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The aim of this report is to highlights in glass ceiling covered the issue related the many problems facing by the women in management level and workers level. For preparing informative report like this we required some combined inputs from many people. Some people helped us to high light important issues and some devoted their precious time to review this report. We are extending our deepest appreciation to these contributors. I thankful to Mrs. Kajal Sharma (Faculty, NICM) for providing guidance for conducting activities useful in the preparation of this report. I thankful to Ms. Meghna Kothari (Faculty, NICM) for encouraging me to conduct this project and helping me to understand management perspective related to Glass Ceiling. I thankful especially those MBA’s students they share them experience during the summer internship. At the end, I thankful to all the people, organisations and associations working for environment and helping us directly or indirectly to make our lives better.
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………….. WHY THE GLASS CEILING PERSISTS…………………………… WOMEN AT WORKPLACE…………………………………………. WOMEN IN HIERARCHY…………………………………………… WHERE THE MALE CONTINUES TO RULE……………………… SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND GLASS CEILING…………………. FROM CEILIGS TO CLIFFS……………………………………….. FROM GLASS CEILING TO PAY GAP……………………………. WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP…………………………………………. WHY THERE ARE SO FEW WOMEN MANAGERS IN INDIA….. ILO AND GLASS CEILING………………………………………… FACTS ON WOMEN AT WORK…………………………………… WOMEN IN INDIA…………………………………………………. GENDER EQUALITY AND EQUITY……………………………… RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………… NOTES……………………………………………………………… APPENDIX…………………………………………………………….
The concept "Glass Ceiling" originally was first used in 1986, when 2 Wall Street Journal reporters coined the phrase to describe the invisible and artificial barriers that impeded women from advancing to senior leadership positions in organizations. Since then, the metaphor of the glass ceiling has also come to be applied to the advancement of minorities, deaf, blind, disabled, and sexual minorities. It is unmistakable that ceilings and walls exist throughout most workplaces for minorities and women. These barriers limit the development and mobility opportunities of men and women of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. What are types of Glass Ceiling barriers?
• • • • • •
Lack of management commitment to establish systems, policies, and practices for achieving workplace diversity and upward mobility; Pay inequities for work of equal or comparable value; Sex, race, and ethnic-based stereotyping and harassment; Lack of family-friendly workplace policies; Parent-track policies; Limited opportunities for advancement to decision-making positions;
The glass ceiling is a barrier not only to individuals but to society as a whole. This barrier reduces the potential pool of corporate leaders by ignoring, or worse, discriminating against over one-half of the population.
The “glass ceiling” refers to the barriers that often confront ethnic minorities and women in trying to reach the upper echelons of the corporate hierarchy. The fact remains that while the world has come a long way in achieving equal opportunities in employment, and things have definitely improved what they were a decade ago, discrimination on the basis of gender and race endures. The case deals with the concept of 'glass ceiling,' which prevents women from reaching top management positions in the corporate world. It explains the concept in detail and examines the various reasons that prevent women from reaching the top management.
Why the Glass Ceiling Persists
Theories as to why the glass ceiling continues in corporate world are varied. Most research on the topic points to stereotypes, lack of efforts to recruit women, and lack of women in important pipeline positions. Major barrier • stereotypes • lacking the characteristics most needed to succeed and, consequently, were often judged to be lessqualified than men. • characteristics of successful middle mangers were more similar to descriptions of men than women. • Lack of recruitment and opportunities for advancement • Lack of good faith efforts. • channeled, tracked and trapped in staff jobs that do not lead to the executive suite. • women are in public relations, human resources, and investor relations rather than in line positions that more typically lead to top executive jobs. • Sexual harassment.
Some of the common ones would be as follows: • Women are seen as emotional entities compared to men who come about as more rational. though women are seen to be more creative. • Business trips. Moving from the broader cultural and social issues to the situation at the workplace. • It is understood that after marriage. It is common to see many working ladies in Mumbai doing some daily household chores in the local train in which they travel back home. For example. • Minor symbols like a family photo on the desk of a man can mean his being a well rounded gentleman but on a woman’s desk may mean that her life’s focal point is her home and not career. flexible and better team players. the ratio of women to men in Indian IT companies is 24:76 expected to be 35:65 by 2007. a lot of perceptual gaps exist. It is more difficult for women to balance work and home. • An impending marriage in a man’s life is a good reason for a raise but it may be perceived as a major drift in focus for the woman. there seems to be a difference in the perception of similar activities of women vis-à-vis men.WOMEN AT WORKPLACE India has come a long way from Sati to the workplace. the woman may take a career break or may shift the job or her focus from work to family. a group of women talking would be understood as gossiping. but the abovementioned cultural issues are still at play. • During informal interactions. There is definitely a drastic rise in the number of working women in the Indian economy with qualification and performance taking precedence over gender. . BPO-ITES industry has 69:31 as the ratio . In 2005. long working hours and night-shifts in a married woman’s life do not come easy. A casual dinner with someone of the opposite sex from theworkplace may be interpreted as a date or an affair.
Therefore. .PERCEPTIONS OF WOMEN AS MANAGERS Many women and men “want it all”: a successful career and a happy family life. However. Women still perform a large share of household tasks in addition to childrearing. but traditionally their participation in household tasks is far less than that of their female partners. they often have to choose between paid work and family. or they have to prioritize one over another at some stage during their lives. Men their female partners seem to be able to “have it all” more easily. finding a balance between paid work and family life is difficult. especially for women.
the remuneration of female managers is a mere 68 percent of what their male counterparts earn on an average. According to a study of more than 400 executives (74% of them women). a majority of those surveyed believed that different standards were used to judge the performance of women and minorities. But. What's more. but it is still not far enough. women have their own special strengths and abilities that can. Even in a seemingly technologically advanced. Lack of pay parity along with the omnipresent glass ceiling continues to impede the career advancement and success of women in business. Here are a few strategies women should consider to garner maximum leverage from their career paths: . help them come out on top even in fields that are typically seen as male bastions.WOMEN IN HIERARCHY A HIGHER percentage of women hold managerial and executive jobs these days than they used to in the past. They also felt that the glass ceiling seriously hampered their career advancement potential as compared to their male counterparts with similar qualifications and experience. with a little planning and strategising. we have come a long way. liberated and forward thinking country like the US. conducted by international organisational development expert Adrian Savage. only 5 percent of all senior manager positions are filled by women. True.
Women are more reluctant than men to put themselves forward as competitors. Having a clear road map and unambiguous long-term goals makes it easier for you to focus on your career path in the long run. your core plan should equip you for such contingencies. for example. they are more likely to sacrifice their careers or leave the corporate world entirely for the sake of family. Consider informal ways of educating yourself through. you have to steel yourself to play the game if you want to climb up the slippery path to success. 10 and 15 years from now. attending conferences and keeping up with trade publications in your field. by far. Your goal should be to develop a set of transferable skills that can be applied to various career fields. But. it is the social framework rather than the company that hinders career progress of women. When seeking a job too. . Further. more so for women because they generally have to overcome more number of hurdles and speed breakers along the road to career success compared to men. Your plan may need modification to accommodate major challenges that life may throw at you. Volunteering is a way to promote your career and demonstrate your value while expanding your knowledge in critical areas of your company. Plan your career Career planning is important for everyone. make it a point to ask what kind of training is available. Don't shy away from competition Ambition isn't a dirty word. Volunteer to take up challenging assignments and projects. to want to be known beyond the confines of family and friends. joining professional organisations.Education and training Education is. Politics and power struggles are part of the corporate world. look for companies that offer training programmes and professional development opportunities. women's most powerful secret weapon. Build flexibility into your career plans to allow for changing circumstances. Many a time. At the time of interview. The best hope to crash through that glass ceiling is to get the finest possible foundation for a successful career in the form of education and training. It is perfectly okay to be ambitious. Decide where you want to be five.
women are relatively less aggressive at workplace about promoting themselves. at least find yourself a mentor! Mentors can both protect women from discrimination and also be great sources of information and career guidance on how to navigate their way past obstacles to career success.Network While women tend to network well socially. Remember. However. you simply won't get ahead. Practice Self-promotion Women are generally team players and often fight shy of selfpromotion. Men tended to focus on people with power and influence. As a result. Women traditionally tend to be pre-occupied with home and family once they are outside office. rather than doing something about it. No matter what their career aspirations. in the business sense. recognition does not come easily unless you turn the spotlight on your true worth. they seem to lag a tad behind men. Modesty has traditionally been seen as a virtue and it is not easy to unlearn what was drilled into them at an early age and change their roles at work. women are capable of busting every last male sanctuary and achieving dizzy heights of success and glory through sheer talent. In fact. if no one knows how great you are. as well as those at the higher echelons. They often prefer to wait for recognition and opportunities to arrive of their own accord. hard work and determination. a survey that studied the networking propensities of both men and women found out that women were more likely to network with people both at lower levels than themselves. Women have to become as comfortable as men discussing business outside the office and nurture a network that can help them get ahead in their careers. while men have the old-boys' network that helps them clinch business deals. You need to toot your own horn because nobody else may do it for you. Make sure people within and outside your workplace know about your accomplishments. Find a mentor If you are not keen on networking. .
As the cliché goes. the bad news is that women have to work twice as hard to prove themselves on par with men. the good news however is that you don't have to work too hard! .
Women fight back in London's financial hub.' That women have made it right to the topmost level in the corporate world is evident from the fact that right from 1998 Fortune magazine has been coming out with its annual surveys on the power pack of 50 women in business. We are told her boss began using the phrase after watching the film Jurassic Park. There is constant reminder of this — the latest being the December issue of Bloomberg Markets. But the troubling factor is that whether one is an anonymous peg in a huge industry. compared to their male colleagues. she `had cancer. the article details the amazing stories of brave and determined women who are hitting back at their employers by suing the firms that have denied them promotions or adequate salaries and bonus. When he used the term the third time. and in front of clients. the glass ceiling is being battered now and then by at least some of them. where a goat tied to a stake was used to lure dinosaurs. meaning a sexual bait. The most preposterous story is that of Carina Coleman. gender discrimination and sexual harassment just refuse to go away. and the whole thing ended with the woman being forced to resign in August 2001.WHERE THE MALE CONTINUES TO RULE While one boss referred to a female colleague as a `tethered goat'. another had the audacity to say. Its cover story outlines the discrimination and harassment some of the most qualified and talented women are facing in London's financial hub. or holding a top job in the world of financial services. A few days later she filed a suit for sexual harassment. she realised it was the beginning of a campaign against sexual harassment. where the reference pertained to using her as sexual bait in some merger. referred to as the `City'. Titled Sexism and the City . . been a pain and is now pregnant. This shows that even while existing perennially for most women. whose boss and founder of the investment bank Lansdowne Capital Ltd kept referring to her as a "tethered goat'.
if any. We know that this can sometimes lead to men and women being rewarded unequally. Unlike Wall Street or London's City. at the 38th and 47th positions respectively. so have payments to settle them. The biggest publicly disclosed award was the £1. been a pain and is now pregnant'. but even there the woman who complained was an Infosys employee in the US. Fortune magazine's latest pack of 50 international power women might have two Indians — Vidya Chhabria. "As the cases have increased.4 million ($2. Mumbai.Says the article." Sounds familiar? One is sure it does.3 million) an employment tribunal ordered Schoder Securities to pay Julie Bower. Those who have made it are still trying to feel their way around and one doubts that there are too many brave souls out there who would want to jeopardise their careers by challenging their bosses on grounds of discrimination in pay or promotions. the British Trade and Industry Secretary. I have concerns about the lack of transparency and objectivity surrounding some employers' decisions on bonuses. last year for unfair dismissal and sex discrimination. our financial district in Mumbai has not reported too many. compared to 4." The magazine quoted Patricia Hewitt. sexist and nasty. The most talked about case of sexual harassment slapped on an Indian company pertained to Infosys Technologies. women can still face discrimination in the City. Vice-Chairman and Managing Director of HSBC Securities and Capital Markets. Bower's boss had said she had `had cancer. Chairperson of the Jumbo Group and Naina Lal Kidwai. to hundreds of women who have crawled their way up several layers of the glass ceiling in corporate India too." adding that 8128 women in the UK had filed sex discrimination claims in 2002-2003. "More women in London's City are standing up to treatment they say is unfair. legal complaints of gender discrimination in the world of finance and investment. But in this coveted world women are as yet newcomers. "Although a lot has changed. . or downright sexual harassment.926 in the financial year 2000. That must be because women are still trying to get a foothold in this magic world. saying. a beverage industry analyst.
Susan Rosenberg. the one that is referred to as the "Boom Boom Room" case of 1996 in which 20 current and former employees of Smith Barney Inc. currently there are at least a dozen class action claims concerning gender discrimination on Wall Street." The company ended up paying millions of dollars after a protracted legal battle in which many skeletons rolled out of the cupboard. ING Barings. In a settlement announced in May.However. Merrill Lynch. The study titled Women in Financial Services: The Word on the Street. 2003. on arkansasnews. These women claimed that the male employees ran what they called a "boom boom room" in an office of the firm in Long Island. Morgan Stanley and Salomon Smith Barney. The same company was once again in trouble when a former employee of its Massachusetts office filed another suit on sexual harassment. All this was only the tip of the iceberg and since then the "Boom Boom Room" case has become a kind of catchword for sexual harassment on Wall Street. 1998." A study done in 2001 by Catalyst. conducted in response to a gender-discrimination trial. a group of female brokers in Chicago filed a sex discrimination suit against Merrill Lynch. of course. Morgan Chase. According to a report dated December 20.P.com. but believe subtle discriminatory behaviour and practices do exist. Merrill Lynch agreed to pay $5 million in legal fees as well as a total of $600. The plaintiff. if you turn to Wall Street or the world's largest securities market. surveyed 838 . The most famous case is. there are numerous cases of women seeking compensation for gender discrimination and sexual harassment. found that the majority of women working in the financial services industry are happy with their jobs and employers. "involving such venerable names as Goldman Sachs. sprung a surprise on Wall Street by participating in a class action sexual harassment and discrimination suit. Following the Smith Barney harassment case. a research and advisory organisation for women. where the men indulged in bawdy behaviour "drank Bloody Marys from a barrel and routinely subjected women to lewd pranks.000 to the eight women who filed the suit. alleged that she was fired because of her age and gender and that at one point a supervisor had handed her a vibrator when she went into his office. J.
They saw only two barriers to a woman's advancement in her career — commitment to family and lack of management experience. Of the 482 women surveyed. Interestingly. 51 per cent said they get paid less than men who do similar work." . the president of Catalyst says.women and men employed at seven leading securities firms. Sixty-one per cent of the women surveyed said departing Wall Street would be a financial blunder for them. the majority of the men surveyed didn't see things the same way. five per cent said they have to work harder than men to get the same rewards. And why should they leave? As Sheila Wellington. How boringly predictable! But despite the discrimination they faced. the women said they would not quit. and rightly so. "Few industries evoke more images of power and prestige than the financial services industry. and predictably. 42 per cent believed that projects or clients are assigned fairly and only 32 per cent thought promotions are handed out fairly to men and women.
Arvind Mills. This maybe because the numbers joining at the entry level itself must be less. Hindustan Lever Limited indicate one or less than one woman in their board of directors. awareness about the new laws in the Indian judiciary. This leads to a distinct subjectivity to it. which can be rooted back to the fact that the number of females in engineering and management institutes is less. This problem needs to be tackled with an exercise to instill a sense of respect for the opposite sex. State Bank of India. A look at the board of directors of randomly picked firms from various sectors like Marico India.SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND GLASS CEILING Sexual harassment is a common term today and many corporate cases related to the same have been reported in the past. due to a perceived lack of capability. . Jet Airways. Glass ceiling is a term coined in mid-eighties and is raised frequently with respect to women. However it is found that it is associated with a lack of concrete HR policies in place to tackle with the issue. it is seen that top management does lack women. Polaris Software Lab Ltd. An unofficial barrier to top management posts may be placed for the women in a workplace. There will never be a concrete proof to verify the existence of Glass Ceiling. It is true that an employee leaves a person (boss or peers) rather than the company. However for various reasons. concrete company and HR policies and the emphasis on the separation of professional life from the personal one. Many cases go unreported and cause job-switches or subjugation. Pfizer India. To pursue the case and file a complaint is itself associated with a lot of harassment.
Some Facts: From IT Industry (India) Presented below are the basic roles of a man and a woman in any context. these were the findings: .
FROM CEILIGS TO CLIFFS WOMEN wearing pants. the boys make the grade but a failing company will look to a woman for bailing it out. often appointed women at senior positions. Ingrained beliefs At work as well as at home women habitually allow themselves to be ruled by belief structures that have been ingrained in them for years. women were less likely to be hired at senior levels. In contrast. However. women are seen as more expendable employees than their male counterparts. This.more dangerous and subtly sexist. If a company is doing well. which had consistently performed badly. woman entrepreneurs (millionaires too). This when the factors. This is the glass cliff. Also. once the performance picked up. they are given more onerous tasks than their male counterparts. these woman leaders were in danger of being held responsible for the negative outcomes. women outnumbering men at workplaces. woman leaders are more likely to bail them out and deal with the situation more effectively. which adversely affected the company. In other words. had been set in motion long before the manager had assumed her post. yes. not so surprisingly perhaps. They .find themselves on a `glass cliff'. with every financial downturn. a risky and precarious position. Their abilities were questioned and their leadership skills came under much fire and criticism. which women are finding themselves on -. yes. because managements think that if there is a crisis in the organisation.all passé. woman CEOs. glass ceilings -. ironically. Research has found that women who consistently break the glass ceiling in their organisations face a trickier task . The concept that's being talked about today is of `glass cliffs'. The idea being that women are more adept at dealing with crises. yesterday's news. A recent `Times' report states that companies. Women are getting top jobs but it is a `poisoned chalice' as the research terms it.
Know the company policies going in and their take on addressing gender issues Don't be afraid to ask for help when you need it. Sometimes the struggle to balance life and work becomes so tough for women that they would rather give up working. despite attempts by organisations to increase the number of women working at senior level.allow themselves to be influenced by various issues. one need not contend with it alone. If you encounter gender bias in the workplace. Woman managers are often praised for being more sensitive to employees' needs. if you can. Study your employer at the interview stage itself while they are sizing you up. And it should not come as a surprise that a majority of men and women believe that it's advantageous to be a man than a woman! . There are a few resources that women do have at their disposal. Find out. the woman's personal standards play a major role in her achievements— the ability to assert herself and her capability of making strategic decisions. maintain notes in a journal with dates and events mentioned and also the person/s involved so that you have recorded proof. the rate of change and the pace of progress have remained at best erratic. However. keeping others better-informed and getting results. While women at senior levels of management find that one of the biggest hurdles they face is a stereotyping of their roles and skills. women who are low on the corporate ladder can still laugh about it and refer to the glass ceiling as the distant skylight! But. For women striving for the top job is not necessarily a question of power. as to how many women are working with the organisation. you may be able to get some wise counselling from someone who has dealt with a similar situation before. whether it is overt or subtle. Talk to your peers. which in turn can restrict their natural leadership qualities. Remember you are in charge of your own career so be your own cheerleader! Accept high visibility assignments and do your best work. which can help prevent and also overcome bias of this kind at the workplace: The first important step — choose your employer well. Select mentors who understand how the system works. If things start to get bad.
So. is the `superwoman' who wants to be the world's best mom. this battle continues too! . dead? Like the battle of the sexes. best wife and best boss.
in areas such as equal pay for equal work. managements pressured the victim to withdraw the complaint. can now explain an increasingly large part of the gap. particularly in the finance sector. they feared that they would not be believed or they thought they could handle it for the sake of their careers. Frequently. is nearly 95 per cent of the women bringing a case refuse to make a formal complaint to anyone at work because there was no one they felt they could complain to. which results in occupational segregation. the data showed that they were in positions that required less education and were lower paid. . They were 50 per cent less likely to have a college degree than their male counterparts. when they opted for part-time work they lost healthcare. Also. retirement and social security benefits but continued paying for part-time child care. Women employees in India are still fighting an uphill battle for level pegging. DelhiFaridabad and Pune).FROM GLASS CEILING TO PAY GAP Why are there pay gaps? women continued to choose occupations and industries where there is more flexibility in order to balance the needs of work and family. The problem in India. Consider the startling findings of a Sakshi survey of 2. Last year. a team of labour researchers did a survey of women workers in three prominent industrial belts of India (Bangalore. They were too embarrassed.400 men and women in a cross-section of workplaces and hierarchies: 80 per cent of respondents said sexual harassment existed at their workplace and 53 per cent said men and women did not have equal opportunities at work. Even when working as managers. They tended to work in areas with fewer career development prospects. Childbearing and child rearing which interrupt women’s careers and permanently slow down their earning power. they say.
and titled Women Workers: Inequalities at Work. and at time of lay-offs. Unemployment rates have almost always been higher for women than men. Women are also more likely than men to be found in the lower-paid and least secure jobs. They also face more barriers to promotion and career development. found that bias against women included wage and non-wage discrimination as well as qualitative differences in the nature of work offered to women. but India Inc would do well to take the early warning signals seriously. . Coming out of the courtroom. Women tend to be employed in a narrower range of occupations than men. and are more likely to work part-time or short-term." Very few women employees in India have shown such guts to air their grievances in public.The study. Men and women tend to work in different sectors of the economy and hold different positions within the same occupational group. Bangalore. the "pay gap" between women and men is still significant in most countries. much remains to be done. Although more and more women are working. occupational segregation. done by Best Practices Foundation. from recruitment to education and remuneration. In addition to the "glass ceiling". Schieffelin alleged that Morgan Stanley had destroyed everything that she had put her heart and soul into for 15 years. Discrimination can occur at every stage of employment.
. among others. What is inspiring. It is quite striking that this consensus of views emerges when women get together for candid conversation in forums that range from the elite Ivyleague financial women’s association in the US to the national women’s conference in New-Delhi. president-level or CEO-level. IBM. investors. Ford Motors and Shell Group. EI Dupont. however.WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP There is clearly a universality of opinion among women executives in corporations worldwide that little progress has been made by them in assuming leadership roles in the organisation. customers and clients in the global economy. and make a clear “business case” for diversity and inclusiveness in the organisation. it is not enough for best-employers and HR leaders to simply focus on increasing the “number” of women in the workforce – either at the entry-level or at the mid-executive level. retaining and advancing women is no longer a matter of social responsibility. Companies that aspire to gain the competitive advantage will need to leverage this tremendous and virtually untapped resource of smart women executives and look beyond narrowly. and that the barriers to women’s advancement are remarkably similar across the global workforce.defined “high-potentials” in the organisation in the search for globally inclusive leadership teams. Monsanto. Pfizer. At the same time. Successful corporations have understood the strategic and economic significance of women as executives. The priority should be also on including women in top-management positions at the board of directors. is that the pressures of global competition and cross-cultural models for doing businesses worldwide are forcing CEOs and top-management to re-define their traditional mind-sets and recognise that there is growing need to become more innovative to survive and enhance the talent-bucket in the global marketplace. The best global companies are also recognising that recruiting. Some of the leading Fortune 500 companies that have successfully done this include GE.
lack of significant general management experience or line-expertise among women executives and lack of mentoring. therefore. when viewed by women themselves. no accident that more than 35% of Fortune 500 companies have at least one woman on the board of directors.2005. audit. Further. Interestingly. the often-cited “family or personal commitments” that HR leaders seem to designate as obstacles to women’s advancement appear at the lower-end of women’s challenges. which makes this challenge even more difficult to address. Further. women are sometimes resentful of using specially designated privileges and formal “work/life options” at the workplace as they often carry negative career consequences over the longer-term. as they aspire to reinvent themselves in global corporations? The single most important barrier seems to be the “stereotypes” and preconceptions of women’s roles and abilities in the company – especially when it comes to core functions like finance. business security and HR. Women are also holding more than 15% of board-level seats of S&P 500 companies. legal. . For those of us who have successfully achieved leadership positions in corporate India. findings seem to suggest that male executives often do not realise that they harbour these misconceptions about women’s roles and abilities. and the number of Fortune 500 companies with more than 25 % or more women on boards increased from 11% to 64% between 1995.It is. This contribution is a key requisite for doing justice to our leadership positions and demonstrating commitment to change. as compared to only 8% in mid-cap companies. economics. Other barriers include lack of visible successful female role models. it is clearly time to establish a mandate and a mission for taking some time in mentoring other women. What then is preventing women from making it to top positions in Indian corporations.
The world will surely gain by using the best minds of its entire population – than only a part of it.At the same time. accomplishment and grace to open new opportunities for bringing in diversity of thinking. it is imperative to continue with integrity. perspectives and skills into corporate boardrooms and top-management decision-making. .
where no matter how successful a woman is.1 per cent higher return on equity than those with the lowest percentages. HSBC and Biocon. after a year of stunning breakthroughs in corner-office hiring. Many also deny that the problem for women is the glass ceiling or the men's club.WHY THERE ARE SO FEW WOMEN MANAGERS IN INDIA Indra Nooyi's climb -. Barring a handful like ICICI Bank. looking for different and more balanced lives. the "stunning" breakthroughs seem to have eluded Indian companies. his daughter . The HR head of a large consumer electronics and durables firm says while it's fashionable to attack the so-called sex discrimination in Indian workplace. 35.an MBA graduate from a reputed foreign university . He quotes a BBC report late last year which said at the heart of the matter is the Cinderella complex . have not been interested in entering." says the CEO of another large family-managed Indian firm where women are non-existent in senior management.has been breathtaking. The study shows that Fortune 500 companies with the highest percentages of women corporate officers yielded. The reasons are many. "Women outperform in care-taking qualities and men outperform in taking-charge qualities. on an average. subconsciously she still expects that a prince is going to come along and rescue her. While the CEO's son is heading an important division in the company.hasn't . a recent study by Catalyst. the fact is women themselves are partly responsible for this. Add to this. The business door is open but that women. Women today comprise only 2 per cent of the total managerial strength in the Indian corporate sector. an overwhelming majority of Indian boardrooms are still no-go areas for women. a leading researcher of women in the workplace.from last year's number 11 to the top of Fortune's 2006 list of power women -. Despite all these feel-good news. Even more encouraging is Fortune's conclusion that the list of brand-name firms with women chief executives is longer and more impressive than ever.
"It's not in our family culture for women to be in business." the CEO says. has grown rapidly. A survey done after Norway's move. says it may sound outlandish. Norway's government has imposed quotas under which the top 500 publicly traded firms have until 2008 to fill 40 per cent of their boardroom seats with women. however. while Spain has decided to give preferential treatment to companies who appoint more women on their boards. Every female director will now feel that she has been appointed just to fill the quota. one leading HR consultant says the way out could be to follow the Norwegian model. The consultant. but experience shows quotas may be the only means of achieving change. in the rest of western Europe. isn't restricted to India alone. they are often in less strategic. the numbers have hardly changed and in Germany and the Netherlands they have even dropped back. showed precisely this. Besides. when the Department of Company Affairs proposed that 20 per cent of board seats should be reserved for women.joined the business. however. While women's presence on boards in Scandinavia. An ILO (International Labour Organization) report says wage differences in male and female managerial jobs all over the world stem from the reality that even when women hold management jobs. by Egon Zhender International. She is happily married. Effective January 1 this year. France is imposing a 20 per cent quota. The increasing feeling is that a majority of Indian companies still have a kind of institutional sexism that assumes women are less able than men. There may be huge problems in enforcing such a quota in India as it interferes with corporate freedom and overlooks merit. lots of women managers themselves thought this was insulting and natural evolution is better than force. These stereotypes are the main reason why surveys have shown that only four out of 10 CEOs in India considered the advancement of women to be critical for their organisations. lowerpaying areas of a company's operations. where quotas have been introduced or mooted. The problem. or be delisted. . But how do you move beyond persuasion to actual results? Though it's a hugely controversial move.
Women now account for nearly 29 per cent of directors in the biggest Norwegian companies. the numbers have risen to 23 per cent. where Norway's move has attracted attention and increased pressure for action. . Finland and Denmark. In Sweden. up from 22 per cent in 2004. respectively. 20 per cent and 18 per cent.
although they have also been infiltrating many of the maledominated fields. Brazil and Venezuela. the Philippines. There has been little change in women’s share of professional jobs over the last three to five years. They are predominantly found in traditionally female professions such as nursing. particularly the ICT sector and judicial systems around the world. teaching and administration. Women work in a variety of professional services all over the world. .INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISTION ILO AND GLASS CEILING Women in Professional jobs Progress in gender equality in the labour market is reflected in women’s share of professional jobs. Women’s overall share of professional jobs in 2000-02 was highest in Eastern Europe and the Confederation of Independent States and in Puerto Rico.
The rule of thumb is still: the higher up an organization’s hierarchy. South America. the fewer the women. their increased participation in the sector has exceeded increases in their labour force participation as a whole. and Eastern Europe have a higher share of women in managerial jobs than countries in East Asia. although this job category has grown over the last few decades due to the growth in the service sector. and the Middle East. South Asia. In general. although they remain under-represented. The expansion of this sector has often given more employment opportunities to women and.Women in managerial jobs Management positions represent only a small proportion of the total workforce. countries in North America. .
diligence and sincerity. are increasingly viewed as qualities that can enhance a company’s image in a world riddled with corporate misconduct. there is evidence to show that some employers have started to recognize that family-friendly policies benefit not only male and female employees by encouraging a better balance between work and family or personal lives. governmental jurisdictions. However. have the advantage of extending and strengthening the application of labour standards including equal opportunity conventions across national boundaries. Some organizations have introduced voluntary codes of conduct with built-in monitoring and verification systems aimed at creating a new “privatized” context in which workers’ rights are acknowledged. traditionally attributed to women. and international corporations. The main reason for this is because women’s family responsibilities – maternity. Clearly. not only so that a more equitable use of men and women’s time becomes the norm but so that employers’ perceptions of men and women’s abilities and willingness to devote time and effort to work are more attuned. the personal characteristics of integrity. In addition. However. New policies and strategies for coping with family responsibilities need to be inculcated into all levels of workplace. men generally find it easier than women to combine family and work because they rely heavily on women to shoulder family and domestic responsibilities. child rearing and general household tasks – and paid work have as a rule been considered mutually exclusive. corporate acceptance of ILO standards through voluntary codes may help strengthen the authority of the ILO and the potential for international labour rights enforcement mechanisms. based on rights and labour standards set out in ILO and other UN conventions and declarations. The standard and most cost-effective employee for companies has traditionally been male because men’s family or personal lives do not impinge on their work. but also benefit employers by improving overall business productivity. Furthermore. there are doubts about the value of voluntary codes of conduct and how to link global monitoring and . The codes.Valuing female employees The continuing low global share of women in management jobs shows that some employers still have difficulty accepting that policies promoting women in the workplace make good business practice. The philosophy of valuing both male and female employees is gradually permeating the workplace.
verification systems (based on rights and standards articulated in ILO and UN conventions and declarations) to the private sector. .
An interesting trend in Wall Street aims to improve efforts to recruit. The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) holds the National Work and Family Awards every year.working. tele. Diversity management recognizes that employees are not all the same and that their very differences and potential represent a variety of benefits and productivity improvements. train. appraisals. with the opportunity to maximize their full potential. Equal opportunity is also an essential element to successful diversity management. training. etc.Diversity management Organizations are also introducing diversity management programmes that go beyond equal employment opportunity legislation and affirmative action. All employees are provided with a package of benefits from which they choose those that best suit their situation. It aims to attract and retain employees and give them a sense of inclusion by maintaining a positive work environment with the introduction of fair practices in recruitment. regardless of race. selection. contribute to the achievement of an organization’s mission. promote and retain women in executive positions and narrow the gap between men and women executives’ pay and power. and ensure all team members treat each other with dignity and respect. Benefits can include familyfriendly options such as flexible working hours. Diversity management provides all employees. creed and sex. . and job sharing.
Many women tend to avoid such jobs because of their family commitments. Women remain concentrated in the lower levels of the job hierarchy: in the employment market. a certain amount of traveling. and job category. Also. mobile telephones and expense accounts. . bonuses. managerial positions require longer working hours. Institutional barriers and social attitudes towards women’s abilities also hamper the movement of professional women upward through occupational categories to increasingly responsible managerial jobs. payments based on performance. as well as allowances for specific skills. Women are likely to have shorter careers than men of the same age because they do not necessarily work full-time throughout their working lives. Differences in fringe benefits and bonuses offered to men and women also contribute to earnings gaps. However. profit sharing. commissions. where men and women work in the same job categories but men do the more skilled. Earning the same base rate of pay for doing the same job is only part of the equation. The concept of equal remuneration for equal work does not necessarily include the same “perks” that are given to male managers such as access to company cars. Many tend either to leave their jobs or work part-time typically between the ages of 25 and 35 to raise children and return to full-time employment at a later stage. In addition. and that this is the principal reason for the persistent gaps between men and women’s earnings. High levels of vertical occupational segregation. work-related travel. working in difficult conditions and compensation for working in distant or unpopular locations. the company. and negotiated retirement benefits are not necessarily a standard part of women’s remuneration package although they may well be part of the terms of an overall package agreed by men during recruitment. responsible or better-paid work are considered to be a reason for the earning gaps between equally qualified male and female employees. training and recruitment cause vertical and horizontal occupational sex segregation. these are not the only reasons women earn lower wages than men. This leads to slower promotion and less pay. or even relocation.Earnings gaps Research has shown that established social or cultural attitudes and gender inequality in education.
retirement and social security benefits but continued paying for part-time child care. This has been recognized by the international community. . This suggests a lack of policies in the workplace . They tended to work in areas with fewer career development prospects. They were 50 per cent less likely to have a college degree than their male counterparts. ILO action Over the years. particularly in the finance sector. when they opted for part-time work they lost healthcare. However. one child could lead to a “penalty” of 6 to 7 per cent of earnings. childbearing and child rearing. According to recent research67 in several industrialized countries. One school of thought suggests that only a small proportion of the pay gap can be blamed on discriminatory practices in education and recruitment. Also.to support working mothers. It weakens economic growth and the optimal functioning of enterprise and labour markets. Sex-based discrimination violates fundamental principles and rights at work. mothers tend to earn less than other women. there have been serious efforts at national and international levels to address the issue of gender equality in the world of work. which is calling for gender equality to be integrated into development and poverty reduction initiatives.Why are there earnings gaps? Some reasons presented for the earnings gaps were that: women continued to choose occupations and industries where there is more flexibility in order to balance the needs of work and family. and two children a penalty of 13 per cent. much more still has to be done. human rights and social justice.and in society as a whole . Furthermore. which results in occupational segregation. which interrupt women’s careers and permanently slow down their earning power. The ILO has an incontestable contribution to make in the attainment of these objectives. the data showed that they were in positions that required less education and were lower paid. According to recent studies in various countries. can now explain an increasingly large part of the gap. Even when working as managers.
ILO’s programme of work for 2004-2005 addresses a number of highpriority gender issues under four strategic objectives covering rights at work. It does tackle the fundamental problems hampering their access to jobs with managerial potential by promoting activities at the workplace to eliminate sex discrimination in recruitment. appraisals. This action does not directly address the phenomenon of the glass ceiling (vertical occupational segregation) and glass walls (horizontal occupational segregation) encountered by women. Gender analysis and strategies to address gender-based inequalities are essential in achieving these objectives. sub-regional and regional levels. gender equality has been adopted as one of several key shared policy objectives of the ILO. employment. selection. The policy objective on gender equality is designed to build a solid knowledge base on gender issues through systematic collection and analysis of data disaggregated by sex. The objective states: “ILO constituents take positive action to increase gender equality in the world of work”.governments and employers’ and workers’ organizations . social protection and social dialogue. . training.to take effective policy and institutional measures to mainstream gender in order to promote gender equality at national. The ILO is committed to strengthening the capacities of its tripartite constituents . For the first time. which strengthens its integrated approach to equality issues in the world of work. remuneration and promotion.
This means that many millions of women remain beyond the reach and coverage of ILO Conventions and national labour laws. Approximately 70% of women in developed countries and 60% in developing countries are engaged in paid employment. do not have access to decent work. more women than ever before are completing higher levels of education. women represent over 40% of the global labour force. and the “sticky floor” (women in the lowest paid jobs and living in poverty). the growing participation of women in paid jobs has been driving employment trends. The burgeoning of the informal economy provides jobs for many women as well as men but at the price of being unprotected and poorlyremunerated. continues to obstruct equitable economic development.FACTS ON WOMEN AT WORK Today. Over the past two decades. . but also because they are women. particularly for women. And women still make up the majority of part-time. remain highly segregated by sex. Gender gaps in labour force participation have been shrinking. mainly done by women. Better job opportunities have increased many women’s independence and resulted in a new status and role in their families and society. Informalization of work that was once protected is also increasing. The lack of recognition of the critical role of unpaid work. and are discriminated against and abused not only because they are poor workers without rights. Much of this is related to the fact that labour markets in all countries. Yet progress on three key and inter-related indicators for gender equality is still inadequate: namely the “glass ceiling” (women in management in both private and public sectors). the gender pay gap. Worldwide. The dignity and rights of women are too often violated with practices such as obligatory pregnancy testing and sexual harassment. both in the formal and informal economies. and women’s entrepreneurship development has been impressive. And macroeconomic indicators continue to ignore the “care economy” as fundamental to economic outcomes. They do not experience equality of opportunity and treatment. temporary and precarious workers around the world.
While this increased sharply in the 1990s. A striking example is India. unemployment rates for women are higher than for men. where 93% of all workers are in the informal economy. other examples are 62% in Mexico and 34% in South Africa. Informal employment is generally a larger source of employment for women than for men. home-workers. unpaid family workers. The informal economy makes up significant proportions of the total workforce in these countries. For most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. As a result more women than men are likely to live in poverty. domestic employees. the selfemployed. and significant pay differences in most regions. Participation rates for women in the labour market in East Asia are lower than for men. the proportions for women were higher than for men. those working in the . In a number of transition countries and some countries in Asia. many women are also discriminated against based on their colour. Malaysia and Indonesia. women still experience lower participation rates than men and where it is relatively higher. Europe and North America there has been some reduction of gender pay differences. and this gap is not closing. with women performing the lion’s share of unpaid care work. The latest employment data according to ILO’s Global Employment Trends (2003) show that women continue to have lower participation rates in the labour market. In Latin America. it has fallen off in recent years. Certain categories of women are especially vulnerable to inequalities in the labour market: rural women.This reflects different social roles assigned to women and men. race. health status and disability. This is largely due to sex stereotyping of both men and women from the day they are born. religion or ethnic origin. In addition to discrimination based on sex. especially if agriculture is included. unemployment rates for men are higher than for women and in some developed regions men’s participation rates are declining. gender gaps have grown since the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990’s in Thailand. In South East Asia. Many millions of women dwell in the so-called informal economy of the developing world: agricultural workers. and workers in unregistered enterprises. Women have considerably lower rates of labour market participation than men. In the majority of 25 countries for which the ILO has data on nonagricultural informal employment. higher unemployment rates. age.
many governments are now taking measures to overcome traditional. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has also increased women’s vulnerability given their limited access to social protection and economic security. including sexual harassment and violence. women hold only around a mere 1% to 3% of top executive jobs in the largest corporations around the world. The higher the position in an organization or company. Women and girls are also more often the victims of human trafficking. Similarly. In recognition of the vital role that working women play in family welfare and survival. the young and the aged face particular disadvantages in labour markets. in realizing that women’s skills and talent can be key for success in business. Older women face continued discrimination in the labour market and often have to assume care-giving responsibilities within their families in addition to their work outside the home. the older. cultural and other forms of discrimination that bar women from access to equal opportunities at work. the young. . Despite the many advances made by women. some private companies in both developed and developing countries are instituting programmes that promote the welfare. At both ends of the spectrum. migrant women. Young women tend to have higher unemployment rates than their male counterparts. the more glaring the gender gap – for example. advancement and retention of their female workers. relatively few are breaking through the so-called glass ceiling that blocks them from reaching top-level management ranks. such as slavery and prostitution.informal economy. and the disabled. Even women who migrate legally as contract labourers often face exploitation. Girls are more likely than boys to be victims of the worst forms of child labour.
but about twice as much or more time as men on unpaid work. with Thailand topping the list at almost 40%. 73% in North America and more than 35% in the Arab world.Facts:• Of the 192 countries in the world. In the European Union.3 billion poor are living on less than one US dollar per day. 95% in Chad. Canada. Thailand and the United States. Japan. • In countries such as Australia. who • Time-use surveys show that women’s total time worked exceeds men’s by two hours or more in Australia. most of the female labour force is in the informal economy (for example. • Women constitute 70% of the world’s 1. • The proportion of informal work over the last decade has increased dramatically. 64% in Asia. In Latin America the proportion has risen from 29% . • • Nearly 58% of women in Africa hold paying jobs. France. 85% in Guinea and 83% in Kenya). 97% in Benin. over 30% of all businesses are now owned or operated by women. Latvia and the Republic of Korea. women on average earn approximately two-thirds of what men earn. Women spend 50% to 70% of the time men spend on paid work. • In some countries of sub-Saharan Africa. 69% in Europe. 83% of part-time workers are women. only 12 have a female head of state. • Women make up the majority of the world’s part-time workers – between 60% and 90%. Worldwide. 46% in Latin America and the Caribbean.
the percentage of self-employed women in the non-agricultural sector increased globally from 28% to 34%as compared to the percentage of self-employed men which barely changed from 26% to 27%. and for women without children it is 68%. women are the heads-of-household in 9 out of 10 singleparent families. In the last 20 years. . just under half were women. Women have experienced a larger share of this. • Worldwide.to 44%. In Europe. the total number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated to be 40 million. the employment rate for women with children in the home is 53%. going from 30% to 44% compared to men going from 27% to 35%. • • At the end of 2001.
access and use of common property resources. lack of opportunity & poor access in different spheres) • Absence of social security measures for women workers Unequal wages • Gender dimensions of child labour • Poor access to resources/ land/property (the issue of property rights.) • Poverty (Inequality. TFR etc. etc. IMR.) .) • Women’s contribution to production / reproduction that is not adequately recognised • Non-recognition of women’s work • Lack or poor levels of Skill / training for women workers • Poor health conditions (evident from various gender-specific indicators like MMR.Women in India Some issues of concern relating to women in India Some of the major issues reflecting gender biases and discrimination faced by women in India are as follows: • Declining sex ratios (especially child sex-ratios) • Low female literacy levels (in spite of improvement of female literacy rates during last decades substantial gender gaps still exists. disempowerment.
4 for urban locations. in access to or control over resources. Some trends and distributional aspects of the labour market structure are presented to highlight where women are located and the discriminations faced by them. 1: Structure and some broad trends According to the nation wide sample survey on Employment & Unemployment undertaken by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) in India during 1999-2000. he is likely to be reported as worker.5 for rural areas and 12. • Women’s work finds itself in an inferior position • Since house work is combined with economic work – women’s work is often under or non. which stems from the following reasons: • The social prejudices and patriarchal biases that influence women's participation • in the labour market. their contribution ‘invisibilised’. monotonous. in lack of infrastructural support and above all in great disparity in work burden. repetitive and generally not capital intensive. many women work as unpaid household members or helpers. • Tasks/jobs they do are often low skilled.enumerated. The female workforce participation rates are 29. • The above arguments are used to justify the low wages paid to women workers.Status of women in the labour market The overarching issue that critically affects women’s position in the labour market is that of gender bias in defining ‘work’. female workforce is estimated at 124 millions. • If male workers perform the same work. This constitutes about 31 percent of total workforce of which more than 88 per cent belongs to rural workers. . • This undervaluation manifests itself in wage disparities. • Women viewed as secondary or supplementary workers/earners.
000 women are out of the organised sector. Even within this set. while circumventing even the few legislative measures that exist for workers’ protection. In the organised sector. 2: Unpaid work of women and its implications for their participation in the labour market . This work in most cases offers little or no social security. trading and services. are low paid as well as insecure. which provide employment for women both in rural and urban areas. Women are at the lower echelons of employment in both formal and informal sectors There seems to be ‘glass ceiling’ to women’s upward mobility in job hierarchies. During 1998 to 1999 about 80. Some efforts have to be made to segregate household work from such mixup. women are predominantly involved in informal. the women workforce is estimated at 17 per cent only. Here too. It is still difficult to find women holding positions of power and authority. In the services sector. natural resource management. This is a residual employment avenue. There are others sectors like construction. most are located in the lower rungs of the hierarchy. since demand for their labour is not forthcoming from other sectors. the majority of women workers are domestic service providers. low wages coupled with poor working conditions. Among activities of the secondary sector. other activities of the primary sector that employ women are related to animal husbandry. and so on. More over the increasing trend of casualisation has the tendency of camouflaging women’s work since it gets mixed up with household work. homebased activities.A vast majority of women are working in agricultur al or land based occupations. Most of the work they undertake within these sectors are categorised as unskilled. Among self-employed. many are very often underemployed. women’s share in actual numbers is reducing. The trend of contractualisation / casualisation of work further paves the way for more exploitation. Apart from this.
many of which are difficult to capture through conventional labour force surveys. Table 2 : Percentage share of unpaid work (State Domestic Product) SDP . Such unpaid activities fall under both SNA93 and extended SNA93. women undertake a lot of activities which fall within the domain of unpaid work. This calls for the need for more family friendly work policies. the policy for promoting skills and employment and possibly for compensation through financial incentives. The results of these efforts made by the central statistical organisation in India is discussed in latter part of this paper showing how useful and important are these statistics in reflecting the contribution of women in work spheres. The Indian experience of time use survey conducted during 1998-99 (July-June) reveals many facets of burden of unpaid work and how the women in the society are bearing the maximum share of it.As already specified in the section above.
Moreover. power and opportunities based on parity. and access to development benefits and decision- . also defined in terms of an equal distribution of economic power. gender always includes the dynamics of ethnicity and class. monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political. divided and potentially unstable. The term gender does not replace the term sex. or treatment that is different but which is considered equivalent in terms of rights. Recent research stresses that gender has moved beyond a ‘sex role’ framework to the recognition that gender involves power structures and economic relationships. which refers exclusively to biological differences between men and women. conditions. policies and programmes. must be understood as a distribution of influence. Gender mainstreaming is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action including legislation. and inequality is not perpetuated. needs. gendered identities are plural. Gender analysis is a tool to diagnose the differences between women and men regarding their specific activities. access to and control over resources.GENDER EQUALITY AND EQUITY Key Concepts:Gender. responsibilities and opportunities of women and men will not depend on whether they are born male or female. responsibilities. refers to the social differences and relations between men and women. in any area and at all levels. benefits. which are learned. in the definition given by the International Labour Organization. statistical data are broken down by sex. obligations and opportunities. For example. Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women and men. This may include equal treatment. constraints and needs of women and men in all areas and in any given social context. economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally. It is a strategy for making women’s and men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension in the design. Gender equality means that the rights. The term gender is used to analyse the roles. Gender equality. implementation. according to their respective needs. vary widely among societies and cultures and change over time.
political and environmental context. collecting sex-disaggregated data and gendersensitive information about the population concerned. economic. It studies the linkages of these and other factors in the larger social.making. . Gender analysis is the first step in gender-sensitive planning for promoting gender equality. Gender analysis entails. first and foremost.
political status. Gender roles evolve over time and vary from one socio-cultural environment to another. in both developed and developing countries. It is a socio-political definition of women and men as they function in societies. Women and girls perform twothirds of the work in the world. ethnicity. which often condemn women to the rank of ‘second-class citizens’ and assign ‘domineering’ roles to men. at times complex mechanisms of discrimination and exclusion that preclude women and men from taking part in societal and development processes on an equal footing. they are paid one-tenth of all world income. In all regions of the globe and in every segment of society. economic power and social class influence gender. They constitute two-thirds of the world’s 876 million illiterates and 70% of the poor. . a gender identity may be unstable in individuals and is susceptible to modification through education and experience. in the development of their societies. two concepts that must be fully understood before undertaking any effective action in favour of gender equality. Sex is the term used to refer to the biological differences between males and females. sharing its wealth and benefits on the basis of parity. women and girls are denied the opportunities to enjoy their human rights. One key element in understanding the complexity of the problem lies in the distinction between sex and gender. as equals. task The is to analyse and deal effectively with the unspoken. implicit hierarchies of ‘second’ and ‘first’ power roles. which in turn deprives all men. and more than half of them are women and girls.The challenge of gender equality and equity Six billion human beings live on the planet Earth. Many schools of thought and theories have sought to explain the at times subtle. women and children – societies as a whole – of valuable human resources. Gender denotes the social organization of sex differences. The challenge is to build societies where women and men can reach their full human potential and participate.
• High-level commitment to change the existing culture within a firm or organization. Employers need programmes to help them recognize the benefits women can bring to their businesses. objective. Sex-stereotyped images should be eliminated from school curricula and discriminatory practices should be removed from teaching and vocational guidance. . More decisive measures are needed to harmonize remuneration structures for both male and female employees. Women’s high level of education is not directly reflected in the positions they occupy in the labour market. fair and closely monitored. Enforcement of antidiscrimination legislation and implementation of nononsense sexual harassment policies. • • • • • • • • • • • Women want more people interaction. Programmes are needed to improve the presence of female mentors and role models in the academic hierarchy. Equal employment opportunity policies which are transparent. Family-friendly policies. There are still significant earnings gaps between women and men. Women students’ study choice is often influenced by gender role socialization.RECOMMENDATIONS • Facilitating women’s progression to management and executive positions requires.
• Change the Human Resource policies.• Building rapport. CONCLUSION .
the media. wellintegrated approach that involves education curricula. not just the exceptional few. social and family lives. vocational training advisory services. So. why we ignore them. and the setting of targets and legal obligations for employers. they cannot const itut e the critical mass in organizations needed to ensure that all women. Young men also need to be increasingly prepared for understanding changing gender roles and the implications for their own professional. Equal access for young women and men to education. why discriminate them. teacher training. Young women need to be encouraged to take up studies in non-traditional subjects and in areas of future job growth. Until a sufficient number of women have the qualifications and skills required for moving into “men’s” jobs. This requires a multifaceted. In the case of lower cast we are depend on this class in tams of labour work so. In our Indian culture we are saying for women Ardhangini (half body). women should have equal access to continuous technical and professional upgrading so that they can compete for higher-level jobs later on. Once in a job. Yet gender-based study choices made by students. Every person have a responsibilities minimize the gap between man and women at work place. vocational training and on-the-job training is an essential prerequisite for women to obtain more highly skil led and better-paying jobs.From the whole discussion of glass ceiling we can say this problem is very hazardous for the society. NOTES . have the chance to advance. their families and employers will continue to be the norm unless special measures are taken to encourage different choices.
from ceiligs to cliffs http://www.hinduonnet.businessline.com www.com www.ilo.org http://www.thehindu.org APPENDIX .uno.Rfreneces Women in hierarchy.in ILO and glass ceiling http://www.
teacher and a saleswoman. family level most of the time. Indira Gandhi. The merger to the other top executive might have been seen as foresighted business strategy or her failure to uplift the HP brand value. which is male dominated and her efforts for the better business structure might have seen a lot of setbacks. i. worked as receptionist. the chairman and Chief Executive of Hewlett Packard Co. was fired yesterday. Although we can’t generalize the statement but women are found to be good managers at the root level. Something like glass ceiling is also quoted for the positions held by woman managers on the top. I had read a survey in a magazine. She joined HP in 1999 and later on masterminded merger of HP and Compaq.e. Here Lynch seems to be dissatisfied with the social/corporate structure. On the other instance Fiorina’s ability as a businesswoman has been exemplary. “As a woman. I would like to quote one thing more here. And the outcome was that most of the employees want their boss as a man. Surprisingly the majority of woman respondent too want man as boss rather than woman. Carlyn Fiorina. Although.A Women Executives and glass ceiling 1. But her decision was widely criticized including the founders of HP. Some years ago. Be it the human resource management or financial management. you just aren’t listened to – or trusted – as much as a man would be” quoted Christine Comaford Lynch. a venture capitalist who was a CEO too. 2. It has been said that the merger have showed detrimental effect in the brand value of HP along with it’s printer business. Due to her marketing ability she rose to the position of the powerful businesswoman of US. which showed the choice of employees for as their boss. she was also visualized as a dictator during the period . She is a school dropout. the former PM of India was said as she was the only man in her cabinet. The logic is not to collect sympathy for them but to find out the natural/unnatural tendencies which prevent them to the top.Appendix .
Leave the issue of exceptional love among them but this is the trend followed around the world. Clinton’s future seems an exception). The are example of Shobhana Bhartiya. Now look at the job profiles which are mostly gender specific. Simply judging them on the basis of sex will be unjust. In country like India the woman reservation bill never got passed. the nurses/air hostess can’t not replaced by male counter part. the family when formed let’s see what are the outcomes. The share prices jumped instantly after firing off Fiorina. Parmeshwar Godrej and many more in India and across globe as good managers. And as a cause/effect the man seeks the lower/equal level of thought/status/standard than him. The advocacy of giving them a chance is again the same thing. To each individual there are different levels of administrative abilities. But on reaching the top most height her each breath seems to be under scrutiny without any productivity but to make her tense as well as the business. The woman’s thought maturity is improved if compared to the male counterpart of the same age. The secretaries are mostly women. I don’t think it need be passed and reservation due to mercy will be again harmful and there is possibility that the less qualified woman politicians will jump into passive politics after anchoring some male counterpart. There are chances as well as opportunities that the women will raise to the great height with her capacities. In crude politics they take part in less number (Mrs. This kind of remarks or attitude towards women top most executive does suggest that the day is far away towards gender equality when it comes to administration or executive matter. Kiran Majumdar Shaw. Of course leg pulling must not be done. Why Indira Gandhi was called that she was the only man in her cabinet? Does that mean that only man has the right to rule the world and the executive ability is attached to a masculine personality? At the basic form of group or organization.of emergency. The woman when gets married she seeks a man with higher/equal level of thought/position/standard than her. But the stereotyped society (which comprises male and female both) will take long .
Women in power and decision-making .time to accept the glass ceiling and to solve the imbroglio over the top which is a result of all the stuff sucked at root level.
provide a particular challenge. Those institutions include parliaments. For example. . Qualitative data can enhance the understanding and analysis of quantitative data. The more subtle elements of human resource development. Statistics are now generally available on women’s participation in parliament and at the highest and most visible levels of decision-making in the public sector and. while microstudies enable exploration of gender issues not covered by mainstream sources. such as on-the-job training and mentoring. political parties. state and local governments. However.Monitoring women’s participation in decision-making in the public arena poses a challenge for statistical systems primarily because most of the relevant s data are held by decision-making institutions that do not normally compile and collate the information and are not formally required to report it. the Equal Opportunity Commission in the United Kingdom has noted the lack of a method to classify seniority so that women’s career progression (or the lack of it) can be compared with men’s. to a lesser extent. in the private sector. which contribute to access to positions of power and authority. data on women and men at the lower levels of decision -making. are often still not readily available in many countries. is not systematically compiled or disseminated. Even information on the number of women and men occupying highlevel decision-making positions within national statistical offices. which provide the career path to the higher levels. An additional difficulty has been the lack of data on lower levels of decision-making and on the processes that provide access to positions of power. One way to monitor such elements is through better and more extensive use of qualitative data. Monitoring those processes is essential for the development of intervention policies and programmes to overcome the exclusion of women early in their careers and thus have an impact on their access to the highest levels of decision-making. needed for monitoring the process of incorporating a gender perspective in statistics. microstudies and case studies. the private sector and non-governmental organizations.
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