Dyaus' Legacy

J. Richter

Fig. 1: The Kylver runestone depicting the Iuþark

A Quest for the Origin of Religion

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Joannes Richter

Dyaus' Legacy
A Quest for the Origin of Religion

Published by Lulu
-2010-

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© 2010 by Joannes Richter Published by Lulu www.lulu.com All Rights Reserved ISBN: xxx-x-xxxx-xxxx-x

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Contents
1 Introduction............................................................................7 2 Summary................................................................................8 3 Archaic Rites and Symbolism..............................................10 4 Cup and ring marks..............................................................13 5 The Yoni-symbol..................................................................17 6 The bipolar Lingam-Yoni symbolism..................................19 7 Bipolar Names (from 840 BC).............................................24 8 Bipolar Garments (~450 BC)...............................................38 9 Bi-faced sculptures (124 BC)...............................................42 10 Etymology (868 AD)..........................................................45 11 Medieval Codices (1100)...................................................47 12 Illuminated Manuscripts (1175).........................................48 13 Royal Garments (from 1189).............................................52 14 The English Royal arms (1340).........................................55 15 Oil Paintings (1510)...........................................................56 16 Flags (from 1572)..............................................................58 17 Philosophic Bipolar Symbols ............................................61 18 Religious Education (1954)...............................................69 19 Modern Art (from 1956)....................................................71

List of Figures and Photographs
Fig. 1: The Kylver runestone depicting the Iuþark....................1 Fig. 2: Comparing head-to-head-positions..............................12 Fig. 3: 'Stone of the Wheels', Louro, Galicia...........................15 Fig. 4: A stone yoni .................................................................17 Fig. 5: Linga-Yoni at the Cat Tien sanctuary,..........................19 Fig. 6: The Mesha-Stele...........................................................24 5

Fig. 7: Bifaced Janus as a Coin................................................29 Fig. 8: The Older Fuþark (Wikipedia)....................................31 Fig. 9: The Kylver runestone from Sweden (400AD).............32 Fig. 10: The Kylver runestone depicting the Iuþark................32 Fig. 11: Marcomannic Runes...................................................34 Fig. 12: Double-Hermes found at Roquepertuse.....................42 Fig. 13: Bifaced statue found at Holzgerlingen.......................43 Fig. 14: Male figure at Boa Island (east side)..........................44 Fig. 15: Winchester Bible, fol.120v. - Second Kings (detail). .48 Fig. 16: Tombs of Henry & Eleonora at Fontevrault...............52 Fig. 17: Louis VIII (1223-1226)..............................................53 Fig. 18: Royal Arms of England 1340-1367 ...........................55 Fig. 19: Fountain at Eden.........................................................56 Fig. 20: The Kingfisher............................................................58 Fig. 21: The Prince's Flag........................................................59 Fig. 22: German Maypole (2008)............................................63 Fig. 23: Rosarium Philosophorum, Prague..............................66 Fig. 24: 15-starred Flag at Fort McHenry (1814)....................68 Fig. 25: Adam (red) and Eve (blue).........................................69 Fig. 26: After the Fall of Man the couple is purple .................70 Fig. 27: Androgynous face by Marc Chagall...........................71

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1 Introduction
It took some years to identify all the details and traces leading me to the common sources of all religions. Obviously religion started as a fertility cult, needed to stabilize and control human population. This manuscript documents the process of religious evolution by comparing ancient artefacts and artwork with modern symbolism. Born and raised as a Catholic I felt the need to investigate the possibility for the roots which may have been uniting several peoples, which feel themselves as opposite strangers, although they must have been brothers and sisters a long time ago... Only a few deteriorated details have been conserved from early religions. Still this manuscript aims to deliver a complete chronological step-by-step derivation of the religious evolution of my ancestors. Some religions started as “pagan” cults and evolved to modern religious organisations. Other religions keep their symbolism intact and help us to identify the ideas our ancestors may have lost or abandoned. This essay will not completely describe the evolution of religions, but instead concentrates on the roots, some of which still may be identified in the more modern versions of the ancient Church. This of course is my personal view of my ancestors' religion, which may be shared by an unknown number of fellow men. Please enjoy the idea of a common basis of ancient symbolism, which may have survived a great number of millennia...

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2 Summary
Analysis of early religions starts by identifying the Cup Marks, Pillars and Circles as divine symbols, inherited from the Stone Age. The burial positions have to be considered as equivalent religious symbols representing the bipolarity of the genders. The Cups, Pillars and Rings have been transformed into alphabetic letters U, I and O, which symbolize divine, bipolar elements, which may be compared to the ancient yoni and lingam symbols. A letter “þ” which still is being used in the modern Icelandic alphabet has been identified as a joined symbol for U and I. The letters U and I have been used as the personal pronouns, which have been identified as the most important words of any language. The three most prominent and principal letters for the Germanic alphabet (Futhark) have been identified as divine symbols I, U and “þ” The principal letters for the Kylver alphabet are (in that order) I, U, Th, A, R, K, which would rename Futhark in Iuthfark or IUþark . The principal element is a male symbol I, the second letter is a female U and the third letter is a joined symbol “þ” . I, U, O and “þ” are the most prominent letters in the divine names IU-piter, IHVH, Tuisco and other divine names like Theos, Dios, Dio, etcetera. These deities have been represented by bipolar symbols (bi-faced sculptures and red & blue garments). 8

From Aaron's garments the colours red, blue and purple may be identified as divine symbols, representing male, female and androgynous elements. The Church later developed the idea of a negative female element, representing Eve and symbolized by the colour blue, which had to be eliminated from the altar. Ancient Roman emperors (Caesar and Nero) and medieval royals preferred purple, respectively red, white, blue garments in order to identify themselves as legal followers of God respectively of Aaron and the other high priests. Hieronymos Bosch has been one of the last artists, who depicted red & blue objects as divine symbols. The common knowledge for this symbolism may have been lost at the end of the Middle Age. After the Middle Age the bipolar divine symbols have been saved in the freemasonry in the Rosicrucian circles, in pagan symbols (such as the Maypoles), without being understood as basic religious elements. Red & blue colours are still being found as religious symbols in recent lessons of religious education (1954) and in a great number of flags and coats-of-arms. These bipolar symbols probably represent some of the oldest religious elements, which have been inherited from our ancestors. For their respectful age they should be worth to be understood as precious ideas ...

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3 Archaic Rites and Symbolism
Engraved Sculptures
As soon as the ancient human species started spreading over the world they early peoples felt the need to avoid the tribe's decay and to secure their fertility. Stability in life included fertility and both had to be protected by rites and rules, which needed graphical support from any available kind of (graphical etymological and poetic) symbolism. Some peoples were wealthy and felt themselves enabled to erect large monuments in marble and stone, others had to be satisfied by simply scribbling graffiti at the trees or at the walls of the caves they used for ceremonies. Others pondered over rebirth and a life after death, which must have lead to the introduction of funeral ceremonies. Europe has been covered with a great number of cups and circles, which easily may be misinterpreted as simple decorations. These symbols however are too many to be meaningless and to understand our ancestors' religion we will need a closer look to these artworks.

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Burial Positions
In Europe archaic graves frequently male and female adults will often be found buried in gender-specific positions. In Eulau a couple has been identified with their heads oriented face-to-face1. Funeral rites developed rules for the orientation of male burials and opposite orientations for female burials. Although the polarisation varied from location to location the gender for the buried bodies could be identified by comparison of the polar orientation of the corpses2.

Fig 1. Palaeolithic Androgynous sculpture of two human (male and female) beings joined together at the neck Source: Institute for Ice Ages Studies

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The grave found at Eulau has been discovered 2005 and is estimated 4600 years old. 2: See The Sky-God Dyaeus for more details

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Both the Kurgan period (4th Millenium b. C.) and the "Corded Ware culture"-period (2880 b. C.-2000 b. C.) buried their women left sided and their men right sided as mirrored images, both facing towards the east. Generally the buried bodies are located to face the dawn's position and/or the sun. Facing the east and the south may refer to contacting the divine sun and the sun's birth at dawn.

Fig. 2: Comparing head-to-head-positions These positions are equivalent to the small sculpture in ivory of mammoth cm 14.8 high found in a Palaeolithic site (evolved Gravettian, about 21,800 years ago) at Gagarino3, Ukraine. In this sculpture two full-bodied human beings have been joined together by the neck. A similar androgynous head-tohead-position has been found at the grave of Sungir (near Moscow).

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Visit the source at: Institute for Ice Ages Studies

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4 Cup and ring marks
Cup and ring marks or cup marks are a form of prehistoric art found mainly in Atlantic Europe (Northern England, Scotland, Ireland, Brittany , Portugal and Galicia (North West Spain) and Mediterranean Europe (North West Italy, Thessalia Central Greece, Switzerland) although similar forms are also found throughout the world including Mexico, Brazil, Greece, and India, where the oldest cup marks so far recorded are to be found in the Paeleolithic cave shelter site of Chattan. Cup marks consist of a concave depression, no more than a few centimetres across, pecked into a rock surface and often surrounded by concentric circles also etched into the stone. Sometimes a linear channel called a gutter leads out from the middle. A comparison of several cup and ring structures reveals a large range for cups, stones and pits. Large cup and ring petroglyphs have been found at the 'Laxe das Rodas', Galicia, where hundreds of stations are known. Eventually even the Stonehenge circles may be represent a special form of Cup and ring marks. There is no special need to build a prehistoric calender system with exact circular rings. Sometimes the Cup and ring marks reveal a special circular outer ring of holes at regular intervals, which have been punched as a sort of border line around, and may be compared to the ring of stones around Stonehenge. No correlation has been derived from these numbers of punched holes. I tried to find a rule for these numbers. In Stonehenge these numbers have been chosen to define the exact angles for the sunrises at the solstices, which may result in angles, which may vary depending on the calender's location. 13

Name Carrowmore (Ireland) 17m Diameter 34 stones

Laxe das Rodas (Spain) 75 cm Diameter 48 cups Stonehenge (England) 3100 BC, 50-100 m Diamater 56 Aubrey-holes 30 pits Y-holes 29 pits Z-holes

Table 1: Cup and ring marks There is no obvious correlation to these numbers and there is no systematic relation between the henge and the cup marks.

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Channels
Some of the cup and ring structures reveal a channel to remove an overflow of fluids passed into the cup. These overflows may be identified in the following wheel at Louro, Galicia.

Fig. 3: 'Stone of the Wheels', Louro, Galicia

Cup and ring petroglyph at the 'Laxe das Rodas' ('Stone of the Wheels'), Louro, Galicia. Published by Froaringus Altered by jwr1947 (added lines) Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. I inserted additional lines into the graphics in order to calculate the number of segments.

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The celebrity of one of these rocks induces us to transcribe a short account of it from the pages of Mr. George Tate's pamphlet, " Ancient Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland." He says : "The great stone at Routing Lynn4, though not the first discovered, may be first described, as it is nearly the most northerly in situation, and contains the largest number and greatest variety of inscriptions. It is situated on the edge of wild dreary moor lands, about midway between Doddington and Ford, by the side of a burn, which tumbles over a sandstone cliff some thirty feet in height, into the Lynn (Celtic) a pool at its base. The meaning of the name is pretty well ascertained Routing (from rout a) means to bellow ; and is applied both in Northumberland, and in Scotland to the bellowing of cattle. When the burn is swollen with the rainfall from the hills, it becomes a torrent ; and falling over the cliff into the Lynn, with a loud noise like the routing or bellowing of cattle, it is called the Routing Lynn.” When the burn is swollen with the rainfall from the hills, it becomes a torrent, falling over the cliff with a loud noise. This may very well correspond to a fertility rite in ancient eras. The channel is supposed to conduct the fluids in a fertility ceremony. There is correlation between the Cup marks and the yonisculptures which may be found in the Far East. Let's now investigate this correlation.

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A great number of photographed inscriptions may be analysed at the web-site Roughting Linn - Cup and Ring Marks

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5 The Yoni-symbol
Yoni (Sanskrit: य न yoni) is the Sanskrit word for female genitalia, the source of all life.

Fig. 4: A stone yoni
A stone yoni with carved Nāga in Jawi temple, East Java, Indonesia. (Candi Jawi, Prigen, Pasuruan, Jawa Timur), photographed by ESCapade licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

In fact the stone is quite similar to the European Cup and ring marks by revealing a central hole, a channel and a border line to enclose the fluids. In contrast to the ancient Cup marks the religious ceremonies for these yoni-sculptures are well known.

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Worship5
In Shaktism the yoni is celebrated and worshiped during an annual fertility festival held in June, in Assam, India, which celebrates the Earth's menstruation. During the annual menstruation course of the Goddess Kamakhya is worshiped in the Kamakhya Temple. The temple stays closed for three days and then reopens to receive pilgrims and worshipers. It is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in the world, attracting millions of visitors each year, particularly for Ambubachi Mela which draws upwards of 100,000 pilgrims per day during the 4-day festival. Darshan at this temple is performed not by sight as in most temples, but by touch. There is a large cleft, a yoni in the bedrock moistened by water flowing upward from an underground spring, generally covered by cloths and ornate chunris, flowers, and red sindoor powder. Devotees and pilgrims offer items for worship directly to the goddess, then touch her and drink water from the spring. They then receive a tilak and prasad by the attending priest. After completing darshan, devotees light lamps and incense outside the temple. Like other temples, worship is not considered complete until the temple is circumambulated clockwise. The ceremony of pouring water over a cleft in the bedrock is a clear fertility tradition. An other variant of these ceremonies is the bipolar symbolism of lingam and yoni. The lingam united with the yoni represents the abstract form of creation.

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Source: Yoni 18

6 The bipolar Lingam-Yoni symbolism
The counterpart to the yoni is the lingam, the phallus. The lingam is the creative power of nature and represents the god Shiva. The linga stone is usually placed in the yoni. The yoni is the source of all that exists, the female counterpart without whom the male aspect remains impotent and void. The linga united with the yoni represents the abstract form of creation.

Fig. 5: Linga-Yoni at the Cat Tien sanctuary, Linga-Yoni at the Cat Tien sanctuary, Lam Dong province, Vietnam released into the public domain by its author, viethavvh. (Khương Việt Hà ) Lingam-yonis have been recovered from the archeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilization. 19

There is strong evidence to support cultural continuation from the Indus Valley Civilization to Vedic and modern Hindu practices.

Ancient Symbol Worship6
The Hebrew Scriptures, which have been regarded as especially the oracles of religious truth, develop the fact, as has been already suggested, of a close resemblance of the earlier Israelites with the surrounding nations. Their great progenitor, Abraham, is described as emigrating from the region of Chaldea, at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates, in the character of a dissenter from the religion of that country7. Yet he and his immediate descendants appear to have at least employed the same religious symbols and forms of worship as the people of Canaan and Phoenicia, who are recorded to have already occupied Palestine. Abraham erected altars wherever he made a residence; and “planted a grove” or pillar in Beer-sheba, as a religious emblem. He is also represented as conducting his son to the land of Moriah, to immolate him as a sacrifice to the Deity, as was sometimes done by the Phoenicians; and as was afterwards authorized in the Mosaic law. One of the suffets, or judges, Jephthah the Giledite, in like manner sacrificed his own daughter at Mizpeh; and the place where Abraham built his altar was afterwards selected as the site for the temple of Solomon.

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Influence of the Phallic Idea in the Religions of Antiquity. by Hodder m. Westropp and c. Staniland Wake, 1875, republished 2010 7: Joshua xxiv. 2, 3.

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Jacob is twice mentioned as setting up a pillar, calling the place Beth-el, and as making libations. On the occasion also of forming a treaty of amity with his father-in-law, Laban, the Syrian, he erected a pillar and directed his brethren to pile up a cairn, or heap of stones; to which were applied the names Galeed, or circle, and Mizpeh, or pillar. Monoliths, or “great stones,” appear to have been as common in Palestine as in other countries, and the cairns and circles (gilgals) were equally so, as well as the mounds or “high places.” The suffets, or “judges,” and the kings, maintained them till Hezekiah. Samuel the prophet worshipped at a high place at Ramah, and Solomon at the “great stone,” or high place in Gibeon. There were also priests, and we suspect kadeshim, stationed at them. At Mizpeh, probably at the pillar, was a seat of government of the Israelites; and Joshua set up a pillar under the oak of Shechem, by the sanctuary. Jephthah the judge made his residence at the former place, and his daughter, the Iphigenia of the Book of Judges, was immolated there. Samuel was also inaugurated there as suffet of Israel. There were other “great stones” mentioned, as Abel, Bethshemesh or Heliopolis; Ezel, where David met with Jonathan; and Ebenezer, erected by Samuel on the occasion of a victory over the Philistines. But Hezekiah appears to have changed the entire Hebrew religious polity. He removed the Hermaic or Dionysiac statues, and the conical omphalic emblems of Venus-Ashtoreth; overthrew the mounds and altars, and broke in pieces the serpent of brass made by Moses, to which the people had burned incense “unto those days.”

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The Removal of bipolar statues Josiah afterwards also promulgated the law of Moses, and was equally iconoclastic. He removed the paraphernalia of the worship of the sun, destroyed the image of Semel, or Hermes, expelled the kadeshim, or consecrated men and women, from the cloisters of the Temple, and destroyed the statutes and emblems of Venus and Adonis. Common aspect of archaic religion Following an global analysis of ancient sculptures8 an equivalent antipodal gender symbolism in graphical depictions and sculptures is suggested by stating: “that most probably early religion was phallic the worship of the creative and regenerative forces of nature, and that the archaic circles and incisions, the cups and channels, and some other similar sculpturings, actually often represented, though in a vague and half concealed way, the distinguishing features and marks of the two sexes of living beings.” Therefore one common aspect may be found in funeral rites and graphical symbols for archaic religions: the antipodal treatment for both genders. Both burial traditions and graffiti indicate the antipodes in symbolism. The graphical depictions obviously symbolized the opposite sexes.

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“Archaic rock inscriptions” - Jennings, Hargrave (1891)

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The I-shaped pillars obviously always depict a lingam symbol. The outer O-shaped circles define the yoni, whereas the Ushaped inner cups may define the location of the lingam in the yoni. Of course these symbols never aimed to be understood as obscene gestures. In their need to secure the clan's fertility and stability the peoples started admiring their gender's tokens as talismans and / or gods, which probably did lead to the first concepts of early religions.

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7 Bipolar Names (from 840 BC)
The Mesha Stele (in the 19th century also named the "Moabite Stone") is a black basalt stone bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC ruler Mesha of Moab. The inscription was set up about 840 BC as a memorial of Mesha's victories over "Omri king of Israel" and his son, who had been "oppressing" Moab. It bears the earliest known reference to the sacred Hebrew name of God - YHWH - and is also notable as the most extensive inscription ever recovered that refers to ancient Israel (the "House of Omri").

Fig. 6: The Mesha-Stele 24

In fact we do not need a full knowledge of Hebrew language to identify the letters I, V and H in the name of Yahweh (IHVH respectively YHVH). The photographs, the inscription and translation are to be found in Wikipedia's entry Mesha Stele. The interesting line is line #18, which according to the “Mothers of Reading” suggests to read the letters I and V (or U) as special antipodes I-U in the ancient religion. This idea may play an important role in our history as the name YHWH is the first piece of evidence for the thesis of interpreting the letters I and V (or U) as special antipodes in the old religion. These letters I and U have not been derived from YHWH and may be found in other divine names: Jupiter, Dyaus and in an overwhelming number of other religious names. Other divine names have also be identified to apply the same antipodal symbols I and U, such as IU-piter (Jupiter as the IU-”father”), IHVH, Tuisco and a number of other Creator Gods. The symbols I and U may have been derived directly from the cups and circles, respectively pillars and circles. It may have been common knowledge in the ancient world to understand these graphics as divine symbols. In the definition IU-father in Jupiter the word father may not be understood to represent a purely male deity. In ancient parental couples the father traditionally represented the couple as a spokesman. That's why he9 was allowed to use the “we”-phrase in uttering his commands. In City of God even St. Augustine named Jupiter “Father and mother of the gods”10.
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and in later eras the royals, who considered themselves as representatives of the Gods, in applying the majestic plural.
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Book VII, Chapter 10, City of God (De civitate Dei, begun ca. 413, finished 426)

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In the course of time the gender's bipolarity eventually resulted in bi-faced sculptures, bipolar etymology, antipodal symbols in letterings, in names and in some concepts to depict matrimony and couples. Most of these details may only be understood from the predecessor phases in religion, which is building a step-by-step structure from these origins. Apart from IHVH and IU-piter and Tuisco another divine name has been named by Caesar ant Tacitus, which however may be interpreted as a bipolar character as he often has been depicted as a bi-faced person. The “Gallic” principal deity identified as Hermes, may have been a bipolar god as well. Bi-faced attributes have been related to the double-Hermes.

The Gallic Wars11 - Julius Caesar (53 BC)
The Gallic Wars12 between 58 and 52 is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In these annual books Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern day Provence), encompassing the rest of modern France, Belgium and some of Switzerland. On other occasions, he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celtic peoples known to the Romans as Gauls, from the English Channel to Lugdunum (Lyon).

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Based on information from Wikipedia: The Gallic Wars Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War)
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In boek VI, chapter XVII, Caesar describes the main Gallic deity and compares this divine idea to Mercurius: “They worship as their divinity, Mercurius in particular, and have many images of him, and regard him as the inventor of all arts, they consider him the guide of their journeys and marches, and believe him to have great influence over the acquisition of gain and mercantile transactions. Next to him they worship Apollo, and Mars, and Jupiter, and Minerva; ...” Originally Hermes/Mercurius was the Graeco-Roman god of travellers, trade, revelation, and eloquence. He was also associated with Egyptian Thoth. Mercurius is present in any stage of transformation as striking antipodes. He respectively she reveals the simultaneous omnipresence of every level of being and the connecting psychic principle between all beings: the One and the All. Mercurius also represents the hermaphroditic, bisexual, androgenous soul of metals; the antipodes good - evil, material - spiritual, trickster-like switcher between Sol and Luna, revealing a masculine body and a feminine soul. Mercurius is a mediator, a servator, and a salvator. He/she is the reflection of mystical experience, the Self, and the individuation process (Jungian psychology). Mercurius is often referred to as duplex (in the bisexual hermaphrodite), trinus (in the manifestation as the counterpart of the Christian Godhead), and even quaternus (in the Philosopher’s Stone).

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The Hermes13
A Herma, herm or herme is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height. The form originated in Ancient Greece, and was adopted by the Romans, and revived at the Renaissance in the form of term figures and Atlantes. In ancient Greece the statues functioned as a form of ritual talisman and were placed at crossings, country borders and boundaries as protection. Before his role as protector of merchants and travellers, Hermes was a phallic god, associated with fertility, luck, roads and borders. His name comes from the word herma (plural hermai) referring to a square or rectangular pillar of stone, terracotta, or bronze; a bust of Hermes' head, usually with a beard, sat on the top of the pillar, and male genitals adorned the base. The hermai were used as boundary markers on roads and borders. In Athens, they were placed outside houses as apotropes for good luck. Especially in Roman and Renaissance versions, the body was often shown from the waist up. The form was also used for portrait busts of famous public figures, especially writers like Socrates and Plato. Sappho appears on Ancient Greek herms, and anonymous female figures were often used from the Renaissance on, when herms were often attached to walls as decoration.

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Information from Wikipedia entry: herma

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A double-herm
Some Double-Hermes may be identified as androgynous (e.g. the bi-faced sculpture at the museum in Kassel). The Roman deity Janus and the Hermes of Roquepertuse have been depicted as a bi-faced deity as well.

Janus – Cicero (50 BC)
According to Macrobius and Cicero, Janus14 and Jana are a pair of divinities, worshipped as the sun and moon. For this reasons they were regarded as the main gods and received their sacrifices before all other deities. Janus and Janua are variant forms of Dianus and Diana. Both refer to the root of dies "day", deus "god"15.

Fig. 7: Bifaced Janus as a Coin
Please check to identify the faces as male and/or female characters...

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Information from: Wikipedia-entry (Janus) See the documentation at: The Sky-God Dyaeus

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Clavi16
Purple stripes (named clavi) were reserved for the knights and senators. As a divine emperor Nero reserved purple clothing for the imperial family. Claviger is the attribute for the ancient Roman deity Janus as a key-bearer. Originally the keys to be carried by Janus may not have been the standard metal keys. Instead they must have been religious keys to be stored in the purple Clavi-keys at the tunic. These symbols are as old as Janus him- respectively herself. The original gender of Janus is quite obscure. As most of the most ancient gods he or she is reported to have been an androgynous deity and predecessor of the androgynous skygod Jupiter. The androgynous character would explain the male and female attributes in the symbolic colour purple.

Germania – Tacitus 98 AD
Both Julius Caesar and Tacitus compare the most important deity in Germania to Mercury (Hermes), which may refer to the standard 2-headed respectively 3- or 4-headed Hermaisculptures in the Roman Empire. Maybe Mercury has been enabled to survive in alchemist's theories, which refer to Thoth. Tacitus describes a similar bipolar deity Tuisco as a Creatorgod in Germania17. The divine name Tuis equally reveals IndoEuropean roots18 and the standard androgynous UI-symbolism, which is equivalent to YHWH19.
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See the documentation at: Yellow for Judas Subtitle: De origine et situ Germanorum liber 18: In Indo-European languages the common sky-god is named Dyaus 19: Source: Jacob Grimm, German Mythology

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In later years several cities (Duisdorf-Bonn, Duisburg and Doesburg as Tuiscoburgum) have been devoted to Tuisco, which may indicate religious central regions at the lower Rhine valley.

A search for bipolarity
A great number number of the principal gods has been bipolar with respect to their bi-faced sculptures, for the vocals I and U in their names: Dyaus, IU-piter, IHVH, Tuisco20, aUI, etcetera. Other names Dios, Dio, etcetera however contain another bipolar vocal couple I and O. Graphically we may identify the modern letters U and I (identified in the divine names IU-piter, Tuisco and IHVH) as the previously found Cups (U) and pillars (I). The modern letters O and I (identified in the divine names Dios and Dio) may be read as the previously found Circles (O) and pillars( I). In ancient Futhark alphabet the Cups (U), Circles (O) and Pillars (I) also will easily be identified as the equivalent symbols.

Fig. 8: The Older Fuþark (Wikipedia) The Futhark or Fuþark alphabet has been named after the principal letters from the left to the right.
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Tuisco is the ancient Celtic Creator-God as documented by Tacitus in Germania (in 98AD), which had been almost forgotten by his people

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There is however another sequence, which may symbolize the alphabet's religious character.

Fig. 9: The Kylver runestone from Sweden (400AD) The oldest Futhark alphabet has been depicted at the Kylver runestone in Sweden (400 AD) 21. In a closeup we may identify the letters I, U and Th, which may have been the dominant letters for this writing:

Fig. 10: The Kylver runestone depicting the Iuþark The principal letters for this Kylver alphabet are I, U, Th, A, R, K, which would rename Futhark in Iuthfark or Iuþark.
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Agrell, Sigurd "Lapptrummor och runmagi" (1934) from Wikipedia

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Of course the principal letters of this alphabet are religious symbols I and U, which exactly correspond to IU-piter and IHVH. The principal element is a male symbol I, the second letter is a female U and the third letter is a joined symbol “þ” .There is no explanation why the Iuþark alphabet is still being called Futhark.

The letter þ
In fact the third letter þ symbolizing “Th” in Kylver alphabet , which originally has been a special rune, is a religious symbol as well. The letter “þ” which is still being used in Icelandic alphabet, may be identified in divine name þeos, (→ Theology). The symbolism may be unknown, but the þ-letter may easily be identified by a joined U and I, symbolizing a divine, matrimonial couple. Any traces indicating bipolarity in modern religion may now be checked for their relation to the old bipolar attributes of the divine being. Of course bipolarity itself does not exclude monotheism. Bipolarity simply imagines a divine being consisting of matrimonial couple – speaking with a unanimous voice as in majestic plural. As usual a male voice used to be heard from a male spokesman, although the people knew he was a spokesman for an androgynous couple. One of the obvious biblical symbols for divine bipolarity is the colour purple as a combination of red and blue. We will investigate the attributes red and blue for Aaron's garments, found in the Bible as documented around 450 before Christ.

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Marcomannic runes
In a treatise called De Inventione Litterarum, preserved in 8th and 9th century manuscripts, mainly from the southern part of the Carolingian Empire (Alemannia, Bavaria), ascribed to Hrabanus Maurus, a runic alphabet consisting of a curious mixture of Elder Futhark with Anglo-Saxon futhorc is recorded. The manuscript text ascribes the runes to the Marcomanni, quos nos Nordmannos vocamus, and the alphabet is hence traditionally called "Marcomannic runes", but it has no connection with the Marcomanni and is rather an attempt of Carolingian scholars to represent all letters of the Latin alphabets with runic equivalents. Wilhelm Grimm discussed these runes in 1821 (Ueber deutsche Runen, chapter 18, pp. 149–159).

Fig. 11: Marcomannic Runes

34

In these medieval Marcomannic runes which have been designed by medieval monks the principal runes may be identified by their names “His” (I) and “Hur” (U), which may be interpreted as complementary sounds. “Ziu” obviously may be interpreted as a combination of I and U.

Roman Etymology
A Roman vocabulary lists the following words statrting with a sacred vocal-combination IU, which may be compared to the idea of an initial Iuþark-string at the alphabet: • • • • • • iubar = a radiant illumination → iubatus iubeo, iussi, iussum = to move iubilation = acclamation iucundus = nice, attractive → iucunditas = attractivity Iudea = Judea, Palestine iudex = judge → iudicatio, iudicalis, iudicium, iudico, etc. → ius = justice → iussio = command → iustificatio = justification → iustitia = justice → iustus = justified, right, correct iugalis = joined under a yoke, matrimonial → iugarius, iugatio → iugo = join under a yoke → iugum = yoke (→ matrimonial yoke) iugerum = ¼ of an hectare iugis = joined under a yoke, always, eternal22 iuglans = nut iugulae = (the 3-starred belt of) Orion iugulatio = the murder → iugulo = to murder → iugulum = throat Iugurtha = Numidan king

• • • • • •
22:

eternity has been explained as an endless chain of matrimonial couples.

35

• • • • • • • • •

• •

Iuleus, Iulius = Roman family (gens) iunctus, iunctim = joined → iunctura = joining element → iungo, iunxi, iunctum = to join Iuppiter = Jupiter, Iuno = Jupiters spouse → iuniperus = juniper Iura = Jura mountains iurgium = (aggressive) discussion, verbal battle → iurgo iuridicialis = juristic → iurisdictio = jurisdiction → iuro = swearing an oath → iurator = witness iurulentus = humid (indication for fertility ?) iustitium = strike iuvenalis, iuvenilis = younsgter → iuvencus, iuvenis = young → iuvenesco = to be young again → iuvenix = young cow → iuventa, iuventas = youth iuvo, iuvi, iutum = to help iuxta, iuxtim = near, in a similar way

In an overview we might describe these words as correlating to attractive youth and joined matrimonial couples, united under a yoke, which must be considered correct and justified – in a single word: justice. Jupiter and Juno may symbolize the married couple in its self-chosen yoke. Yellow markers identify the deviations of these correlations in the overview. Especially the Roman word “iugis” combines eternity with a yoke, which may explain eternity as an endless chain of matrimonial couples.

36

Jupiter obviously symbolizes eternity by chaining matrimonial couples under their self-chosen yoke, endlessly producing a new generation of youngsters. This is the justified and fertile way of life, which needs to be supported by justice.

37

8 Bipolar Garments (~450 BC)
Aaron's Garments
The Books Exodus and Chronicles reveal a great number of symbolic coloured woven materials (red, blue and purple twining) in the divine instructions for the Covenant tent, Aaron's garments and for Solomon's temple23: 28: 5They shall take the gold, and the blue, and the purple, and the scarlet, and the fine linen. 6“They shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the skilful workman. 7It shall have two shoulder-pieces joined to the two ends of it, that it may be joined together. 8The skilfully woven band, which is on it, that is on him, shall be like its work and of the same piece; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
15“You

shall make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skilful workman; like the work of the ephod you shall make it; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, shall you make it.
28They

shall bind the breastplate by the rings of it to the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be on the skillfully woven band of the ephod, and that the breastplate may not swing out from the ephod. There is a total of 25 divine orders for the usage of blue, purple and scarlet. In these descriptions the German LutherBible also mentions the colour white as an additional, maybe important attribute for the twined linen.
23:

Exodus 28:2-5

38

There is no indication for good or bad, male or female attributions for the colours. Indications may be derived from ancient neighbour religions, in which red symbolizes the sun (in Egypt) and purple symbolizes imperial respectively divine powers (in Roman traditions).

Impact of divine commands in the Bible
Although no explanation for these divine commands is given we must consider the most serious impact of these commands to apply purple, red, white and blue colours for the highest priest's and probably also the kings' garments. We may expect them to dress just like Aaron. White is a mixture of all colours, symbolizing the absence of red & blue. As a 50-50% mixture of red & blue purple of course plays a rather strange role. Purple (as a mixture of red & blue) and white are the only colours, which is known to be absent in the rainbow.

Liturgical colours
We may expect to have at least an equal share of red, white & blue in the modern liturgical garments, which would be a natural response to the biblical commands for Aaron's garments. This expectation however cannot be fulfilled. The rules on liturgical colours before the time of Pope Pius X were essentially those indicated in the edition of the Roman Missal that Pope Pius V promulgated in 1570, except for the addition of feasts not included in his Missal. The scheme of colours in his Missal reflected usage that had become fixed in Rome by the twelfth century. 39

Standard liturgical clothes exclude the colour blue24. Liturgical colours for the Mass and garments have been defined in a rather complex scheme25 varying in historical periods as defined in Liturgical colours. The basic principle is: • • • • • • green has been used as a default for Ordinary Time violet has been used for Advent, Lent, Reconciliation and Holy Saturday. White has been used for Christmastide, Easter and a great number of other feasts. Red has been used for e..g Pentecost, Palm Sunday, Passion of the Lord. Rose for transitions such as Third Sunday of Advent and Fourth Sunday of Lent (Laetare). Black for All Souls' Day and offices for the Dead

On more solemn days, festive, that is, more precious, sacred vestments may be used, even if not of the colour of the day. Such vestments may, for instance, be made from cloth of silver (permitted in the past only for white) or cloth of gold (historically allowed in place of white, red, or green). Moreover, the Conference of Bishops may determine and propose to the Apostolic See adaptations suited to the needs and culture of peoples. No use of saturated blue colours is allowed and only light blue is allowed in a few special occasions, e.g. at some local celebrations for St. Mary.
24: 25:

See for more details the overview in Liturgical (and Royal) Colours see: Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, no. 346; cf. text for Australia, England and Wales, United States

40

Blue in royal garments
The medieval royals and emperors, who always have felt themselves as representatives of divine power on earth, certainly have studied these biblical lines in Exodus and probably ordered these purple, red, white & blue colours for their imperial and royal clothings. These colours may also have been preferred for the coats-of-arms and for the flags, which of course is still to be proven. Compared to the clerical classes the colour blue has not been horrifying the non-clerical classes at all. Notably the latemedieval royals and emperors used to dress themselves in red & blue combinations. The Hermetic Codex illustrates a great number of medieval red & blue royal garments. Why did the royals refuse to consider the colour blue as an evil symbol? We will not be able to understand this detail until we have learn some more details about the investiture struggle in the Middle Age... Before the Middle Age however another aspect of bipolarity arose in the sculptures, which have been created as divine images. Unfortunately the ancient peoples supplied us with an overwhelming images of divine powers. The numerous singular deities simply cover the bipolar gods, which may only be identified if we select the bi-faced items in an overview.

41

9 Bi-faced sculptures (124 BC)
Celtic Sculptures
Exposed in the museum Borély in Marseilles, the bi-faced Hermes of Roquepertuse26 is dated at the third century before Christ. In this era the Celts have expanded from their homelands (Switzerland, southern Germany and northern France). The bi-faced sculpture has been named Hermes as a Double-Herme, which used to be bi-faced as well.

Fig. 12: Double-Hermes found at Roquepertuse
Photograph created by Robert Valette and published at Wikipedia under GNU Free Documentation License

26:

See The Sky-God Dyaeus for details

42

This sculpture may symbolize the joined male & female-couple in matrimony for rebirth or creation, respectively as a creator god. Similar bi-faced and/or androgynous idols have been found at Holzgerlingen.

The Hermes at Holgerlingen
The Hermeslike statue found at Holzgerlingen 27 is a double faced Herme, which may be comparable to the Hermes of Roquepertuse. The horns (or ears ?) are special features, which may clearly be identified in this 230 cm high sculpture.

Fig. 13: Bifaced statue found at Holzgerlingen

27:

now exhibited at the Landesmuseum Stuttgart - Germany

43

The Celtic Herme from Boa Island Interpreting "the Lusty Man" in the androgynous Celtic sculpture at Boa Island in Northern Ireland we may observe the male figure has been fettered and we wonder why he cannot turn around and mate with his partner.

Fig. 14: Male figure at Boa Island (east side) (the sculpture has been dated to the 1th century AD)

44

10 Etymology (868 AD)
The bipolar couple, identified by the letters I and U may be traced back in etymology, especially in the personal pronouns You and I, which have been denoted as the most important words in any language. Of course the Indo-European languages have been using a common design for their basic alphabets. The Futhark (or to be precise the Iuthfark-aphabet

Pronouns for the 1st and 2nd person singular
Some documents ranging from 865 AD until 868 AD do contain the pronouns of the 1th and 2 nd person in old-German language. As an example the following lines by Otfrid from Weissenburg (a town in the Alsace at the French/Germanborderline) 28: Original text in archaic German language): Wolaga elilenti! Harto bistu herti, thu bist harto filu suar, thaz sagen ih thir in alawar! English Translation: Oh foreign countryside! Thou art so hard, Thou even art very hard, and this I am telling you for sure!

28:

History of German Literature, Naumann & Göbel, ISBN 3-625-10421-0

45

The old-German language obviously did use the pronouns „Thou“ (or in runes “þou”) and „I“ as „Thu“ respectively „Ih“. Joining both pronouns will result in thu-ih = Thui, which may be interpreted as the core in the divine name Tuisco. We may correlate these German pronouns with the pronouns U and I in modern English, which are easily understood as pronouns for the 2nd respectively the 1st person singular: You and I. These pronouns correspond to the previously defined religious bipolar symbols.

46

11 Medieval Codices (1100)
Some Hebrew rabbis published a strange bipolar variant of the biblical creation legend, which may have been spread among the royal families of this era29.

1100: Rashi's Genesis
“God as Judge, alone without the angels, created the human being, by hand, in a mold which was like the mold with which a seal is made or like the die from which a coin is produced, and which had been specially crafted for the human being. In a mold which was a hologram image of God, God created the human being. One being which was both male and female and which was subsequently divided into two beings, God created them” 30 .

1170: Rashbam's Genesis
God said, 'Let us make humanity in our angelic image, like us in wisdom. The humans shall rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the heaven, the domestic animals, and all the earth, as well as the creeping things which creep over the earth'. God created humanity in the angelic image; in the image of the angels, God created humanity; God included the woman in the man and separated them later31.

29:

reference: The Sky-God Dyaeus Rabbi Rashi 1040-1105, northern Europe (chapter 27) Rasbam, Rashi's Great Grandson, 1085-1174, northern Europe (Ch. 27)

30: 31:

47

12 Illuminated Manuscripts (1175)
Aaron's garments in red & blue have been identified as bipolar symbols, which may be traced back in medieval Bibles. One of the earliest

The Winchester Bible
The Winchester Bible, fol.120v. clearly reveals a few lines of alternated red and blue colours at the right side of the P-initial in the story of Elijah being taken up to heaven32.

Fig. 15: Winchester Bible, fol.120v. - Second Kings (detail)

32:

See for more illuminated examples: Illuminated Manuscripts - The image is public domain because the copyright has expired.

48

The Winchester Bible is only one of the first out of a long list of decorated manuscripts, in which red & blue alternated initials and/or lines prevail. The Hermetic Codex documents similar examples for red & blue decorated codices: • • • • • • • • • • • • 1130: St. Albans Psalter 1135: The Bury Bible 1175: The Winchester Bible 1265: Divina Commedia - Dante Alighieri 1300: The Fécamp Bible (London, British Library) 1333: The Kremser Bible 1335: Spieghel Historiael 1336: Speculum Humanae Salvationis 1360: The Neapolitan Bible 1390: The Wenzel-Bible 1410: The Korczek-Bible 1460: The Utrechter “historical” Bible

Most illuminated manuscripts have been ordered and paid by wealthy royal families and they may have ordered to decorate the manuscripts to their own ideas. The colours may or may not have been accepted by the clerical authorities. In the Middle Age the royals have always been struggling for power over the clerical classes. They strove for a maximal share in financial income, which had to be supplied by the working classes. In their struggle with the clerical forces the royals applied all powers they could develop, including the biblical symbolic colours, which had been defined in the Book Exodus.

49

The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures, of church officials such as bishops and abbots. Although the principal conflict began in 1075 between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, a brief but significant struggle over investiture also occurred between Henry I of England and the papacy of Paschal II in the years 1103 to 1107, and the issue played a minor role in the struggles between church and state in France as well. The entire controversy was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms in 1122. In the early Middle Age both the clerical and the non-clerical leaders may generally have been considering female persons as inferior as a result for the Eve's sinful decision to eat the Apple. This rule however is only valid if Eve had been symbolized by the colour blue.

Inherited divine ancestry
In later eras the kings en emperors decided to inherit their divine ancestry instead of being elected by the people or the Pope. This however caused some problems in accepting the female colour blue as a negative symbol. Although the royals may have shared some of the biblical symbolism they avoided to horrify their families by merely accepting male symbols for their status. In fact most medieval royal families have been forced to accept female rulers in the course of history.

50

The royals also had to accept the idea of being born from a female mother and to be married to female spouses... 33. The acceptance of blue as a royal symbol for mothers, female spouses (sometimes probably including the concubines) and daughters may have been derived directly from the Book Exodus or by the very need to satisfy the female members in the royal families. In search for Aaron's colours red & blue we may identify the oldest samples at the French abbey Fontevrault, where the British royals buried their first kings and queens. These graves in original colours have been painted in clear red & blue colours, as if they were wearing Aaron's garments...

33:

These facts largely have been ignored by clerical rulers

51

13 Royal Garments (from 1189)
Garments at the Tomb of Henry II

Fig. 16: Tombs of Henry & Eleonora at Fontevrault (Photographed by krischnig – Public Domain) Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry & Eleonora have been buried in blue and orange-red garments.

52

Louis VIII and Blanca of Castilia

Fig. 17: Louis VIII (1223-1226) Coronation ceremony34 for Louis VIII and Blanca of Castilia, who are wearing red, blue and white robes. The bishop is wearing a red robe with blue and golden decorations. Red, white and blue will now also be identified as the main symbols in coats-of-arms and flags, which have been defined at the end of the Middle Age.

34:

See details in: Blue and Red in Medieval Garments - Miniature from the 14th Century from "Grandes Chroniques de France, exhibited at the Bibliotheque Municipale de Toulouse.

53

In Blue and Red in Medieval Garments a great number of royal garments have been identified as red & blue combinations. The list of these depicted royals and their servants ranges from 500 BC up to the end of the Middle Age. Fig. 1: Celtic sovereign wrapped in red and blue (500 BC)......1 Fig. 2: Dead body found wrapped in red and blue (500 BC).....8 Fig. 3: Otto I (the Great)............................................................9 Fig. 4: Henry II (973–1024).....................................................10 Fig. 5: Conrad II (c. 990 – 1039).............................................11 Fig. 6: Conrad III (1093 – 1152).............................................12 Fig. 7: Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190).............13 Fig. 8: Frederick II (1212 - 1250)............................................15 Fig. 9: Louis VIII (1223-1226)................................................16 Fig. 10: Louis IX (1226-1270).................................................17 Fig. 11: Grave of Henry & Eleonora at Fontevrault................18 Fig. 12: Tomb of Henry II, King of England...........................19 Fig. 13: King Richard I, Lionheart ( 1189-1199).....................20 Fig. 14: King Richard I, Lionheart ( 1189-1199).....................21 Fig. 15: Isabella of Angouleme & King Richard I...................22 Fig. 16: King Jaime I of Aragon .............................................23 Fig. 17: Dante's Divina Commedia..........................................24 Fig. 18: Wolfram von Eschenbach (1170 - 1220) ...................25 Fig. 19: Crusaders at the siege of Nicea .................................26 Fig. 20: crusaders at the Al-Aqsa-mosque ..............................27

54

14 The English Royal arms35 (1340)
The first known English Royal arms, a golden lion, rampant, on a red field was first used by King Henry. The first arms of King Richard I "The Lionheart", revealed two golden lions, combatant, on a red field. However King Henry and King Richard I "The Lionheart" have been buried in red and blue robes at the Fontevraud Abbey. Check the colours for the tombs of Henry II, Richard I and Eleanor of Aquitaine in Fontevraud Abbey. In 1340 King Edward III quartered the Royal Arms of England with the ancient arms of France, the fleurs-de-lis on a blue field, to signal his claim to the French throne.

Fig. 18: Royal Arms of England 1340-1367 From these dates all Royal Arms of England have been defined in red & blue combinations with gold decorations.
35:

see the overview at: Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom

55

15 Oil Paintings (1510)
The Triptych by Hieronymos Bosch (Madrid, Prado) has been dated 1510, or even earlier 1503-1504. Philip II had the Garden of Delights in his collection. Generally the painting has been interpreted as a moral and didactic lecture. However in the Middle Age the pink fountain may have been interpreted as a symbolic male fountain column over a symbolic female blue circle.

Fig. 19: Fountain at Eden 56

Hieronymos Bosch belonged to the last medieval painters who have been able to understand and depict the ancient bipolar symbolism. Soon after the Middle Age the symbolism may have been lost outside the philosophic sects (the Rosicrucian circles, the Freemasons, etcetera) which may have saved the bipolar religious symbols in their garments and tools. Now one of the owners of the painting Garden of Delights is said to have been the Prince William I of Orange, who may have used the colour combination red & blue to create his own bipolar motto.

57

16 Flags (from 1572)
The Kingfisher
One of the owners of the painting “The Garden of Delights” may have been William I, Prince of Orange. It must be noted that the William I, Prince of Orange has adopted the kingfisher as his favourite bird. The kingfisher however has been painted twice in the Triptych of Delights. The bird reveals blue-green, white and orange colours, which partly will also be found in the Prince's flag. The first owner may even have ordered to apply the colours rose-red and blue and/or the kingfisher as elements for the paintings.

Fig. 20: The Kingfisher

The Prince's Motto
The kingfisher is also found on a medal created 1572 in honour for the city of Delft's transition to the Geuzen and carrying the inscription: Een held in ijs en baren - Wien God weet te bewaren36
36:

“A hero in ice and waves, who is to be guarded by God”

58

The Prince's Flag37
The same year 1572 the provinces of the Low Countries, rose in revolt against King Philip II of Spain, and the Prince of Orange placed himself at the head of the rebels. The Watergeuzen (pro-independence privateers), acting on his instructions, harassed the enemy everywhere they could and they did this under a tricolour Orange White Blue38, the colours of the Prince's coat of arms. It was thus a flag easily associated with the leader of the rebellion, and the association was also expressed in the name: "the Prince's Flag."

Fig. 21: The Prince's Flag The Prince's Motto "Saevis Tranquillus In Undis39"may have been chosen after the birth of Frederik Hendrik in 1584.

37: 38:

Reference: The Majestic Singular in William of Orange's Letter in Dutch: Oranje, Wit, Blauw or Oranje, Blanje, Bleu, from French: Orange, Blanche, Bleu 39: Easy amidst of the waves

59

Other flags have been designed in red & blue combinations for Brittain (1606)40, Russia (1669)41, USA (1777)42, Korea (1882)43, Phillipines (1898)44. The idea to use ancient biblical symbolism may have been derived from philosophical knowledge and Masonery, in which bipolar symbols have been saved. Probably bipolarity may have been used without secured knowledge of the religious origins for these divine symbols. We will now investigate a few examples of these bipolar elements, which have been selected from a huge number of equivalent depictions.

40:
41: 42:

Info from the Wikipedia entry Union Flag & Union Jack Wikipedia: Flagge Russlands

In 1777, the Continental Congress issued a resolution calling for a national banner of red, white and blue, with 13 stripes and 13 stars.
43:

44:

Info from The flag of South Korea See details in: The Sky-God Dyæus

60

17 Philosophic Bipolar Symbols
Aprons in Masonry
In this overview we will select only one of the Masonic symbols45 (the apron) to illustrate the use of the symbols red & blue 46 An apron is an outer protective garment that covers primarily the front of the body. There is no one of the symbols of Speculative Freemasonry more important in its teachings, or more interesting in its history, than the lambskin, or white leathern apron. Commencing its lessons at an early period in the Freemason's progress, it is impressed upon his memory as the first gift which he receives, the first symbol which is explained to him, and the first tangible evidence which he possesses of his admission into the Fraternity. Whatever may be his future advancement in the "royal art," into whatsoever deeper arcana his devotion to the mystic Institution or his thirst for knowledge may subsequently lead him, with the lambskin apron-his first investiture---he never parts. Changing, perhaps, its form and its decorations, and conveying, at each step, some new but still beautiful allusion, its substance is still there, and it continues to claim the honoured title by which it was first made known to him, on the night of his initiation, as the badge of a Mason.

45:

Some more details have been listed in Blue and Red Symbolism in Freemasonary 46: From the Encyclopedia of Freemasonary and its kindred sciences by Albert c. Mackey m. d.

61

''The apron appears to have been, in ancient times, an honorary badge of distinction. In the Jewish economy, none but the superior orders of the priesthood were permitted to adorn themselves with ornamented girdles, which were made of blue, purple, and crimson, decorated with gold upon a ground of fine white linen; while the inferior priests wore only plain white. The Indian, the Persian, the Jewish, the Ethiopian, and the Egyptian aprons, though equally superb, all bore a character distinct from each other. Some were plain white, others striped with blue, purple, and crimson; some were of wrought gold, others adorned and decorated with superb tassels and fringes.”47 Freemasonry was originally incorporated with the various systems of divine worship used by every people in the ancient world.

47:

Signs and Symbols of Freemasonry, lecture x, page 196 - Doctor Oliver

62

Maypoles as bipolar symbols
The maypole is a tall wooden pole, traditionally of maple, hawthorn or birch, sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances48.

Fig. 22: German Maypole (2008) Photograph: by the author

48:

Information from Wikipedia

63

One of the earliest illustrations of a maypole was made in 1590. It can be seen on a fresco by Hans Donauer in the Antiquarium of the "Münchner Residenz". Erecting a maypole occurred in nearly all other European countries. The tradition reaches from erecting the Maien to May-dances around a decorated pole which was put up in a village square. Erecting a maypole must follow certain rules and is accompanied by traditional customs. Work is traditionally divided between the men and women. Men take care of choosing, cutting down and transporting the tree pole, while young women are responsible for the garlands, collecting donations and other decorations. With roots in Germanic paganism, the maypole traditionally appears in most Germanic countries. In Greece people do the maypole dance. Maypole is referred as Mayoksylo ( Μαγιόξυλο) and it also has a phallic symbolism. The Maypole must also be considered an androgynous symbol. To may (German: maien) originally indicates to make love and the maypole is an ancient marriage-symbol for joining a male/female-couple. The erected and towering pole symbolizes the male element in this union. The large circular wreaths represent the female element, which must be considered to be the stabilizing and passive pole (the O-rings, respectively the "You" in the union). Most maypoles reveal an upper half-pole (male symbol) completely hidden inside a covering yoni (female symbol), which may be considered as a perfect symbol for a unified couple. The Germans called the nighttime following the first May the "Freinacht" / "mai-night", or the "lover's night".

64

At a distance modern maypoles may often be dominated by the ego-"centred" male element, but if you are able to read the story you will be able to identify the truly androgynous religious symbolism, which in Germany may have been devoted to the androgynous creator God Tuisco. In ancient manuscripts bishops complain the barbaric scenes of pagan people and report how they are trying to replace these rites by Christian habits. Each year the cults are still being activated as the so-called Walpurgis-rites in which young people are having fun in the night-time. The maypole reveals the religious symbols Pillar (respectively the letter I) and Circles (respectively the letters O) of the divine bipolar combination Dios, which is equivalent to Dieu, IUpiter, Theos, IHVH, etcetera.

65

Rosarium Philosophorum (1578)

Fig. 23: Rosarium Philosophorum, Prague
Jaroš Griemiller z Tøebska The tree of wisdom has been founded: on a red rock (at the side of the male sun) and at a blue rock (at the side of the female moon)

• •

66

The American Flag (1777)
In 1777, the Continental Congress issued a resolution calling for a national banner of red, white and blue, with 13 stripes and 13 stars. More stars were added as states joined the Union, until the flag assumed its current form - 13 stripes and 50 stars. Please note the equal number (13) of stars and stripes, which may refer to equality for the male and female symbols in the original flag. There is some evidence the colours red, white and blue have been chosen by Templars and Freemasons in a great number of countries, namely Holland, France, England, Scotland and the USA49. At the time of defining a banner the leading intelligentsia in most of these countries are known to have been influenced by Templar-or Freemason-symbolism. A great number of US-presidents are known to have been Freemasons: Washington, Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Polk, Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, Garfield, Theodore Roosevelt, Taft, Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Truman and Ford. As Freemasons they certainly were aware of the Biblical sources for the fundamental border colours red and blue of the rainbow - even if they were unaware of the androgynous symbolism.

49:

Reference: The Sky-God Dyæus

67

Fig. 24: 15-starred Flag at Fort McHenry (1814)

68

18 Religious Education (1954)50

Fig. 25: Adam (red) and Eve (blue) At elementary school in Eindhoven in 1954 a Catholic teacher ordered us to draw male persons (Jesus, Adam & God) in red colours and female persons (Eve and the virgin Mary) in blue.

50:

Sources in German at: Religionsunterricht 1954-1955 and in Dutch language at: Godsdienstles 1954-1955.

69

After the Fall of Man the couple had to be drawn in purple.

Fig. 26: After the Fall of Man the couple is purple

70

19 Modern Art (from 1956)51

Fig. 27: Androgynous face by Marc Chagall The Albertina museum exposed a lithographic painting 52 name David & Bethsabée created by Marc Chagall in 1956.
51:
52:

Reference: Secret Colour Codes in the Bible Marc Chagall (1887-1985)

71

In this painting Marc Chagall (1887-1985) clearly used the symbolic colours red and blue to identify the female and male person. However it remains unclear whether red is a female and blue is a male symbol. According to the arrangement in the painting Chagall probably applied the standard modern convention in which the red colour represents female symbolism and blue represents the male symbolism.

72