fleet. Patroclus! act a friendly part. sighing. Podalirius stands 351 . and draw this deadly dart. Those chiefs. With lukewarm water wash the gore away. but dauntless was his heart. Far from your friends. The public mart and courts of justice stand. great Eurypylus! shall Greece yet stand? Resists she yet the raging Hector's hand? Or are her heroes doom'd to die with shame.

And bear with haste the Pylian king's reply: But thy distress this instant claims relief. Charged by Achilles' great command I fly. And great Machaon. Patroclus cut the forky steel away: Then in his hands a bitter root he bruised. the styptic juice infused. The wound to torture." He said.352 The Iliad of Homer [216] This hour surrounded by the Trojan bands. and the blood to flow. And hides of oxen on the floor display'd: There stretch'd at length the wounded hero lay." To him the chief: "What then remains to do? The event of things the gods alone can view. The wound he wash'd. The slaves their master's slow approach survey'd. and in his arms upheld the chief. wounded in his tent. The closing flesh that instant ceased to glow. Now wants that succour which so oft he lent. .



forces open one of the gates. after many actions. and manage the attack on foot. Hector also.[217] BOOK XII. Trojans and Greeks with clashing shields engage. And mutual deaths are dealt with mutual rage. and no victim slain. The Trojans follow his counsel. and enters at the head of his troops. the trenches sunk in vain. but it proving impossible to pass the ditch. This Hector opposes. who victoriously pursue the Grecians even to their ships. Hector attempts to force them. Polydamas advises to quit their chariots. casting a stone of vast size. and having divided their army into five bodies of foot. With gods averse the ill-fated works arose. . and continues the attack. While thus the hero's pious cares attend The cure and safety of his wounded friend. Polydamas endeavours to withdraw them again. Nor long the trench or lofty walls oppose. The Greeks having retired into their intrenchments. Their powers neglected. But upon the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons. THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL. Sarpedon makes the first breach in the wall. in which. which appeared on the left hand of the Trojans. The walls were raised. begin the assault. ARGUMENT.

i. Incessant cataracts the Thunderer pours. While sacred Troy the warring hosts engaged. and godlike heroes slain: These. The weight of waters saps the yielding wall. Vast stones and piles from their foundation heaves. 142. And half the skies descend in sluicy showers. how short a period stands The proudest monument of mortal hands! This stood while Hector and Achilles raged. Caresus roaring down the stony hills. And Xanthus foaming from his fruitful source. &c. Then Neptune and Apollo shook the shore. And to the sea the floating bulwarks fall. and shields. 225 . railing. turn'd by Phoebus from their wonted ways. And whelms the smoky ruin in the waves.225 224 —Simois. With his huge trident wounds the trembling shore. Then Ida's summits pour'd their watery store. No fragment tells where once the wonder stood. The god of ocean. Æsepus. Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills. marching stern before. her city burn'd. Shine 'twixt the hills. In their old bounds the rivers roll again. Granicus. or wander o'er the plain. Deluged the rampire nine continual days. Now smooth'd with sand. with mingled force. But when her sons were slain. and levell'd by the flood.356 The Iliad of Homer [218] Without the gods. And gulfy Simois. "In those bloody fields Where Simois rolls the bodies and the shields Of heroes. rolling to the main224 Helmets." —Dryden's Virgil. And what survived of Greece to Greece return'd.

BOOK XII. Smote by the arm of Jove with dire dismay. Just at the brink they neigh. Mingled the troops.— Amid that smother. (a formidable show!) And bristled thick with sharpen'd stakes below. Below the wall's foundation drives his mace. a boar or lion stands. And snort and tremble at the gulf beneath. Arm'd foes around a dreadful circle form. War thunder'd at the gates. The bottom bare. Close by their hollow ships the Grecians lay: Hector's approach in every wind they hear. ii. The strokes yet echoed of contending powers. With equal rage encompass'd Hector glows. toss'd the scattering throng. He. and the skies resound. And Hector's fury every moment fear. like a whirlwind. their bold assault defy. he glares.—where clouds of dust arise. "Where yon disorder'd heap of ruin lies. his courage makes him fall. And if he falls. he bounds against them all. and blood distain'd the towers. And where he turns the rout disperse or die: He foams. 825. The panting steeds impatient fury breathe. But this the gods in later times perform. Stones rent from stones. And heaves the building from the solid base. and headlong hung the steep. Neptune holds his place. So 'midst the dogs and hunters' daring bands. Fierce of his might. and drove the field along. . And the turf trembles. Eager they view'd the prospect dark and deep. And hissing javelins rain an iron storm: His powers untamed." 357 Dryden's Virgil. As yet the bulwark stood. and braved the storm. Exhorts his armies. and paw the ground. Vast was the leap. and the trenches shows.

confederate chiefs from foreign lands! What entrance here can cumbrous chariots find. On certain dangers we too rashly run: If 'tis will our haughty foes to tame. by our own troops confused. Nor shall a Trojan live to tell the tale. In one promiscuous carnage crush'd and bruised. And try the pass impervious to the horse. Hear then. far from Argos. This saw Polydamas. wedged in firm array. The stakes beneath. No space for combat in yon narrow bounds. Then all alighting. what methods of retreat remain? Wedged in the trench. without a thousand wounds." . and this counsel gave: "O thou. the Grecian walls behind? No pass through those. All Troy must perish. And one great day destroy and bury all! But should they turn. bold leader of the Trojan bands! And you. Back from the trenches let your steeds be led. Proceed on foot. Restrain'd great Hector. Proud of the favours mighty Jove has shown. ye warriors! and obey with speed. And this (if Jove consent) her fatal hour. and Hector lead the way. wisely brave. if their arms prevail.358 The Iliad of Homer [219] The foot alone this strong defence could force. So Greece shall stoop before our conquering power. let their heroes fall. and here oppress our train. Oh may this instant end the Grecian name! Here. What hopes. who.

359 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. Antenor's sons the fourth battalion guide. and Helenas the seer. Before the next the graceful Paris shines. and Agenor joins. and threat the fleet with fire: Great Hector glorious in the van of these. Who drew from Hyrtacus his noble blood. his clanging armour rung. The best and bravest in the first conspire. The chief's example follow'd by his train. Deiphobus. And whom Arisba's yellow coursers bore. Polydamas. and issues on the plain. Pant for the fight. And bold Alcathous. The forces part in five distinguish'd bands. and brave Cebriones. This counsel pleased: the godlike Hector sprung Swift from his seat. And all obey their several chiefs' commands. In arms with these the mighty Asius stood. The coursers fed on Selle's winding shore. By orders strict the charioteers enjoin'd Compel the coursers to their ranks behind. The sons of Priam with the third appear. [220] .BOOK XII. Each quits his car.

Those wheels returning ne'er shall mark the plain. Next him. at their army's head. confiding in his car. The advice of wise Polydamas obey'd. Such their proud hopes. And see the Grecians gasping at their feet. The gates half-open'd to receive the last. His vaunted coursers urged to meet the war. the bravest. Swift through the wall their horse and chariots pass'd. Thither. Divine Sarpedon the last band obey'd. While every Trojan thus. Unhappy hero! and advised in vain. and every aid. But he more brave than all the hosts he led. The moving legions speed their headlong way: Already in their hopes they fire the fleet. Whom Glaucus and Asteropaeus aid.360 The Iliad of Homer And great Æneas. he flies: His following host with clamours rend the skies: To plunge the Grecians headlong in the main. born on fountful Ide. where from the plain The flying Grecians strove their ships to gain. Now with compacted shields in close array. but all their hopes were vain! . And great Idomeneus shall boast thy fall! Fierce to the left he drives. Asius alone. No more those coursers with triumphant joy Restore their master to the gates of Troy! Black death attends behind the Grecian wall. exulting in his force.

As two tall oaks. Roused with the cries of dogs and voice of men. like the god of war. in front appear. And root the shrubs. and stood themselves the war. High on the hills appears their stately form. Even when they saw Troy's sable troops impend. So graceful these. Forth from the portals rush'd the intrepid pair. Opposed their breasts. To guard the gates. And stones and darts in mingled tempests fly. And that Leonteus. and his furious band. and lay the forest bare. while yet the Grecian powers Maintain'd the walls. So two wild boars spring furious from their den. In vain around them beat their hollow shields. Forbid the tempest. great Perithous' heir. And Greece tumultuous from her towers descend. and protect the ground.BOOK XII. This Polypoetes. and mann'd the lofty towers: To save their fleet their last efforts they try. and so the shock they stand Of raging Asius. two mighty chiefs attend. their heads amidst the skies: Whose spreading arms with leafy honours crown'd. The fearless brothers on the Grecians call. And their deep roots for ever brave the storm. Fierce was the fight. Their roots in earth. They gnash their tusks. Who from the Lapiths' warlike race descend. On every side the crackling trees they tear. Around their heads the whistling javelins sung. Acamas. Orestes. before the wall they rise. 361 [221] . Till some wide wound lets out their mighty soul. and defend the wall. And OEnomaus and Thoon close the rear: In vain their clamours shake the ambient fields. With sounding strokes their brazen targets rung. with fire their eye-balls roll. To guard their navies.

So down the rampires rolls the rocky shower: Heavy. Repel an army. With shame repulsed. Nor moved great Jove's unalterable mind. Darkening the rock. and infix their stings. and whiten all the fields below: So fast the darts on either army pour. and thick. resound the batter'd shields. and sing with fire! [222] . the flash of arms appear'd.362 The Iliad of Homer As when sharp Boreas blows abroad. and defraud the fates?" These empty accents mingled with the wind. that to death contend: So fierce these Greeks their last retreats defend. The blaze of flames. while with unwearied wings They strike the assailants. To godlike Hector and his matchless might Was owed the glory of the destined fight. The frantic Asius thus accuses Heaven: "In powers immortal who shall now believe? Can those too flatter. To guard the entrance of their common hive. Gods! shall two warriors only guard their gates. and can Jove deceive? What man could doubt but Troy's victorious power Should humble Greece. Like deeds of arms through all the forts were tried. with grief and fury driven. Beneath the low-hung clouds the sheets of snow Descend. To raise each act to life. Through the long walls the stony showers were heard. A race determined. And all the gates sustain'd an equal tide. and this her fatal hour? But like when wasps from hollow crannies drive. The spirit of a god my breast inspire. and brings The dreary winter on his frozen wings. And the deaf echo rattles round the fields.

whose throat received the wound: Mad with the smart. and rends the heaven with cries: 363 . bled. Meantime. First through the belt Hippomachus he gored. Their martial fury in their wonder lost.BOOK XII. Even yet the dauntless Lapithae maintain The dreadful pass. the bravest of the Trojan crew. Floats on the winds. tremendous now no more! Next Ormenus and Pylon yield their breath: Nor less Leonteus strews the field with death. While Greece unconquer'd kept alive the war. And all her guardian gods. by Polypoetes' steel. Jove's bird on sounding pinions beat the skies. In airy circles wings his painful way. And wrap in rolling flames the fleet and wall. alive. and fate pursued the stroke: Iamenus. confiding in despair. These on the farther bank now stood and gazed. Orestes. Pierced through his helmet's brazen visor. He stung the bird. fell. Then sudden waved his unresisted sword: Antiphates. as through the ranks he broke. in deep dismay. Menon. With unassisting arms deplored the day. First Damasus. And round him rose a monument of dead. and curling round. he drops the fatal prey. by prodigies amazed: A signal omen stopp'd the passing host. Secure of death. Fierce with impatience on the works to fall. A bleeding serpent of enormous size. and round them heap the slain. Bold Hector and Polydamas. pursue. The weapon drank the mingled brains and gore! The warrior sinks. His talons truss'd. The falchion struck. By Heaven alarm'd.

Jove his omen sent. in council. and bids me thus advise. Though these proud bulwalks tumble at our feet. Then hear my words. For thus a skilful seer would read the skies. and in fight. For words well meant. deferring to thy sway. and more heroes bleed. mark its spires unroll'd. Thus. but not possess the prize. And Jove's portent with beating hearts behold. and fills our hearts with fright. and fiercer. And all I move.364 The Iliad of Homer Amidst the host the fallen serpent lies. my brother. They. Allow'd to seize. in war. his eyes with fury burn'd:) "Are these the faithful counsels of thy tongue? Thy will is partial." To him then Hector with disdain return'd: (Fierce as he spoke. Long weigh'd the signal. though we gird with fires the Grecian fleet. For sure. and sentiments sincere? True to those counsels which I judge the best. nor may my words be vain! Seek not this day the Grecian ships to gain. So bodes my soul. [223] . But tends to raise that power which I obey. not thy reason wrong: Or if the purpose of thy heart thou vent. I tell the faithful dictates of my breast. whose sinister flight Retards our host. thy reproach I bear. In peace. To speak his thoughts is every freeman's right. are decreed. Dismiss'd his conquest in the middle skies. Toils unforeseen. to warn us. And thus my mind explains its clear event: The victor eagle. pale with terror. Then first Polydamas the silence broke. and to Hector spoke: "How oft. More woes shall follow.

Close to the works their rigid siege they laid. for thou canst be a slave. as none promotes it less: Though all our chiefs amidst yon ships expire." Furious he spoke. rushing to the wall. While I the dictates of high heaven obey. Or where the suns arise.BOOK XII. And gives great Hector the predestined day. the irrevocable nod. To right. and. and guide my wavering mind By wandering birds that flit with every wind? Ye vagrants of the sky! your wings extend. but stronger in his aid. Calls on his host. Yet should the fears that wary mind suggests Spread their cold poison through our soldiers' breasts. And free the soul that quivers in thy heart. My javelin can revenge so base a part. Without a sign his sword the brave man draws. With ardour follow where their leader flies: Redoubling clamours thunder in the skies. Strong in themselves. unheeded take your way. to left. And happy thunders of the favouring god. Troy and her sons may find a general grave. 365 [224] . Trust thy own cowardice to escape their fire. Jove breathes a whirlwind from the hills of Ide. his host obey the call. or where descend. And asks no omen but his country's cause. What coward counsels would thy madness move Against the word. And drifts of dust the clouded navy hide. Sure heaven resumes the little sense it lent. He fills the Greeks with terror and dismay. But thou canst live. These shall I slight. But why should'st thou suspect the war's success? None fears it more. the will reveal'd of Jove? The leading sign.

fill the thoughts of all.366 The Iliad of Homer In vain the mounds and massy beams defend. Behold a day when each may act his part! A day to fire the brave. Greece on her ramparts stands the fierce alarms. . And you. A snowy inundation hides the plain. or augment the old. Shield touching shield. The bold Ajaces fly from tower to tower. To gain new glories. Conquest. and those who faint. but sally from the wall. In winter's bleak un comfortable reign. Then pours the silent tempest thick and deep. And Troy lie trembling in her walls again. rain below. and those they rend. So Jove once more may drive their routed train. And opes his cloudy magazine of storms. praise. Seek not your fleet. He stills the winds. Threats urge the fearful. And now the stones descend in heavier showers. And heaps on heaps the smoky ruins fall. Whence hissing darts. And rouse. and the valiant. The generous impulse every Greek obeys. The crowded bulwarks blaze with waving arms. not safety. Upheaved the piles that prop the solid wall. with flame divine. "Fellows in arms! whose deeds are known to fame. Drown Hector's vaunts in loud exhorts of fight. whose ardour hopes an equal name! Since not alike endued with force or art. Urge those who stand. the Grecian power. and bids the skies to sleep. incessant." Their ardour kindles all the Grecian powers. a long refulgent row. While these they undermine. excite. and warm the cold. As when high Jove his sharp artillery forms.

Then the green fields. Majestic moves along. alone absorbing all. Drink the dissolving fleeces as they fall: So from each side increased the stony rain. Within whose orb the thick bull-hides were roll'd. So stalks the lordly savage o'er the plain. and urged him on to fame. the nodding woods are seen. And bears aloft his ample shield in air. he rends the panting prey. [225] So press'd with hunger.BOOK XII. nor the Greeks would yield. And first the mountain-tops are cover'd o'er. Regardless. and bound with ductile gold: And while two pointed javelins arm his hands. 367 Thus godlike Hector and his troops contend To force the ramparts. Ponderous with brass. In sullen majesty. and stern disdain: In vain loud mastiffs bay him from afar. and the gates to rend: Nor Troy could conquer. In arms he shines. . And shepherds gall him with an iron war. he pursues his way. And the white ruin rises o'er the plain. Bent with the weight. furious. and then the sandy shore. conspicuous from afar. and leads his Lycian bands. He foams. And one bright waste hides all the works of men: The circling seas. Till great Sarpedon tower'd amid the field. he roars. For mighty Jove inspired with martial flame His matchless son. from the mountain's brow Descends a lion on the flocks below.

divine Sarpedon glows With generous rage that drives him on the foes. 450. Such. He views the towers." —"Paradise Lost. Then casting on his friend an ardent look. To sure destruction dooms the aspiring wall. And vindicate the bounteous powers above? 'Tis ours. Glaucus! our extended reign. For lust of fame I should not vainly dare 226 —Why boast we. they may cry. the dignity they give to grace. deserve the sovereign state. and meditates their fall. due alike to him Who reigns. as the first in place." ii. . and as gods obey'd. and so much to him due Of hazard more. as he above the rest High honour'd sits. The first in valour. Our foaming bowls with purer nectar crown'd. thus he spoke: "Why boast we.368 The Iliad of Homer Resolved alike. And hills where vines their purple harvest yield. Fired with the thirst of glory. Our numerous herds that range the fruitful field. That when with wondering eyes our martial bands Behold our deeds transcending our commands. Admired as heroes. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. "Wherefore do I assume These royalties and not refuse to reign.226 Where Xanthus' streams enrich the Lycian plain. Unless great acts superior merit prove. Which claims no less the fearful and the brave. Whom those that envy dare not imitate! Could all our care elude the gloomy grave. Our feasts enhanced with music's sprightly sound? Why on those shores are we with joy survey'd.

In fighting fields. And give to fame what we to nature owe. And saw where Teucer with the Ajaces stood. Brave though we fall. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Hither the Lycian princes bend their course. prodigal of blood. which others pay. Their strength. his words the listening chief inspire With equal warmth. And urge the bold Ajaces to our aid. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. The troops pursue their leaders with delight. and repel the foe. Menestheus from on high the storm beheld Threatening the fort. let us bestow. and blackening in the field: Around the walls he gazed.BOOK XII. The best and bravest of the hostile force. or glory give!" 369 [226] He said. our towers defend. The brazen hinges fly. thunders all the ground Then thus to Thoos: "Hence with speed (he said). roar the mountains. Of fight insatiate. Disease. In vain he calls. and death's inexorable doom The life. alas! ignoble age must come. But if too fiercely there the foes contend. the walls resound. But since. Rush to the foe. Or let us glory gain. and rouse the warrior's fire. and echoes through the fields. and claim the promised fight. Heaven trembles." . nor urge thy soul to war. the din of helms and shields Rings to the skies. and honour'd if we live. to view from far What aid appear'd to avert the approaching war. united. at least. Let Telamon.

Fierce Ajax first the advancing host invades. prove your force in fight. Opposed in combat on the dusty shore. mix'd shouts and groans arise. their utmost force unite. And thus bespoke his brothers of the war: "Now." Straight to the fort great Ajax turn'd his care. "Ye valiant leaders of our warlike bands! Your aid (said Thoos) Peteus' son demands. and thickens in the skies. brave Oileus. [227] . Prepared to labour in the unequal fight: The war renews. At least. valiant Lycomede! exert your might. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Thither the Lycian princes bend their course. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. and repel the foe. And sends the brave Epicles to the shades. oppress'd. the herald speeds along The lofty ramparts. Tumultuous clamour mounts. High on the walls appear'd the Lycian powers.370 The Iliad of Homer Swift. at the word. expect me to complete the day Then with his sevenfold shield he strode away. And. Till by this arm the foe shall be repell'd: That done. through the martial throng. The best and bravest of the hostile force. With equal steps bold Teucer press'd the shore. Like some black tempest gathering round the towers: The Greeks. here. To you I trust the fortune of the field. united. let Telamon those towers defend. Your strength. But if too fiercely. Whose fatal bow the strong Pandion bore. the foes contend. And finds the heroes bathed in sweat and gore.

Across the warrior's way. and shoot into the deep. and labour'd up the sky. The ponderous ruin crush'd his batter'd crown. Rent from the walls. The chief. a rocky fragment lay. Divine Sarpedon with regret beheld Disabled Glaucus slowly quit the field. and. His brazen armour rings against the ground. leaping from his height Retired reluctant from the unfinish'd fight. Deep in his breast he plunged the pointed steel. As skilful divers from some airy steep Headlong descend. who fear'd some foe's insulting boast Might stop the progress of his warlike host. So falls Epicles. 371 While to the ramparts daring Glaucus drew. . It flew with force. The bearded shaft the destined passage found. And murmuring to the shades the soul retires. and flies upon the foes. pursued by gushing streams of gore: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. then in groans expires. From Teucer's hand a winged arrow flew.BOOK XII. Sarpedon's friend. Then from the yawning wound with fury tore The spear. And on his naked arm inflicts a wound. and swung it round. His beating breast with generous ardour glows. Full on the Lycian's helmet thundering down. Alcmaon first was doom'd his force to feel. then toss'd on high. He springs to fight. In modern ages not the strongest swain Could heave the unwieldy burden from the plain: He poised. Conceal'd the wound.

of the contended field. Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towers. They join. the ponderous stones disjointed yield. and soon that hostile fleet shall fall: The force of powerful union conquers all. not meditating flight. To shield his offspring. . but neither gain. Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds. The prince gave back. is the strength you boast? Your former fame and ancient virtue lost! The breach lies open. one inch. they fight. Tugs with full force. Fix'd in his belt the feather'd weapon stood. and fired with glory's charms. but your chief in vain Attempts alone the guarded pass to gain: Unite. the walls lie bare. and the assault renew: Unmoved the embodied Greeks their fury dare. "O where. Then raised with hope. nor yield. A mighty breach appears. They tug. they sweat. ye Lycians. But Jove was present in the dire debate. And Ajax sends his javelin at the foe. One foot. they fall. His fainting squadrons to new fury warms. As on the confines of adjoining grounds. And fix'd support the weight of all the war. like a deluge. and severer fight. And through his buckler drove the trembling wood. rushes in the war. and every nerve applies: It shakes. Thus obstinate to death.372 The Iliad of Homer [228] Swift to the battlement the victor flies." This just rebuke inflamed the Lycian crew. At once bold Teucer draws the twanging bow. The rolling ruins smoke along the field. they thicken. Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian powers. And. and avert his fate. But urging vengeance.

Fierce as a whirlwind up the walls he flies. Haste to the fleet. A ponderous stone bold Hector heaved to throw. just and poor.BOOK XII.) Till poised aloft. (While some laborious matron. And fires his host with loud repeated cries. gathering at his call. "Long time in even scale The battle hung." vi. as easy as a swain could bear The snowy fleece. nor that. Loud strokes are heard. till Hector's matchless might. And the high ramparts drip with human gore. Raise scaling engines. turn'd the scale of fight. Nor these can keep. Their manly breasts are pierced with many a wound. 245. From side to side the trembling balance nods. and. . ye Trojans! lend your valiant hands. and ascend the wall: Around the works a wood of glittering spears Shoots up. "Advance. the labour of a god. and toss the blazing brands!" They hear. With fates prevailing. 227 373 [229] —Each equal weight. they run. For Jove upheld. the resting beam suspends Each equal weight. nor this. Such men as live in these degenerate days: Yet this. and all the rising host appears. and lighten'd of its load The unwieldy rock. Pointed above. The copious slaughter covers all the shore. and rattling arms resound. As when two scales are charged with doubtful loads. nor those can win the wall. descends:227 So stood the war. and rough and gross below: Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. and shook in air. he toss'd." —"Paradise Lost. With nice exactness weighs her woolly store.

they tremble. Gloomy as night. and tumult rends the sky. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living flame. from the crackling door Leap the resounding bars." vi. and they fly. Drives the sharp rock. 228 "He on his impious foes right onward drove. A tide of Trojans flows. the flying hinges roar. Gloomy as night! and shakes two shining spears:228 A dreadful gleam from his bright armour came. The shore is heap'd with death. through the gaping space. And seems a match for more than mortal force. the solid beams give way. before the folded gates he came. On lofty beams of solid timber hung: Then thundering through the planks with forceful sway. The Greeks behold. 831 . Of massy substance. With iron bars and brazen hinges strong.374 The Iliad of Homer Thus arm'd. and stupendous frame." —"Paradise Lost. He moves a god. Then pouring after. resistless in his course. Now rushing in. the furious chief appears. and fills the place. The folds are shatter'd.



who return together to the battle. and put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. and inspires those heroes to oppose him: then. losing his spear in the encounter. upbraids Paris. but goes first to rally the Trojans. repairs to seek another at the tent of Idomeneus: this occasions a conversation between those two warriors. encourages the other Greeks who had retired to their vessels. Several deeds of valour are performed. Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaces. . The scene is between the Grecian wall and the sea-shore. and renews the attack. Meriones. being galled by the Locrian slingers and archers. rejoins Polydamas. till. (who had entered the gate near the station of the Ajaces. IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS THE GREEKS: THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS. ARGUMENT. in the form of one of the generals. and at length Idomeneus retires.) assumes the shape of Calchas. and kills Pisander. The Ajaces form their troops in a close phalanx. and Alcathous: Deiphobus and Æneas march against him. Polydamas advises to call a council of war: Hector approves of his advice. Asius. The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. meets Ajax again. Neptune. The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing. he kills Othryoneus. Menelaus wounds Helenus. concerned for the loss of the Grecians. THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED.[230] BOOK XIII. Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest. upon seeing the fortification forced by Hector.

" or "bowless. from the crystal chambers of the main —Renown'd for justice and for length of days." i. Then turn'd to Thracia from the field of fight Those eyes that shed insufferable light. The crowded ships and sable seas between. also speaks of the independence of these people. innoxious. And hardy Thracians tame the savage horse. and avoids the scene Of guilty Troy. Arrian. There. has occasioned much discussion. nor observed in vain. In Samothracia. which he regards as the result of their poverty and uprightness. "milking their mares.e. He sat. either "long-lived. Some authors have regarded the phrase "Hippomolgian. in this passage. of arms. to either host is given. p. The epithet abion or abion. on a mountain's brow. From milk. seek their simple food: Jove sees delighted. Meantime the monarch of the watery main Observed the Thunderer. And where the far-famed Hippomolgian strays. and dying men: No aid. Whose waving woods o'erhung the deeps below." the latter epithet indicating that they did not depend upon archery for subsistence. 239. Alex. fair Ilion's glittering spires were seen. While his high law suspends the powers of Heaven. since the oldest of the Samatian nomads made their mares' milk one of their chief articles of diet. It may mean. de Exp." as an epithet applicable to numerous tribes. 229 . Below. according as we read it. iv.229 Thrice happy race! that. and round him cast his azure eyes Where Ida's misty tops confusedly rise.378 The Iliad of Homer [231] When now the Thunderer on the sea-beat coast Had fix'd great Hector and his conquering host. He left them to the fates. innocent of blood. in bloody fray To toil and struggle through the well-fought day. To where the Mysians prove their martial force. he deems. Renown'd for justice and for length of days.

Fleet as the winds. the lofty mountains nod. The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. and his steeds unbound. The parting waves before his coursers fly. Refulgent arms his mighty limbs infold.BOOK XIII. and mourn'd his Argives slain. Prone down the rocky steep he rush'd along. with grief and fury stung. and the chariot flies: His whirling wheels the glassy surface sweep. And heavy whales in awkward measures play. he sat. Deep in the liquid regions lies a cave. Fierce as he pass'd. Emerged. the distant Ægae shook. And felt the footsteps of the immortal god. immortal: there they stay: 379 . The forest shakes. From realm to realm three ample strides he took. and deck'd with golden manes. He sits superior. The wondering waters leave his axle dry. Immortal arms of adamant and gold. Infrangible. the golden scourge applies. and owns the monarch of the main. And. Eternal frame! not raised by mortal hands: This having reach'd. Far in the bay his shining palace stands. And link'd their fetlocks with a golden band. at the fourth. Between where Tenedos the surges lave. his brass-hoof'd steeds he reins. The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. Fed with ambrosial herbage from his hand. He mounts the car. earth trembled as he trod. At Jove incensed. Exults. And rocky Imbrus breaks the rolling wave: There the great ruler of the azure round Stopp'd his swift chariot.

. and such his manly mien.380 The Iliad of Homer [232] The father of the floods pursues his way: Where. And in their hopes the fleets already flame. like a tempest. rising from the seas profound. Or fiery deluge that devours the ground. Now wears a mortal form. The impatient Trojans. in a gloomy throng. But most the Ajaces. NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. Embattled roll'd. The god whose earthquakes rock the solid ground. as Hector rush'd along: To the loud tumult and the barbarous cry The heavens re-echo. and the shores reply: They vow destruction to the Grecian name. His shouts incessant every Greek inspire. like Calchas seen. adding fire to fire. Such his loud voice. darkening heaven around. But Neptune.

" 381 Then with his sceptre. Her strength were vain. [233] The inspiring god Oileus' active son Perceived the first. Breathe in your hearts. Shoots on the wing. and string your arms to fight. He touch'd the chiefs. and skims along the sky: Such. Forth-springing instant. and steel'd their manly souls: Strength. the touch divine imparts. I dread for you alone: Here Hector rages like the force of fire. and swells their daring hearts. Greece yet may live. the power of ocean flew. and Jove's own aid. The wide horizon shut him from their view.BOOK XIII. all our hopes to raise: Oh recollect your ancient worth and praise! 'Tis yours to save us. not their own. O warriors. and so swift. is destructive here. her threaten'd fleet maintain: And Hector's force. more than shameful. as a falcon from the rocky height. impetuous at the sight. Vaunts of his gods. Her quarry seen. darts herself from high. Flight. "'Tis yours. And pour her armies o'er our batter'd wall: There Greece has strength: but this. Then. and thus to Telamon: . Prompts their light limbs. be vain. On other works though Troy with fury fall. that the deep controls. this part o'erthrown. and calls high Jove his sire: If yet some heavenly power your breast excite. if you cease to fear.

and fortifies my heart: Singly. While thus the god the martial fire awakes: . While tears of rage stand burning in their eye. pale. and tread in air!" "With equal ardour (Telamon returns) My soul is kindled. shakes the dart. Greece sunk they thought. Who. my friend. And swarms victorious o'er their yielding walls: Trembling before the impending storm they lie. the impulsive fury found." Full of the god that urged their burning breast. and the steps he trod. Not Calchas this. Teucer and Leitus first his words excite. Short as he turned. I saw the power appear: I mark'd his parting. This ready arm. New rising spirits all my force alarm. methinks. And Merion next. The blood pours back. while Troy to conquest calls. But breathe new courage as they feel the power. The heroes thus their mutual warmth express'd. breathless. Last Nestor's son the same bold ardour takes. some god in human form Favouring descends. And seem to walk on wings.382 The Iliad of Homer "Some god. Even now some energy divine I share. And stretch the dreadful Hector at my feet. and brace my arm. unthinking. Thoas. Lift each impatient limb. and wills to stand the storm. and my bosom burns. the venerable seer. His own bright evidence reveals a god. Neptune meanwhile the routed Greeks inspired. in arms renown'd. Deipyrus. yon towering chief I meet. and this their fatal hour. with length of labours tired. Pant in the ships. Then stern Peneleus rises to the fight.

The purchase infamy. On endless infamy. Unseen. A day more black. and her navy free: Ah. Invade your camps. oh dire disgrace To chiefs of vigorous youth. Think. the flower of all our host. And one black day clouds all her former fame. to see Brave Greece victorious. for they feel no shame: But you. Must you be cowards. and manly race! I trusted in the gods. involve your ships in flame? A change so shameful. a straggling train. say. what cause has wrought? The soldiers' baseness. unthought. and subdue! on dastards dead to fame I waste no anger. a fate more vile.BOOK XIII. the pride. A prey to every savage of the wood: Shall these. "Oh lasting infamy. Like frighted fawns from hill to hill pursued. My heart weeps blood to see your glory lost! Nor deem this day. and your country save: Small thought retrieves the spirits of the brave. and you. but yours the shame. who prizes fame or breath. till this amazing day! Fly we at length from Troy's oft-conquer'd bands? And falls our fleet by such inglorious hands? A rout undisciplined. Let each reflect. Grant that our chief offend through rage or lust. all you lose. so late who trembled at your name. Not born to glories of the dusty plain. and life the price? 'Tis not your cause. ensues. Heavens! what a prodigy these eyes survey. this battle. Achilles' injured fame: Another's is the crime. on instant death: 383 [234] . or the general's fault? Fools! will ye perish for your leader's vice. no—the glorious combat you disclaim. if your king's unjust? Prevent this evil.

lo! the fated time. so disposed their fight. Spears lean on spears. on targets targets throng. and man drove man along. Thus breathing death.384 The Iliad of Homer For. impatient to destroy. The hour. Descending Hector and his battle wait. the spot. Troy charged the first. Their brandish'd lances at each motion blaze.) Precipitate the ponderous mass descends: From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds. The floating plumes unnumber'd wave above. Helms stuck to helms. the brazen barriers roar! Impetuous Hector thunders at the wall. with fury borne. The close compacted legions urged their way: Fierce they drove on. As when an earthquake stirs the nodding grove. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends. And levell'd at the skies with pointing rays. resolved as fate. the appointed shore: Hark! the gates burst. Or had the god of war inclined his eyes. A rock's round fragment flies. and Hector first of Troy. An iron scene gleams dreadful o'er the fields. in terrible array. As Pallas' self might view with fix'd delight. Armour in armour lock'd. to conquer. At every shock the crackling wood resounds. [235] . And listening armies catch the godlike fire. The god of war had own'd a just surprise." These words the Grecians' fainting hearts inspire. Fix'd at his post was each bold Ajax found. A chosen phalanx. firm. and shields in shields. With well-ranged squadrons strongly circled round: So close their order. As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn. or to fall.

marching. this day inspires our arms. Bold Merion aim'd a stroke (nor aim'd it wide). Flies jumping all adourne the woods. but. and urged amain. 230 Compare Chapman's quaint. The point broke short.230 Resistless when he raged. and. leaps. The first of gods. And on. Strong as they seem. resounding everie shocke. Hath broke the naturall band it had within the roughftey rock. and thunders down. held Before his wary steps his ample shield. the darts are shed. The Greek. And then (tho' never so impelled). bold verses:— "And as a round piece of a rocke. impetuous to the plain: There stops—so Hector. Forth march'd Deiphobus. Whirls. it stirs not any way:— So Hector. unmoved.BOOK XIII. 385 Still gathering force.—" . And all their falchions wave around his head: Repulsed he stands. beyond the rest. "Trojans! be firm. On the raised orb to distance bore the spear. it smokes. and that black array: Stand. nor from his stand retires. But pierced not through: unfaithful to his hand. embattled like a tower. On him the war is bent. when he stopp'd. For he that Juno's heavenly bosom warms. when a shoure poured from a bursten cloud. which with a winter's flood Is from his top torn. The Trojan warrior. and my spear shall rout their scattering power. it headlong leaps till in a plaine it stay. this arm shall make your way Through yon square body. and roused the soul in every breast: Urged with desire of fame. uncheckt. retreating. mourn'd his frustrate blow. and sparkled in the sand." He said. touch'd with timely fear. But with repeated shouts his army fires. Their whole force he proved. The glittering javelin pierced the tough bull-hide.

As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown. rich in generous steeds. The youth had dwelt. a guardian of the throne. And just had fastened on the dazzling prize. and pierced Amphimachus's heart. From Hector's hand a shining javelin fled: He saw. and shunn'd the death. Then to the ships with surly speed he went. his clanging arms resound. Subdued by steel.386 The Iliad of Homer And cursed the treacherous lance that spared a foe. Allied the warrior to the house of Troy:) To Troy. To seek a surer javelin in his tent. of Neptune's forceful line. when glory call'd his arms. Ere yet to Troy the sons of Greece were led. remote from war's alarms. And soils its verdant tresses on the ground. To seize his beamy helm the victor flies. By Teucer's arm the warlike Imbrius bleeds. Him Teucer pierced between the throat and ear: He groans beneath the Telamonian spear. his arms the fall resound. Cteatus' son. and the clamour grows. beloved and honour'd as his own. a tall ash tumbles down. The son of Mentor. the forceful dart Sung on. The tumult thickens. He lived. the fruit of Priam's ravish'd joy. and his race divine! Prostrate he falls. [236] . Vain was his courage. And blest in bright Medesicaste's arms: (This nymph. Meanwhile with rising rage the battle glows. In fair Pedaeus' verdant pastures bred. So falls the youth. he came. And match'd the bravest of her chiefs in fame: With Priam's sons. Then Teucer rushing to despoil the dead. And his broad buckler thunders on the ground.

the victor Greeks obtain The spoils contested. Repulsed he yields. In Thoas' voice. Between the leaders of the Athenian line. sad object! lies. confirms their hands. And his sad comrades from the battle bore. a slaughter'd fawn. the chief: great Ajax from the dead Strips his bright arms. Menestheus the divine.) Deplored Amphimachus. He felt the shock. nor more was doom'd to feel. As two grim lions bear across the lawn. The god of ocean. and sheath'd in shining steel. and bear off the slain. (Stichius the brave. he issued from his tent Fierce for the fight: to whom the god begun. Inspires the Grecian hearts. And pierced with sorrow for his grandson slain. Him to the surgeons of the camp he sent: That office paid. So these. Snatch'd from devouring hounds. Whom in the chance of war a javelin tore. Secure in mail. Swift as a whirlwind rushing to the fleet. Andraemon's valiant son. and whirl'd in air away. When Ajax' manly arm a javelin flung. He finds the lance-famed Idomen of Crete. And sprinkling all the shrubs with drops of blood. Imbrius remains the fierce Ajaces' prize. fired with stern disdain. 387 [237] . In their fell jaws high-lifting through the wood. His pensive brow the generous care express'd With which a wounded soldier touch'd his breast. Oileus lops his head: Toss'd like a ball.BOOK XIII. Full on the shield's round boss the weapon rung. At Hector's feet the gory visage lay. Who ruled where Calydon's white rocks arise. And breathes destruction on the Trojan bands.

urge the rest. Together let us battle on the plain. and war is all her own. now perform thy best. alas! and Jove's all-powerful doom. nor even this succour vain: Not vain the weakest. Her hardy heroes from the well-fought plains Nor fear withholds. That far. Nor dares to combat on this signal day! For this. Arms are her trade. far distant from our native home Wills us to fall inglorious! Oh. and proud Ilion lost?" To whom the king: "On Greece no blame be thrown. still prone to lend Or arms or counsels. my friend! Once foremost in the fight. And what thou canst not singly. Two. But ours.388 The Iliad of Homer And Pleuron's chalky cliffs emblaze the skies: "Where's now the imperious vaunt. not the worst." Thus he: and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Ah! never may he see his native land. And urge thy soul to rival acts with mine." . behold! in horrid arms I shine. Of Greece victorious. But feed the vultures on this hateful strand. if their force unite. the bravest have confess'd in fight. the daring boast. nor shameful sloth detains: 'Tis heaven. Who seeks ignobly in his ships to stay.

Like lightning bursting from the arm of Jove. two javelins glittering in his hand. Or terrifies the offending world with wars. What holds thy courage from so brave a field? On some important message art thou bound. Meriones attends. kindling all the skies.BOOK XIII. The rest lies rooted in a Trojan shield. as the monarch flash'd along. And glows with prospects of th' approaching day. my soul abhors to stay." "O prince! (Meriones replies) whose care Leads forth the embattled sons of Crete to war. In streamy sparkles. Or bleeds my friend by some unhappy wound? Inglorious here. 389 Him. From pole to pole the trail of glory flies: Thus his bright armour o'er the dazzled throng Gleam'd dreadful. Whom thus he questions: "Ever best of friends! O say. And clad in arms that lighten'd all the strand. Swift to his tent the Cretan king returns: From thence. Fierce on the foe the impetuous hero drove. in every art of battle skill'd." [238] . he rushes where the combat burns. This said. Which to pale man the wrath of heaven declares. near his tent. This speaks my grief: this headless lance I wield.

Yet hand to hand I fight. singled from the rest. And looks a bloodless image of despair! Not so the brave—still dauntless. . disdainful of the distant war. Against his bosom beats his quivering heart. and unconquer'd might: And were some ambush for the foes design'd. stands confess'd. Though I. and these arms I gain." To this. Unchanged his colour. and see on heaps the helmets roll'd. Spears I have store. and spoil the slain. With chattering teeth he stands. What need I more? If any Greek there be Who knows not Merion. or valour. whence distant far. I fight conspicuous in the van of war. Enter. nor aim the uncertain spear. No force. those my tent can give. and shields that flame with gold. determined is his eye. Nor trust the dart. And high-hung spears. (and Trojan lances all. Idomeneus: "The fields of fight Have proved thy valour." "Nor vain (said Merion) are our martial toils. Even there thy courage would not lag behind: In that sharp service. Terror and death in his wild eye-balls stare. and stiffening hair.390 The Iliad of Homer To whom the Cretan: "Enter. The fear of each. and unmoved his frame: Composed his thought. no firmness. I appeal to thee.) That shed a lustre round the illumined wall. He shifts his place: his colour comes and goes: A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part. We too can boast of no ignoble spoils: But those my ship contains. the pale coward shows. still the same. And thence these trophies. and receive The wonted weapons.

Or combat in the centre of the fight? Or to the left our wonted succour lend? Hazard and fame all parts alike attend. And their bright arms shot horror o'er the plain. his best-beloved son. when glory calls to arms? Go—from my conquer'd spears the choicest take. and all before. 'Tis but the wish to strike before the rest. The pride of haughty warriors to confound. Invoked by both. And to their owners send them nobly back. Arm'd with stern boldness. murderous rout to those. And fix'd his soul. call'd to the dire alarms Of warring Phlegyans. and Ephyrian arms.) Terror. like infants." 391 [239] . "In such assays thy blameless worth is known. Stand we to talk. So Mars armipotent invades the plain. breathing slaughter. By chance of fight whatever wounds you bore. And lay the strength of tyrants on the ground: From Thrace they fly. follow'd to the war. Such as may teach. And every art of dangerous war thy own. relentless they dispose. Then first spake Merion: "Shall we join the right. So march'd the leaders of the Cretan train. (The wide destroyer of the race of man. But why. 'twas still thy brave delight T'oppose thy bosom where thy foremost fight. cold to honour's charms. to conquer or to die: If aught disturb the tenour of his breast.BOOK XIII. attends his course. Those wounds were glorious all. To these glad conquest. and enormous force." Swift at the word bold Merion snatch'd a spear And.

nor steel can wound. And hurl the blazing ruin at our head. that flash'd afar. And the dry fields are lifted to the skies: Thus by despair. Their force embodied in a tide they pour. meeting. As warring winds. On every side the dusty whirlwinds rise. Or bear close battle on the sounding shield. the navy fears no flame. darken'd heaven. All dreadful glared the iron face of war. helms. The rising combat sounds along the shore. urged his pace. And gallant Teucer deals destruction there. And live with glory. Great must he be. Each godlike Ajax makes that post his care. Whom Ajax fells not on the ensanguined ground. Soon as the foe the shining chiefs beheld Rush like a fiery torrent o'er the field." He said: and Merion to th' appointed place. together driven. Nor feed like mortals on the fruits of earth. Till Jove himself descends. and. Then to the left our ready arms apply. Dire was the gleam of breastplates. his bolts to shed. rage. In standing fight he mates Achilles' force. or with glory die. These can the rage of haughty Hector tame: Safe in their arms. Skill'd or with shafts to gall the distant field. . hope. Him neither rocks can crush. Met the black hosts. and shields. Bristled with upright spears. Excell'd alone in swiftness in the course. in Sirius' sultry reign.392 The Iliad of Homer "Not in the centre (Idomen replied:) Our ablest chieftains the main battle guide. From different quarters sweep the sandy plain. Fierce as the god of battles. of more than human birth.

Cassandra's love he sought. First by his hand Othryoneus was slain. and grown in combats grey. and heaven their native place. supremely wise. with mad ambition vain. first-born of the skies. Gods of one source. While Neptune. or gods. and fired the Grecian train. by his vaunts abused. Neptune in human form conceal'd his aid. Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers. These powers enfold the Greek and Trojan train In war and discord's adamantine chain.BOOK XIII. The king consented. 393 [240] . For this. The bold Idomeneus controls the day. and close compell'd they die. And polish'd arms emblazed the flaming fields: Tremendous scene! that general horror gave. Dreadful in arms. Swell'd with false hopes. by Thetis won To crown with glory Peleus' godlike son. The sire of earth and heaven. Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame. And more than men. But touch'd with joy the bosoms of the brave. Warr'd on the king of heaven with stern disdain. Saturn's great sons in fierce contention vied. rising from his azure main. Alike divine. And breathed revenge. And promised conquest was the proffer'd dower. But Jove the greater. From high Cabesus' distant walls he came. Indissolubly strong: the fatal tie Is stretch'd on both. with boasts of power. but the fates refused. The king consented. And crowds of heroes in their anger died. of Jove's superior might afraid. But spared awhile the destined Trojan towers. of one ethereal race.

. And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine. Vain was his breastplate to repel the wound: His dream of glory lost. Full on his throat discharged the forceful spear: Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide. Groans to the oft-heaved axe. the Cretan javelin found. The wary Cretan. And such the contract of the Phrygian king! Our offers now. And stretch'd before his much-loved coursers lay. There hear what Greece has on her part to say. Meantime. The field he measured with a larger stride. Before his chariot warring on the plain: (His crowded coursers. fit mast for some great admiral. For such an aid what will not Argos give? To conquer Troy. to his squire consign'd. and of the imagined bride. And glitter'd. and dragg'd the gory corse away. he plunged to hell. His arms resounded as the boaster fell. "And thus (he cries) behold thy promise sped! Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring. as his foe drew near. He hoped the conquest of the Cretan king." He spoke. Impatient panted on his neck behind:) To vengeance rising with a sudden spring. with ours thy forces join. illustrious prince! receive. or poplar tall. Or pine. As when the mountain-oak. Him as he stalk'd. with many a wound. This Asius view'd. on further methods to advise. follow to the fleet thy new allies. The great Idomeneus bestrides the dead. Come. Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground: So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day. unable to contain. extant at the further side.394 The Iliad of Homer [241] Proud of himself.

) He lay collected in defensive shade. fierce in death. He grinds the dust distain'd with streaming gore. 395 Stabb'd at the sight. (a blazing round. Even then the spear the vigorous arm confess'd. to the ground it bore The chief. And. he pants beneath The stately car. lies foaming on the shore.BOOK XIII. through hell's black portals stand display'd. and. stooping. king Hypsenor's breast: Warm'd in his liver. O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung. caused to glance From his slope shield the disappointed lance. and labours out his breath. This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade. And pierced. Nor shuns the foe. Stands all aghast his trembling charioteer. Beneath the spacious targe." . Deprived of motion. Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbits bound. nor turns the steeds away. the vengeful weapon fly. lamented Asius lies: For thee. Thus Asius' steeds (their mighty master gone) Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son. his people's guardian now no more! "Not unattended (the proud Trojan cries) Nor unrevenged. On his raised arm by two strong braces stay'd. Deiphobus drew nigh. But falls transfix'd. obliquely. And made. The Cretan saw. stiff with stupid fear. with force. an unresisting prey: Pierced by Antilochus. And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung.

The long lance shakes. divinely fair. as prone he lay.396 The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish. The riven armour sends a jarring sound. Before the ponderous stroke his corslet yields. His spouse Hippodame. And his broad buckler shields his slaughter'd friend: Till sad Mecistheus and Alastor bore His honour'd body to the tented shore. . but Nestor's son the most. His labouring heart heaves with so strong a bound. [242] Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws. The fairest she of all the fair of Troy. Or find some foe. Touch'd every Greek. whom heaven and he shall doom To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom. at the haughty boast. He sees Alcathous in the front aspire: Great Æsyetes was the hero's sire. and vibrates in the wound. Fast flowing from its source. Fix'd as some column. Life's purple tide impetuous gush'd away. sense. his breast received the stroke. or deep-rooted oak. Long used to ward the death in fighting fields. Grieved as he was. Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes. nor shuns the lance of Crete. his pious arms attend. And fetters every limb: yet bent to meet His fate he stands. and every work of art: He once of Ilion's youth the loveliest boy. and darling care: Who charm'd her parents' and her husband's heart With beauty. Anchises' eldest hope. While the winds sleep. By Neptune now the hapless hero dies. Resolved to perish in his country's cause.

Trojan prince. And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. To him." 397 [243] . Alcathous dies. This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe. Or seek auxiliar force. uncertain or to meet. the third from Jupiter: O'er spacious Crete. Forthwith Æneas rises to his thought: For him in Troy's remotest lines he sought. Approaching now thy boasted might approve. Where he. and one roof contain'd. Haste. at length decreed To call some hero to partake the deed. ambitious of so great an aid. I reign. and her bold sons. Alone. and thy line. and said: "Now. If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms. From Jove. guardian of his country. And sees superior posts in meaner hands. Then Idomen. enamour'd of a mortal dame. Come. One table fed you. Great Minos. employ thy pious arms. His first-born I." The Trojan heard. to the shades I send. o'er all my host I shine. This. thy brother and thy friend. Deiphobus! nor vaunt in vain: See! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend. stands. A scourge to thee. incensed at partial Priam. my third victim. thy father. and the warrior's loved remains defend. Beneath his cares thy early youth was train'd. came: Deucalion. The bold Deiphobus approach'd. with venturous arms the king of Crete. blameless prince. insulting o'er the slain: "Behold. And thence my ships transport me through the main: Lord of a host. and revenge it on th' insulting foe. was Minos' heir.BOOK XIII.

and to slaughter bred. (Co-aids and captains of the Trojan line. and expects the war. great Æneas rushes to the fight: Sprung from a god. Attends the tumult. His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage." He spoke. Like Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain. Deipyrus. Else should this hand. this hour decide the strife. "Fellows in arms! your timely aid unite. on some rough mountain's head. and all. Then rising in his rage. The youthful offspring of the god of war. Before his fleecy care. Their lifted bucklers cast a dreadful shade Around the chief. his javelin shook. Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eyes.) In order follow all th' embodied train. Lo. Arm'd with wild terrors. Deiphobus. join. Æneas too demands Th' assisting forces of his native bands. He fresh in youth. . Merion. Agenor. The great dispute. And met the Trojan with a lowering look. and shout from far. When the loud rustics rise. and for a space resign'd To tender pity all his manly mind. Antilochus. or of life. and Aphareus. he burns to fight: The Greek awaits him with collected might. But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage: So stood Idomeneus. obey'd. erect and bold. As the fell boar. as with one soul. in field renown'd: To these the warrior sent his voice around.398 The Iliad of Homer Æneas heard. and more than mortal bold. were near. of glory. O'er his bent back the bristly horrors rise. and I in arms grown old. Paris.

and stretches o'er the land. The Cretan saw. as his native band Moves on in rank. and quiver'd where it stood. In standing fight he yet maintains his force. fired with hate. And. Round dread Alcathous now the battle rose.BOOK XIII. And burn'd to drench the ground with mutual blood. grasps the bloody dust in death. His spoils he could not. the missive wood Stuck deep in earth. The forceful spear his hollow corslet broke. Above the rest. The Trojan weapon whizz'd along in air. His tired slow steps he drags from off the field. and shunn'd the brazen spear: Sent from an arm so strong. Like gods of war. furious. On every side the steely circle grows. the father of the bold. Stretch'd on the plain. for the shower of spears. dispensing fate. The victor from his breast the weapon tears. Till faint with labour. With joy the swain surveys them. Stalks the proud ram. And roll'd the smoking entrails on the ground. And o'er their heads unheeded javelins sing. Deiphobus beheld him as he pass'd. through the well-known meads: So joys Æneas. and by foes repell'd. as he leads To the cool fountains. Though now unfit an active war to wage. two towering chiefs appear. he sobs away his breath. It ripp'd his belly with a ghastly wound. they stood. a parting javelin cast: 399 [244] . stiff with cold age. But OEnomas received the Cretan's stroke. His listless limbs unable for the course. Heavy with cumbrous arms. And. Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmets ring. There great Idomeneus. Æneas here.

The hollow helmet rings against the plain. all bloody with his wound. Detain'd from bloody war by Jove and Fate. His wounded brother good Polites tends. For slain Ascalaphus commenced the fray. Swift as a vulture leaping on his prey.400 The Iliad of Homer The javelin err'd. Valiant as Mars. To Troy they drove him. groaning from the shore. And on his loaded arm discharged his spear: He drops the weight. as he pass'd. . And pierced Ascalaphus. and rejoin'd his friends. And sprinkling. High-throned amidst the great Olympian hall. the sands with gore. And from the rage of battle gently drew: Him his swift coursers. Now. the brave and young: The son of Mars fell gasping on the ground. disabled with the pain. And from his temples rends the glittering prize. where in dust the breathless hero lay. Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies. Rapt from the lessening thunder of the war. but held its course along. From his torn arm the Grecian rent away The reeking javelin. And gnash'd the dust. on his splendid car. Nor knew the furious father of his fall. Around his waist his pious arms he threw. Meriones drew near. On golden clouds th' immortal synod sate.

And blunts the javelin of th' eluded foe: In the broad buckler half the weapon stood. but spreads in vain. But he impervious and untouch'd remains.BOOK XIII. As toward the chief he turn'd his daring head. leaping where he lay. Faced every foe. From his broad shoulders tore the spoils away. Transpierced his back with a dishonest wound: The hollow vein. 401 . His winged lance. and every danger sought. On all sides thick the peals of arms resound. and to his social train Spreads his imploring arms. that to the neck extends Along the chine. Heaps fall on heaps. Th' exulting victor. impatient to be free. drew near. The son of Asius. (Great Neptune's care preserved from hostile rage This youth. Adamas. Obeys each motion of the master's mind! Restless it flies. He pierced his throat. with the first he fought. the joy of Nestor's glorious age. Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood. Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine ground. Antilochus. His shield emboss'd the ringing storm sustains. And meditates the distant enemy. and heaven and earth resound. nods upon his breast. His time observed.) In arms intrepid. Bold Aphareus by great Æneas bled. his eager javelin rends: Supine he falls. And struck his target with the brazen spear Fierce in his front: but Neptune wards the blow. And everlasting slumber seals his eyes. resistless as the wind. as Thoon turn'd him round. for closed by foes around. the bending head. His shield reversed o'er the fallen warrior lies. depress'd Beneath his helmet.

402 The Iliad of Homer [246] Disarm'd. (The winds collected at each open door. Pierced with his lance the hand that grasp'd the bow. to the victor turns: That shook the ponderous lance.) While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around. Light leaps the golden grain. While death's strong pangs distend his labouring side. But harmless bounded from the plated steel. in act to throw. And nailed it to the yew: the wounded hand Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood the sand: But good Agenor gently from the wound . Deep in the belly's rim an entrance found. and doubled to the ground. And fraught with vengeance. great Menelaus burns. And smote his temples with an arm so strong. His heaving heart beats thick as ebbing life decays. Bending he fell. The helm fell off. Atrides. Next brave Deipyrus in dust was laid: King Helenus waved high the Thracian blade. he mingled in the Trojan crew. But Merion's spear o'ertook him as he flew. and mortal is the wound. His bulk enormous on the field displays. Thus an ox in fetters tied. For dark in death the godlike owner lies! Raging with grief. And this stood adverse with the bended bow: Full on his breast the Trojan arrow fell. Lay panting. As on some ample barn's well harden'd floor. Repell'd to distance flies the bounding dart. resulting from the ground: So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart. watchful of the unwary foe. The spear the conqueror from his body drew. Where sharp the pang. And death's dim shadows swarm before his view. and roll'd amid the throng: There for some luckier Greek it rests a prize.

Distinct with studs. and brazen was the blade. The lance far distant by the winds was blown. The plume dropp'd nodding to the plain below. The spear solicits. In dust and blood the groaning hero lay: Forced from their ghastly orbs. to the future blind. First the sharp lance was by Atrides thrown. the cover'd pole-axe held. A sling's soft wool. and the bandage bound.) This on the helm discharged a noble blow. The clotted eye-balls tumble on the shore. and spouting gore. Nor pierced Pisander through Atrides' shield: Pisander's spear fell shiver'd on the field. Tore off his arms. the warrior came. loud-exulting. snatch'd from a soldier's side.BOOK XIII. 403 Behold! Pisander. Great Menelaus! to enchance thy fame: High-towering in the front. said: . and fall by thee. Vain dreams of conquest swell his haughty mind. His left arm high opposed the shining shield: His right beneath. Shorn from the crest. (An olive's cloudy grain the handle made. At once the tent and ligature supplied. The crashing bones before its force gave way. urged by fate's decree. and. Springs through the ranks to fall. Not so discouraged. Atrides waved his steel: Deep through his front the weighty falchion fell. Dauntless he rushes where the Spartan lord Like lightning brandish'd his far beaming sword. And fierce Atrides spurn'd him as he bled.

From whence this favour to an impious foe? A godless crew. violence. Following his martial father to the war: Through filial love he left his native shore. The violated rites. And whelm in ruins yon flagitious town. thus. A princess raped transcends a navy storm'd: In such bold feats your impious might approve." This said. who delight in war! Already noble deeds ye have perform'd. Trojans. abandon'd and unjust. supremely wise! If from thy hand the fates of mortals flow. from death he flies. the dance. Even the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire. beyond their measure. he seized (while yet the carcase heaved) The bloody armour. ah. and lust? The best of things. cloy. O thou. Crimes heap'd on crimes. Our heroes slaughter'd and our ships on flame. O race perfidious. love's endearing joy. Sleep's balmy blessing. Thus of his lance disarm'd. Without th' assistance. which his train received: Then sudden mix'd among the warring crew. whate'er mankind desire. .404 The Iliad of Homer [247] "Thus. or the fear of Jove. shall bend your glory down. and in lust of fight. at length be taught to fear. Above the thought of man. great father! lord of earth and skies. the ravish'd dame. never to behold it more! His unsuccessful spear he chanced to fling Against the target of the Spartan king. And the bold son of Pylaemenes slew. Never. But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight In thirst of slaughter. The feast. Harpalion had through Asia travell'd far. Still breathing rapine.

or slow disease at home: He climb'd his vessel. through the hip transpiercing as he fled. unnerved. And turns around his apprehensive eyes. prodigal of breath. Beneath the bone the glancing point descends. the swelling bladder rends: Sunk in his sad companions' arms he lay. Beneath his ear the pointed arrow went. The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead. And in short pantings sobb'd his soul away. And. drop useless on the ground. With pity soften'd and with fury swell'd: His honour'd host. And. Paris from far the moving sight beheld. unrevenged. And loved of all the Paphlagonian race! With his full strength he bent his angry bow.) While life's red torrent gush'd from out the wound. The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: His limbs. driving down. the brave Euchenor named. Polydus' son. And wing'd the feather'd vengeance at the foe. And unavailing tears profusely shed. and more for virtue famed. deplored his offspring dead. Him. 405 [248] . And chose the certain glorious path to death. For riches much.BOOK XIII. (Like some vile worm extended on the ground. Who held his seat in Corinth's stately town. Oft had the father told his early doom. And everlasting darkness shades him round. Him on his car the Paphlagonian train In slow procession bore from off the plain. The pensive father. a youth of matchless grace. a seer of old renown. father now no more! Attends the mournful pomp along the shore. A chief there was. By arms abroad.

Bias and great Menestheus at their head: Meges the strong the Epaean bands controll'd. active in the fight. . and their arms employ. and bulwarks gain'd. There. Stichius. Locrians and Phthians. And Dracius prudent. He dwelt far distant from his native place. the whole Boeotian strength remains. Whose humble barrier scarce the foe divides. And he that shakes the solid earth gave aid. Medon.) There join'd. Phidas. Iphiclus' son: and that (Oileus) thine: (Young Ajax' brother. Mix'd with Boeotians. The flower of Athens. This drew from Phylacus his noble line. led. By his fierce step-dame from his father's reign Expell'd and exiled for her brother slain:) These rule the Phthians. And brave Podarces. The proud Iaonians with their sweeping trains. And conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands. With such a tide superior virtue sway'd. by a stolen embrace. repel not Hector's fiery course.406 The Iliad of Homer Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield. And all the thunder of the battle raged. But join'd. Where late in fight both foot and horse engaged. (Wrapp'd in the cloud and tumult of the field:) Wide on the left the force of Greece commands. and Amphion bold: The Phthians. on the shores of Troy. famed for martial might. (Their naval station where the Ajaces keep. and th' Epaean force. And where low walls confine the beating tides. on the margin of the hoary deep. Where first the gates were forced. But in the centre Hector fix'd remain'd.

with like unwearied care. The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin wield. the stubborn earth they tear. 407 [249] Now had the Greeks eternal fame acquired. Dexterous with these they aim a certain wound. with equal toil. And trace large furrows with the shining share. Thus in the van the Telamonian train. The mingled tempest on the foes they pour. But sage Polydamas. remissive of his might. nor lift the moony shield. A train of heroes followed through the field. Each Ajax laboured through the field of war: So when two lordly bulls. Or fell the distant warrior to the ground. and this counsel gave: .BOOK XIII. Tired with the incessant slaughters of the fight. discreetly brave. O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow. Nor bear the helm. Throng'd in bright arms. Join'd to one yoke. Address'd great Hector. Now side by side. Whene'er he breathed. And streams of sweat down their sour foreheads flow. But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing. And the gall'd Ilians to their walls retired. Or whirl the sounding pebble from the sling. Troy's scattering orders open to the shower. Who bore by turns great Ajax' sevenfold shield. a pressing fight maintain: Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie. Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow soil. No following troops his brave associate grace: In close engagement an unpractised race. Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky.

or fall! What troops. If Heaven have lodged this virtue in my breast. weigh the sum of things. as thou mov'st. Their guardians these. How many Trojans yield. lest Greece. on dangers dangers spread. the chiefs and kings Convoked to council. disperse. But in cool thought and counsel to excel. How widely differs this from warring well! Content with what the bounteous gods have given. has Jove assign'd A wise. Pay the large debt of last revolving sun. Contented with the conquest of the day. Whether (the gods succeeding our desires) To yon tall ships to bear the Trojan fires. scarce the war maintain! And what brave heroes at the ships lie slain! Here cease thy fury: and. To some sweet music and the charm of song. O Hector! what I judge the best. To gods and men thy matchless worth is known. Attend. and yet o'erlooks the plains!" . yet remains On yonder decks. And every art of glorious war thy own. not yet undone. Or quit the fleet. out-number'd. And towns and empires for their safety bless. Behold! distress'd within yon hostile wall. To few.408 The Iliad of Homer [250] "Though great in all. and pass unhurt away. great Achilles. To some the powers of bloody war belong. extensive. I fear. Achilles. I fear. See. all-considering mind. thou seem'st averse to lend Impartial audience to a faithful friend. Seek not alone to engross the gifts of Heaven. And war's whole fury burns around thy head. the nations round confess. and wondrous few.

nor Helenus the seer. Through all his host. some groaning on the ground. For many a chief he look'd. with fury moved. but look'd in vain. To Panthus' son.BOOK XIII. (a mournful object) lay. Some cold in death. The counsel pleased. And hasten back to end the doubtful day. Where yonder heroes faint. And seems a moving mountain topp'd with snow. And here detain the scatter'd youth of Troy. Leap'd from his chariot on the trembling ground. inspiring force." 409 This said. Swift as he leap'd his clanging arms resound. he flies. nor Asius' self appear: For these were pierced with many a ghastly wound. Nor Asius' son. whom. "To guard this post (he cried) thy art employ. High on the wall some breathed their souls away. th' impatient chief reproved: . Some low in dust. and round the plain. Far on the left. and Hector. the towering chief prepares to go. And bids anew the martial thunder rise. Deiphobus. Opprobrious thus. I bend my way. and dealing deaths around) The graceful Paris. Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow. amid the throng he found (Cheering the troops. at Hector's high command Haste the bold leaders of the Trojan band: But round the battlements. with a bound.

In other battles I deserved thy blame. stern Orthaeus stood. Till death for death be paid. so fear'd of late? Black fate hang's o'er thee from th' avenging gods. nor unknown to fame: But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low. And one devouring vengeance swallow all. I scatter'd slaughter from my fatal bow. dispensing fate. And great Othryoneus. Around Polydamas. with forces not our own To combat: strength is of the gods alone." These words the hero's angry mind assuage: Then fierce they mingle where the thickest rage. Deiphobus. where thy soul inspires: This heart and hand shall second all thy fires: What with this arm I can. and Helenus the seer. But 'tis not ours. Of all those heroes. where Asius gone? The godlike father. Though then not deedless. The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie slain. Whelm'd in thy country's ruin shalt thou fall. successful." When Paris thus: "My brother and my friend. Phalces. Each now disabled by a hostile spear. Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue offend. prepare to know. two alone remain. from Ascania far. Cebrion. Imperial Troy from her foundations nods. and th' intrepid son? The force of Helenus. and blow for blow. distain'd with blood.410 The Iliad of Homer "Ill-fated Paris! slave to womankind. [251] . Go then. And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line (Who reach'd fair Ilion. Palmus. with Polypoetes the divine. As smooth of face as fraudulent of mind! Where is Deiphobus.

not by Troy. death was in his look: Whole nations fear'd. and man drove man along. but not an Argive shook. And. Shot terrors round. Like the broad sun. but Heaven. with an ample stride. To force our fleet: the Greeks have hands and hearts. 'Tis not thy arm.BOOK XIII. thy empty threats forbear. settles on the hoary deeps. and your god-built wall. Lo! Greece is humbled. Thus stalk'd he. Far o'er the plains. foaming high. in dreadful order bright. His nodding helm emits a streamy ray. The former day. the thick battalions throng. 'tis thundering Jove we fear: The skill of war to us not idly given. 411 . and thus the chief defied: "Hector! come on. Wide rolling. gather'd. dreadful. Before him flaming his enormous shield. Long ere in flames our lofty navy fall. The towering Ajax. The brazen arms reflect a beamy light: Full in the blazing van great Hector shined. the next engaged in war). Like Mars commission'd to confound mankind. That bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful wings. Chief urged on chief. illumined all the field. that wither'd e'en the strong. and tumbling to the shore: Thus rank on rank. His piercing eyes through all the battle stray. As when from gloomy clouds a whirlwind springs. Vain are the hopes that haughty mind imparts. Advanced the first. Your boasted city. Then. The afflicted deeps tumultuous mix and roar. Wide o'er the blasted fields the tempest sweeps. The waves behind impel the waves before. while beneath his targe he flash'd along.

and Argos be no more a name. to aid thy desperate course. Even thou shalt call on Jove. and thus the chief of Troy replied: "From whence this menace. The time shall come.412 The Iliad of Homer [252] Shall sink beneath us. above. While clouds of friendly dust conceal thy shame. ." He said. But such as those of Jove's high lineage born. and like a lion stalk'd along: With shouts incessant earth and ocean rung. his progress through the skies: Far-echoing clamours bound from side to side. behold. thou shalt meet thy fate: That giant-corse. And hail. A shout that tore heaven's concave. And spread a long unmeasured ruin round. The wings of falcons for thy flying horse. The blue-eyed maid. extended on the shore. in open view.) As this decisive day shall end the fame Of Greece." As thus he spoke. Shook the fix'd splendours of the throne of Jove. On sounding wings a dexter eagle flew. chased along the plain. They ceased. (Not that short life which mortals lead below. Shall largely feast the fowls with fat and gore. when. with shouts. Sent from his following host: the Grecian train With answering thunders fill'd the echoing plain. imperious! if thy madness wait The lance of Hector. and. and call in vain. forgetful of a warrior's fame. this insulting strain? Enormous boaster! doom'd to vaunt in vain. Even thou shalt wish. So may the gods on Hector life bestow. smoking on the ground. And thou. or he that gilds the morn. To Jove's glad omen all the Grecians rise. Shalt run.



much distressed. which advice is pursued. till the Trojans. forms a design to over-reach him: she sets off her charms with the utmost care. they should go forth and encourage the army with their presence. are obliged to give way: the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a particular manner. and carried off from the battle: several actions succeed. which Ulysses withstands. with some difficulty. Nestor. sitting at the table with Machaon. that. which occupy the latter part of the Iliad. seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the Trojans. to which Diomed adds his advice. Neptune takes advantage of his slumber. on his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses.231 JUNO DECEIVES JUPITER BY THE GIRDLE OF VENUS. and. and hastens to Agamemnon. that the sameness of these scenes renders many notes unnecessary. 231 . and succours the Greeks: Hector is struck to the ground with a prodigious stone by Ajax. Agamemnon proposes to make their escape by night. persuades him to seal the eyes of Jupiter: this done. she goes to mount Ida. It is as well to observe. She then applies herself to the god of sleep. is ravished with her beauty. and is laid asleep. sinks in her embraces. at first sight. ARGUMENT.[253] BOOK XIV. Juno. This book forms a most agreeable interruption to The continuous round of battles. where the god. wounded as they were. is alarmed with the increasing clamour of war. whom he informs of the extremity of the danger. and (the more surely to enchant him) obtains the magic girdle of Venus.

(His valiant offspring. say. Soon as the prospect open'd to his view. to his wounded friend: "What new alarm. The mass of waters will no wind obey. Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul. seizing Thrasymedes' shield." He said: and. and cleanse the clotted gore. Jove sends one gust. Dire disarray! the tumult of the fight. And now come full. Weighs down the cloud.) Then snatch'd a lance. While wavering counsels thus his mind engage. To join the host. as he moves.) hasten'd to the field. Then thus. What mix'd events attend this mighty day? Hark! how the shouts divide. the sight his bosom warms. and thicken to the fleet! Here with the cordial draught dispel thy care. Fluctuates in doubtful thought the Pylian sage. and the Greeks in flight. and blackens in the sky. Let Hecamede the strengthening bath prepare. divine Machaon. While I the adventures of the day explore. The field rings dreadful with the clang of arms. and bids them roll away. His startled ears the increasing cries attend. nor flowing bowl. The wall in ruins. As when old ocean's silent surface sleeps. or to the general haste. His wounded eyes the scene of sorrow knew.416 The Iliad of Homer But not the genial feast. The waves just heaving on the purple deeps: While yet the expected tempest hangs on high. (That day the son his father's buckler bore. impatient. and issued from the door. Refresh thy wound. he fixes on the last: Yet. Debating long. and how they meet. [254] .

the fleet unable to contain At length. In lines advanced along the shelving strand: Whose bay. And who to Tydeus owes his noble line. Nestor's approach alarm'd each Grecian breast. Nestor. i. the javelins fly. Ulysses the divine.e. beside the margin of the main. On many a Grecian bosom writ in blood. 417 Him. Whom thus the general of the host address'd: "O grace and glory of the Achaian name. from the field of fame? Shall then proud Hector see his boast fulfill'd. What drives thee. Our fleets in ashes. By tardy steps ascending from the fleet: The king of men. the crowded ships they moor: Who landed first. Unfit to fight. Blows echo blows. nor will one chief engage? And have I lived to see with mournful eyes In every Greek a new Achilles rise?" 232 —Who to Tydeus owes.BOOK XIV.) Supported on the spears. in his march. but anxious for the day. and our heroes kill'd? Such was his threat. Diomed. . they took their way. Rank above rank. Is every heart inflamed with equal rage Against your king.232 (Their ships at distance from the battle stand. lay highest on the shore. ah! now too soon made good. and all or kill or die. the wounded princes meet. The gleaming falchions flash.

our hands from battle ties." . Better from evils. And lifts the Trojan glory to the skies. Leave these at anchor. upon the past has power. Not Jove himself.418 The Iliad of Homer [255] Gerenian Nestor then: "So fate has will'd. And best defence. all his aid confess'd. to run. our late inviolable bound. All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear. On speedy measures then employ your thought In such distress! if counsel profit aught: Arms cannot much: though Mars our souls incite. Bring all to sea. These gaping wounds withhold us from the fight. The wall. Not he that thunders from the aerial bower. far from Argos. That Troy triumphant our high fleet ascends. Now heaven averse. Who. And launch what ships lie nearest to the main. And groans of slaughter'd Greeks to heaven ascend. And all his favour. till the coming night: Then. and hoist each sail for flight. Cease we at length to waste our blood in vain. Than perish in the danger we may shun. And that the rampart." To him the monarch: "That our army bends. late our surest trust And best defence. lies smoking in the dust. And all-confirming time has fate fulfill'd. well foreseen. Past are the days when happier Greece was blest. lies smoking on the ground: Even to the ships their conquering arms extend. if impetuous Troy forbear the fight. wills our ruin here.

Lives there a man so dead to fame. while his soldiers fight? What more could Troy? What yet their fate denies Thou givest the foe: all Greece becomes their prize. While war hangs doubtful. I force not Greece to quit this hateful coast. or old. more conducive to our weal. whoe'er. Thus he. Aught. Unwilling as I am to lose the host.BOOK XIV. or young. The sage Ulysses thus replies. who dares To think such meanness. and yet employs our age. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes: "What shameful words (unkingly as thou art) Fall from that trembling tongue and timorous heart? Oh were thy sway the curse of meaner powers. And wilt thou thus desert the Trojan plain? And have whole streams of blood been spilt in vain? In such base sentence if thou couch thy fear. And owe destruction to a prince like thee. But thy ships flying." 419 [256] ." "Thy just reproofs (Atrides calm replies) Like arrows pierce me. by Jove endued with martial might. or to fall in fight: Adventurous combats and bold wars to wage. for thy words are wise. And thou the shame of any host but ours! A host. unfold. Glad I submit. lest a Greek should hear. with despair shall see. And taught to conquer. Themselves abandon'd) shall the fight pursue. or the thought declares? And comes it even from him whose sovereign sway The banded legions of all Greece obey? Is this a general's voice that calls to flight. No more the troops (our hoisted sails in view. Speak it in whispers. Employ'd our youth.

and flourish'd where Adrastus reign'd. behold the man Who boldly gives it. Young though he be. Whose honoured dust (his race of glory run) Lies whelm'd in ruins of the Theban wall. what for common good my thoughts inspire. Brave in his life. his acres till'd. who from the mighty Tydeus springs. though with wounds oppress'd. but (who far surpass'd The rest in courage) OEneus was the last. And numerous flocks that whiten'd all the field. Who Pleuron's walls and Calydon possess'd. rich in fortune's gifts. Hear then in me the great OEnides' son. Advance the glory which he cannot share. and in exile dwell'd. Beheld his vines their liquid harvest yield. and. Attend. and animate the rest. and in the son respect the sire. From Calydon expell'd. from the tumult far. He pass'd to Argos. Beyond the missile javelin's sounding flight. and thus began: "Such counsel if you seek. Though not partaker. There. and what he shall say. But lest new wounds on wounds o'erpower us quite. The monarch's daughter there (so Jove ordain'd) He won. my sire." . Then. Safe let us stand. Melas and Agrius. May speak to councils and assembled kings. Though sore of battle. and glorious in his fall. and rule the distant war. With three bold sons was generous Prothous bless'd. Let each go forth. witness of the war. From him. Such Tydeus was. the foremost once in fame! Nor lives in Greece a stranger to his name. disdain not to obey: A youth.420 The Iliad of Homer Tydides cut him short. Inspire the ranks.

Such was the voice. the general's hand he took. And thus the venerable hero spoke: 421 "Atrides! lo! with what disdainful eye Achilles sees his country's forces fly. then rush'd amid the warrior crew. The god of ocean (to inflame their rage) Appears a warrior furrowed o'er with age. Who glories in unutterable pride. Each Argive bosom beats to meet the fight. and such the thundering sound Of him whose trident rends the solid ground. their winged wheels employ To hide their ignominious heads in Troy. Loud. as the shout encountering armies yield When twice ten thousand shake the labouring field. He added not: the listening kings obey. Slow moving on. impious man! whose anger is his guide. with clouds involved around Of rolling dust. And sent his voice before him as he flew. Blind. and chiefs renown'd. while proud kings. Atrides leads the way. and o'erwhelm with shame! But Heaven forsakes not thee: o'er yonder sands Soon shall thou view the scattered Trojan bands Fly diverse. And grisly war appears a pleasing sight. So may he perish. Driven heaps on heaps. . Press'd in his own. so may Jove disclaim The wretch relentless." [257] He spoke.BOOK XIV.

Where her great brother gave the Grecians aid. Part o'er her shoulders waved like melted gold. and round her body pours Soft oils of fragrance. Jove to deceive. Against his wisdom to oppose her charms. But placed aloft. resolved to prove The old.422 The Iliad of Homer Meantime Saturnia from Olympus' brow. And lull the lord of thunders in her arms. With joy the glorious conflict she survey'd. Here first she bathes. the balmy gale convey Through heaven. behind her shut the valves of gold. and ambrosial showers: The winds. the doors unfold: Self-closed. Far-beaming pendants tremble in her ear. and trembles at the sight. Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd. perfumed. with decent pride Her artful hands the radiant tresses tied. Thus while she breathed of heaven. what methods shall she try. yet still successful. Swift to her bright apartment she repairs. That rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd: Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round. Part on her head in shining ringlets roll'd. through earth. cheat of love. Safe from access of each intruding power. Touch'd with her secret key. What arts. and all the aerial way: Spirit divine! whose exhalation greets The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets. to blind his all-beholding eye? At length she trusts her power. beheld the fields below. High-throned in gold. on Ida's shady height She sees her Jove. Sacred to dress and beauty's pleasing cares: With skill divine had Vulcan form'd the bower. A golden zone her swelling bosom bound. .

What time old Saturn. If I compose those fatal feuds again. On the last limits of the land and deep. Last her fair feet celestial sandals grace.BOOK XIV. Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. Then o'er her head she cast a veil more white Than new-fallen snow. from Olympus cast. and what love. shall I obtain. Where the great parents. will Venus aid Saturnia's joy. and deem her will obey'd. which melts mankind in fierce desires. What honour. I hear. has made the union cease. That power. (sacred source of gods!) Ocean and Tethys their old empire keep. repay their age!" . Each gem illumined with a triple star. And. For strife. And calls the mother of the smiles and loves. Once more their minds in mutual ties engage. which mortals and immortals warms. what my youth has owed. And set aside the cause of Greece and Troy?" "Let heaven's dread empress (Cytheraea said) Speak her request. Whelm'd under the huge mass of earth and main. Thus issuing radiant with majestic pace. That love." 423 [258] "Then grant me (said the queen) those conquering charms. "How long (to Venus thus apart she cried) Shall human strife celestial minds divide? Ah yet. Of upper heaven to Jove resign'd the reign. and dazzling as the light. Forth from the dome the imperial goddess moves. In their kind arms my tender years were past. And burns the sons of heaven with sacred fires! "For lo! I haste to those remote abodes.

e placide. In this was every art. Then taking wing from Athos' lofty steep. Then Venus to the courts of Jove withdrew. O'er fair Emathia's ever-pleasing shore. e tranquille Repulse. the still-reviving fire. Silence that spoke. She speeds to Lemnos o'er the rolling deep. Whilst from Olympus pleased Saturnia flew. The kind deceit. and every charm. e liete paci.424 The Iliad of Homer She said.233 With various skill and high embroidery graced. . With smiles she took the charm. parolette. the queen of love Obey'd the sister and the wife of Jove. the gay desire. e molli baci. O'er Hemus' hills with snows eternal crown'd. O'er high Pieria thence her course she bore. and with it all thy wish. and eloquence of eyes. Sorrisi." Gier. the gentle vow. Lib. e dolci stille Di pianto. and the coldest warm: Fond love. 25 Compare the description of the dwelling of Sleep in Orlando Furioso. Sleep. xvi. e cari vezzi. Persuasive speech.234 233 [259] Compare Tasso:— Teneri sdegni. To win the wisest. This on her hand the Cyprian Goddess laid: "Take this. With awe divine. and smiling press'd The powerful cestus to her snowy breast. 234 vi. And seeks the cave of Death's half-brother. And from her fragrant breast the zone embraced. and the more persuasive sighs. Nor once her flying foot approach'd the ground. e sospir tronchi. bk." she said.

deserting Ilion's wasted plain.BOOK XIV. And drive the hero to the Coan shore: Great Jove. "Sweet pleasing Sleep! (Saturnia thus began) Who spread'st thy empire o'er each god and man. A splendid footstool.) her wings display'd. When wine and feasts thy golden humours please. owns my reign. that shine With gold unfading. to indulge thy ease. awaking. The work of Vulcan. While sunk in love's entrancing joys he lies." . But gentle Night. What time. O power of slumbers! hear. Shed thy soft dews on Jove's immortal eyes. and from the realms on high Had hurl'd indignant to the nether sky. the tempests roar. On those eternal lids I laid my hand. Great Saturn's heir. to whom I fled for aid. Somnus. Alcides. unbidden. and favour still. (The friend of earth and heaven. If e'er obsequious to thy Juno's will. But how. When lo! the deeps arise. and a throne. shook the blest abodes With rising wrath. The sire of all. at thy bold command. His conquering son. too venturous. Impower'd the wrath of gods and men to tame." 425 "Imperial dame (the balmy power replies). And his hush'd waves lie silent on the main. Even Jove revered the venerable dame. Me chief he sought. and tumbled gods on gods. plough'd the main. and empress of the skies! O'er other gods I spread my easy chain. old Ocean. shall be thine. shall I dare to steep Jove's awful temples in the dew of sleep? Long since.

" The queen assents. To hear and witness from the depths of hell. Pasithae the divine. Pasithae the divine. The youngest Grace. 235 "Twice seven. The youngest Grace. that with Chronos dwell.426 The Iliad of Homer "Vain are thy fears (the queen of heaven replies. Æn. and bind the invoking gods: Let the great parent earth one hand sustain. seq. his all-conquering son? Hear. Like great Alcides. shall be ever mine. For know. That she. . And those who rule the inviolable floods. rolls her large majestic eyes)."235 [260] "Swear then (he said) by those tremendous floods That roar through hell. and from the infernal bowers Invokes the sable subtartarean powers. thy loved-one shall be ever thine." Dryden's Virgil. speaking. The fairest. the charming daughters of the main— Around my person wait. And stretch the other o'er the sacred main: Call the black Titans. and bear my train: Succeed my wish. i. my loved-one. and second my design. and obey the mistress of the skies. And. 107. Whom mortals name the dread Titanian gods. shall be thine. Deiopeia. Think'st thou that Troy has Jove's high favour won. Nor for the deed expect a vulgar prize.


Dark in embowering shade. unseen. and thus with transport spoke: "Why comes my goddess from the ethereal sky. Mix'd with her soul. And not her steeds and flaming chariot nigh?" . and her forests nod. o'er Lemnos' smoky isle They wing their way. Through air.428 The Iliad of Homer Then swift as wind. on the point of Ide: (Mother of savages. Fierce as when first by stealth he seized her charms. whose echoing hills Are heard resounding with a hundred rills:) Fair Ida trembles underneath the god. (Chalcis his name by those of heavenly birth. But call'd Cymindis by the race of earth. Then press'd her hand. Hush'd are her mountains. Sat Sleep. whose lightning sets the heavens on fire. whose spiry branches rise To join its summit to the neighbouring skies. and melted in her arms: Fix'd on her eyes he fed his eager look. and Imbrus' sea-beat soil. Through all his bosom feels the fierce desire. involved in darkness glide. And light on Lectos. Great Jove surveys her with desiring eyes: The god. conceal'd from sight. There on a fir. in likeness of the bird of night.) [261] To Ida's top successful Juno flies.

Or for an earthly. I hear. 236 . has made that union cease Which held so long that ancient pair in peace.BOOK XIV. Whence rose Pirithous like the gods in fame: Not when fair Danae felt the shower of gold Stream into life. The reverend Ocean and gray Tethys. Nor seek." "For that (said Jove) suffice another day! But eager love denies the least delay. where hoary Ocean dwells. Ne'er did my soul so strong a passion prove. and too ancient to allow his descent to be traced to any other source. unknown to thee.236 429 —And Minos. from that Alcides came:) Nor Phoenix' daughter. the sacred cells Deep under seas. apparently as a native hero. And be these moments sacred all to joy. whom all succeeding authors name Europa. or a heavenly love: Not when I press'd Ixion's matchless dame. Not thus I burn'd for either Theban dame: (Bacchus from this. whence Perseus brave and bold. "By Homer. prepared my chariot to convey O'er earth and seas. The steeds. he is likewise the adopted son of Asterius. beautiful and young. I leave the Olympian bower. and through the aerial way. I visit these. and he is thus carried back into the remotest period of Cretan antiquity known to the poet. On the last limits of the land and main. Minos is described as the son of Jupiter. Wait under Ide: of thy superior power To ask consent. Let softer cares the present hour employ. and of the daughter of Phoenix. But in a genealogy recorded by later writers. to whose indulgent cares I owe the nursing of my tender years: For strife. Then she—"I haste to those remote abodes Where the great parents of the deathless gods. reign. Whence godlike Rhadamanth and Minos sprung. Illustrious enough for a divine parentage.

All heaven beholds me recent from thy arms? With skill divine has Vulcan form'd thy bower. that. . Or mix among the senate of the gods? Shall I not think. Not even the sun. and thus replies: "Is this a scene for love? On Ida's height. who is related either to have crossed over from Thessaly. seq. And whose broad eye the extended earth surveys. son of Dorus. If such thy will. and. and circumfused in gold. to that recess retire. Exposed to mortal and immortal sight! Our joys profaned by each familiar eye. the son of Helen. smiling with superior love. 136. In secret there indulge thy soft desire. the goddess with the charming eyes Glows with celestial red." She ceased. Nor comelier Ceres' more majestic grace.430 The Iliad of Homer Not thus I burn'd for fair Latona's face." [262] He spoke. p." as descendant of Dorus. and fable of the sky: How shall I e'er review the blest abodes. The sport of heaven. Thus answer'd mild the cloud-compelling Jove: "Nor god nor mortal shall our joys behold. and is thus connected with a colony said to have been led into Creta by Tentamus. Shaded with clouds. who darts through heaven his rays. with disorder'd charms. or to have embarked at Malea after having led his followers by land into Laconia. Sacred to love and to the genial hour. Not thus even for thyself I felt desire. or Tectamus."—Thirlwall. As now my veins receive the pleasing fire.

Perfume the mount. the important hour employ. unperceived. Now to the navy borne on silent wings. Steep'd in soft joys and circumfused with air. kindling at the view. Celestial dews. and sinks to rest. Neptune. And thus with gentle words address'd the god: "Now. 700. Have closed those awful and eternal eyes. Gazing he spoke. 'Broider'd the ground. To check a while the haughty hopes of Troy: While Jove yet rests. His eager arms around the goddess threw. And clustering lotos swell'd the rising bed. To Neptune's ear soft Sleep his message brings. and from her bosom pours Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers: Thick new-born violets a soft carpet spread. and hyacinth with rich inlay." —"Paradise Lost. 431 [263] Milton has emulated this passage. the power of slumber flew. Crocus. descending o'er the ground. he stood." Thus having said. Beside him sudden.237 And flamy crocus made the mountain glow There golden clouds conceal the heavenly pair. and breathe ambrosia round: At length." iv. and Somnus' pleasing ties. while yet my vapours shed The golden vision round his sacred head. The panting thunderer nods. For Juno's love. with love and sleep's soft power oppress'd. Glad Earth perceives. 237 . in describing the couch of our first parents:— "Underneath the violet. and.BOOK XIV. with zeal increased. On human lids to drop the balmy dew. Neptune! now. And sudden hyacinths the turf bestrow. renews his care.

in bright array The legions march. their martial arms they change: The busy chiefs their banded legions range. though wounded. Oh yet. The ponderous targe be wielded by the strong. Myself. the earth-shaking power appears. With helpful hands themselves assist the train. if glory any bosom warms. While stern Achilles in his wrath retires. The kings. . One hero's loss too tamely you deplore. and Neptune leads the way: His brandish'd falchion flames before their eyes. Be still yourselves." The troops assent. The weaker warrior takes a lighter shield. Pale mortals tremble. and stand to arms: His strongest spear each valiant Grecian wield. Each valiant Grecian seize his broadest shield. and ye shall need no more. Clad in his might. Like lightning flashing through the frighted skies. Indignant thus—"Oh once of martial fame! O Greeks! if yet ye can deserve the name! This half-recover'd day shall Troy obtain? Shall Hector thunder at your ships again? Lo! still he vaunts. and confess their fears. Brace on your firmest helms. and oppress'd with pain. Thus sheath'd in shining brass. and threats the fleet with fires.432 The Iliad of Homer And towering in the foremost ranks of war. ye Greeks! myself will lead the way. The strong and cumbrous arms the valiant wield. not Hector shall our presence stay. Let to the weak the lighter arms belong. Thus arm'd.


(Where heaps laid loose beneath the warrior's feet. (One braced his shield. Arms his proud host. But whirling on. Both armies join: earth thunders. at her great master's call. urged by Hector's force. and ploughs into the ground. or to prop the fleet. Smokes in the dust. Nor deaden'd there its giddy fury spends. his tempestuous hand A ponderous stone upheaving from the sand. and its shades devour. the missive marble flings. appear: The sea's stern ruler there. And cursed the lance that unavailing flew: But 'scaped not Ajax. and dares oppose a god: And lo! the god. and Hector here. when flames in torrents pour. Less loud the woods. Darts on the consecrated plant of Jove. With such a rage the meeting hosts are driven. Not half so loud the bellowing deeps resound. Rose in huge ranks. and one sustain'd his sword. Full on his breast and throat with force descends. Or served to ballast.) Then back the disappointed Trojan drew.) Toss'd round and round. and wondrous man. Direct at Ajax' bosom winged its course. As when the bolt. When stormy winds disclose the dark profound. . The first bold javelin. and form'd a watery wall Around the ships: seas hanging o'er the shores.434 The Iliad of Homer [264] Troy's great defender stands alone unawed. Less loud the winds that from the Æolian hall Roar through the woods. with many a fiery round. And such a clamour shakes the sounding heaven. But there no pass the crossing belts afford. ocean roars. The roaring main. red-hissing from above. Catch the dry mountain. and make whole forests fall. On the razed shield the fallen ruin rings.

He lies protected. His foaming coursers. swifter than the wind. And own the terrors of the almighty hand! So lies great Hector prostrate on the shore. Gnashing for anguish." vi. "Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By angels many and strong. Greece sees. and leave the war behind. there they him laid.BOOK XIV. The pious warrior of Anchises' line. And thicker javelins intercept the sky. and despite. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. With covering shields (a friendly circle) stand. His mournful followers." "Paradise Lost. and shame. sinking to the ground. a dead and hollow sound. Beneath his helmet dropp'd his fainting head. 335. Stiff with amaze the pale beholders stand. His load of armour. in hope. The mountain-oak in flaming ruin lies. His slacken'd hand deserts the lance it bore. In vain an iron tempest hisses round. and without a wound. His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread. .238 Polydamas. Clanks on the field. 238 435 [265] —He lies protected. Troy's great defender slain: All spring to seize him. Black from the blow. who interpos'd Defence. storms of arrows fly. seq. Speed to the town. Agenor the divine. and smokes of sulphur rise. And each bold leader of the Lycian band. The groaning hero to his chariot bear. Loud shouts of triumph fill the crowded plain. with assistant care. where it stood retir'd From off the files of war.

Placed on the margin of the flowery ground. And thus their arms the race of Panthus wield: From this unerring hand there flies no dart But bathes its point within a Grecian heart. Soon as the Greeks the chief's retreat beheld. half views the fleeting skies. Polydamas drew near. "Lo thus (the victor cries) we rule the field. Oilean Ajax first his javelin sped. whom beauteous Neis bore Amidst her flocks on Satnio's silver shore. Fired with revenge.436 The Iliad of Homer When now they touch'd the mead's enamell'd side. (Satnius the brave. An arduous battle rose around the dead. With double fury each invades the field. and grasps the bloody dust. And at Prothoenor shook the trembling spear. he now ejects the gore. Pierced by whose point the son of Enops bled." . By fits he breathes. By turns the Greeks. Raised on his knees. The driving javelin through his shoulder thrust. He sinks to earth. Go. Propp'd on that spear to which thou owest thy fall.) Struck through the belly's rim. by fits. guide thy darksome steps to Pluto's dreary hall. With watery drops the chief they sprinkle round. Now faints anew. low-sinking on the shore. and shades eternal veil his eyes. by turns the Trojans bled. his swimming eyes. And seals again. Where gentle Xanthus rolls his easy tide. the warrior lies Supine.

here turn thy eyes! (The towering Ajax loud-insulting cries:) Say. shunn'd the flying death. methinks." He spake. The foe. He pierced his heart—"Such fate attends you all. And took the joint. Swift to perform heaven's fatal will.BOOK XIV. Archilochus. shall share The toils. nor of vulgar race. demands thy breath: Thy lofty birth no succour could impart. and cut the nerves in twain: The dropping head first tumbled on the plain. Behold your Promachus deprived of breath. As Promachus his slaughtered brother draws. Some lines. A victim owed to my brave brother's death. But furious Acamas avenged his cause. Not Troy alone. The wings of death o'ertook thee on the dart. the sorrows. that yet the body stood Erect. and smiled severe. He said. then roll'd along the sands in blood. proud Polydamas. may make his lineage known. 437 [266] . "Here. Proud Argives! destined by our arms to fall. is this chief extended on the plain A worthy vengeance for Prothoenor slain? Mark well his port! his figure and his face Nor speak him vulgar. or perhaps his son. and the wounds of war. At the fierce foe he launch'd his piercing steel. it fled Full on the juncture of the neck and head. But fate. for well he knew The bleeding youth: Troy sadden'd at the view. Antenor's brother. As by his side the groaning warrior fell. So just the stroke. but haughty Greece. and sorrow touch'd each Argive breast: The soul of Ajax burn'd above the rest. reclining.

And from the fibres scoop'd the rooted ball. and hurl'd him to the plain. thus insulting spoke: "Trojans! your great Ilioneus behold! Haste. of all the Trojan train Whom Hermes loved. The boaster flies. . And the pale matron in our triumphs mourn." Dreadful he spoke. Ilioneus. and taught the arts of gain:) Full in his eye the weapon chanced to fall. He lifts his miserable arms in vain! Swift his broad falchion fierce Peneleus spread. To earth at once the head and helmet fly. then toss'd the head on high. Such as to Promachus' sad spouse we bear. But young Ilioneus received the spear. Drove through the neck. his father's only care: (Phorbas the rich. The Trojans hear. Such as the house of Promachus must know. yet sticking through the bleeding eye. as aloft he shook The gory visage. And from the spouting shoulders struck his head. The lance. And dread the ruin that impends on all. they tremble. The victor seized. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate." The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish struck the Grecian host.438 Not unappeased he enters Pluto's gate. But touch'd the breast of bold Peneleus most. and they fly: Aghast they gaze around the fleet and wall. At the proud boaster he directs his course. and. Let doleful tidings greet his mother's ear. and shuns superior force. When we victorious shall to Greece return. to his father let the tale be told: Let his high roofs resound with frantic woe.

will ye raise to fame? Thou first. By Teucer's arrows mingled with the dead. Ye all-beholding. Daughters of Jove! that on Olympus shine. Bold Merion. Eternal darkness wrapp'd the warrior round. Ajax the less. 439 [267] BACCHUS.BOOK XIV. great Ajax! on the unsanguined plain Laid Hyrtius. What chief. and swiftest in the chase. Strong Periphaetes and Prothoon bled. Phalces and Mermer. Morys and Hippotion slew. when Neptune made proud Ilion yield. Nestor's son o'erthrew. His people's pastor. And the fierce soul came rushing through the wound. mighty numbers run. . Fall mighty numbers. leader of the Mysian train. Pierced in the flank by Menelaus' steel. But stretch'd in heaps before Oileus' son. of all the Grecian race Skill'd in pursuit. all-recording nine! O say. what hero first embrued the field? Of all the Grecians what immortal name. Hyperenor fell. And whose bless'd trophies.


. Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle. to incense them against Jupiter. he consents. Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound. Hector in a swoon. repairing to the assembly of the gods. and horror in their eye. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground: Then stopp'd and panted. after much reluctance and passion. On Ida's summit sat imperial Jove: Round the wide fields he cast a careful view. marches before him with his aegis. and Neptune at the head of the Greeks: he is highly incensed at the artifice of Juno. and attempt to fire the first line of the fleet. Jupiter.[268] BOOK XV. Juno. the Greeks pursue. repelled by the greater Ajax with a prodigious slaughter. to which. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter. He breaks down great part of the Grecian wall: the Trojans rush in. she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. where the chariots lie Fear on their cheek. awaking. but are. who appeases him by her submissions. brings him back to the battle. but is prevented by Minerva. awaken'd from his dream of love. sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches. Apollo reinspires Hector with vigour. and turns the fortune of the fight. There saw the Trojans fly. attempts. ARGUMENT. he is ready to take arms. as yet. THE FIFTH BATTLE AT THE SHIPS. in particular she touches Mars with a violent resentment. Meanwhile. AND THE ACTS OF AJAX. with extraordinary address.

I hung thee trembling in a golden chain. Him through a thousand forms of death I bore. by thy wiles induced. the monarch of the main. when. And sent to Argos. Thy soft deceits. (His sad associates round with weeping eyes. great Hector on the dust he spies. trembling. to fraudful Juno spoke: "O thou. incensed. And.) Ejecting blood. these submissive words return'd: [269] . those scatter'd o'er the plain And. and breathless with the fall. remember. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. From the vast concave of the spangled sky. Hear this. still adverse to the eternal will. His senses wandering to the verge of death. And thus. and his native shore. and our fury dread. Not far. and well-dissembled love." The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn'd. bound and fix'd on high. The god beheld him with a pitying look. And all the raging gods opposed in vain? Headlong I hurl'd them from the Olympian hall. and panting yet for breath. Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head. For ever studious in promoting ill! Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield. Nor seem'd the vengeance worthy such a son: When. Canst thou. withstand Our power immense. And driven his conquering squadrons from the field. 'midst the war. and brave the almighty hand? Hast thou forgot.442 The Iliad of Homer These proud in arms. Lest arts and blandishments successless prove. Stunn'd in the whirl. unhappy in thy wiles.

and once more wake the war: His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath. And calls his senses from the verge of death. The foodful earth and all-infolding skies. To help his Greeks. divine Sarpedon. Shall fall by thousands at the hero's feet. "By every oath that powers immortal ties. Let her descend. proclaim our will To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill. not untouch'd with pity. and ranges round the plain: By his own ardour. If truth inspires thy tongue. tremendous Styx! that flow Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below. By the dread honours of thy sacred head. but shall send in vain. even to Achilles' fleet. Our high decree let various Iris know. his own pity sway'd. What youths he slaughters under Ilion's walls! Even my loved son. he fought and disobey'd: Else had thy Juno better counsels given. By thy black waves. He. falls! [270] . and from the embattled plain Command the sea-god to his watery reign: While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare To rise afresh. And taught submission to the sire of heaven.) Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey." 443 "Think'st thou with me? fair empress of the skies! (The immortal father with a smile replies. our virgin bed! Not by my arts the ruler of the main Steeps Troy in blood. Nor dare to act but when we point the way.BOOK XV. And call the god that bears the silver bow. to the plain Shall send Patroclus. And that unbroken vow. Greece chased by Troy.

If thought of man can match the speed of gods. Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage. The promise of a god I gave. and fate the word obeys." The trembling queen (the almighty order given) Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven. Joins hill to dale. nor till then. viii. They bow'd. shall great Achilles rise: And lo! that instant. Sends forth his active mind from place to place. There sat the powers in awful synod placed. Pallas assists. Nor one of all the heavenly host engage In aid of Greece. See the note on Bk. Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl. From that great hour the war's whole fortune turns. and measures space with space: So swift flew Juno to the bless'd abodes. who wanders o'er In thought a length of lands he trod before. godlike Hector dies.444 The Iliad of Homer Vanquish'd at last by Hector's lance he lies. the nectar streams around. Page 142. and lofty Ilion burns. Achilles' glory to the stars to raise. And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul? 239 —The brazen dome. . and seal'd it with the almighty nod. As some wayfaring man. Then. Such was our word. and made obeisance as she pass'd Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown'd239 They hail her queen.

Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey: Fierce in the majesty of power controls. such threaten'd woes to come. To whom the white-arm'd goddess thus replies: "Enough thou know'st the tyrant of the skies. obey: And thou. Thus she proceeds—"Attend. 'tis madness to contest with Jove: Supreme he sits. To see the gathering grudge in every breast. Bid the crown'd nectar circle round the hall: But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome Such stern decrees. Submiss. and unrestrain'd his will. But dare not murmur.BOOK XV. and eyebrow bent. Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o'erthrown. Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express'd. great Mars. Shakes all the thrones of heaven. Severely bent his purpose to fulfil." [271] . and sees. and bends the poles. Go thou. And damp the eternal banquets of the skies. If that loved boasted offspring be thy own." 445 The goddess said. immortals! all he wills. and lowering discontent. the feasts of heaven attend thy call. Black horror sadden'd each celestial face. As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise. Sat stedfast care. Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die. and sullen took her place. ye powers above! But know. in pride of sway. Unmoved his mind. dare not vent a sigh. While on her wrinkled front. begin and show the way.

Struck for the immortal race with timely fear. Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies. From frantic Mars she snatch'd the shield and spear. And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven? Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage. The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage. Smote his rebelling breast. . Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call. gods. immortals! thus shall Mars obey.446 The Iliad of Homer Stern Mars. Thus to the impetuous homicide she said: "By what wild passion. and yet shall fall. Dares. and fierce begun: "Thus then. Then the huge helmet lifting from his head. But Pallas." With that he gives command to Fear and Flight To join his rapid coursers for the fight: Then grim in arms. Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. Forgive me. springing through the bright abode. Starts from her azure throne to calm the god. Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. and yield my vengeance way: Descending first to yon forbidden plain. And now had Jove. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. by bold rebellion driven. furious! art thou toss'd? Striv'st thou with Jove? thou art already lost. And was imperial Juno heard in vain? Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven. with anguish for his slaughter'd son. Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven. Heroes as great have died. The god of battles dares avenge the slain. with hasty vengeance flies.

If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Strives he with me. and the god of day. Receive. With clouds of gold and purple circled round. Why should heaven's law with foolish man comply Exempted from the race ordain'd to die?" This menace fix'd the warrior to his throne.BOOK XV. (Fair nurse of fountains. to Ida's hills they came. "Go wait the Thunderer's will (Saturnia cried) On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide: There in the father's awful presence stand. and what we here ordain. and execute his dread command. then let him timely weigh Our elder birthright. And is there equal to the lord of heaven?" 447 [272] . and shakes the steady poles. by whom his power was given. and sat. Then Juno call'd (Jove's orders to obey) The winged Iris. and superior sway. Bid him from fight to his own deeps repair. Well-pleased the Thunderer saw their earnest care. How shall his rashness stand the dire alarms. the god that gilds the day. Sullen he sat. Or breathe from slaughter in the fields of air. and curb'd the rising groan. Report to yon mad tyrant of the main. and of savage game) There sat the eternal. wing their airy way." She said. And prompt obedience to the queen of air. he whose nod controls The trembling world. If he refuse. And various Iris. Then (while a smile serenes his awful brow) Commands the goddess of the showery bow: "Iris! descend. Veil'd in a mist of fragrance him they found. Swift as the wind.

No vassal god. How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Striv'st thou with him by whom all power is given? And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?" "What means the haughty sovereign of the skies? (The king of ocean thus. And awe the younger brothers of the pole. or fleecy snows. our triple rule we know. replies. he bids thee timely weigh His elder birthright. in common lie: What claim has here the tyrant of the sky? Far in the distant clouds let him control. My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. the goddess wing'd her flight To sacred Ilion from the Idaean height. am I. Olympus. And ancient Rhea. incensed. And to blue Neptune thus the goddess calls: "Attend the mandate of the sire above! In me behold the messenger of Jove: He bids thee from forbidden wars repair To thine own deeps. Drive through the skies. earth's immortal dame: Assign'd by lot. nor of his train. This if refused.448 The Iliad of Homer The all-mighty spoke. when Boreas fiercely blows. Swift as the rattling hail. Three brother deities from Saturn came. [273] . So from the clouds descending Iris falls. Ethereal Jove extends his high domain. And hush the roarings of the sacred deep. and superior sway. and o'er the starry plain. Infernal Pluto sways the shades below. and this earth. O'er the wide clouds.) Rule as he will his portion'd realms on high. or to the fields of air.

To elder brothers guardian fiends are given.BOOK XV. To favour Ilion. and change thy rash intent." 449 "And must I then (said she). and the queen of heaven. and our birth the same. that perfidious place. And plunged into the bosom of the flood. the contended field: Not but his threats with justice I disclaim. And quit. The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last. from his lofty height Beheld. A noble mind disdains not to repent. If yet. The trembling. There to his children his commands be given. The same our honours." "Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin'd) When ministers are blest with prudent mind: Warn'd by thy words. Howe'er the offence by other gods be pass'd. to powerful Jove I yield. He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race." Thus speaking. forgetful of his promise given To Hermes. servile. and thus bespoke the source of light: . O sire of floods! Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods? Correct it yet. furious from the field he strode. unless the Grecian train Lay yon proud structures level with the plain. The lord of thunders. Give him to know. though angry. To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven. Pallas. second race of heaven.

His will divine the son of Jove obey'd. till the Achaian train Fly to their ships and Hellespont again: Then Greece shall breathe from toils. as the vision bright Stood shining o'er him. whose earthquakes rock the world. my son! the trembling Greeks alarm." The godhead said. his spirits rise. Again his pulses beat. withholds thee from the war?" The fainting hero. Glides down the mountain to the plain below. There Hector seated by the stream he sees. and trembles at our rage. And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell. His sense returning with the coming breeze. Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care. and urge his strength to war: Let Ilion conquer. As Phoebus. half unseal'd his sight: . Burn'd to the bottom of his seas profound. Well was the crime. That drives a turtle through the liquid skies. they pass'd away. Jove thinking of his pains. Swell his bold heart. Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm. what wound. To whom the god who gives the golden day: "Why sits great Hector from the field so far? What grief. Seeks his own seas. heaven's thrones all shaking round. shooting from the Idaean brow. Else had my wrath. and well the vengeance spared. Go thou. Not half so swift the sailing falcon flies. Even power immense had found such battle hard. Again his loved companions meet his eyes. Desists at length his rebel-war to wage.450 The Iliad of Homer [274] "Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl'd Around the globe.

while my trusty sword Bathed Greece in slaughter. Phoebus. Behold! thy Phoebus shall his arms employ. "What blest immortal. And to the ships impel thy rapid horse: Even I will make thy fiery coursers way. or branching hind. With ample strokes he rushes to the flood. propitious still to thee and Troy.BOOK XV. now freed. (not fated yet to die) 451 . As when the pamper'd steed. To bathe his sides. he tosses to the skies. And springs. His head. the gliding ghosts I spy. and all his hosts pursue. Inspire thy warriors then with manly force. Full of the god. methinks." Thus to bold Hector spoke the son of Jove. Far from the hunter's rage secure they lie Close in the rock. with reins unbound." To him Apollo: "Be no more dismay'd. And hell's black horrors swim before my eye. Thus wakens Hector from the sleep of death? Has fame not told. and be strong! the Thunderer sends thee aid. As when the force of men and dogs combined Invade the mountain goat. and cool his fiery blood. with commanding breath. His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies: He snuffs the females in the well-known plain. and pours along the ground. and her battle gored. And breathed immortal ardour from above. See. Breaks from his stall. thus Hector flew. exulting. And drive the Grecians headlong to the sea. The mighty Ajax with a deadly blow Had almost sunk me to the shades below? Even yet. to his fields again: Urged by the voice divine. how.

and form a deep array. Not more in councils famed for solid sense. Lo! still he lives. Stand the first onset.452 The Iliad of Homer When lo! a lion shoots across the way! They fly: at once the chasers and the prey. let Hector learn to fear. Soon as they see the furious chief appear. and his worst withstand: The Greeks' main body to the fleet command. But let the few whom brisker spirits warm. Thoas. and provoke the storm. Fierce as he is. the listening Greeks obey. and consent to fear. Jove! without thy powerful will. and when such foes appear. And bold to combat in the standing fight. Pours new destruction on her sons again? He comes not. Thickening their ranks. . And not content that half of Greece lie slain. So Greece. the bravest of the Ætolian force. Than winning words and heavenly eloquence. Thus point your arms." The warrior spoke. And mark'd their progress through the ranks in blood. by thundering Ajax kill'd: What god restores him to the frighted field. late. that late in conquering troops pursued. "Gods! what portent (he cried) these eyes invades? Lo! Hector rises from the Stygian shades! We saw him. Forget to vanquish. pursues. Skill'd to direct the javelin's distant flight. [275] Thoas with grief observed his dreadful course. and conquers still! Yet hear my counsel.

The valiant leader of the Cretan band. Heaps fall on heaps: the slaughter Hector leads. And Troy and Hector thunder in the rear. and their fear confess'd. Sat doubtful conquest hovering o'er the field. And Hector first came towering to the war. 453 [276] . As long as Phoebus bore unmoved the shield. scatter'd wide. And spread the carnage through the shady gloom. and lightens in their eyes. Teucer. and thirst for blood in vain. and the shores defend. and meet the coming fight. Phoebus himself the rushing battle led. Vulcan to Jove the immortal gift consign'd. Impending Phoebus pours around them fear. No swain to guard them. Shouts in their ears. But when aloft he shakes it in the skies. Jove's enormous shield Portentous shone. And arrows leaping from the bow-string sung. The Greeks expect the shock. and mingle in the skies.BOOK XV. And Mars-like Meges: these the chiefs excite. These drink the life of generous warriors slain: Those guiltless fall. A veil of clouds involved his radiant head: High held before him. Each Ajax. Merion gave command. Deep horror seizes every Grecian breast. First great Arcesilas. and no day to guide. by heroes flung. the clamours rise From different parts. Dire was the hiss of darts. To flank the navy. So flies a herd of oxen. Their force is humbled. and shaded all the field. When two fell lions from the mountain come. Behind. then Stichius bleeds. To scatter hosts and terrify mankind. Full on the front the pressing Trojans bear. Approach the foe. unnumber'd multitudes attend.

some skulk behind the wall." Milton. The Greeks dismay'd. Stretch'd on one heap. No weeping sister his cold eye shall close. This sprang from Phelus. Deiochus inglorious dies. Maker omnipotent. confused. earth. in Phylace he dwell'd. . and the Athenians led. Which they beheld. Press'd by the vengeance of an angry wife. So in Milton:— "Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd. Polites' arm laid Echius on the plain. and thou the day. animates the fight. And starry pole. And one Menestheus' friend and famed compeer. both stood. disperse or fall. And thee. Points to the fleet: "For. Troy ends at last his labours and his life. But hapless Medon from Oileus came. the moon's resplendent globe.240 Who dares but linger. air. Observe the bold ellipsis of "he cries. Mecystes next Polydamas o'erthrew." Book iv. On rush'd bold Hector. by the gods! who flies. While these fly trembling. Æneas sped. 240 —For. and under open sky ador'd The God that made both sky. And o'er the slaughter stalks gigantic death. brave Clonius.454 The Iliad of Homer One to the bold Boeotians ever dear. Him Ajax honour'd with a brother's name. great Agenor slew. and heaven.—Thou also mad'st the night. Pierced through the shoulder as he basely flies. "Paradise Lost. others pant for breath. Both turn'd. A banish'd man. Though born of lawless love: from home expell'd. Forbids to plunder. gloomy as the night. by this hand he dies. By Paris. by the gods! who flies. the victors spoil the slain. Medon and Iasus. Some seek the trench." and the transition from the direct to the oblique construction.

Confused. And weeps his country with a father's eyes. The toil of thousands in a moment falls. and cars tumultuous pass. The sportive wanton. A sudden road! a long and ample way. No friendly hand his funeral pyre compose. the smoking chariot bounds. The birds shall tear him. Then with his hand he shook the mighty wall. O'er the dread fosse (a late impervious space) Now steeds. earth and ocean roar! Apollo. with voices. And draws imagined houses in the sands. eyes.BOOK XV. The coursers fly. and march'd the god. The wondering crowds the downward level trod. Push'd at the bank: down sank the enormous mound: Roll'd in the ditch the heapy ruin lay. The horses thunder. 455 [277] The Grecians gaze around with wild despair. loud clamours shake the shore. planted at the trench's bound. commands. threats. Who stops to plunder at this signal hour. and the dogs devour. And lo! the turrets nod. the bulwarks fall: Easy as when ashore an infant stands." Furious he said. Before them flamed the shield. and hands. And urge the gods. The hosts rush on. and men. the towers and walls. and weary all the powers with prayer: Exhort their men. pleased with some new play. Experienced Nestor chief obtests the skies. with praises. Sweeps the slight works and fashion'd domes away: Thus vanish'd at thy touch. . the smarting scourge resounds.

Still in the tent Patroclus sat to tend The good Eurypylus. While thus the thunder of the battle raged. ascending up the fleet. in hope our country to behold. If e'er. Legions on legions from each side arise: Thick sound the keels. Presumptuous Troy mistook the accepting sign. He sprinkles healing balms. on his native shore.456 The Iliad of Homer "O Jove! if ever. As. when black tempests mix the seas and skies. These wield the mace." Thus prayed the sage: the eternal gave consent. And labouring armies round the works engaged. Its womb they deluge. And save the relics of the Grecian name. And peals of thunder shook the firmament. and o'erpowering all. With bitter groans his sorrows he express'd. and its ribs they rend: Thus loudly roaring. the medicine of the mind. We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold. and those the javelin throw. he beats his manly breast. Above the sides of some tall ship ascend. Fierce on the ships above. the storm of arrows flies. And adds discourse. the cars below. Mount the thick Trojans up the Grecian wall. One Greek enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore. If e'er thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod: Perform the promise of a gracious god! This day preserve our navies from the flame. He wrings his hands. But when he saw. starting from his seat. Victorious Troy. . And catch'd new fury at the voice divine. then. his wounded friend. to anguish kind. The roaring deeps in watery mountains rise.

Ajax the great. with like skill and care. And every ship sustained an equal tide. though numerous. and levels every part. "Though yet thy state require redress (he cries) Depart I must: what horrors strike my eyes! Charged with Achilles' high command I go. through that firm array. nor that defend: One kept the shore. Perhaps some favouring god his soul may bend. and shine again in war. and godlike Hector meet. That fix'd as fate. Great Hector view'd him with a sad survey. and drops the extinguish'd fires.BOOK XV. The son of Clytius in his daring hand. For one bright prize the matchless chiefs contend. and left the war behind. and equal kept the war. swifter than the wind Sprung from the tent. and. Preserved their line. I haste to urge him by his country's care To rise in arms. But strive. As when a shipwright. and the directing line: The martial leaders. high-towering o'er the fleet. 457 [278] . expires: Thundering he falls. The deck approaching." He spoke. and one the vessel trod. pierced by Telamon's huge lance. But. shakes a flaming brand. With equal hand he guides his whole design. Smooths the rough wood. The embodied Greeks the fierce attack sustain. with Palladian art. At one proud bark. Force to the fleet and tents the impervious way. By the just rule. to repulse in vain: Nor could the Trojans. speaking. The voice is powerful of a faithful friend. this acted by a god. Nor this the ships can fire. A mournful witness of this scene of woe. Brave deeds of arms through all the ranks were tried.

and war. to Hector's rage we owe. This death deplored. And thus inflames his brother to the fight: [279] "Teucer. with a parent's care To fight our wars he left his native air. A faithful servant to a foreign lord. all of Lycian race! Stand to your arms. It stretch'd in dust unhappy Lycophron: An exile long. From the high poop he tumbles on the sand. "Oh! all of Trojan. he died. secure his obsequies!" This said. With anguish Ajax views the piercing sight. save his arms. In peace. as he lived. our loved companion! now no more! Dear as a parent. Revenge. Near his loved master. behold! extended on the shore Our friend. his eager javelin sought the foe: But Ajax shunn'd the meditated blow. Not vainly yet the forceful lance was thrown. for ever at his side. sustain'd at Ajax' board. And lies a lifeless load along the land. revenge it on the cruel foe. Where are those darts on which the fates attend? And where the bow which Phoebus taught to bend?" .458 The Iliad of Homer As stretch'd in dust before the stern he lay. maintain this arduous space: Lo! where the son of royal Clytius lies. Ah.

Then. (To thee. At its full stretch as the tough string he drew. Hurl'd from the lofty seat. Clytus. Thy fall. Struck by an arm unseen. The pointed death arrests him from behind: Through his fair neck the thrilling arrow flies. and shook his eager reins. Down dropp'd the bow: the shaft with brazen head Fell innocent. Polydamas! an honour'd name) Drove through the thickest of the embattled plains The startling steeds. great Trojan! had renown'd that day. and on the dust lay dead. Once more bold Teucer. propitious to the Trojan foe. But Hector was not doom'd to perish then: The all-wise disposer of the fates of men (Imperial Jove) his present death withstands. 459 . Till sad Polydamas the steeds restrain'd. Pisenor's son. it burst in two. Astynous. The astonish'd archer to great Ajax cries. Nor was such glory due to Teucer's hands. hastening to his aid. Impatient Teucer. and the bowstring sung. fired to vengeance. "Some god prevents our destined enterprise: Some god.BOOK XV. As all on glory ran his ardent mind. The headlong coursers spurn his empty car. At Hector's breast a chosen arrow draws: And had the weapon found the destined way. The well-stored quiver on his shoulders hung: Then hiss'd his arrow. Before the chief his ample bow display'd. And gave. In youth's first bloom reluctantly he dies. to thy careful hand. renown'd in fame. in his country's cause. at distance far. rush'd amidst the foe: Rage edged his sword. and strengthen'd every blow.

When happy nations bear the marks divine! How easy then. to see the sinking state Of realms accursed. Thy brave example shall the rest inflame. And broke the nerve my hands had twined with art. deserted. On his brave head a crested helm he placed. And spread your glory with the navy's flame." [280] Then Teucer laid his faithless bow aside. Asks toil. From the proud archer strike his vaunted bow: Indulgent Jove! how plain thy favours shine. Fierce as they are. by long successes vain. Dardanus. I saw his hand. your ancient fame. but now. A dart. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. and exert your powers. and sweat. The fourfold buckler o'er his shoulder tied. and lay thy arrows by: Thy arms no less suffice the lance to wield. or even a ship to gain." "Since heaven commands it (Ajax made reply) Dismiss the bow. and Troy! Be mindful of yourselves. and thus express'd his joy: "Ye troops of Lycia.460 The Iliad of Homer Has. Jove is with us. whose point with brass refulgent shines. Death is the worst. The warrior wields. struck the bow. Strong to impel the flight of many a dart. from my arm unfailing. and such is ours: Behold. and blood: their utmost might Shall find its match—No more: 'tis ours to fight. reprobate! Such is the fate of Greece. To force our fleet. And quit the quiver for the ponderous shield. and his great brother joins. ye warriors. . This Hector saw. a fate which all must try. In the first ranks indulge thy thirst of fame.

'tis a bliss to die. One day should end our labour or our life. what methods to retire. And for our country. Entails a debt on all the grateful state. 'Tis now no time for wisdom or debates. (To generous Argos what a dire disgrace!) How long on these cursed confines will ye lie. all his race succeed. though slain in fight he be. and Troy obeys his call! Not to the dance that dreadful voice invites. ye warriors of the Argive race. It calls to death. His wife live honour'd. and all the rage of fights. Than keep this hard-got inch of barren sands. How Hector calls. If once your vessels catch the Trojan fire? Make how the flames approach. Yet leaves his nation safe. Still press'd. And better far in one decisive strife.BOOK XV. or to live or die? What hopes remain." . Yet undetermined. His own brave friends shall glory in his fate. and press'd by such inglorious hands. The gallant man. And late posterity enjoy the deed!" 461 This roused the soul in every Trojan breast: The godlike Ajax next his Greeks address'd: "How long. how near they fall. To your own hands are trusted all your fates. his children free.

And stood by Meges' side a sudden aid. (That valued life. With thundering sound The warrior falls. By Hector here the Phocian Schedius died. And issued at his breast. Through Dolops' shoulder urged his forceful dart. in cities storm'd. from the death withdrew. of old Antenor's race. Polydamas laid Otus on the sand. The fierce commander of the Epeian band. sunk Laodamas. There. the son of Lampus. pierced by Ajax. (Well-known in fight on Selle's winding shore. O Phoebus! was thy care) But Croesmus' bosom took the flying spear: His corpse fell bleeding on the slippery shore. and battles won. Meantime their fight the Spartan king survey'd. the purple honours glow. Full at the Trojan's head he urged his lance. His lance bold Meges at the victor threw. Chief of the foot. Shorn from the crest. and now saves the son. New ting'd with Tyrian dye: in dust below. Which held its passage through the panting heart. Had saved the father. For king Euphetes gave the golden mail.462 The Iliad of Homer The listening Grecians feel their leader's flame. Then mutual slaughters spread on either side. Where the high plumes above the helmet dance. The victor. stooping. Compact. His radiant arms triumphant Meges bore. Dolops. extended on the ground. and firm with many a jointed scale) Which oft. He pierced the centre of his sounding shield: But Meges. And famed for prowess in a well-fought field. And every kindling bosom pants for fame. [281] . Sprung from the race of old Laomedon. Phyleus' ample breastplate wore. rushes on.

where Dolops lies. But when oppress'd. his country claim'd his care. Or Ilion from her towery height descend. Meets death. he held his place. But hand to hand thy country's foes engage: Till Greece at once. Melanippus! lo. as his troops he led. from Hicetaon sprung. And is it thus our royal kinsman dies? O'ermatch'd he falls. On valour's side the odds of combat lie. And lo! they bear the bloody arms away! Come on—a distant war no longer wage." Hector (this said) rush'd forward on the foes: With equal ardour Melanippus glows: Then Ajax thus—"O Greeks! respect your fame. The brave live glorious. one common fall. Beloved no less than Priam's royal race. and young. and all her glory end. in Priam's court. brave. Heaved from the lowest stone. or lamented die. and learn an honest shame: Let mutual reverence mutual warmth inspire. And catch from breast to breast the noble fire. gallant. The hero most. and worse than death. Respect yourselves. pointing to the dead. Return'd to Ilion. and excell'd in war." 463 [282] .BOOK XV. For this. He (ere to Troy the Grecians cross'd the main) Fed his large oxen on Percote's plain. Him Hector singled. The wretch that trembles in the field of fame. In rush the conquering Greeks to spoil the slain: But Hector's voice excites his kindred train. and bury all In one sad sepulchre. "Lo. Fierce Melanippus. And thus inflamed him. eternal shame. to two at once a prey.

464 The Iliad of Homer His generous sense he not in vain imparts. Bold as he was. ." He said. with loud applause. Shields touching shields. While conscious of the deed. so active to pursue? Why stand you distant. Beyond the foremost ranks. nor attempt a deed? Lift the bold lance. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. they thicken at his call. The troops of Troy recede with sudden fear. they throng. And stop the Trojans. "Is there (he said) in arms a youth like you. ranging o'er the plain. in order blaze above. Antilochus withdrew. And rends his side. And flank the navy with a brazen wall. his lance he threw. So when a savage. and make some Trojan bleed. or shepherd's swain. The victor leaps upon his prostrate prize: Thus on a roe the well-breath'd beagle flies. Warms the bold son of Nestor in his cause. Advancing Melanippus met the dart With his bold breast. his falling arms resound. and felt it in his heart: Thundering he falls. and backward to the lines retired. While the swift javelin hiss'd along in air. Has torn the shepherd's dog. Timely he flies the yet-untasted food. It sunk. Observing Hector to the rescue flew. and rooted in the Grecian hearts: They join. And hears the gathering multitude resound. Forth rush'd the youth with martial fury fired. So strong to fight. The fiery Spartan first. And round the black battalions cast his view. fresh-bleeding with the dart The distant hunter sent into his heart. though impell'd by Jove. he glares around.

But lifts to glory Troy's prevailing bands. and involves the poles. While stones and darts in mingled tempest flew. confirming Thetis' prayer. on the foe. The Grecian ardour quench'd in deep despair. Shakes his huge javelin. To view the navy blazing to the skies. And cast the blaze of both the hosts on one. and Pelides' spear: Yet Jove deferr'd the death he was to pay. nor till then. On Ida's top he waits with longing eyes. he turns His manly breast. when human crimes for vengeance call. Unhappy glories! for his fate was near. These fates revolved in his almighty mind. The Trojans fly. And drives him. Then. like a lightning. So Mars. He foams with wrath. Waves when he nods.BOOK XV. Fierce to fulfil the stern decrees of Jove: The sire of gods. Due to stern Pallas. And gave what fate allow'd. and with new fury burns. and strengthens all their hands. But enter'd in the Grecian ranks. And gains the friendly shelter of the wood: So fears the youth. He raises Hector to the work design'd. the honours of a day! 465 [283] . Bids him with more than mortal fury glow. all Troy with shouts pursue. Swells all their hearts. and conquer'd Ilion burn. Now on the fleet the tides of Trojans drove. and whole armies fall. beneath his gloomy brow Like fiery meteors his red eye-balls glow: The radiant helmet on his temple burns. Wraps the vast mountains. Not with more rage a conflagration rolls. and lightens as he turns: For Jove his splendour round the chief had thrown. the scale of war shall turn.

the thickest fight. White are the decks with foam. and exerts his might. On all sides batter'd. Still at the closest ranks. At large expatiate o'er the ranker mead) Leaps on the herds before the herdsman's eyes. the winds aloud Howl o'er the masts. swell'd with tempests. And. Unmoved it hears. and sing through every shroud: Pale. yet resists his power: So some tall rock o'erhangs the hoary main. The chief so thunders. vii. moveless as a tower. he seems to fall Like fire from Jove. Some lordly bull (the rest dispersed and fled) 241 —So some tall rock. tired. the sailors freeze with fears. and single every prize. on the ship descends.466 The Iliad of Homer Now all on fire for fame. and the sounding tides. and so shakes the fleet. . by billows beat in vain. above. (Where numerous oxen. a rock that braves The raging tempest. and bursts upon them all: Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. his breast. trembling. rushing from his den. The Grecian phalanx. the tempest blow. So pale the Greeks the eyes of Hector meet. The trembling herdsman far to distance flies." Dryden's Virgil. And instant death on every wave appears. Girt in surrounding flames. his eyes Burn at each foe. Amidst the plain of some wide-water'd fen. and the rising waves— Propp'd on himself he stands: his solid sides Wash off the sea-weeds. "But like a rock unmov'd. [284] As when a lion. 809. And sees the watery mountains break below. as at ease they feed. He points his ardour.241 By winds assail'd.

who strove to guard too late The unhappy hero. his brazen helmet rung. . And plunged the pointed javelin in his breast. by themselves implores. Supine he fell. a gloomy. Copreus was his sire: The son redeem'd the honours of the race. Now fear itself confines them to the fight: Man courage breathes in man. Now manly shame forbids the inglorious flight. 467 Chased from the foremost line. to guard these utmost shores. A son as generous as the sire was base. He singles out. the Grecian train Now man the next. Wall'd round with sterns. His circling friends. O'er all his country's youth conspicuous far In every virtue.BOOK XV. adjures. And by their parents. or of peace or war: But doom'd to Hector's stronger force to yield! Against the margin of his ample shield He struck his hasty foot: his heels up-sprung. desperate band. The minister of stern Eurystheus' ire Against Alcides. On the fallen chief the invading Trojan press'd. arrests. but Nestor most (The sage preserver of the Grecian host) Exhorts. but one he seized. in arms well known to fame. and lays him dead. Thus from the rage of Jove-like Hector flew All Greece in heaps. or shared his fate. fled. receding toward the main: Wedged in one body at the tents they stand. In wisdom great. and slew: Mycenian Periphes. a mighty name.

He shifts his seat. and your parents share: Think of each living father's reverend head. your fortunes. practised to obey. by me they speak. as side by side they run. The scene wide-opening to the blaze of light. restoring all the war to view. by me they sue. Think of each ancestor with glory dead. your infants. To some great city through the public way. and all who fly. Minerva seconds what the sage inspires. fix'd to certain stands But looks a moving tower above the bands. They ask their safety. [285] . Absent. he swings around." He spoke. And now to this. like others. And show'd the shores. Safe in his art. and the main: Hector they saw. Full twenty cubits long. all the care Your wives. or fight. His port majestic. and their fame. if you desert the day. High on the decks with vast gigantic stride. So when a horseman from the watery mead (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding steed) Drives four fair coursers. and round him breathed heroic fires. And all are lost. and vaults from one to one. The godlike hero stalks from side to side. Nor fights. First of the field great Ajax strikes their eyes. A sudden ray shot beaming o'er the plain. the navy.468 The Iliad of Homer "Oh friends! be men: your generous breasts inflame With mutual honour. and his ample size: A ponderous mace with studs of iron crown'd. and now to that he flies. from you: The gods their fates on this one action lay. and with mutual shame! Think of your hopes. The mist of darkness Jove around them threw She clear'd.

so furious was their fire. No force could tame them. darkens with his wings the flood. As furious. and from despair. No less the wonder of the warring crew. confiding in despair: Troy in proud hopes already view'd the main Bright with the blaze. stooping. Jove leads him on with his almighty hand. And each contends. 469 From ship to ship thus Ajax swiftly flew. as his were all the war. kept alive the war. Thou wouldst have thought. and red with heroes slain: Like strength is felt from hope. And the long battle was but then begun. while they light for food. As if new vigour from new fights they won. the battle roars. The warring nations meet. And rush'd enraged before the Trojan crowd. yet unconquer'd. Secure of death. Greece. And. whose beaky prores Lay rank'd contiguous on the bending shores. bold Hector! whose resistless hand First seized a ship on that contested strand. Then swift invades the ships. Hector thunder'd threats aloud.BOOK XV. [286] . Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight. Thick beats the combat on the sounding prores. Admiring numbers follow with their eyes. So the strong eagle from his airy height. And breathes fierce spirits in his following band. and no toil could tire. "Twas thou. Stoops down impetuous.

528. or glitter on the ground. 245. axes sound. The falchions ring. and gives this loud command: AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. slain by Hector.470 The Iliad of Homer The same which dead Protesilaus bore. No room to poise the lance or bend the bow. Hector with his ample hand Grasps the high stern. as he leaped from the vessel to the Trojan shore. and seek each other's hearts With falchions. And bathed their generous breasts with mutual blood. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and shorten'd darts. Swords flash in air. they wound. But hand to hand. they grow: Wounded. swords. He was buried on the Chersonese. shields rattle. Still raging. Tzetz. axes. With streaming blood the slippery shores are dyed. Hygin Fab. 242 Protesilaus was the first Greek who fell. . and man to man. There is a most elegant tribute to his memory in the Preface to the Heroica of Philostratus. ciii. near the city of Plagusa. on Lycophr.242 The first that touch'd the unhappy Trojan shore: For this in arms the warring nations stood.

and now protends." 471 [287] . Even Ajax paused. the Greeks with piercing shouts inspires. 'Tis hostile ground you tread. Now shakes his spear. (so thick the javelins fly. your native lands Far. But now in peals of thunder calls to arms: In this great day he crowns our full desires. Yet. Wakes all our force. and thunderbolts of war! Ah! yet be mindful of your old renown. There stand the Trojans. Once sons of Mars. Even yet. No friends to help. This spot is all you have. now lifts. far from hence: your fates are in your hands. The coward-counsels of a timorous throng Of reverend dotards check'd our glory long: Too long Jove lull'd us with lethargic charms. and the day desired appears! This happy day with acclamations greet. he stands to wait What chief approaching dares attempt his fate: Even to the last his naval charge defends. and darts. Bright with destruction of yon hostile fleet. to lose or keep. and here rolls the deep.BOOK XV. "O friends! O heroes! names for ever dear. and seconds all our fires. no city to defend." He spoke—the warriors at his fierce command Pour a new deluge on the Grecian band. where the oars are placed. What aids expect you in this utmost strait? What bulwarks rising between you and fate? No aids.) Stepp'd back. and fires. no bulwarks your retreat attend. Amidst attacks. Your great forefathers' virtues and your own. and deaths. and doubted or to live or die. bring the flames! that toil of ten long years Is finished. "Haste.

the boldest. CASTOR AND POLLUX. Whate'er bold Trojan arm'd his daring hands. with flaming brands. The luckless warrior at his stern lay dead: Full twelve. . Against the sable ships. in a moment fell. But turns his javelin to the work of death. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. So well the chief his naval weapon sped.472 The Iliad of Homer Raging he spoke. nor further wastes his breath.

soldiers. horses. While the black vessels smoked with human gore. Hector himself flies. and officers are described. He agrees to it. Patroclus. in the heat of which. he beats them off from the vessels. Several other particulars of the battle are described.[288] BOOK XVI. with compassion moved. after which Patroclus leads the Myrmidons to battle. and Hector kills him. . So warr'd both armies on the ensanguined shore. taking him for that hero. From the tall rock the sable waters flow. but at the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the fleet. Achilles offers a libation for the success of his friend. The Trojans. Meantime Patroclus to Achilles flies. pursues the foe to the walls of Troy. THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. without further pursuit of the enemy. Sarpedon is killed. where Apollo repulses and disarms him. which concludes the book. neglecting the orders of Achilles. The streaming tears fall copious from his eyes Not faster. Divine Pelides. are cast into the uttermost consternation. at the sight of Patroclus in Achilles' armour. though Jupiter was averse to his fate. Euphorbus wounds him. trickling to the plains below. ARGUMENT THE SIXTH BATTLE. The armour.

243 —His best beloved. to what end Thy melting sorrows thus pursue thy friend? his unequalled prowess. But the mutual regard which united Idomeneus and Meriones. no infant whom the mother keeps From her loved breast.474 The Iliad of Homer Thus spoke. without such a brother in arms by his side. vol. vol. Greece. i. is manifestly viewed by the poet in the same light. though. if not of equal antiquity.) well illustrate the character of the friendship subsisting between these two heroes— "One of the noblest and most amiable sides of the Greek character. was not the less admirable and engaging. The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which. it is kept more in the back-ground. as the persons themselves are less important. Diomedes and Sthenelus. seem to have but one heart and soul. That flows so fast in these unmanly tears? No girl. The following elegant remarks of Thirlwall (Greece. is the readiness with which it lent itself to construct intimate and durable friendships. but this is a circumstance which. what grief thy bosom bears. It was indeed connected with the comparatively low estimation in which female society was held. 176 seq. Not more the mother's soul."—Thirlwall. say. while it often adds a peculiar charm to the poetical . with fonder passion weeps. but the devotedness and constancy with which these attachments were maintained. 176. p. to his best beloved:243 [289] "Patroclus. seq. The idea of a Greek hero seems not to have been thought complete. with scarcely a wish or object apart. and this is a feature no less prominent in the earliest than in later times. i. indulgent. and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another. Than thou hast mine! Oh tell me. were grounded on the same feeling. It is true that the relation between them is not always one of perfect equality. that infant warms. p. Clung to her knees. and reaching at her arms.

And wise Ulysses. And pay the forfeit of their haughty lord? Whate'er the cause. More for their country's wounds than for their own. And speak those sorrows which a friend would share. May never rage like thine my soul enslave. reveal thy secret care. whose love for the greater hero is only tempered by reverence for his higher birth and . what man. Atreus' son. the moral groundwork undoubtedly subsisted in the period to which the traditions are referred. and bleeding in his tent: Eurypylus. Doom'd in their ships to sink by fire and sword. Thyself a Greek. from thee shall hope redress? 475 description. Lies pierced with wounds. my martial band? Or come sad tidings from our native land? Our fathers live (our first." A sigh that instant from his bosom broke. at the navy groan. Another follow'd. and though These may owe the greater part of their fame to the later epic or even dramatic poetry. Such were the friendships of Hercules and Iolaus. and. "Griev'st thou for me. of Orestes and Pylades. Tydides. of Greeks the best! Lo! every chief that might her fate prevent.BOOK XVI. Thy breast alone no lenitives appease. O great in vain! unprofitably brave! Thy country slighted in her last distress. Their pain soft arts of pharmacy can ease. and Patroclus spoke: "Let Greece at length with pity touch thy breast. most tender care). The argument of the Iliad mainly turns on the affection of Achilles for Patroclus. Pleased in their age to hear their children's praise. detracts little from the dignity of the idea which it presents. Or may some meaner cause thy pity claim? Perhaps yon relics of the Grecian name. And hoary Peleus yet extends his days. once. of Theseus and Pirithous. or for. Thy good Menoetius breathes the vital air. What friend.

and in his arms thy death. Thou begg'st his arms. and ages yet behind. So rough thy manners. and Greece respire again. this reply: "Patroclus! thy Achilles knows no fears. my constant thought engage. My wrongs. "O man unpitying! if of man thy race. my wrongs. Nor aught a mother's caution can suggest. and shall feel it long.476 The Iliad of Homer No—men unborn. And thy mere image chase her foes away. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. If aught from Jove. that unforgiving mind. her o'erlabour'd train Shall quit the ships. Press'd by fresh forces. my sole oracles. Nor ever amorous hero caused thy birth. and desert the war. Nor ever tender goddess brought thee forth: Some rugged rock's hard entrails gave thee form. Those." Thus. Proud Troy shall tremble. blind to fate! with supplicating breath. [290] "If some dire oracle thy breast alarm. If I but lead the Myrmidonian line: Clad in thy dreadful arms if I appear. . so untamed thy mind. and with it. stop thy arm. And raging seas produced thee in a storm. inspire my rage: I made him tyrant: gave him power to wrong Even my: I felt it. Shall curse that fierce. or Thetis. Nor words from Jove nor oracles he hears. But sure thou spring'st not from a soft embrace. Without thy person Greece shall win the day. The tyrant's pride lies rooted in my breast. Unfortunately good! a boding sigh Thy friend return'd. A soul well suiting that tempestuous kind.

issue to the plain: Now save the ships. Yon ample trench had buried half her host. the rising fires restrain. Due to the votes of all the Grecian train. at my sight amazed. 'Tis time our fury should relent at last: I fix'd its date. and conquer in my right. No camps. I hear. and mark a friend's command. my black-eyed maid. Patroclus. The maid. or proclaims your death. dishonour'd. when. Due to my conquest of her father's reign. Go save the fleets. he forced away. Patroclus! court fair honour's charms In Troy's famed fields. See the thin relics of their baffled band At the last edge of yon deserted land! Behold all Ilion on their ships descends. Those are not dreadful. Who trusts his fame and honours in thy hand. me. and in Achilles' arms: Lead forth my martial Myrmidons to fight. how the storm impends! It was not thus. 477 [291] . No longer flames the lance of Tydeus' son. like the meanest slave. Go then.BOOK XVI. the day I wish'd appears: How Hector to my ships his battle bears. And give the Greeks to visit Greece again. the shouts invade my ears. From me he forced her. The flames my eyes. Due to the toils of many a well-fought day. But heed my words. his dreadful breath Commands your slaughter. Troy saw and trembled. alone. Disgraced. no Achilles there. the bold and brave. Yet now. No more your general calls his heroes on: Hector. How the cloud blackens. But bear we this—the wrongs I grieve are past. as this helmet blazed: Had not the injurious king our friendship lost. no bulwarks now the Trojans fear.

And not a Greek of all the race survive: Might only we the vast destruction shun. consult my glory. redeem'd from this destructive strait. And toil to toil. he barely breathes at most. Yet scarce an army stirs him from his post. The fleet once saved. Do her own work. And painful sweat from all his members flows. Though Jove in thunder should command the war. Muses. Ajax no more the sounding storm sustain'd. and leave the rest to fate. like Phoebus.478 The Iliad of Homer And from thy deeds expects the Achaian host Shall render back the beauteous maid he lost: Rage uncontroll'd through all the hostile crew. And only we destroy the accursed town!" Such conference held the chiefs. ever kind to Troy. Spent and o'erpower'd. while on the strand Great Jove with conquest crown'd the Trojan band. Let Greece. in quick short pantings. Say. comes and goes. So thick the darts an iron tempest rain'd: On his tired arm the weighty buckler hung. Pallas. and woe succeeds to woe. and forbear. desist from further chase. His breath. O! would to all the immortal powers above. and almighty Jove! That not one Trojan might be left alive. Apollo. His hollow helm with falling javelins rung. Dangers on dangers all around him glow. How first the navy blazed with Trojan flame? . throned above the starry frame. Hector is my due. Some god. Some adverse god thy rashness may destroy. But touch not Hector. Nor lead to Ilion's walls the Grecian race. Be just.

and own'd the hand divine. And smote his thigh. with silver buckles bound The clasping greaves. Patroclus! Lo. That the broad falchion lopp'd its brazen head. Arm.BOOK XVI. and thus aloud exclaims: "Arm. and trembling at the sign. then to his breast applies The flaming cuirass of a thousand dyes. He flash'd around intolerable day. The friend with ardour and with joy obey'd. Arm. Alone untouch'd. 479 [292] Divine Achilles view'd the rising flames. O'er the high stern the curling volumes rise. I haste to bring the troops. And sheets of rolling smoke involve the skies. Where furious Ajax plied his ashen spear. Great Ajax saw. Emblazed with studs of gold his falchion shone In the rich belt. ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. ere the Grecians be no more a name. Confessing Jove. thick streams the fiery shower. and standing near. the blaze aspires! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. Warn'd he retreats. He cased his limbs in brass. His pointless spear the warrior shakes in vain. as in a starry zone: Achilles' shield his ample shoulders spread. Stern Hector waved his sword. Not to be poised but by Pelides' hands: . Full on the lance a stroke so justly sped. The brazen head falls sounding on the plain. and first around His manly legs."—The hero said. Achilles' helmet nodded o'er his head: Adorn'd in all his terrible array. Pelides' javelin stands. arm. Then swift from all sides pour The hissing brands.

Xanthus and Balius. A mortal courser match'd the immortal race. By Zephyr pregnant on the breezy shore: Swift Pedasus was added to their side. like in strength. In peace his friend. (Once great Aetion's. The second to his lord in love and fame. bore. The death of heroes.480 The Iliad of Homer From Pelion's shady brow the plant entire Old Chiron rent. Whom the wing'd harpy. and shaped it for his sire. The brave Automedon (an honour'd name. . Buckles. swift Podarge. and the dread of fields. Sprung from the wind. of immortal breed. and partner of the war) The winged coursers harness'd to the car. Whose son's great arm alone the weapon wields. in swiftness. and in grace. and like the wind in speed. now Achilles' pride) Who.

Fire fills their eye. And long to temper their dry chaps in blood— So rush'd we forth at once. around the chief they stand. And gorged with slaughter still they thirst for more. loved of Jove. Divine Sperchius! Jove-descended flood! A mortal mother mixing with a god. whose waters wash the earth. Scour through the fields. Derived from thee. When some tall stag. mann'd with fifty oars: Five chosen leaders the fierce bands obey. Like furious. Achilles speeds from tent to tent. Such their dread strength. High in the midst the great Achilles stands. had launch'd for Ilion's shores Full fifty vessels. and warms His hardy Myrmidons to blood and arms. a hideous throng. First march'd Menestheus. but miscall'd by fame The son of Borus. 244 481 "As hungry wolves with raging appetite. fresh-slaughtered in the wood. formidable band: Grim as voracious wolves. as in sway. their black jaws belch the gore. He. To the black fount they rush. of celestial birth. that espoused the dame. ii. A grim. rush'd the Myrmidonian crew. 479. . Himself supreme in valour. All breathing death. and the war commands. With paunch distended. that seek the springs244 When scalding thirst their burning bowels wrings. Such was Menestheus. and such their deathful view. Directs their order. and with lolling tongue. ne'er fear the stormy night— Their whelps at home expect the promised food. Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats with blood.BOOK XVI. terrific." —Dryden's Virgil.

And heir'd his mother's swiftness in the chase. Whose rage defrauds us of so famed a field: If that dire fury must for ever burn. 'Stern son of Peleus. The son confess'd his father's heavenly race. Her. Famed in the graceful dance. raging. unknowing how to yield. Or if a surer. (thus ye used to say. and crown'd his fire. sly Cellenius loved: on her would gaze. great Patroclus! thine. What make we here? Return.482 The Iliad of Homer Eudorus next. whom Polymele the gay. The fourth by Phoenix' grave command was graced. long hid from fame. or aim the distant dart. Her secret offspring to her sire she bare. Pisander follow'd. Laerces' valiant offspring led the last. return!' [294] . While restless. Strong Echecleus. urged. Think what reproach these ears endured so long. succeeded to her arms. ye fierce and brave! Think with what threats you dared the Trojan throng. in your ships you lay) Oh nursed with gall. matchless in his art To wing the spear. No hand so sure of all the Emathian line. Soon as Achilles with superior care Had call'd the chiefs. Her sire caress'd him with a parent's care. produced to-day. and order'd all the war. Not conscious of those loves. bless'd in all those charms That pleased a god. As with swift step she form'd the running maze: To her high chamber from Diana's quire. This stern remembrance to his troops he gave: "Ye far-famed Myrmidons. The god pursued her. With gifts of price he sought and won the dame. ye chiefs.

of arms a steely ring Still grows. Far o'er the rest in glittering pomp appear. Glut all your hearts. and weary all your hands!" 483 DIANA. Brothers in arms. Lo there the Trojans. Close and more close the listening cohorts press'd. Compacted stones the thickening work compose. undistinguish'd plumes. with equal fury fired. and crest to crest they throng. Two friends. and thickens round the king. together join'd. Ranks wedged in ranks. bathe your swords in gore! This day shall give you all your soul demands. Of strength defensive against wind and storms. and spreads. warriors! grieve no more. And round him wide the rising structure grows: So helm to helm. Thus while he roused the fire in every breast. Shield urged on shield. and man drove man along. Patroclus here. Thick. . Float in one sea. Such were your words—Now. and wave before the wind. As when a circling wall the builder forms. two bodies with one soul inspired. There bold Automedon.BOOK XVI.

and fixing for a space His eyes on heaven. There lay on heaps his various garments roll'd. as of old! Thou gav'st. and vapours chill. and thus the god implored: "O thou supreme! high-throned all height above! O great Pelasgic. their slumbers on the ground. and string his arm to war: Press'd by his single force let Hector see . And catch the fates. and wash'd it in the running stream. race austere! surround. Oh! be his guard thy providential care. Lo. I yield. thy dark decrees. He purged. Their feet unwash'd. and Peleus' son to none Had raised in offerings. to my ships confined. to the dangers of the fighting field The best. his feet upon the place Of sacrifice. from rustling oaks. Though still determined. and to the Greeks despair. Patroclus gone. And costly furs. of antique frame. But Peleus' son. Glory to me.) Hear. Nor raised in offerings to the power divine. sacred first to flame. Presid'st on bleak Dodona's vocal hill: (Whose groves the Selli. the dearest of my friends. (The presents of the silver-footed dame) From thence he took a bowl. at Thetis' prayer. but to Jove alone. the purple draught he pour'd Forth in the midst. and carpets stiff with gold. Dodonaean Jove! Who 'midst surrounding frosts. Who hear.484 The Iliad of Homer [295] But mindful of the gods. Confirm his heart. low-whispered in the breeze. I stay but half behind. Then cleansed his hands. Achilles went To the rich coffer in his shady tent. Which never man had stained with ruddy wine. This tinged with sulphur.

Assert their waxen domes. Pour from their mansions by the broad highway. Meanwhile the troops beneath Patroclus' care. And humble the proud monarch whom you save. and. preserve his social train. And waits the combat with impatient eyes. But heaven's eternal doom denies the rest. Who thus inflames them with heroic fires: "O warriors. and call forth all their rage: All rise in arms. and buzzing progeny. and so keen their arms: Their rising rage Patroclus' breath inspires. Preserve his arms. So loud their clamours. with a general cry. Invade the Trojans. And add new glories to his mighty name. As wasps. the winds dispersed in air. His fame in arms not owing all to me. and commence the war. partners of Achilles' praise! Be mindful of your deeds in ancient days. Your godlike master let your acts proclaim. His safe return. Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms. In swarms the guiltless traveller engage. Back to his tent the stern Achilles flies. To free the fleet was granted to his prayer. And safe return him to these eyes again!" Great Jove consents to half the chief's request. provoked by children in their play. Whet all their stings.BOOK XVI." 485 [296] . Think your Achilles sees you fight: be brave. But when the fleets are saved from foes and fire. Let him with conquest and renown retire.

that see their country's glory slain. And all the unmeasured ether flames with light. When great Achilles' shining armour blazed: Troy saw. bold Pyrechmes stood. and vales. and kindling as he spoke. From shore to shore the doubling shouts resound.) His shoulder-blade receives the fatal wound. The hollow ships return a deeper sound. and thought the dread Achilles nigh. scatter'd o'er the distant plain. Fly diverse. with a flashing ray. they tremble. (Who led his bands from Axius' winding flood. So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head. and lets down the day: The hills shine out.486 The Iliad of Homer Joyful they heard. and where the tumult grew. Sudden the Thunderer. Clear'd from the smoke the joyful navy lies. Triumphant Greece her rescued decks ascends. strike the eyes. the rocks in prospect rise. . In heaps on heaps the foe tumultuous flies. Patroclus' arm forbids the spreading fires. The smiling scene wide opens to the sight. Close to the stern of that famed ship which bore Unbless'd Protesilaus to Ilion's shore. divine Patroclus! flew. His troops. And loud acclaim the starry region rends. Flew to the fleet. The great Paeonian. Bursts through the darkness. and forests. and they fly. And from the half-burn'd ship proud Troy retires. At once they see. And streams. Where the war raged. Then first thy spear. The groaning warrior pants upon the ground. involved in fire and smoke. and all around them gazed. O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread. The war stood still.

In darkness. Slain by two brothers. bleeding in his brother's wound. unarm'd. with vigour thrown. Between his arm and shoulder aims a blow. Sharp in his thigh he felt the piercing wound. 487 [297] In equal arms two sons of Nestor stand. effused with gushing gore. Pierced in the flank. Atymnius dies. the warrior lay. and in death. Thoas was thy chance. bold Patroclus flew: As Areilycus had turn'd him round. received the Spartan lance. . But Troy repulsed. yet the fight maintains. His arm falls spouting on the dust below: He sinks. his sons expire. Skill'd in the dart in vain. and transpierced his thigh. The brazen-pointed spear. and broke the brittle bone: Headlong he fell. Forced from the navy. Sarpedon's friends. who. Thy breast. Phylides' dart (as Amphidus drew nigh) His blow prevented. Next.BOOK XVI. by Furies led. his murderer to engage: But godlike Thrasimed prevents his rage. with endless darkness cover'd o'er: And vents his soul. Now every Greek some hostile hero slew. And two bold brothers of the Lycian band: By great Antilochus. Kind Maris. Amisodarus. And pay the forfeit of their guilty sire. abhorr'd Chimaera bred. But still the foremost. and scatter'd o'er the plains. lamented youth! he lies. The bane of men. thus two brothers bleed. Amisodarus' seed. The thigh transfix'd. and rent the nerves away. Tore all the brawn. Defends the breathless carcase on the ground. Furious he flies.

Crash'd the thin bones. Or kids. His open'd mouth received the Cretan steel: Beneath the brain the point a passage tore. The thirsty falchion drank his reeking blood: Plunged in his throat the smoking weapon lies. his nostrils. Beneath Oileus' arm. met in arms. Lycon the brave. Troy fled. and fierce Peneleus came. And rend the trembling. . the body sunk to dust. seal his eyes. unresisting prey: Thus on the foe the Greeks impetuous came. Amid the ranks. or lambs. In vain their javelins at each other flew. lie scatter'd o'er the plain. The sword broke short. A troop of wolves the unguarded charge survey. pour a flood. a living prize. divided by a stroke so just. his eyes. He sobs his soul out in the gush of blood. unmindful of her former fame. A living prize not long the Trojan stood. As when the flocks neglected by the swain. O'ertaken Neamas by Merion bleeds. and fate unpitying. Peneleus sped Full on the juncture of the neck and head: The head. Pierced through the shoulder as he mounts his steeds. Hung by the skin. Black death. with mutual thirst of fame.488 The Iliad of Homer Stopp'd in the tumult Cleobulus lies. their eager swords they drew. and drown'd the teeth in gore: His mouth. but his. Next Erymas was doom'd his fate to feel. On the plumed crest of his Boeotian foe The daring Lycon aim'd a noble blow. Now. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground: His swimming eyes eternal shades surround.

and saves his loved allies. Dark o'er the fields the ascending vapour flies. 489 But still at Hector godlike Ajax aim'd. Observed the storm of darts the Grecians pour. through heads of disarray The fiery coursers forced their lord away: While far behind his Trojans fall confused. Tumultuous clamour fills the fields and skies. and where the thickest die. Yet stops. and blots the golden skies: So from the ships. Dire Flight and Terror drove the Trojan train. experienced in the field. And shades the sun. and stretch to reach the town. and heaven is snatch'd from sight. his javelin flamed. pointed at his breast. Wedged in the trench. Fierce on the rear. And on his buckler caught the ringing shower: He sees for Greece the scale of conquest rise. Still. O'er his broad shoulders spread the massy shield. Clouds rise on clouds. Thick drifts of dust involve their rapid flight. In vain they labour up the steepy mound. in one vast carnage bruised: Chariots on chariots roll: the clashing spokes Shock. with shouts Patroclus flies. As when the hand of Jove a tempest forms. The affrighted steeds their dying lords cast down. Loud o'er the rout was heard the victor's cry. And rolls the cloud to blacken heaven with storms. and turns. Scour o'er the fields. along the dusky plain. . and chariots he o'erthrown. while the madding steeds break short their yokes. Their charioteers lie foaming on the ground. Where horse and arms. The Trojan chief. And bleeding heroes under axles groan. Where the war bleeds.BOOK XVI. Even Hector fled.

Which pierced below the shield his valiant heart. Hector flies. And trembling man sees all his labours vain! [299] And now the chief (the foremost troops repell'd) Back to the ships his destined progress held. High-bounding o'er the fosse. the whirling car Smokes through the ranks. but fate denies. Between the space where silver Simois flows. with wild and haggard eye. Patroclus shakes his lance. Than when in autumn Jove his fury pours. nor had force to fly. Where lay the fleets. o'ertakes the flying war. and mountains swept away. who saw the chief appear. no check. with less impetuous force. betray the righteous cause. . Thestor was next. and where the rampires rose. Whole fields are drown'd. And thunders after Hector. Loud roars the deluge till it meets the main. All grim in dust and blood Patroclus stands. And forced the routed ranks to stand the day. And turns the slaughter on the conquering bands. Nor stood to combat. First Pronous died beneath his fiery dart. Bore down half Troy in his resistless way. And fell the victim of his coward fear. bribed. The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course. Shrunk up he sat. Patroclus mark'd him as he shunn'd the war. the steeds of Peleus knew: From bank to bank the immortal coursers flew. (When guilty mortals break the eternal laws. Not with less noise.) From their deep beds he bids the rivers rise. And earth is loaden with incessant showers.490 The Iliad of Homer No stop. Or judges. And opens all the flood-gates of the skies: The impetuous torrents from their hills obey.

the contended plain. Then low in dust Epaltes. Him 'twixt the jaws. 491 Next on Eryalus he flies. studious of the line and cane. inglorious. The javelin sticks. and makes an army fly. As on a rock that overhangs the main. and life his heartless breast forsook. as the spear was shook. This hand unaided shall the war sustain: The task be mine this hero's strength to try." . And with unmanly tremblings shook the car. And last Tlepolemus and Pyres bleed. With this reproach his flying host he warms: "Oh stain to honour! oh disgrace to arms! Forsake. And burst the helm. and gasping on the field. Some mighty fish draws panting to the shore: Not with less ease the barbed javelin bore The gaping dastard. Who mows whole troops. lie. An angler. Ipheas. Where'er he moves. And dropp'd the flowing reins. and cleft the head in two: Prone to the ground the breathless warrior fell. Evippus. Large as a rock.BOOK XVI. die. And death involved him with the shades of hell. the growing slaughters spread In heaps on heaps a monument of dead. Polymelus. was by his fury thrown: Full on his crown the ponderous fragment flew. He fell. Echius. When now Sarpedon his brave friends beheld Grovelling in dust. Amphoterus and Erymas succeed. a stone. and from the chariot draws.

and the rocks reply: The warriors thus opposed in arms. whether having snatched him up from out of the lamentable battle. should be slain by Patroclus. if he pleased. and sternly waits the war. save him. the son of Menoetius! Indeed. in the alternative. speaking. or whether I should now destroy him by the hands of the son of Menoetius!' To which Juno answers—'Dost thou mean to rescue from death a mortal man. that although Sarpedon is said to be fated to die. His life is owed to fierce Patroclus' hands.245 My godlike son shall press the Phrygian plain: Already on the verge of death he stands. Zeus or Jupiter is popularly to be taken as omnipotent. They cuff.492 The Iliad of Homer [300] He spake: and. As when two vultures on the mountain's height Stoop with resounding pinions to the fight. and further. He thus bespoke his sister and his queen: "The hour draws on. The desert echoes. Jupiter might still. we discover one important truth unconsciously involved. Jove view'd the combat: whose event foreseen. my heart is divided within me while I ruminate it in my mind. of the Iliad. and with equal rage. and it is very necessary that the student of Greek literature should bear it constantly in mind. leaps from off the car: Patroclus lights. the destinies ordain. is the passage where Jupiter laments to Juno the approaching death of Sarpedon. What passions in a parent's breast debate! Say. do not sanction it.' Here it is clear from both speakers. that Jupiter himself would destroy him by the hands 245 . engage With equal clamours. shall I snatch him from impending fate. also. This seems to be the true character of the Homeric deity. they raise a screaming cry. —The destinies ordain. which was almost entirely lost from view amidst the nearly equal scepticism and credulity of subsequent ages. purely Pagan as it is. No distinct empire is assigned to fate or fortune. dearest to me of men. A strong instance in the Iliad itself to illustrate this position. the rest of the gods. the will of the father of gods and men is absolute and uncontrollable.—"In the mythology. long since destined by fate (palai pepromenon)? You may do it—but we. and place him entirely out of the reach of any such event. they tear. 'Alas me!' says he 'since it is fated (moira) that Sarpedon. I should not at once place him alive in the fertile land of his own Lycia.

Shall Jove for one extend the narrow span. with celestial blood. The breathless body to his native land. And murmuring powers condemn their partial Jove. overcome.BOOK XVI. foredoom'd to death. His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. p. And fatten." She said: the cloud-compeller. And when the ascending soul has wing'd her flight. And send him safe to Lycia."—Coleridge. to his future praise. debate would rise above. by thy command. O sovereign of the skies! Short is the date prescribed to mortal man. Whose bounds were fix'd before his race began? How many sons of gods. And lasting honours to his ashes give. the field?" 493 Then thus the goddess with the radiant eyes: "What words are these. distant far From all the dangers and the toils of war. Let Sleep and Death convey. 156. A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise. [301] . the weeping heavens distill'd A shower of blood o'er all the fatal field: of another. Then touch'd with grief. and ratifies the doom. Assents to fate. Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight. seq. Before proud Ilion must resign their breath! Were thine exempt. Or to his doom my bravest offspring yield. His friends and people.

obedient to the rein: The car rolls slowly o'er the dusty plain. Now met in arms. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. From strong Patroclus' hand the javelin fled. his eyes averting from the plain. Two sounding darts the Lycian leader threw: The first aloof with erring fury flew. Each axle crackled. till with a groaning sound . the combatants appear. Where the strong fibres bind the solid heart. and freed The encumbered chariot from the dying steed: The rest move on. Each heaved the shield. or poplar tall. The generous Pedasus of Theban breed: Fix'd in the shoulder's joint. Not so Patroclus' never-erring dart. Or pine (fit mast for some great admiral) Nods to the axe. The towering chiefs to fiercer fight advance: And first Sarpedon whirl'd his weighty lance. and falling bites the bloody plain. And spent in empty air its dying force. Far from the Lycian shores. and paw'd the slippery ground. His sudden fall the entangled harness broke. and poised the lifted spear. and the chariot shook: When bold Automedon. He falls. The nerves unbraced no more his bulk sustain. Divides the traces with his sword. predestined to be slain. to disengage The starting coursers. Roll'd in the bloody dust. Then as the mountain oak. The next transpierced Achilles' mortal steed. And pass'd the groin of valiant Thrasymed.494 The Iliad of Homer The god. his happy native reign. Aim'd at his breast it pierced a mortal part. he reel'd around. Laments his son. and restrain their rage.

Incite the living. And the soul issued in the purple flood. pale in death. to combat at their head. taught by great examples. Unguided now. conquer in my right: That. Then drew the weapon from his panting heart. rebellow through the wood." He ceased. His flying steeds the Myrmidons detain. And. [302] . From the wide wound gush'd out a stream of blood. So lies a bull beneath the lion's paws. "Glaucus. While the grim savage grinds with foamy jaws The trembling limbs. The reeking fibres clinging to the dart. Defend my body. the Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. Then to the leader of the Lycian band The dying chief address'd his last command. and sucks the smoking blood. or like me to die. and spreads its honours on the ground. and hollow roars. The insulting victor with disdain bestrode The prostrate prince. To lead my troops. and laid on earth supine. lay groaning on the shore. I charged them with my latest breath Not unrevenged to bear Sarpedon's death. their mighty master slain.BOOK XVI. and as a warrior fight. must Glaucus undergo. And his eyes darken'd with the shades of death. What grief. and supply the dead. If these spoil'd arms adorn a Grecian foe! Then as a friend. all may try Like thee to vanquish. Deep groans. Tell them. thy task be first to dare The glorious dangers of destructive war. Before his chariot stretch'd his form divine: He grasp'd the dust distain'd with streaming gore. be bold. 495 It sinks. what shame. and on his bosom trod. Thus fell the king.

and Hector he accosts. suppliant as he stood. and support the fight. yet useless with the smart Inflicted late by Teucer's deadly dart. O hear me! god of every healing art! Lo! stiff with clotted blood. Inflaming thus the rage of all their hosts. That thrills my arm. I stand unable to sustain the spear. Unhappy Glaucus heard the dying chief: His painful arm. canst restore my might. at distance from the glorious war. though distant.496 The Iliad of Homer All-impotent of aid. the hero stands. With ample strides he stalks from place to place. thy bright presence boast. and pierced with pain. Or sacred Ilion. . Supported on his better hand he stay'd: To Phoebus then ('twas all he could) he pray'd: "All-seeing monarch! whether Lycia's coast. And sigh. Low in the dust is great Sarpedon laid. now Polydamas: Æneas next. First to the fight his native troops he warms. His heavenly hand restrain'd the flux of blood. And owns the assistance of immortal hands. Nor Jove vouchsafed his hapless offspring aid. And breathed a spirit in his rising heart. To guard the relics of my slaughter'd friend: For thou. But thou. Renew'd by art divine. and shoots through every vein. O god of health! thy succour lend. He drew the dolours from the wounded part. and. Then loudly calls on Troy's vindictive arms. transfix'd with grief. To head my Lycians. Now fires Agenor." Apollo heard. Powerful alike to ease the wretch's smart.

and in council wise. and be more. be what you were before. at the loss. from their country far. And with superior vengeance greatly glows. regardless chief! thy breast employ? Oh too forgetful of the friends of Troy! Those generous friends. they rush on. through all her legions shook. first Hector seeks the foes. To all his Lycians lost. extended on the field. and lost to thee! Stretch'd by Patroclus' arm on yonder plains. who." 497 [303] . and their own. The chief who taught our lofty walls to yield. Haste. "What thoughts. But o'er the dead the fierce Patroclus stands. Breathe their brave souls out in another's war. And send the living Lycians to the dead. strip his arms. See! where in dust the great Sarpedon lies.BOOK XVI. the slaughter round him spread. O save from hostile rage his loved remains! Ah let not Greece his conquer'd trophies boast. Lies pale in death. Or weigh the great occasion. they view o'erthrown At once his country's pillar. Transfix'd with deep regret. In action valiant. and outshined them all. roused the listening bands: "Heroes. Who guarded right. Nor on his corse revenge her heroes lost!" He spoke: each leader in his grief partook: Troy. who led to Troy's beleaguer'd wall A host of heroes. Tis half the glory to maintain our prize. To guard his body Troy in numbers flies. A chief. And rousing Ajax. and kept his people free. Fired. be men.

The martial squadrons close on either hand: Here Troy and Lycia charge with loud alarms. With horrid shouts they circle round the slain. At Sthenelaus flew the weighty stone. Sprung on the Trojan and the Lycian band. Far as an able hand a lance can throw. all the rest inspired. oppose their arms. and great Epigeus falls. Which sunk him to the dead: when Troy. [304] . Great Jove. Soon as his luckless hand had touch'd the dead. and the silver-footed dame. what fury urged thy hand.498 The Iliad of Homer The heroes kindle at his fierce command. Achilles' arms to aid. and stretch'd him o'er the slain. Or at the lists. His fate ennobling with a crowd of ghosts. or at the fighting foe. and Hector learn'd to fear. And. O generous Greek! when with full vigour thrown. The clash of armour rings o'er all the plain. too near That arm. turning. A rock's large fragment thunder'd on his head. to swell the horrors of the fight. Fierce to the van of fight Patroclus came. Agacleus' son. O'er the fierce armies pours pernicious night. So far the Trojans from their lines retired. He pays due vengeance to his kinsman's shade. And round his son confounds the warring hosts. and Greece. What grief thy heart. Who chased for murder thence a suppliant came To Peleus. Hurl'd by Hectorean force it cleft in twain His shatter'd helm. Till Glaucus. Thessalia there. Now sent to Troy. like an eagle darting at his game. Now Greece gives way. drew back. from Budium's lofty walls.

And trembling struck. issued at the vent. He fell. With stately seats. Pierced through the bosom with a sudden wound. My spear. His spear Aeneas at the victor threw. The lance hiss'd harmless o'er his covering shield. the destined passage had it found. An iron circle round the carcase grows. The only hope of Chalcon's trembling age. Sent by the great Aeneas' arm in vain. The priest of Jove. and riches blest in vain: Him. 499 Then brave Laogonus resign'd his breath. Glaucus met and slew. and honour'd like his god." . Despatch'd by Merion to the shades of death: On Ida's holy hill he made abode. The Achaians sorrow for their heroes slain. And crowd to spoil the dead: the Greeks oppose. exhaling. and falling made the fields resound. Between the jaw and ear the javelin went. and rooted in the field. "Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries) And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize. Then Bathyclaeus fell beneath his rage. There yet scarce spent.BOOK XVI. Who stooping forward from the death withdrew. Wide o'er the land was stretch'd his large domain. bold with youth. The soul. Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground. With conquering shouts the Trojans shake the plain. it quivers on the plain. and eager to pursue The flying Lycians.

or mountain ground." This said. . The labours of the woodman's axe resound. but to dare In glorious action. As through the shrilling vale. Mine is the glory. his thy parting ghost. So fell the warriors. is the task of war. and so rung their arms. and new shouts arise: Shields. Vain are thy vaunts. instant. Your swords must plunge them to the shades of hell. as the warriors close. While crackling forests fall on every side: Thus echoed all the fields with loud alarms. 'tis mortal force you trust. beseems the council.500 The Iliad of Homer "O valiant leader of the Dardan host! (Insulted Merion thus retorts the boast) Strong as you are. success is still from heaven: This. ill befits the brave. And if to this my lance thy fate be given. sends thee down to Pluto's coast." [305] "O friend (Menoetius' son this answer gave) With words to combat. Blows following blows are heard re-echoing wide. An arm as strong may stretch thee in the dust. And thick and heavy sounds the storm of blows. helmets rattle. Not empty boasts the sons of Troy repel. Patroclus to the battle flies. To speak. Great Merion follows.

and meditates the fates: Whether to urge their prompt effect. and pants with awe divine. and call The force of Hector to Patroclus' fall. 501 Jove view'd the combat with a stern survey. a persevering train. with many a soul's untimely flight. Sunk with Troy's heavy fates. Nor unattended see the shades below. He mounts his car. To crown Achilles' valiant friend with praise At length he dooms. he sees decline The scales of Jove. and. And stretch him breathless on his slaughter'd son. His heavenly form defaced with dust and gore. that his last of days Shall set in glory. Or yet.BOOK XVI. This instant see his short-lived trophies won. His long-disputed corse the chiefs enclose. And eyes that flash'd intolerable day. Now great Sarpedon on the sandy shore. On every side the busy combat grows. his breast debates The vengeance due. bids him drive the foe. . Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode (The pails high foaming with a milky flood) The buzzing flies. Fix'd on the field his sight. Lies undistinguish'd from the vulgar dead. and chased return again. Then Hector's mind he fills with dire dismay. And stuck with darts by warring heroes shed. and calls his hosts away. Incessant swarm. Augment the fame and horror of the fight.

Then thus to Phoebus. And left their monarch with the common dead: Around. and deform'd with blood. The radiant arms are by Patroclus borne. and despoil the slain.502 The Iliad of Homer Then. . in the realms above. Those unavailing honours we may give!" [306] Apollo bows. to silver Simois' shore. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove: "Descend. With dust dishonour'd. His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear: What honour mortals after death receive. Then Sleep and Death. And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain. a dreadful wall Of carnage rises. Those rites discharged. There bathed his honourable wounds. Patroclus' ships the glorious spoils adorn. Swift to the field precipitates his flight. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore. And with celestial robes adorn the dead. as the heroes fall. nor before. the hardy Lycians fled. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews Restores his freshness. and from mount Ida's height. Veil'd in a cloud. in heaps on heaps. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood. and his form renews. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear. his sacred corse bequeath To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death. two twins of winged race. O'er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed. my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain. and dress'd His manly members in the immortal vest. (So Jove decreed!) At length the Greeks obtain The prize contested.

[307] . The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid. and confound the bold. thy courage vain. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain. the god. Of matchless swiftness. The god who gives. and orders all. but of silent pace. Received Sarpedon. Vain was thy friend's command. resumes. For he. 503 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. He urged thee on. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade. and urged thee on to fall. Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains. With foaming coursers. at the god's command.BOOK XVI. whose counsels uncontroll'd Dismay the mighty. Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew. And in a moment reach'd the Lycian land. and with loosen'd reins.

thy greater far.246 His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook. Autonous then succeeds." —Thrice at the battlements. 212. dispersing. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. The Trojans are in no respects blockaded. were never upon a large scale. There is no mention of a ditch or any other line or work round the town. 246 . But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook. and receive assistance from their allies to the very end. Epistor. and the wall itself was accessible without a ladder. the night attack and the ambuscade. when. The siege of Troy was as little like a modern siege as a captain in the guards is like Achilles. trust their fates to flight. brave hero! by that arm was slain. although much esteemed. Thy friend. not fated yet to fall. Who last beneath thy vengeance press'd the plain. The slaughter. And call'd to fill the number of the dead? Adrestus first. He tried the fourth. Melanippus. personal prowess decided every thing. p.504 The Iliad of Homer Who first. bite the ground. Now Troy had stoop'd beneath his matchless power. "Patroclus! cease. The rest. Echeclus follows. bursting from the cloud. The chiefs fight in advance. next young Megas bleeds. this heaven-defended wall Defies thy lance. Patroclus thrice mounts it in armour. "The art military of the Homeric age is upon a level with the state of navigation just described. and enact almost as much as the knights of romance. It was probably a vast mound of earth with a declivity outwards."—Coleridge. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles' hand. it shall withstand. Elasus and Mulius crown'd: Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led.

Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy. While Hector. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. one undistinguish'd wound: The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground. The lash resounds. In Asius' shape. Or in the field his forces to employ. The Greek obeys him. The god the Grecians' sinking souls depress'd. eyes. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires. bold. haughty.) Thus he accosts him. and rough and gross below: The falling ruin crush'd Cebrion's head. A valiant warrior. His front. 505 [308] . A spear his left. Thus while he thought. Hecuba! from Dymas sprung. while yet he held the rein. "What a shameful sight! God! is it Hector that forbears the fight? Were thine my vigour this successful spear Should soon convince thee of so false a fear. And pour'd swift spirits through each Trojan breast. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight. impatient for the fight. the coursers rush to war. and with awe retires. Turn thee." So spoke the inspiring god. Patroclus lights. a stone employs his right: With all his nerves he drives it at the foe. beside him Phoebus stood. who reigned by Sangar's flood. in his breast debates.BOOK XVI. then took his flight. Pointed above. The charioteer. and young. And in Patroclus' blood efface thy shame. checking at the Scaean gates His panting coursers. brows. ah turn thee to the field of fame. The lawless offspring of king Priam's bed. He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car. (Thy brother. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed.

"Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows! What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes! Mark with what ease they sink into the sand! Pity that all their practice is by land!" Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize. That sweeps the field. And the whole forest in one crash descends. with equal rage. While the proud victor thus his fall derides. To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies: Swift as a lion. Darts shower'd on darts. Pierced through the dauntless heart. with less tumultuous rage. Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides. now round the carcase ring. Not with less noise. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior's head. aloft in air are blown. [309] . Defends the body. and provokes the war. The broad oaks crackle. So pent by hills. the rattling thicket bends. and the Sylvans groan. and fright. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage. Leaves. At once bold Hector leaping from his car. rage. Thus for some slaughter'd hind. then tumbles slain. Stung with fierce hunger. terrible and bold. depopulates the fold. falls headlong on the plain. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead: While all around. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades. and trees. confusion. And from his fatal courage finds his bane. the wild winds roar aloud In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood. This way and that.506 The Iliad of Homer Struck from the car. each the prey invades. arms.

Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind. They draw the conquer'd corse and radiant arms. untouch'd. The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel. That plume which never stoop'd to earth before. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows. Death calls. in fighting fields to shine. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train. forgets the guiding reins! Now flaming from the zenith. stretch'd in death. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string: Stones follow stones. far to distance flung. shake the sounding shields. But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains. and numbers sank to hell. And. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew. And breathing slaughter. While on each host with equal tempests fell The showering darts. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine The last. and heaven allows no longer day! For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined. Achilles' plume is stain'd with dust and gore.BOOK XVI. his stunn'd senses reel In giddy darkness. Some hard. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains. black remnant of so bright a line: Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way. And shade the temples of the mad divine. pours amid the foes. and heavy. some clatter on the fields. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms. His eyes flash sparkles. But when his evening wheels o'erhung the main. 507 . Long used. Sol had driven His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven. His bounding helmet on the champaign rung.

and his arms resound. and all-assistless stands: Such is the force of more than mortal hands! A Dardan youth there was. From Panthus sprung. and matchless in the course: Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car. Thus. [310] . that moment all Her yet-surviving heroes seem'd to fall. Fast by the spring. Not long—for fate pursues him. So. Euphorbus was his name. Skill'd in the dart. as the bleeding chief he views. Retires for succour to his social train. Patroclus' fury stood: But swift withdrew the long-protended wood. He struck. they both dispute the flood. well known to fame. and his retreat pursues: The lance arrests him with a mortal wound. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse. While yet he learn'd his rudiments of war. at once. His spear in shivers falls. Nor. and mortal spear. in vain. Breaks through the ranks. Stupid he stares. And turn'd him short. And flies the fate. earth thunders. each nerve with horror shakes. He falls. his ample shield Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field: The corslet his astonish'd breast forsakes: Loose is each joint. along the desert score. which heaven decreed. Patroclus yields to fear. His venturous spear first drew the hero's gore. but he durst no more. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar. by an arm divine. Stern Hector. Wounded. scorch'd with heat. though disarm'd. With him all Greece was sunk.508 The Iliad of Homer Jove dooms it now on Hector's helm to nod. he wounded. and herded in the crowd. and the god.

Patroclus thus. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid. With flaming eyes. and jaws besmear'd with blood. 'Return not. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee: But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made. Without the bloody arms of Hector dead. the chief replies: . And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames. expires his own. and thus he sped. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames. As dying now at Hector's feet he lies. of subverting Troy. and triumphant cries: 509 "Lie there. and wildly gazing on the skies. Patroclus march'd. So many lives effused. so many chiefs o'erthrown.' He spoke. expiring breath. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free. And much enjoin thee. At length the sovereign savage wins the strife. Though much at parting that great chief might say. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life. He sternly views him. the joy Thy pride once promised.BOOK XVI. this important day." Supine. my brave friend (perhaps he said). Patroclus! and with thee. With faint.

not thine. . the stern decree Of death denounced. To heaven is owed whate'er your own you call. imperious! hear my latest breath. melancholy ghost! Then Hector pausing. and charges the bold charioteer. Euphorbus next. Even now on life's last verge I see thee stand. And heaven itself disarm'd me ere my fall. thou shalt be soon as I. as his eyes he fed On the pale carcase. I see thee fall. then pressing as he lay His breathless bosom. (The beauteous body left a load of clay) Flits to the lone. the third mean part thy own. or why denounced to me? Why not as well Achilles' fate be given To Hector's lance? Who knows the will of heaven?" Pensive he said. and know the powers divine! Jove's and Apollo's is this deed." He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear He shakes. they had sunk in fight: By fate and Phoebus was I first o'erthrown. thus address'd the dead: "From whence this boding speech. Opposed me fairly. uncomfortable coast. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove.510 The Iliad of Homer [311] "Vain boaster! cease. and it sounds thy death: Insulting man. The gods inspire it. wandering. But swift Automedon with loosen'd reins Rapt in the chariot o'er the distant plains. tore the lance away. Black fate o'erhangs thee. each thy match in might. and by Achilles' hand. Had twenty mortals. A naked. and thy hour draws nigh. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove. But thou.

BOOK XVI. 511 .

512 The Iliad of Homer ÆSCULAPIUS. .

The horses of Achilles deplore the loss of Patroclus: Jupiter covers his body with a thick darkness: the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. Menelaus sends Antilochus to Achilles. This. Fruit of her throes. he and Meriones. who thereupon puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus. The Greeks give way. and drives him off. Springs to the front. bear off the body to the ships. Lies pierced with wounds among the vulgar dead. Thus round her new-fallen young the heifer moves. Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight. Great Menelaus. THE SEVENTH BATTLE. upon the death of Patroclus. and guards him from the foe. The scene lies in the fields before Troy. And anxious (helpless as he lies. On the cold earth divine Patroclus spread. touch'd with generous woe. defends his body from the enemy: Euphorbus. Aeneas and Hector Attempt the chariot of Achilles.—THE ACTS OF MENELAUS. The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. and first-born of her loves. Hector advancing. and bare) . which is borne off by Automedon. and renews the battle. is slain. though attacked with the utmost fury. Menelaus retires.[312] BOOK XVII. who attempts it. Menelaus. assisted by the Ajaces. till Ajax rallies them: Aeneas sustains the Trojans. with the news of Patroclus' death: then returns to the fight. ARGUMENT. where. but soon returns with Ajax.

Yet 'twas but late. Against our arm which rashly he defied." . resign: Depart with life. Warrior! desist. Eyes the dead hero. Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight. These eyes beheld him on the dust expire. Vain was his vigour. Hyperenor. Presumptuous youth! like his shall be thy doom. No more to cheer his spouse.) Man only vaunts his force. Go. and are wise too late. But far the vainest of the boastful kind. Jove! from thy superior throne. "This hand. The son of Panthus. skill'd the dart to send. Fools stay to feel it. and vaunts in vain. wait thy brother to the Stygian gloom. Nor thus the boar (those terrors of the plain. nor tempt an equal blow: To me the spoils my prowess won. while thou may'st.514 The Iliad of Homer Turns. beneath my conquering steel This boaster's brother. and his lances flame. These sons of Panthus vent their haughty mind. or glad his sire. and in scorn return'd: "Laugh'st thou not. Opposed to each that near the carcase came. and leave the glory mine" [313] The Trojan thus: the Spartan monarch burn'd With generous anguish. with a mother's care. Atrides. fell. avoid the threaten'd fate. His broad shield glimmers. and as vain his pride. Or. and re-turns her. and insults the friend. When mortals boast of prowess not their own? Not thus the lion glories in his might. laid Patroclus low.

Euphorbus lay. The well-aim'd weapon on the buckler rings." Swift as the word the missile lance he flings. bestrow the shore. And spouse. Wide through the neck appears the grisly wound. As the young olive. and life. and bent him to the plain. Come. Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green. It lies uprooted from its genial bed. With dust dishonour'd. The shining circlets of his golden hair. Euphorbus thus: "That action known. and deform'd with gore. for my brother's blood repay thy own. in some sylvan scene. But blunted by the brass. When lo! a whirlwind from high heaven invades The tender plant. and glorious in the prize. Instarr'd with gems and gold. innoxious falls. Prone sinks the warrior. Which even the Graces might be proud to wear.BOOK XVII. and withers all its shades. Affrighted Troy the towering victor flies: 515 [314] . thus beautiful. It pierced his throat. in snowy flowerets fair. A lovely ruin now defaced and dead: Thus young. Proud of his deed. a widow in her bridal bed. To soothe a consort's and a parent's woe. While the fierce Spartan tore his arms away. On Jove the father great Atrides calls. Let heaven decide our fortune. On these thy conquer'd spoils I shall bestow. And plays and dances to the gentle air. and his arms resound. His weeping father claims thy destined head. Unmoved. Nor flies the javelin from his arm in vain. No longer then defer the glorious strife. fame. Lifts the gay head.

When o'er the slaughter'd bull they hear him roar. and the vales resound. these. instant. of ethereal race. at distance scatter'd round. as prone he lay) And in the victor's hands the shining prey. through cleaving ranks he flies. They shout incessant. They stoop not. and behold the brave Euphorbus slain. to mortal man's command. Too long amused with a pursuit so vain. Apollo wing'd his flight. and. By Sparta slain! for ever now suppress'd The fire which burn'd in that undaunted breast!" Thus having spoke. as before some mountain lion's ire The village curs and trembling swains retire. And urged great Hector to dispute the prize. near the Hebrus. Meanwhile Apollo view'd with envious eyes. And mix'd with mortals in the toils of fight: His words infix'd unutterable care Deep in great Hector's soul: through all the war He darts his anxious eye.516 The Iliad of Homer Flies. (In Mentes' shape. And see his jaws distil with smoking gore: All pale with fear. (Forth welling from the wound. Sheath'd in bright arms. Turn. beneath whose martial care The rough Ciconians learn'd the trade of war. . and fired the nations as it went. Atrides from the voice the storm divined. And sends his voice in thunder to the skies: Fierce as a flood of flame by Vulcan sent. view'd The breathless hero in his blood imbued. 247 —Ciconians.—A people of Thrace. It flew.)247 "Forbear (he cried) with fruitless speed to chase Achilles' coursers. Or stoop to none but great Achilles' hand.

There breathing courage. Now enter'd in the Spartan ranks. Yet. Slain in my cause. nor heaven. but to heaven I yield. He flies indeed. Slow he recedes. still battle on the plains. All grim in arms. if once I quit the field. the relics. nor the god. Did but the voice of Ajax reach my ear: Still would we turn. Hector and his troops attend? Sure where such partial favour heaven bestow'd. 'Tis not to Hector. Greece. and sighing quits the dead. O'er all the black battalions sent his view. and for my honour slain! Desert the arms. and with new fury burn'd. Where labouring on the left the warrior stood. where the god of day Had sunk each heart with terror and dismay. And thus explored his own unconquer'd mind: 517 "Then shall I quit Patroclus on the plain. should give me fear. but threatens as he flies. So from the fold the unwilling lion parts. With heart indignant and retorted eyes.BOOK XVII. he turn'd His manly breast. To brave the hero were to brave the god: Forgive me. and a storm of darts. of my friend? Or singly. and cover'd o'er with blood. And through the cloud the godlike Ajax knew. Forced by loud clamours. [315] . no more The time allow'd: Troy thicken'd on the shore. And give Achilles all that yet remains Of his and our Patroclus—" This. A sable scene! The terrors Hector led.

Meanwhile great Ajax (his broad shield display'd) Guards the dead hero with the dreadful shade. To stand a trophy of his fame in war. and feeds his inward woes. The raging pair Pierced the thick battle. and Patroclus' loved remains defend: The body to Achilles to restore Demands our care. And now before." He said. and provoke the war. and measured back the field. oh my friend! Haste. Elate her heart. and rousing all her powers. Sprung to his car. thus his flight upbraids: . With many a step. despoiled of arms. Dark o'er the fiery balls each hanging eyebrow lours. But Glaucus. And Hector glories in the dazzling prize. the lioness surrounds Her tawny young. beset by men and hounds. we can no more! For naked now.518 The Iliad of Homer To him the king: "Oh Ajax. and now behind he stood: Thus in the centre of some gloomy wood. His train to Troy the radiant armour bear. On Hector frowning. But soon as Ajax rear'd his tower-like shield. And doom'd to Trojan gods the unhappy dead. he lies. leader of the Lycian aids. alas. and touch'd his heart. Already had stern Hector seized his head. Fast by his side the generous Spartan glows With great revenge.

While unreveng'd the great Sarpedon falls? Even where he died for Troy. empty boast! but shall the Lycians stake Their lives for you? those Lycians you forsake? What from thy thankless arms can we expect? Thy friend Sarpedon proves thy base neglect. we might obtain Sarpedon's arms and honour'd corse again! Greece with Achilles' friend should be repaid. And thus due honours purchased to his shade. On my command if any Lycian wait. and give up Troy to fate. without the merit. Oh! were Patroclus ours. And drag yon carcase to the walls of Troy. without a manly mind. and all the fowls of air. nor ask a foreign hand: Mean. thy thoughts employ What other methods may preserve thy Troy: 'Tis time to try if Ilion's state can stand By thee alone. Say. Is this. (Such as should burn in every soul that draws The sword for glory. A feast for dogs. But words are vain—Let Ajax once appear. And Hector trembles and recedes with fear. Did such a spirit as the gods impart Impel one Trojan hand or Trojan heart.BOOK XVII. O chief! a hero's boasted fame? How vain. "Where now in Hector shall we Hector find? A manly form. Thou dar'st not meet the terrors of his eye. And lo! already thou prepar'st to fly. and his country's cause) Even yet our mutual arms we might employ. you left him there." 519 [316] . shall our slaughter'd bodies guard your walls. is the name! Since battle is renounced. Hence let him march.

my friend. through yon squadrons let us hew the way. If yet a Greek the sight of Hector dread. in action as in name. I shun great Ajax? I desert my train? 'Tis mine to prove the rash assertion vain. And yet be mindful of your ancient fame. he cries: "Ye Trojans.520 The Iliad of Homer The Trojan chief with fix'd resentment eyed The Lycian leader. I joy to mingle where the battle bleeds. Hector in proud Achilles' arms shall shine. Dardans. Or yet their hero dare defend the dead. But Jove's high will is ever uncontroll'd. and confounds the bold. if I fear to-day. Torn from his friend. and sedate replied: "Say. is it just. But ill this insult suits a prudent mind. and now Strikes the fresh garland from the victor's brow! Come. Lycians. And thou be witness." Then turning to the martial hosts. by right of conquest mine. Now crowns with fame the mighty man. my friends. that Hector's ear From such a warrior such a speech should hear? I deem'd thee once the wisest of thy kind. and allies! Be men. And hear the thunder of the sounding steeds." . The strong he withers.

He shook the sacred honours of his head. wretched man! unmindful of thy end! A moment's glory. proud in triumph. He strode along the field. 521 . and armies tremble at thy sight. No more officious. Him. Olympus trembled. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. By aged Peleus to Achilles given. As first to Peleus by the court of heaven: His father's arms not long Achilles wears. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn. one instant overtook The distant band. and what fates attend! In heavenly panoply divinely bright Thou stand'st. As at Achilles' self! beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part. Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. Now blazing in the immortal arms he stands. The work and present of celestial hands. with endearing charms. as thus he said: (The sable plumage nodded o'er his head:) Swift through the spacious plain he sent a look. that on the sandy shore The radiant spoils to sacred Ilion bore. "Ah. Forbid by fate to reach his father's years. For ah! no more Andromache shall come With joyful tears to welcome Hector home. conscious.BOOK XVII. look'd through all the scene of fate. Yet live! I give thee one illustrious day. One instant saw. His train to Troy convey'd the massy load. and the godhead said. as apart he sat. There his own mail unbraced the field bestrow'd. And. glittering from afar. The god whose thunder rends the troubled air Beheld with pity.

Whatever hand shall win Patroclus slain. enlarged his members grew. Tor this. or a god. and hear. And Mars himself came rushing on his soul. a valiant foe to chase. And Ennomus." [318] . Exhorting loud through all the field he strode. he inspires. To boast our numbers. or of distant lands! 'Twas not for state we summon'd you so far. And look'd. Now then.522 The Iliad of Homer From thy tired limbs unbrace Pelides' arms!" Then with his sable brow he gave the nod That seals his word. to conquer or to die prepare. and share the fame. our wealth. all ye hosts. Medon. Asteropaeus kindled at the sound. and moved. Achilles. And glean the relics of exhausted Troy. To save our present. The great Thersilochus like fury found. The blood in brisker tides began to roll. Through all his veins a sudden vigour flew. To die or conquer are the terms of war. "Hear. Whoe'er shall drag him to the Trojan train. The stubborn arms (by Jove's command disposed) Conform'd spontaneous. and around him closed: Fill'd with the god. Chromius. in augury renown'd. Glaucus. and our future race. With Hector part the spoil. With Hector's self shall equal honours claim. you enjoy. Now Phorcys. unnumber'd bands Of neighbouring nations. and the pomp of war: Ye came to fight. Now Mesthles. and Hippothous fires. our products. the sanction of the god.

And each from Ajax hopes the glorious prey: Vain hope! what numbers shall the field o'erspread. on me. And all our wars and glories at an end! 'Tis not this corse alone we guard in vain. if any hear the call. "O chiefs! O princes. the troops dismiss their fears." The warrior raised his voice. See what a tempest direful Hector spreads. What victims perish round the mighty dead! 523 Great Ajax mark'd the growing storm from far. they thicken. perhaps. The bravest Greeks: this hour demands them all. Come all! let generous rage your arms employ. Condemn'd to vultures on the Trojan plain. my friend. Fired by his words. alas! is come." . they protend their spears. Full on the Greeks they drive in firm array. on all. All. And save Patroclus from the dogs of Troy. whom this well-known voice shall reach from far.BOOK XVII. my friend. They join. it thunders on our heads! Call on our Greeks. to whose hand is given The rule of men. We too must yield: the same sad fate must fall On thee. And lo! it bursts. and wide around The field re-echoed the distressful sound. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Our fatal day. whose glory is from heaven! Whom with due honours both Atrides grace: Ye guides and guardians of our Argive race! All. whom I see not through this cloud of war.

Nor dooms his carcase to the birds of air. Whole Troy embodied rush'd with shouts along. the Trojans seize the slain. The long-succeeding numbers who can name? But all were Greeks. Where some swoln river disembogues his waves. more slow with age. So through the thicket bursts the mountain boar. the firm Achaian band With brazen shields in horrid circle stand. [319] The first attack the Grecians scarce sustain. Fierce to the charge great Hector led the throng. . And distant rocks re-bellow to the roar. the chief for whom the hosts contend Had lived not hateful.524 The Iliad of Homer Oilean Ajax first the voice obey'd. for he lived a friend: Dead he protects him with superior care. Thus. And rudely scatters. And Merion. they yield. when a mountain billow foams and raves. for a distance round. Then fierce they rally. to revenge led on By the swift rage of Ajax Telamon. Nor less resolved. (Ajax to Peleus' son the second name. The boiling ocean works from side to side. burning with a hero's rage. pouring darkness o'er the mingled fight. Jove. Conceals the warriors' shining helms in night: To him. Full in the mouth is stopp'd the rushing tide. and ready was his aid: Next him Idomeneus. In graceful stature next. Swift was his pace. The river trembles to his utmost shore. and next in fame) With headlong force the foremost ranks he tore. Repulsed. and eager all for fame.

Now lies a sad companion of the dead: Far from Larissa lies. his native air. and o'er him spread. And ill requites his parents' tender care. Once more at Ajax Hector's javelin flies. Stretch'd in the dust the great Iphytus' son. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. the feet he bound With thongs inserted through the double wound: Inevitable fate o'ertakes the deed. Doom'd by great Ajax' vengeful lance to bleed: It cleft the helmet's brazen cheeks in twain. which hissing on. The frighted hunter and the baying hound. as it cut the skies. 525 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. The sinewy ankles bored. dragg'd the carcase through the war. Shunn'd the descending death. brave Pelasgus' heir. The shatter'd crest and horse-hair strow the plain: With nerves relax'd he tumbles to the ground: The brain comes gushing through the ghastly wound: He drops Patroclus' foot. The Grecian marking. Lamented youth! in life's first bloom he fell. [320] . The son of Lethus.BOOK XVII. Hippothous.

526 The Iliad of Homer Schedius the brave. Fled to her ramparts. And deep transpiercing through the shoulder stood. the weapon drank his blood. as slain Hippothous he defends. He held his seat. had turn'd the scale of fate: But Phoebus urged Æneas to the fight. Phorcys. And now had Troy. The hollow armour burst before the stroke. And through the wound the rushing entrails broke: In strong convulsions panting on the sands He lies. and ruled the realms around. Revered for prudence. With Jove averse. of all the Phocian kind The boldest warrior and the noblest mind: In little Panope. Greece. recede the Trojan train: The shouting Argives strip the heroes slain. and with prudence bold. for strength renown'd. by Greece compell'd to yield. Struck at the sight. In clanging arms the hero fell and all The fields resounded with his weighty fall. The Telamonian lance his belly rends. and grasps the dust with dying hands. He seem'd like aged Periphas to sight: (A herald in Anchises' love grown old. Plunged in his throat. in her native fortitude elate. and resign'd the field.) .

when fortune smiles. the Grecians stood. but he rush'd in vain: Indissolubly firm. and an iron wood.BOOK XVII. And gain'd at length the glorious odds of fate: But you. 527 [321] . my bosom warms. The whirling lance. Your shameful efforts 'gainst yourselves employ. We seek our ramparts. To save your Troy. nor is he less. Asteropeus! in place and fame. around the dead. A brazen bulwark. Rank within rank. when Jove declares His partial favour. From rich Paeonia's vales the warrior came. and. by virtuous care. Then. and foremost to the combat flew: The bold example all his hosts pursue. who. and thus to Hector cries: "Oh lasting shame! to our own fears a prey. grieving at the chance. A god. And hemm'd with bristled spears. though heaven its fall ordain? There have been heroes. with vigorous force address'd. and pants in Apisaon's breast. O chief! remain. And rush'd to combat. and assists your wars. Next thee. Leocritus beneath him bled. Jove asserts the Trojan arms. Descends." Æneas through the form assumed descries The power conceal'd. And force the unwilling god to ruin Troy. Asteropeus with grief beheld the slain. In vain beloved by valiant Lycomede. Who view'd his fall. and desert the day. numbers. And tells me. and by arts of war. By valour. Thus he—"What methods yet. Have forced the powers to spare a sinking state. Swift to revenge it sent his angry lance. on buckler buckler spread. first." He spoke.

Meanwhile the sons of Nestor. by fits they fight. Greece. the aerial azure spread. and open light. Nor knew the fortune of Achilles' friend. in close order. wound A sanguine torrent steeps the reeking ground: On heaps the Greeks. And in an orb contracts the crowded war. Yet suffers least. and wounded. Dispersed around the plain. And. thickening round them. And skirmish wide: so Nestor gave command. There burn'd the war. and all the ethereal host Seem'd as extinct: day ravish'd from their eyes. And all heaven's splendours blotted from the skies. and sways the wavering fight. Unclouded there. and there the mighty bled. The golden sun pour'd forth a stronger ray. (Their fellows routed. now it sinks by turns. and collected might. The sun. In one thick darkness all the fight was lost. No vapour rested on the mountain's head. on heaps the Trojans bled. the moon. Such o'er Patroclus' body hung the night. . rise the hills of dead. The rest in sunshine fought. And all the broad expansion flamed with day. The youthful brothers thus for fame contend. When from the ships he sent the Pylian band.528 The Iliad of Homer Great Ajax eyes them with incessant care. in the rear. And now it rises. And here and there their scatter'd arrows light: But death and darkness o'er the carcase spread. Fierce as conflicting fires the combat burns. Close in their ranks commands to fight or fall. And stands the centre and the soul of all: Fix'd on the spot they war.) toss the distant spear.

conceal'd. and darkness fills their eyes. to make proud Ilion bend Was more than heaven had destined to his friend. While Greeks and Ilians equal strength employ. are covered o'er. Strain'd with full force. Not Pallas' self. and tugg'd from side to side. and dealing death to Troy. In dust extended under Ilion's wall. Nor knew the fatal fortune of the day. and labour o'er The extended surface. [322] . In thought they view'd him still. And for his wish'd return prepares in vain.BOOK XVII. 529 But round the corse the heroes pant for breath. He. her breast when fury warms. with martial joy. in pity to her son. Such. Though well he knew. their feet. with dust. drunk with fat and gore: So tugging round the corse both armies stood. Nor he whose anger sets the world in arms. Jove to honour the great dead ordain'd. their legs. Perhaps to him: this Thetis had reveal'd. Could blame this scene. and gore. Drops follow drops. The rest. such rage. yet unconscious of Patroclus' fall. As when a slaughter'd bull's yet reeking hide. Glorious in arms. Achilles in his ships at distance lay. such horror reign'd. Their knees. and sweat. Now to the ships to force it. now to Troy. the clouds on clouds arise. And thick and heavy grows the work of death: O'erlabour'd now. Expects him glorious from the conquered plain. The brawny curriers stretch. And carnage clogs their hands. The mangled body bathed in sweat and blood.

Meantime. 3. "To close the pomp. bk. Jove! or heap us on the dead!" Then clash their sounding arms. id. They wept. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood: Their godlike master slain before their eyes. Is led. and shared in human miseries. He stands. And shake the brazen concave of the skies. v. the funeral of his lord to wait. Æthon. ere haughty Troy shall boast We lost Patroclus. at distance from the scene of blood. And heaps on heaps by mutual wounds they bled. And. the clangours rise. Weeps his associates and his master slain. Straggling and comfortless about they rove. Stripp'd of his trappings. Unmindful of their pasture and their love. with a sullen pace He walks. "Nothing is heard upon the mountains now." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. and careless of his golden grain. "Cursed be the man (even private Greeks would say) Who dares desert this well-disputed day! First may the cleaving earth before our eyes Gape wide. ii ." Moschus. and drink our blood for sacrifice. and the big tears run rolling down his face. "Fast by the manger stands the inactive steed. First perish all." Dryden's Virgil.530 The Iliad of Homer Still raged the conflict round the hero dead. and our glory lost!" Thus they: while with one voice the Trojans said. ibid. hangs his languid head. "Grant this day. But pensive herds that for their master low. 18-24. the steed of state. sunk in sorrow. parodied.248 248 [323] —They wept.

For yet 'tis given to Troy to ravage o'er 531 . and blind? A miserable race! but cease to mourn: For not by you shall Priam's son be borne High on the splendid car: one glorious prize He rashly boasts: the rest our will denies. On some good man or woman unreproved Lays its eternal weight. Automedon your rapid flight shall bear Safe to the navy through the storm of war. What wretched creature of what wretched kind. Along their face The big round drops coursed down with silent pace. Trail'd on the dust beneath the yoke were spread. never to be moved. and obstinate in woe: Still as a tombstone. Did we your race on mortal man bestow. Now plies the lash. Restive they stood. Ourself with rising spirits swell your heart. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go. That breathes or creeps upon the dust of earth. And prone to earth was hung their languid head: Nor Jove disdain'd to cast a pitying look. Than man more weak. and waved in state. Their manes. calamitous. alas! to share in mortal woe? For ah! what is there of inferior birth.BOOK XVII. Placed on the hero's grave. Conglobing on the dust. as stands A marble courser by the sculptor's hands. and soothes and threats in vain. Only. and deathless. now in vain. While thus relenting to the steeds he spoke: "Unhappy coursers of immortal strain. Exempt from age. that late Circled their arched necks. Ourself will swiftness to your nerves impart. or fix'd. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein.

And now to conquest with like speed pursue. unaided. Approach'd the chariot. now directs the reins: Him brave Alcimedon beheld distress'd. and Hector wields Achilles' arms triumphant in the fields.532 The Iliad of Homer The field. while he lived. and spread her slaughters to the shore." He said. But now Patroclus is an empty name! To thee I yield the seat. and scatter round the plain. No Greek like him the heavenly steeds restrains. And call'd Æneas fighting near his side." "In happy time (the charioteer replies) The bold Alcimedon now greets my eyes. Alone. From their high manes they shake the dust. their rage could tame. [324] . till his fall With sacred darkness shades the face of all. to thee resign The ruling charge: the task of fight be mine. Alcimedon. that scream. with active heat. Snatches the reins." He said. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains. and vaults into the seat. in the thickest war? Alas! thy friend is slain. and the chief address'd: "What god provokes thee rashly thus to dare. and bear The kindling chariot through the parted war: So flies a vulture through the clamorous train Of geese. The chief of Troy descried. His friend descends. urged them to the course. and breathing in the immortal horse Excessive spirit. Or holds their fury in suspended reins: Patroclus. Now plies the javelin. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew. The sun shall see her conquer.

Them Chromius follows. deserted of its lord! The glorious steeds our ready arms invite. he wins it or he dies. And thick bull-hides the spacious concave lined. Then o'er their backs they spread their solid shields: With brass refulgent the broad surface shined. and Æneas' rage: Yet mighty as they are. War knows no mean. "Lo. Scarce their weak drivers guide them through the fight. and collects his might. my force to prove Is only mine: the event belongs to Jove. With great Atrides. (he said. encircled by his friends.BOOK XVII. unequal to engage The force of Hector. Can such opponents stand when we assail? Unite thy force. Automedon attends the fight. to my sight. Unhelp'd we stand. brave youths. Each hopes the conquest of the lofty steeds: In vain. Implores the Eternal." The son of Venus to the counsel yields. with dauntless mind: "Oh keep the foaming coursers close behind! Full on my shoulders let their nostrils blow. For hard the fight. determined is the foe. In vain advance! not fated to return. forego. And save the living from a fiercer foe." 533 . beyond our hope restored. Achilles' car. my friend.) Turn where distress demands immediate aid. "Hither turn. Unmov'd. with glorious hopes ye burn." Then through the field he sends his voice aloud. 'Tis Hector comes: and when he seeks the prize. Aretus succeeds. And calls the Ajaces from the warring crowd. The dead. and we prevail. Then turning to his friend.

With clashing falchions now the chiefs had closed. descending full. c. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. he springs with many a bound. and high the sounding javelin flung. xii. "Accept. Which pass'd the shield of Aretus the young: It pierced his belt. the air his soul received. and interposed.534 The Iliad of Homer [325] He spoke. Deep rooted in the ground. Stooping. the forceful spear In long vibrations spent its fury there. Nor longer Hector with his Trojans stood. . that with impetuous spring Darts. Patroclus. Now at Automedon the Trojan foe Discharged his lance. and thus have paid. "Like to a bull. Cleaves the broad forehead of some brawny bull:249 Struck 'twixt the horns. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. As when a ponderous axe. the meditated blow." —Carey's Dante: Hell. the javelin idly fled. And hiss'd innoxious o'er the hero's head. some offering to thy shade. Poor as it is. Then in the lower belly struck the dart. But left their slain companion in his blood: His arms Automedon divests." 249 —Some brawny bull. Then tumbling rolls enormous on the ground: Thus fell the youth. he shunn'd. But each brave Ajax heard. and cries. this mean sacrifice: Thus have I soothed my griefs. And the spear trembled as his entrails heaved. emboss'd with curious art.

BOOK XVII. and to the battle flew. Assuming Phoenix' shape on earth she falls. would Minerva send me strength to rear This wearied arm. So looks the lion o'er a mangled boar. destructive war. And in his well-known voice to Sparta calls: "And lies Achilles' friend. And from his half-till'd field the labourer flies: In such a form the goddess round her drew A livid cloud. O father! (Atreus' son replies) O full of days! by long experience wise! What more desires my soul. and ward the storm of war! But Hector. we dread. The lord of thunders sent the blue-eyed maid.) The drooping cattle dread the impending skies. O'er the dark clouds extends his purple bow. High on the chariot at one bound he sprung. beloved by all. and horrible with gore. And Jove's own glories blaze around his head!" [326] . A prey to dogs beneath the Trojan wall? What shame 'o Greece for future times to tell. To thee the greatest in whose cause he fell!" "O chief. than here unmoved To guard the body of the man I loved? Ah. pleased at length the Grecian arms to aid. For. 535 And now Minerva from the realms of air Descends impetuous. And o'er his seat the bloody trophies hung. and renews the war. As when high Jove denouncing future woe. All grim with rage. (In sign of tempests from the troubled air. like the rage of fire. Or from the rage of man.

So burns the vengeful hornet (soul all o'er). . and stings. She breathes new vigour in her hero's breast. And. and Podes was his name: With riches honour'd. By Hector loved. and rage. with fell despite. who held his wealthy reign In fair Abydos. not unknown to fame. (Asius the great. Through his broad belt the spear a passage found. and thirsty still of gore. And sent his soul with every lance he threw. And fills with keen revenge. and his guest. he turns. Fired with like ardour fierce Atrides flew. is dead!" This heard. Desire of blood. ponderous as he falls.536 The Iliad of Homer Pleased to be first of all the powers address'd. Asius' son. Aetion's son. attacks. Rage lifts his lance. Repulsed in vain.) "Oh prince! (he cried) Oh foremost once in fame! What Grecian now shall tremble at thy name? Dost thou at length to Menelaus yield. There stood a Trojan. and drives him on the foe. now. his comrade. Like Phaenops. and lust of fight. while our army flies: By the same arm illustrious Podes bled. and with courage bless'd. o'er Hector spreads a cloud of woe. Sudden at Hector's side Apollo stood. The friend of Hector. appear'd the god. (Bold son of air and heat) on angry wings Untamed. A chief once thought no terror of the field? Yet singly. his arms resound. unrevenged. the long-disputed prize He bears victorious. untired. by the rolling main.

As Hector follow'd. The teeth it shatter'd. Had graced the triumphs of his Trojan foe. That shaded Ide and all the subject field Beneath its ample verge.BOOK XVII. And blaze beneath the lightnings of the god: At one regard of his all-seeing eye The vanquish'd triumph. 537 [327] . But erring from its aim. For as the brave Boeotian turn'd his head To face the foe. Pierced through the wrist. The affrighted hills from their foundations nod. And razed his shoulder with a shorten'd spear: By Hector wounded. But now the Eternal shook his sable shield. Idomen address'd The flaming javelin to his manly breast. A rolling cloud Involved the mount. But the brave squire the ready coursers brought. and the tongue it rent. Exulting Troy with clamour fills the fields: High on his chariots the Cretan stood. The son of Priam whirl'd the massive wood. Who left fair Lyctus for the fields of fame. and raging with the pain. And with his life his master's safety bought. the thunder roar'd aloud. the impetuous spear Struck to the dust the squire and charioteer Of martial Merion: Coeranus his name. Between his cheek and ear the weapon went. On foot bold Merion fought. Grasps his once formidable lance in vain. Leitus quits the plain. and now laid low. Polydamas drew near. Prone from the seat he tumbles to the plain. The brittle point before his corslet yields. Then trembled Greece: the flight Peneleus led. and the victors fly.

And conquest shifting to the Trojan side. distant on the shore. and Ajax asks no more: If Greece must perish. Deserted of the god. Who tremble yet. we thy will obey. Not Ajax less the will of heaven descried.538 The Iliad of Homer His dying hand forgets the falling rein: This Merion reaches. scarce rescued from their fates. He suffers every lance to fall in vain. Turn'd by the hand of Jove. Then thus begun. the light of heaven restore. the lash applies. the steeds. yet let us try What human strength and prudence can supply. But let us perish in the face of day!" . bending from the car. But such a chief I spy not through the host: The men. He guides each arrow to a Grecian heart: Not so our spears. is no more. His friend. Give me to see. Some hero too must be despatch'd to bear The mournful message to Pelides' ear. May glad the fleets that hope not our return. And urges to desert the hopeless war: Idomeneus consents. incessant though they rain. And still hear Hector thundering at their gates. in triumph borne. To Atreus's seed. the godlike Telamon: "Alas! who sees not Jove's almighty hand Transfers the glory to the Trojan band? Whether the weak or strong discharge the dart. And the swift chariot to the navy flies. all are lost In general darkness—Lord of earth and air! Oh king! Oh father! hear my humble prayer: Dispel this cloud. his loved Patroclus. the armies. For sure he knows not. If yet this honour'd corse.

And the red terrors of the blazing brands: Till late. The foe. at the dawn of day Sour he departs. 539 [328] So turns the lion from the nightly fold. And much admonish'd. alas! but fate decreed his end. If yet Antilochus survives the fight. as in life a friend!" .BOOK XVII. but with unwilling pace. And bear the merits of the dead in mind. So moved Atrides from his dangerous place With weary limbs. In death a hero. Atrides! cast around thy sight. reluctant. and fretted sore with wounds. With tears the hero spoke. Though high in courage. might yet Patroclus gain. Forth burst the sun with all-enlightening ray. "Now. and long vex'd by hounds. The blaze of armour flash'd against the day. he fear'd. The darts fly round him from a hundred hands. and quits the untasted prey. now. much adjured his train: "O guard these relics to your charge consign'd. Stiff with fatigue. and the gentlest heart: He was. How skill'd he was in each obliging art. Let him to great Achilles' ear convey The fatal news"—Atrides hastes away. Long gall'd by herdsmen. and with hunger bold. and at his prayer The god relenting clear'd the clouded air. The mildest manners.

Then ran the mournful message to impart. Who. [329] . The sacred eagle. drove his steeds along. For sadder tidings never touch'd thy ear. who despoil'd the slain. and with dejected heart. on the shore Now pale and dead. he strove to say What sorrow dictates. endued with sharpest eye Of all that wings the mid aerial sky.540 The Iliad of Homer So parts the chief. Thy eyes have witness'd what a fatal turn! How Ilion triumphs. Fly to the fleet." The youthful warrior heard with silent woe. and sees the distant thicket move. To brave Laodocus his arms he flung. and spreading deaths around: To him the king: "Beloved of Jove! draw near. Then stoops. shall succour Greece no more. With tearful eyes. This is not all: Patroclus. Snatches his life amid the clouds of air. Not with less quickness. he found. but no word found way. near him wheeling. And round on all sides sent his piercing view. and the Achaians mourn. from rank to rank he flew. From his fair eyes the tears began to flow: Big with the mighty grief. through the ranks of fight: Till on the left the chief he sought. from his walks above Looks down. Cheering his men. how his loved-one fell: He too may haste the naked corse to gain: The arms are Hector's. his exerted sight Pass'd this and that way. As the bold bird. this instant fly. and tell The sad Achilles. and sousing on the quivering hare.

and their javelins shower: But Ajax turning. fighting side by side. Wave their thick falchions. and round the forest fly. They howl aloof. Voracious hounds. 541 . and this way rolls our fate. that many a length before Their furious hunters. and renew the fight. High from the ground the warriors heave the dead. drive the wounded boar." "'Tis well (said Ajax). and with thirst of blood. 'Tis our own vigour must the dead regain. and my bold brother will sustain The shock of Hector and his charging train: Nor fear we armies. Have tried it. he fights not with the Trojan foe. A general clamour rises at the sight: Loud shout the Trojans. while with impetuous hate Troy pours along. Unarm'd. But hope not. 'Tis in our hands alone our hopes remain. Myself. be it then thy care.BOOK XVII. unbounded be his woe. the weighty corse to rear. But bids bold Thrasymede those troops sustain. All pale they tremble and forsake the field." The hero said. we have already tried. Swift fled the youth: nor Menelaus stands (Though sore distress'd) to aid the Pylian bands. Thus on retreating Greece the Trojans pour. to their fears they yield. With Merion's aid. What Troy can dare. And save ourselves. for Achilles' aid: Though fierce his rage. warriors. Not fiercer rush along the gloomy wood. "Gone is Antilochus (the hero said). Himself returns to his Patroclus slain. and have stood. With rage insatiate. But if the savage turns his glaring eye.

Such horror Jove impress'd! yet still proceeds The work of death. horror. Aeneas storms. threats their callow young. Thus when a river swell'd with sudden rains Spreads his broad waters o'er the level plains. close the rear engage. o'er the throng Of men. urged the rout along: Less fierce the winds with rising flames conspire To whelm some city under waves of fire. The heroes sweat beneath their honour'd load: As when two mules. big drops of sweat distil. steeds. and turns the winding tides. And breaks its force. thick retreat maintains. or mast's unwieldy length. Behind them rages all the storm of war: Confusion. along the rugged road. Now sink in gloomy clouds the proud abodes. Inly they groan. Such the wild terror. tumult. like a flight of cranes. And sheets of smoke mount heavy to the poles. and the mingled cry: Within. hung High on poised pinions.542 The Iliad of Homer [330] While thus aloft the hero's corse they bear. while the falcon. The rumbling torrent through the ruin rolls. From the steep mountain with exerted strength Drag some vast beam. Some interposing hill the stream divides. their arms and armour lay. without the trench. and Hector foams with rage: While Greece a heavy. Now crack the blazing temples of the gods. Still close they follow. And breaks the torrent of the rushing bands. The enormous timber lumbering down the hill: So these—Behind. So from the Trojan chiefs the Grecians fly. chariots. . the bulk of Ajax stands. and all the way. Wedged in one body. That shriek incessant. Strow'd in bright heaps. and still the battle bleeds.



comes with all her sea. where Hellespont's broad waters flow. The sight of him turns the fortunes of the day. that noble one of the shield of Achilles.nymphs to comfort him. to remain encamped in the field. and the body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan to obtain new arms for her son. now it sinks by turns. ARGUMENT. The speeches of the mother and son on this occasion. The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by Antilochus. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan: and. and the night ensuing. Thus like the rage of fire the combat burns. and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrenchments. The Trojans call a council. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of Juno. the regular narrative being interrupted by the message of Antilochus and the lamentations of Achilles. THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES.[331] BOOK XVIII. AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY VULCAN. lastly. Meanwhile. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus. hearing his lamentations. from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan.250 And now it rises. 250 . This is connected with the earlier part of last book. The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day. take up this book: the scene is at Achilles' tent on the sea-shore. Thetis. where Hector and Polydamas disagree in their opinions: but the advice of the former prevails.

And tells the melancholy tale with tears. with disorder'd charms. Antilochus appears.) when by a Trojan hand The bravest of the Myrmidonian band Should lose the light! Fulfilled is that decree. and his golden hairs. shaded by his sails. Fallen is the warrior. for all that fate design'd Rose in sad prospect to his boding mind. now to quit the plains? Is this the day. And roll'd and grovell'd. Those he deforms with dust. as to earth he grew. and these he tears. or by Patroclus' arms. His purple garments.546 The Iliad of Homer Stood Nestor's son. and gathering round. which heaven so long ago Ordain'd. late victors. (Won by his own. Thus to his soul he said: "Ah! what constrains The Greeks. "Sad tidings. with furious hands he spread The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head. His naked corse: his arms are Hector's right. And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief.) Rush'd from their tents with cries. to sink me with the weight of woe? (So Thetis warn'd. Cast on the ground. the messenger of woe: There sat Achilles. the unwilling messenger! Dead is Patroclus! For his corse they fight. . Pensive he sat." A sudden horror shot through all the chief. and Patroclus he! In vain I charged him soon to quit the plain. And warn'd to shun Hectorean force in vain!" [332] Thus while he thinks. son of Peleus! thou must hear. And wretched I. The virgin captives. On the hard soil his groaning breast he threw. On hoisted yards extended to the gales.

251 With hoary Nereus. the glimmering grotto fill'd. 251 . Hangs on his arms. in the play of Æschylus. Maera. the train extend. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries. Doris. Melita. Callianassa show Their sister looks. 547 [333] —Far in the deep. Dexamene the slow. And oft prevents the meditated blow. And black Janira. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. and Janassa fair. and fainted on the ground: While Nestor's son sustains a manlier part. And swift Dynamene. now cut the tides: Iaera now the verdant wave divides: Nemertes with Apseudes lifts the head. and the watery train. attend. Their locks Actaea and Limnoria rear. Clymene. Thoa. Nesaea mild. Amphinome. These Orythia. Bright Galatea quits her pearly bed. and comes from the depths of the sea to comfort him. And the blue languish of soft Alia's eye.BOOK XVIII. and answer'd groan for groan. Doto. and Amphithoe gay: Next Callianira. amidst his frantic woe. Beat their white breasts. And mourns the warrior with a warrior's heart. Thalia. All these. Glauce (every watery name). and silver Spio came: Cymothoe and Cymodoce were nigh. So Oceanus hears the lamentations of Prometheus. Then Proto. And Amatheia with her amber hair. Panope appear. Agave gentle. Pherusa. and all that deep in ocean held Their sacred seats. Far in the deep abysses of the main.

never must return again. The bravest far that ever bore the name. were I mortal. The immortal mother. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart. Reveal the cause. Till Thetis' sorrows thus began to flow: "Hear me. I go at least to bear a tender part. ye sisters of the main! How just a cause has Thetis to complain! How wretched. were my fate! How more than wretched in the immortal state! Sprung from my bed a godlike hero came. Like some fair olive. Approaching now. Then. and judge. Wide-opening part the tides. by my careful hand He grew. alas! and fill'd with anguish too! Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore! I cannot ease them. and left the caverns of the main.548 The Iliad of Homer Each beat her ivory breast with silent woe. and the Greeks distress'd: Why mourns my son? thy anguish let me share. Along the coast their mingled clamours ran. he flourish'd and adorn'd the land To Troy I sent him: but the fates ordain He never. All bathed in tears." . While the long pomp the silver wave divides. to his sighs replied. they touch'd the Trojan land." She said. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. So short a space the light of heaven to view. ascended up the strand. but I must deplore. And thus the silver-footed dame began: "Why mourns my son? thy late preferr'd request The god has granted. So short. and trust a parent's care. the melancholy train Attend her way. two by two.

thou diest. deeply groaning—"To this cureless grief. Hector bears the glorious load. Pursued the pleasures of the watery reign: And happier Peleus. Achilles hates to live. 'Tis not in fate the alternate now to give. On these conditions will I breathe: till then. a sister of the main. goddess. loved of all my martial train. since from this miserable day I cast all hope of my return away. Let me revenge it on proud Hector's heart. Let his last spirit smoke upon my dart. Patroclus. I see thee dying. the goddess shed: "Ah then. Ah then. He. new sorrows."—"Let Hector die. New woes. alas! that wretched offspring slain. and woes to come. I blush to walk among the race of men. a hundred ghosts demand 549 [334] . and falling. less ambitious. unrevenged. when all the powers above Thy charms submitted to a mortal love: O hadst thou still. Not even the Thunderer's favour brings relief. Patroclus—Ah!—say. shall create again. wish'd my aid in vain. Cursed be that day. can I boast A pleasure now? revenge itself is lost. at this. For soon. Patroclus dead. beyond myself is slain! Lost are those arms the gods themselves bestow'd On Peleus. see thee dead! When Hector falls. And let me fall! (Achilles made reply) Far lies Patroclus from his native plain! He fell. Beyond mankind. led A mortal beauty to his equal bed! Ere the sad fruit of thy unhappy womb Had caused such sorrows past.BOOK XVIII." A flood of tears. Since.


The Iliad of Homer

The fate of Hector from Achilles' hand; Since here, for brutal courage far renown'd, I live an idle burden to the ground, (Others in council famed for nobler skill, More useful to preserve, than I to kill,) Let me—But oh! ye gracious powers above! Wrath and revenge from men and gods remove: Far, far too dear to every mortal breast, Sweet to the soul, as honey to the taste: Gathering like vapours of a noxious kind From fiery blood, and darkening all the mind. Me Agamemnon urged to deadly hate; 'Tis past—I quell it; I resign to fate. Yes—I will meet the murderer of my friend; Or (if the gods ordain it) meet my end. The stroke of fate the strongest cannot shun: The great Alcides, Jove's unequall'd son, To Juno's hate, at length resign'd his breath, And sunk the victim of all-conquering death. So shall Achilles fall! stretch'd pale and dead, No more the Grecian hope, or Trojan dread! Let me, this instant, rush into the fields, And reap what glory life's short harvest yields. Shall I not force some widow'd dame to tear With frantic hands her long dishevell'd hair? Shall I not force her breast to heave with sighs, And the soft tears to trickle from her eyes? Yes, I shall give the fair those mournful charms— In vain you hold me—Hence! my arms! my arms!— Soon shall the sanguine torrent spread so wide, That all shall know Achilles swells the tide." "My son (coerulean Thetis made reply, To fate submitting with a secret sigh,)

BOOK XVIII. The host to succour, and thy friends to save, Is worthy thee; the duty of the brave. But canst thou, naked, issue to the plains? Thy radiant arms the Trojan foe detains. Insulting Hector bears the spoils on high, But vainly glories, for his fate is nigh. Yet, yet awhile thy generous ardour stay; Assured, I meet thee at the dawn of day, Charged with refulgent arms (a glorious load), Vulcanian arms, the labour of a god." Then turning to the daughters of the main, The goddess thus dismiss'd her azure train: "Ye sister Nereids! to your deeps descend; Haste, and our father's sacred seat attend; I go to find the architect divine, Where vast Olympus' starry summits shine: So tell our hoary sire"—This charge she gave: The sea-green sisters plunge beneath the wave: Thetis once more ascends the bless'd abodes, And treads the brazen threshold of the gods.



And now the Greeks from furious Hector's force, Urge to broad Hellespont their headlong course; Nor yet their chiefs Patroclus' body bore Safe through the tempest to the tented shore. The horse, the foot, with equal fury join'd, Pour'd on the rear, and thunder'd close behind: And like a flame through fields of ripen'd corn, The rage of Hector o'er the ranks was borne. Thrice the slain hero by the foot he drew; Thrice to the skies the Trojan clamours flew: As oft the Ajaces his assault sustain;



The Iliad of Homer

THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. But check'd, he turns; repuls'd, attacks again. With fiercer shouts his lingering troops he fires, Nor yields a step, nor from his post retires: So watchful shepherds strive to force, in vain, The hungry lion from a carcase slain. Even yet Patroclus had he borne away, And all the glories of the extended day, Had not high Juno from the realms of air, Secret, despatch'd her trusty messenger. The various goddess of the showery bow, Shot in a whirlwind to the shore below; To great Achilles at his ships she came, And thus began the many-colour'd dame: "Rise, son of Peleus! rise, divinely brave! Assist the combat, and Patroclus save: For him the slaughter to the fleet they spread, And fall by mutual wounds around the dead.

BOOK XVIII. To drag him back to Troy the foe contends: Nor with his death the rage of Hector ends: A prey to dogs he dooms the corse to lie, And marks the place to fix his head on high. Rise, and prevent (if yet you think of fame) Thy friend's disgrace, thy own eternal shame!"


"Who sends thee, goddess, from the ethereal skies?" Achilles thus. And Iris thus replies:

"I come, Pelides! from the queen of Jove, The immortal empress of the realms above; Unknown to him who sits remote on high, Unknown to all the synod of the sky." "Thou comest in vain (he cries, with fury warm'd); Arms I have none, and can I fight unarm'd? Unwilling as I am, of force I stay, Till Thetis bring me at the dawn of day Vulcanian arms: what other can I wield, Except the mighty Telamonian shield? That, in my friend's defence, has Ajax spread, While his strong lance around him heaps the dead: The gallant chief defends Menoetius' son, And does what his Achilles should have done."

"Thy want of arms (said Iris) well we know; But though unarm'd, yet clad in terrors, go! Let but Achilles o'er yon trench appear, Proud Troy shall tremble, and consent to fear; Greece from one glance of that tremendous eye Shall take new courage, and disdain to fly."


The Iliad of Homer


She spoke, and pass'd in air. The hero rose: Her aegis Pallas o'er his shoulder throws; Around his brows a golden cloud she spread; A stream of glory flamed above his head. As when from some beleaguer'd town arise The smokes, high curling to the shaded skies; (Seen from some island, o'er the main afar, When men distress'd hang out the sign of war;) Soon as the sun in ocean hides his rays, Thick on the hills the flaming beacons blaze; With long-projected beams the seas are bright, And heaven's high arch reflects the ruddy light: So from Achilles' head the splendours rise, Reflecting blaze on blaze against the skies. Forth march'd the chief, and distant from the crowd, High on the rampart raised his voice aloud; With her own shout Minerva swells the sound; Troy starts astonish'd, and the shores rebound. As the loud trumpet's brazen mouth from far With shrilling clangour sounds the alarm of war, Struck from the walls, the echoes float on high, And the round bulwarks and thick towers reply; So high his brazen voice the hero rear'd: Hosts dropp'd their arms, and trembled as they heard: And back the chariots roll, and coursers bound, And steeds and men lie mingled on the ground. Aghast they see the living lightnings play, And turn their eyeballs from the flashing ray. Thrice from the trench his dreadful voice he raised, And thrice they fled, confounded and amazed. Twelve in the tumult wedged, untimely rush'd On their own spears, by their own chariots crush'd: While, shielded from the darts, the Greeks obtain The long-contended carcase of the slain.

BOOK XVIII. A lofty bier the breathless warrior bears: Around, his sad companions melt in tears. But chief Achilles, bending down his head, Pours unavailing sorrows o'er the dead, Whom late triumphant, with his steeds and car, He sent refulgent to the field of war; (Unhappy change!) now senseless, pale, he found, Stretch'd forth, and gash'd with many a gaping wound. Meantime, unwearied with his heavenly way, In ocean's waves the unwilling light of day Quench'd his red orb, at Juno's high command, And from their labours eased the Achaian band. The frighted Trojans (panting from the war, Their steeds unharness'd from the weary car) A sudden council call'd: each chief appear'd In haste, and standing; for to sit they fear'd. 'Twas now no season for prolong'd debate; They saw Achilles, and in him their fate. Silent they stood: Polydamas at last, Skill'd to discern the future by the past, The son of Panthus, thus express'd his fears (The friend of Hector, and of equal years; The self-same night to both a being gave, One wise in council, one in action brave):



"In free debate, my friends, your sentence speak; For me, I move, before the morning break, To raise our camp: too dangerous here our post, Far from Troy walls, and on a naked coast. I deem'd not Greece so dreadful, while engaged In mutual feuds her king and hero raged; Then, while we hoped our armies might prevail


The Iliad of Homer


We boldly camp'd beside a thousand sail. I dread Pelides now: his rage of mind Not long continues to the shores confined, Nor to the fields, where long in equal fray Contending nations won and lost the day; For Troy, for Troy, shall henceforth be the strife, And the hard contest not for fame, but life. Haste then to Ilion, while the favouring night Detains these terrors, keeps that arm from fight. If but the morrow's sun behold us here, That arm, those terrors, we shall feel, not fear; And hearts that now disdain, shall leap with joy, If heaven permit them then to enter Troy. Let not my fatal prophecy be true, Nor what I tremble but to think, ensue. Whatever be our fate, yet let us try What force of thought and reason can supply; Let us on counsel for our guard depend;

BOOK XVIII. The town her gates and bulwarks shall defend. When morning dawns, our well-appointed powers, Array'd in arms, shall line the lofty towers. Let the fierce hero, then, when fury calls, Vent his mad vengeance on our rocky walls, Or fetch a thousand circles round the plain, Till his spent coursers seek the fleet again: So may his rage be tired, and labour'd down! And dogs shall tear him ere he sack the town." "Return! (said Hector, fired with stern disdain) What! coop whole armies in our walls again? Was't not enough, ye valiant warriors, say, Nine years imprison'd in those towers ye lay? Wide o'er the world was Ilion famed of old For brass exhaustless, and for mines of gold: But while inglorious in her walls we stay'd, Sunk were her treasures, and her stores decay'd; The Phrygians now her scatter'd spoils enjoy, And proud Maeonia wastes the fruits of Troy. Great Jove at length my arms to conquest calls, And shuts the Grecians in their wooden walls, Darest thou dispirit whom the gods incite? Flies any Trojan? I shall stop his flight. To better counsel then attention lend; Take due refreshment, and the watch attend. If there be one whose riches cost him care, Forth let him bring them for the troops to share; 'Tis better generously bestow'd on those, Than left the plunder of our country's foes. Soon as the morn the purple orient warms, Fierce on yon navy will we pour our arms. If great Achilles rise in all his might, His be the danger: I shall stand the fight.


558 Honour, ye gods! or let me gain or give; And live he glorious, whosoe'er shall live! Mars is our common lord, alike to all; And oft the victor triumphs, but to fall."

The Iliad of Homer

The shouting host in loud applauses join'd; So Pallas robb'd the many of their mind; To their own sense condemn'd, and left to choose The worst advice, the better to refuse. While the long night extends her sable reign, Around Patroclus mourn'd the Grecian train. Stern in superior grief Pelides stood; Those slaughtering arms, so used to bathe in blood, Now clasp his clay-cold limbs: then gushing start The tears, and sighs burst from his swelling heart. The lion thus, with dreadful anguish stung, Roars through the desert, and demands his young; When the grim savage, to his rifled den Too late returning, snuffs the track of men, And o'er the vales and o'er the forest bounds; His clamorous grief the bellowing wood resounds. So grieves Achilles; and, impetuous, vents To all his Myrmidons his loud laments. "In what vain promise, gods! did I engage, When to console Menoetius' feeble age, I vowed his much-loved offspring to restore, Charged with rich spoils, to fair Opuntia's shore?252 But mighty Jove cuts short, with just disdain, The long, long views of poor designing man! One fate the warrior and the friend shall strike, And Troy's black sands must drink our blood alike:


Opuntia, a city of Locris.

BOOK XVIII. Me too a wretched mother shall deplore, An aged father never see me more! Yet, my Patroclus! yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. Ere thy dear relics in the grave are laid, Shall Hector's head be offer'd to thy shade; That, with his arms, shall hang before thy shrine; And twelve, the noblest of the Trojan line, Sacred to vengeance, by this hand expire; Their lives effused around thy flaming pyre. Thus let me lie till then! thus, closely press'd, Bathe thy cold face, and sob upon thy breast! While Trojan captives here thy mourners stay, Weep all the night and murmur all the day: Spoils of my arms, and thine; when, wasting wide, Our swords kept time, and conquer'd side by side."


He spoke, and bade the sad attendants round Cleanse the pale corse, and wash each honour'd wound. A massy caldron of stupendous frame They brought, and placed it o'er the rising flame: Then heap'd the lighted wood; the flame divides Beneath the vase, and climbs around the sides: In its wide womb they pour the rushing stream; The boiling water bubbles to the brim. The body then they bathe with pious toil, Embalm the wounds, anoint the limbs with oil, High on a bed of state extended laid, And decent cover'd with a linen shade; Last o'er the dead the milk-white veil they threw; That done, their sorrows and their sighs renew.


The Iliad of Homer

Meanwhile to Juno, in the realms above, (His wife and sister,) spoke almighty Jove. "At last thy will prevails: great Peleus' son Rises in arms: such grace thy Greeks have won. Say (for I know not), is their race divine, And thou the mother of that martial line?"

"What words are these? (the imperial dame replies, While anger flash'd from her majestic eyes) Succour like this a mortal arm might lend, And such success mere human wit attend: And shall not I, the second power above, Heaven's queen, and consort of the thundering Jove, Say, shall not I one nation's fate command, Not wreak my vengeance on one guilty land?"

So they. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame Reach'd the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame! High-eminent amid the works divine, Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. There the lame architect the goddess found, Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round, While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew; And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew. That day no common task his labour claim'd: Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed, That placed on living wheels of massy gold, (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place, around the bless'd abodes Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods: For their fair handles now, o'erwrought with flowers, In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours. Just as responsive to his thought the frame





The Iliad of Homer

Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came: Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair, (With purple fillets round her braided hair,) Observed her entering; her soft hand she press'd, And, smiling, thus the watery queen address'd:


"What, goddess! this unusual favour draws? All hail, and welcome! whatsoe'er the cause; Till now a stranger, in a happy hour Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower."


BOOK XVIII. High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, And various artifice, the queen she placed; A footstool at her feet: then calling, said, "Vulcan, draw near, 'tis Thetis asks your aid." "Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim, An ever-dear, an ever-honour'd name! When my proud mother hurl'd me from the sky, (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,) She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress'd, And soft received me on their silver breast. Even then these arts employ'd my infant thought: Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode, Secure I lay, conceal'd from man and god: Deep in a cavern'd rock my days were led; The rushing ocean murmur'd o'er my head. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say, For such desert what service can I pay? Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share The genial rites, and hospitable fare; While I the labours of the forge forego, And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow." Then from his anvil the lame artist rose; Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes, And stills the bellows, and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress'd His brawny arms embrown'd, and hairy breast. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire, Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire: The monarch's steps two female forms uphold, That moved and breathed in animated gold; To whom was voice, and sense, and science given




The Iliad of Homer

Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!) On these supported, with unequal gait, He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate; There placed beside her on the shining frame, He thus address'd the silver-footed dame:

"Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honour'd walls? 'Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay, And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey."


BOOK XVIII. To whom the mournful mother thus replies: (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:) "O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows, so o'erwhelm'd as mine? Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare For Thetis only such a weight of care? I, only I, of all the watery race By force subjected to a man's embrace, Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays The mighty fine imposed on length of days. Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came, The bravest sure that ever bore the name; Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand He grew, he flourish'd, and he graced the land: To Troy I sent him! but his native shore Never, ah never, shall receive him more; (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;) Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow! Robb'd of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave, The king of nations forced his royal slave: For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress'd Required his arm, he sorrow'd unredress'd. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send; In vain—he arms not, but permits his friend His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ: He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy: Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name) At once resigns his armour, life, and fame. But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won: Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son, And to the field in martial pomp restore, To shine with glory, till he shines no more!"



has attempted to rival Homer in his description of the shield of the same hero. Just as the god directs.) may here be introduced. who had there described The heaven.. the clouds. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel. the sun.566 The Iliad of Homer To her the artist-god: "Thy griefs resign.253 253 Quintus Calaber. and you there might view The stars that gem the still-revolving heaven. and where the furnace burn'd. And twenty forges catch at once the fires. and tin. They raise a tempest. Before. seq. and the world's amaze!" Thus having said. His left with tongs turns the vex'd metal round. now low. what Vulcan can. the eternal anvils stand. is ever thine. or they gently blow. 104. Rich various artifice emblazed the field. and the earth and sea. lib. Secure. A few extracts from Mr. Dyce's version (Select Translations. strong strokes. And thick. now loud. the moon. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll'd. the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths. the doubling vaults rebound. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand. apart In different stations. . [345] "In the wide circle of the shield were seen Refulgent images of various forms. The winds. Then first he form'd the immense and solid shield. and solid gold. as well. deep fix'd. As I shall forge most envied arms. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound. the ether. v. p. Soon as he bade them blow. the father of the fires To the black labours of his forge retires. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires. And stubborn brass. The work of Vulcan. O could I hide him from the Fates. the gaze Of wondering ages.

Seem'd to augment. points his golden eye. And great Orion's more refulgent beam. A silver chain suspends the massy round. In azure mazes rolling o'er the earth. the vast expanse of air. under them. Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight. Hyads. revolving. with the northern team. 567 Two cities radiant on the shield appear. The Bear. To which. The unwearied sun. and hymeneal rite. to the nuptial bed: The youthful dancers in a circle bound To the soft flute. Around the shield the waves of ocean flow'd. And godlike labours on the surface rose.BOOK XVIII. and one of war. the moon completely round. And. There shone the image of the master-mind: There earth. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main." . And solemn dance. with outstretch'd wings. With torches flaming. as if instinct with life. there heaven. around the axle of the sky. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose. The image one of peace. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain. The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd. In which. the long-beak'd bird Winnow'd the gale. The realms of Tethys. The Pleiads. and enjoy the show. Along the street the new-made brides are led. there ocean he design'd. which unnumber'd streams. and cithern's silver sound: Through the fair streets the matrons in a row Stand in their porches.

255 —Another part. grimly pale Were heroes lying with their slaughter'd steeds Upon the ground incarnadin'd with blood. the partial people stand: The appointed heralds still the noisy bands. &c. And bade the public and the laws decide: The witness is produced on either hand: For this. Alternate. in a circle called the Urtheilsring or gerichtsring"— Grote. 100. "Several of the old northern Sagas represent the old men assembled for the purpose of judging as sitting on great stones. or that. p." —Dyce's Calaber. Such were the horrors of dire war. The prize of him who best adjudged the right. Stern stalked Bellona. whose long locks were twisting snakes. see Thirlwall's Greece. vol. And form a ring. 254 . And Terror. Their limbs distilling plenteous blood and sweat. i. The subject of debate. each his sentence spoke Two golden talents lay amidst. each the attesting sceptre took. "And here Were horrid wars depicted. which one denied. within the sacred place. in sight. note. And rising solemn. and the tall shape Of ghastly Death. On the independence of the judicial office in The heroic times. ii. Discord to the fatal strife Inciting men. Another part (a prospect differing far)255 —On seats of stone. round whom did Battles throng. and Furies breathing flames: Nor absent were the Fates. p. That shot their forky tongues incessant forth. with sceptres in their hands: On seats of stone. smear'd with reeking gore. beside her Rout was seen. And Gorgons. Through charging ranks. a townsman slain: One pleads the fine discharged. 166.568 The Iliad of Homer There in the forum swarm a numerous train.254 The reverend elders nodded o'er the case.

beside the silver flood. and watchful seem If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. all amidst them. dead. by Pallas and by Mars made bold: Gold were the gods. 569 [346] . Cover'd with shields. now there. another dragg'd a dead. divine. They rise. and stood. And the whole war came out. Meantime the townsmen. One rear'd a dagger at a captive's breast. superior by the head! A place for ambush fit they found. And. hills of slaughter heap the ground. Two spies at distance lurk. Now here. nor suspect a foe. They march. Behind them piping on their reeds they go. and meet the war. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden. There Tumult. the carcases they tore: Fate stalk'd amidst them. And steers slow-moving. their radiant garments gold. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains. The waving silver seem'd to blush with blood.BOOK XVIII. And gold their armour: these the squadron led. Nor fear an ambush. Two mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. and met the eye. approach. and the watchful band Of trembling parents. and two shepherd swains. on the turrets stand. take horse. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. arm'd with silent care. One held a living foe. that freshly bled With new-made wounds. and horrid war. they fall. August. And one would pillage. there Contention stood confess'd. They fight. one would burn the place. their children. A secret ambush on the foe prepare: Their wives. Glow'd with refulgent arms. beside a silver flood. the shepherd swains! The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear. grim with human gore.

[347] A field deep furrow'd next the god design'd. . The master meets them with his goblet crown'd. And last the children. reapers in a row. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide.570 The Iliad of Homer And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. As if endued with life. while with goading wand The active youths impell'd them. "Here was a corn field. the rising earth in ridges roll'd. and collect in bands. The gatherers follow. With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands. and the furrow'd glebe Was black behind them. And sable look'd. And turn their crooked yokes on every side. With bended sickles stand the reaper train: Here stretched in ranks the levell'd swarths are found. though form'd of molten gold. Sheaves heap'd on sheaves here thicken up the ground." —Dyce's Calaber. 256 —A field deep furrowed. Each with a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand. The hearty draught rewards. as the harvest fell. in whose arms are borne (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn. Another field rose high with waving grain. renews their toil. Work'd busily. Still as at either end they wheel around. Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil: Behind. Others were ready still to bind the sheaves: Yoked to a wain that bore the corn away The steers were moving. Here a feast Was graved: to the shrill pipe and ringing lyre A band of blooming virgins led the dance. The rustic monarch of the field descries. and.256 The third time labour'd by the sweating hind. sturdy bullocks here The plough were drawing.

in order glow: A darker metal mix'd intrench'd the place. Next. The dogs (oft cheer'd in vain) desert the prey. Dread the grim terrors.BOOK XVIII. the woman's care. 571 [348] . ripe in yellow gold. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band. They tore his flesh. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores A rapid torrent through the rushes roars: Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand. and answer to the strain. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines. Where march a train with baskets on their heads. A ready banquet on the turf is laid. and drank his sable blood. Tune soft the voice. And seized a bull. Here herds of oxen march. To this. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare. the heaps around him rise. With silent glee. a vineyard shines. The reaper's due repast. the master of the herd: He roar'd: in vain the dogs. and at distance bay.) that smiling bear The purple product of the autumnal year. and seem to low in gold. erect and bold. Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade. one pathway gently winding leads. the men withstood. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace. (Fair maids and blooming youths. In measured dance behind him move the train. Rear high their horns. And curl'd on silver props. Two lions rushing from the wood appear'd. Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings.

in giddy circle toss'd. from silver belts depend. their pliant limbs they bend: And general songs the sprightly revel end. too swift for sight. at once descend. . the moving maze: Now forth at once. Now high. such once was seen In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen. now low. they spring. Form'd by Daedalean art. The gazing multitudes admire around: Two active tumblers in the centre bound. a comely band Of youths and maidens. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways. A figured dance succeeds. that whiten all the scene. and a length of meads. That glittering gay.572 The Iliad of Homer Next this. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. and folds. and bound the whole. the eye the art of Vulcan leads Deep through fair forests. And fleecy flocks. and pour'd the ocean round: In living silver seem'd the waves to roll. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest: Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll'd. bounding hand in hand. Confusedly regular. and scatter'd cots between. the single spokes are lost. Now all at once they rise. And. rapid as it runs. And beat the buckler's verge. And stalls. And undistinguish'd blend the flying ring: So whirls a wheel.

182. The natural consecution of the Homeric images needs no exposition: it constitutes in itself one of the beauties of the work. He remarks that. "with two or three exceptions. p. the Gorgons.257 573 257 Coleridge (Greek Classic Poets. and the difference of arrangement in the Shield of Hercules is altogether for the worse. the helm impress'd With various sculpture. we are hurried back to Perseus. that they catch at beauty by ornament. that. are minutely represented. the leading remark is.) has diligently compared this with the description of the shield of Hercules by Hesiod. And bears the blazing present through the skies.— but the gap is wide indeed between them and Apollo with the Muses. there is this curious peculiarity. and at sublimity by exaggeration. This done. the fugitive fishes. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies. whence however. As to the Hesiodic images themselves. whate'er a warrior's use requires He forged. in the description of scenes of rustic peace. the imagery differs in little more than the names and arrangements. and the fisherman on the shore with his casting net. over an arm of the sea. and upon the untenable supposition of the genuineness of this poem. the superiority of Homer is decisive—while in those of war and tumult it may be thought.BOOK XVIII. waking the echoes of Olympus to celestial harmonies. At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay: She. in which the sporting dolphins. and the golden crest. as a falcon cuts the aerial way. that the Hesiodic poet has more than once the advantage. and other images of war. The greaves of ductile tin. seq. the cuirass that outshone the fires." . The Hesiodic images are huddled together without connection or congruity: Mars and Pallas are awkwardly introduced among the Centaurs and Lapithae. perhaps.


rushes with fury to the combat. One of them is miraculously endued with voice. (With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. He addresses himself to his horses. The thirteenth day. where Briseis laments over the body of Patroclus. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light.) The immortal arms the goddess-mother bears Swift to her son: her son she finds in tears . presents. and ceremonies on that occasion.[349] BOOK XIX. THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. and gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. The presents are conveyed to the tent of Achilles. The hero obstinately refuses all repast. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches. The scene is on the sea-shore. by the order of Jupiter. He arms for the fight: his appearance described. that blush'd with early red. Soon as Aurora heaved her Orient head Above the waves. Minerva descends to strengthen him. and inspired to prophesy his fate: but the hero. Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses. ARGUMENT. to declare his resentment at an end. and commands him to assemble the army. and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus. Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan. not astonished by that prodigy. She preserves the body of his friend from corruption.

And feels with rage divine his bosom glow. this rage of grief. And flash incessant like a stream of fire: He turns the radiant gift: and feeds his mind On all the immortal artist had design'd. From his fierce eyeballs living flames expire. Behold what arms by Vulcan are bestow'd. Unmoved the hero kindles at the show. Fresh as in life." Then drops the radiant burden on the ground. Arms worthy thee. But go. as affairs require. "Goddess! (he cried. Achilles. my son. And from the broad effulgence turn their eyes. Shall flies. uninjured shall remain. confess the hand divine.) these glorious arms. Thetis said: "Suppress. his hand soft touching. that gave the blow. Before the Grecian peers renounce thine ire: Then uncontroll'd in boundless war engage. Back shrink the Myrmidons with dread surprise. and worms obscene. pollute the dead?" "That unavailing care be laid aside. but heaven.) Whole years untouch'd. (The azure goddess to her son replied. and ring the shores around. A ray divine her heavenly presence shed. And thus. Clang the strong arms. and know It was not man. or fit to grace a god. while all the rest Their sovereign's sorrows in their own express'd. the carcase of the slain. that shine With matchless art. Now to the bloody battle let me bend: But ah! the relics of my slaughter'd friend! In those wide wounds through which his spirit fled. And heaven with strength supply the mighty rage!" [350] .576 The Iliad of Homer Stretch'd o'er Patroclus' corse.

the great assembly crown'd. These on the sacred seats of council placed. Untouch'd it rests. Long lost to battle. Studious to see the terror of the plain. and all the naval train That tend the ships. Atrides. 577 THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. and rich ambrosia shower'd O'er all the corse. at the well-known sound. Alarm'd. The heroes heard. Frequent and full. Achilles (rising in the midst) begun: [351] . and leaning on the spear. Lame with their wounds. Tydides and Ulysses first appear. and sacred from decay. The king of men. or guide them o'er the main.BOOK XIX. came the last: He too sore wounded by Agenor's son. Then in the nostrils of the slain she pour'd Nectareous drops. transported. The flies forbid their prey. Achilles to the strand obedient went: The shores resounded with the voice he sent. shine in arms again.

Burn with a fury that can never die? Here then my anger ends: let war succeed. And let your rash." He said: his finish'd wrath with loud acclaim The Greeks accept. ye sons of Greece! with silence hear! And grant your monarch an impartial ear: Awhile your loud. long shall Greece the woes we caused bewail. and all-compelling Fate. And even as Greece has bled. alas. And shot the shining mischief to the heart! Then many a hero had not press'd the shore. of me. Is past. and shout Pelides' name. not rising from his lofty throne. and resign'd to fate. Long. Rash we contended for the black-eyed maid) Preventing Dian had despatch'd her dart. the dire debate: Know. Shall 'scape with transport. But this. and with joy repose. let Ilion bleed. a mortal man. . the king of men begun: "Hear me. untimely joy suspend. angry Jove. injurious clamours end: Unruly murmurs. Nor charge on me. If (ere the day when by mad passion sway'd. no more the subject of debate. forgotten. their mightiest. of all the Grecian state. or ill-timed applause.578 The Iliad of Homer "O monarch! better far had been the fate Of thee. Nor Troy's glad fields been fatten'd with our gore. when this arm he knows. And sad posterity repeat the tale. Why should. Wrong the best speaker. In state unmoved. and the justest cause. ye Greeks. and try if in our sight Troy yet shall dare to camp a second night! I deem. as I. Now call the hosts. When thus.

Jove's dread daughter. and born a king of kings. 'A youth (said she) of Jove's immortal kind Is this day born: from Sthenelus he springs. Not on the ground that haughty fury treads. (he said) this day an infant springs. unsuspicious of the fraud. Then bids Saturnius bear his oath in mind. Fated to rule. enter'd in my breast. and vaunted of his matchless boy: 'From us. She push'd her lingering infant into life: Her charms Alcmena's coming labours stay. felt her venom'd dart. To gods and goddesses the unruly joy He show'd. urged my wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey.' 579 [352] . to vouch the truth. fated to infest The race of mortals. With fell Erinnys. inflicting as she goes Long-festering wounds. but vengeful Ate driven.BOOK XIX. And stop the babe. What then could I against the will of heaven? Not by myself. The joyful goddess. Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god.' Saturnia ask'd an oath. and female art: For when Alcmena's nine long months were run. from Olympus' height. lay Sthenelus's wife. she stalk'd amid the bright abodes. the sire of men and gods. And Jove expected his immortal son. And fix dominion on the favour'd youth. The Thunderer. She. just issuing to the day. And Jove himself. Swift to Achaian Argos bent her flight: Scarce seven moons gone. The world's great ruler. Deceived by Juno's wiles. And claims thy promise to be king of kings. inextricable woes! Of old. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men.

the most renowned subjugator of all the semi-divine personages worshipped by the Hellenes. Full oft the god his son's hard toils bemoan'd. according to the religious ideas familiar to the old epic poets." [353] " O king of nations! whose superior sway (Returns Achilles) all our hosts obey! To keep or send the presents. From his ambrosial head. 128. for ever driven From bright Olympus and the starry heaven: Thence on the nether world the fury fell. Cursed the dire fury. and in secret groan'd. "This legend is one of the most pregnant and characteristic in the Grecian Mythology. 258 . 'tis equal: all we ask is war. and shine again in war. Stung to the soul. like Jove himself. Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell. Resume thy arms. p."—Grote. propitious to our prayer. and especially beloved by Zeus. He snatch'd the fury-goddess of debate. i. His recompense is reserved to the close of his career. by his oath engaged. The immortal seats should ne'er behold her more. he sorrow'd. vol. where perch'd she sate. was I misled. and receives in marriage Hebe. To us.258 Even thus. What can the errors of my rage atone? My martial troops. the irrevocable oath he swore. be thy care. it explains.580 The Iliad of Homer Grief seized the Thunderer. While raging Hector heap'd our camps with dead.—a being of irresistible force. when his afflicting trials are brought to a close: he is then admitted to the godhead. and he raged. And whirl'd her headlong down. yet condemned constantly to labour for others and to obey the commands of a worthless and cowardly persecutor. The dread. my treasures are thy own: This instant from the navy shall be sent Whate'er Ulysses promised at thy tent: But thou! appeased. both the distinguishing attributes and the endless toil and endurances of Heracles.

And those augment by generous wine and food: What boastful son of war. Mere unsupported man must yield at length. And the full price of injured honour paid. Dismiss the people. our glorious work remains undone. Shrunk with dry famine. When by the gods inspired. Ithacus the wise: "Though. Stretch not henceforth. and deal destruction round. as she came. but. O prince. ebbing out his strength. At least our armies claim repast and rest: Long and laborious must the combat be. The drooping body will desert the mind: But built anew with strength-conferring fare. The king of men shall rise in public sight. without that stay. Let every Greek. While yet we talk.BOOK XIX. Pure from his arms. The son of Peleus thus. then. and give command. spotless. godlike.! thy sovereign might 581 . thou art by no toils oppress'd. or but an instant shun The fight. he tires a war. With emulation. And solemn swear (observant of the rite) That. And learn from thence the business of the day. But let the presents to Achilles made. In full assembly of all Greece be laid. and thus replies The great in councils. what I act survey. and with toils declined. Strength is derived from spirits and from blood. and led by thee. and guiltless of his loves. With strong repast to hearten every band. Can last a hero through a single day? Courage may prompt. a sumptuous banquet shall be made. That done. who sees my spear confound The Trojan ranks. the maid removes. With limbs and soul untamed.

let generous bowls. Thy words give joy. Till my insatiate rage be cloy'd with blood: Pale lies my friend. By Hector slain. Now. And wrath. shall commence the fight: Then. And his cold feet are pointed to the door. [354] . our heroes lie: Those call to war! and might my voice incite. And heaven regard me as I justly swear! Here then awhile let Greece assembled stay." To him the monarch: "Just is thy decree. their faces to the sky. To right with justice whom with power they wrong'd. Let not my palate know the taste of food. when the day's complete. and wisdom breathes in thee. 'Tis the chief praise that e'er to kings belong'd.582 The Iliad of Homer Beyond the bounds of reason and of right. burns my breast no more. glad your weary souls. These to select. this instant. Till from the fleet our presents be convey'd. extinguish'd. Ulysses. And Jove attesting. And the fair train of captives close the rear: Talthybius shall the victim boar convey. Nor great Achilles grudge this short delay. the firm compact made. Each due atonement gladly I prepare. and yon bright orb of day. now." "For this (the stern Æacides replies) Some less important season may suffice. When the stern fury of the war is o'er. And copious banquets. be thy care: In order rank'd let all our gifts appear. A train of noble youths the charge shall bear. All grim with gaping wounds. Revenge is all my soul! no meaner care. with wounds disfigured o'er. Sacred to Jove.

Destruction be my feast. and mortal wounds. and none shall dare Expect a second summons to the war. when death demands the brave. Embodied. Yet a short interval." . Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice." 583 "O first of Greeks. (Ulysses thus rejoin'd. and to reason yield. If trembling in the ships he lags behind. And endless were the grief. One chief with patience to the grave resign'd.BOOK XIX. The bloody harvest brings but little gain: The scale of conquest ever wavering lies. and agonizing sounds. to the battle let us bend. to pay The tribute of a melancholy day. by thousands daily fall. has room to harbour there. Eternal sorrows what avails to shed? Greece honours not with solemn fasts the dead: Enough. Interest. to weep for all. and the victor dies! The great. But old experience and calm wisdom mine.) The best and bravest of the warrior kind! Thy praise it is in dreadful camps to shine. the bold. the dire effects shall find. Great Jove but turns it. Then hear my counsel. And scenes of blood. Our care devolves on others left behind. Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow. And all at once on haughty Troy descend. or thought. Who waits for that. And pour new furies on the feebler foe. The bravest soon are satiate of the field. Though vast the heaps that strow the crimson plain. Let generous food supplies of strength produce.

Swift as the word was given. The solemn words a deep attention draw. and all who falsely swear! The black-eyed maid inviolate removes. The eighth Briseis. all-wise.584 The Iliad of Homer [355] And now the delegates Ulysses sent. Who rule the dead. the golden talents bore: The rest in public view the chiefs dispose. fell furies of the realms of night. His hands uplifted to the attesting skies. First of the train. like the blooming rose. And ye. Phyleus' valiant heir. And twice the number of high-bounding steeds: Seven captives next a lovely line compose. On heaven's broad marble roof were fixed his eyes. and offering meditates his vow. and heaven's revolving light. heaven all its vengeance shed. Closed the bright band: great Ithacus. To bear the presents from the royal tent: The sons of Nestor. . With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. "Witness thou first! thou greatest power above. Thias and Merion. A row of six fair tripods then succeeds. A splendid scene! then Agamemnon rose: The boar Talthybius held: the Grecian lord Drew the broad cutlass sheath'd beside his sword: The stubborn bristles from the victim's brow He crops. And Melanippus. thunderbolts of war. Pure and unconscious of my manly loves. If this be false. form'd the chosen train. before. All-good. And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. and all-surveying Jove! And mother-earth. the youths obey'd: Twice ten bright vases in the midst they laid.

ye chiefs! indulge the genial rite. 'Twas Jove's high will alone. All beautiful in grief. And levell'd thunder strike my guilty head!" 585 With that. Prone on the body fell the heavenly fair. His train before March'd onward. Achilles sought his tent." The speedy council at his word adjourn'd: To their black vessels all the Greeks return'd. Nor from my arms. Not else Atrides could our rage inflame. The bleeding savage tumbles to the ground. her humid eyes Shining with tears she lifts. Achilles waits ye. bending with the gifts they bore. 'tis Jove inflicts the woe. and tore her golden hair. Patroclus lay. gash'd with cruel wounds. his weapon deep inflicts the wound. Go then. Slow as she pass'd.BOOK XIX. radiant as the queen of love. and expects the fight. unwilling. Those in the tents the squires industrious spread: The foaming coursers to the stalls they led. o'erruling all. force the dame. The sacred herald rolls the victim slain (A feast for fish) into the foaming main. To their new seats the female captives move Briseis. That doom'd our strife. Then thus Achilles: "Hear. beheld with sad survey Where. Beat her sad breast. and thus she cries: [356] . ye Greeks! and know Whate'er we feel. and doom'd the Greeks to fall.

for ever kind. And make me empress in his native land. Unmoved he heard them. in beauty gay." He spoke. whose care Is bent to please him. Achilles' care you promised I should prove. never doom'd to end! The first loved consort of my virgin bed Before these eyes in fatal battle bled: My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trod the dark. nor his grief control. . strive to calm his grief and rage: His rage they calm not. Nor mourn'd Patroclus' fortunes. The leaders press'd the chief on every side. that ever felt another's woe!" Her sister captives echoed groan for groan. Once tender friend of my distracted mind! I left thee fresh in life. Till yonder sun descend. he sorrows from his soul. Ulysses sage. Idomeneus. For thee. Now find thee cold.586 The Iliad of Homer "Ah. and from the warriors turn'd his face: Yet still the brother-kings of Atreus' race. but their own. let me pay To grief and anguish one abstemious day. this request forbear. And Phoenix. the dearest partner of his love. And dried my sorrows for a husband slain. "If yet Achilles have a friend. irremeable way: Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain. The first. youth for ever dear. That rites divine should ratify the band. He groans. and with sighs denied. ah. Accept these grateful tears! for thee they flow. he raves. Nestor. inanimated clay! What woes my wretched race of life attend! Sorrows on sorrows.

Their mingled grief the sire of heaven survey'd. and sinks him to the shades." 587 [357] Sighing he said: his grief the heroes join'd. and drops a tender tear. Each stole a tear for what he left behind. Of all neglectful. But till the news of my sad fate invades His hastening soul. this cruel stroke attend. And glad his eyes with his paternal reign. But now. I hoped Patroclus might survive. wage a hateful war. Or drags a wretched life of age and care. For Peleus breathes no more the vital air. sink into the grave? If yet that offspring lives. perhaps. should Neoptolemus the brave. alas! to death's cold arms resign'd.BOOK XIX. rushing to the war. The lofty palace. (I distant far. What more if hoary Peleus were deceased? Who now. What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? What greater sorrow could afflict my breast. And thus with pity to his blue-eyed maid: . "Thou too. to rear My tender orphan with a parent's care. thy winning care. and the large domain. Patroclus! (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents: Thy sweet society. From Scyros' isle conduct him o'er the main.) I could not this. Once stay'd Achilles. but might spare his friend. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate. My only offspring. What more. Fate claim'd Achilles.

Haste and infuse ambrosia in his breast. And pour'd divine ambrosia in his breast. . spears with pointed rays. Whose dazzling lustre whitens all the skies: So helms succeeding helms. The wide air floating to her ample wings.588 The Iliad of Homer "Is then Achilles now no more thy care. Broad glittering breastplates. With splendour flame the skies. To great Achilles she her flight address'd. Shot the descending goddess from above. So swift through ether the shrill harpy springs. All comfortless he sits. so shields from shields.259 With nectar sweet. (refection of the gods!) Then. As when the piercing blasts of Boreas blow. Catch the quick beams. And like a deluge pour'd upon the plain. And dost thou thus desert the great in war? Lo. and sudden. Mix in one stream. and wails his friend: Ere thirst and want his forces have oppress'd. at the word of Jove. where yon sails their canvas wings extend. Now issued from the ships the warrior-train. and laugh the fields around." He spoke. sought the bright abodes. And scatter o'er the fields the driving snow. From dusky clouds the fleecy winter flies. Thick beats the centre as the coursers bound. swift ascending. reflecting blaze on blaze. and brighten all the fields.

Streams from some lonely watch-tower to the sky: With mournful eyes they gaze. His glowing eyeballs roll with living fire. and gaze again. Which on the far-seen mountain blazing high. hung glittering at his side. Brings nectar temper'd with ambrosial dews. And. starr'd with gems. a light appears. Loud howls the storm. the broad refulgent shield Blazed with long rays. like the moon. pale with fears. 249. Forged on the eternal anvils of the god. Grief and revenge his furious heart inspire. "The blue-eyed maid." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. and furious with delay O'erlooks the embattled host. and gleam'd athwart the field.BOOK XIX. 259 —Ambrosia. He grinds his teeth. 589 Full in the midst. high-towering o'er the rest. The silver cuishes first his thighs infold. Then o'er his breast was braced the hollow gold. His limbs in arms divine Achilles dress'd. That. Wide o'er the watery waste. and drives them o'er the main. So to night-wandering sailors. In ev'ry breast new vigour to infuse. and hopes the bloody day. vi. . The brazen sword a various baldric tied. Arms which the father of the fire bestow'd.

Not brighter Phoebus in the ethereal way Flames from his chariot. and the dread of fields. Buoy'd by some inward force. behind The sweepy crest hung floating in the wind: Like the red star. and restores the day. And swift ascended at one active bound. All bright in heavenly arms. pestilence. and the radiant car. And now he shakes his great paternal spear. and sets the field on fire. His arms he poises. A spear which stern Achilles only wields. and shaped it for his sire. And feels a pinion lifting every limb. The ivory-studded reins. and to the chariot join'd. And thunders to his steeds these dread commands: . So stream'd the golden honours from his head. and war. From Pelion's cloudy top an ash entire Old Chiron fell'd. all terrible he stands. The charioteer then whirl'd the lash around.590 The Iliad of Homer Next. he seems to swim. High o'er the host. and his motions tries. Ponderous and huge. his high head the helmet graced. The death of heroes. return'd behind. Automedon and Alcimus prepare The immortal coursers. (The silver traces sweeping at their side. The chief beholds himself with wondering eyes. which not a Greek could rear. Trembled the sparkling plumes. above his squire Achilles mounts. that from his flaming hair Shakes down diseases. Waved o'er their backs. and the loose glories shed.) Their fiery mouths resplendent bridles tied.

but God decrees thy doom. All were in vain—the Fates thy death demand. or slowness in the course. 591 "Xanthus and Balius! of Podarges' strain. strange to tell! (so Juno will'd) he broke Eternal silence. His fateful voice. ." The generous Xanthus. Not ours the fault. No—could our swiftness o'er the winds prevail. And learn to make your master more your care: Through falling squadrons bear my slaughtering sword. and rush'd to fight.BOOK XIX. and portentous spoke. to see no more My much-loved parents. "Achilles! yes! this day at least we bear Thy rage in safety through the files of war: But come it will. be mindful of the load ye bear. and droop'd his head: Trembling he stood before the golden wain. the fatal time must come." Then ceased for ever. Fell thy Patroclus. I sink in night: Now perish Troy!" He said. and my native shore— Enough—when heaven ordains. leave your lord. And bow'd to dust the honours of his mane. Nor. as ye left Patroclus. by the Furies tied. Due to a mortal and immortal hand. Not through our crime. Seem'd sensible of woe. The intrepid chief replied With unabated rage—"So let it be! Portents and prodigies are lost on me. I know my fate: to die. The bright far-shooting god who gilds the day (Confess'd we saw him) tore his arms way. as the words he said. but by heavenly force.) Be swift. Or beat the pinions of the western gale. When. (Unless ye boast that heavenly race in vain.

592 The Iliad of Homer HERCULES. .

AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES. when the deities are engaged. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. beside her vessels stood. ARGUMENT. These shining on. to call The gods to council in the starry hall: Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills she flies. The scene is in the field before Troy. While near impending from a neighbouring height. not a rural power That haunts the verdant gloom. or rosy bower. but Æneas is preserved by the assistance of Neptune. . Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter. but Apollo conveys him away in a cloud. these two heroes encounter. Apollo encourages Æneas to meet Achilles. sheathed in arms. Then Jove to Themis gives command. Thus round Pelides breathing war and blood Greece. in long procession come To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. And summons all the senate of the skies. Each fair-hair'd dryad of the shady wood. Troy's black battalions wait the shock of fight. upon Achilles' return to the battle. calls a council of the gods. The terrors of the combat described. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans.[360] BOOK XX. The same day continues. and permits them to assist either party. Jupiter. Not one was absent. and is upon the point of killing Hector. After a long conversation.

All but old Ocean. And death stands ardent on the edge of war. And question'd thus the sire of men and gods: [361] "What moves the god who heaven and earth commands. and forsook the main. Celestial powers! descend. And grasps the thunder in his awful hands. hoary sire! who keeps His ancient seat beneath the sacred deeps. Even he whose trident sways the watery reign Heard the loud summons. And as your minds direct. What can they now. with lucid columns crown'd. though fate forbids the fall. If uncontroll'd Achilles fights alone: Their troops but lately durst not meet his eyes." . Assumed his throne amid the bright abodes. and see the hand of fate Work out our will.594 The Iliad of Homer Each azure sister of the silver flood. Thus to convene the whole ethereal state? Is Greece and Troy the subject in debate? Already met. Troy soon must lie o'erthrown. if in his rage he rise? Assist them. Far on Olympus' top in secret state Ourself will sit. gods! or Ilion's sacred wall May fall this day. even Jove's own eye Sees with regret unhappy mortals die. your succour lend To either host. the louring hosts appear." "'Tis true (the cloud-compelling power replies) This day we call the council of the skies In care of human race. (The work of Vulcan.) sat the powers around. On marble thrones.

He said. And now she thunders from the Grecian walls. of profitable arts the sire. 595 . And trembling see another god of war. The mountain shook.BOOK XX. the rapid stream stood still. Phoebus came. and a night of clouds: Now through each Trojan heart he fury pours With voice divine. Dreadful he stood in front of all his host. Then tumult rose: fierce rage and pale affright Varied each face: then Discord sounds alarms. whose streams in golden currents flow. But when the powers descending swell'd the fight. Now through the trembling shores Minerva calls. And the chaste huntress of the silver bow. and seem'd already lost. Hermes. from her beauteous hill. The vessels tremble as the gods alight. the black sovereign of the fire: These to the fleet repair with instant flight. Mars hovering o'er his Troy. Her bravest heroes pant with inward fear. the maid in arms renown'd. Pale Troy beheld. Ere yet the gods their various aid employ. Xanthus. shone in arms again. and he whose azure round Girds the vast globe. On adverse parts the warring gods engage: Heaven's awful queen. Each Argive bosom swell'd with manly joy. Mars fiery-helm'd. from Ilion's topmost towers: Now shouts to Simois. Latona. While great Achilles (terror of the plain). In aid of Troy. and fired their heavenly breasts with rage. And Vulcan. his terror shrouds In gloomy tempests. Long lost to battle. the laughter-loving dame. Earth echoes. and the nations rush to arms.

sister of the day. stern Neptune shakes the solid ground. All pale and trembling. Leap'd from his throne. Troy's turrets totter on the rocking plain. and dreadful even to gods. Against Latona march'd the son of May.260 The infernal monarch rear'd his horrid head. and hangeth the earth upon nothing. monarch of the main. the sire of gods his thunder rolls. . Slain by Jove's wrath. war's triumphant maid. 769. And from their sources boil her hundred floods.261 Such war the immortals wage. when the gods contend First silver-shafted Phoebus took the plain Against blue Neptune. 261 260 "Swift from his throne the infernal monarch ran. Should fill (a countless throng!) his dark abode. and the cloud is not rent under them. He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds. such horrors rend The world's vast concave. And pour in light on Pluto's drear abodes. 6-8." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. vi. And the toss'd navies beat the heaving main. The quiver'd Dian. Abhorr'd by men. lest the race of man. sqq. Through all their summits tremble Ida's woods. and destruction hath no covering. The god of arms his giant bulk display'd. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place. lest Neptune's arm should lay His dark dominions open to the day. The forests wave. the mountains nod around. Opposed to Pallas. "Hell is naked before him. Beneath. And peals on peals redoubled rend the poles.596 The Iliad of Homer [362] Above. Deep in the dismal regions of the dead." Job xxvi. and led by Hermes' rod.

Xanthus his name with those of heavenly birth. Apollo wedged him in the warrior's way. But swell'd his bosom with undaunted might. 597 THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. [363] . But called Scamander by the sons of earth. of the royal line. And bade the chief reflect. In voice and aspect.) Saturnia. With fiery Vulcan last in battle stands The sacred flood that rolls on golden sands. While thus the gods in various league engage. in search of Hector turn'd His eyes around. Like young Lycaon. majesty of heaven. (Her golden arrows sounding at her side. Achilles glow'd with more than mortal rage: Hector he sought. Half-forced and half-persuaded to the fight. for Hector only burn'd. Æneas was the first who dared to stay. and vow'd To glut the god of battles with his blood.BOOK XX. how late with scorn In distant threats he braved the goddess-born. seem'd the power divine. And burst like lightning through the ranks. defied.

Though strong in battle as a brazen tower. What mortal man Achilles can sustain? The immortals guard him through the dreadful plain.598 The Iliad of Homer Then thus the hero of Anchises' strain: "To meet Pelides you persuade in vain: Already have I met. And thus. Where'er he moved. But Jove himself the sacred source of thine. Lyrnessus. she said: . And bathed his brazen lance in hostile gore. Were God my aid." This said. the goddess shone before. Our force he scattered. and our herds he kill'd." To whom the son of Jove: "That god implore. Pedasus in ashes lay. Then lift thy weapon for a noble blow. Nor fear the vaunting of a mortal foe. nor void of fear Observed the fury of his flying spear. And be what great Achilles was before. An aged sea-god father of his line. and spirit breathed into his breast. this arm should check his power. And suffer not his dart to fall in vain. Through the thick troops the embolden'd hero press'd: His venturous act the white-arm'd queen survey'd. And he but from a sister of the main. From heavenly Venus thou deriv'st thy strain. But (Jove assisting) I survived the day: Else had I sunk oppress'd in fatal fight By fierce Achilles and Minerva's might. assembling all the powers. From Ida's woods he chased us to the field.

as Fates design. 263 It was anciently believed that it was dangerous. 20. And these. so feeble known. Hereafter let him fall. xxxiii. in ruin and confusion hurl'd. at least. To guard his life. or god of light. Give him to know what powers assist this day: For how shall mortal stand the dire alarms. But if the armipotent. And leave to war the fates of mortal men. to behold a deity. We. Obstruct Achilles. came down. to attend Our favour'd hero. but never wholly set aside. See Exod. and Phoebus gives him force. xiii. Yield to our conquering arms the lower world. Judg. "Behold an action. if not fatal.BOOK XX. shall the conflict end. Phoebus impels. When heaven's refulgent host appear in arms?"263 599 Thus she. That spun so short his life's illustrious line:262 But lest some adverse god now cross his way. Lo great Æneas rushing to the war! Against Pelides he directs his course. Why should celestial powers exert their own? Suffice from yonder mount to view the scene. Thence on the gods of Troy we swift descend: Full soon." 262 These words seem to imply the old belief. gods! that claims your care. 22. Restrain his bold career. and add to his renown. let some power descend. . and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Against the might of man. the great armament of heaven. I doubt not. that the Fates might be delayed. or commence the fight.

rose. [365] . Who viewing first his foes with scornful eyes. There great Achilles. wall'd. Amid both hosts (a dreadful space) appear. Crown the fair hills that silver Simois shade. In circle close each heavenly party sat. Coerulean Neptune. And. He rush'd impetuous.) What time a vengeful monster of the main Swept the wide shore. and chiefs in armour bright. around Apollo laid. by some brave youth defied. and the heavens reply. The nodding plumage on his helmet danced: Spread o'er his breast the fencing shield he bore. With clouds encompass'd. Such the lion's rage. Till at the length. Advanced upon the field there stood a mound Of earth congested. Intent to form the future scheme of fate. and trench'd around. Here Neptune and the gods of Greece repair. But mix not yet in fight. The trampled centre yields a hollow sound: Steeds cased in mail. (The work of Trojans. bold Æneas. with unregarding pride. and led the way. the tyrant of the sea. furious to engage. Though all in arms the peopled city rise. Stalks careless on. The gleaming champaign glows with brazen light. so he moved. here. With towering strides Aeneas first advanced. In elder times to guard Alcides made. Meanwhile the rushing armies hide the ground.600 The Iliad of Homer Thus having said. his javelin flamed before. Not so Pelides. and a veil of air: The adverse powers. though Jove on high Gives the loud signal. with Minerva's aid. and drove him to the plain.

or resolved on death. will hardly prove thy lot. He calls up all his rage. 'Tis true. Of hills for vines. till he reach'd Lyrnessus. in reward of thy victorious hand. turn'd his head. and his force defies. So fierce Achilles on Æneas flies. Has Troy proposed some spacious tract of land An ample forest. In hope the realms of Priam to enjoy. Pallas. The partial monarch may refuse the prize. in ruins laid: In Grecian chains her captive race were cast. Resolved on vengeance. Nor. those thy pride may quell: And 'tis his fault to love those sons too well. Her lofty walls not long our progress stay'd. He grins. But can Achilles be so soon forgot? Once (as I think) you saw this brandish'd spear And then the great Æneas seem'd to fear: With hearty haste from Ida's mount he fled. he grinds his teeth. To his bold spear the savage turns alone. he rolls his eyes around Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides resound. and we. or a fair domain. Jove. And prove his merits to the throne of Troy? Grant that beneath thy lance Achilles dies. the great Aeneas fled too fast. He murmurs fury with a hollow groan. Those. and arable for grain? Even this. he foams. begun The seed of Thetis thus to Venus' son: "Why comes Æneas through the ranks so far? Seeks he to meet Achilles' arm in war. Sons he has many. Defrauded of my conquest once before. So stands Æneas.BOOK XX. Ere yet the stern encounter join'd. 601 . perhaps. Or.

once. 264 [366] "Ere Ilium and the Trojan tow'rs arose. contend. iii." Dryden's Virgil. the first from Jove: Dardania's walls he raised. of Asia's wealthy kings. And tears shall trickle from celestial eyes: For when two heroes. 'Tis not in words the glorious strife can end. half human. avoid the threaten'd fate. If yet thou further seek to learn my birth (A tale resounded through the spacious earth) Hear how the glorious origin we prove From ancient Dardanus." To this Anchises' son: "Such words employ To one that fears thee. Fools stay to feel it. 150. the gods this day restore.602 The Iliad of Homer What then I lost. In humble vales they built their soft abodes. half divine. Conceal'd his godhead in a flowing mane. thus derived. the best may be defied With mean reproaches. Three thousand mares his spacious pastures bred. and are wise too late. some unwarlike boy. and unmanly pride. enamour'd of the sprightly train.) Was not. (The city since of many-languaged men. Each goddess-born. Boreas. The richest. Three thousand foals beside their mothers fed. .264 From Dardanus great Erichthonius springs. while thou may'st. then. or Venus' offspring dies. Thetis' this day. Such we disdain. The natives were content to till The shady foot of Ida's fountful hill. for Ilion. Go. Unworthy the high race from which we came Proclaim'd so loudly by the voice of fame: Each from illustrious fathers draws his line.

brave and bold. ever-honour'd pair. divinely fair. who "Outstripp'd the winds in speed upon the plain. 265 603 [367] —Along the level seas. and Anchises me. source of power and might! with boundless sway. snatch'd to upper air. thunderbolt of war. Ilus. But Jove alone endues the soul with worth: He. Whom heaven.BOOK XX. And when along the level seas they flew. And Hicetaon. Swift as their mother mares. nor hurt the bearded grain: She swept the seas. And coursed the dappled beauties o'er the mead: Hence sprung twelve others of unrivall'd kind. Such Erichthonius was: from him there came The sacred Tros. With voice dissembled to his loves he neigh'd. The grace and glory of the ambrosial feast). Her flying feet unbathed on billows hung. And Priam. From him Tithonus. of whom the Trojan name. Flew o'er the field. when they swept the plain. bless'd with Hector. The two remaining sons the line divide: First rose Laomedon from Ilus' side. To bear the cup of Jove (ethereal guest. enamour'd." Dryden. Compare Virgil's description of Camilla. Nor plied the grass. Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth. now in cares grown old. Three sons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed. From great Assaracus sprang Capys. Clytius and Lampus. nor bent the tender grain. or takes away. he Begat Anchises. These lightly skimming. 1100. . Assaracus.265 Scarce on the surface curl'd the briny dew. as she skimm'd along. and. All human courage gives. vii. and father wind. and Ganymed: The matchless Ganymed.

and loudly in the buckler rung. impenetrable charms Secured the temper of the ethereal arms. His fears were vain. Far on his outstretch'd arm. With all his force the javelin flung. To all those insults thou hast offer'd here. by the third repell'd. Composed the shield. and neither side can fail. Perhaps excel us in this wordy war. And pierced the Dardan shield's extremest bound. Cease then—Our business in the field of fight Is not to question. Pelides held (To meet the thundering lance) his dreadful shield. Wounded. But stopp'd. And vent their anger impotent and loud." He spoke. of brass each outward fold. For every man has equal strength to rail: Women alone. when in the streets they jar. but to prove our might. Reproach is infinite. Five plates of various metal. and the middle gold: There stuck the lance. we wound. And the slight covering of expanded hides. Fix'd deep. So voluble a weapon is the tongue. and rested. Receive this answer: 'tis my flying spear. encompass'd with the crowd. Where the shrill brass return'd a sharper sound: Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides. the immeasurable spear. . The forceful spear of great Achilles flew. nor void of fear Saw. That trembled as it stuck. Like us they stand. Of tin each inward. ere it fell.604 The Iliad of Homer Long in the field of words we may contend. right or wrong. various mould. Through two strong plates the point its passage held. and knows no end. Then rising ere he threw. Arm'd or with truth or falsehood.

—a suspicion indirectly glanced at. "Æneas and Antenor stand distinguished from the other Trojans by a dissatisfaction with Priam.BOOK XX. he claims our aid. the upper air. 266 . 427. By Phoebus urged. through its parting plates. At length are odious to the all-seeing mind. whose earthquakes rock the ground. Sees. i. Sure. though emphatically repelled. And o'er him high the riven targe extends. An instant victim to Achilles' hands. With force collected. And can ye see this righteous chief atone With guiltless blood for vices not his own? To all the gods his constant vows were paid. and a sympathy with the Greeks. But ocean's god. and Priam's faithless kind. though he wars for Troy. Æneas his contracted body bends. And at his back perceives the quivering spear: A fate so near him. Fate wills not this. chills his soul with fright. but Phoebus has bestow'd His aid in vain: the man o'erpowers the god. in the Æneas of Virgil. p. and at Æneas flies: Æneas rousing as the foe came on. Draws his broad blade. 605 [368] —The future father."—Grote. And still his love descends on all the race: For Priam now. Achilles. heaves a mighty stone: A mass enormous! which in modern days No two of earth's degenerate sons could raise. which is by Sophocles and others construed as treacherous collusion. and moved the powers around: "Lo! on the brink of fate Æneas stands. And swims before his eyes the many-colour'd light. Saw the distress. nor thus can Jove resign The future father of the Dardan line:266 The first great ancestor obtain'd his grace. rushing in with dreadful cries.

when I sought with joy The vow'd destruction of ungrateful Troy. 1058. v. Pallas and I." Dryden's Virgil. Through all the whistling darts his course he bends." The great earth-shaker thus: to whom replies The imperial goddess with the radiant eyes: "Good as he is. and unequal gods: I spread a cloud before the victor's sight.606 The Iliad of Homer On great Æneas shall devolve the reign. . and of bounding steeds: 267 [369] Neptune thus recounts his services to Æneas: "When your Æneas fought. and bore him through the sky. And at his master's feet the weapon threw. Smooth-gliding without step. above the heads Of warring heroes. but fought with odds Of force unequal." The king of ocean to the fight descends. Swift interposed between the warrior flies. Till her last flame be quench'd with her last gore. by all that gods can bind. O Neptune! be thy care. and secured his flight— Even then secured him. Not even an instant to protract their fate. That done. to immolate or spare The Dardan prince.267 From great Æneas' shield the spear he drew. And even her crumbling ruins are no more. Or save one member of the sinking state. Have sworn destruction to the Trojan kind. with force divine he snatch'd on high The Dardan prince. And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain. Sustain'd the vanquish'd. And casts thick darkness o'er Achilles' eyes.

Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come. The scene of war came rushing on his sight. nor great Minerva's rage. that parted on the wings of wind. To mow whole troops. Secure no Grecian force transcends thy own. and make whole armies fly: No god can singly such a host engage. Where the slow Caucans close the rear of fight. But when the day decreed (for come it must) Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dust. and arms to arms! 'Tis not in me. Till at the battle's utmost verge they light. nor antedate thy doom. returning with a stream of light. Urged thee to meet Achilles' arm in war? Henceforth beware. Laid here before me! and the Dardan lord. vanish'd from my sword! I thought alone with mortals to contend. Then thus. with all his gods. Great as he is. 607 . Let then the furies of that arm be known. and every rank alarms) Join battle." This said. Then from Achilles chased the mist away: Sudden. Now then let others bleed. man to man. though favour'd by the sky. our arms he scarce will try. Content for once. "What wonders strike my mind! My spear.BOOK XX. The godhead there (his heavenly form confess'd) With words like these the panting chief address'd: "What power. amazed. But powers celestial sure this foe defend. That fell this instant. O prince! with force inferior far. he left him wondering as he lay. to fly. Not Mars himself." With that. aloud He vents his fury and inflames the crowd: "O Greeks! (he cries.

And thin the squadrons with my single spear. Deeds must decide our fate. plunged within the ranks. your Hector should withstand. More safe to combat in the mingled band. But shrinks and shudders when the thunder flies. Whate'er this heart can prompt. his hands were fire.608 The Iliad of Homer But whatsoe'er Achilles can inspire. And brave that vengeful heart. A wood of lances rises round his head. or hand obey. who tremble at their swords: The weakest atheist-wretch all heaven defies. That fire. But Phoebus warns him from high heaven to shun The single fight with Thetis' godlike son. Hector leads you on." [370] Thus (breathing rage through all) the hero said. Not though his heart were steel. they thicken to the war. that steel." He said: nor less elate with martial joy. All. The godlike Hector warm'd the troops of Troy: "Trojans. or acting fire. He hears. Through yon wide host this arm shall scatter fear. E'en these with words Insult the brave. They join. that dreadful hand. obedient to the god of light. awaits the fight. they throng. all Achilles. Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand. Nor from yon boaster shall your chief retire. Greeks! is yours to-day. to war! Think. Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty son. Whate'er of active force. . And. Clamours on clamours tempest all the air.

of the flood. Antenor's offspring. Are thine no more. at his army's head. crown'd with snow. Demoleon next. the sword his head divides: The parted visage falls on equal sides: With loud-resounding arms he strikes the plain. Then fierce Achilles. His mother was a Nais. Fierce as he springs. At Neptune's shrine on Helice's high shores. the price of rashness paid. and seized with fright. and brave the host he led. And plenteous Hermus swells with tides of gold. And left him sleeping in eternal shade. though Gygae boast thy birth. And dash'd their axles with no vulgar gore. While thus Achilles glories o'er the slain: "Lie there. First falls Iphytion. laid Breathless in dust. From Hyde's walls he ruled the lands below."—The insulting hero said. shouting to the skies. Beneath the shades of Tmolus. The impatient steel with full-descending sway Forced through his brazen helm its furious way. Resistless drove the batter'd skull before. 609 . From great Otrynteus he derived his blood.BOOK XX. Otryntides! the Trojan earth Receives thee dead. And dash'd and mingled all the brains with gore. Brave was the chief. He groans away his soul: not louder roars. Deserts his chariot for a swifter flight: The lance arrests him: an ignoble wound The panting Trojan rivets to the ground. This sees Hippodamas. Those beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd. On Troy's whole force with boundless fury flies. The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore.

To vaunt his swiftness wheels around the plain. And on his knees with piercing shrieks he fell. the rocks re-bellow round. And shook his javelin like a waving flame. for protection. 268 —On Polydore. the dearest."— Then with revengeful eyes he scann'd him o'er: "Come. all ghastly in his gore. Thus sadly slain the unhappy Polydore. When Hector view'd.610 The Iliad of Homer [371] The victim bull. and that he was treacherously murdered by his host for the sake of the treasure sent with him. To the forbidden field he takes his flight. relate that Polydore was sent into Thrace. But vaunts not long. And golden rings the double back-plate join'd Forth through the navel burst the thrilling steel. and darkness wraps him round. The rushing entrails pour'd upon the ground His hands collect. In the first folly of a youthful knight. The son of Peleus sees. and others. A cloud of sorrow overcast his sight. with all his swiftness slain: Struck where the crossing belts unite behind. His soul no longer brook'd the distant fight: Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came. Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage. with joy possess'd. His heart high-bounding in his rising breast. being the youngest of Priam's sons. is his friend! No more shall Hector's and Pelides' spear Turn from each other in the walks of war. Euripides. and the last. and receive thy fate!" He spake no more. The man. Virgil. And ocean listens to the grateful sound.268 The youngest hope of Priam's stooping age: (Whose feet for swiftness in the race surpass'd:) Of all his sons. to the house of Polymestor. that slew Achilles. "And. lo! the man on whom black fates attend. .

And give it entrance in a braver heart. Hector.BOOK XX. Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart. once more thy flight Has saved thee. and the partial god of light. Achilles closes with his hated foe. and exclaims aloud: "Wretch! thou hast 'scaped again. If any power assist Achilles' hand." [372] . Mean intercourse of obloquy and pride! I know thy force to mine superior far. undaunted. His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow: But present to his aid. But long thou shalt not thy just fate withstand. thus: "Such words employ To one that dreads thee. some unwarlike boy: Such we could give." 611 Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heavenly breath Far from Achilles wafts the winged death: The bidden dart again to Hector flies. But heaven alone confers success in war: Mean as I am. the gods may guide my dart. Apollo shrouds The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds. And at the feet of its great master lies. defying and defied. Fly then inglorious! but thy flight this day Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. Thrice in impassive air he plunged the dart. The spear a fourth time buried in the cloud. He foams with fury.

Deep though the front the ponderous falchion cleaves. And stood all impotent. Pierced through the neck: he left him panting there. The valiant sons of an unhappy sire. And for the soul an ample passage made. Gigantic chief! deep gash'd the enormous blade. an age so like thy own! Unhappy boy! no prayer. The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes. Then brave Deucalion died: the dart was flung Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow strung. Laoganus and Dardanus expire. in vain his beauty pleads. The panting liver pours a flood of gore That drowns his bosom till he pants no more. and one the sword. an unassisting weight. Thy life. no moving art. he gluts his rage on numbers slain: Then Dryops tumbled to the ensanguined plain. and cried. E'er bent that fierce. And stopp'd Demuchus. The ruthless falchion oped his tender side. Sunk in one instant to the nether world: This difference only their sad fates afford That one the spear destroy'd. inexorable heart! While yet he trembled at his knees. transfix'd from ear to ear. great Philetor's heir. young Alastor bleeds. He dropp'd his arm. Warm'd in the brain the smoking weapon lies. In vain he begs thee. with a suppliant's moan. expecting fate: . Echeclus! next the sword bereaves.612 The Iliad of Homer With that. To spare a form. In vain his youth. Nor less unpitied. Through Mulius' head then drove the impetuous spear: The warrior falls. Both in one instant from the chariot hurl'd.

lies Ceres' sacred floor. and blazes to the skies. who saw expiring on the ground His prostrate master. Such is the lust of never-dying fame! 613 [373] . High o'er the scene of death Achilles stood. This way and that. the spreading torrent roars: So sweeps the hero through the wasted shores. sunk in dust.) Succeeds to fate: the spear his belly rends. still with rage on flame. all horrible in blood: Yet still insatiate. the corpse extended lies. As when a flame the winding valley fills. And thick bestrewn. (The son of Pierus. Dash'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly. From his broad shoulders hew'd his crested head: Forth from the bone the spinal marrow flies. And runs on crackling shrubs between the hills. And stretch'd the servant o'er his dying lord. When round and round. bloody drops the smoking chariot dye: The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. And. and crush out heroes' souls. the Pelian javelin gored. an illustrious name. as the chariot rolls. immense destruction pours And earth is deluged with the sanguine showers As with autumnal harvests cover'd o'er. whose race from fruitful Thracia came. Then o'er the stubble up the mountain flies. with never-wearied pain. The squire. scarce turn'd. Black.BOOK XX. The trampling steers beat out the unnumber'd grain: So the fierce coursers. Rhigmas. Fires the high woods. Around him wide. Full on his neck the falling falchion sped. Prone from his car the thundering chief descends. Tread down whole ranks. His back. rein'd the steeds around. All grim with dust. And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore.

614 The Iliad of Homer CENTAUR. .

ARGUMENT.[374] BOOK XXI. who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agenor's shape. others to the river Scamander: he falls upon the latter with great slaughter: takes twelve captives alive. might. in the twenty-first of the Iliad. 269 . Scamander attacks him with all his waves: Neptune and Pallas assist the hero: Simois joins Scamander: at length Vulcan. The rescue of Achilles by the fiery arms of Vulcan scarcely admits of the same ready explanation from physical causes. drives the rest into Troy: Agenor only makes a stand. "Perhaps the boldest excursion of Homer into this region of poetical fancy is the collision into which. may suddenly immerse him in the flood of a mighty river. THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER. when summoned by Juno to the hero's aid. by a slight extension of the figurative parallel. But a thunder-shower in the mountains. first with Achilles. unobserved perhaps by the traveller on the plain. and kills Lycaon and Asteropeus. The overwhelming fury of the stream finds the natural interpretation in the character of the mountain torrents of Greece and Asia Minor. he has brought the river god Scamander. by the instigation of Juno. so as to be easily forded by the foot passenger. some towards the town. and afterwards with Vulcan. and while he pursues him in that disguise. Their wide. the other gods engage each other. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter. Yet the subsiding of the flood at the critical moment when the hero's destruction appeared imminent. be ascribed to a god symbolic of the influences opposed to all atmospheric moisture. and is conveyed away in a cloud by Apollo.269 The Trojans fly before Achilles. This Combat ended. 480. sq. shingly beds are in summer comparatively dry. gives the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city. to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus. i. p. almost dries up the river. vol."—Mure.

) Then. And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds:) Part plunge into the stream: old Xanthus roars. Deep groan'd the waters with the dying sound. Swift through the foamy flood the Trojans fly. now he whirls it round. The scene is on the banks and in the stream of Scamander. Arm'd with his sword. Xanthus. in eddies whirling round. like a god. high brandish'd o'er the waves: Now down he plunges. And now to Xanthus' gliding stream they drove. And close in rocks or winding caverns lie: So the huge dolphin tempesting the main. Repeated wounds the reddening river dyed. His bloody lance the hero casts aside. The clustering legions rush into the flood: So. the rapid billows braves. The flashing billows beat the whiten'd shores: With cries promiscuous all the banks resound. Part to the town fly diverse o'er the plain. and there. The flouncing steeds and shrieking warriors drown'd. And here. and trembling in ignoble flight: (These with a gathered mist Saturnia shrouds. [375] . And the warm purple circled on the tide. Driven from the land before the smoky cloud. Confusedly heap'd they seek their inmost caves. While fast behind them runs the blaze of fire. The river here divides the flying train. In shoals before him fly the scaly train. Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight. plunged in Xanthus by Achilles' force. Roars the resounding surge with men and horse. Now chased. (Which spreading tamarisks on the margin hide. immortal progeny of Jove. As the scorch'd locusts from their fields retire.616 The Iliad of Homer The same day continues.

whom the hero's hand But late made captive in his father's land (As from a sycamore. With their rich belts their captive arms restrains (Late their proud ornaments. as once more he plunged amid the flood. panting.BOOK XXI. Then. from the stream he fled. The young Lycaon in his passage stood. The ransom'd prince to fair Arisbe bore. since in his father's reign He felt the sweets of liberty again. But kind Eetion. his sounding steel Lopp'd the green arms to spoke a chariot wheel) To Lemnos' isle he sold the royal slave. Ten days were past. These his attendants to the ships convey'd. Now. "Ye mighty gods! what wonders strike my view! Is it in vain our conquering arms subdue? Sure I shall see yon heaps of Trojans kill'd Rise from the shades. and dropp'd upon the field His useless lance and unavailing shield. And knock'd his faltering knees. the hero said. His well-known face when great Achilles eyed. that god whom men in vain withstand Gives the same youth to the same conquering hand Now never to return! and doom'd to go A sadder journey to the shades below. (The helm and visor he had cast aside With wild affright. touching on the shore. Sad victims destined to Patroclus' shade. 617 [376] .) As trembling. The son of Priam. and brave me on the field. The next. tired with slaughter. Where Jason's son the price demanded gave. but now their chains). Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves. from the Trojan band Twelve chosen youths he drags alive to land.

Achilles raised the spear. extended on the ground: And while. one stopp'd the dart. my flying spear! Try. One hand embraced them close. . whose strong grasp has held down Hercules. at length this active prince can seize. He kiss'd his feet. the spear suspended stood. Lo! he returns. And his soul shivering at the approach of death. Try. That bar such numbers from their native plain. Whom late thy conquering arm to Lemnos bore. And scarce twelve morning suns have seen me here. then. above. and Lelegia's heir. While thus these melting words attempt his heart: "Thy well-known captive. Who shared the gifts of Ceres at thy board. Longing to dip its thirsty point in blood. friends." Thus while he spoke. stalks on Trojan ground! Not him the sea's unmeasured deeps detain. Earth. and Laothoe fair. A hundred oxen were his price that day. whom so late I bound And sold to Lemnos. Far from his father. Some pity to a suppliant's name afford.618 The Iliad of Homer As now the captive. Scarce respited from woes I yet appear. Lo! Jove again submits me to thy hands. Now sums immense thy mercy shall repay. (Old Altes' daughter. great Achilles! see. Again. the Trojan pale with fears Approach'd. and sought his knees with suppliant tears Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath. If earth. Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. and native shore. prepared to wound. if the grave can hold the wanderer. her victim cruel Fate demands! I sprang from Priam.

dies: In vain a single Trojan sues for grace.BOOK XXI. And I succeed to slaughter'd Polydore."—He said. or day. or the dart. While all his trembling frame confess'd his fear: Sudden. whom nature's gifts adorn. and as the word he spoke. Achilles his broad sword display'd. And buried in his neck the reeking blade.) Two sons (alas! unhappy sons) she bore. How from that arm of terror shall I fly? Some demon urges! 'tis my doom to die! If ever yet soft pity touch'd thy mind. or by design. And thou. Die then. The fainting stripling sank before the stroke: His hand forgot its grasp. And ruled the fields where silver Satnio flow'd. the sons of Priam's hateful race. 619 [377] . the arrow. my friend! what boots it to deplore? The great. and left the spear. by force. With his. By night. whoever meets me. Sprung from a hero. or ransom (he replies): Patroclus dead. Impending death and certain fate are mine! Die then. Ah! think not me too much of Hector's kind! Not the same mother gave thy suppliant breath." These words. Who held in Pedasus his famed abode. was foredoom'd to die. the good Patroclus is no more! He. The youth address'd to unrelenting ears: "Talk not of life. far thy better. attended with a shower of tears. But least. For ah! one spear shall drink each brother's gore. from a goddess born? The day shall come (which nothing can avert) When by the spear. dost thou bewail mortality? Seest thou not me. who wrought thy loved Patroclus' death.

What boots ye now Scamander's worshipp'd stream. And thus insults him. What means divine may yet the power employ To check Achilles. Lycaon! let the fish surround Thy bloated corpse. With fury swells the violated flood. And the short absence of Achilles paid. and such compassion mine. advancing from the flood. and suck thy gory wound: There no sad mother shall thy funerals weep. So perish Troy. he fearless stood. With all his refluent waters circled round:) On him Achilles rush'd. His earthly honours. whose lofty line Flows from the source of Axius. till the Grecian vengeance is complete: Thus is atoned Patroclus' honour'd shade. Your living coursers glut his gulfs in vain! Thus he rewards you. with this bitter fate. [378] ." These boastful words provoked the raging god.620 The Iliad of Homer Prone fell the youth. Thus. and immortal name? In vain your immolated bulls are slain. and to rescue Troy? Meanwhile the hero springs in arms. stream divine! (Fair Peribaea's love the god had crown'd. Whose every wave some watery monster brings. The son of Pelagon. to dare The great Asteropeus to mortal war. And shook two spears. floating on the wave: "Lie there. To feast unpunish'd on the fat of kings. and all the Trojan line! Such ruin theirs. The victor to the stream the carcase gave. The gushing purple dyed the thirsty sand. and panting on the land. But swift Scamander roll thee to the deep.

Bent as he stands. and shook the rooted wood. in earth the fasten'd weapon stood. Deep in the swelling bank was driven the spear. the Vulcanian shield. whose spear much glory won: Now lift thy arm. At once Asteropeus discharged each lance. 621 . Near as they drew. Even to the middle earth. And wide around the floated region fills. who swells with all the neighbouring rills. Then from his side the sword Pelides drew. my native band. but pierced not. Arm'd with protended spears. The flood impell'd him. the spouting blood Spun forth. One razed Achilles' hand.BOOK XXI. Begot my sire. Like lightning next the Pelean javelin flies: Its erring fury hiss'd along the skies. and try that hero's son!" Threatening he said: the hostile chiefs advance. on Pelides' head To avenge his waters choked with heaps of dead. (For both his dexterous hands the lance could wield.) One struck. Now shines the tenth bright morning since I came In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame: Axius. he tries to break the spear in vain. he tumbles to the plain. Achilles thus began: "What art thou. boldest of the race of man? Who. The foe thrice tugg'd. and quiver'd there. And on his foe with double fury flew." "O son of Peleus! what avails to trace (Replied the warrior) our illustrious race? From rich Paeonia's valleys I command. or from whence? Unhappy is the sire Whose son encounters our resistless ire. Repulsive of his might the weapon stood: The fourth.

from whose fountains flow The seas. As he that thunders to the stream that flows. And beat against it. The floating tides the bloody carcase lave. Till. and his spirit flies. All scatter'd round the stream (their mightiest slain) The amazed Paeonians scour along the plain. And left the breathless warrior in his gore. [379] . nor wars against his son. Astyplus. But Jove he dreads. Even Achelous might contend in vain. wave succeeding wave. and the springs below. Beneath the hero's feet he panting lies.622 The Iliad of Homer His belly open'd with a ghastly wound. and fishes of the flood. And all the roaring billows of the main. The eternal ocean. His radiant armour tearing from the dead: "So ends thy glory! Such the fate they prove." He said: then from the bank his javelin tore. While the proud victor thus triumphing said. The reeking entrails pour upon the ground. The thundering voice of Jove abhors to hear. didst thou boast thy line? But great Saturnius is the source of mine. the rivers. How durst thou vaunt thy watery progeny? Of Peleus. roll'd between the banks. He vents his fury on the flying crew. Who strive presumptuous with the sons of Jove! Sprung from a river. and Jove. Æacus. it lies the food Of curling eels. Scamander might have shown. The race of these superior far to those. And his eye darkens. And in his deep abysses shakes with fear. am I. and Mnesus slew. Thrasius. What rivers can.

Turn then. But not till Troy the destined vengeance pay. Or stain this lance. with Ænius. that Phoebus should employ His sacred arrows in defence of Troy. 'Tis not on me thy rage should heap the dead. And make her conquer. And numbers more his lance had plunged to hell. Thersilochus. and drove with fury on the foe.BOOK XXI. Content. Not till within her towers the perjured train Shall pant. and in force divine! If Jove have given thee every Trojan head. Then to the godhead of the silver bow The yellow flood began: "O son of Jove! Was not the mandate of the sire above Full and express. fell. and thus the chief replies: "O sacred stream! thy word we shall obey. The river thus. See! my choked streams no more their course can keep. 623 "O first of mortals! (for the gods are thine) In valour matchless." He said. or see Achilles fall. confess'd before his eyes." In human form. impetuous! from our injured flood. guardian of her wall. and tremble at our arms again. till Hyperion's fall In awful darkness hide the face of all?" . Nor roll their wonted tribute to the deep. But from the bottom of his gulfs profound Scamander spoke. thy slaughters could amaze a god. the shores return'd the sound. Mydon. Not till proud Hector.

At every bound his clanging armour rings: Now here. that overhung the flood. Loud flash the waters to the rushing fall Of the thick foliage. and staggering. Then rising in his rage above the shores. and raised upon his hand.270 Heaving the bank. ambitious to destroy The man whose fury is the fate of Troy. now there. and regain'd the land. The plant uprooted to his weight gave way. The large trunk display'd Bridged the rough flood across: the hero stay'd On this his weight. Wood has observed. upborne. His feet. The falling deluge whelms the hero round: His loaded shield bends to the rushing tide. a huger billow throws." 270 . Huge heaps of slain disgorges on the coast. he turns on every side. Leap'd from the channel. And round the banks the ghastly dead are toss'd.624 The Iliad of Homer [380] He spoke in vain—The chief without dismay Ploughs through the boiling surge his desperate way. and undermining all. which is described as reaching from one of its banks to the other. Sliddering. (A watery bulwark.) screen the bands who fly. On the border stood A spreading elm. And bursts the bank. Then blacken'd the wild waves: the murmur rose: The god pursues. affords a very just idea of the breadth of the Scamander. From all his deep the bellowing river roars. Far as a spear can fly. that "the circumstance of a falling tree. While all before. his steps to stay. Achilles springs. He seized a bending bough. the billows ranged on high. He like the warlike eagle speeds his pace (Swiftest and strongest of the aerial race). Now bursting on his head with thundering sound. scarce the strong flood divide.

The waves flow after. Swift o'er the rolling pebbles. And still indignant bounds above the waves. And calls the floods from high. Beats on his back. wheresoe'er he wheels. When thus (his eyes on heaven's expansion thrown) Forth bursts the hero with an angry groan: [381] . but before his eyes Still swift Scamander rolls where'er he flies: Not all his speed escapes the rapid floods. they prevent his pains.BOOK XXI. Louder and louder purl the falling rills. And winds his course before the following tide. in watery mountains spread. 625 Still flies Achilles. So when a peasant to his garden brings Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs. Tired by the tides. The first of men. And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. Yet dauntless still the adverse flood he braves. down the hills. Wash'd from beneath him slides the slimy soil. And gather fast. Oft as he turn'd the torrent to oppose. his knees relax with toil. Before him scattering. So oft the surge. And bravely try if all the powers were foes. but not a match for gods. And marks the future current with his spade. or bursts upon his head. And feed with pregnant streams the plants and flowers: Soon as he clears whate'er their passage stay'd. and murmur at his heels. to bless his bowers.

271 And make my future life the sport of fate. till all Her routed squadrons pant behind their wall: Hector alone shall stand his fatal chance. whom on a rainy day. In glorious arms before the Trojan wall. An unregarded carcase to the sea. And thus in human form address'd the chief: The power of ocean first: "Forbear thy fear. the counsel heaven suggests. and the blue-eyed maid. But most of Thetis must her son complain. O Jove! this ignominious date. Propitious Neptune. Stay. attend! Nor breathe from combat. No power to avert his miserable end? Prevent. thy gods appear! Behold! from Jove descending to thy aid. Ah no! Achilles meets a shameful fate. By Phoebus' darts she prophesied my fall. —Ignominious. O son of Peleus! Lo. Till Troy receive her flying sons. and the furious flood shall cease to rave 'Tis not thy fate to glut his angry wave. Drowning. nor thy sword suspend. Stretch'd like a hero. Of all heaven's oracles believed in vain. Oh how unworthy of the brave and great! Like some vile swain." Neptune and Pallas haste to his relief. Oh! had I died in fields of battle warm. And my swift soul o'ertake my slaughter'd friend. as compared with a death in the field of battle. was considered utterly disgraceful. And Hector's blood shall smoke upon thy lance.626 The Iliad of Homer "Is there no god Achilles to befriend. by a hero's arm! Might Hector's spear this dauntless bosom rend. But thou. 271 . the torrent sweeps away. Crossing a ford.

He springs impetuous. . Call then thy subject streams. and bid them roar. He wades. indignant Xanthus roars. Shall aught avail him. and pour it on his head. and mounts. High o'er the surging tide. Stung with new ardour. No Greeks shall e'er his perish'd relics grace. nor form divine to sight. And boldly bids the warring gods be foes! But nor that force. the parted wave resounds. Mark how resistless through the floods he goes." Thus spake the gods: Then swift ascended to the bright abodes. Our bravest heroes else shall quit the fight. 627 [382] Then thus to Simois! "Haste. And Ilion tumble from her towery height. Heaved on the bounding billows danced the dead. and invades the field: O'er all the expanded plain the waters spread. if our rage unite: Whelm'd under our dark gulfs those arms shall lie. and with a load of dead. Charge the black surge. while casques of gold And turn'd-up bucklers glitter'd as they roll'd. From all thy fountains swell thy watery store. by leaps and bounds. Thine is the glory doom'd. And lifts his billows. Immersed remain this terror of the world. And deep beneath a sandy mountain hurl'd. With equal rage. Such ponderous ruin shall confound the place. thus by heaven impell'd. Floating 'midst scatter'd arms. Not a whole river stops the hero's course. While Pallas fills him with immortal force.BOOK XXI. And check this mortal that controls a god. With broken rocks. That blaze so dreadful in each Trojan eye. my brother flood. and o'erwhelms his shores.

Increased with gore. and on the chief descends amain. ." ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. and deluged him with blood. and summon'd Vulcan's aid. Fear touch'd the queen of heaven: she saw dismay'd. before Achilles stood The crimson surge. And a foam whitens on the purple waves: At every step. He said. murmuring from his beds. Then. he raves. and swelling with the slain. or inhume. She call'd aloud. and this his watery tomb. he boils. These his cold rites.628 The Iliad of Homer No hand his bones shall gather.

Go. The flowering lotos and the tamarisk burn. the fishes pant for breath. Now glow the waves. Broad elm. short-panting. now dive the scaly fry. and dries the soil And the shrunk waters in their channel boil. As when autumnal Boreas sweeps the sky. While Vulcan breathed the fiery blast around. At length the river rear'd his languid head. And instant blows the water'd gardens dry: So look'd the field. to the god he said: . Rush the swift eastern and the western wind: These from old ocean at my word shall blow. Swift on the sedgy reeds the ruin preys. The eels lie twisting in the pangs of death: Now flounce aloft. And thus.BOOK XXI. so whiten'd was the ground. gasping. the crackling trees devour. Corses and arms to one bright ruin turn. Scorch all the banks! and (till our voice reclaim) Exert the unwearied furies of the flame!" The power ignipotent her word obeys: Wide o'er the plain he pours the boundless blaze. by our command enjoin'd. The watery willows hiss before the fire. Along the margin winds the running blaze: The trees in flaming rows to ashes turn. At once consumes the dead. turn their bellies to the sky. Pour the red torrent on the watery foe. And hissing rivers to their bottoms burn. and cypress rising in a spire. Or. 629 "Rise to the war! the insulting flood requires Thy wasteful arm! assemble all thy fires! While to their aid. Drink the whole flood. mighty in thy rage! display thy power.

But ah! withdraw this all-destroying hand.272 To melt the fat of some rich sacrifice. forbid to flow. 644. To Juno then. Above the brims they force their fiery way. For mightier gods assert the cause of Troy. And in one ruin sink the Trojan name. must thy son engage Me. with all his wasteful rage? On other gods his dreadful arm employ. . if fate decree— Ah—bend no more thy fiery arms on me!" He ceased. Till Greece shall gird her with destructive flame. Hear then my solemn oath. the heavy smoke aspires: So boils the imprison'd flood." Dryden's Virgil. Submissive I desist. if thou command. to yield to fate Unaided Ilion. I sink. Saturnia. unequal to the fight— I yield—Let Ilion fall. The bubbling waters from the bottom rise. imperial queen of air. when with crackling flames a caldron fries. and cloud the day. vii." 272 [384] —Beneath a caldron. As when the flames beneath a cauldron rise. Amid the fierce embrace of circling fires The waters foam. and her destined state. only me. wide conflagration blazing round. The bubbling waters yield a hissing sound. The burning river sends his earnest prayer: "Ah why. And choked with vapours feels his bottom glow.630 The Iliad of Homer "Oh Vulcan! oh! what power resists thy might? I faint. "So. Black vapours climb aloft.

Jove. His warm entreaty touch'd Saturnia's ear: She bade the ignipotent his rage forbear.BOOK XXI. That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. . The warring gods in fierce contention join: Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms: With horrid clangour shock the ethereal arms: Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound. 631 While these by Juno's will the strife resign. And madly bathed it in celestial gore. And views contending gods with careless eyes. And soft remurmur in their wonted bed. The power of battles lifts his brazen spear. And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. Which bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful field: The adamantine aegis of her sire." He spoke. Recall the flame. nor in a mortal cause Infest a god: the obedient flame withdraws: Again the branching streams begin to spread. as his sport. and mix all heaven in fight? What wonder this. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. and smote the long-resounding shield. And first assaults the radiant queen of war: "What moved thy madness. when in thy frantic mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a god? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore. the dreadful scene descries.

632 The Iliad of Homer Then heaved the goddess in her mighty hand A stone. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. insatiate fury! known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own? Juno. scarcely breathes with pain. diffused celestial day. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. beaming round. Thundering he falls. And. And. Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. forsakes the plain. stooping on the land. thus to war's victorious maid: "Lo! what an aid on Mars's side is seen! The smiles' and loves' unconquerable queen! Mark with what insolence. Lent to the wounded god her tender hand: Slowly he rises. That. a mass of monstrous size: And seven broad acres covers as he lies. black. craggy. vast. pursue. The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound: Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound: The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles. if she dares. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand. She moves: let Pallas." . glorying. This the bright empress of the heavens survey'd. thus the prostrate god reviles: [385] "Hast thou not yet. This at the heavenly homicide she cast. in open view. the limit of the neighbouring land. and turn'd her eyes away." The goddess spoke. There fix'd from eldest times. propp'd on her fair arm. And. Jove's Cyprian daughter. scoffing.

And slightly on her breast the wanton strook: She. we with shame retire. With menace stern the fraudful king defied Our latent godhead. how. at the monarch's prayer. and the prize denied: Mad as he was. to our Olympian sire? Come. the pair o'ertook. And yon proud bulwarks grew beneath my hands: Thy task it was to feed the bellowing droves Along fair Ida's vales and pendant groves. No deed perform'd. But when the circling seasons in their train Brought back the grateful day that crown'd our pain. "And like these heroes be the fate of all (Minerva cries) who guard the Trojan wall! To Grecian gods such let the Phrygian be. We shared the lengthen'd labours of a year? Troy walls I raised (for such were Jove's commands). or superior age: Rash as thou art to prop the Trojan throne. fell (her spirits fled). when the fields around Ring with conflicting powers. . he threaten'd servile bands. Minerva smiling heard. ignominious. On earth together lay the lovers spread. 633 Meantime. so fierce.BOOK XXI. prove thy arm! for first the war to wage.) And guard the race of proud Laomedon! Hast thou forgot. The god of ocean dares the god of light. and of thy own. (Forgetful of my wrongs. Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved. to mix in more than mortal fight. So dread. as Venus is to me. and Juno with a smile approved. Suits not my greatness. unresisting." Thus she. and heaven returns the sound: Shall. "What sloth has seized us.

and dreadful show Of pointed arrows and the silver bow! Now boast no more in yon celestial bower. as a punishment for misbehaviour. we heavenward fled with swiftest wing. 156. with beauty crown'd. recurs not unfrequently among the incidents of the Mythical world. And from the senior power submiss retires: Him thus retreating. like us.634 [386] The Iliad of Homer And doom'd us exiles far in barbarous lands. now. afford proud Ilion grace. by order of Jove. And from its deep foundations heave their Troy?" Apollo thus: "To combat for mankind Ill suits the wisdom of celestial mind. They owe their life and nourishment to earth. Smile on the sun. Nor mix immortals in a cause so mean. their present. wither on the ground. vol. Artemis upbraids. And destined vengeance on the perjured king." "This tale of the temporary servitude of particular gods. p. i. far-beaming heavenly fires."—Grote. that now. The quiver'd huntress of the sylvan shades: "And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies. Thy force can match the great earth-shaking power. Dost thou. Like us. infest the faithless race. For what is man? Calamitous by birth. future sons destroy. To their own hands commit the frantic scene.273 Incensed. Like yearly leaves. And not. 273 . And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize? How vain that martial pomp. for this." Then turns his face.

rattling from the case. These in her left hand lock'd. and seized her wrists with eager rage.BOOK XXI. About her temples flies the busy bow. now there. To her Latona hastes with tender care. who gives delight To him whose thunders blacken heaven with night? Go. Now here. Swift from the field the baffled huntress flies. matchless goddess! triumph in the skies. Yet still her heart against the marble beats. And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes: So. with a tiger's heart? What though tremendous in the woodland chase Thy certain arrows pierce the savage race? How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. (Not fated yet to die. Whom Hermes viewing. or match thy force with mine? Learn hence. Drop round. her right untied The bow. The scattering arrows. and idly mark the dusty place. To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove. the quiver. Thy sex's tyrant. she winds her from the blow." 635 [387] . Silent he heard the queen of woods upbraid: Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid: But furious thus: "What insolence has driven Thy pride to face the majesty of heaven? What though by Jove the female plague design'd. no more unequal war to wage—" She said.) there safe retreats. and its plumy pride. The wretched matron feels thy piercing dart. Fierce to the feeble race of womankind. thus declines the war: "How shall I face the dame. when the falcon wings her way above. while I yield the prize. And boast my conquest.

all confused. stooping low. and o'er rolling steeds. And toils. Apollo enters Ilion's sacred town. and bade her show What heavenly hand had caused his daughter's woe? Abash'd. Back to Olympus. she names his own imperial spouse. fill'd the dreadful day. and pass'd: Latona. Weeping. And the red vapours purple all the sky: So raged Achilles: death and dire dismay. Thus they above: while. And fear'd the Greeks. Return the shining bands of gods in arms. And the pale crescent fades upon her brows. through death. The guardian-god now trembled for her wall. lay here and there Dishonour'd relics of Diana's war: Then swift pursued her to her blest abode. swiftly gliding down. .636 The Iliad of Homer He spoke. and terrors. Where. The pale inhabitants. As when avenging flames with fury driven On guilty towns exert the wrath of heaven. That. Collects the scatter'd shafts and fallen bow. some with rage on fire. some fall. O'er slaughter'd heroes. Achilles still proceeds. and panted on her breast. from the war's alarms. some fly. she grasp'd his knees: the ambrosial vest Shook with her sighs. though fate forbade her fall. glittering on the dust. Through blood. The sire superior smiled. And take their thrones around the ethereal sire. she sought the sovereign god. Some proud in triumph.

And Troy inglorious to her walls retired. But he. Wild with revenge. the Trojans' scatter'd flight. Thither. from his arm. Struck slaughter back. they beat the hollow plain: And gasping. Enraged Achilles follows with his spear. On heaps the Trojans crowd to gain the gate. he sighing quits the walls. and brave. that lengthen toward the town. And gladsome see their last escape from fate. He comes. no check. Phoebus rush'd forth. and shut out death. a heartless train. the sounding hinges rung. haughty. labour on With heavier strides. Lock fast the brazen bars. on the guards he calls: "You to whose care our city-gates belong. no aid! With feeble pace. and desolation marks his way! But when within the walls our troops take breath. (Antenor's offspring. And the near hero rising on his sight! No stop. fainting. insatiable of war. Set wide your portals to the flying throng: For lo! he comes. And marks the waste of his destructive hands.) 637 [388] . all parch'd with thirst. and redeem her fame: To young Agenor force divine he gave. And thus descending.BOOK XXI. Hoary with dust. Shot down to save her. panting. And settled sorrow on his aged face. High on a turret hoary Priam stands. the flying bands to meet. Then had the Greeks eternal praise acquired. the god who darts ethereal flame. Views. bold. with unresisted sway. and cover'd the retreat." Thus charged the reverend monarch: wide were flung The opening folds. Fast as he could.

What if?—But wherefore all this vain debate? Stand I to doubt. ere a storm. Here. And wrapt in clouds. and I fall: Such is his swiftness. Howe'er 'tis better." . restrain'd the hand of fate. shall I fly this terror of the plain! Like others fly. that who stands must die. As soon as night her dusky veil extends. conceal'd. (So.) He stops. fighting for the state. From my tired body wash the dirt and blood. that leads To Ida's forests and surrounding shades? So may I reach. The fierce Achilles sees me. No: with the common heap I scorn to fall— What if they pass'd me to the Trojan wall. and in public view. within the reach of fate? Even now perhaps. 'tis in vain to fly. And such his valour. One only soul informs that dreadful frame: And Jove's sole favour gives him all his fame. the troubled motions rise. the cooling flood. While I decline to yonder path. Yet sure he too is mortal. and questions thus his mighty soul. the waters heave and roll. and be like others slain? Vain hope! to shun him by the self-same road Yon line of slaughter'd Trojans lately trod.638 The Iliad of Homer In aid of him. he may feel (Like all the sons of earth) the force of steel. to meet my fate. "What. Thick beats his heart. ere yet I turn the wall. beside the beech he sate. When now the generous youth Achilles spies. Return in safety to my Trojan friends.

Antenor's valiant heir Confronts Achilles. collected. even thou may'st stain with gore These Phrygian fields. Apollo shrouds The god-like Trojan in a veil of clouds. And strong and many are the sons of Troy. Parents and children our just arms employ. Disdainful of retreat: high held before. though wounded. and of clamorous hounds. Roused from his thicket by a storm of darts: Untaught to fear or fly. that hope is vain. or beneath him dies. 639 He said. So from some deep-grown wood a panther starts. in act to throw The lifted javelin. and stood. he hears the sounds Of shouting hunters. thus bespoke the foe: "How proud Achilles glories in his fame! And hopes this day to sink the Trojan name Beneath her ruins! Know. Then graceful as he stood. And the barb'd javelin stings his breast in vain: On their whole war. And tears his hunter. and awaits the war. His shield (a broad circumference) he bore. A thousand woes." He said: with matchless force the javelin flung Smote on his knee. Then fiercely rushing on the daring foe. [389] . the savage flies. His lifted arm prepares the fatal blow: But. And all his beating bosom claim'd the fight. scarce perceives the pain. the hollow cuishes rung Beneath the pointed steel. Though struck. a thousand toils remain. and press a foreign shore. but safe from harms He stands impassive in the ethereal arms. untamed. in his might. jealous of his fame. Great as thou art.BOOK XXI. Not less resolved.

Dismiss'd with fame. now distant scarce a stride before. Pale Troy against Achilles shuts her gate: And nations breathe. And sudden joy confused. Now urge the course where swift Scamander glides: The god. no thought to ask. and mix'd affright. and wheels about the shore. And pour on heaps into the walls of Troy: No stop.640 The Iliad of Homer Safe from pursuit. Assumes Agenor's habit. 'Twas tumult all. or tell. to cover their escape. and violence of flight. . no stay. Tempts his pursuit. deliver'd from their fate. the favoured youth withdrew. Now o'er the fields they stretch with lengthen'd strides. or who by battle fell. While all the flying troops their speed employ. Who 'scaped by flight. Flies from the furious chief in this disguise. and shut from mortal view. The furious chief still follows where he flies. voice and shape. Meanwhile the god.

She swoons at the spectacle. and despair. and on the battlements of Troy. Their lamentations. Their cries reach the ears of Andromache. and is slain. he stands the combat. She deludes Hector in the shape of Deiphobus. was retired into the inner part of the palace: she mounts up to the walls. and he flies. The scene lies under the walls. The gods debate concerning the fate of Hector. Hector consults within himself what measures to take. who. Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. Achilles drags the dead body at his chariot in the sight of Priam and Hecuba. The herded Ilians rush like driven deer: There safe they wipe the briny drops away. ARGUMENT. ignorant of this. THE DEATH OF HECTOR.[390] BOOK XXII. March. smit with panic fear. . Hecuba joins her entreaties. the Greeks' embodied powers. his resolution fails him. Hector only stays to oppose Achilles. Thus to their bulwarks. at length Minerva descends to the aid of Achilles. tears. bending on. advancing o'er the fields Beneath one roof of well-compacted shields. but at the advance of Achilles. The thirtieth day still continues. And drown in bowls the labours of the day. Priam is struck at his approach. The Trojans being safe within the walls. Her excess of grief and lamentation. but in vain. and beholds her dead husband. and tries to persuade his son to re-enter the town. Close to the walls.

and of fraud divine: Mean fame. The guardian still of long-defended Troy. that Troy forsook the plain? Vain thy past labour. [391] Apollo now to tired Achilles turns: (The power confess'd in all his glory burns:) "And what (he cries) has Peleus' son in view. Powerful of godhead. What boots thee now. To cheat a mortal who repines in vain. Great Hector singly stay'd: chain'd down by fate There fix'd he stood before the Scaean gate.642 The Iliad of Homer Far stretching in the shade of Trojan towers. While here thy frantic rage attacks a god. alas! for one of heavenly strain." . Still his bold arms determined to employ. and thy present vain: Safe in their walls are now her troops bestow'd. Unskill'd to trace the latent marks of heaven. With mortal speed a godhead to pursue? For not to thee to know the gods is given." The chief incensed—"Too partial god of day! To check my conquests in the middle way: How few in Ilion else had refuge found! What gasping numbers now had bit the ground! Thou robb'st me of a glory justly mine.

Incensed with indignation.BOOK XXII. To the near goal with double ardour flies. plagues. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. . Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fevers. stay not! guardless and alone. as he blazing shot across the field. Then to the city. Not half so dreadful rises to the sight. While the sad father on the rampart stands. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Full at the Scaean gates expects the war. Implacable Achilles! might'st thou be 274 643 —Not half so dreadful. bravest son! Methinks already I behold thee slain. "On the other side. And stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. With high and haughty steps he tower'd along. and like a comet burn'd. Satan stood Unterrified. obtests the skies. resolved Achilles' force to dare. Hector! my loved. The careful eyes of Priam first beheld. victor of the prize.274 Through the thick gloom of some tempestuous night. and death. So the proud courser. And thus adjures him with extended hands: "Ah stay not. my dearest. now white with age. Him. 708." xi. terrible and strong." —Paradise Lost. Orion's dog (the year when autumn weighs). And o'er the feebler stars exerts his rays. Then wept the sage: He strikes his reverend head. So flamed his fiery mail. He lifts his wither'd arms. He calls his much-loved son with feeble cries: The son.

sold in distant isles To shameful bondage. thy father. and my city burn'd.644 The Iliad of Homer [392] To all the gods no dearer than to me! Thee. whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) Great Jove has placed. And loved Lycaon. to me. sad spectacle of pain! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain: To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes. . or. less to her. Valiant in vain! by thy cursed arm destroy'd: Or. if not deprived of thee. if a soul so brave Neglect that thought. by right of birth their own. What anguish I? unutterable woe! Yet less that anguish. while yet I live. my eyes in vain explore. All pale they wander on the Stygian coast. my Polydore. vultures wild should scatter round the shore. My daughters ravish'd. How many valiant sons I late enjoy'd. Yet cursed with sense! a wretch. What sorrows then must their sad mother know. what treasures would I give! (Their grandsire's wealth. Less to all Troy. While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. spare us all! Save thy dear life. thy dearer glory save. my bridal bed o'erturn'd. And spare thyself. while I speak. And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore. Yet shun Achilles! enter yet the wall. worse than slaughtered. And number all his days by miseries! My heroes slain. these silver hairs. and unworthy toils. Consign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne:) But if (which Heaven forbid) already lost. Two from one mother sprung. now perhaps no more! Oh! if in yonder hostile camp they live. Two. Pity. What heaps of gold.

Where famish'd dogs. and acting what no words could say. The last sad relic of my ruin'd state. (but Heaven avert it!) should'st thou bleed. Against his rage if singly thou proceed. (Dire pomp of sovereign wretchedness!) must fall. she said: 645 "Have mercy on me. fated to be cursed!" He said. by our walls secured. fast-falling the salt tears. But when the fates. reserved by angry fate. The zone unbraced. Yet all her sorrows turn not Hector's heart. Shall lick their mangled master's spatter'd gore. all honest on the breast. O my son! revere The words of age. Struck through with wounds. repel the foe.BOOK XXII. Should'st thou. perhaps yet more! Perhaps even I. Rent from his head the silver locks away. Spurn the hoar head of unresisting age. this is misery! the last. dies the best. for in fight they fell. Well have they perish'd. [393] . attend a parent's prayer! If ever thee in these fond arms I press'd. With him the mournful mother bears a part. But. her bosom she display'd. in fulness of their rage. late guardians of my door. These I have yet to see. And pour to dogs the life-blood scarcely warm: This. Yet for my sons I thank ye. My bleeding infants dash'd against the floor. And stain the pavement of my regal hall. Ah do not thus our helpless years forego. In dust the reverend lineaments deform. the worse. And thus. Or still'd thy infant clamours at this breast. Who dies in youth and vigour. gods! 'tis well. That man can feel! man.

while down their cheeks the torrents roll. And blame those virtues which they cannot share. let her see me fall 275 "And thus his own undaunted mind explores. He burns. I feel my folly in my people slain. What numbers had been saved by Hector's flight? That wise advice rejected with disdain. grace thee with a tear! Far from our pious rites those dear remains Must feast the vultures on the naked plains. 113. Methinks my suffering country's voice I hear."—"Paradise Lost. On my rash courage charge the chance of war. nor mother. No—if I e'er return. So. Resolved he stands. . But most her worthless sons insult my ear. and with a fiery glance Expects the hero's terrible advance. He stood. return I must Glorious. and question'd thus his mighty mind:275 "Where lies my way? to enter in the wall? Honour and shame the ungenerous thought recall: Shall proud Polydamas before the gate Proclaim. Nor spouse.646 The Iliad of Homer Nor must thy corse lie honour'd on the bier." vi. And his red eyeballs glare with living fire. his counsels are obey'd too late. he stiffens with collected ire. Beneath a turret. roll'd up in his den. When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins Have gather'd half the poisons of the plains. But fix'd remains the purpose of his soul." So they. the swelling snake Beholds the traveller approach the brake. Which timely follow'd but the former night. on his shield reclined. my country's terror laid in dust: Or if I perish.

or the rising sun. or thinks he holds his prey. as man conversing man. sworn. Like youths and maidens in an evening walk: War is our business. produce. he fears. Approach unarm'd. Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land. the helm. and fighting for her wall. He leaves the gates. recedes. unusual terrors rise. or triumph. No season now for calm familiar talk. And yet suppose these measures I forego. the treasure ill-detain'd (Cause of the war. And on his breast the beamy splendour shone. determine Heaven!" Thus pondering. His dreadful plumage nodded from on high. or journeying o'er a plain. The warrior-shield. lay down. but to whom is given To die. that injured Greece May share our wealth. What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe. like a god the Greek drew nigh. and flies. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The swiftest racer of the liquid skies). Which Troy shall. But why this thought? Unarm'd if I should go.BOOK XXII. Met at an oak. he leaves the wall behind: Achilles follows like the winged wind. and parley with the foe. The Pelian javelin. And treat on terms of peace to save the town: The wife withheld. and lance. Struck by some god. Like Jove's own lightning. in his better hand. But woman-like to fall. and fall without a blow? We greet not here. As Hector sees. and grievance of the land) With honourable justice to restore: And add half Ilion's yet remaining store. that. In field at least. 647 [394] . Just when he holds. and leave our walls in peace.

Now where the fig-trees spread their umbrage broad. And aims his claws.648 The Iliad of Homer [395] Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground. And with them turns the raised spectator's soul: The example of Nausicaa. one in flight: (The mighty fled. in the heroic times. no vulgar prize they play.) smoke along the road. even from the dignity of a princess. one chasing. in the Odyssey. One urged by fury. Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece) Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace. 276 . Like crystal clear.276 By these they pass'd. Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain. This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise. Where high rewards the vigorous youth inflame (Some golden tripod. and cold as winter snows: Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills. No vulgar victim must reward the day: (Such as in races crown the speedy strife:) The prize contended was great Hector's life. As when some hero's funerals are decreed In grateful honour of the mighty dead. and shoots upon his wings: No less fore-right the rapid chase they held. That the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows. proves that the duties of the laundry were not thought derogatory. With open beak and shrilling cries he springs. pursued by stronger might:) Swift was the course. With exhalations steaming to the skies. Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills. one by fear impell'd: Now circling round the walls their course maintain. or some lovely dame) The panting coursers swiftly turn the goal. (A wider compass. Next by Scamander's double source they bound.

(Good as he is) the lot imposed on man. Whose grateful fumes the gods received with joy. to his fears resign'd. From Ida's summits. pre-ordain'd to death! And will no murmurs fill the courts above? No gods indignant blame their partial Jove?" "Go then (return'd the sire) without delay. And stoops impetuous from the cleaving skies. Exert thy will: I give the Fates their way. close behind. ye powers! ('tis worthy your debate) Whether to snatch him from impending fate. ." Then Pallas thus: "Shall he whose vengeance forms The forky bolt. and fierce Achilles. The sire of mortals and immortals spoke: 649 "Unworthy sight! the man beloved of heaven. Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly. and the towers of Troy: Now see him flying. Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath? A man. To whom. by stern Pelides slain. The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. and blackens heaven with storms. inglorious round yon city driven! My heart partakes the generous Hector's pain. a mortal. Swift at the mandate pleased Tritonia flies. whose zeal whole hecatombs has slain. Hector. Consult. And fate. while eager on the chase they look.BOOK XXII. Behold. Or let him bear.

As men in slumbers seem with speedy pace. Nor this can fly. Oft as to reach the Dardan gates he bends. The certain hound his various maze pursues. From the high turrets might oppress the foe. Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews. (Whose showering arrows. And hopes the assistance of his pitying friends. but he eyes in vain. And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. Their sinking limbs the fancied course forsake.) So oft Achilles turns him to the plain: He eyes the