In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun -- for example, "He's a silly young fool," or "she
's a smart, energetic woman." When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. This page will explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them.
The basic types of adjectives Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material
An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples: large, tiny, enormous, little An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples: ancient, new, young, old A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples: square, round, flat, rectangular A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples: blue, pink, reddish, grey An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples: wooden, metal, cotton, paper A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with "-ing". Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), roasting (as in "roasting tin")
Some examples of adjective order
Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose
a silly a a huge small young round red English metal man bowl sleeping bag
When you are sure that you understand the topic, you can click on "First exercise" below to continue.
Type the correct noun phrase, putting the adjectives in order. 1. round / small / reading / lamp 2. German / old / yellow / car 3. wooden / huge / sailing / ship 4. physics / boring / old / teacher 5. slim / Canadian / handsome / snowboarder 6. sugar / blue / round / bowl
Choose the correct answer.
Q1 - I bought a pair of _____ shoes. black leather leather black
Q2 - It was a ____ car. red fast fast red
Q3 - It's a ____ building. big round Q4 - I bought ____ knife. a Swiss army Q5 - It's ____ film. a beautiful old Q6 - He's ____ man. an unfriendly rich Q7 - It's ____ phone. a mobile expensive Q8 - It's ____ village. an old lovely a lovely old an expensive mobile a rich unfriendly an old beautiful an army Swiss round big
American.g. location. method of operation.The ____ visitors were Japanese. cloth. two last last two
Q10 . many and several 4) determiners such as fewer.It's a ____ house. possessive adjectives e. wet f) adjectives indicating age e. blue. interesting d) adjectives indicating temperature e. what and which 3) cardinal numbers e. excited. warm e) adjectives indicating humidity e. any. demonstrative adjectives e.g. her. and certain other determiners such as another. less. and and the. both and half 2) determiners including the articles a. light c) participles and other adjectives e. barrel-shaped. damp.It's ____ company a family old an old family an American popular new nice
Q14 . my. there are several types of general descriptive adjective. fewest. and those. cold. his. and certain other determiners such as few.It's a ____ restaurant. no.It's ____ airline. hot. cheap good good cheap
As indicated below.He's got ____ eyes. the order of different types of general descriptive adjective is more flexible than the order of other types of attributive adjective. white 7) adjectives indicating materials e.g.
. these.g. which often occur in a certain order. two. each.Q9 . enough.g.g. However. nice new Q12 . every. least. clever. new. this. some. one. Victorian 9) defining adjectives. leather. our and their. large. that. long. neither. young g) adjectives indicating shape e. Usual Order of Attributive Adjectives 1) certain determiners such as all. either. usually indicating purpose. often in the following order: a) adjectives indicating size e. round. grey. blue big big blue
Q11 .g.g.g. three.g. metal 8) proper adjectives e. narrow b) adjectives indicating weight e.g. square 6) adjectives indicating color e. dry. more and most 5) general descriptive adjectives.g. heavy. six-month-old. a popular American Q13 .g.
efficient method an efficient. the adjective alert.time or categories of people ii. cold water cold.g. General descriptive adjectives c) Participles and other general descriptive adjectives which do not fall into any of the other categories usually follow adjectives indicating size and weight. e. the adjective new is emphasized. hard ice It should be noted that the position of attributive adjectives indicating age may be altered to change the emphasis.g. new method In the first example. age and shape is not as predictable as the order of other attributive adjectives. curved stick. For instance. and the participles twittering and excited are underlined. a new. old stick] d) to g) The order of adjectives indicating temperature. clear. numbers usually go before adjectives. adjectives indicating temperature occur sometimes before and sometimes after general descriptive adjectives such as clear and hard. In the second example. a curved. and precede other types of attributive adjective. alert black cats eleven tiny. The Articles — a. richest man
. humidity. twittering birds many excited children [EX: an old. next and last go before one.g. e.
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the tall professor the lugubrious lieutenant a solid commitment a month's pay a six-year-old child the unhappiest. two large. the adjective efficient is emphasized. three : EX: six large eggs EX: the second big shock EX: the first three days
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. an. and the — are adjectives. two. In the following examples. First. e.
of the heated calf-skin bindings.
Position of Adjectives
Unlike Adverbs. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth. the cherry scent. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee. one general note about the use — or over-use — of adjectives: Adjectives are frail. inside a farmer's covered wagon. don't ask them to do more work than they should. are always "postpositive" (coming after the thing they modify):
. Let your broad-shouldered verbs and nouns do the hard work of description. Be particularly cautious in your use of adjectives that don't have much to say in the first place: interesting. beautiful. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. 1929. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name — like "East India Tea House — are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns — father's. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets. the resulting modifier becomes an Adjective Phrase: He is the man who is keeping my family in the poorhouse.) When indefinite pronouns — such as something. exciting. they appear in a set order according to category. and when they do. of the brown tired autumn earth. of a bakery-oven in the wind. and the robes. verb forms acting as adjectives. bitter-sweet. of cantaloupe and crated peaches. you're convincing no one. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October. of the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth. in combination with certain words. Angel. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. of honey-suckle at night. farmer's — are not technically adjectives. anybody — are modified by an adjective. (Charles Scribner's. the cool clarion earth. If an adjective clause is stripped of its subject and verb. with the gaping horse-hair rent. of the smooth worn leather sofa. It is your job as a writer to create beauty and excitement and interest. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Consider the uses of modifiers in this adjectivally rich paragraph from Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward. of warm nasturtiums. (See Below. of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter. stuck with a red flag. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. He remembered yet the East India Tea House at the Fair. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco. before a fire of coals. long closed. of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter. And there are certain adjectives that. is an engineer.If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective. the sandalwood. An abundance of adjectives like this would be uncommon in contemporary prose. and when you simply insist on its presence without showing it to your reader — well. the wet loaminess of the garden. and the scent of orange rind. of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored. eggs. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. someone. Before getting into other usage considerations. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. the turbans.) Adjectives are highlighted in this color. but we've included them in our analysis of Wolfe's text. Something wicked this way comes. He knew the good male smell of his father's sitting-room. My sister. lovely. in July. it is called an Adjective Clause. p. who is much older than I am. the adjective comes after the pronoun: Anyone capable of doing something horrible to someone nice should be punished. are highlighted in this blue. which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. Whether we have lost something or not is left up to you. participles. 69. and milk.
the note on a.adjectives. below. aghast. See. and someone can have a fuller figure. for instance — although it probably is possible to form comparative forms of most adjectives: something can be more perfect.
The degrees of comparison are known as the positive. for the position of such words as "ablaze. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. otherwise we use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable. only the comparative and superlative show degrees. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives. and Sadie is the richest woman in town. lives in New York proper.
. aloof. although we need -ier and -iest when a twosyllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest)."
Degrees of Adjectives
Adjectives can express degrees of modification:
Gladys is a rich woman. heir apparent to the Glitzy fortune.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. the comparative. (Actually. Positive rich lovely beautiful Comparative richer lovelier more beautiful Superlative richest loveliest most beautiful
Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees: Irregular Comparative and Superlative Forms good bad little much many some far better worse less more further best worst least most furthest
Be careful not to form comparatives or superlatives of adjectives which already express an extreme of comparison — unique. People who argue that one woman cannot be more pregnant than another have never been ninemonths pregnant with twins.The president elect. also. but Josie is richer than Gladys. and the superlative.
Copyright 1995 by Bryan A. now. Be careful..oup-usa. He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town. "complete" is one of those adjectives that does not admit of comparative degrees.
• • • •
We were a lot more careful this time. single words and phrases. The as — as construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality:
He is as foolish as he is large. and used with the gracious consent of Oxford University Press. Other adjectives that Garner would include in this list are as follows: absolute adequate chief complete devoid entire fatal final ideal impossible inevitable irrevocable main manifest minor paramount perpetual preferable principal stationary sufficient unanimous unavoidable unbroken unique universal whole
From The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Styleby Bryan Garner. www.g.
Premodifiers with Degrees of Adjectives
Both adverbs and adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by premodifiers. saying something like "less adequate" or "more preferable" or "less fatal"). "more nearly complete." I am sure that I have not been consistent in my application of this principle in the Guide (I can hear myself. Published by Oxford University Press. Inc.
The same process can be used to downplay the degree:
. She is as bright as her mother.. Garner. do not write that something is more heavier or most heaviest). also. however.Grammar's Response
According to Bryan Garner.org. We like his work so much better. You'll get your watch back all the faster. not to use more along with a comparative adjective formed with -er nor to use most along with a superlative adjective formed with -est (e. We could say. that intensify the degree.
however. is used for this purpose:
He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected. Of the two brothers. it's possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures. England. the better. howev argue that the word "than" should be allowed to function as a preposition. We do. He's less than six feet tall.• •
The weather this week has been somewhat better. a determiner is also required:
She is wearing her very finest outfit for the interview.
Less versus Fewer
When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer an Generally. "taller than I/she" or than me/her. If we can say "He is tall like me/h
If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative. "am" or "is.
Authority for this section: A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. when we're talking about me quantities that we cannot count. 1993.
And sometimes a set phrase. They're doing the very best they can. the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood:
• • •
Of all the wines produced in Connecticut. we' up to you. "She had fewer chores. definitely use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions:
• • • • •
It's less than twenty miles to Dallas. we use the word fewer." The correct response is "taller than I/she. Longman Group: Essex. The quicker you finish this project. That's a heck of a lot better. I like this one the most." managers at our local Stop & Shop seem to have mastered this: they've changed the signs at the so-called ex lanes from "Twelve Items or Less" to "Twelve Items or Fewer. usually an informal noun phrase. when we're talking about countable things. The town spent less than four percent of its budget on snow removal. Used with permission. We spent less than forty dollars on our trip. but she also had less energy. we use the word less.
Taller than I / me ??
When making a comparison with "than" do we end with a subject form or object form." We are looking for the subject form: "He is taller t am/she is tall.
In these situations.") Some good writers." (Except we leave out the verb in the second clause." Whether that's an actual improvement. He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does. he is by far the faster. Your essay should be a thousand words or less.
" In England.g."
The Order of Adjectives in a Series
It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say "little brown house" and not "brown little house" or why we say "red Italian sports car" and not "Italian red sports car. American.g.. a real hero. often regarded as part of the noun (e. See Determiners Observation — postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e. round) Age — adjectives denoting age (e. time. in the U. old.g. there is no such distinction. woolen." The "she" would mean tha like this person better than she likes him. or height: "His sister forty.. a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e. IV. For instance. passenger car. book cover)
THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Determiner Observation Size Physical Description Shape Age Color Origin Material Qualifier
. Ev U.")
More than / over ??
In the United States. you will commonly hear "over" in numerical expressions of age. "He is taller than me/her.S. VIII.. interesting) Size and Shape — adjectives subject to objective measure (e. wooden) Qualifier — final limiter. VII. wealthy. because the order often seems quite arbitrary (if not downright capricious). French." whereas in the UK.g. however. III. academic prose. "over 40. V. rocking chair. metallic.. we could write "I like him better than does" or "I like him better than I like her.
We also want to be careful in a sentence such as "I like him better than she/her. the "her" would mean that you like this male person better than yo that female person. black. large. we usually use "more than" in countable numerical expressions meaning "in excess of "over.g. VI. Determiners — articles and other limiters. II. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive.g.. however.then (if "than" could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say." It's an interesting argument. young. We've been waiting well over two hours for her.000 traffic deaths" would be acceptable. some editors would insist on "mo 40. she's over six feet tall.g. There is.. beautiful.000 traffic deaths in one year. pale) Origin — denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e. Canadian) Material — denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e. red. but it is definitely important to learn the pattern of adjective order if it is not part of what you naturally bring to the language. anyway — in formal. ancient) Color — adjectives denoting color (e. a pattern...g.. but — for now. use the subject form in such comparisons. You will find many exceptions to the pattern in the table below. Most other languages dictate a similar order.S.. but not necessarily the same order. new. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: I. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. hunting cabin." The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language.
a Faulknerian style. comfortable shoes.
Capitalizing Proper Adjectives
When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. and you will want to put a comma between them: the inexpensive.
It would be folly. Jeffersonian democracy. French fries." so we would use a comma between them (when the "but" isn't there). and good looking student See the section on Commas for additional help in punctuating coordinated adjectives. If you click HERE. of course. it should probably be capitalized. to run more than two or three (at the most) adjectives together. which you can print out on a regular piece of paper. We could say these are "inexpensive but comfortable shoes. they become what we call coordinated adjectives. We stayed there until the town's annual Fall Festival of Small Appliances. See the section on Capitalization for further help on this matter. when adjectives belong to the same class. Directional and seasonal adjectives are not capitalized unless they're part of a title: We took the northwest route during the spring thaw. a Renaissance/Romantic/Victorian poet (but a contemporary novelist and medieval writer).
. separate them all with commas.a an four her our those that several some
beautiful expensive gorgeous longstemmed short big square dilapidated delicious little enormous
old antique red black old
Italian silver silk
mirror roses hair
English wooden hat hunting
sheep cabin food
This chart is probably too wide to print on a standard piece of paper. the English Parliament. The rule for inserting the comma works this way: if you could have inserted a conjunction — and or but — between the two adjectives. respected. you will get a one-page duplicate of this chart. use a comma. Furthermore. Some periods of time have taken on the status of proper adjectives: the Nixon era. When you have three coordinated adjectives. Thus we write about Christian music. the Ming Dynasty. but don't insert a comma between the last adjective and the noun (in spite of the temptation to do so because you often pause there): a popular.
However. It's probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already a negative: "He is less unlucky than his brother. this is my least favorite show. the opposite of prudent is imprudent. is to find an adjective to mean the opposite — an antonym. The opposite of beautiful is ugly. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. for instance. there is no contest: when modifying a verb. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. A thesaurus can help you find an appropriate opposite. the dear departed. use the adverb. the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people." than it is to say that "This is the ugliest city in the state. the rich.When the definite article. One way. the homeless. the oppressed.) A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet be "less worthy of consideration" than another candidate. He swims well. With most verbs." although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. The difference between a Collective Noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb:
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The rural poor have been ignored by the media. you will have to consult a dictionary. the unwashed. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. the opposite of tall is short. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. the unlettered. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. It is kinder to say that "This is the least beautiful city in the state. the gathered. Of all the new sitcoms. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. you want to use th
. The meaning itself can be tricky. the opposite of being properly filed is misfiled. the lonely. as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. of course. The elderly are beginning to demand their rights." (It also has a slightly different meaning. the. The rich of Connecticut are responsible. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. He knows only too well who the murderer is. the opposite of honorable is dishonorable.
The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. the opposite of alcoholic is nonalcoholic. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the well.
My mother is less patient than my father. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix).
Some Adjectival Problem Children Good versus Well
In both casual speech and formal writing. A third means for creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction.
will use well after linking verbs relating to health. including your professor). an empty-headed fool. We were excited by the lion-tamer. We were amused by the clowns. Review the section on Possessives for a distinction between possessive forms and "adjectival labels. can be troublesome for some students. Do you want to go up to your professor after class and say that you are confused or that you are confusing? Generally.
. thank you. The -ed ending modifiers are often accompanied by prepositions (these are not the only choices):
• • • • • • • • • • •
We were amazed at all the circus animals. The -ing ending means that the noun described has a more active role — you are not making any sense so you are confusing (to others." (Do you belong to a Writers Club or a Writers' Club?) Adjectives that are really Participles. the presentation) has bewildered you and you are confused. You felt bad.
Other Adjectival Considerations
Review the section on Compound Nouns and Modifiers for the formation of modifiers created when words are connected: a four-year-old child. We were confused by the noise. this room doesn't look good. We were exhausted from all the excitement. it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. the -ed ending means that the noun so described ("you") has a passive relationship with something — something (the subject matter. the baby smells so good. We were excited about the high-wire act.adjective instead. It is one thing to be a frightened child. thank you. We were disappointed by the motorcycle daredevils. If yo felt badly. We were embarrassed by my brother. Many careful writers. a nineteenth-century novel. We were disappointed in their performance. and this is perfectly all ri fact. use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. however. did you feel bad or badly? Applying the same rule that good versus well. it is an altogether different matter to be a frightening child."
Bad versus Badly
When your cat died (assuming you loved your cat). We were bored by the ringmaster. too. "How are you?" "I am well. How are you? I'm feeling good. Even after my careful paint job. After a bath. verb forms with -ing and -ed endings. We were annoyed by the elephants. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you're OK physically but al your spirits are high.
afloat. asleep. are themselves modified: the nearly awake student. alone. We were irritated by the heat. The trees were ablaze.
A. when found before the word they modify. aghast. We were surprised at their indifference.adjectives are sometimes modified by "very much": very much afraid. however. We were shocked at the level of noise under the big tent. We were surprised by the fans' response. they come after a linking verb). averse. We were tired of all the lights after a while. We were opposed to leaving early. the aloof physician. etc. And a.• • • • • • • • • • •
We were frightened by the lions.
The most common of the so-called a. you will find a. We were satisfied with the circus.
• • •
The children were ashamed. We were worried about the traffic leaving the parking lot. however. The professor remained aloof. afraid. Most of them.adjectives before the word they modify: the alert patient. aware. We were interested in the tent. very much alone. there are problems! The ORDER of adjectives is quite important in English. the terribly alone scholar. There is an order of adjectives that native speakers of English normally follow. These adjectives will primarily show up as predicate adjectives (i. alert. The list below shows how the order of adjectives is usually presented. there are exceptions and different combinations depending on the situation.adjectives are ablaze.
. awake. We were introduced to the ringmaster. ashamed. aloof. Recognizing Adjectives How's that? Are there any problems? YES.. alike. very much ashamed.e.
Therefore.OPINION APPEARANCE AGE COLOR ORIGIN MATERIAL good bad beautiful ugly smart dumb usually follows this order: size/measure big small high low shape round circular square condition broken cracked ripped fresh rotten new red antique purple old pink young dark two.
.green year. blue. new. This is a three-years-old car. new. This is a three-year-old car. when the adjective contains a number and noun. It helps the reader/listener form a picture in his/her mind. European car. Adding adjectives is very important if you want to make your writing more interesting. European car. blue. which of these two sentences is more descriptive and interesting? Which draws a picture in the reader's mind? 1 2 I want to buy a car. the noun associated with the number is singular. we can put all four adjectives together to get the following sentence: I want to buy a beautiful. -ORI want to buy a beautiful.navy old* blue Korean iron Chinese brass French cotton Italian gold American wooden vegetable
*Adjectives are never plural. CORRECT INCORRECT
Using the above list. For example.
2. exhausting) 3. OPINION CONDITION SIZE AGE COLOUR ORIGIN MATERIAL NOUN Order the words in the boxes.
*exhausting refers to opinion
3.net/previous. animal bones. Use it to answer the questions which follow. Be sure to write them in the correct order.html. gray) 2.
*prehistoric refers to age
Word Order for Adjectives Exercise at Auto-English
Below you can see a diagram explaining the position of adjectives before a noun. Rewrite the sentences using the adjectives in blue. These are delicious. Alice prefers furniture. huge. leather furniture. Italian.Of course the second sentence is more descriptive and interesting. If you would like to learn more ways to make your writing interesting. please see our other lessons on this topic. Aunt Betty wants a square. chocolate chip cookies!
*chocolate chip refers to a material used to make the cookies
4. prehistoric. Archeologists get very excited when they find bones. prehistoric) 1. huge) 4. The king took a trip. The king took an exhausting. (leather. gray. black) 5. 2-week trip. These are cookies! (chocolate chip. delicious. large. stone coffee table. (animal. Italian. Just go to http://www. (stone. 5.
Directions: Look at the following sentences and adjectives. (2-week.
my teacher old maths smelly 1 ___________________________________ 8
new a perfect system ___________________________________
. Aunt Betty wants a coffee table. Archeologists get very excited when they find large. 1.MyEnglishTeacher. The reader can see the car in his/her mind. square. Alice prefers black.
black small box Turkish a old 2 ___________________________________ 9 man a fat friendly young 3 ___________________________________ 10 tall our headmaster boring 4 ___________________________________ wooden dark a table long 5 ___________________________________ cit y 6 a Spanish beautiful old 13 ___________________________________ arts nice teacher French our 7 ___________________________________ 14 12 11
18th century a Scottish fantastic castle ___________________________________ horribl e
___________________________________ a big old brown bear ___________________________________ student self-righteous a middle-class ___________________________________ spoilt boy nasty a little ___________________________________
green-eyed gorgeous black-haired a girl ___________________________________
Word Order for Adjectives Exercise answers
OPINION CONDITION SIZE AGE COLOUR ORIGIN MATERIAL NOUN
1 M y s m e ll y o l d m a t h s t e a c h e r
my teacher old maths smelly
8 a perfect new system
new a perfect system
9 a fantastic 18th century Scottish castle
18th century a Scottish fantastic castle
10 a horrible greedy businessman
a business horrible greedy
11 a big old brown bear
a big old brown bear
12 a self-righteous middle-class student
student selfrighteous a middleclass
a nasty spoilt little boy
spoilt bo nasty a little y
2 a small old black Turkish box
black small bo Turkis a old x h
14 a gorgeous black-haired green-eyed girl
greeneyed gorgeou black-haired a girl s
3 a friendly fat young man
man a fat friendly young
4 our boring tall headmaster
tall ou headmaster boring r
5 a long dark wooden table
wooden dar a table long k
a beautiful old Spanish city
cit a Spanish beautiful old y
7 our nice French arts teacher
arts nice teacher ou Frenc r h
CILL Home A .Z Index
Colour e. square. including adjectives. they. hers. Age e. Size. irregular 5. your. off-white. fun. narrow. adolescent. triangular. Determiner or article Determiners e. e. taller. red.g. so you should use the following order: 1. circular.g. hexagonal. long. tall.a. mine. e.g. longest volume. yellow. white. ancient 6. teenage. black. young. cute. Opinion adjective e. 5-sided. black and white. e. Sam's .g. widest length. fattest 4. green. reddish brown. e. an. bright green. my.g. grey. orange. fat. these. tallest width. Shape e. huge. the 2. their. his. wider. old.g. slim. There are rules. low. pale blue. warm yellow
. him. that. purple.g. new. middle-aged. difficult. blue. or Articles . polite. light blue. longer. this. thin. short. fatter. dark red. oval. those. her. hard-working 3.Dictionary Exercises Grammar Help Listening Pronunciation Reading Search CILL Sitemap Speaking Vocabulary What's New Writing ELC Home
Adjectives cannot be written in any order. short. high. wide. comparatives and superlatives height.g.g. yours.
The noun that the adjectives are describing. e. This helps you to remember the article 'A' or the determiner(s).g. paper. 16. Noun used as an adjective e.
. ceramic. curving. although these are not discussed on this page. silk 10. Buddhist. Now imagine that you walk around your home. and you are greeted by someone who lives there. Imagine that you arrive at the door of your home. Hong Kong. Moslem. Canadian. pagan. nearly circular. 14. and imagining walking through it. adjective(s) and noun(s) make a 'noun phrase'. This helps you to remember the opinion adjective. 'my beautiful.g. or long? This helps you to remember the size adjectives. 12. Chinese. pink. e. Style: Although it is possible to write a sentence that uses all the categories. Taoist. campus (as in 'campus activities') 11. my Mother's. Move on to another object. towards your room. plastic. such as your home. and can also have relative clauses.g.7.g. 15. American. wood. Noun phrases can also have adverbs describing the adjectives. This involves remembering a place that you know well.g. e. 17.g. western.g. long. new. Imagine that you go into your home and you see an object. e. looking at things. On the door is the letter 'A'. Material e. and is in western Christian style. Think of the age of that object. Imagine that you are happy to see each other. Religion e. small. this time a colourful one.g. 13. Sentence structure: Together the article or determiner. English. Christian. Think of another object further from the door. silk wedding dress'. Christian. e. it is bad style as it is too long. metal. Nationality e. atheist 9. Remember the shape of the object. Japanese 8. Therefore you could say "Have you seen my beautiful new cream silk wedding dress? It's long and curving. Remember what colour it is. Imagine the size of your home: is it big." How to remember the order You can use the 'Roman room' memorisation technique. new or old.g. Try to use less than five adjectives in a single list.
Move on to another object. 20.g. a picture of somewhere in China. Short but specific headings are needed. then do the activity.
E-mail: Inbox To: From: Date: Subject: All members of staff Jennifer Ranford <j. ‘Message from Mary’. this time a religious one. and the first is a noun. Instructions: Read the guidelines below. e. or a souvenir from a holiday abroad. 2. This should be special because it is made of one material. Next imagine moving to another object.g. Maybe you have a place for worshipping your ancestors. or a statue of Buddha. Imagine that this is the end of your journey around your flat. These headings are common in messages containing viruses. This is to help you remember nationality. Finally move to a place where there is an object that is described with 2 words. e. This object should remind you of a foreign place. e. 2348X
.com> 10 May 2010 E-mail Writing Guidelines
Please note and follow the guidelines below concerning the writing of company e-mail messages. 19. e. 1. a crystal ornament or a wooden statue.
Correct the order of the adjectives and nouns in the following sentences.ranford@firm. 21.g.g. Order No. Subjects Give the message a subject/title.18. Subject contents Keep the subject short and clear but avoid such headings as: ‘Good News’. ‘Hello’. a book shelf. then click the 'See Answer' buttons to see the correct noun phrases: Aim: This page is to help you write good e-mail messages. E-mail messages without a subject may not be opened because of a fear of viruses and especially note that it is very easy to forget to type this important information. Next move to another object.
Endings End the message in a polite way. Names Include your name at the end of the message. 0385915d@polyu..doc' is good. it would be safer (particularly in the first communication) to use the person’s surname/family name together with a title.g. Subordinates should use expressions such as 'Could you. then the use of the other name would be appropriate.hk Please follow these guidelines with all e-mail messages that you send. e.'. Attachments Make sure you refer.g.g. e. make sure the file name describes the content.edu.g. try not to use them.doc' is bad. I will send a messenger to your office on Tuesday morning to collect the faulty goods. 7. Please let me have your order by the beginning of the month. Best wishes e.'. or if you are in doubt. e... If you use an attachment.. Dear Ms Stringer. If the receiver is more senior to you. If you did not put a comma after the greeting at the beginning of the message.g. then do not put a comma after the ending either.g. 'Please.. Best wishes. The choice of using the other name versus the surname will depend on who you are writing to. Give full details in the following paragraph(s).Delayed Shipment Laboratory Equipment Order 3. It is most annoying to receive an email which does not include the name of the sender. Common endings are: Yours sincerely. e. It is also becoming quite common to write the greeting without a comma. Best regards. 5. Dear Mr Smithson. but 'QA Report 2010. Greetings Start the message with a greeting so as to help create a friendly but business-like tone. Make sure that the final paragraph indicates what should happen next. and is not too general. The problem is that often the email address of the sender does not indicate exactly who it is from. using politeness phrases. Superior staff should also use polite phrases. e. Regards 8. in the main message. Purpose Start with a clear indication of what the message is about in the first paragraph. Copyand-paste text-only contents into the body of the e-mail.g. unless you are sending complicated documents. Dear KK 4.g.' or ' I would be grateful if. Action Any action that you want the reader to do should be clearly described.. for example.g. Regards.
. 'message. 6. If you have communicated with the receiver previously and he/she is at a similar level to you. to any attachments you are adding and of course make extra sure that you remember to include the attachment(s). As attachments can transmit viruses. e. e. Dear Miss Lawson e.
Thank you. It would be rude to use the wrong
. then press the 'Send' button. for example boss to employee and employee to boss. that 'Jen' and 'Jenny' are short for 'Jennifer'. As I am a new member of staff. I wonder if you could help me with one aspect of e-mails: English names. << To: From: Date: Subject: E-mail: Compose Jennifer Ranford <j.com> 10 May 2010
Thank you for your message about how to write e-mails. I am confused about short forms of English names. Some staff call me 'Bill'.Kind regards Jennifer Ranford Human Resources Manager
Instructions: Choose the best options from the drop-down boxes below. are shown in writing. it is very helpful to know our company style. I include a list of names that I am not sure about.ranford@firm.
Attachments: Aims: this exercise is to help you understand how different statuses in a company. I know. for example.
What are the examples of informal language in the e-mail? [See Answer] << Link to the previous exercise. what procedure do we need to follow? Could you please get back to me before next week's Senior Management meeting on Monday. What are the current regulations regarding smoking in the workplace? 2.language.com
Monday. Which parts of the text that indicate this? [See Answer] . What are other companies like ours doing re.CivilandCivic. b. a. when talking to someone of higher status than you. Sally has done this. d.CivilandCivic. 17 May 2010. If we can. Do you think Sally is senior.
. Cheers Sally a. specifically: 1. Why has Sally used numbered points in this e-mail? [See Answer] . 10 May 2010
David I'd like you to look into the health and safety issues relating to smoking in the company's office. Can we introduce a ban on smoking in this company? b. boss to employee language. on Formality in Memos E-MAIL
From: To: Date: Re: S. Instructions: Read the e-mail and then answer the questions:
Questions a. Sally is senior to David. Why? [See Answer] . e.Choi@customserv. smoking? 3. junior or approximately equal to David? [See Answer] . c. Although it is not necessary for names to be included in an e-mail (since they are written at the top).com D_Suen@personnel. for example.
Language to Show Status
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