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Cornell University Library

GT730 .C16

English costume

by Dion Clayton Calthro

3 1924 032 341


Cornell University Library


original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the



6d. NET (POST FREE 7Si 11d. Macmillan Building. A. III. & c.ENGLISH COSTUME DION CLAYTON CALTHROP ILLUSTRATED WITH FULL-PAGE PLATES IN COLOUR AND MANV DIAGRAMS IN THE TEXT EACH SECTION PRICE 7S. ltd. 64 & 66 fifth Avenue. ltd.) I. . BOMBAY 309 BOW BAZAAR STREET. new YORK the macmillan company of canada. . EARLY ENGLISH MIDDLE AGES II. TUDOR AND STUART GEORGIAN Published by IV. Black Soho Square London W.-toronto macmillan & company. CALCUTTA . 57 AGENTS THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Richmond street. .



A MAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY (1509—1547) VIII. and the flat cap by which this reign is easily remembered. the white shirt embroidered in black silk. . He wears the club-toed shoes. the padded shoulders.

<: .i.i. .



Contents HENRY THE SEVENTH The Men The Women PAGE ' '4 HENRY THE EIGHTH The Men The Women 25 39 EDWARD THE SrXTH The Men and Women 5 Z MARY The Men and Women °* ELIZABETH The Men The Women v 69 8a .

The Women . .119 . . . .127 THE CROMWELLS The Men and Women . . . . . . . . . . .103 . . . . . . .111 CHARLES THE FIRST The Men . . . . . .137 . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS JAMES THE FIRST PAGE The Men The Women . .

I. A Man of the Time of Elizabeth A Woman of the Time of Elizabeth A Woman of the Time of Elizabeth A Man of the Time of James A Woman of the Time of James A Man of the Time of Charles I. A Man of the Time of Henry VIII. 14. 9. 6. 15. A Woman of the Time of Henry VIII. A Man of the Time of Mary A Woman of the Time of Mary . I. Henry VII. 4. A Woman of the Time of Henry VIII. . 5. . vii . 4 3. . 1 1. . A Man and Woman of the Time of . 7. A Woman of the Time of Henry VII.List of Illustrations 1. 12. A Man of the Time of Henry A Man of the Time of VIII. 10. . Edward VI 8. 1485-1509 . 13. 1509-1547 Frontispiece FACING PAGE 2.

A Woman of the Time of Charles I. l6'25-l649 . 132 . .viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE 16.

a thrumming of the heart. tangible Although nothing has taken place. 1486. there is in the atmosphere a full-charged suggestion of promise. order of things. Married. HENRY THE SEVENTH Reigned 24 years Born. : 1485—1509. of green-sickness there is a quickening of the pulse. 1456. 1 VOL. lifting. quick glance around for the of the buds new III. and many first an eager. .. Elizabeth of York. THE MEN Everyone curious sensation has felt that that faint aroma. first of which day of proclaims the Spring and the burial of Winter.

three new banners waved. in the Cathedral church. another a dragon of red on white and green sarcenet.' joyous tales and pleasant of histories of chivalry. of course. and the third showed a dun cow on yellow tarterne. by especial desire Henry Later himself.— 2 ENGLISH COSTUME : England's winter was buried on Bosworth Field England's spring. packed to its limit. burst forth in a day. the first book of travel in the West began to go from . hints. signs in the air. George. The springtime of of a country takes more than Nine years before Henry came to the throne Caxton was learning to print in the little room of Collard Mansion months. one bearing a figure of St. sheriffs. commenced with Henry's entry into London. does not. hearing a Te Deum. he was to print his ' Facts of Arms. Paul's. Spring. The the first picture of the reign shows the mayor. new from the throats of the preparation birds. violet. still. waiting at and the aldermen. towards the end of the reign. as if by magic. there are long months notes of preparation. except in a poetic sense. The same day shows Henry in St. clothed in Shoreditch for the coming of the victor.

pucci. The costume was ficent at once dignified call and magnicoats great —not that one can the little by and by the splendour of the persons they adorned. The long gowns of both men and woman were rich beyond words in colour. exact. The clouds of the Middle Ages were dispersed. new ideas were constantly under discussion. and gorgeous. they were imposing. texture. was the great age of individual English expression in every form but that of literature and painting. but they lay in their graves long before new great minds arose. a fine day the streets must have glittered Upon when a gentleman or lady passed by. both these It arts being but in their cradles . The fashions of the time have survived for us 1—2 . Chaucer and Gower and Langland had written. but even they. their richness come into the category. and the sun shone. the Arts rose to the occasion and put forth flowers of beauty on many stems long supposed to be dead or dormant and incapable of improvement. and design. cousin to La Great thoughts were abroad.HENRY THE SEVENTH hand to 3 hand — it was written by Amerigo VesBella Simonetta. ideals of dignity.

— call them as you and you will see the costume of this reign but slightly modified into a design. Some . the big sleeve. ornamented the . at the corners many round some with a high. the cards of to-day and the cards of that day are almost identical. . just as the 'Alice in Wonderwhich petti- land ' are drawn. the long coat. cut their hair close. and the cote. and over occasions. on enormous hat of felt. indeed. with a prodigious quantity of feathers. shoes. valets will. tight brim. In the knave you will see the peculiar square hat came in at this time. an this. rolled-up brim. Over cap this flowing hair a dandy would wear a little with a narrow. There was. years ago I the modification was less noticeable can remember cards printed playing Pope Joan with to with full-length illustrations figures. as the lawyer. so also did the peasant). and the broad-toed see You will the long hair.ENGLISH COSTUME in the Court cards : take the jacks. knaves. undressed and flowing over the shoulders (the professional classes. quite a choice of hats berretino : —a square hat pinched in hats.

if-! .J.' V v >)-.. >H . '"iO :>! ivSI'.




hanging upon the ground all round. and in What still might be the fashion! Most common among these was the long coat like a dressing- gown. narrow in folds. and hanging over the hand which show the white order. a choice of coats the gentlemen had. and by official. one might stick feathers or pin a brooch. and you may vary : on this idea in every way turn it it back and show the sleeves of such stuff to the feet. was still worn by Garter Knights at times. are usual. at the shoulder. or into a band round the hat. illustrations cut it off completely. The slashes. civic. close up nearly to the neck. varieties. As the years went on it is easy to see that the shirt was worn nearer to the neck. before described.HENRY THE SEVENTH some with the least 5 brim possible. and of every The shirt itself was often ornamented with stitching. legal. have shown in the many the most common was the wide sleeve. The chaperon. fine gathers and fancy and was gathered about the neck by a ribbon. shirt. the . and college persons. I Now for the a coat. and turning back in the front down to the waist —this was the general it shape of the collar. square behind. with a wide collar. into these brims.

tied hat with sometimes under the chin. . large feathers.COATS Shirt HATS Stomacher The little cap The Berrelino Another form ofit Gap with. edge turned up and feathers Open Petti cote and the hanging sleeve. Coif and.

open to Here we have ' the origin of the use of the word petticoat ' now wrongly woman's applied . became more in all extravagant behind the ears —and we have the Elizastuff. a ' skirts are called her coats.— HENRY THE SEVENTH ornamented. bethan ruff. dotted. but he must needs cut off into a it short jacket. to finally rose. with puffs of white stuff. 7 gathers became higher and higher. with coloured feet. of these shoes tied were but a sole and a toe. divided the indelicate but universal pouch in ribbons. laced across This reached to the waist where of every scheme of colour in more often fastened behind. of the most gorgeous patterned the breast sometimes. Many sole. or stomacher.' . shoes of all materials. it met long hose bands — everything—displaying front. to this day. and of the most absurd length these also were slashed On the . or petti-cote. and leave better display his marvellous vest. tied — striped. and were on by thongs passing through the Of course the long coat would not alone satisfy it the dandy. and finery. in Scotland. Next to the shirt a waistcoat. from cloth and velvet to leather beautifully worked.

dandy All ages know duck you. a gorgeous symbol of the decay of In this manhood. our Henry's reign. a very individual. freed from any nasty brawls and clean of any form of work. a perfect monument of the Fall of Man. or a girdle. to the hour of your white motoring-suit: a very bird of a man. simper through the story of the universe. from which hung a very elaborate in purse. a very narrow you stride. strut. your hair is busheth pleasantly. and your satin stomacher is brave over a padded chest. Your is pride forbids the carriage of a sword. Stick in hand. human ass. disguise ! And — oh. rejoicing in your plumage. or less your little. jewel exquisite your ! hat. where pretty fellow it kembed prettily over i' glimmers as gold ! the sun —Lord how your feathered bonnet becomes you. or a dagger. lie in their embroidered gloves. from the day you choose your covering of leaves with care.— 8 ENGLISH COSTUME About the waists of these coats was a short sash. . and the ear. which borne behind you — much use may it be a ! — by a mincing if fellow in your dainty livery. rare —your coiffure hides noble brow. dandy extravagant. Your white hands. neat-rimmed coif a clever head.

SLEEVES Shirt gathered al neck with ribbon Slashes to show white shirt While* shirt White shirt Petti cole * Laced slash White shirl White- shirt Slashes ~f«n? =rc ^ .

and cloaks of fair . and hide your mind beneath the weight of scented clothes. My drawings. whose dress was simply old-fashioned and very plain they wore the broad shoes and leather belts and short coats. also. F. and anyone with a slight knowledge of pictures I will be able to supply themselves with a large amount of extra matter. Roy 19. my drawings are collected and redrawn in my scheme from works so beautiful and highly finished that every student should go to see them for himself at the British 1 hope. C. When one knows the wealth of material of the stuffs. cloth. ' Poverty. a good example of the poor of the time. would recommend MS. worsted hose. time. In the illustrations to this chapter and the next. MS. clear what was worn in and the first -the end of the fifteenth century nine years of the sixteenth. Of the lower classes.10 ENGLISH COSTUME honour be to you who dress your limbs to imitate the peacock. 2. There are beggars and peasants. 8 and especially Harleian MS. make it quite Museum.' the old is woman with the spoon in her hat. and has seen the wonder of the one . these books show quite a number. 4425. Roy 16. .

that within certain lines imagination
Stuffs of



full scope.

embroidered with

coupled birds and branches, and flowers following

out a prescribed


the embroideries edged and

sewn with gold thread velvet on velvet, shortnapped fustian, damasked stuffs and diapered stuffs what pictures on canvas, or on the stage, may be made what marvels of colour walked about the streets in those




was to the eye an age of

elaborate patternsall

—mostly large— and
glitter of


broken colour and







gay indeed.

Imagine, shall


say, Corfe Castle

on a day when a party of







the huntsmen, in green,

gathered in the outer ward, and the grooms, in





gaily -decked


then, from the walls lined with archers,

would come the blast of the horn, and out would walk my lord and my lady, with knights, and squires, and ladies, and gallants, over the the bridge across the castle ditch, between the




Behind them the dungeon tower,

round towers.

and the great gray mass of the keep—all a
an impressive background to their bravery.

The gentlemen,

in long coats of all
little hats,


colours and devices, with

jewelled and
soft leather,

feathered, with boots to the

knee of

turned back in colours at the top


their left

hands the thick hawk-








— for




not go with the hounds


hawk on



Below, in the town over the moat,



gathered to see them off


grave colours, and


back with


ink-horns slung at their waists, with

pens and dagger and purse




from over


landed at Poole Harbour, in long

gowns, worn with penitence and dusty
shells in their hats, staffs





eyed children in smocks


butchers in blue
all classes.



and women of

The drawbridge

down, the

portcullis up,




the party, gleaming like a bed of flowers in their

multi-coloured robes, pass over the bridge, through
the town, and into the valley.

The sun goes


and leaves the grim



and solemn, standing out against the green of the




himself, the great Tudor, greater,


than the eighth

Henry, a



so dominates the age, and


with his

that no mental picture


complete without
the quizzical eye,






the firm mouth, showing his character.



lover of art, of English art, soon to be pulverized


pseudo-classic influences



man who


down the chapel at the west end of Westminster Abbey with the house by it Chaucer's house to make way for that superb triumph of ornate








matical squares and

angles of





would boxes of

by a gorgeous


stories against



in reality, stories

for him, invented

by those


he kept to


work, and


he despoiled of their



borrowed, but he paid back in



he came into a disordered, distressed kingdom,




had to be done
the fleshy beast

in those days


left it


kingdom ready

for the fruits of his

ordered works



so nearly

ruined the country.


remained, indeed, was

the result of his father's genius.

Take up a pack of
cards and look at the queen.

You may

see the extraordinary head-gear as


ladies at the

end of the

fifteenth century



years of the sixteenth,


modified form

through the next reign, after

which that description of head-dress vanished for

place to be taken







richest of these head-dresses

were made of

a black silk or

some such black

material, the top

stiffened to_the shape of a sloping house-roof, the

edges falling by the face on either side

so as






were sewn

with gold and pearls on colour or white.

end of the hood hung over the shoulders and


the back



was surmounted by a

but in shape nearly square.HENRY THE SEVENTH 15 of stiffened material. and slit at the hang more easily over the . The more moderate sides to enable it to head-dress was of black again. also richly sewn with jewels. the edge of which showed above the forehead. and the whole pinned on to a close-fitting cap of 14» JoOt ! jj1 6m£* a different colour.

was turned over from the forehead. it was edged with gold. The ordinary head-dress was of white to hang over the shoulders and linen. gold and pearl — . and plainly parted in the centre and dressed close to the head by hair The women wearing the large head-dress. crimped or embroidered in white. this was worn by the linen cap. less common. in time at the end of the reign —the manner of wearing them. older women over a white hood. plain coif. folded back and stiffened in front to that peculiar triangular shape in fashion . this became. or was the most general wear for the poor and middle was worn long and naturally over the shoulders by young girls.— 16 ENGLISH COSTUME It was placed over a coif. till they were made up so. made in a piece down the back. close-fitting The classes. often of white linen or of black material. On either side of the hood tie were hanging ornamental metal-tipped tags to back the hood ordinary finally from the shoulders. and that is. . was the turban a loose bag of silk. Another form of head-dress. folded. and pinned back often shoulders.

they fastened the train to a button or brooch placed at the back of the waistband. these last cut to show the underskirt of some fine material. very low. . III. having either a long train or no train at all. as also to show the elegance of their furs.HENRY THE SEVENTH tightly. The gowns of the women were very simply cut. The ladies who wore long the gown generally had it lined with some fur. fitting over the hair and forehead and loose above. fine and to pre- vent this dragging in the mud. This. The bodice of the gown was square cut and not fur. the bodice of which showed above the over gown at the shoulders. having an ornamental border of embroidery. or other rich coloured material sewn on 3 VOL. developed into the looped skirts of Elizabethan times. 17 embroidered. in time.

18 ENGLISH COSTUME it. edged or lined with fur or soft or loose and baggy hand. to This border went sometimes round the shoulders and the knees. the white embroidered or crimped chemise. or they were tight at the shoulder looser until they show made full and gradually became very silk. and were nearly always covered with the peculiar semi-Spanish pattern. all the way from shoulder to At this time Bruges . and across and above that. the cuffs — coming well over the of first joints the fingers (sometimes these cuffs are turned back to elaborate linings). The damask silks were greatly in use. over the lower arm. down Above the front of the dress to below the bodice was nearly always seen the V-shaped opening of the under petticoat bodice. Some of these . The sleeves were as the men's tight all the way down from the shoulder to the wrist. the base of which was some contortion of the pomegranate. became world-famed for her silken texture her satins were used in England for church garments and other clothes.

and the whole of Flanders sent us painters and illuminators who worked in England by wood-blocks at the last of the great illuminated books. but this art died as printing and illustrating came in to take its place. where the lady and her To-day one may see in Bruges the women at the cottage doors busy over their lace-making. so that but few dress. and velvets. Ypr&s her linen to us. while my lady was sitting in her chamber' weaving. her own house. for will show how beautiful and artistic all their simple design. satins. repeats of the design appeared on the Block- printed linens were also in use. and the long winter evenings were great times for the sewing chambers. sea making nets stuffs —so to in those times was every linens woman at her cottage door making coarse and other earn her daily bread. woven in common linen. others were huge. beautifully damasked.HENRY THE SEVENTH 19 patterns were small and wonderfully fine. and the samples in South Kensington they were. As sent Bruges supplied us with the last also silks. and the English women by the maids sat at the looms. Nearly every lady had her own and often other stuffs. or 3—2 . depend- ing on their wealth of detail for their magnificent appearance.

to as the men of did. A and few ladies wore their gowns open to the waist to show the stomacher. However. and Belgium. laced girdle across. the waist being embraced by a the shape so long in use. with long ends and metal . masters of painting from Florence. and some of jewel-laden dresses. and the rich embroidery of the Stuart times revived this I art. as some ages are ages of quaint cut. the best the great silks and velvets from Bruges. have shown that this age was the age of fine patterns. died away. until. the years of the Wars of the Roses had had their effect on every kind of English work. as the finest linen came from Ypres. the figures new style came into use of raising some height above the ground-work of the design. and some of dainty needlework. and English work was but coarse at best. and as the most elegant books were painted and written by Flemings. for which the we had been early famous. Germany.SO ENGLISH COSTUME embroidering a bearing cloth for her child against her time. so also the elaborate and so wonderful embroidery. open behind the waist. in the sixteen hundreds.

t.Jtuw .i\' .

. fur-edged gown with its full sleeves. Notice the diamond-shaped head-dress.A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY (1485—1509) VII. the wide.



of such a kind these good ladies wore. The in shoes. where the heaviness and richness of the folds was the great keynote. and costumiers who make for the stage. with thick soles. as To make a gown. is made much with only a —that is. and of stuffs up to this Early Victorian patterns. one needs. 21 the girdle held the purse of the The illustrations given with this chapter show very completely the costume of this time. except in cases of royal persons or very gorgeously apparelled ladies. toecap. sometimes the manner of sandals flat. fifty-two inches wide. at least. it may be said. and makes it easy for . and damask silks of this time. the rest to be tied on by strings. It is to give the right appearance. twelve yards of material. lady. and. who have costumes made for them. it will be seen. they are complete enough to need no description. possible to acquire at many of the best shops nowadays actual copies of embroidered stuffs.HENRY THE SEVENTH ornaments. velvets. are very broad at the toes. hardly that artists ever allow enough material for the gowns worn by men and women in this and other reigns. As this work entirely for use.

many them wearing the sort of linen beard is barbe ' of pleated linen. and religious orders of still still worn by some Badges were sleeve women. would be either a greyhound. Thus. and the red rose and the still portcullis are used. either started . as sheeting into beautiful folds. which covered the lower part of the face and the chin —a — it reached to the breast. From these badges we get the signs of many of our inns. much in use. or the red and white roses joined together. is not dear and The nearly older all ladies and widows of in this time dressed very simple. they were forced to invent. a portcullis. Many artists have their costumes made a it of Bolton sheeting. almost conof ventual ' garments. and the servants left always wore some form of badge on their — either merely the colours of their masters. or or a small silver. other metal. a crowned hawthorn bush.22 ENGLISH COSTUME painters to procure what. a red dragon. used by all The last two were the Tudors. the badge worn by the servants of Henry VII. shield. in other days. on to which they stencil the patterns they wish to use —this is not bad falls thing to do.

' and is of it was left beautiful design —a gold ground. I imagine Elizabeth of York. and some . from the . covered with boughs and leaves raised in soft velvet pile of ruby colour. and the the fine-coloured dresses all of crowd. who died in child-birth —proceeding to —gentle West- London. a sample of which. of the the rich estate company about her. Queen to Henry through VII. through which little loops of gold thread appear. is once used in Westminster Abbey.HENRY THE SEVENTH by servants. or a red dragon or a tiger's head. and the fine trappings of the horses. preserved at by Henry VII. the armoured soldiers. mentioned the silks of Bruges and her velvets without giving enough prominence to the fine I velvets of Florence. to her coronation the streets cleansed.. Our Monastery of Westminster. Our Queen went to her coronation with some Italian masts. of the subtle countenance Elizabeth. arras and the houses hung with gold cloth. 23 who used their master's badge for a device. minster. or because the inn lay on a certain property the lord of which carried chequers. a cope. Stonyhurst College to ' . paper flowers. Tower tapestry.

which has seen so many Queens crowned. past the frozen hideous green stuck Members of Parliament. ENGLISH COSTUME hundreds of thousands of yards of bunting and the people mostly in sombre clothes stiff coats.U cheap flags . . colour of note passing were the only down with Whitehall. to the grand. wonderful Abbey. the soldiers in ugly red. .

and ever shall. with songs and music of his own full composition. strength. abounding and the inheritance 25 in excellence of craft father and vol. adew my specyall be sure. Katharine of 1509. comes the his richest man in Europe to the throne tall. of conceit in own art. Anne Boleyn. Anne of Cleves 1540. in. Married. me betake. a king. a handsome man. 4 . . Who hath my hart trewly. a from his Tudor. : 1509 —1547. of England. HENRY THE EIGHTH Reigned thirty-eight years Born. 1491. 1536. Jane Seymour. Now my lady.'' So. promyse to her I make From other only to her I Adew myne owne ladye. Gay.. Katharine Howard 1543. 1532. brave. Katherine Parr. 1540. Aragon . Henry. THE MEN VERSES BY HENRY THE EIGHTH IN PRAISE OF CONSTANCY ' As the holy grouth grene with ivie all alone Whose flowerys cannot be seen and grene wode unto all levys be gone.

had pruned. the characters of that Springtime the intelligence personal charm In his that the age brought forth in abundance. Diirer. Rabelais. Luther. nursed the tree. false and it is one of the triumphs of England. and of Michael Angelo. figures in our pageant a veritable symbol of the Renaissance in England.26 ENGLISH COSTUME mother. reign the accumulated mass of brain all over the world budded and flowered . In these days there lived and died Botticelli. cut Church. branches spread over Christian Europe. and the flowering branch hanging over England its when gave forth first-fruits. Leonardo da Vinci. He quick had. those men who ate of first the fruit and benefited by the shade were the to quarrel with the gardeners. Raphael. Erasmus. until gradually its it flowered. to have reasoning to prove this. in common and all with the of marvellous History. Copernicus. the time gave to us a succession of the most remarkable people in any historical period. to mention a few men . in been the result of the separation from the Catholic For centuries the Church had organized and prepared the ground in which this tree of the world's knowledge was planted. Holbein. back.

Harry. candle-makers. all these served but to swell the ranks of the unemployed. of church-carvers. at instead of the firm progress of order instituted by his father. with running his his legs and the blood of wives and festering hands. striding in his well-known attitude over the slums his rule had ! produced in London. the or lay brothers were to be seen. . no monks The sick. missal- makers . and caused a new problem to England. of the skilled poor out of work. to leave. a bankrupt country with an enormously rich Government. white. brown. gilders. illuminators. no longer the throngs of fine craftsmen. Grace a Dieu The mental of view reign. The hospitals were closed —that the should bring a picture to your eyes streets —where had been thronged with the doctors of the poor and of the rich in their habits. 27 every shade of thought. never since solved. gray. You may on people on ulcers see for the later pictures of his reign a great bloated mass of corpulence.HENRY THE EIGHTH came Henry his death. embroiderers. and black in the streets. is picture from our —costume—point last widely different from that of the No longer do we see hoods and cowls. and in this goodly time to the English throne.



.A MAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY (1509— 1547) VIII. This is the extreme German-English fashion. In Germany and Switzerland this was carried to greater lengths.



The shirt cut . little and sewn with black embroidery waist- coat ending at the waist and cut straight across from . the insane 29 back in the alleys had no home but the overhung where the foulest diseases might accumulate and hot-beds of vice spring up.HENRY THE EIGHTH blind. ' from the drawings of Albert Diirer and the more German designs were known as Henry VII. low the in the neck. The garments which clothes blistered ' are excessive growths on to the most extravagant designs of the date. are two distinct classes of fashion to be seen. stolen by him from streets main the desecrated shrine of St. fashion German -Swiss evolution and the English natural national dress. crea- man tion fashion is extravagant . while Harry Tudor was carried to his bear-baiting. a quivering mass of jewels shaking on his corrupt body.looking which we know so well of Holbein. a of the The Gerthat slashed. Thomas There the a Becket. fashion. on his thumb that wonderful diamond the Regale of France.

the breeches often highly decorated and jewelled. agreeing in one point only —that the toes should be cut very broad. puffed. quite square. over. looking The as I shoes were of many shapes. indeed.' holes. or the large flat hats of the previous reign. have shown. were worn with these costumes. were and slashed all of any odd assortment of colours. From sleeves the line drawings you will see that the and the breeches took every form. covered with feathers and curiously slashed. Cloaks. so that the shirt might be pushed through the indeed 'blistered. Short or hanging hair. as you dress. little both flat were the fashion.30 ENGLISH COSTUME shoulder to shoulder. were worn over the and also those overcoats shaped much like the modern dressing-gown. . were cut. and caps with the rim cut at intervals. tied with thongs of leather or coloured laces to the breeches. often. may see. leaving a gap between the universal pouch on which showed the shirt .

and the courtiers perpetuated the event by proclaiming blistering as the fashion. In 1477 the Swiss beat and routed the Duke of Burgundy at Nantes. Let us first take the shirt A. cut and tore up his silk tents. — The arrival of the victorious army caused all the non-fighters to copy this curious freak in clothes. puffed at the knee. The invention sprang. a shirt cut very low in the . as usual. the tendency of the shirt was come close about the neck. more usual fashion the habit of clothes in bygone reigns. as a rule. Separate pairs of sleeves were worn with the waistcoats. by vanity to custom. and the soldiers. in to this reign. whose clothes were in rags.' padded breeches the hose that we derive the trunks of the next reign. a favourite sleeve trimming being broad velvet bands. find. from necessity. his banners. or with the petti-cotes. all material they could and made themselves clothes of these odd pieces clothes still so torn and ragged that their shirts puffed out of every hole and rent. The previous reign showed us. the slashings grown into long ribbon-like slits.HENRY THE EIGHTH It is 31 from these ' blistered. It other and The springs from will be seen how.

when they showed the collar. and dependent for its effect on the richness of its embroidery or design of the fabric. Henry in brocade covered with posies made in letters of fine gold bullion). 32 ENGLISH COSTUME neck. a waist-coat with sleeves. caused the cut of the shirt to be altered and that the in fact. this waistcoat was really a petti-cote. The material was slashed and puffed or plain. That this took all forms under certain limitations will be noticed. in was worn with or without most cases the sleeves were detachable. It .. also that thick necked gentlemen invented this — — Henry himself must have wore the collar of the shirt turned down and of the often. made so hem frilled out round the neck collar —a collar. tied with strings of linen. were as was sewn with elaborate designs in black thread or Now we see take the waistcoat B. with the these laces hem drawn more together with laces pulled tightly together. The cuffs shirt. As you may from the drawing showing the German form of dress. sleeves . This waist-coat was generally of richly ornamented material (Henry in purple satin. thus rucking the material into closer gathers. silk. embroidered with his initials and the Tudor rose . at the wrist.


of the previous affair.34 ENGLISH COSTUME The coat C. The the varieties of cut were numerous. in ruffle and spread. close —open to the to the neck— every waist. overcoat an angry turkey. a skirted coat. bases like a frock. or satin. and folded pleat round the man's neck. the bases were cut shorter to show the waistcoat was almost in pro- done away with. or jewelled pouch. The D is the gown reign cut. for the dandy. and are shown open . waist with a sash make hay while the sun shone The coat was held at the of silk tied in a bow with short reign. This coat was made with . No doubt Madame Fashion saw to it that the changes were rung sufficiently to on extravagant ends. into a shorter . the collar like the tail of grew portion. tastes. of velvet. was a matter for choice spirits to decide whether or no they should wear sleeves to their coats. and entirely sleeves and the high neck. fine cloth. or show the sleeves of their waistcoats. in fact the material silk. the custom grew more universal of the coat with the full trunks. in the drawings all way in front. foreshadow- Towards the end of the ing the Elizabethan jerkin or jacket. used was generally plain. it way where It the coat was open in front generally parted to show the bragetto.

the every varied in way : were long. collar wide padded of well-being and richness to their shoulders. 35 for the grave man it remained long.HENRY THE EIGHTH reaching not far below the knee . reaching only to the in elbow. or of cloth of gold. course. there a end or hem as of fur the these all some as rich stuff. the collar had over the changed to a wide shoulders. told in effect as garments which gave a great owner. was of fur. short. Sometimes 5—2 . but. or of satin. as lined the cloak. bars barred with rich applique designs or of to fur. air Of sleeves full. I suppose one must explain. of it such stuff maybe of silk. affair stretching well was made. The tremendous folds of these overcoats gave to the persons in them a and sense of . splendour dignity the short sleeves of the fashionable overcoats. according to taste. this collar. puffed and swollen. for It all. medium full.

at the knee in fact. and . the bagging. The shoes were very broad. puffed. All men wore tight hose. were sewn with . but in the curve of an elongated S or a double S curve. varieties. slashing of hose suggested the separate breeches or trunks of hose. the trunks were the worn — loose style. in some cases puffed. rolled.36 ENGLISH COSTUME overcoats the were in sleeveless. Beneath these little garments breeches. which. and in infinite slashes Let it be noticed that the cutting of was hardly ever a straight slit. Other slashes were squared top and bottom. German slashed were bagged. sagging. and were sometimes stuffed into a mound at the toes.

<W 'J: ..ia':-.-.

(1509—1547) The peculiar headdress has a pad of silk in front to hold it from the forehead. . The half-sleeves are well shown.A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY VIII. A plain but rich looking dress.



. also. or wear in or smocks above seven genet you yards of cloth. with shirts . Irish were forbidden by law to wear a or linen cap coloured or dyed to smock. HENRY THE EIGHTH with silk. The is story retold in every history of costume. to this . 37 precious stones. persons not of the royal blood. So well known of Sir is the story Philip Calthrop and John Drakes the shoemaker of Norwich. were cut and puffed The The shirt. little flat cap will be seen in all its varieties in the drawings. who tried to ape the must here allude to this ancestor of mine who was the first of the dandies of note. must be royal to wear sable you must rank above a viscount to wear martin or velvet trimming you must be worth over two hundred marks a year. neckerchor. and. To wear black . mocket saffron (a handkerchor). bendel. Short hair came into fashion about 1521. fashion. that I among itself. kerchor.

This reached the ears of Sir Philip. ordered a gown from cut as full tailor. . also Sir Philip. Norfolk. of Blickling. seeing that the the same county talked of Sir Philip's clothes. daughter of Sir William Boleyn. married Amy.ENGLISH COSTUME effect: Drakes. She was aunt to Queen Anne Boleyn. This man's son. The ruin of cloth staggered the shoemaker that he vowed to keep to his own humble fashion in future. who then so ordered his of slashes as the shears gown to be could make it. and the rich gown made and sparkling with the device of seed pearls so much in use. the shoemaker. No doubt Sir Philip's slashes were cunningly embroidered round.

seeing the form of Henry rise up sharply before us followed by his company of wives. while in the background the great figures of the time loom hugely as they play with the crowned puppets. years of married to find that he had scruples the spirituality of the life marriage. cast off after Henry had searched to his precious conscience. and. And the rest of them. tainted with pitiful the of the Court. The note of the time. a figure in spite of all her odious crimes how dress often must a ghost. Katherine of Aragon —a tool as —the and noble lady of political desires. Anne Boleyn. he dominates the age pictorially .. the final evolution . uxorious giant comes straight to the front of the picture. in a black satin nightvelvet. edged with black have haunted the royal dreams. after eighteen life. clustered round the vain king. HENRY THE EIGHTH THE WOMEN One cannot call to first 39 mind pictures of this time without. sacrificed his one sees the the political six women who were to on altar pander fine to vanity. as a fitting background. The fat. in the instance. as we is look at it with our eyes keen on the picture.

the plain become enriched. then the sides are full . and the back is made more then a tag sewn on side to the sides by which means the cut may . of the hood. fabric has in inch by inch. each succeeding step . an elaboration of the simple form is the border is next to the face turned back. then the hood lined with fine stuff and the turnover shows split is this to advantage .40 ENGLISH COSTUME Bit by bit.

out of existence. elaborated in every in way. and. a pad is added to this this fill in the vacant space. III. stiffened 41 The front this is now is and shaped at an angle. worn and. fact. In order to make the head-dress in state its 1509 you must make the white lining with the jewelled turnover as a separate I cap. great masses. for crowding jewels together was in groups of small numbers. once close VOL. as the angle forms a gap between the forehead and the point of the hood. the second loop loose 6 . Every device used. criss-cross. front sewn with jewels. elaborated.HENRY THE EIGHTH be fastened off the shoulders. to the neck. hung upon jewelled chains that wound twice round the neck. At last one arrives at the diamond-shaped head-dress in in reign. that the think drawings speak for themselves more plainly than I can write. in Pendants were worn. reign. However.

The sleeves gown were narrow arm the shoulders. was slashed to show or it might be plain. brooches with drop ornaments. as it it generally held together by buttoned tags puffed with other coloured the shift. and after fitting the for about six inches down until.42 ENGLISH COSTUME as a rule. had often a band of jewellery upon and this was square cut. they became square and full . under the lawn shift. The underwas . The bodice of the gown was at square cut and much of the stiffened to a box-like shape. . the sleeve was a binding sleeve in great puffs lawn or cambric which showed in a ruffle at the wrist and under the forearm. and passed. sleeve was really more like a gauntlet. many of them wrought in Italy. This under-sleeve was generally made of a fine rich-patterned silk or brocade. silk. very in this way they showed the false under- sleeve. Large brooches decorated the bodices. The shift shift. delicately embroidered with black it. following the shape of the bodice. the same stuff which formed the under-gown for the very full . silk. they widened gradually just below the elbow. the body of the brooch of fine gold workmanship. from the shoulders.

and over some ladies wore a false sleeve of gold net you may imagine the length go. studded with jewels. . the sleeve was form turned a back deep square often cuff which was made fur. to which net will crossed in many ways. sewn on to the sleeve in sloping lines — but. twisted into patterns. as I have described.HENRY THE EIGHTH 43 Now the sleeve of the gown was subject to much alteration. It made very square and this was. or of In the all this I am of taking no account — German fashions. of black or coloured velvet. Look at the drawings I have made of the German fashion. I find that they leave me dumb mere man has but a limited vocabulary when the comes to clothes talk —and these dresses that look 6—2 like silk pumpkins. full at the elbow. to besides this. blistered and puffed and slashed. which I must describe separately.

The costumes of the artists people of this age have grown up in the minds of most as being inseparable from the drawings of Holbein and Diirer. gold and seek also and ores of brass and lead certain little we the for gems and pebbles. the one. to use the words of Pliny: into 'We penetrate the bowels of the earth. silver. Driving galleries into the depths. the estate of England. and altogether so queer. read this will know their most people who will Holbein and Diirer. between lies whom there a vast difference. Both these men show the profusion of richness. I say to myself.44 ENGLISH COSTUME in ribs. those so powerful an influence upon our own. but who between them show. the their time. and the most German fashions which had other. extravagant follies of the dress of how. truth beyond the furious dashes that my pen makes and millinery. Surely. we draw out . sewn are at swollen. digging veins of .


" .A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY (1509—1547) VIII. rich panel of the underskirt. Notice and the the wide cuffs covered with gold network.



. and the Chinese spun from the tree. a ' most strict censor who most severely blames women:' 'Come now. citizen and printer of Frankfort. came up from the earth with the desire for it and if now. How many hands are wasted in order that a single joint may sparkle If any hell there were. too. that the gems 45 we seek may be worn on the finger. Eve.' says tullian. and the Tyrians dyed and the Phrygians embroidered. 'if Ter- from the first both the sheared Milesians sheep. I . called by Sigis- mund Feyera- bendt. . it had assuredly ere now been disclosed by the borings of avarice and luxury !' Or in the writings of Tertullian. too. if gold itself. no lying but the mirror's were allowed. and the Babylonians inwove and if pearls shone and rubies flashed.! HENRY THE EIGHTH bowels of the earth.

' from Paradise. dropped into coarse gold-web nets. they wore those infinitely hideous barbes or beardlike linen cloths. with facings to match. . more feathered Then. but that it was . their overcoats and cloaks were voluminous. and jewelled. would have desired these things on her expulsion dead. In common with the men. again. and needed to be so if — those great sleeves had to be stuffed into them fur collars or silk collars. in One sees curves and twists. and so. so that stuck out behind in a great knob. and when spiritually by the tortured and twisted German fashion that the hair was plaited. over the chin. or at the side in two protuberances over all a cap like to the man's.. 46 ENGLISH COSTUME suppose. and an infinite variety of caps of linen upon their heads caps which showed always the form of the head beneath. thrust into web the nets with velvet pouches to hair them.

HENRY THE EIGHTH were rolled over to show of these materials. For dinner a piece of beef. and a gallon of ale at the buttery bar. a piece of mutton and a reward from the kitchen. and one gallon of ale at the buttery bar. should they suffer the pangs Afternoon of hunger a maunchet of bread from the pantry bar. . one chete loaf and one maunchet at the pantry bar. caste of chete bread from the pantry bar. a messe of pottage. Supper. a stroke of roast caste of and a reward from the kitchen. to show what dainty creatures were our lady ancestors. and a gallon A of ale at the buttery bar. chete bread from the pantry bar. Every morning at breakfast one chyne of beef from the kitchen. After supper to insure a good night's rest a chete loaf and a maunchet from the pantry bar. I give you (keep your eye dresses) the daily meanwhile upon the wonderful allowance of a Maid of Honour. and a gallon of ale at the buttery — — bar. little 47 or great expanses Here. to show from what beef and blood and bone we come. and half a gallon of ale from the A — — seller bar.

naturally tied or twisted. with faces as fresh as primroses. the velvet of underdress. into all. in their time. by a process of evolution. made up. these slip hanging sleeves to the overcoats. the diamond shape disappeared. ready made. the hoods you can see for yourselves how they lend themselves by up. the contour being circular where it had previously been pointed.48 ENGLISH COSTUME Four and a half gallons of ale all ! I wonder did and down they drink in the it themselves ? All this. It is all articles of clothing or adorn- ment. became falsified ready-made With . the These hoods worn by women. into the shapes which had before some of the owner's mood and personality about them. their shape to personal taste all they were made ready sewn . these wide sleeves to the gowns. or folded and pinned by the devotees of fashion. mornings in velvets and the fate of silks. In the end. articles. and the cap was placed further back on the head. to become. the back were made steadfast. after some little time. back The velvet hanging-piece remained at the . folds of velvet at the the crimp of the white linen was determined. the angle of the side-flap ruled by some unwritten law of mode. where pins had been used.

the arrangement is best as it stands. because we can follow. and pinned up. that the III. in one piece. way in which the various ' articles VOL. myself keep two interests running together. . It is difficult to without mixing the two up. which have to be dropped only to be taken up felt in another reign. the complete wardrobe of one reign into the next.HENRY THE EIGHTH was never 49 of the head. after all. and finally into. and the entire shape the gradually altered towards. but I have that. when reading other works on the subject. but was smaller. if we are willing. It has often occurred to me while writing this book that the absolute history of one such headdress would be of more help than these iso- lated remarks. with which every reader must be familiar. well-known Mary Queen of Scots head-dress. but I have felt.

was in the at last made separate — as a cuff more than a next reign. left out altogether. and show. towards the end of the reign. among the most The upper part show false stuff. the master of detail. body was pinched into the hard hand. and of painters. of the dress. so replacing the under-dress. once part and The wide from it sleeve to the parcel of the gown. when lives photographs of pictures are so cheap. Many were from plain the varieties of girdle and belt. were this the place for morals. Lacing was carried to extremes. many. sleeve naturally widening—and fashionable. more disturbing than gown. beneath the lacing. For detail one can do no better than go to Holbein. copiously illustrated. once cut low and square to the under-dress. and to-day. are so easily . so that the roll-like .50 ENGLISH COSTUME is of clothing are mixed up useful. preferred to lace loose. the colour of the underdress. silk sashes with tasselled ends to rich jewelled chain girdles ending in heavy ornaments. with a top of other stuff. wiser appearance always identified with this time women I on the other should say. or a vest of other was now made.

to go straightway and study the master —that master who touched. it is the finest education.HENRY THE EIGHTH attainable at 51 low prices. not only in painting. withThomas More card. but in Tudor atmosphere and in matters of dress. on the moral of his age when he painted a miniature of the Blessed on the back of a playing 7—2 . out intention.

can yield be expected to much it in the way of change. 1537 THE MEN AND WOMEN Here we have a reign from hardly us yet its which. between these reigns.. very shortness. and ends with the Cromwells. may call a halt here. 52 . called the Tudor tunic and Stuart volume. six : Born.EDWARD THE SIXTH Reigned years 1547 — 1553. I think I to come. becomes a doublet. and dies. that form of growth which preludes the great changes shows. because. by very slight movements. and proceed to tell you why this volume is commenced with Henry It is VII. the achieves maturity.

quite a near cousin to our own garment of afternoon ceremony. until the volume ends. in the more general appearance . runs through cut. the shorter they become the tighter becomes the coat . is. at first. To Queen for Elizabeth has been given the palm first the wearing of the it is silk stockings in England. and the other severe coats retaining the so small piece of skirt straight. then we run through all with this coat in its periods of sleeve. trim. skirts its various degrees of It . straight. this. this garment peculiar to a certain time.! EDWARD THE SIXTH practically just in 53 the middle of the reign of Charles II. or basque. or rather. and to the Crom- wellian jerkin with the piece of skirt cut into tabs. the folds on the skirt are shortened. that. a loose body garment with the skirts become arranged in precise folds. but known that Sir ham gave a We now pair of silk stockings to see a Thomas GresEdward VI. puffings. and hey presto into there marches history a Persian business — a frock coat. slashings. For a sign of the times it may be mentioned that a boy threw his cap at the Host just at the time of the Elevation. The peculiar garment. of pungent memory.

afterwards the statute cap as ordered by Elizabeth. long to die. except among the labouring classes. there came in and. no doubt. the ordinary headwear. that eminently practical head-gear. as 1 say. which were puffed. last it when at the cap that now remains to us in the cap of the Beefeaters at the Tower of is London.54 ENGLISH COSTUME cap upon the heads of citizens. This cap. short knickerbockers. and hose doublet or coat. — generally worn with trunks. streets of the flat The hood. took went out of fashion. was enforced upon the people by Elizabeth for the encouragement . became. which some of the Bluecoat Boys still wear. It the time of jerkin or j acket. kept hoods upon their heavy travelling cloaks. The flat cap. though some.

55 'One cap of wool. always wore a flat cap. were not so wide. the mark of the grave skirts man. their heirs.' was to be worn by and all over six years of age. open garments. the long skirts of these blue coats were. and long may they have the sense to keep to their dress. and dressed in England.— EDWARD THE SIXTH of the English trade of cappers. the base of the crown ornamented with bands of jewels. knit. Indeed. overcoats or jackets. show us exactly the ordinary dress of the citizen. or. as one may more easily know them. and allowed more of the puffed shoulder of the sleeve to show. cut to the That peculiar fashion of the previous reign the enormously broad-shouldered appearance still held in this reign to some extent. The Bluecoat Boys. except that the modern knickerbocker has taken the trunks. in Edward's time. though the — collars of the jerkins. place of the Also. the collar became quite small. according to the portraits. others wore these same knee. thicked. except such persons as had 'twenty marks by year in lands. and such as have borne office of worship. as in the Windsor Holbein .' Edward.

' glossary. mens' bands. and the puff in the shoulders not so rotund. to attire. but the collar of the shirt begins to show signs of the ruff of later years. the author of ' Satires. Antiquarian research as has. speaks of a . be set on or taken off by picadillies itself. Sir Madden to says : ' The partlet evidently appears have been the corset or habit-shirt period.' 1598. without the bodies.56 ENGLISH COSTUME painting of Edward.' Hall. or in womens' neckerchiefs. Minshein says they are 'part of a man's as the loose collar of a doublet. worn at that and which so commonly occurs in the portraits of the time. as the or as now a daies. which are least some. meaning of the word who is very good in many the in his ways. puts down women. or at partlets. It is no larger. muddled us 'partlet. The doublet of this reign shows no change. called F. 'Partlet: A gorget for a partlet Then he goes on to say may be goodness knows what that else. as it often does. generally made of velvet and ornamented with precious stones.' have been within memorie.' to Fairholt. but is generally left untied with the ornamental strings hanging.


(1547— 1553) EDWARD change from the dress of the previous reign should be easily noticed. of course. This dress is.A MAN AND The WOMAN OF THE TIME OF VI. especially in the case of the woman. of the plainest in this time f .



others. as Minshein says.. strip. 8 . the is indeed. an effeminate dandy. 'the loose collar of a doublet.EDWARD THE SIXTH man. that. III. who am unwillingly forced into judging between so many learned partlet persons. wore a band about his neck.' in reality the same thing as a shirt band. were wonderfully embroidered. Henry VIII. of silver cloth with ruffs to them. VOL. the Some of his bands were forerunner of the ruff. as I have shown. 57 as wearing a partlet It appears to me. from all I have been able to gather from contemporary records and papers.

'to be set ruff. stock —to the nine pennyworth of misery necks. . This latest form of woman's I head apparel was born. then. towards simplicity may be said that the change even more marked.58 ENGLISH COSTUME In this case. on the whole. set back from the forehead with a piece of velvet or silk to hang down From the back. to plain bands. will best describe the head-gear that to the centre-pointed hoop shows the trend of the shape.' and so by way of pound price apiece. we bolt around our Dress. for the rich. are not so full of cuts is much The plainer. laced neckcloth. sleeves fit and slashes. the half hoop. diamond- shaped French hood has disappeared almost entirely. rich but simple. is materials are rich. to falling bands. For the women. but the ornament not so lavish Stretes is the portrait Edward by Gwillim a good example of ornament. on or valued taken off by at threescore itself. and they more of closely to the arm. out of the folds . the partlet is head of the family tree to our own collar. think. The very elaborate head-dress. Shoes are not cut about at the toe quite with the same splendour. the folded. and. but are still broad in the it is toe.

The drawing will show how the square end of the linen cap. cut the semi- circle and overlapped to it. falling in the centre of the circular cap-shape. but the difficulties of describing such evolutions in any but tangled language I leave the reader to imagine. with a hanging-piece behind. worn in the house. became the extreme of fashion. rather baggy cap-like hoods. and being repeated in the velvet nightcaps. thus giving the appearance into later become exaggerated that shape. (I a form cut especially to as I can try to be as lucid manage.EDWARD THE SIXTH of the linen cap 59 this. 8—2 .) The women are also wearing cloth hoods.

the arm of the wearer coming out just below the puffed shoulder-piece. were not With is overcoats in general the hanging sleeve being worn. out The same stiff-bodied appearance holds good. as is often detachable and answers the same purpose as the man's partlet this later became I shall call . wires to hold it and was under-propped with stiffly. . skirts but in more simple dresses the quite as voluminous as heretofore. we may safely go on to does not the reign of Mary another reign which much in the way of clothes. On this collar is the embroidery woman's partlet. sewn —what —the a separate article. which suddenly springs into existence. With yield us these remarks . showing a piece of the under-dress.60 ENGLISH COSTUME The most notable change is the collar of the gown. It is a high collar and very open in front.

entered London on this date. yellow. after . Philip of Spain. with her half-sister Elizabeth. . 1516. I 1553. walked before her magnificently dressed after followed gentlemen habited in velvets of in white. : Born. who gave her the City sword. THE MEN AND WOMEN. violet. First. others and carnation others and some damasks of all . all sorts. and the chiefs or masters of the several trades 61 . Mary. some black. having plenty of gold buttons afterwards followed the Mayor. 1554. wore satins or tafFety. this ' From the Antiquarian Repertory comes account the citizens' children . Married.: Reigned five MARY years 1553— 1558. colours. At Aldgate she was met by the Mayor of London. with the City Companies. cannot do better than commence this chapter by taking you back to the evening of August 3.

in the midst of whom was the Queen herself. . gowns with satin sleeves brown cloaks and workers in cloth or in furred . sheriffs . The trained bands in white doublets with the City . were six lords bareheaded. in truth a beautiful Princess. and rather ' fresh coloured. as well of the first as the second guard. richly habited. also named Madame who was married accompanied by ladies both and single. and was then about forty years of age. arms before and behind and aldermen citizens in lawyers in black .' In the crowds about the city waiting to stare at the new Queen as she passed by. Elizabeth. the Lords.62 ENGLISH COSTUME them. habited in . She was followed by her ' sister. mounted on a small white ambling nag. married and single. vests of gold. and the most considerable knights next came the ladies. Behind her ' Before her followed the archers. the housings of which were fringed with gold thread about her were six lacqueys. and some others bearing the arms and crown. The Queen herself was dressed in violet velvet. one could recognise the various professions by their colours. each carrying in his hand a yellow mace.

and the other half laced downwards one payer of peche-colour. . liveries worn. depend on the sense of the reader. and also it will . . gentlemen's servants in very gorgeous their masters' colours. the rest. . russet and gold buttons afore and uppon the shoulder. 63 citizens' servants in blue liveries liveries . garded with twoe yards of black clothe and twisted lace of carnacion and colour.MARY leather doublets . being of the clothe itself. striped about th'cape and down the fore face. ornament and fancy. and lyned with crymsone bayes th'other is a red shipp russet colour. th'one of vessey colour. th'one buttoned with peche-colour buttons.' halfe . of Here is a description Of : a gentleman's page and his clothes ' doublet of yelow million fustian. with a band p'cell of the same hatt a payer of watchet (blue) stockings. laced with smale tawnye lace a graye hat with a copper edge rounde about it. twisted with two rows of twisted lace. Likewise he hath twoe clokes. set with the said twisted lace and the buttons of russet silk and gold. One This will give some notion of the elaborate show how. having understood the forms of the garments and the material which may be used.

a coif tied this under their the flat cap. the older men. and over caps.. first the appearance of the ruff. round the crown-base of which is a gold cord clasped by a jewel a feather is stuck into this hat. There is. noticeable is The most the high-peaked Spanish hat. some of them. older men wear black velvet skull With also. and bring with them many innovations in dress. have chins. very neat and small. a hard-crowned hat. worn on one side of the head. a velvet bag with a narrow brim. Again. . Yet the mass of citizens wear the flat cap. They also brought in the cloak with a turned up high collar and some had sleeves to their cloaks. . cut in full folds. 64 ENGLISH COSTUME A is change has come over the of Spaniards streets. Although the overcoats of Henry's and Edwards reigns still form the principal wear. the town full these come over with Philip. also. and reaching not far below the waist. the short Spanish cloak has come in. these Spaniards comes.


A cloak very much of the period. .A The MAN OF THE TIME OF MARY (ISS3—ISS8) half-way between the dress of 1530 and 1560. and a tunic in the state of evolution towards the doublet.



also half-boots with the tops turned over to be seen. as before. and VOL. The new shape of head-dress becomes popular. III. The gowns themselves. or partlet strip. in the centre. these are turned down. the long skirt to the doublet. and beards with two points. The doublets become shaped more closely to the body. short clipped beards. to show the under-gown. and the opening to show the Ladies collar of the shirt.MARY One sees 65 more beards and moustaches. but now puffed out at the sides. now show more hair. Often. all showing the gradual change towards the Elizabethan cos- tume. where the hose meet the trunks. but as still retaining the characteristics of earlier times. full skirts. though retaining the same appearance big sleeves. split no 9 trains. parted. as before. Shoes are now more to the shape of the foot. . and high boots strapped up over the knee. and the upstanding collar to the gown is almost universal.

white. made very close to the head. for instance. a separate material. The custom comes in. white as a rule in fact. in her portrait by Antonio More. frequently used for dresses. of carrying small posies of flowers it is and interesting to see the Queen. carrying a bunch . is . with small ear-pieces. a will have collar and yoke of plain Women and wear neat linen caps.66 ENGLISH COSTUME have the top part of the gown covering the bosom made of gown of velvet. both for men and women. On the shoulders there is a fashion of wearing kerchiefs of linen or silk. fine cloth as.

and a gold chain girdle for a woman. the appearance of people to now was very as different.MARY sold 67 of violets arranged exactly as the penny bunches now in our streets. There was. was common — in fact. You of will realize that to one born in the reign Henry VIII. in most dresses. anyone as far we are now. a great profusion and the wearing of gold chains of gold buttons. a gold chain about the neck for a man. were part of the ordinary everyday dress. and. the intervening reigns of and Mary are interesting as showing the wonderful away Edward 9—2 .

.68 ENGLISH COSTUME quiet change that could take place in those few years. of a playing-card. square. to the doublet and hose person with a cartwheel of a ruff. and alter man's exterior from the appearance stiff. blob-footed. which recalls to us Elizabethan dress.

To-day a man. with Calvin and Michael Angelo. whether he 69 cares . cut in panes.ELIZABETH Reigned 45 years : 1558-1603 THE MEN Here we are in the middle of great discoveries with adventurers. are breeches. and Galileo and Shakespeare seeing light — in the very centre and heart of these things. fussy things. the of which we leave alone to-day. living and dying. they and and slop-hose ? ask. and in this reign we meet little a hundred like is little things. But this not quite true. to be lined writings In such we are bound to concern little ourselves with the things that matter. and we and they we discussing the relations of the law to linen. How.

reminder of twenty. One hand rests on his padded hip. styles to suit his sonality. is going to His doublet is bellied like a . clothes supposed to be in at last. keeping a vague style. How first we know the Elizabethan . The very names arouse associations — ruff. jerkin. ! He is a stock figure in our imagination he figured in our first schoolboy romances. clothes of an old gentleman. cloak. is for ever choosing patterns. own peculiar per- From the cradle to the grave we are decked with useless ornaments little — bibs. jackets. colours. and — they almost take one's breath away. it Because it was an heroic time we it hark back to to visualize as best we may so that we can come and the nearer to our heroes —Drake.70 to admit it ENGLISH COSTUME or no. doublet. thirty years ago in their and then —grave well clothes. clothes . to the harmony with the country. frills. neat ties. yellow- starched. he strutted in the plays we saw. shades. of the garments lace of Flanders rest. different coloured boots. a case of toothpicks and a napkin his tavern to dine. jumper. trunks. the other holds . down. of ceremony. bone-bobbin lace. Here comes a gentleman in a great ruff. Raleigh. an egg-shaped pearl dangles from one he ear. sashes.

where we see a twisted lock tied with seem to know these people well very well. His jerkin not stuffed out. The first. his it hat is stuck on one side and the feather in curls over the brim. whose trunk hose have ribbon. We sewn on them. one over each ear and the third over the centre of his forehead. and a his walk is. 71 little and his breeches are bombasted. his trunks stick out a foot round him. . monstrous all . and all over. in consequence. and his ruff not starched to stick up round head. with Suddenly there flashes heels of red on his shoes ? clocks of silk . little affected is but. Behind him comes a gentle- man loose knee . whose clothes are of white silk sewn with red and blue. slashed is He is exaggerated. - breeches barred wilh velvet at the knee he has a is is frill of lace. he in a gallant figure.— ELIZABETH pea's cod. he tight- laced . reminds us of whom ? And the second gentleman in green and red. His doublet is covered with a is herring-bone pattern in silk stitches. for all that. his His hair is cut in three points.

here we are again !' Here we are again after all these centuries clown and pantaloon. We are a conservative nation. instigator of all the evil his clothes of gorgeous the almost invisible thief. a rose on two pink stalks. different. and then a well-known voice calling. who contrives to look sweetly modest frilliest in the shortest and she looks like She. being so a rose. enter Harlequin in patches the quick. Joey. Hello. years ago. His patches his and rags have grown to symmetrical pattern. gives the picture just the air of magic in- congruity. a row of shops. and we like our own . as anything can well be.— 72 across our ENGLISH COSTUME memory ' the picture of a lighted stage. early Vic- torian lady. loose doublet has become this tight-fitting lizard skin of flashing gold and colours. humour included. the old man in Venetian slops — St. Panta- loone —just . Once. she was dressed in rags like Harlequin. and magic. To these enter 1830 — Columbine—an of skirts . the rustic with red health on his face. but I suppose that the age of sentiment clothed her in her ballet costume rather than see her in her costly tatters. but his atmosphere recalls the great days. Then. a policeman. as Elizabethan.

one in corner of the quiet square. The other with a linen cap and a ruff round her neck the ground by the gentleman —Judy. and on a tiny stage are two figures. — listen clown. pantaloon. on a who bangs drum is and blows on the pan-pipes stuck a dog with a ruff round his neck in his muffler. I certainly curious. And we —that a box hidden The world 10 is by the check covering. the is this. and suppose that an Elizabethan VOL. rootity-toot !' There. harlequin. and columbine vanish to the sound of the pan-pipes and the voice of Punch. know —delightful to think of it — Toby. We eagerly. — Punch. . III. bands at his wrists. too.ELIZABETH old jokes so 73 much that we have all. with a ruff hanging loose about a cap on his head his neck. and the harlequinade dream changes a new sound heard. is a doublet stiffened out like a pea pod. clothes and of from the days of Queen Elizabeth. a tall by the box covered with checkered cloth. ' Root-ti-toot. kept through the entertainment ages this extraordinary pleasing straight down. contains many curiously dressed figures — all friends of ours. Above a man's height is an opening. Below. a sound from the remote past. Even as we dream dazzles our eyes.

cut. The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head The Wits Nuserie. These doublets were a long time . 1 Euphues Golden Legacie. They were made without and an epaulette overhung were tied for the armhole. For the shapes. same. If you wish to in a sea of allusions there are a number of books into which you 4 may dive Microcynicon.' The Debate between Pride and Lowliness. 1 1 Stubbes ' ' ' Anatomie of Abuses. ' ' 1 1 you do not come out from these saturated with detail then you will never absorb anything.— 74 ENGLISH COSTUME would find revisiting us to-day but one thing the humour of the harlequinade and the Punch and Judy show. the doublet was a close-fitting If • garment. down to a long peak in front. if in the Italian fashion. like a waistcoat. 1 ' Pleasant Quippes for Upstart Newfangled Gentlewomen. Every Man out of his Humour. 1 ' ' The Cobbler's Prophesie. the Now swim let us get to the dull part. 1 1 1 Vaine. ' 1 Hall's Satires. sleeves. The sleeves into the doublet by means of points (ribbons with metal tags).

The sleeves of the jerkin were often open from shoulder to wrist to show the doublet sleeve underneath. worn for comfort or extra clothing in winter. and was often worn over the doublet. loose jerkin. These sleeves were very wide. The jornet was The jumper a a loose travelling cloak. 10—2 .ELIZABETH stuffed ' 75 pea's bombasted into the form known as cod bellied or shotten-bellied. and were ornamented with large buttons.' or ' ' The jerkin was a jacket with sleeves.

showing the stuffed trunk hose underneath. . until breeches known as trunks were worn by nearly everybody fashion. They were stuffed with anything that came handy —wool. rags. special seats were put in the Houses of Parliament for the fashion at its height appears to have lasted about eight years. The very wide reign. in the early part of the they vied with Venetian breeches for series of They were sometimes made of a wide bands of different colours placed alternately sometimes they were of bands. The or bran and were of such proportions that gentlemen who wore them.— . 76 ENGLISH COSTUME Both doublet and jerkin had a little skirt or base.


His boots are His cloak is an held up by two leather straps. nearly as usual at this time as the ruff. . Italian fashion.A MAN OF THE TIME OF ELIZABETH (1558—1603) He wears a double linen collar. His trunk hose will be seen through the openings of his trunks.



if the breeches were short and the stockings . but man most proud garters. the way up the leg.were gartered about the knee. stockings were of yarn. silver \Jl\J/ Wi fl Open-work stockings were stockings and breeches were W " rl \// known. The all called. They. and had various patterns on them. they were known shoes were shaped to the foot. windows with bars of The French The breeches were tight and ruffled in puffs about the thighs. or 77 full at breeches were very . These \l//\^^\ G|\ ' stockings were sewn with clocks at I J the ankles. trunk hose and trunks if the breeches just came to the knee and the stockings as came over them. or silk. of his leg wore MM0*h /yfllllf (if no but depended on the fit shape of his leg and the of his J|S||n7 stocking to keep the position. -^ \~}L and pulled up over the breeches the . £A. some Limes of gold or thread.\ ELIZABETH The Venetian puffed. and upper of stocks and nether stocks. the top and narrowed to the knee paned coloured stuffs or gold they were slashed and like lattice lace. or wool. The made .

and shortcropped most. thought for doing— wearing very square-toed shoes. have.78 ENGLISH COSTUME . for the we have love - the tied lock rib- with bons. little sometimes even with For winter or for hard travelling the jornet or loose cloak was worn. hair left fairly long and brushed straight back from the forehead. As hair. of Of course. There were shoes with high cork soles called moyles. They wore lace. pearls. also. the very same that we see caricatured in the wigs of clown and pantaloon. Beards and moustaches are worn by cloaks covered with embroidery. The sturtops to were boots the ankle. or cock feathers in their hair. there else were gallants who did things no one instance. . We hair. various leathers or stuffs a rose of ribbon some- times decorated the shoes.

ELIZABETH 79 The older and more sedate wore long stuff gowns with hanging sleeves these gowns. stitched on either side with red thread. Lodge His holiday suit marvellous seemly. made . in a russet jacket. and plain jerkins or doublets. the fashions left gowns open and wore them simple The common people wore clothes of the same cut as their lords —trunks or loose but little . trousers. tied with different . with a large slop barred all across the pocket holes with three fair guards. His hose of gray kersey.' His stockings are also gray kersey. closed before very richly with a dozen pewter buttons. as a rule. country the fashions In the reign alter. and faced with red worsted. bound at the wrists with four yellow laces. long hose. welted with the same. in this in Corydon goes to meet Sylvia what says : some- fashionable ' clothes. having a pair of blue camblet sleeves. gave an for absurd Noah's ark-like appearance to the wearers. however. to fit at the waist and over the trunks. Those who cared nothing their loose.

80 ENGLISH COSTUME .' . And to want nothing that might make him amorous in his old days. coloured laces his bonnet is green. and has a St. whipt over with Coventry blue of no small cost. he had a fair shirt-band of white lockeram. copper brooch with the picture of ' Dennis.

silk or wool. with hose. keep straight slim waists. Italian ruffs. German Flemish faces. III.- ELIZABETH The hats 81 worn vary in shape from steeplecrowned. I think we may let these gallants rest now to walk among the shades clothes they are. wood busks to make the shades 11 . Round these hats were hatbands of every sort. ruffled lace. partlet wigs of strips. and these with chalked false hair. narrow -brimmed hats. gold chains. to flat. towards the broad-brimmed Jacobean hat. broad crowned hats others show the coming tendency . shoes . fuzzed peri- and cloaks. will VOL. Spanish hats —a walking geography of French doublets.

sometimes she dresses her hair with sometimes she. or French love -lock his lady dangling down his shoulders. still more false. As a companion to her who came from the hands of his barber with his hair after the Italian manner. or perhaps only sigh. and tries various attires of false hair. from which jewels or gold. lock to rest upon her shoulder. or negligently on her of the Even may. long hair at his ears curled at the two ends.work tassels hang ruff. THE WOMEN Now this is the reign of the ruff and the monstrous hoop and the wired lord. Every now and again she consults the looking-glass hanging on her girdle . for there are many still dim wardrobe of fashions who are more foolish. she — — sits under the hands of her maid. short and round and curled in front and with a frizzed. than these in that Elizabethans. hair. the country girl eagerly waits for news fashions. town and follows them as best she . allows a lovefall chains of gold. too. . or like a Spaniard. principally of a yellow colour.82 ENGLISH COSTUME laugh perhaps.

and was made of holland. First. and then she would place with a great nicety her ruff of lace. or cambric. headed by Mistress Dingham Vander Plasse. dressed. of Flanders. One must understand ruff as required that the ruff may be great or small. and the one pound. at the price of First. and the enormous spread of skirt. though richly. that only the very fashionable wore such a that an underproper. there entered several Dutch ladies. a gown cut square across the bosom and low over 11—2 . pounds a head. which remained stiff. in 1564. art of making starch. the dress was a modification of that worn by the ladies in the time of Henry VIII. and even the court ladies were quietly. and the starched circular ruff would stand by itself without the other appliance. or linen. cutting. In the first . Before the advent of the heavily-jewelled and embroidered stomacher. art of folding.ELIZABETH 83 In the early part of the reign the simple costume of the previous reign was still worn. and held the folds well but later. who taught and the at five her pupils the art of starching cambric. the lady put on her underproper of wire and holland. two years the ruff remained a fairly small size. and pinching ruffs.

84 ENGLISH COSTUME full sleeves the shoulders. the whole fitted . but without any train . bric over the ending in bands of camslit hands (these sleeves to show puffs of cambric from the elbow to the wrist). the skirt full and long.





waist. Both gowns were laced up the back. Over this a second gown. and verystiff" in front. and was not stuffed quite so in front . This shape gave form. The lady might wear a jerkin like in shape to a it man's. This second gown had. as a rule. except that often was cut and low square over the bosom. split above in a V-shape. a high. split below at the undergown. and finally to way many to a more exaggerated varieties of exaggeration. much every variety of rich material was used for this jerkin. generally of plain material. which was lined with some rich silk or with lace. and cut away to show the The sleeves of this gown were wide. and the sleeves were as varied as . and were turned back or cut away just by the elbow. standing collar.ELIZABETH 85 well to the figure as far as the waist.

left False sleeves attached at the shoulders. without bands of cambric or lace at the wrists these bands sometimes were frills. and the middle class were not allowed to wear velvet This jerkin was sometimes worn buttoned up. with the high collar that the men wore. to the neck. in under-garments. and hang loose. Sometimes a cape was worn over the head and shoulders. but a plain. split were to and tied with ribbons. into fashion and were worn high up near the full the basque or flounce at the bottom of the jerkin was made long. oblong piece of stuff. 86 ENGLISH COSTUME the man's. not a shaped cape. like a man's.. sometimes stif- fened and turned back. puffed. with or . to the top of The high plainer fashion of this was a gown buttoned of rich material — up to the ruff —and opened from the waist to the feet to this show a full petticoat was the general wear of the more sober- minded. and when the hoops came waist. and pleated the hooped petticoat. No person except royalty might wear crimson except except for sleeves. slashed all over. The ladies sometimes wore the shaped cape. The French hood with a short liripipe was worn by .

strings of pearls. can be dressed with pearls. of the shape so well known by the portraits of Queen Mary of Scotland. sewn pearls. earrings. one variety of given. I can only give and puffs are without number.ELIZABETH country ladies . the structure on which such ornamental fripperies The hair. this covered the showing nothing but a neat parting in front. or glass ornaments. feathers. It is may be seen in the line drawing made of cambric and cut lace sewn on to wires bent into the shape required. The openwork lace bonnet. In time such of a exin travagance fashion additions the one to may make any dress form in of the way of ribbons. Men and women wore monstrous but curiously enough . slashes. and can be placed. 87 hair. cuts. is not possible to exactly describe in writing it . for example. rings of gold. bows.

or if they wished to be unconventional. their painted faces exposed to the public gaze. or thrown back over the shoulders. The I shoes with the high cork soles. sleeves.88 this ENGLISH COSTUME fashion women. they sat in the playing booths unmasked. and stuck the embroidered and scented gloves. They were not such a foolish custom as might . and were of to seven or eight heights —and —from two inches they were called chopines. but The shoulder pinions of the jerkins were puffed. slashed. silk . in shape like those smaller. to which have just alluded. more especiwas with a feather. high-heeled. open from the shoulder left all the The wing way down. were in all common use all over Europe. were so long sometimes as to reach the ground. them were Ladies went masked about the streets and in the theatres. and were hanging in front. and beribboned in every way. The girdles were of every in stuff. from gold cord. more common to men than Hats were interchangeable. the better to display the rich undersleeve. and round-toed. to twisted from these hung looking-glasses. The ladies shoes were cork-soled. curiously knotted. ally the trim hat worn by the Yeoman of the Guard.



appear, for they protected the wearer from the



of the streets.




Hamlet mentions were

really very high-soled

slippers, into

which the richly-embroidered shoes

were placed to protect

walked abroad.
gold, or

them when the The shoes were made of



and velvet stitched with

embroidered with

stamped with patterns, slashed sometimes,
silk laces.

and sometimes laced with coloured

wore bombazines, or a silk and cotton stuff made at Norwich, and bone lace made


at Honiton,

both at that time the newest of English

goods, although before


in Flanders


and they

imported Italian lace and Venetian shoes, stuffed
their stomachers with bombast,

and wore a



French hoods,

called a bongrace, to


their faces

from sunburn.
in France,

Cambric they brought from Cambrai
and calico from Calicut in India
hunted high and low

—the world




deck these


people, so that under

this load of universal

goods one might hardly hope

to find

more than a

clothes prop

in fact,

one might



imagine the overdressed figure to be a

marvellous marionette than a decent Englishwoman.
vol. in.



Falstaff will
not wear coarse



dandies call for
ostrich feathers,

must have




Italian flagshaped fans;


the fashion from

milkmaids to ladies of the court, each as best as they

may manage


The Jew moves about

the streets

in^hislong gaberdine and yellow cap, the lady pads

about her garden in


chopines, and the gentle-




as well as



in his

in a pipe

breeches and smokes

Herbe de



of clay, and the country


walks along in

her stamell red petticoat guarded or strapped with
black, or rides past to


in her over-guard

Let us imagine, by way of a picture of the times, the Queen in her bedchamber under the hands of her tiring-women She is sitting before a mirror in her embroidered chemise of fine Raynes



her under-linen petticoat and her


stockings with the gold thread clocks.

she wears a rich wrap.

Slippers are

Over these on her feet.

In front of her, on a table, are rouge and chalk

and a pad of cotton-wool

—already she



her face, and her bright bird-like eyes shine in a

painted mask, her strong face, her hawk-like nose and
her expressionless
the mirror.



back at her from

Beside the rouge pot



egg watch, quietly ticking in




of the


brings forward a

number of


of false

golden and red, and from

these the


choses one.

a close periwig

of tight red curls,

among which


and pieces



great care this

of burnished metal shine.

fastened on to the Queen's head, and she

watches the process with

her bright

eyes and

features in the great mirror.

Then, when



fixed to her mind, she



helped into the privie coat of bones

and buckram, which
at her back.

laced tightly

by the women

comes the moment when they are about to fasten on her whalebone hips the



— over








The wheel



tied with

ribbons about her waist, and



After some delay in

choosing an undergown, she then puts on several

one over another, to give the

required fulness to her figure

and then comes


stiffly- embroidered





but a petticoat with a linen bodice which has no


great care she seats herself

on a broad

and a perfect army of

ruffs is laid before



the tire-woman


displaying the ruffs

she talks to the Queen, and
story, then current, of the

her that peculiar
of Antwerp,





a great


because she could not get


A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF ELIZABETH (1558— 1603) Compare this with the other plate showing opposite fashion. the .



and the tire-woman recomThis. and the other of three depths great of such circumference. to the surprise of everyruff. finally the choice falls between one of great shaped like a Catherine wheel and starched but not blue. starched yellow. to business of the ruffs. and called 93 in a passion she when it. is First one and then another discarded . and there. it "was opened. and would : ' — ' . where he has set up an establishment for the making of such affairs it is a picadillie. Higgins. it was found that no one could lift it.ELIZABETH her ruff to set aright. appeared. afterwards hung at Tyburn in a ruff of the same colour. is one mends the smaller bands of those ruffs made by Mr. for she great fund of dry humour —and so. madame. body. Together they tried the and the young gentleman suddenly strangled the lady and vanished. and size. after the receipt of Mrs. Turner. in the end. so. The Queen wavers. sat a great black cat setting a The has the Queen's eyes twinkle on a this story. Now when they came to carry away the coffin of the lady some days later. James's. the tailor near to St. upon the devil to take as if in answer to the summons a young and handsome gentleman ruff.

and has great epaulettes. or mahoitres on the shoulders. is The to tight-fitting bodice of the is gown it buttoned up to the throat. and stuffed out . These are called virago of pearls are This done. in front meet the fall of the hoops has falling sleeves. much the same as the effect of the an embroidered stuff showing in the open- ing of a plain material. The Queen exchanges her slippers for . and slips it over the Queen's head rich petticoat. and the upper gown are across now tied with one or two bows is them so that the effect of the sleeves skirts . it very much purled into folds. and the picadillie ruff laid over it.94 ENGLISH COSTUME The Queen stops her and chooses the ruff. — it is it open in front to stuffed show the wings. They are puffed sleeves same material sleeves of the as the under-gown. and it bristles with The women approach with a crimson over-gown is points. and then the underpropper or supportasse of wire and holland is fastened on her neck. sleeves. but the real sleeves are now brought of the falling and tied to the points attached to the shoulders of the gown. the strings placed around the Queen's neck.

ELIZABETH cork-soled shoes. after a final survey of herself in the glass. or one is apt to imagine. fan. stands while her girdle sees that the looking-glass. Higgins. a wonderful in her train tailor. and pomander are hung upon and then. There are not so many suppose upon first allusions to Elizabethan dress in the plays of Shakespeare as one might thought. nowadays. 95 is knotted. a who named a street without knowing street known in every part of the civilized . this manner the Queen struts down to posterity. and —Queen Elizabeth is dressed. that there dresses in the plays. as the producer and the illustrator by introducing garments of his own . . we may dimly see Mr. she calls for her muckinder or handkerchief. SHAKESPEARE AND CLOTHES. world but. it. . one hardly thinks of conruff. woman in ridiculous clothes. is a warrant for some of the In some cases he confounds date into historical plays. So in and the it. necting Piccadilly with a lace . One has grown so accustomed to Shakespeare put on the stage in elaborate dresses that one imagines.

' I have not kept the lines in verse. ladies 'Matrons and maids their scarfs and handkerchers. if one accepts the long * ' of cloth or Lockram ' is coarse linen.' Our veiled dames.'' ' Go ' to them with this bonnet in your hand.' Enter Coriolanus in a gown of humility. In ' Pericles : we have mention of ruffs and bases. .' ' Doublets that hangmen would bury with these that wore them.' 'Commit the war of white and damask in their nicely gawded cheeks to the wanton and spoil of Phcebus' burning ' kisses.96 for example.' Certainly the bases might be made slips to appear Ttoman.' fling gloves. ENGLISH COSTUME Coriolanus. Pericles says ' I am provided of a pair of bases. but in a con- venient way to ' show their allusions. You and your apron-men. You have made good work.' ' The kitchen malkin pins her richest lockram * 'bout her reechy neck. : Here are the clothes allusions in that play ' When you cast your stinking greasy caps.

' ' says I'll give thee an armour all of gold.' Cleopatra. III.: . in Anthony and Cleopatra. 1 Julius Cassar ' mentioned as an Elizabethan plucked ope his doublet.'' : He The Carpenter ' in 'Julius Caesar' is asked : Where is thy leather apron and thy rule ? ' The mob have sweaty night-caps.' the action of which occurs in Pagan times. Masks * for faces and for noses 1 . Whitsun pastorals. As. an Emperor of Russia. and an Italian fifteenth-century ' painter. ELIZABETH leather in 97 Roman is military dress as being bases really as in but Shakespeare ruffs — the case of the —alluding to the petticoats of the doublet of Bases also apply ' his time worn by grave persons. 13 . : . Thin stuff for womens veils. Also ' Lawn as white as driven snow Cyprus * black as ere was crow Gloves as sweet as damask roses .'' The Winter's Tale. is full of anachronisms. In ' we have : An idiot holds his bauble for his is God. for instance.. Christian burial. VOL. Titus Andronicus ' to silk hose.

' Many ladies at this time wore velvet masks. 1 Also: ' Since she did neglect her looking-glass. Pins and polking-sticks of steel. The Merry Wives of Windsor ' gives us a . which to Shylock. necklace amber. I'll tie it up in silken strings With twenty odd conceited true-love knot To be fantastic may become a youth Of greater time than I shall show to be. In hats.' No. spoken of as carrying polking-sticks with stiffen ruffs.. ' of Verona ' we hear ' then.' should wear an orange-tawny bonnet lined with black taffeta. for in this way were ' the Jews of Venice distinguished in 1581. in 'The Merchant of Venice. Perfume for a lady's chamber Golden quoifs and stomachers. . must cut your hair. the pedlar of these early times. And threw her sun-expelling mask away. of rye-straw of and a pied fool's costume. In ' The Two Gentlemen Why.' So. ' The Tempest one may hear gaberdines. your ladyship girl . rapiers. you is see. Autolycus. : 98 ENGLISH COSTUME Bugle-bracelet.

fans.' Also of one who is lies ' in the shape of the waist downwards two countries at once.' The Clown ' says : A sentence is but a cheveril * glove to a good wit. as a German from all slops. celebrated for us by Malhis clothes ' Sir Toby.' In Much Ado About Nothing we learn of one ' ' who his ' awake ten nights. and a Spaniard from the hip upward. and Sir replied that ' Andrew It does indifferent well in a flame-coloured stock. it up my honour thou had'st it not. gloves. Falstaff says : When I took : Mistress Bridget lost the handle of her fan. a muffler or linen to hide part of the face.' Sir Toby also remarks to Sir Andrew upon the excellent constitution of his leg. no doublet. let them hang themselves in their own straps. who considers good enough to drink in.' * ' Cheveril ' is kid leather. carving the fashion of doublet.' Also 'The firm fashion of thy foot would give an excellent fait in motion to thy a semicircled farthingale. 13—2 . says : : So be these boots too an they be not.: ELIZABETH thrummed ' 99 hat.' is 'Twelfth Night' volio's cross garters.

. ' a careless desolation by ungartered hose. . Let their blue coats be brushed.' feathers.' and skirts. It ' one may show shoe. . unhanded bonnet. round under borne with a bluish In ' As You Like sleeve. and laced with silver set with pearls down sides. with delicate fine hats . 1 and their garters of an indifferent Also we have a cap moulded on a ' ' porringer. the velvet There's a dozen of 'em.' < All's Well that Ends WeU ' ' Why dost thou garter up thy arms o' this fashion ? Dost make a hose of thy sleeves ?' 'Yonder's my lord your son with a patch of velvet on's face : knows. which bow the head and nod at .' Love's Labour's Lost ' tells o'er of 'Your hat penthouse-like rabbit on a spit . tells unbuttoned ' and untied The Taming men: ' of the Shrew of serving- In their new fustian and their white jackets. the shop of your eyes. tinsel. and cuts. side sleeves. . whether there be a scar under't or no. with your arms crossed on your thin belly doublet like a or your hands in your pocket like a man after the old painting. and most courteous every man.: : 100 ENGLISH COSTUME : Again of a gown ' Cloth of gold. knit. .

and bunches of keys at 'To take notice how many pair of silk stockings thou hast. good mother. Pale as his ' shirt.' But the in ' rest.. .' * Shoes with very high soles.' shoes. or to bear the inventory of thy shirts. . there an allusion to the blue dress of Beadles. it offends me to the soul to hear a robustious periwigpated fellow tear a passion into tatters.: . as dancing-shoes in ' Romeo and Juliet and ' in ' Henry VIII. ELIZABETH In 'Henry IV.' Your ladyship is nearer to heaven than when I saw you last. Short blistered breeches and those types of travel.' ' The remains of fool and feather that they got ' Tennis and tall stockings. Nor customary ' suits of solemn black. by the altitude of a chopine..' The smooth-pates do now wear nothing but high their girdles. ' Hamlet we find more allusions than Hamlet is ever before us in his black ' : in 'Tis not alone my inky cloak.'* ' O. and down-goes to his ancle .' 101 is Part II. with his doublet all unbraced No hat upon his head his stockings fouled.' in France.' Lord Hamlet. Ungartered. ' 1 Also : About the satin for my short cloak and slops.' There are small and unimportant remarks upon dress in other plays.

still there remains the abso- lutely Elizabethan figure in inky black.102 ' ENGLISH COSTUME With two provincial roses on my ragged shoes. except perhaps this last. but even when the rest of the characters are dressed in skins and crossgartered trousers. I think it will be seen that there is no such great difficulty in costuming any play.' Having read this. with his very Elizabethan thoughts. almost the great symbol of his age. when the Viking element is strongly insisted upon. There have been ' many attempts to put ' Hamlet into the clothes of the date of his story. . the central figure. My sea-gown scarfed about me.

like sartorial gardeners. for the this linen flower. his head set in his ruff.' still We are we droop of in the times of the upstanding ruff. are watching. Anne of Denmark. too. 103 .two years 1603 1625. man. and hang down about the if necks of the cavaliers carefully. Born 1566. Presently this pride of bristling. firstfruits indeed. His reverend trunks become him well enough. we look very we of see towards the end of the reign the out of Elizabethan elegance born precision. and of super-starched woman air. : — THE MEN. will lose its will . Married 1589. This couplet may give a little : sketch of the man we should ' now see before us His ruffe is set. Now in such a matter lies the difficulty of pre- senting an age or a reign in an isolated chapter.JAMES THE FIRST Reigned twenty.

but merely that it had not been cut for some time. Mind you. orderly. meeting a man in the street. that the roses on them were ' ' He small and neat. the correct air of the man. that the cut of the sleeves was He would notice also that the man's hair was only half long. ' ' ! notice at first a certain air of stiffness. that his shoes were plain. or slashed in He would see that it was figure. stiff hat. Here comes one who still affects Jacobean clothes. more slashed. In the one must endeavour to show how a Carolean gentleman. giving an appearance not of being grown long for beauty. would be struck with the preciseness. meeting the same man. and. unless the stranger happened to be an exquisite fellow. His trunks. he Would observe. but stiff. Ah these are evidently the new fashions. that an artificial the little was very tight. might exclaim. were wide and full. a crisp ornament He would see that the doublet varied from his own into in being many more stiffened skirt of it degrees. a certain padded arrangement. He would see.104 ENGLISH COSTUME first place.' Or how an Elizabethan lady might come to life. a of feathers.' The Carolean gentleman would might say immediately. he would be regarding this man with seventeenth-century .

To for the Elizabethan lady the case would be re- versed. disapprove of him. careless fellow. in our absurd clothes. grandfatherly. or were supposed to do so. to say the least of it. with hard hats on such habits possess nowadays of cleanwould oppress us in the com- our heads. ' thinking that he did not look so VOL.' 14 . order . she see that his hair men had been would would was would. bean gentleman looked and was untidy. smaller. what she She consider. The man would show her that the fashions modified since her day. elegant. I and his hat venture to think. and some patent invention might feel that the Jaco- of the devil on our feet. III.JAMES THE FIRST eyes 105 —eyes which told him that he was himself an —eyes which showed him that the in his dress. dressed in the best of taste and comfort Jacobean was a nice enough person but old-fashioned. and stiff collars tight about our necks. meeting the pair of them. she would see that his ruff larger. smart. despite the fact that they changed their linen on Sundays. I am afraid that a certain notion we and pany of both. was not kept brim was in. and had better be viewed from a distance. And we. creases in our trousers. To liness us.

in looking at a company of men of this time.106 ENGLISH COSTUME For ourselves. except that they follow the The trunks have become less like pumpkins and more like The hats. wide bags. and. I think we should distinguish him at once as a man who wore very large knickerbockers tied at the knee. general looseness. we should be struck by the padding of these garments to a preposterous size. which can be seen in the drawings better than described . the alterations in clothes are not easy to describe. There has come into fashion a form of ruff cut square in front and tied under the chin. some of them stiff and loose. movement towards . it can be indeed.

Indeed. which become one long slash in Cavalier costumes. a man of the time might be riding 14—2 .: . JAMES THE FIRST hard. To wear something abnormally be the condition of the world in to tight seems to love.' But we have not. Doublets are often made slashes appear inside the will presently and little sets of elbow of the sleeves. from James I. David Copperfleld. 107 show in other forms an inclination to slouch. We have still ' Morisco gowns. Barbarian sleeves. giving us a neat picture of a man : His doublet is So close and pent as if he feared one prison Would not be strong enough to keep his soul ' in. Polonian shoes. loose. Such as the wandering English galant Strange countries for. with divers far fetcht trifles rifles . Naturally. But makes another And trust me (for I knew it when I loved Cupid) He does endure much pain for poor praise his taylor Of a neat fitting 1 suit. says another writer. the wild extra- vaganza of fashions that marked the foregoing reign. for all that.

boots.108 ENGLISH COSTUME the street down Henry across a Scotch plaid saddle cloth and pass by a beggar dressed Elizabethan in clothes of VIII. his puffed and doublet. mistress ? 'Brooms. swollen trunks were very little worn. brooms for old shoes! Pouch-rings. he will hear the many ' street cries about him : Will you buy any sand. or bared to scents. or ! buskings ' Will ye buy any new brooms ?' New oysters. new oysters ! New.'s time. or pass a friend looking truly — but he would find generally that the short. along in his velvet cloak. taken to walking in instead of shoes. ripe !' . smelling of about his neck. cockels nye V ' ' Will you buy any straw T Hay yee any kitchen stuff. new cockles !' ' Fresh herrings. and also —that a number tall boots. his silken his hands gloved with embroidered gloves. —another point of men had boots. rides As he slashed hose. ripe. a chain show his rings. maids ? Pippins fine ! ' Cherrie ripe.


the plain collar. the loose breeches. shows the merging of the Elizabethan fashion The stiff doublet and into the fashion of Charles I. He . hooded and jessed. and the ribbons On his hawking glove is a hawk. at the knees.A MAN OF THE TIME OF JAMES (1603—1625) I.



blue doublets.. will it And then. though has to do with dress. and there buttoned). sewn on their backs or at ling with his all and white cloth breeches in one piece. travel- man. with shirt-collars to the doublets turned down loose the trunks would be wide and to the knee. and one takes his horse and walks him till he be cool. despite the that Sir Walter Besant quoted ' some of it. I must give this picture of an inn from Fynes fact Moryson. which will do no harm. For the life of me. JAMES THE FIRST 109 still And he will pass apprentices. he come little to his inn. and stockings. the servants run him (these would be in doublet and hose of some plain colour. As soon as a passenger comes to an Inn. most of them in flat caps. with daggers their sides. then to ' ' .

to command the meat to be dressed as he likes best and when he sits at table.110 ENGLISH COSTUME rubs him and gives him meat. yea. yet I must say that they are not much to be trusted in this last point. without the eye of the Master or his servant to oversee them. and if he be solitary the musicians will give him good day with music . Another servant and kindles his fire. he shall be offered music. if they have many guests. and if he will eat with the Host. ' It is the custom and in no way disgraceful to set up part in of supper for his breakfast. this and the drawings will I need say no The drawings show how the points of a . in the morning. or at a common table with the others. and as much as he thinks fit for him and his company. he commands what meats he will according to his appetite. ' Lastly. his meal will cost him sixpence. will at least visit him. Beyond more. taking it for courtesy to be bid sit down . the third pulls off his boots and makes them ' clean' (these two servants would be wearing aprons). ' ' . the Host or Hostess will accompany him. if he have company especially. his own house than he may do 1 in his Inn. a Man cannot more freely command at home and at parting if he give some few pence to the Chamberlin and Ostler they wish him a happy journey. gives the passenger his private chamber. which he may freely take or refuse. or in some places but fourpence. while he eats. the kitchen is open to him. Then the Host or Hostess visits him. yet this course is less honourable and not used by Gentlemen but if he will eat in his chamber (he will retain his hat within the house).

we can see the add to our picture a feather fan.. fardingale. with a little imagination. a man's beaver hat with a fine band round it stuck with a rose or a feather. or tied. and lady : jewels in the hair —and I think the lady walks. the cut or epaulette left or taken away. . the little skirts left plain. shoes with ribbons or roses. with a cartoose or a I think. I hope. THE WOMEN ' What ?' fashion will make a woman have the with a round best body. or buttoned wrist . They show you how a hat may be feathered and the correct shape of the hat how breeches may be left loose at the knee. necessary and useful. sleeve. Catherine-wheel collar. pickadell. of the the frills at the at and ruffs the neck that — of is everything. tailor ' A short 1 Dutch a close waist. JAMES THE FIRST doublet 111 may be varied.

and twirl her round until the Catherine- wheel fardingle circle. ^-gr and one that must be and as I pluck the lady print. from the old hold her by the Dutch waist. There are many excellent people with the true historical mind pick up a who would my lady and strip her in so passionless — so way so many as to leave her but a mass of Latin names bones.112 ENGLISH COSTUME so difficult do I find it Yet to lead her tripping out of the wardrobe into the world. I would remind myself of the laws for servants in this time : 'And no fourpence. kept in the mind's eye. Dutch and Spanish names. is a blurred and the pickadell a mist feel. like one my who has toyed under pain of fourpence. I prying. and nerves label — and who would then and classify her wardrobe under many old English and French. for of white linen.' 1 servant may toy with the maids under pain of It is a salutary warning. tissues. bringing to bear weighty argu- ments several pages long over the derivation of .

but.' write in note- books of her little secret fineries.. Not that 1 would laugh. I find myself doing very nearly the same thing. and so confuse and bewilder the more simple and less learned folk that we should turn away from the Eve of the seven- teenth century and from the heap of clothes upon the floor no whit the wiser for all their pains. You sleeve : will find. JAMES THE FIRST the word ' 113 cartoose ' or ' pickadell. She does not always follow the fashion of the short vol. that she has other fashions than the close she has a close sleeve as an under sleeve. upon Early English cross-stitch. I find it difficult to follow their dissertations. Catherine and her wheel upon seven- teenth-century dressmaking. even smile. Dutch waist as she has. with a long hanging sleeve falling from the elbow she has ruffs at her wrist of pointed lace. at the dili- gence of these learned men who it is in their day puzzled the father of Tristram Shandy over the mind impossible to disassociate the clothes and the woman. as in my And now. cuffs more than ruffs. question of breeches. in. after I have said all this. bear down on one another with thundering eloquence upon the relation of St. if you look into the lady's ward- robe. however enlightening. indeed. we 15 .

or a petticoat with a broad border of embroidery. It is of lace of very fine workall manship. and a peak Her ruff is now. circles. as is often the with plumes and jewels and little linen or lace ruffs. Sometimes she others with is covered with gold lacing . is feathered and banded. or in of fancy scallops. bows. edged plain and square. she dresses her hair but. open in front. manner collar. Sometimes . can a dress with a long waist and a tapering front to the bodice.114 ENGLISH COSTUME see. is taking more readily to the man's hat. and in so doing to dress her hair forced more simply and do away with . jewellery on her forehead case. and points. Sometimes she will wear both ruff and the ruff underneath to prop up her collar at the back to the required modish angle. and at much and now and again she wears a narrow sash round her waist tied with a bow She in front. in the form of an upstanding finishing collar to her dress. Some dresses of hers are divided in the skirts to show a barred little petticoat. most generally. and atop of it all wears in the a linen cap with side wings to centre. on her shoulders with some neat bow or other ornament.

and kissed the ladies of Queen's hands and the cheeks of twenty The fashion for dresses of pure white. more simple her hair is dressed very plainly. She has a shawl over her is Her maid a deal . a loop by the ears. or a broad falling collar of white linen. either in 15—2 . is Upon her head - a broad brimmed plain hat. arti- her sleeves are tight and neat. fardingale.JAMES THE FIRST 115 her bodice will finish off in a double Catherinewheel. and her cuffs plain. She has a piece of gossip for her mistress : at Chelsea they are making a satin dress Wales from Chinese silkworm's silk. but her skirts are full. Her but is not stiffened ficially . fashion. a twist at the nape of the neck. shoulders. She has no bodice fits. On another day comes the news that the Constable of Castille when at Whitehall subscribed very for the Princess of handsomely to the English honour.

goose-green. red and blue.— . offence to the — yellow being completely out of the fashion since the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury by Mrs. ENGLISH COSTUME cloth. Dutch French his and her sleeves and wings . Which way his feather wags. with lookingglasses set in their tobacco boxes. Anne . like the lady's. German. 116 silk. hose Venetian. on the shoulders French cloaks their boots Polonian. Another fashion common to those in the high mode was to have the bodice below the ruff cut so low as to show all the breast bare. gave great more sober-minded. hats from everywhere. women and the countries men and which gave a name to both man's breeches or the cuts of the garments are evidenced in the literature of the time. . and ogle any lady as she passes. so that they to see may privately confer with ' them How his band jumpeth with his piccadilly. 1 strut along on their high-heeled shoes. his waist. and this. to- gether with the painting of the face. Whether his band-strings balence equally. These spruce coxcombs. How a slops are Spanish his doublet . or velvet has affected . The ruffs and collars of lace were starched in many colours purple.


the very tall upstanding ruff or collar of lace. or farthingale. . the elaborate underskirt. and the long hanging sleeves of the gown.A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF JAMES (1603—1623) I Here is seen the wide fardingale. Also.

HIMnTMilfllfBBllFTllllllllllli liHITiTfCTMBHWMHBBffffTi .


and a plain. taffeta novats. the friend of the Countess of Somerset and this because Mrs. as rash. gown. There. time : such stuffs filizetta. open from the waist to the feet. JAMES THE FIRST 117 Turner. shagge. taffeta thin silk. Such a conglomeration is needed (if you remember we the are look- ing over a lady's wardrobe) to make a lady of paropa. This absurd garment had uses once —so they who write scandal of a Spanish Princess. was having its its last fling. al- forsook they wore a most shapeless. Rash mochado into an mock velvet.. and served to conceal her state upon a . loose. certain time but when ladies the fashion. one . is is damask. mochado. again. unstiffened jerkin or jacket underneath. Turner elected to appear at ruff. may is fall antiquarian trap whereas mochado a manufac- . is silk and stuff. it the gallows in a yellow As say for the fardingale.

and fardingales much of their circumference. It is the collar-like ruff worn at this time. was the last of the Tudor candle. and came. and the lady became more Elizabethan in appearance. fans. some may read and ask themselves what is a rebatoe. dress. fillets. or duchess knot). As the reign died. shall see purles. wore a roll under her padded breeches hair in front. busk-points.: 118 ENGLISH COSTUME ture of silk to imitate velvet. is palisadoes (this first a wire to hold the hair next to the ruffs. puffs. ruffs much of their starch. Still. . bongrace bonnets. partlets. for —Eve ! what purpose ? To turn out one of those extraordinary creatures with a cart-wheel round the middle of their persons. shoe-ties. frontlet and a small hood with a jewelled It as on her forehead. tires. mokkadoe is a woollen and so on there is no end to it. next footstep. shoe roses. the the last flicker of a Fashion's before new mode. falles. pendulets. bracelets. frislets. In this medley of things we buskes. cloth. so did lost its fashions die also some of their bombast. . and whalebone wheels All this. squares.

: — THE MEN. breeches no longer swelled themselves with rags and bran. Born 1600. In all the wonderful gallery of por- he has these silvery graceful people pose in gar- ments of ease. one may trust such an elegant and graceful mind traits as had Vandyck. This surely if is the age of elegance. how whalebones in men's jackets melted away. The main thing that I must do is to show how. Henrietta of France. Married 1625.CHARLES THE FIRST Reigned twenty-four years 1625 1649. gradually. the stiff Jacobean dress be- came unfrozen from its clutch upon the human form. 119 . left.

breeches were loosed at the knee. Kiligrew's elegant locks. Do I revile the time if I say that the air.a . to droop in languid tresses on men's shoulders. 120 collars fell ENGLISH COSTUME down. is From the head to the neck but a step . the lips Carolean moustache brushed away from the we know Lord Pembroke's — carefully — —hair . the Vandyck tousled beard. all of us. of being dukes dis- guised as art students We tousled know. and shirts lounged through great carelessness open spaces It in the sleeves. or seemed free. men had an a certain supercilious ? air. curl at prettywill on men's foreheads. was the time of an immaculate the hair was free. Shirts were left open at the neck.

no youthful genius dare be without one. The cuffs are like edges. the sleeves are wide and loose with. of such lace of as edged them and of the manner of their tying. time to that in except in- some the stances strings are secured by a ring. at one time.CHARLES THE FIRST sad step in this reign 121 —and here we find our friend ' the ruff utterly tamed. it is tied round the waist with a VOL.' writes one. which form of neck-dress has never the necks and shoulders of our modern youthful prodigies. 16 . with opening embroidered round. now out of tamed into the falling band. turned back with point-lace The actual cut of the doublet has not altered a this great deal. it would waste tell. little collars. as a one big opening on the inside of the arm. make it hardly the same little slashes have become two or three wide rule. indeed. the ordinary run of doublet has the pointed front. III. the Vandyck left collar. cuts. pickadillies. this collar are too well The variations known. request. to Such a change has come over the doublet as garment the .

cut round. left open from the middle of the breast. but there has arrived a new jacket. The breeches knee with a two classes —the same long breeches the shape of bellows.122 little ENGLISH COSTUME narrow sash . points or a bunch of coloured ribbons or the breeches cut the . tied at the number of . Sometimes you will see one of these new short jackets with a slit in the back. and under this the man will be wearing the round trunks of his father's are mostly in time. sometimes cut so short as to show the shirt below bulged out over the breeches.

while across the instep was a wide. at the knees where —and —almost any- also upon the coats. thick boot with broad. without a turn-over leather. at the sides. . shaped flap of leather. This falling boot-top was 16—2 . on the breeches. in front. stiff tops. whereby the old tall boot drooped down until it turned over and fell into a wide cup. all creases and wrinkles. and there was the square-toed. nearly over last the foot. high-heeled boot. fitting up the leg to just below . For some time the older fashioned short round cape or cloak prevailed.CHARLES THE FIRST width tied in all 123 the way down. loose at the knee and there ornamented with a row of points (ribbons bows with tags on them). but later. A new method of ornamentation was this notion of coloured ribbons in bunches. wearing tall. crumpled dismissal of all previous stiffness. like modern golf custom cape. the knee. also not turned back and there was also the result of the extraordinary melting. A arrived boots more frequently. large silk cloaks used as wraps thrown across the shoulders were used as well. blacking the stiff. by which the cloak might of be allowed to from the shoulders. the The fall other cloaks had straps.



He has wrapped his blue cloak over his arm. method . He is simply dressed. without bunches of ribbons or points.OF THE TIME OF CHARLES (1625— 1649) I. a usual of carrying the cloak.A MAN.



silver. Some men wore two long love-locks on either side of the face. we . There is a washing tally in existence of this time belonging. as the drawings will show. Canes were carried with gold. are broad brim and of an average height in the crown. to the Duke of Rutland. find ribbon also locks of hair fair delicate shades of ribbon belonging to some lady were used to show delicate shades of love. or bone heads. here and there.CHARLES THE FIRST turned in all 125 manner of ways by those who cared it. but a dandy. wore a hat with next Most hats were to no brim and a high crown. to give thought to The insides of the tops of these boots were or silk. The in the hats. others wore two elaborately-curled up locks to locks on one side only. I think. . of ribbon. and were Ornamented further by bunches Coming again in use to tie up tie to the head. feathered. lined with lace them down to give full and the dandy turned show to the lining this — turning of broad tops was such an inconvenience that he was forced to use a straddled walk when he wore his boots thus.

Napkins. Vandyck's pictures are available to most people. Topps are linen boot-frills. with a knowledge of how such dress came into being. Topps. also light blue and Bristol paste diamonds were demand. Pillowberes. Cappes. Shirtes. Boote Hose. Above each circle are articles in this order Ruffs. Sockes. Cuffes. men. . Sheetes. or good reproductions of them. Towells. Table Clothes. linen. It is made is of beechinto wood covered with fifteen squares. is and divided In the centre of each square there a circle cut. Over the number is a plate with a pin for pivot in the centre. are all that can be needed. For the rest. a handle to turn. and those. There remains little to be said except that black was a favourite cream-coloured in great dress for satin. and turquoise rings were very fashionable. Handkercher.: 126 ENGLISH COSTUME is which very interesting. and a hole to expose a the names of the number. Halfshirts. and halfshirts are stomachers. and in the circle are numbers. Bandes.

lozenges. ready to be gummed to the faces of the fair. to how the Jacobean costume first by degrees. Knowing from other the histories of such fads that lies in germ of the matter a royal indisposition. but no doubt some more earnest enquirer after truth will hit upon the story — this toy tragedy of the dressing-table. humour let loose in the shapes of and moons. we look in vain for the conceited history of the Princess and the Pimple. slashes.CHARLES THE FIRST 127 THE WOMEN. morphosis of Fair Faces into Foul Visages invective against black-spotted faces. .' an By was this you may see at once that every stars. and that title will best be de- scribed this by quoting the : of a book written at time ' A Wonder of Wonders. and fardingale and then ruff vanished. cut in black silk. formal stiffness. dress For the at the fully ' we can do no better than look Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus. It is interesting lost. There to is one new thing you must be prepared meet in this reign. crowns. or a Meta.' that wondercompilation careful by Hollar of see its all the dresses in every class of society. and even a coach and horses.

the taken in four parts the hair was now was drawn well hair fall back off the forehead. or rather rebatoe — that starched lace high collar remained. all firstly.— 128 ENGLISH COSTUME Early in the reign the high-dressed hair was was was gathered up by the ears. We the left. see at first that while the ruff. and abandoned. then the two side divisions were curled neatly and dressed to ears. loose gown. tied about the open the way down and middle with a narrow sash. the fardingale having disappeared. Later on came the fringe of small curls. Time went on. for the upper gown. a wide. an enormous quantity material that had previously been stretched over the fardingale and parted in front to show the satin petticoat. left parted on the crown. From this of waste loose there sprung. Over the the fourth group of hair was neatly twisted and so made into a small knot holding the front hair in its place. and twisted at the back to hold a plume or feather. and to take dressed so that it its place the hair hairdressing again : altered first . as in the portrait of at Queen Henrietta Windsor by Vandyck. the opening showing the boned bodice of the under-dress with its pointed protruding .

falling over the This gave rise to two shoulders. with. the satin petticoat with its 129 stomacher. This collar came over the shoulders and in two points over the breast. The easily stiff-boned bodice cut. sometimes completely hiding the upper part of the dress. there came the fall of the rebatoe and figure. With ruff this revolution in dress the disappearing became at first much lower and then finally vanished. which was now losing the centre band of ornament and the border. full the decline of the protruding this the notion of tying and with skirt back the upper to show more plainly the satin petticoat. the woman's fashion having retained Below this centre strip showed or band of embroidery. gave place to one more in shorter. a large edition of the man's collar of that time. distinct fashions in collars. the one as I have like described. and a lace collar. each strip ornamented 17 round the hem. place of the long point. VOL. took its place. a series of long strips. In many Then cases the long hanging sleeves were kept. the other a collar from the neck.CHARLES THE FIRST the form of the man's jerkin. III. and the wide border of the same. .

with sleeves just long enough to cover the under-sleeves. short jacket laced in front. ments of knots of ribbon or points a ribbon with a metal tag at either end) were universal. and orna(that is. and the sleeve of the loose over-gown was made wider in proportion. and the dress was cut very simply but the bust. leaving the wrists and forearm bare. . were very full indeed. very low and they wore those voluminous silk wraps in The little sashes common with the men. the bodice became a the whole ending in a deep cuff of lace. the sleeves were not made f and they were cut to come just below the elbow. Then^ the over-gown disappeared. . In winter a lady often wore one of those loose Dutch lined jackets. or she might wear a short circular fur-lined cape with a small turned- over In summer the in little jacket was often discarded. The change of fashion to short full sleeves gave . so as to show! the sleeveless bodice of the same material and\ colour as the petticoat so wide. different from the old-fashioned tight sleeves. round and full.130 ENGLISH COSTUME this At time the sleeves. the whole and edged with fur collar. were very much worn. openly. and was tied across the under-sleeve above the elbow by a knot of ribbons.

so curious elbow to wide in grew and grew from cuffs. to wide shoulders. Naturally enough there was every variety of fashion to the new. bunches of ribbon. 17—2 . all until the entire sleeve became swollen out of little proportion.CHARLES THE FIRST rise to 131 the turned back cuff of the same material as the sleeve. a big muff for winter also the fashion of wearing long gloves to reach to the elbow came in with the advent of short evolution from the old sleeves. the sleeve at the loose. sashes. and a big fur now was . The form skirts. and the last pieces of tightness were removed. Part of the lady's equipment feather fan. and some costumes show this short jacket with it its short sleeves with cuffs. and lived into the age of hoops. become immediately wide and revolutions. not. as the tight sleeves did of course. but by some the history common of such puffs movement. and looped up for lasted a great number of years. of dress with cuffs to the jackets. It was started by the death of the it fardingale. a combination of two fashions. while under shows the dress with tight sleeves reaching to the wrists where were linen or lace cuffs. lacing.

the fool of Henry VIII. from the bought for Sexton. which was to grow yet more fully careless in the reign of Charles II. and centuries of tight dressing had not improved many heads. red. artificially made sometimes as much as from three to these very expensive roses being ornamented with jewels. very pounds a pair...132 ENGLISH COSTUME ladies These up. so that when the loose love-locks fashion.' these we and Roses worth a In the country the women wore petticoats. and these bunches of ribbon. black cloth homespun. lady riding in the country would wear such a hat or a hood and a cloak and soft top boots. derive the saying. Womens' as petticoats. ' From family. and for riding they put on safeguards or outer The wideand a brimmed beaver hat was in general wear. and the dainty ladies tendrils many good hundred became the and gentlemen had this recourse to the wigmaker. the hair was a matter which must have undivided attention. cost thirty wore shoe-roses upon their shoes. gray. From time until periwig but an years ago. down . petticoats were called plackets as well With the careless air that was then adopted care- by everybody.


is the broad collar and deep cuffs.A WOMAN OF THE TIME (1625—1649) OF CHARLES I. The dress simple but rich. The hair is arranged in a series of elaborate curls over the forehead. The bodice is laced with the same colour as the narrow sash. Notice .





to the scratches and bobs of one's grandfather's

youth, the wigmaker lived and prospered.


more surely, does the maker of transformations live and prosper, but in the days when to be wigless was to be undressed the perruquier was a very great person. This was the day, then; of satins, loosened hair,
secretly yet









it it

of the older times will pass away, but


left its

on these
it left







costume, will be

seen in the next royal reign,

when Nell Gwynne

was favourite and

Sir Peter

Lely painted


These excellent drawings by Hollar need no explanation. They are included in this book because of their great value as accurate

contemporary drawings of costume.


msmmmas^jguummmmm .



: J ..


J*ttfUf .vfjc/JWj.

Ltlf >f&t Cnrl .f .

the breeches were cut straight. and my my corps uncase Of 'parel's pride that did offend the eye little My My ' high crowned hat. my cloak was void of pride. My stockings black. It is a question. was done. at' my shoes were sharp toe. rendered inelegant. my metamorphosed breech. And I transformed both in looks and speech My 'parel plain. pecked band.* of formalism. I left my pure mistress for a space. beard also. 137 18 . in. . my belt was laid aside. . My little skirts. THE CROMWELLS 1649—1660. MEN ' AND WOMEN. Gone was my sword. my garters were tied shorter. vol. in this time of restraint. cut it in a cumbrous fashion. did And I cut to a snip-snap barber straight went I my hair. THE. My gloves no scent thus marched I to her porter. The little jackets were denuded of all forms of frippery. where anything could be made plain..' .

of sombre colours. or possibly by coloured sleeves sewn into . boots Hats became broader fact. not over long. and dull relieved with plain strings. but of plain The bands or collars varied in size according ^saL to the religious enthusiasm of the <o U l/L/Lli> wearers. It extra- was a natural /€Vy\ *® \ PO^ ^ revolt against extravagence. though . any. were worn. and r\ C/^\S> S^j^N.138 ENGLISH COSTUME if and the ornaments. and were tied Black. marked these ordinary people. by the yellow and red-barred sleeves of the underjacket. plain crops or straight hair. wider in the tops. ordered negligence all vanished. order. Sashes still held good. were of the most severe in the brim. The nice hair. Q ^a §^|^> / at the wrists linen. gray were the times. in big boots seemed almost a sign of heavy religious feeling. man was wearing a some- sleeveless coat. love-locks. if the common colours. dark brown. but of larger ruffs size. in and \ //f l ( HO J] \l A V fl \[ some more sensible minds it was no^ carried to excess points an(^ DOWS were allowable. but all were plain with- out lace edgings.

•AT.M '' .

wide-topped boots. and his very .A CROMWELLIAN MAN (1649 — 1660) Notice the careful plainness of his dress.

wn .


middle of the back.THE CROMWELLS the coat 139 under the shoulder-wings. this they like a tail. dressed as before 18—2 . Some. the less serious retained the little bunches of side curls. but the others smoothed their hair away their under linen caps or black hoods tied under chins. of course. as simply as possible. Overcoats were cut loose. though they did not skimp the material but made them wide and The women dressed their hair more plainly. Another thing the women did was to cut their from in the bodices all the little strips but the left. and behind.

wide Geneva : . jeering Cavaliers swagger past him his black cloak. generally . he has a book in his hand. The Puritan as is as well-known a figure any in history child an intelligent could picture draw you a or describe as well you a Puritan as he could describe the Noah of Noah's Ark. of all Charles the had more to lavish on the follies of his fashions. He has become part of the stock for an Academy humourist. broad shoes. laughing maids bring him jacks of ale. and so lay by good fortunes for their families— these families coming later into the gay court II. 140 ENGLISH COSTUME the difference in colour and in ornament with that made for severity.. a thousand anecdote pictures have been painted of him very often his nose is red. It had an effect on the country insomuch as the country people ceased to be extravagant in the materials for garments and in many like ways.


and neat roses on her shoes. She carries a muff in her hand. but shows how the richness of the reign of Charles I. wears a good wide collar and cuffs.A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF THE CROMWELLS (1649—1660) This is not one of the most Puritanical dresses. . was toned down.



her little flaunt of curls show. launched into a bondage. apron. striped petticoat. prepared a harvest that they little dreamt of— a harvest of extravagant clothes and extravagant manners. her c still mis- h ie vous. its false when and bondage of of low cut and religious petticoats. pair of The them. false. . black hood. linen cap. in reality relig- ious fanatics. full skirts. her country clothes. the country broke loose from texts. bunched up skirt.THE CROMWELLS bands are as as 141 much part of our national picture Punch or Harlequin. represented as a sly She is generally bird in sombre clothes her . The Puritaness is also known. town garments. scriptural shirts. equally dresses and enormous periwigs. deep linen collar are shown to hide a merry-eyed lady.

. sway. they do all things garments can do. long-neglected. that the buck of the Restoration and the beau of the Jacobean order would stare helplessly at each other. III. wondering each to himself what manner of fool this was standing before him. END OF VOL. so utterly different did the man become in the short space of thirty-five years. and then. of a sudden. they vanish again. — never is to be taken to have its up full Hair. become foolish caricatures of themselves.142 ENGLISH COSTUME will see In the next reign you era of clothes an entirely new they the all —the doublet and jerkin. wigs are the note for two centuries. the trunks their last and ruffs have eccentric fling.


A WOMAN OF THE TIME CROMWELLS OF THE (1649— 1660) This shows the modification of the dress of the time Not an extreme change. . but an of Charles I. endeavour towards simplicity.



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