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Distillation of Alcoholic Beverage (Formal Report)

Distillation of Alcoholic Beverage (Formal Report)

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ßIOORSANIC

CHEMISTRY

ßioOrqunic Chemistry - CH Z0b (Z010-Z011) E×periment ÞZ


Determination of the Percent Ethanol in White Castle Whisky
with the use of Simple and Fractional Distillation

Pamela S. de Leon, Manette C. Deielo*, James Benedict L. Doloian and Erik Joseph A. Gatdula
Department of Sports Science. College of Rehabilitation Sciences
Universitv of Santo Tomas. España Street. Manila 108

Date Submitted: August 27, 2010

-stract:

Distillation is the separation oI a liquid mixture into its components and on the basis oI diIIerent boiling
points. In this process, the mixture is heated slowly until the temperature reaches the point at which the most volatile
liquid boils oII. Volatility is the ease with which a liquid vaporizes. This results to a separation oI two or more
substances.

The set-ups oI this experiment are simple and Iractional distillation. Simple distillation is an easy set-up
where a solution with diIIerent volatility is separated through the presence oI heat. Vapors Iorm and pass through a
condenser. It changes its Iorm Irom gas to liquid. Fractional distillation is a process in which a Iractional column is
used in a distillation apparatus to separate components oI a liquid mixture that have diIIerent boiling points. The
vapor collected in the test tube is the distillate. Residue is the remains in the set-up that did not undergo the process
oI evaporation and condensation, Iound in the distilling Ilask.

Kevwords. Distillation. Jolatilitv. Japor pressure

ntroduction

Distillation is the separation oI a liquid mixture into its components on the basis oI
diIIerence in boiling points. In the experiment, simple distillation was used Ior the separation
oI the components oI the White Castle Whisky. Simple distillation reIers to the 'simple¨
separation oI a solid and a liquid by evaporating the liquid and collecting it aIter it passes
ßIOORSANIC
CHEMISTRY
through a condenser to be changed into a liquid state. Fractional distillation uses a method oI
continuous redistillation to separate mixtures oI liquids with similar boiling points. The
mixture is heated and the rising vapor passes up through a tall column packed with a material
having a high surIace area.

In this experiment, the group should be able to achieve the Iollowing obiectives: (1) to
separate the components oI alcoholic beverages using distillation, (2) to construct a
distillation curve, (3) to calculate the percent ethanol in the White Castle Whisky, and (4) to
compare eIIiciency oI simple and Iractional distillation in separating a liquid mixture.

2 ethodology

20 pieces oI 13 x 100 test tubes were calibrated to 0.5 mL. All the glass wares needed to
perIorm simple distillation were laid out. The apparatus Ior simple/Iractional distillation was
assembled.

igure 1. Simple Distillation Set-Up


igure 2. ractional Distillation Set-Up
The alcoholic beverage was obtained and the brand was recorded. 25 mL oI the
alcoholic beverage was placed on the 50 mL distilling Ilask, and 4 pieces oI boiling chips
were added. The water in the condenser was gently turned on. The distilling Ilask was
heated until the Iirst drop oI the distillate reached the receiver.

The temperature was recorded on the Iirst drop. The heat was adiusted to have a
rate oI 1-2 drops per second. Readings were taken aIter every 0.5 mL oI distillate
collected. The temperature versus the volume oI the distillate was recorded during the
entire distillation. The temperature oI the Iirst drop corresponds to zero volume.

The Ilammability oI each Iraction was checked. In order to do so, the watch glass
was used, and 5 drops oI the distillate oI each test tube were put on it. We used a match to
test iI the distillate would ignite. II the distillate ignites, then it is Ilammable. II it does
not ignite, it is inIlammable. The distillation was stopped when 1-2 mL remains in the
distilling Ilask. The boiling temperature (vertical axis) versus volume oI distillate
(horizontal axis) was graphed.

The percent ethanol in the White Castle Whisky was determined based on the
graph and the Ilammability test in both the simple and Iractional distillation processes.
The percent loss and percent error were then calculated. The Iollowing Iormulas were
used to determine the percent alcohol, percent loss, and percent error:

% ˓ˬco˨oˬ =
ˢoˬ˯˭˥ o˦ oˬco˨oˬ
ˢoˬ˯˭˥ o˦ so˭pˬ˥
×ŵŴŴ

% Ioss =
voI.o] SumpIc-(voI.o] ÐìstìIIutc+Rcmuìnìng voI.)
voIumc o] SumpIc
×ŵŴŴ

% ˗rror =
|ˠr˯˥ ˰oˬ˯˥ - ˗˲p˥r˩˭˥nˮoˬ ˰oˬ˯˥|
ˠr˯˥ ˰oˬ˯˥
100

#esults and Discussion

Sample: White Castle Whisky
Volume oI sample: 25 mL

Table 1. Results for Simple and ractional Distillation


Table 1 shows the results oI the boiling temperature and Ilammability test Ior both
the simple and Iractional distillation. In the Ilammability test Ior simple distillation, all oI
the distillates were Ilammable except Ior test tube #s 24 and 25. ThereIore, the volume oI
TEPE#TU#E (Ȑ FLLTY TEST
Test Tu-e # Vol (mL Simple Fractional Simple Fractional
1 0 78 64 ¹ ¹
1 0.50 78 73 ¹ ¹
2 1.00 78.5 72 ¹ ¹
3 1.50 80 74 ¹ ¹
4 2.00 80 76 ¹ ¹
5 2.50 81 77 ¹ ¹
6 3.00 81 77 ¹ ¹
7 3.50 80 77 ¹ ¹
8 4.00 81.5 74 ¹ ¹
9 4.50 81 75 ¹ ¹
10 5.00 81.5 75 ¹ ¹
11 5.50 80.5 77 ¹ ¹
12 6.00 81 78 ¹ ¹
13 6.50 81 81 ¹ ¹
14 7.00 82.5 84 ¹ ¹
15 7.50 84 85 ¹ ¹
16 8.00 85 87 ¹ ¹
17 8.50 86 84 ¹ ¹
18 9.00 86 NA ¹ NA
19 9.50 86.5 NA ¹ NA
20 10.00 90 NA ¹ NA
21 10.50 91 NA ¹ NA
22 11.00 94 NA ¹ NA
23 11.50 96 NA ¹ NA
24 12.00 97 NA - NA
25 12.50 98 NA - NA
the alcohol is 11.50 mL. In the Ilammability test Ior Iractional distillation, all oI the
distillates were Ilammable. ThereIore, the volume oI the alcohol is 8.50 mL.


igure 3. Temperature as a function of volume

Figure 3 shows the temperature as a Iunction oI volume Ior both simple and
Iractional distillation. In simple distillation, in the Iirst drop oI the Iirst test tube, with 0
mL, the temperature was 78Ȑ. When it reached 0.5 mL, the temperature still remained
78Ȑ. In test tube #2 with a volume oI 1.0 mL, the temperature was 78.5Ȑ. In test tube #3
with a volume oI 1.5 mL, the temperature was 80Ȑ. The temperature remained as we
moved to test tube #4 with a volume oI 2.0 mL. In test tube #5 with a volume oI 2.5 mL,
the temperature was 81Ȑ. The temperature remained as we moved to test tube #6 with a
volume oI 3.0 mL. In test tube #7 with a volume oI 3.5 mL, the temperature went back to
80Ȑ. In test tube #8 with a volume oI 4.0 mL, the temperature was 81.5Ȑ. In test tube #9
with a volume oI 4.5 mL, the temperature was 81Ȑ. In test tube #10 with a volume oI 5.0
mL, the temperature was 81.5Ȑ. In test tube #11 with a volume oI 5.5 mL, the
temperature was 80.5Ȑ. In test tube #12 with a volume oI 6.0 mL, the temperature was
81Ȑ. The temperature remained as we moved to test tube #13 with a volume oI 6.5 mL.
In test tube #14 with a volume oI 7.0 mL, the temperature was 82.5Ȑ. In test tube #15
with a volume oI 7.5 mL, the temperature was 84Ȑ. In test tube #16 with a volume oI 8.0
mL, the temperature was 85Ȑ. In test tube #17 with a volume oI 8.5 mL, the temperature
was 86Ȑ. The temperature remained as we moved to test tube #18 with a volume oI 9.0
mL. In test tube #19 with a volume oI 9.5 mL, the temperature was 86.5 Ȑ. In test tube
#20 with a volume oI 10.0 mL, the temperature was 90Ȑ. In test tube #21 with a volume
oI 10.5 mL, the temperature was 91Ȑ. In test tube #22 with a volume oI 11.0 mL, the
temperature was 94Ȑ. In test tube #23 with a volume oI 11.5 mL, the temperature was
96Ȑ. In test tube #24 with a volume oI 12.0 mL, the temperature was 97Ȑ. Lastly, in test
tube #25 with a volume oI 12.5 mL, the temperature was 98Ȑ.

In Iractional distillation, in the Iirst drop oI the Iirst test tube, with 0 mL, the
temperature was 64Ȑ. When it reached 0.5 mL, the temperature was 73Ȑ. In test tube #2
with a volume oI 1.0 mL, the temperature was 72Ȑ. In test tube #3 with a volume oI 1.5
mL, the temperature was 74Ȑ. In test tube #4 with a volume oI 2.0 mL, the temperature
was 76Ȑ. In test tube #5 with a volume oI 2.5 mL, the temperature was 77Ȑ. The
temperature remained in test tube #s 6 and 7 with a volume oI 3.0 mL and 3.5 mL
respectively. In test tube #8 with a volume oI 4.0 mL, the temperature went back to 74Ȑ.
In test tube #9 with a volume oI 4.5 mL, the temperature was 75Ȑ. The temperature
remained in test tube #10 with a volume oI 5.0 mL. In test tube #11 with a volume oI 5.5
mL, the temperature was 77Ȑ. In test tube #12 with a volume oI 6.0 mL, the temperature
was 78Ȑ. In test tube #13 with a volume oI 6.5 mL, the temperature was 81Ȑ. In test
tube #14 with a volume oI 7.0 mL, the temperature was 84Ȑ. In test tube #15 with a
volume oI 7.5 mL, the temperature was 85 Ȑ. In test tube #16 with a volume oI 8.0 mL,
the temperature was 87Ȑ. In test tube #17 with a volume oI 8.5 mL, the temperature was
84Ȑ.

Calculations Ior simple distillation:
%˓ˬco˨oˬ =
11.50 mL
25 mL
×ŵŴŴ
46º
%Ioss =
25 mL-(12.50 mL+13 mL)
25 mL
×ŵŴŴ
25.5º
ºError =
|34-46|
34
×ŵŴŴ
35.3º
Calculations Ior Iractional distillation:
%˓ˬco˨oˬ =
8.500 mL
25 mL
×ŵŴŴ
34º
%Ioss =
25 mL-(8.50 mL+11 mL)
25 mL
×ŵŴŴ
22º
ºError =
|34-35.3|
34
×ŵŴŴ
3.7º
In simple distillation, the percent alcohol oI White Castle Whisky is 46°. The
percent loss is 25.5°. The percent error is 35.3°. In Iractional distillation, the percent
alcohol oI White Castle Whisky is 34°. The percent loss is 22°. The percent error is 3.7°.
The possible reasons Ior error may be the Iollowing: (1) calibration oI 0.5 mL in test tubes,
(2) the room temperature that may have aIIected the readings oI the boiling temperature, (3)
counting oI the drops oI distillate, (4) distillate may have vaporized beIore testing Ior
Ilammability, and (5) accurate measurement oI the volume oI the residue.

Conclusion

Ethanol is without a doubt the most widely known alcohol. It is economically
signiIicant as an ingredient in alcoholic beverages. In the experiment, White Castle Whisky
was used to determine the percent ethanol through simple and Iractional distillation. Both the
simple and Iractional distillation evokes that the volume and temperature oI the distillate
collected are directly proportional. This means that when the volume increases, the
temperature increases.

Volatility is when a molecule oI the liquid gains suIIicient energy to break oII Irom
the surIace oI the liquid into the space. On the other hand, boiling point is the state in which
the molecules in a liquid have attained suIIicient energy to break the bonds within the liquid.
A volatile liquid will have a low boiling point. The partial pressure oI vapor molecules
above the surIace oI a liquid at equilibrium at a given temperature is the vapor pressure oI the
liquid at that temperature. Because the rate oI evaporation increases with increasing
temperature, vapor pressure oI liquids always increases as temperature increases. The higher
the vapor pressure oI a liquid is at a given temperature, the lower the normal boiling point oI
the liquid.

The Ilammability oI an ethanol is determined through the number oI chemical bonds
the hydrocarbon contains. In turn, it turns as a large energy potential. When it is lit by
another source oI energy, the bonds break rapidly and thus release energy in the Iorm oI heat.

Simple distillation is a process in which a liquid solution can be separated into
volatile and non-volatile components. But separation oI components is not very eIIicient by
this method. Repeated distillations may be avoided by Iractional distillation. Compounds
with similar boiling points, especially those that interact very strongly with one another, are
not eIIectively separated by simple distillation but require a modiIication, which is the
Iractional distillation.

cknowledgements

This experiment would not have been possible without the guide oI our lab
instructors, Mrs. Gelvero and Mr. Layco. I would like to thank my group mates, Pamela S. de
Leon, James Benedict L. Doloian, and Erik Joseph A. Gatdula, Ior being dedicated to the
experiment and showing a unity, cooperation, and team work. My classmates oI 2-Sports
Science were also a big help when my group was having trouble in conducting the
experiment.

6 #eferences

Whitten, K., Davis, R., Peck, M., & Stanley, G. (2007). Chemistrv (8
th
ed.).
Belmont, CA: Thomson Corporation.

Hein, M. & Arena, S. (2010). Introduction to chemistrv (13
th
ed.).
Louisiana: John Wiley & Sons.

Atkins, P. & Jones, L. (2010). Chemical principles. (13
th
ed.).
New York, USA: Clancy Marshall.

*Corresponding author (Deielo, Manette C.)

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