UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA KAMPUS PERLIS

Faculty Architecture, Planning and Surveying Department of Surveying Science and Geomatics Diploma in Geomatic Science ± AP 120

PROJECT REPORT COURSE COURSE CODE SEMESTER TITLE SUPERVISOR MARKS ENGINEERING SURVEYING 2 SUG 213 03 ROAD CURVE CIK MARYAM BT.ABDUL WAHAB

Group¶s Member:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ERHAM BIN MOHD ZAZLAN AHMAD NAIM BIN ABDULLAH MOHAMAD NUR NAJMI BIN MOHD NAJMUDDIN MUHAMAD AZID BIN ZAKARIA NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI AMRAN NOR SYAFURA BINT SAUED

2007112321 2007112269 2007112323 2007137919 2007112253 2007112261

Date of Submission: 11th APRIL 2009

Name ERHAM BIN MOHD ZAZLAN AHMAD NAIM BIN ABDULLAH MUHAMAD AZID BIN ZAKARIA MOHAMAD NUR NAJMI BIN MOHD NAJMUDDIN NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI AMRAN NOR SYAFURA BINTI SAUED

UiTM No 200711232 2007112269 2007137919 2007112323

Signature

2007112253

2007112261

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PREFACE.
We would like to express our greatest appreciation to all the people who have help one way or another in the report of circular curve in Engineering Surveying 2 subject. First of all, we would like to thank our lecturer Cik Maryam Bt Abdul Wahab for the contribution either directly or indirectly to complete this report such as lecture and practical on site even out of time earnestly. For sure without him we can¶t finish our report base on instruments application and measurement completely. Actually, we are facing for new experience that we were not imagined before. A special thanks to the Geomatic Science management staff for their support throughout using the instruments. Most of all we would like to thank all the members for their dedication and commitments in completing this report. This report involved many long hours of hard work, sleepless nights, and personal sacrifices. We are confident this report will be a valuables resource for the upcoming students to archive more knowledge about Levelling work. To all the group members, congratulation and thank you for a job well done.

Thank you.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PREFACE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 OBJECTIVE 3.0 SIMPLIFIED THEORY 4.0 EQUIPMENTS 5.0 PROCEDURE OF WORK 6.0 ANALYSIS 7.0 CONCLUSION 8.0 INDIVIDUAL COMMENT 9.0 REFERENCES

3 5 6 7 11 16 24 38 39 43 44 47

APPENDIX A (DIARY OF WORK) APPENDIX B (COMP. SHEET)

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1.0 INTRODUCTION.
Road curve is a one from another survey work in engineering surveying. This work includes levelling, traversing, long section, cross section and detailing. Two types of curve in engineering survey namely horizontal curve and vertical curve. Horizontal curve is to continue road with different direction. the purpose of horizontal curve is to deflect a vehicle travelling along one of the straight safely and comfortably through the angle to enable and to continue its journey along the other straight line. In horizontal curve is known as deflection angle and its name horizontal curve because all measurement in their design and construction is considered in the horizontal plane. This practical works consist of 3 main survey¶s works. Traversing, levelling and tacheometry. Each result has its tolerance to be acceptable and each works has its own way to be carried out. All the works to investigate the road curve.

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2.0 OBJECTIVE.
2.1 Levelling.  Establish a Temporary Bench Mark (TBM)  Learn how to book data and calculate it from the precise levelling instrument  To know the procedures of precise levelling  To get close with precise level  Refresh back how to determine the reduce level of the TBM by transferring the value from the Bench Mark (BM)

2.2 Traversing.  To apply concept whole to the part in this practical.  Propose for traversing survey is for surveying detail. A traverse network of survey line and ground marks provides control points refer the lot which can be accurately plotted in a plan. These details can be plotted as reference to the plotted traverse lines and stations.  To learn about law to process traverse to find lot refer cadastral surveying.  After we finish this practical with successfully we can learnt to process traversing data and can plot the traverse.

2.3 Solar Observation.  To determine true bearings and true azimuths for the datum  To find m correction for the traverse.  To prove the position of the traverse. . 2.3 Detailing  Determine the reduce level and location every details.  To get view about permanent details around the survey area such as building, drain, tree and etc. 6

3.0 SIMPLIFIED THEORY.
3.1 Traverse Latitude Departure = Distance cos Bearing = Distance cos Bearing

Linear misclose = 

Latitudes misclose

= North latitudes - South latitudes

Departures Misclose = East departures - west departures Adjusted latitudes = 

   



Adjusted departures = Final coordinate 



= N/S/E/W + adjusted

3.2 Levelling y Levelling is the based on the horizontal line of the instrument (level) with the level line of the point on the earth. y y The difference between two points is the heights of the point itself. The level is an optical instrument that provides a height reference. This reference is a horizontal plane through the axis of the telescope; know as the ³Height of Collimation´. Once the height of collimation (or instrument height) has been measured, the height of other station can be found by measuring from this plane with a staff. The height of collimation is found by taking a back sight to a staff place on a bench mark. The staff reading is added to the bench mark value to obtain the height of collimation. Once the height of collimation has been found, ground height at any spot below this plane can be found by observing the staff and subtracting the staff reading from the height of collimation. The test that we

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undertake in order to determine the amount of error and then eliminate it from our measurement is known as the two peg test. If the level is in perfect adjustment (Hb ± Ha) = (Hd ± Hc). However, it usual that there is a difference between the true and appearance heights and since this has been measured over a distance of L m the collimation error for the level is given by:-

y

Error = (Hb ± Ha) ± (Hd ± Hc) L If the collimation error is found to be less that about 0.001m, the level is assumed to be in adjustment. If the collimation error is found to be greater than about 0.001m, the level has to be adjusted

y

3.3 Tacheometry. y All total station will measure a slope distance, zenith angle recorded by the theodolite along the line of sight to calculate the horizontal distance. y y Horizontal and vertical distance can be obtained without any calculation. Data obtained will be recorded any processed in computer.

Reduced level can be calculated by:RLt = RLi + Hi + V ± T V = L Sin

y

Error & Accuracy i. Errors in Tacheometry Surveying.  Instrumental Errors  Field Errors. ii. Accuracy of Tacheometry  The overall accuracy expected for distance measurement is 1 in 500.  The best possible accuracy is only 1 in 1000.

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3.3.1 Longitudinal section. y for long section the origin of the graph is at the left-hand side with levels being plotted vertically and chainages horizontally y scales Hz=same as the road layout Vt = exaggerated 3.3.2 Cross section y for cross section the point where the center line meet the cross section is taken as the origin y distances from center line to points where the levels were taken are plotted horizontally to the left and right of the origin with the levels being plotted vertically y scales Hz=exaggerated Vt= exaggerated

3.4 Composite curve 4.4.1 Transition Curve and circular Curve Transition curve is one type of the Horizontal curve that have varying radius. y Transition curve can be use to improve the safety and comfort of passengers in vehicles when we traveling around horizontal curves. y We should be aware of the limitations of circulars curves due to the centrifugal force that act on vehicles as we travel along the curves. y Transition curve can be use to introduce these forces gradually and uniformly, so it will increase the safety for passengers in the vehicles. y In other words, transition curves produce a gradual change when we get into straight line to a circular curve and then we go out from circular curves to a straight line back. These also call a composite curve

y

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DIAGRAM 4.1

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4.0 EQUIPMENTS.
1) Total station  Display data for tacheometric such as distance and bearing.  Picture:

2) Tripod.  Fix and make temporary adjustment for level instrument, total station and prism.  Picture:

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3) Prism  Used for reflect the electromagnetic wave from EDM to get distance reading.  Picture:

4) Tape  Measured height instrument, height target and prism pole  Picture:

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5) Mini prism  Reflecting the EDM waves to get a slope distance to details.  Picture:

6) Mini pole.  Fixed a mini prism and located to details, long section and cross section.  picture:

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7) Level Instrument  Observe a staff reading along collimation line.  Picture :

8) Staff  Measured a height from ground level to coolimation line.  Picture :

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9) Staff Bubble  Make sure the staff in upright condition while observation.  Picture :

10) Sun Glass 11) Used with theodolite during the solar observation.  Used with total station the solar observation.  Helps to reduce the sun light through the eye.  Picture :

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5.0 PROCEDURE OF WORKS. To do this practical, there are 3 types of survey works that we had to apply to find the road¶s curvature. There are: I. II. III. IV. Levelling Traverse Solar Observation Tacheometry

I. Levelling. 1) Establish three points on the ground surface along the road curve. 2) Mark two points as point B and C and between the two points mark one point as A. (DIAGRAM 5.2) 3) The distance from point A-B and point A-C is 50 meters and above. Make point A as the Temporary Bench Mark (TBM) for the point B and C by Fly Levelling from the bench mark to the point A. 4) The level instrument is set up, read the levelling staff at point A as a TBM which it is the back sight and its reduce level is known. 5) Turn the level instrument to take front sight staff reading at point B (CP1). 6) Moved the instrument forward and make a temporary adjustment. 7) Take the reading from staff at point B as a back sight for new instrument position. 8) Take the staff reading point C as a front sight. 9) Transfer the instrument forward and take back sight and front sight reading until close to another known reduce level point such as TBM, SBM or BM. 10) After finished finding the reduce level for the three points, all the traverse stations or points must be measure to get the reduce level for each station, the method is still the same.

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DIAGRAM 5.1

C > 50 m B

> 50 m Road Curve

A

DIAGRAM 5.2

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II. Traversing. 1) First, set the instrument on station 1 and do the temporary adjustments. 2) A prism is placed into the tribrach and clamped in positions. 3) Using the certified plan the datum can be determined, it is shot from station 2 to 1 for the forward bearing and all the data that had been taken is in bearing. 4) After that, set up a total station and start work from station 2 to station 1 these stations become as the back bearing. Station 2 to 3 became as forward bearing. 5) At the station 2 hold the value that get from the last observation, after that, release hold and take a reading then write in a form both result, face left and face right. 6) This method continued the same for each station until the traverse close .

From the diagram 1.3, a total station is set at the station 2 and station 2 and station 3 also located the prism. Stations 2-1 become as back bearing and stations 2-3 become as forward bearing.

DIAGRAM 5.3

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III. Solar Observation.

1) Make the R.O station by used a peg on the R.O station. 2) Then by using prismatic compass, assumed the bearing of the R.O or take the bearing from Certified Plan from instrument station. 3) Set up the theodolite at the instrument station. 4) The bearing from the instrument station to the R.O is inserting into the theodolite. (DIAGRAM 5.4) 5) Then the observer will search the sun and when the sun is get through from the theodolite at left cross hair, take down the time, horizontal, and the vertical bearing. Make sure that sun flitter is put on the telescope.(DIAGRAM 5.5) 6) Step of 5 are repeated in 1minute interval time for first set while for change to second set are in 2 minute interval time. The procedure is ended by turn back the telescope to the R.O. (DIAGRAM 5.6)

SUN

THEODOLITE TRIPOD

GROUND

DIAGRAM 5.4

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DIAGRAM 5.5

DIAGRAM 5.6

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IV. Tacheometry.

1) Produce the traverse at survey site and determine the coordinate of all traverse stations. 2) Applied the reduce level (RL) at every traverse stations with fly levelling survey. 3) Make a temporary adjustment for total station at station 1 which the RL and coordinate is known. 4) Measured the height of total station (hi) and mini prism pole (hp). 5) Set horizontal bearing to the RO station. 6) Located mini prism at details around the observed station. 7) Open the bearing to the mini prism. 8) Record the horizontal bearing, vertical angle, slope distance and the mini prism height at every detail taken. 9) After all details was taken, transfer the total station to another station and measured the instrument height. 10) Record all data for all details taken at every stations traverse until all details in survey area are recorded. 11) Besides detailing, there are Cross Sections and Longitudinal Sections. 12) For the long sect. there are 5 chainages for each sides B-C and B-A. 13) The distances between the chainages at least 10 meters. 14) The chainages must be straight on the line between the 3 points. 15) And for the cross sect. each long sect. will have at least 5 chainages to the right and to the left. The ten chainages on the straight line must be 90 degree from the long. Sect. 16) Cross sect. crossing the long sect in the both side.

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DIAGRAM 5.7

1

CH 01

CH 02

CH 03

CH 04

CH 05

2

DIAGRAM 5.8

22

2

1

DIAGRAM 5.9

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6.0 ANALYSIS AND PLOTTING. 6.1 LEVELLING 6.1.1 RL station 5. Back Sight 1.781 2.210 1.915 1.130 2.390 1.075 0.656 1.035 0.664 3.010 0.532 0.951 1.256 0.315 0.725 2.950 0.484 1.091 0.825 1.100 2.410 1.079 1.899 2.501 1.995 1.251 0.005 1.111 1.969 1.044 0.646 1.299 0.250 0.444 1.375 0.415 1.466 1.485 1.035 Intermediate sight Fore sight Rise Fall Reduce Level 15.811 17.277 18.172 17.727 18.373 19.672 19.922 19.478 18.103 17.688 18.799 16.830 15.786 15.791 Distance Remarks

BM(15.811) c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p Stn 5 c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p BM(15.811)

18.605 (18.625) -0.02

(18.625)

6.262 (6.282) -0.02

(6.282)

15.791 15.811 -0.02

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6.1.1.1 Analysis and plotting.

BM Observed value Misclosure

= 15.811 = 15.791 = Observed value - BM = 15.791 ± 15.811 = -0.02m (20mm)

Based on number of instrument positions No.of instrument position, n = Allowable Misclosure, E = = = 13 ± 12mm¥n ± 12¥13 43.267mm (0.043267)

y

Misclosure more than E, levelling work is acceptable.

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6.1.1.2 Adjustment of misclosure station 5. Back Sight 1.781 2.210 1.915 1.130 2.390 1.075 0.656 1.035 0.664 3.010 0.532 0.951 1.256 0.315 0.725 2.950 0.484 1.091 0.825 1.100 2.410 1.079 1.899 2.501 1.995 1.251 Intermediate sight Fore sight Reduce Level 15.811 17.277 18.172 17.727 18.373 19.672 19.922 19.478 18.103 17.688 18.799 16.830 15.786 15.791 0.0015 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.018 0.02 17.279 18.175 17.732 18.379 19.680 19.931 19.489 18.115 17.702 18.814 16.847 15.804 15.811 +/- e (adj) Adj Reduced level Remarks

BM(15.811) c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p Stn 5 c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p c.p BM(15.811)

Correction = misclose N = -0.02 13 = -0.0015

N is a no. instruments position

+ e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading < BM @ TBM value. ± e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading > BM @ TBM value.  The adjustment of reduce level (RL) we can get when we (±) with the reduce level (RL).

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6.1.2 RL Station 4. Back sight 2.088 0.610 0.593 2.100 1.495 1.490 Intermediate Sight Fore Sight Rise Fall Reduced Level 19.931 21.426 19.936 distance remarks

Stn 5(19.931) Stn 4 Stn 5(19.931)

2.698 (2.693) 0.005

(2.693)

1.495 (1.490) 0.005

(1.490)

19.936 19.931 0.005

7.1.2.1 Analysis and plotting. Stn5 Observed value Misclosure = 19.931 = 19.936 = Observed value - BM = 19.936 ± 19.931 = 0.005m (5mm) Based on number of instrument positions No. of instrument position, n = Allowable Misclosure, E = = = 2 ± 12mm¥n ± 12¥2 ± 16mm (0.016m)

y

Misclosure more than E, levelling work is acceptable

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6.1.2.2 Adjustment misclosure of station 4. Back sight 2.088 0.610 0.593 2.100 Intermediate Sight Fore sight Reduced level 19.931 21.426 19.936 -0.0025 -0.005 21.424 19.931 +/- e (adj) Adj Reduced level remarks

Stn 5(19.931) Stn 4 Stn 5(19.931)

Correction = misclose N = 0.005 2 = 0.0025

N is a no. instruments position

+ e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading < BM @ TBM value. ± e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading > BM @ TBM value. The adjustment of reduce level (RL) we can get when we (±) with the reduce level (RL).

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6.1.3 RL Station 3. Back Sight 2.109 2.150 0.454 0.595 0.474 0.483 2.121 2.223 1.635 1.667 1.667 1.628 Intermediate sight Fore sight Rise Fall Reduce Level 21.424 23.059 24.726 23.059 21.431 Distance Remarks

Stn 4(21.424) Cp Stn 3 Cp Stn 4(21.424)

5.308 (5.301) 0.007

(5.301)

3.302 (3.295) 0.007

(3.295)

21.431 (21.424) 0.007

7.1.3.1 Analysis and plotting.

Point 2/stn3 Observed value Misclosure

= 21.424 = 21.431 = Observed value - BM = 21.431 ± 21.424 = 0.007m (7mm)

Based on number of instrument positions No. of instrument position, n = Allowable Misclosure, E = = = 4 ± 12mm¥n ± 12¥4 ± 24mm (0.024m)

y

Misclosure more than E, levelling work is acceptable

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6.1.3.2 Adjustment misclosure station 3. Back Sight 2.109 2.150 0.454 0.595 0.474 0.483 2.121 2.223 Intermediate sight Fore sight Reduce Level 21.424 23.059 24.726 23.059 21.431 -0.0018 -0.0036 -0.0054 -0.007 23.057 24.722 23.054 21.424 +/- e (adj) Adj reduced level Remarks

Stn 4(21.424) Cp Stn 3 Cp Stn 4(21.424)

Correction = misclose N = 0.007 4 = -0.0018

N is a no. instruments position

+ e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading < BM @ TBM value. ± e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading > BM @ TBM value. The adjustment of reduce level (RL) we can get when we (±) with the reduce level (RL).

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6.1.4 RL every station Back Sight 1.734 2.091 1.970 1.775 2.048 0.862 0.285 1.614 0.339 0.526 1.420 1.135 0.141 0.933 0.308 1.755 1.315 0.505 2.168 2.063 1.109 1.829 1.537 0.314 0.956 1.829 0.842 1.740 0.893 1.030 Intermediate sight Fore sight Rise Fall Reduce Level 19.931 20.245 21.201 23.030 23.872 25.612 24.719 23.689 24.798 22.969 21.432 Distance Remarks

Stn 5(19.931) Stn 6 Stn 7 Cp Cp Stn 8 Stn 3 Stn 2 Stn1 Cp Stn 4(21.424)

13.244 (11.743) 1.501

11.743

6.790 (5.289) 1.501

5.289

21.423 (19.922) 1.501

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6.1.4.1 Analysis and plotting.

Stn 4 Observed value Misclosure

= 21.417 = 21.423 = Observed value - BM = 21.423 ± 21.417 = 0.006m (6mm)

Based on number of instrument positions No.of instrument position, n = Allowable Misclosure, E = = = 10 ± 12mm¥n ± 12¥10 ± 37mm (0.037m)

y

Misclosure more than E, levelling work is acceptable

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6.1.4.2 Adjustment misclosure another station. Back Sight 1.734 2.091 1.970 1.775 2.048 0.862 0.285 1.614 0.339 0.526 1.420 1.135 0.141 0.933 0.308 1.755 1.315 0.505 2.168 2.063 Intermediate sight Fore sight Reduce Level 19.922 20.236 21.192 23.021 23.863 25.603 24.710 23.680 24.789 22.960 21.423 -0.0006 -0.00067 -0.00075 -0.00085 -0.001 -0.0012 -0.0015 -0.002 -0.003 -0.006 20.235 21.091 23.020 23.862 25.602 24.709 23.679 24.787 22.957 21.417 +/- e (adj) Adj reduced level Remarks

Stn 5(19.922) Stn 6 Stn 7 Cp Cp Stn 8 Stn 3 Stn 2 Stn1 Cp Stn 4(21.417)

Correction = misclose N = 0.006 10 = 0.0006m

N is a no. instruments position

+ e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading < BM @ TBM value. ± e (adj) when initial RL of the last reading > BM @ TBM value. The adjustment of reduce level (RL) we can get when we (±) with the reduce level (RL).

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6.2 TRAVERSE
Bearing / Angle Station Face Left Datum drpd Garisan Face Right PA 2-1 Average 160 04 15 Station 2 Final Bearing Station 1 From Line To Finale Distance

1

160 04 15

340 04 15

48 00 43 C - 1´

47 56 30

29.480

2
3 48 00 40 228 00 45

M ± 4¶5´

2

228 00 45

48 00 45

247 9 43 C ± 2´

247 5 30

53.574

3
4 279 09 40 67 09 45

M ± 4¶5´

3

67 09 45

247 09 45

195 40 43 C ± 3´

195 36 20 Azimuth dgn Matahari

54.748

4
5 195 40 40 15 40 45

M ± 4¶5´

4

15 40 45

195 40 45

341 27 10 C ± 4´

341 12 46

34.130

5
6 341 27 10 161 27 10

M ± 4¶5´

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Bearing / Angle Station Face Left 5 161 27 10 Face Right 341 27 10 Average 28 41 00 C ± 5´ 7 28 40 55 208 41 05 M ± 4¶5´

From Station

Line Final Bearing 28 36 30

To Station

Final Distance 45.110

6

6

208 41 00

28 41 00

79 49 28 C ± 6´

79 45 00

64.045

7
8 79 49 30 259 49 25

M ± 4¶5´

7

259 49 28

79 49 28

199 02 00 C ± 7´

198 57 20

63.073

8
1 199 02 00 19 02 00

M ± 4¶5´

8

19 02 00

199 02 00

340 04 23 C ± 8´

339 59 40

32.129

1
2 340 04 20 160 04 25

M ± 4¶5´

Garisan 1-2 Sepatut Tikaian Pembetulan

dibaca dibaca

340 04 23 340 04 15 -8´ -1´ bagi Dalam 8 Setiap Stesen melalui stesen stesen 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8&1

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6.2.1 Traverse analysis S t n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 47 56 40 247 05 40 195 36 40 341 13 00 28 36 50 79 45 10 198 57 50 340 00 10 29.480 53.574 54.748 34.130 45.110 64.045 63.073 32.129 19.747 -20.852 -52.728 32.312 39.601 11.393 -59.650 30.192 21.889 -49.350 -14.733 -10.990 21.603 63.023 -20.497 -10.987 19.748 -20.850 -52.736 32.313 39.603 11.396 -59.647 30.193 21.886 -49.356 -14.739 -10.994 21.598 63.016 -20.504 -10.990 Adj. Latit Adj. Depart

Bearing

Distance

Latit

Depart

N/S

E/W

53483.726 53503.472 53482.618 53429.887 53462.198 53501.797 53513.188 53453.535 53483.726

-39939.592 -39917.700 -39967.044 -39981.771 -39992.757 -39971.148 -39908.118 -39928.608 -39939.592

Linear Misclose = 1 : 

= 1 : = 1 : 8437.312  

The traverse¶s linear Misclose is over the tolerance, 1:8000. So the traverse is acceptable.

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6.3 TACHEOMETRY. 7.3.1 Detailing, Cross Section & Longitudinal Section Result. See in Appendix 2.

y

6.4 SOLAR OBSERVATION. See in Appendix 2.

y

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7. CONCLUSION. All the data that had been received was processed to get the shape, the height and the position of the curves on the plan. To get the best result, its mean to do well in levelling, detailing, traversing, solar observation, longitudinal and cross sectioning. This practical just like tacheometry, varieties elements are needed to build a plan of the road curvatures. The plan is consists of every characteristics of the curves, the coordinates, and the reduce level. The output of the project is like a certified plan, the plan that shows the road¶s curvature. All the data, levelling and traversing is acceptable under and over the tolerances. A lot of things we had learned in this practical form the beginning until the end.

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8. INDIVIDUAL COMMENT.

Assalamualaikum, First of all, I would like to give a special thanks to Miss Mariam, who always helps us to conduct this practical. Many things that I have learn in this practical. In this practical, it has connection with practical last semester. First method that we use in this practical is precise levelling method. In order to know the high of the TBM (temporary branch marks), we use this method to transfer RL (Reduce Level) from the SBM (Standards Branch marks) to TBM. After that, we transfer the RL of the TBM to every station of the traverse. Then, we do long section and cross section along 3 stations that we have been marks before we do levelling. Lastly, all detailing must be taken in the traverse including the curve of the road. In order to get the right direction, the solar observation must be taken to know the true bearing. In this practical we do solar observation in station 5 and the result is ±4¶ 5´ from the original bearing. After all, I would like to conclude that road curve practical is quite difficult than any other practical work. It needs to do with patient and hard work from all members. To end, I¶m glad that we have finished this practical work and I would like to thanks to all people who helped us.

AHMAD NAIM BIN ABDULLAH 2007112269

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Firstly, I want to say thank you to my lecture Miss Maryam Bt. Abdul Wahab because teach us how to do this road curve practical with right procedure. This practical is about to making curve at the road so that student familiar with this work and know the procedure how to make the curve when they working as engineering surveying someday. The curve is actually want to deflect a vehicle travelling along straight way and comfortably through the angle so it will enable to continue its journey safely along other straight line or way. After doing this practical I know the cooperation between group member is to important in this practical. Everybody in the group must doing the practical works because with that they can more learning and understanding more detail about the curve. Thanks to my group because give cooperation in this group and changing knowledge with me about this practical. There has a problem too when doing the practical especially with the instruments. The instruments that my group gets sometimes are damaged and need to calibrate. But however my group at last can finish this practical successfully after through many challenge to finish it. That¶s all my comments for this practical in this semester. I hope I can take more knowledge in other practical for the next semester. Thank you.

MOHAMAD NUR NAJMI BIN MOHD NAJMUDDIN 2007112323

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In this practical, I and member group done the second practical work and do report about road curve. Thanks for Miss Maryam for her guide and teaching me and member when we are doing the practical. In practical I learn new knowledge about procedure work for road curve. Firstly, the place my group had does practical at nearest Parking Dewan Baru. Three points had been marked along road curve and the distance must be 50m for point 1 to point 2 and 50m for point 2 to point 3. After that, we do levelling. We start levelling with value BM(R0300) is 15.811 and we measure the value RL for three points. My group not used precise level instrument because the instrument had something error when we used and for minimize time. After that, we do the closed traverse include the road. The misclosure is .after we finish the traverse we do the solar observation for determine the azimuth. Long section and cross section we do after finish the traverse and the data we apply using CDS software. Lastly, we do the detailing survey include the traverse area. The details we measure so lot and we take lot time do the work. Finally, Me and my group member work together and cooperate to finish this practical and report with successfully. MUHAMAD AZID BIN ZAKARIA 2007137919 Assalamualaikum, Thanks, to Miss Maryam for her guidance in this difficult field works ever for me, and also all the group members. Curve is one of the characteristic of the road, there are somethings that make curve is difference from the other ordinary road. Its shape, is the most different things, This practical is focus on doing a plan for the curves, where inside the plan we can know the reduce level, shapes and coordinates. To produce the plan, the basics surveys works is needed. The error is the usual things happen in the survey works.

NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI AMRAN 2007112253

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Assalamualaikum, A very much thank you to my lecturers, Cik Maryam, my friends and all the group members for their supports. Road curves, is the surveying engineering field work assessment. Consists of varieties surveys procedures. The main thing in the practical is to produce a complete plan about the road curves. The plan with all the elements of the curves inside it. We had learn something new in the practical that will be add to our experiences. NOR SYAFURA BINTI SAUED 2007112261 Assalamualaikum, Nothing new inside this field works practical, traversing, leveling and detailing are the basic surveys works we had learn from the semester 2. Even though we had passed the previous engineering surveying, there are a lot of obstacles we had faced. Sometimes the things we just understand from the theory is coming out into the reality. As example when the level instrument can¶t reach the leveling staff from the point on the highest land. After being told by Miss Maryam then we realize, the things we had always learn about levels. Proceed the leveling works step by step, in a small distances where the instrument level can reach the leveling staff. To be frank, we had redo our traverse about twice times, because for the first time, we had made a traverse without entering the road inside it, after several consultancy with my other classmates, there we knows that, the traverse must includes the the road, boundary marks (to define the coordinates) and the three curve points (to be the temporary benchmark). And so the new traverse had been made with the 3 importants things inside it. From the practical we had learn more about the previous topics and also a new topics, and at the end we had created the curve plan by using all the information we have from the practical ERHAM BIN MOHAMED ZAZLAN 2007112321.

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9. REFERENCES. y y y Surveying for engineers ; 4th Edition ; J.Uren and W.F.Price Surveying for engineers ; 3rd edition ; J.Uren and W.F.Price Asas Ukur Kejuruteraan ; Ab. Hamid Mohamed ; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

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APPENDIX A DIARY OF WORK

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Date
20th January 2009 (Tuesday)

Events
Briefing about Road Curves Visit and planning on the site

Remarks
In front UPELS &

y y

T-junction to the Sports Complex. T-junction to the Sports Complex.

3rd February 2009 (Tuesday)

y Establish the 3 points at curves

10th February 2009 (Tuesday)

y Divide into 2 groups levelling & traversing group.

T-junction to the Sports Complex. Padang Rani T-junction to the Sports Complex. Padang Rani T-junction to the Sports Complex.

17th February 2009 (Tuesday)

y Divide into 2 groups levelling & traversing group.

24th February 2009 (Tuesday)

y Divide into 2 groups levelling & traversing group.

3rd Mac 2009 (Tuesday)

y Traversing

T-junction to the Sports Complex.

17th Mac 2009 (Tuesday)

y Solar Observation

T-junction to the Sports Complex.

24th Mac 2009 (Tuesday)

y 2nd Traversing

T-junction to the Sports Complex.

31st Mac 2009 (Tuesday)

y Solar Observation

T-junction to the Sports Complex.

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y

For detailing and Cross Section and Longitudinal Section we did in the weekend.

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APPENDIX B COMP. SHEET

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