COMPUTER NETWORKS ASSIGNMENT NO.

02

PONRAJ. P III BCA C 0822JC32 02.08.2010

ETHERNET
Ethernet Cabling: The name ´Ethernetµ refers to the cable (the ether). It has four different types of cabling are commonly used. Name 10Base5 Cable Thick coax Max.seg 500 m Nodes/seg 100 Advantages Original cable; now obsolete No hub needed Cheapest system Best between buildings

10Base2 10Base-T 10Base-F

Thin coax Twisted pair Fiber Coax

185 m 100 m 2000 m

30 1024 1024

Historically 10Base5 cabling, popularly called Thick Ethernet. Connections to it are generally made using vampire taps, in which a pin in very carefully forced halfway into the coaxial cable core. The first number is the speed in Mbps. The second cable type was 10Base2 or thin Ethernet which connections to it are made using industry standard BNC connectors to form T junctions. It is easier to use and more reliable. Timing the interval between sending the pulse and receiving the echo, it is possible to localize the origin of the echo. This technique is called time domain reflectometry. All the stations have a cable running to a central hub in which they are all connected electrically. This scheme is called 10Base-T.

This problem can be solved by using +1 volts for a 1 and -1 volts for a 0. multiple cables can be connected by Repeaters. To allow large networks. If one station sends the bit string 00010000. It has the excellent noise immunity. The fourth cabling option for Ethernet is 10Base-F. which uses fiber optics. Runs of up to km are allowed. .For 10Base5 a transceiver is clamped securely around the cable so that its tap makes contact with the inner core. Each version of Ethernet has a maximum cable length per segment. a transceiver cable or drop cable connects the transceiver to an interface board in the computer. others might falsely interpret it as 10000000 or 01000000. With 10Base5. Manchester Encoding: The version of Ethernet uses straight binary encoding with 0 volts for a 0 bit and 5 volts for a 1 bit because it leads to ambiguities.

85 volts.4 sec to allow the receiver·s clock to synchronize with the sender·s. Each frame starts with a preamble of 8 bytes. Xerox) frame structure is shown. but the parameters defined for the 10-Mbps baseband address is a 0 for ordinary addresses and 1 for group address. The Manchester encoding of this pattern produces a 10-MHz square wave for 6. The frame contains two addresses.Two such approaches are called Manchester encoding and differential Manchester encoding. one for the destination and one for the source.85 volts and the low signal is -0. giving a DC value of 0 volts. Group address allow   . The Ethernet MAC Sublayer Protocol: The original DIX (DEC. All Ethernet systems use Manchester encoding due to its simplicity. A binary 1 bit is sent by having the voltage set high during the first interval and low in the second one. The standard allows 2-byte and 6-byte addresses. The high signal is +0. each containing the bit pattern 10101010. Intel.

the kernel has to know which one to hand the frame to. .Frame formats (a)DIX Ethernet (b)IEEE 802. The address consisting of all 1 bit is reserved for broadcast.3 multiple stations to listen to a single address. Sending to a group of stations is called multicast. Multiple network layer protocols may be in use at the same time on the same machine. This limit was chosen somewhat arbitrarily at the time the DIX standard a transceiver needs enough RAM to hold an entire frame. which tells the receiver what to do with the frame. Hence a more expensive transceiver. When a frame is sent to a group receives it. Next the data up to 1500 bytes. The Type field.

This algorithm.25). each one picks either 0. After the second collision. then the next time the number of slots to wait is chosen at random from the interval 0 to 23 -1. the chance of two stations colliding for a second time would be negligible. but the average waits after a collision introducing significant delay. that is. Ethernet Performance: The performance of Ethernet under conditions of heavy and constant load. After 10 collisions. have been reached. The first one was to reduce the preamble to 7 bytes and use the last byte for a Start of Frame delimiter. Further recovery is up to higher layers. k stations always ready to transmit. If a third collision occurs (the probability of the this happening is 0. it is conceivable that a collision occurs. each station waits either 0 or 1 slot times before trying again. the randomization interval is frozen at a maximum of 1023 slots. 1. In general. called binary exponential backoff. When the IEEE standardized Ethernet. time is divided into discrete slots whose length is equal to the worst-case round-trip propagation time on the Ether. or 3 at random and waits that number of slot times.If a station tries to transmit a very short frame. after i collision a random number between 0 and 2i -1and that number of slots is skipped. After the first collision. the committee made two changes to the DIX format. A = kp(1-p)k-1 . The check-sum algorithm is a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of the kind. but the transmission completes before the noise burst gets back at 2t. A rigorous analysis of the binary exponential backoff algorithm is complicated. The Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm: After a collision. The final Ethernet field is the check-sum. The second one was to change the Type field . 2. If the randomization interval for all collision was 1023. was chosen to dynamically adapt to the number of stations trying to send.

2 sec and a data rate of 10 Mbps. Assuming optimal p. F. the mean number of contention slots is never more than e. the cable length. the mean contention interval. so w is at most 2te = 5. so that mean number of slots per contention is given by Since each slot has a duration 2t.4t Channel Efficiency = In terms of the frame length. More specifically. increasing network bandwidth or distance (the BL product) reduces efficiency for a given frame size. The channel efficiency is plotted versus number of ready stations for 2t = 51. ¡ . Each frame ties up the channel for one contention period and one frame transmission time. the network bandwidth. L. The probability that the contention interval has exactly j slots in it is A(1-A)j-1. network efficiency will be low. with A 1/e as k ’. and the speed of signal propagation. The number of frames per second is therefore 1/ (P + w). is 2t/A.A is maximized when p = 1/k. for a total of P + w sec. c. Channel Efficiency = When the second term in the denominator is large. B. w. for the optimal case of e contention slots per frame.

Switched Ethernet: The heart of this system is a switch containing a high-speed backplane and room for typically 4 to 32 plug-in line cards. Virtually all this work has assumed that traffic is Poisson. Most often. A simple example of switched Ethernet. the total input rate of all unblocked stations combined is k frames/sec.If each station generates frames as a mean rate of frames/sec. each connector has a 10Base-T twisted pair connection to a single host computer. each containing one to eight connectors. . when the system is in state k. The average number of frames in each minute of an hour has a much variance as the average number of frames in each second of a minute.

3. The fear that a new protocol might have unforeseen problems. One was called FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) and the other was called Fiber Channel. The need to be backward compatible with existing Ethernet LANs. 2. Another proposal was to redo it totally gives its lots of new features such as real time traffic and digitized voice. just as 1200-bps modems seemed like heaven to the early users of 300-bps acoustic modems. various industry groups proposed two new ring-based optical LANs. Many installations needed more bandwidth.3 exactly as it was but just make it go faster. As frames arrive as the hub they contend for the other in the usual way.But the novelty wore off quickly. To pump up the speed. The 802. With the other kind of plug-in card. With this design each cards forms its own collision domain. One proposal was to keep 802. So incoming frames are stored in the card·s on board RAM as they arrive. independent of the others.3 committee decided to go with a souped-up Ethernet for three primary reasons: 1.When a station wants to transmit an Ethernet frame. With this design each card forms its own collision domain independent of the others with the other kind of plug in card. The failure of the optical LANs to catch fire left a gap for garden-variety Ethernet at speeds above 10 Mbps. it output a standard frame to the switch. The desire to get the job done before the technology changed. . the frame is sent over the high-speed backplane to the destination station·s card. each input port is buffered. Fast Ethernet: At first 10 Mbps seemed like heaven. Something not possible with CSMA/CD on a single channel since the switch just Experts Standards Ethernet frames on each input part it is possible to use some of the parts as concentrators. If not.

one for each direction. one is always from the hub and other two are switchable to the current transmission direction. Name 100Base-T4 100Base-TX Cable Twisted pair Twisted pair Max. It was quickly dubbed gigabit Ethernet.segment 100 m 100 m Advantages Uses category 3 UTP Full duplex at 100 Mbps (Cat 5 UTP) Full duplex at 100Mbps. to make upgrading easier. Gigabit Ethernet: The ink was barely dry on the fast Ethernet standard when the 802 committee began working on a yet faster Ethernet. uses a signaling speed of 25 MHz. long runs 100Base-FX Twisted pair 2000 m The category 3 UTP scheme called 100Base-T4. was officially approved by IEEE in June 1995. Often 100Base-TX and 100Base-T4 are collectively referred to as 100Base-T. uses two strands of multimode fiber. the design 100Base-TX it simpler because the wires can handle clock rates of 125 MHz. In particular.3u committee·s goals. Gigabit Ethernet supports two different modes of operations: full-duplex . It is full duplex with 100Mbps in each direction. only 25 percent faster than standard Ethernet·s 20 MHz. gigabit Ethernet had to offer unacknowledged datagram service with both unicast and multicast. 100Base-FX. All configuration of gigabit Ethernet are point-to-point rather than multidrop as in the original to Mbps standard. now honored as classic Ethernet.3z committee·s goals were essentially the same as the 802.3u.The work was done quickly and the result 802. The last option. The 802. As a final note virtually all switches can handle a mix of 10-Mbps and 100 Mbps stations. For category 5 wiring. Of the four twisted pair one is always to be hub.

half-duplex. Signaling at or nearly 1 Gbps over fiber means that the light source has to be turned on and off in under 1 nsec. is used when the computers are connected to a hub rather than a switch. No codeword may have more than four identical bits in a row. LEDs simply cannot operate this fast. which allows traffic in both directions at the same time.mode and half-duplex mode. 62. The sender does not have to scene the contention is impossible.5 microns) Single (10 ) or multimode (50. allows to transmit a concatenated sequence of multiple frames in a single transmission. The other mode of operation.5 ) Shielded twisted Pair Standard category 5 UTP 1000Base-LX Fiber optics 5000 m 1000Base-CX 1000Base-T 2 Pairs of STP 4 Pairs of UTP 25 m 100 m Gigabit Ethernet uses new encoding rules on the fibers: 1. 2. essentially tells the hardware to add its padding after the normal frame to extend the frame to 512 bytes. The first feature.62. The ´normalµ mode is full-duplex mode. ¢ ¢ . The second feature called frame bursting. So lasers are required. Gigabit Ethernet supports both copper and fiber cabling as listed. called carrier extension. Name 1000Base-SX Cable Fiber optics Max. No codeword may have more than six 0s and six 1s.segment 550 m Advantages Multimode fiber (50.

2: Logical Link Control: IEEE has defined one that can run on top of the Ethernet and other 802 protocols. best-efforts attempts to deliver IP packets are sufficient. so no acknowledgements at the LLC level are required. called LLC(Logical Link Protocol) hides the differences between the various kind of 802 network providing a single format and interface to the network layer. For the Internet. In addition. .IEEE 802. this protocol.

Part of the 802.11 protocol stack. Cordless telephones and microwave ovens also use this band. airports. There are two sublayer in protocol stack the MAC (Medium Access Control) sublayer determines how the channel is allocated. Above it is the LLC (Logical Link Control) sublayer. and more office buildings. Both of these use a part of the spectrum that does not require licensing. and other public places are being outfitted with them.11 Protocol Stack: The protocols used by all the 802 variants including Ethernet have a certain commonality of structure. In 1999 the two new techniques were introduced to achieve highest .WIRELESS LANS Wireless LANs are increasingly popular. The 802. Wireless LANs can operate in one of two configurations with a base station and without a base station. who get to transmit next. whose job is to hide the difference between 802 variants. The other two use short range radio using techniques called FHSS and DSSS. The physical layer corresponds to the OSI physical layer fairly well but the data link layer in all the 802 protocols is split into two or more sublayers.

Next we come across to HR-DSSS (High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) another spread spectrum technique which uses 11 million chips/sec to achieve 11 Mbps in the 2-4 GHz band. DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) is restricted to 1 or 2 Mbps. using Walsh/Hadamard codes. 802.11 support two modes of operation.95 microns.11 MAC sublayer protocol is quite different from that of Ethernet due to the inherent complexity of the wireless environment compared to that of a wired system.85 or 0.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol: The 802.375 Mband.11 Physical Layer: Each of the five transmitted techniques makes it possible to send a MAC frame from one station to another. The third modulation method. Two speeds are permitted: 1 Mbps and 2Mbps. the two faster rates run at 1. The other called PCF (Point Coordination Function). It is called 802. . They differ in the technology used and speed achievable. The term FDM suggests different frequencies are used-52 of them 48 for data and 4 for synchronization-not unlike ADSL. The infrared option uses difficult transmission at 0.11b. The 802. The first called DCF (Distributed Coordination Function). The amount of time spent at each frequency the dwell time is an adjustable parameter. The encoding scheme is used in which a group of 4 bits is encoded as 16-bit codeword containing fifteen 0s and a single 1 . The 802. FHSS(Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) uses 79 channels. The first of the high speed wireless LANs. meaning that they cannot transmit and listen for noise bursts at the same time on a single frequency. These are called OFDM and HR-DSSS. with 4 and 8 bits per band. In addition most radios are halfduplex.4-GHz ISM band.11a uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to deliver up to 54 Mbps in the wider 5 GHz ISM band. 802. respectively. They operate at up to 54 Mbps and 11 Mbps respectively. each 1MHz wide starting at the low end of the 2.bandwidth. using what is called Gray code.

a protocol called The other mode of CSMA/CA operation is based on MACAW and uses Virtual Channel Sensing. indicated by NAV (Network Allocation Vector). So it asserts a kind of virtual channel busy for itself. If a frame is too long. Interframe spacing in 802. it has very little chance of getting through undamaged and will probably have to be retransmitted.When DCF is employed.11 . The basic mechanism is for the base station to broad cast a beacon frame periodically. Once the channel has been acquired using RTS and CTS. multiple fragments can be sent in a row. 802.11 uses CSMA/CA(CSMA with Collision Avoidance). The use of virtual channel sensing using CSMA/CA. From the information provided in the RTS request it can estimate how long the sequence will take including the final ACK. Sequence of fragment is called a Fragment Burst.

11 Frame Structure: The 802. The 802. A time DIFS (DCF Inter Frame Spacing) is used only by a station may attempt to acquire the channel to send a frame. The W bit specifies that the frame body has been encrypted using WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) algorithm. The Power Management bit is used by the base station to put the receiver. The first comes the frame control field. The To DS and From DS bits indicate the frame. . control and management. The first of these is the protocol version. It is fails to make use of its chance and a time PIFS (PCF Inter Frame Spacing) elapses.11 standard defines three different classes of frames on the wire. data. The last time interval EIFS (Extended Inter Frame Spacing) is used only by a station that has just received a bad or unknown frame to report the frame. Each of these has a header with a variety of fields used within the MAC sublayer. The 802. It is used to allow the parties in a single dialog the chance to go first. It itself has 11 subfields. Then come the type and subtype fields. the base station may send a beacon frame or poll frame.The shortest interval is SIFS (Short Inter Frame Spacing).11 data frame.

Disassociation: Either the station or the base station may disassociate thus breaking the relationship. A station may changes its preferred base station 3. Data delivery. 4. are Authentication. the Duration field. The other two addresses are used for the source and destination base station. tells how long the frame and its acknowledgement will occupy the channel. 2. this service required by the destination network. The data field contains the payload up to 2312 bytes follow by the usual check-sum. Association: This service is used by mobile stations to connect themselves to the base stations. the frames can sent out directly over the air.The second field of the data frame. Services: There are five distribution services are provided by the base station. 5. Distribution: This service determines how to route frames sent to the base station. Reassociation: using this service. Deauthentication. Integration: If a frame needs to be sent through a non-802. .11 network with a different addressing scheme or frame formats. If the destination is local to the base station. This facility is useful for mobile stations moving from one to another.Control frames are shorter still having only one or two addresses no data field and no sequence field. The base station may accept or reject the mobile station. The remaining services Privacy. 1.The sequence field allows fragments to be numbered.

16 was designed to be wireless. which means that the perceived power at the base station can vary widely from station to station. In shot 802.11 With 802. primarily in that they were designed to provide high band width wireless communications.16 protocol stack.11 deals with mobility.BROADBAND WIRELESS Comparison Of 802.16 Protocol stack: The general structure is similar to that of the other 802 network but with more sub layers. The 802. but stationery cable television. More spectrum is needed than the ISM bands can provide forcing 802. There differences are so big that the resulting standards are very different as they try to optimize different things.16 to operate in the much higher 10 to 60 GHz frequency range. The 802. .11 provides some support for real time traffic it was not really designed for telephony and heavy duty multimedia usage. The bottom sublayer deals with transmission. Much of 802.16 operate are similar in some ways.16: The environments in which 802. Traditional narrow-band radio is used with conventional Modulation schemes.11 was designed to the mobile Ethernet.16 runs over part of city the distance involved can be several kilometers.11and 802. Because 802. Whereas 802. Another issue is quality of service while 802.

16 Physical layer: Broadband wireless needs a lot of spectrum and the only place to find it is in the 10 to 66 GHz range. Downstream traffic is mapped on to time slots by the base station. A complication here is that 802.The data link layer consists of three sublayers. FDD Frequency Division Duplexing) and TDD (Time Division Duplexing) Frames and time slots for time division duplexing.16 connection. This means that every ATM connection has to map on to an 802.16 were designed to integrate seamlessly with both datagram protocols and ATM. in principle a straight ward Matters. For Medium distance subscribers QAM ² 16 is used with 4 bits/band for distance subscribers QPSK is used with 2 bits/band. Signal strength in the millimeter band falls off sharply with distance from the base station. There millimeter waves have an interesting property that longer Microwaves do not thy frames in straight lines unlike found but similar to lights. Two schemes are used. Give the goal of producing a broadband system and subject to the above physical constraints the 802. The problem is that packet protocols are connectionless and ATM is connection oriented. The base station is completely in control for this direction.16 designers worked hard to used the available spectrum efficiently. The service specific convergence sublayer takes the place of the logical link sublayer in the other 802 protocols. the signal ² to ² Noise ratio also drops with distance from the base station. . The 802. The bottom one deals with privacy and security when is far more crucial for public outdoor networks than for private indoor networks.

. mostly telling whether packing and fragmentation are present. The checksum is optional due to the Error Correction in the physical layer and the fact that no attempt is ever made to retransmit real time frames.The 802. these requesting channel slots. for frames that request bandwidth. The header is followed by an optional payload and an optional checksum (CRC). The EC bits tells whether the payload is encrypted. The Type find identifies the frame type. It starts with a 1 bit instead of a 0 bit and is similar to the generic header except that the second & third bytes form a 16 bit number how much bandwidth is needed to carry the Specified Number of bytes. The payload is not needed in control frames for example. (a) A generic frame. Finally the header CRC find is a check sum over the header only using the polynomial x8 + x2 + x + 1. (b) A bandwidth request frame. A second header type.16 Frame Structure: All MAC frames begin with a generic header. The length find gives the complete length of the frame including the header.

. low-power.1. The project was named Bluetooth. inexpensive wireless radios. 802.PDA. consortium) to develop a wireless standard for interconnecting computing and communication devices and accessories using short-range. Intel. Nokia and Toshiba).. Even though IEEE approved the first PAN standard. also without cables. conquered) Denmark and Norway.e.BLUETOOTH In 1994 the L.Ericsson Company became interested in connecting its Mobile phones to other devices (e. An interconnected collection of piconets is called a scatternet.g.15. it formed a SIG (Special Interest Group.. it is hoped that they will soon converge to a single standard. Two piconets can be connected to form a scatternet. the Bluetooth SIG is still active busy with improvements.M. in 2002. Although the Bluetooth SIG and versions are not identical. a Viking king who unified (i. i. Together with four other companies (IBM.e. Bluetooth Architecture: The basic unit of a Bluetooth system is a piconet which consists of a master node and up to seven active slave nodes within a distance of 10 meters. after Harald Blaatand (Bluetooth) II (940-981).) without cables.

The layer structure does not follow the OSI model. Bluetooth Applications: Most network protocols just provide channels between communicating entities and let applications designers. . or any other known model. The 13 applications. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack: The Bluetooth standard has many protocols grouped loosely into layers.1 specification names 13 specific applications to be supported and provides different protocol stacks for each one. There are also two intermediate power states.In addition to the seven active slave in a piconet. The Bluetooth profiles. In contrast. These are devices that the master has switched to a low-power state to reduce the drain on their batteries. are listed. which are called profiles. the TCP/IP model the 802 model. there can be up to 255 parked nodes in the net. the Bluetooth V1. hold and sniff.

The top layer is where the applications and profiles are located. which contains a mix of different protocols.15 version of the Bluetooth protocol architecture The link manager handles the establishment of logical channels between devices. or 5 slots long. The next layer up is the middleware layer. The logical link control adaptation protocol shields the upper layers from the details of transmission. For a single-slot frame. and modem. 366 of the 625 bits are left over.The bottom layer is the physical radio layer. £ . and quality of service. including power management. which corresponds fairly well to the physical layer in the OSI and 802 models. The frequency hopping timing allows a setting time of 250-260 sec per hop to allow the radio circuits to become stable. Frames can be 1. after settling. It deals with radio transmission and modulation. RFcomm (Radio Frequency communication) is the protocol that emulates the standard serial port found on PCs for connecting the keyboard. among other devices. authentication. It turns the raw bit stream into frames and defines a some key formats. 3. The 802. The Bluetooth Baseband Layer: The baseband layer is the closest thing Bluetooth has to a sublayer. mouse. The baseband layer is somewhat analogous to the MAC sublayer but also include elements of the physical layer.

permitting 80. Each frame is transmitted over a logical channel.When five slots are strung together only one settling period is needed. The first is the ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) link. The Type field identifies the frame type (ACL. called a link. Two kinds of links exist. It begins with an access code that usually identifies the master so that slaves within radio range of two masters can tell which traffic is for them. Next comes a 54-bit header containing typical MAC sublayer fields. The Bluetooth Frame Structure: There are several frame formats. Various formats are used for the data field for ACL frames. which is used for packetswitched data available at irregular intervals. Each SCO link can transmit one 64. or 240 bits of actual payload. Then comes the data field. between the master and a slave. the most important of which is shown. SCO. 160. poll. such as telephone connections. .000 bps PCM audio channel. or null). The Acknowledgement but is used to piggyback an ACK onto a frame. Three variants are defined. The other is the SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) link. The address field identifies which of the eight active devices the frame is intended for. A typical Bluetooth data frame. A slave may have up to three SCO links with its master. 5 * 625 = 3125bits in five time slots. for real-time data. The Flow bit is asserted by a slave when its buffer is full and cannot receive any more data. of up to 2744 bits.