22471486-Mass-Balances[1] | Stoichiometry | Mole (Unit)

Mass Balances

MASS BALANCES 1 1.1 Systems of units Systeme International ( SI ) SI system is the official system throughout the world. Fundamental( basic) units Length mass time temperature Derived units Volume force pressure energy 1.2 - cubic meters - kilogram meter / second2 - Newton / m2 - Newton meter - m3 - N ( Newton) or kg m / s2 - N / m2 or pascal ( Pa) - J (Joule) or Nm - metre - kilogram - second - kelvin -m - kg -s - K (not degree kelvin)

American Engineering length mass time temperature volume force - foot - pound mass - second - degree Fahrenheit - cubic foot - pound force - ft - lbm -s - 0F - ft3 - lbf


Centimetre-gram-second( cgs) length mass time volume temperature - centimetre - gram - second - cubic centimetre - degree centigrade - cm - gm -s - cm3 - C or K

1.4 General From sections 1.1,1.2, and 1.3 it is clear that mass and volume have different units based on the system we use. These units must always be included with the numerical value or it has no meaning. Thus 1000g and 1 kg are identical and it does not matter which is used, provided the correct label (unit) is given. In general, chemical engineers tend to use SI units i.e. kg for mass and m3 for volume. e.g. Flow rate of feed into a reactor is 150 kg/s. Just 150 is not acceptable.


Mass Balances

2. SYMBOLS Chemists and Engineers use symbols to represent atoms. Every element has a different symbol. Elements are listed in the Periodic Table. Oxygen = O The letter O stands for one atom and O2 stands for two atoms of oxygen Sometimes two letters are needed to represent an element eg case first letter is always written in capital letters Whether the symbol of an element is one letter or two letters, the symbol stands for one atom of the element. When an element is represented by two letters, the first letter is in capital and the second letter is in lower character. Sometimes the letters are taken from the Latin name of the element e.g. Copper Iron Cobalt Aluminium = Cu = Fe = Co = Al from Cuprum (Latin name) from Ferrum (Latin name) ( single element) ( single element) Sodium = Na second letter always in lower

Number of elements in a compound Carbon dioxide Sulphuric acid = CO2 = H2SO4 (a compound consisting Carbon and Oxygen - both letters capital) ( three capital letters, hence there are three elements – H, S and O ) (three capital letters, hence there are three elements– Ca, P and O)

Calcium phosphate = Ca3(PO4)2

Symbols of some common elements Element Aluminium Barium Bromine Calcium Carbon Chlorine Copper Fluorine Symbol Al Ba Br Ca C Cl Cu F Element Gold Hydrogen Iodine Iron Lead Magnesium Mercury Nitrogen Symbol Au H I Fe Pb Mg Hg N Element Oxygen Phosphorus Potassium Silver Sodium Sulphur Tin Zinc Symbol O P K Ag Na S Sn Zn


Mass Balances


Naming of Compounds When you try to name an inorganic compound from the chemical formula the first thing you should do is to name the first symbol. In the formula CO 2 the first symbol C is carbon and therefore the name should begin with carbon --------. In the formula CaCO3, the first symbol is calcium and therefore the name should begin with calcium -------. The reminder of the formula indicates the rest of the name. When the ending is a single element, the name is usually derived by ending the name with an – ide ending 1) Compounds made up of a metal and a non-metal:- metal is always written first. Eg. NaCl sodium chloride ( Na is a metal and Cl is a non-metal) MgO magnesium oxide ( Mg is a metal and O is a non-metal) Compounds made up of two non-metals:- the non-metal that is either lower down the group(if both non-metals are in the same group) or nearest to the left hand side of the periodic table is placed first. e.g. sulphur and oxygen carbon and oxygen carbon and sulphur SO2 CO2 CS2 sulphur dioxide carbon dioxide carbon disulphide



Compounds made up of three elements a) metal, non-metal, and oxygen: these compounds have - ate ending. e.g. Na, S, O Na2SO4 sodium sulphate

In this case you ignore the fact that there are two sodium atoms b) metal, hydrogen, oxygen: these compounds have a hydroxide ending with O written before H. e.g. K, H, O Na, O, H KOH NaOH potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide

3.1 Names used for the end groups of inorganic formulae Unless you know the names of the groups listed in the table given below, you cannot name the compounds. Ensure you learn these names. Group O S Cl F I Br OH SO4 Name used for the end group Oxide sulphide chloride fluoride iodide bromide hydroxide sulphate Exampl e ZnO ZnS NaCl CaF2 KI PbBr2 NaOH MgSO4

Name zinc oxide zinc sulphide sodium chloride calcium fluoride potassium iodide lead bromide sodium hydroxide magnesium

Mass Balances


nitrate carbonate Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate


sulphate sodium nitrate berillium carbonate sodium bicarbonate Sodium hydrogencarbonate

Some compounds are commonly referred to by non-systematic names. The more common ones are given below in the table. You should learn these names. Formula H2O HNO3 H2SO4 HCl (aq) HCl (g) NH3 NO CH4 Name water nitric acid sulphuric acid hydrochloric acid (acid solution) hydrogen chloride( gas ) ammonia nitric oxide methane

Another fact you should know is that some elements can form more than one compound with another element. The commonest example is CO and CO2, known as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. In general, if an element forms more than one compound with another element the following prefixes are used: One Two Three Four = = = = monoditritetrae.g. CO e.g. SO2 e.g. SO3 e.g. CCl4 carbon monoxide sulphur dioxide sulphur trioxide carbon tetrachloride

3.2 Formulae (plural for formula) Calculations are based on formulae and equations. A formula represents one molecule of a substance and consists of the symbols of the elements present (and some numbers given in subscripts- small characters). The numbers show the ratio in which the atoms are present in the compound. Water consists of particles and each particle contains one oxygen atom joined by chemical bonds to two hydrogen atoms. The particle is called a molecule of water (mol for short) e.g. sulphuric acid H2SO4 3 H2SO4 has three different elements but 7 atoms in total i.e. 2 H atoms, 1 S atom, 4 O atoms ; total atoms = 7 3 moles of sulphuric acid

The three in front of H2SO4 multiplies every thing which comes after it. ∴total number of atoms = 3 { 1 x 2 + 1 x 1 + 1 x 4 } = 3 X 7 = 21 atoms

g.Mass Balances H i. 6 H atoms. 8 H total = 20 atoms when you write the folmula of a compound you need to know the valancies of the elements and ions. calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 4Ca(OH)2 three different elements with 1 Ca. 2 H atoms total number of atoms = 5 atoms 4 Ca. S O 12 O atoms : total = 21 atoms 3 S atoms. 2 O. 8 O. Learn the following: Name Hydrogen Ammonium Potassium Sodium Silver Copper (I) Barium Calcium Copper (II) Iron (II) Lead Magnesium Zinc Aluminium Iron (III) Symbol H+ NH4+ K+ Na+ Ag+ Cu+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Cu2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Al3+ Fe3+ Charge (valency) +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 Name Hydroxide Nitrate Chloride Bromide Iodide Hydrogencarbonate Oxide Sulphide * Sulphite * Sulphate * Carbonate Phosphate Symbol OH1NO31Cl1Br1I1HCO31O2S2SO32SO42CO32PO43Charge (valency) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -3 You’ll notice that some components have variable valency e. there are e.e.g. Fe2+ and Fe3+ Cu+ and Cu2+ Note: * note the difference in spelling 5 .

Chemists refer to 23 6.Mass Balances 4. molecules). gm. Names of Organic Compounds Organic compounds Alkane series ( CnH2n+2 ) CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane Alkyne series ( CnH2n-2) Naming is same as alkane but replace –ane with -yne C2H2 C3H4 ethyne propyne Aromatic hydrocarbon C6H6 C6H5CH3 Alcohol CH3OH C2H5OH methanol ethanol benzene methylbenzene Alkene series (CnH2n) naming same as alkane. If you know how many coins are in 100 g it is easy to determine the number of coins in 1000 kg. e.022 X 10 atoms of an element as one mole of the element. Atoms. volume etc. lb. Banks count coins by weighing.e. ions. 40 g calcium 56 g iron 197 g gold 127 g iodine All the above masses contain the same number of atoms. then mole . If the object is very small and if there are millions of them it is easier to count by weighing. Mole is expressed as: mol ( any substance) = Mass Relative molecular mass (RMM) or RAM = lb mol = g mol. ethene propene The Amount of Substance .022 X10 particles (atoms. but generally known as mol 6 If mass is in pounds. then mole If mass is in grams. mole represents an amount or quantity of a substance. but replace -ane by –ene C2H4 C3H6 5.The Mole Amount is a physical quantity like mass.g. molecules and ions are so small that they are almost counted by weighing. The counting unit is the MOLE (abbreviation is mol). Thus one gram mole ( mol ) is the formula weight of any substance = Avagadro’s number 23 = 6. i.

1 a) Find the relative molecular mass of H2SO4 and Cl2 . 5. Molarity is used in chemical laboratories (eg. Therefore 58. Exercise 5. b) Find the mass of 3 moles of Fe2(SO4)3.1 Moles in Solution 1 litre = 1 cm3 = 1 dm3 = 1 x 10-6 m3 1000 cm3 = 1* 10-3 m3 A solution containing one mole of solute dissolved to make one litre of solution is often called molar solution. Symbols we use Volume of solution = Concentration of solution = Number of moles = n C = V -3 A solution of NaOH containing 0.1 mol dm can be called as 0.5 (23+35.5).Mass Balances If mass in kilogram.5 kg of NaCl dissolved in 2 m3of water? Chemists v measured in dm3 c moles dm-3 n Chemical Engineers measured in m3 kmol m-3 7 .5 gram is equivalent to 58. the relative molecular mass of NaCl is 58. b) What is concentration of 175. respectively.1 M NaOH.2 3 a) If 140 g of potassium hydroxide (KOH) is dissolved in 2500 cm of water what is the concentration (molar) of the solution.5 pounds is equivalent to 1 mol ( 1 g mol ) 1 kmol 1 lb-mol NOTE: These will all have different number of particles. then mole = kmol The mass of 1 mole of atoms is found by looking up the relative atomic mass of the element.5. Since the relative atomic mass of sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) are 23 and 35. kg. Titration) Exercise 5. 3 The concentration of a solution is measured in moles per dm ( litre) is called the molarity of the solution.5 kilogram is equivalent to 58.1 molar and can be written as 0.

g. 2000 kg of B and 5500 kg of C.3 Volume percent ( % v/v) The symbol % v/v is used to indicate concentration on a volume basis.1 Mass Fraction components A. Exercise 6.2 A storage tank has 1500 kg of A. 150 kg of the same mixture will have 22.5 kg of water.2 % w/w ( mass percent) The symbol % w/w (or weight percent) is used to indicate concentration on a mass basis. Confirm the sum of mass fraction is equal to 1. i.Mass Balances 6 Concentration 6. B & C mass of A Total mass of mixture (A+B+C) mass of A Sum of mass fraction = mass fraction A * total mass of mixture = 1 (use this as a check after your calculations) Exercise 6. Calculate the mass % of C and confirm % w/w of all the components add up to 100 %. Volume fraction = volume total volume 8 . B & C * 100 Total mass of mixture (A+B+C) ∴mass of A = of substance A = mass of A % w/w of A * total mass of mixture 100 NOTE: % w/w will be the same regardless of the units used. B & C mass fraction of A = Consider a tank comprising components A. 6. volume % of any substance = volume of that substance * 100 total volume of mixture As for mass fraction. % w/w components (mass percent ) A.1 5 kg of A. kg. What is the mass fraction of A. lb 100 kg of methanol/water mixture having a concentration of 15 % w/w methanol will have 15 kg of methanol and 85 kg of water.e. 6.5 kg of methanol and 127. 2 kg of B and 3 kg of C are mixed in a container.

g. Mathematically it can be expressed as V P = constant Where 7. B = 5000 kmol.5 m3 water.5 m 3 HCl mixed with 96. In gaseous systems 21% v/v oxygen in air means that in every 100 m 3 of air there is 21 m3 of O2. provided there is consistency. K V ∞ T V = constant T Where T = temperature in Kelvin (K) 7.4 Mol percent ( mol%) As for % v/v. 7 GAS LAWS Changes in temperature and pressure have little effect on the volume of a liquid or a solid. respectively. 6.5 cm3 water.e.5 cm3 HCl mixed with 96. but a considerable effect on the volume of a gas.1 Boyle’ Law The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. provided the temperature remains constant. It could also means 3. 7. C = 2000 kmol and D = 8000 kmol. 9 .2 Charle’s Law The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. There are various gas laws. An aqueous solution of HCl with a concentration of 3. l (litre) or m3. By combining equations 1 & 2 the following equation can be obtained. -------------------------------2 P = pressure. mol % = mole of A total moles in mixture * 100 e.3 A storage tank has the following compounds.5 % v/v has 3. Calculate the mole fraction and mol % of all the components and tabulate your results.3 The Equation Of State for an Ideal Gas i. V = volume ------------------------. NOTE: It does not matter whether we illustrate a concentration in terms of ml. Confirm sum of mole fraction and mol % are 1 and 100.1 Gases which obey Boyle's law and Charle's law are called ideal gases.g. Exercise 6.Mass Balances Sum of volume fraction = 1 e. A = 1000 kmol.

p.4 Useful Units 1 atm = 1. In other words the volume occupied by one mole of gas is the same for all gasses.4 m3 at s. V2. the new volume. The equation is: PV = nRT Where P = pressure.0224 1 * 273 10 = 8.0224 m3 (22.7 psi 1 bar = 14. P1 V1 = T1 P2 V2 T2 equation of state for an ideal gas A gas has a volume of V1 at temperature T1 and pressure P1.325 kilopascal (kPa) = 1. R.). 1 mole of gas at 0 C and 101325 Pa occupy 0. is the same for all gases.p. If the condition are changed to pressure P2 and temperature T2.314 J k-1 mol-1 . This is referred to as standard temperature and pressure (s. It is called gas molar volume.4 dm3) substituting in the equation R = PV nT = PV = nRT 101325 * 0. The above should be memorised 7. 1 mole of any gas occupies 22. V = volume. can be calculated using the above equation.e. 1 mole of any gas occupies 24.01325 * 105 pascal (Pa) = 101. Avogadro's law (hypothesis) states that equal volume of gases.t. n = number of moles R = molar gas constant and T = absolute temperature (K) The molar gas constant.5 psi 7.t. = 14.0 dm3 at 20 C & 1 atm 1 kmol of any gas occupies 22. measured at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. It is usual to compare gas volume at 0 C and 1 atmosphere (1 atm).5 Ideal Gas Equation In gaseous systems a simple relationship exists between volume and mole which is useful in performing calculations.t.01325 * 105 Newton’s per square meter ( N/m2 ) = 760 mm mercury 1 bar = 1.p.4 dm3 at s. In this case it will always assumed that any gas is at condition at which the Ideal Gas Law applies.0 * 105 Pa 1 atm.Mass Balances i.

it also follows that at constant temperature and pressure the volume is proportional to the number of kmol (mol).1 What amount ( no. real gases obey the ideal gas equation very closely at low pressure and high temperature.798 g dm -3 at 298 K and 101 kNm-2.e so V V1/ V2 ∴ Vol% = = = kmol * constant kmol1/ kmol2 Mol% for an ideal gas Exercise 7.5 X 105 Nm-2 and 300 K. Now do tutorial A 8 Chemical Processes CHEMICAL PROCESSES 11 .8 dm 3 at 2. Exercise 7.2 Calculate the molar mass of a gas which has a density of 1. i. of moles ) of an ideal gas occupies 5.Mass Balances For 1 mole of gas For n moles of gas NOTE: PV = RT PV = nRT In practise. If the mass of gas is m and its molar mass M (RMM) then we can rewrite the ideal gas equation as: PV = m RT M PVM RT or M = m RT PV or m = From PV = nRT.

G. distillation). (e. Distillation Column. 8. Add measured quantities of three reactants to a reactor and remove the products and unreacted reactants after a predetermined time i. E.g.e. 8.1 Batch Processes Transient Process variables change with time. and the products are removed all at once after a given time or after equilibrium has been achieved. volume remain constant(e. E.2 Continuous Processes The feed and products flow continuously throughout the duration of the process. when the system has reached equilibrium. 8. Blending of several chemicals (petrol) in a tank from which nothing is being withdrawn until the blending operation is completed. batch & semibatch processes) Predetermined amount of feed is charged into the system at the beginning of the process.Mass Balances Batch Processes Continuous Processes Semibatch processes Steady state or Temperature.g. 12 .3 Semibatch Processes Any process which is neither batch nor continuous.G. pressure. No mass crosses the system boundaries between the time the feed is charged and the time the product is removed. E.G.

Balances are made around the system i. It is essential that at the start of any process analysis or problem solving procedure that we have a clear idea of what we are defining as the system. This helps to identify those streams which. if they cross the boundary. The choice or definition of the system is up to us. an entire chemical plant. or even part of such a process. Conversely. heaters. the box could represent a series of process steps. but some variations on the statement need to be considered. to understand how they fit together and how to calculate the amount of each chemical flowing or exiting at every point in the system. tanks. for example. enter or leave the system. 9. So how are the consequences of the conservation law applied to the mass balance? In industry mass balance is carried out to account for all the material in a process. balances are made with respect to the system. 1 Referring to the figure 9. Mass balance for a single unit is simple.e. Input of M SYSTEM Output of M System Boundary Figure 9.2 The System Balance of any kind is made with respect to a definite entity. 13 .1. columns. 9. vessels. Matter is neither created nor destroyed for chemical processes.1. pumps and instruments. this entity is usually referred to as a system.Mass Balances 9 9. for example a heat exchanger or a chemical reactor. If you look at a chemical plant you will see a very large number of pipes. It is usually convenient to identify the system by drawing a boundary line around it. as indicated by the dashed line in Fig. This box could represent a single process or process step. Chemical engineers need to be able to understand how to design many of these. we indicate the system to be analysed as a box. but for a large process it is often complex.1 Basic Ideas in the Mass Balance (Material Balance) General A mass balance is a re-statement of the law of conservation of mass.

e. 9.3 The Nature of Flowsheet Before you can attempt to do any calculations you have to have some way of representing the chemical plant on sheets of paper. the simplest. 2 output streams. 4 input streams. but only two streams leaving. Using this law For the above given system.3 M5 The section of the plant has four different streams entering it. Each section may be simple or complex.4 Interpreting a block diagram Let us consider the block diagram (system) shown below.1 ∑ OUTPUT MASS = ∑ ACCUMULATED MASS RATE OF INPUT . It is obviously important that all the inputs and outputs of mass with respect to the system are identified.it will not balance.1 is an expression of the conservation of Mass and this statement will apply to any quantity for which a conservation law holds. the balance will not be correct. the block diagram is appropriate. One way is to draw a flowsheet.Mass Balances 9. MA can be positive (increase) or negative (decrease) Equation 9.e. i. ∑ INPUT MASS or MA 9. if we miss any component or stream. Remember mass balance is based on law of conservation of mass which states that mass can be neither created nor destroyed.2 3 4 This figure uses squares or rectangles to represent sections of the plant.RATE OF OUTPUT = RATE OF ACCUMULATION WhereM1 to M6 can be mass (kg) or mass flow rate (kg/s) and MA is accumulated mass (kg) or rate of accumulation (kg/s). 14 .e. M4 M1 Accumulation MA M2 M3 M6 Figure 9. There are actually several different kinds of flowsheet and at this stage. 1 2 Figure 9. i.( M5 + M6 ) = i. M1 + M2 + M3 + M4 . The input streams are combining in some way and then leaving the unit via two separate pipes.

but that at any given point they do not change with time. and in both cases an accumulation term was an important part of the balance.e. For example.4 we wrote material balances in terms of the total mass and in terms of a specific atomic species (carbon balance). of C – atoms on LHS = No of C – atoms on RHS No of H – atoms on LHS = No. we often deal with systems or processes that operate or are operated under steady-state conditions. H2O CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 44 2 x 18 80 Mass Total mass Even though a reaction takes place mass in = mass out Also No. CH4 O2 CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) 16 2 x 32 80 CO2. will be valid. At steady state. depends on the masses of the atoms that make up the material. We can then write ( More details on atom balance given in section 22). such a balance in terms of mass must be valid.Mass Balances Specifically for the case of material. it must be understood that atoms are neither created nor destroyed.they cannot alter the relative numbers of atoms present. It is often useful to write balances in terms of specific atoms. Any balance. In practice. at least not in the chemical processes we consider. temperature. Carbon atoms are neither created nor destroyed.5 Steady State Operations In section 9. and this leads to simplification with respect to the accumulation term . from one moment to another. suppose carbon is involved in some way in a process. A steady-state operation is one in which conditions within the process or system do not change with time. concentration) are necessarily the same from one point to another within the system. MA = 0) ∴ INPUT = OUTPUT 15 . Input (of C atoms) — output (of C atoms) = Accumulation (of C atoms) It is important to note that this balance applies even if chemical reactions take place. there can be no accumulation (i. or matter. It is important to realise that the mass of material. of H – atoms on RHS No of O – atoms on LHS = No. that is. This balance holds even if chemical reactions take place. atom balances. pressure. Example When methane reacts with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide and water. This does not imply that conditions (for example. which depends on the concept of the conservation of atomic species. Write a balanced reaction equation. of O – atoms on RHS 9.

The beaker is now a large vessel. After a time the valve is closed to stop the flow of water. The salt solution flows out. either by gravity or with the aid of a pump. 16 . Water is being pumped into the vessel at a steady rate and salt is being metered in continuously and constantly. Solid NaCl is then poured into the vessel.Mass Balances i. maintaining a constant level in the tank. through a hole in the top. so the concentration of salt in tank is steady. The amount in the vessel changes with time from zero to the total amount of salt solution and then back to zero. When all the salt has dissolved a valve in the outlet pipe is opened.e. and an agitator is switched on to mix in the salt and help to dissolve. M1 + M2 + M3 + M4 = M5 + M6 10. Suppose the situation has been going on for quite a long time. then some solid NaCl is added. Since the vessel has a limited volume there must be continuous flow of liquid (solution) out of it. having identical composition.1 2m3 water and 100 kg salt are put into a tank.each activity takes place in sequence.e. (density of water is 1000 kg m-3) (a) What is the mass water used? (b) What is the total mass of salt and water? (c) What is the mass of salt solution produced? (d) What is the concentration of salt in salt solution? Case 2: Now think of the block representing a vessel which is already full of salt solution. Now think of a similar situation on a chemical plant.we do not know precisely how. The rate of flow in each pipe also changes with time . except that for part of the time there is no flow in each pipe and for part of the sequence there is flow. Water is passed into the vessel by opening a valve in the inlet pipe and pumping it in. A stirrer is mixing the vessel contents effectively. This is an example of a batch process . This is called the steady state. a sample taken now and another taken in an hour would be indistinguishable. i. EXERCISE 10. Some water is put into it. Let us carry out what is called material balance or mass balance on system. then the beaker is shaken until the salt has dissolved and the mixture is poured out. Systems Without Chemical Reactions Case 1: Think of the block representing a beaker in a laboratory.

We can continue drawing dotted boxes anywhere. two outputs.air inside an envelope. defining new systems and every time. as derived in the previous section. S4 S1 S2 At steady state we can say that S3 S5 Figure 11. (a) What is the rate of mass input of water? (b) What is the total rate of mass input of salt and water? (c) What is the mass of salt solution produced? (d) What is the concentration of salt in salt solution? 11 Defining a system -creating an envelope On the block diagram (figure 11. total input must equal total output at steady state. at steady state. Salt is metered in continuously at a rate of 100 kg/h. S4 and S5. as shown below. S1 and S2 . S3 is neither an input nor an output. the dotted box or “envelope” representing a new system or block.2 S5 This new system has two inputs. each block can represent a simple piece of equipment or a complex section. In considering this new system. 17 . S4 S1 S2 S3 Figure 11. For some purposes we may wish to combine blocks together. Suppose we label the streams around the first 2 blocks. i. salt solution is produced by good mixing and is removed continuously. It is therefore not an element in the mass balance for the revised system. Where we draw these boxes or envelope requires a little skill which is only obtained by practice.1). it does not pass through the dotted box. S1 + S2 = S4 + S5.1 S1 + S2 = S3 for the first block and S3 = S4 + S5 for the second block so. i.e. as stated previously. NOTE: A stream can not start or finish in mid.2 Water is fed into a tank continuously at a rate of 2m3/h. eliminating S3 S1 + S2 = S4 + S5 The same 2 blocks and the same input and input streams are now drawn with a dotted box around them.e.Mass Balances EXERCISE 10.

Total inputs into the System = Total outputs from it Exercise 11. and subscripts i and o signifies input and output. separation (distillation) and evaporation where no chemical reactions take place. write down as many mass balance equations as possible.e. respectively. In practise it is usually most convenient to write down the overall balance plus the balances for (n-1) components.e moles).1 By considering all the possible envelope that could be drawn in the following system. Mass of any component in a stream is determined using the following equation: Mass of a component in a stream = Mass flow of the stream x fraction of the component in that stream A component mass balance (abbreviated to CMB) for component y will give M 1 * y1 + In general. i. This is done in addition to the overall mass balance i. ONLY on a mass basis . Since the sum of these (i. M 1 y1 M3 y3 where y is the fraction of a component M 2 y2 M 4 y4 The principle we will be using is that the total mass of a component entering a system should be equal to the total mass of the same component exiting the system.e. Useful in mixing.hence MASS BALANCE. there are n independent equations for each envelope. M4 M 1 M7 M6 M5 M8 Now do Tutorial B M9 M2 M3 12 Component Balances in Systems without Chemical Reactions It is frequently necessary to consider the components of the stream involved in a process. several components) gives the OMB this overall balance is not an independent equation.e. Hence. 18 . n n i =1 M 2 * y2 =M3 * y3 + M4 * y4 + MAyA at steady state = 0 ∑ M i yi = ∑M oYo o =1 Where n = number of components. total input and output.Mass Balances An envelope that is usually well worth considering is the overall mass balance(OMB). NOTE: In a reacting system component balance CAN NOT be expressed in volumetric basis( i.

e.2 – page 17): We can say RATE OF SALT INPUT = RATE OF SALT OUT PUT This is valid even though the input salt is pure (i. water and brine (salt solution) over the system shown if: 1 2 = = 100 100 = 2100 = 0.2) Stream 1 is 2000 kg/h brine. exercise 10. When the concentration of every component in a mixture is known. Carry out an OMB 100 + 2000 ∴ M3 = = M3 2100 1 Now carry out a CMB for salt salt 100 * 1 + 2000 * 0 = M 3 * y3 2 Substituting for M3 in equation (2) given above 2100 * y3 y3 Exercises 12.1) Stream 1 contains 100 kg/h NaCl and 2000 kg/h water Stream 2 contains 50 kg/h NaCl and 500 kg/h water. we can refer to the composition of the mixture.1. 100%) and the output salt is dissolved. It does NOT mean that 12% of the phenol input goes into stream A EXERCISE 13. The concentration of phenol in stream A is 12% by weight.1 & 10. having a concentration of 5. 13 Composition and Concentration Exercise 12. The previous salt solution problem (i. Find the flow rates of salt solution. having a concentration of 3.e.0476 4.76% w/w NaCl means that if you take a sample (of any size) and analyse it.76% of the mass of the sample is salt and 95. the composition of stream A is 12% w/w phenol. water and salt in stream 3 12. For example.8% w/w NaCl Find the flow rate of stream 3 and the concentration of salt in stream 3. 88% w/w water. carry out material balance for NaCl.Mass Balances e.76 % w/w 3 12.2 used the concept of concentration (as did exercises 10.24% of the mass is water.g. A concentration of 4.1 19 .1 & 12. in figure 13.2).2 Assuming steady state.1% w/w NaCl Steam 2 is 600 kg/h brine. This seems very simple at this stage but it is vital that you remember it in more complex situations. you will find that 4.

Make the answer stand out by underlining or by leaving a space after it.8 0 100 kg/h 1 % w/w A 35 B 45 20 2 . Make an overall balance (OMB). Draw an envelope around the system on which you are doing the balance. This step is the beginning of a statement of all the materials that interact with the system and is an absolutely essential step. Tabulate your results if this makes the presentation easier. but in any case it is good practise). Make neat calculations. Check the answer is sensible and possibly for accuracy by an independent method.1 Find the flow rate of all the product streams for the system given below. Give references for data used in the problem (it may help you later if values need checking. 14 Approach to Mass Balances 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Draw a block (flow) diagram. Add all available information on this diagram. with headings.1 Note: concentration of phenol and water in products does not add up to 100. and make a component balance (CMB) if there are no chemical reactions. Write balanced chemical reaction(s). Usually choose a stream for which a lot of data are known.Mass Balances phenol 100 kg water 100 kg A phenol = 12 % w/w water = 88 % w/w B phenol = 62 % w/w water = 38 % w/w Figure 13. 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) EXAMPLE 14.2 0. Select a suitable basis. State assumptions made. Construct an input-output table in which you identify and tabulate all the incoming and outgoing materials. % A B C w/w 99. if any.

0 B 99. Choosing a starting point is called CHOOSING THE BASIS for the calculation.Mass Balances C 20 % A B C w/w 0 0.5 % w/w A 1. In general.8 units could be used for the feed rate and the answer would be found equally correctly. but not always .0 15 Basis and Scaling In exercise 14. It is usually best to start with 100 units for convenience. Depending on the information available some times a product stream can also be taken as a basis. A value of 0.5 99. but the first step would require additional calculations to find the flow rates of each component in the feed.0 C 0. Always write down the basis. The best way in either case is to perform the calculations exactly as already done and then scale up or down all the numbers in the same ratio to give the desired value.1 the feed was given as 100 kg/h and all the other flow rates were calculated. Suppose the problem was to find the flow rate of feed that produces 850 kg/h of distillate from column 2 or the feed rate that produces 684 kg/h of B in the bottoms from column 2. basis should be based on the stream which has more information available compared to the other streams. If the scaling is going to take place it does not really matter whether the initial feed rate is taken to be 100 units (in this case kg/h) or 1 unit or any other number. 21 .there will be special cases later on. The concentrations all remain unchanged.

The CO2 is removed from the top of the regenerator. In the system shown below. together with water vapour. H2O feed gas 2500 kg/h H2O vapour + Heat CO2 21 % w/w Absorber Regenerator 22 .Mass Balances Exercise 15. How much CO2 is taken from the top of the regenerator? MEA solution Stripped gas CO2 0.3 % w/w absorbent liquid ( MEA solution) feed gas CO2 21% w/w Exercise 15.1 What proportion of the carbon dioxide in the feed gas is absorbed into the liquid in the system shown.3 % w/w CO2. when the concentration in the gas stream is reduced from 21% w/w to 0.2 MEA solution The MEA solution used in exercise 15. the feed gas flow rate is 2500 kg/h.3% w/w. stripped gas CO2 0.1 is regenerated by using steam (heat) and a reduction in pressure. This releases the CO2 and the solution can be recycled.

Balance the equation for each type of atom. The numbers in front of each species are the stoichiometric coefficients. N2. Br2. HNO3 when balancing the equations. Rules for writing chemical reactions 1. g. Remember atoms cannot be neither created nor destroyed. F2. it tells us the mole proportion of each species used up and produced. As well as showing the nature of the reactants and products. Reactants are put on the left hand side of the equation and the products on the right side of the equation with an arrow in between them. Using symbols for elements and formulae for compounds equations can be written for chemical reactions. For example. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) 23 . Here the left hand side of the equation has two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. the balanced (stoichoimetric) equation: 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) indicates that two moles of SO2 react with one mole of O2 to produce 2 moles of SO3.N2. This law is generally known as conservation of mass. F2. You can only put numbers in front of them e. l. 2 Never try to change the formula of a compound such as H2SO4. (using large numbers in front of the formulae). The above balanced equations tell us about STOICHIOMETRIC RATIOS In a balanced equation the number of atoms of each species must be the same on both sides of the equation. H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l) 2.g. O2.g. By putting suitable numbers in front of the species. I2 and Br2 only. This violates the law of conservation of atoms (mass). Cl2. 1 can be inserted in front of di-atomic molecules such as H2. Make sure you do not change any formulae. aq ) of the substances. O2 . e. I2 b) for compounds use valencies c) give the state (s. whereas the right hand side of the equation has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. the equation can be balanced to give: 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) or H2(g) The fraction + 1 O2 (g) 2 2 H2O(l) H2O(l) this equation is also valid. Na2SO4.Mass Balances 16 BALANCED EQUATIONS (STOICHIOMETRY) and Moles Chemical equations provide us with information about reactants and products. to balance the equation. Write the correct formula for all the substances in reaction equation (small numbers as subscripts to indicate the number of atoms of a species in a compound) a) for elements use the symbol from the periodic table except H2 . Cl2.

Remember that in carrying out mass balances you can balance mass. Na2CO3(s) +2 HCl(aq) CO2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) The equation for the action of heat on sodium hydrogen carbonate.g. If the mass is expressed in kg it is called kmol. you may convert moles of product to a mass. CH4 + 2O2 7O2 2 → CO2 + 2H2O --------(1) 3H2O ---------(2) C2H6 + → 2CO2 + First of all make sure the reaction equation is balanced. abbreviated to mol. the number of atoms on LHS should be equal to the number of atoms on RHS. NOTE: Mass & atoms are not destroyed. first convert mass into moles by dividing mass by RMM (refer to section 5). This is called a decomposition reaction. but moles can be created or destroyed as atoms recombine. 24 . in the second reaction 4 ½ moles are reacting to produce 5 moles. The chemical equation provides necessary information essential to complete a mass balance for the given reaction. Chemists tend to use mol. As previously stated in section 5.g. In reaction 1 number of moles in reactants is equal to number of moles in the products. Inspect the above two reactions.g. e. Hydrogen is written as H2. e. e. Kmol are much more convenient quantities than mol in chemical engineering. i. Once you have calculated the number of moles of products by using the stoichiometric ratios.0 kmol H2S = 3 * 34 = 102 kg In reacting systems it is easier to work with moles If the selected basis is mass. 1 mole of CO2 and 1 mole of water. BUT NOT MOLES.0 kmol H2O = 18 kg 3. However. You can also carry out atom balance. heat 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) The above equation tells us that 2 moles of NaHCO3 give 1 mole of Na2CO3. since each molecule of hydrogen has two atoms. 1.e.0 kmol CO = 28 kg 1.Mass Balances On the above reaction solid zinc reacts with a solution of sulphuric acid to give a solution of zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas. the formula weight of a chemical expressed in grams is called a mole.

the composition in vol % is the same as the composition in mol %. It is generally desirable that some of the reacting materials be present in excess of the amounts theoretically required for combination with others. Under such conditions the products obtained will contain some of the unreacted reactants.5 kg of propane reacts? How much water is produced when 250 kg of carbon dioxide is produced? How much propane is required to produce 100 kg carbon dioxide? How many kmol of propane will produce 15 kmol of CO2? How many kmol of water are produced when 10 kmol of propane reacts? 17 Mol % and Vol % In many calculations it is much more convenient to work in mol% and kmol than in any other units. If the reactants are made available in quantities proportional to those indicated in the chemical equation. these reactants are said to be available in stoichiometric quantities. Example 25 .G. if you know the quantity of a component the quantity of other reactants and the products can be found by knowing the stoichiometric ratios of the species involved in the reaction. E. Coefficient of the unknown species Stoichiometric ratio = Coefficient of the known species Exercise 16. In most industrial processes the quantities of reactants supplied are usually not in the exact proportions demanded by the reaction equation. Refer to section 7.1 C3H8 + a) b) c) d) e) 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O How much CO2 is formed if 5. Therefore. The quantities of the desired compounds formed in the reaction will be determined by the quantity of the limiting reactants.5. Thus the amount of a reactant theoretically required for complete conversion of other reactants is called the stoichiometric quantity (refer to section 16). It is useful to remember that for any gaseous system at low pressure. where the ideal gas law can be assumed to apply.Mass Balances In a reacting system. Other reactants are called excess reactants simply because they are supplied in excess of the stoichiometric amount. N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 In the above reaction if 2 kmol of N2 is reacted with 6 kmol of H2. 18 Limiting Reactants and Excess Reactants. limiting reactant is the reactant that is present in the smallest stoichiometric amount. the reactants are in stoichiometric proportion and there is no limiting reactant or excess reactant.

25 .75 kmol Percent excess is defined as mole % excess = input – required* required* X 100 * Required = amount required for 100 % completion of the reaction. The product SO3 is governed entirely by the amount of SO2. which is called the LIMITING reactant. SO2 reacted = 1. The degree of completion of a reaction is generally expressed as the percentage of the limiting reactant. Such partial completion may result from the establishment of an equilibrium in the reacting mass or from insufficient time or opportunity for completion.5 x 100 = 150 % 19 Degree of Completion or Conversion (incomplete reaction) Even though some of the reactants required for the manufacture of a chemical may be present in excess there is no guarantee that the limiting reactant will undergo complete reaction.25 – 0.0 x stoichiometric ratio = 1 x 1 = 1 kmol O2 unreacted = in – reacted =1. it is the EXCESS reactant. 26 . Therefore there is an excess of O 2 above the stoichiometric requirement.0.5 kmol SO3 formed = 1. As O2 in feed is above the stoichiometric requirement. which is converted or decomposed into other products.Mass Balances SO2 1 kmol O2 1.5 kmol.25 kmol. but the amount supplied is 1. ( see next section) mol % excess O2 = 1.5 = 0.25 kmol SO2 + Burner SO3 O2 → SO3 1 O2 2 From the above balanced equation it can be seen that the amount of oxygen required for complete combustion of 1 kmol of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide is 0.5 0.0 kmol O2 reacted(required) = 1 x stiochiometric ratio = 1 x 0.5 = 0.

6 Amount of urea formed = CO2 reacted x ratio = 1. limiting reactant and the composition of the product.reacted = 2 – 1. the excess reactant is NH3 and the limiting reactant is CO2.4 kmol = 1.2 kmol Unreacted NH3 = in – reacted = 5 – 3. In – required % Excess NH3 = Required x 100 = 4 5-4 x 100 = 25 % As the limiting reactant is CO2. (only 80 % converted) Amount of CO2 converted = 2 X 0.6 kmol Amount of NH3 consumed = amount of CO2 reacted x stoichiometric ratio = 1. the conversion is based on CO2.6 x 2 = 3.8 = 1.will give the same answer) Step 3 Write a balanced reaction equation CO2 + 2 NH3 NH2COONH4 Stoichiometric ratio of NH3/CO2 = 2/1 =2 (urea) Step 4 Now you can start the calculation. solution As per stoichiometry.6 kmol From this step onwards the amount of CO2 reacted ( limiting reactant) forms the basis for rest of the calculation. determine the excess reactant. percentage excess.2 = 1. 80 % conversion urea CO2 NH3 Step 2 Select a suitable basis Basis: 2 kmol of CO2 (we could also select NH3 as our basis.6 x 1 (based on the amount of limiting reactant reacted) = 0. Step 1 2 kmol CO2 5 kmol NH3 Draw the block diagram and write down all the information. Unreacted CO2 = in .Mass Balances Example If 2 kmol of CO2 is reacted with 5 kmol of NH3 in the production of urea and the conversion is 80 mol%.8 Kmol 27 . amount of NH3 needed to react with 2 kmol of CO2 = 2 x stoichiometric ratio =2x2 = 4 kmol As there are 5 kmol of NH3.

% v/v 13.10 100.37 42.375 product gas composition .5O2 → SO3 = 2.8 Mol% 10.20 100.8 Amount of unreacted SO2 = in – reacted = 5 – 4 = 1 kmol = 4 kmol = 2.Mass Balances Final Step List the composition in a tabular format Kmol 0. Determine the product composition Order of calculation SO2 5 kmol O2 75% excess Basis: 5 kmol SO2 in the inlet SO2 + 0.375 kmol Amount of SO3 formed (based on SO2 reacted) = 4.375 7.0 kmol Burner 80% completion SO3 SO2 O2 ( 1 + excess /100) Theoretical oxygen requirement = 5 x ratio= 5 x 0.375 Products.56 54.0 4. but the reaction is only 80% complete.375 – 2.53 47.5) = 4 * 0.6 3.0 Composition of Products Component CO2 NH3 NH2COONH4 Total Example.5( 1 + (75/100)) Conversion is 80% ∴ Amount of SO2 reacted= in x % conversion = 5 * 0. In a burner 5 kmol SO2 was burned with 75% excess oxygen.5 kmol = 4.0 2.5(ratio) Amount of unreacted O2 in exit stream = in – reacted = 4.0 x 1(ratio) Amount of O2 consumed (SO2:O2 = 1: 0.00 28 .24 32.0 kmol = 2.5 But excess is 75% ∴ Actual O2 in feed = 2.4 1. kmol 5.8 1.0 4.375 kmol = 4. kmol 1.0 Component SO2 SO3 O2 Total Reactants.375 9.

0 4.0 2.0 18.75 OUTPUT S O 1.75 5.375 kmol 1. When substances are unaffected by reaction. but the distinction is not normally considered important. 29 . but you really do need to be sure that there is no reaction ( an atom balance example is given later on).375 * 2= 4.0 * 2= 10.0 4. Atom balance is not strictly balancing mass between the inlet and outlet. It is better described as a material balance. S and O INPUT S O 5 5.75 5.375*2= 8. the balance could be in kmol units.0 * 2= 2.0 2.375 Atom balance is the ultimate check to verify whether the solution is correct or not.75 Component SO2 SO3 O2 Total Kmol 5.0 4. It is a balance on the atomic species present.e.0 4.0 4.0 18. but it is exactly equivalent.0 * 3= 12.Mass Balances Check the atom balance i.0 1.

therefore convert given mass to moles. and of this 95% of ethane was converted to carbon dioxide and the balance to carbon monoxide. Solution Step 1 Draw the diagram and write down all the available information. Air feed is in excess. R1 R2 C2H6 + 7/2 O2 C2H6 + 5/2 O2 2 CO2 + 2 CO + 3 H2O 3 H2O Step 4 Check the units and convert. Determine the composition of the product stream.Mass Balances Example 150 kg/s of ethane (C2H6) was burned in 60 % excess air. 60 % excess 90%9 conversion 90 95 % of 90% 5 % of 90 % 5 CO2 CO C2H6 O2 N2 CO2 CO H2O As only 90 % of C2H6 reacts. if necessary It is easier to work with mols than mass(kg). Due to burner inefficiency only 90% of the ethane was combusted. there should be unreacted C2H6 in the product stream. excess O2 and N2(comes out unreacted) should be in the product stream Step 2 Select a suitable basis Basis: 150 kg/s ethane in feed Step 3 Write balanced reaction equations There are two separate reactions taking place: one producing CO2 and another producing CO. therefore. there should be CO2 & CO in the product stream. Number of moles of ethane = mass/ RMM = 150/30 = 5 kmols Now we are in a position to do serious calculations! 30 . Ethane 150kg/s Air. As part of reacting C2H6 is converted to CO2 and part to CO. Water is a combustion product and therefore should be in the product stream.

now calculate the reactants and products involved in R2 Reaction 2 (5% of reacted ethane) As for R1.225 kmol/s 31 .5 kmol/s NOTE: Now this reacted C2H6 forms the basis for rest of the calculation.275 x 2 = 8. start with the known reactant (i.275 x coefficient ratio = 4.5/1 = 3.825 kmol/s Step 7 Having finished with R1. C2H6) and then calculate the air feed from the given information.e.Mass Balances In these types of combustion reactions.275 kmol/s Now this 4.963 kmol/s = 4.275 x 3 = 12.5 kmol/s = 28 kmol/s = 105. Unreacted C2H6 = in – reacted = 5 – 4.275 x coefficient Ratio = 4.275 kmol/s forms the basis for rest of the calculation for reaction 1 Amount of oxygen reacted Amount of CO2 produced Amount of H2O produced = 4.5 kmol/s Step 6 Determine the reactants and products involved in R1 Reaction 1 ( 95% of reacted ethane) – work from left to right Amount of ethane reacted = 4.5 x 0.5 = 0.5 First calculate the theoretical O2 and then the actual O2 using the excess value.e. Theoretical O2 required to burn ethane = moles of C2H6 x coefficient ratio Coefficient of unknown component Note : coefficient ratio = Coefficient of known component Coefficient ratio = moles of O2/ moles of C2H8 = 3.275 x 7/2 = 14.275 x coefficient Ratio = 4.05 = 0. ∴ Theoretical O2 = 5 x 3.55 kmol/s = 4.95 = 4. Next step is to use the given reaction details ( i.5 But excess = 60% = 17.5 x 0.9 = 4.33 kmol/s ∴Actual O2 in air feed Step 5 Nitrogen in air feed (N2:O2 = 79:21 v/v) = 28 x (79/21 ) Determine the amount of C2H6 reacted (& unreacted) Amount of ethane reacted = moles of C2H6 in feed x % conversion = 5 x 0.5 (1 + 60/100) = 17. work from left to right Amount of ethane reacted = 4. Step 4 Determine the quantity of air feed Remember excess air calculation is always based on complete combustion unless otherwise stated. information inside the box) and systematically work through the problem.

32 9.675 kmol/s Step 8 calculate O2.474 105.675 = 13.0 105. H2O in product gas Oxygen is consumed in reactions 1 & 2 ∴Unreacted O2 = in – R1 –R2 = 28 – 14.225 x coefficient ratio = 0.33 In.0 28. Component C2H6 O2 N2 CO2 CO H2O Total RMM 30 32 28 44 28 18 In.07 0.225 x 2 = 0.5 140.36 8.5 12.45 13.33 8. kg 15.474 kmol/s = 12.563 kmol/s = 0.45 kmol/s = 0.Mass Balances NOTE: Now this 0.474 105. you can check your answer.5 12. Undesired products are also formed when the desired product reacts with one or 32 .33 8.60 243.225 x coefficient ratio = 0.225 x 3 = 0.81 6.24 376.0.804 Step 10 CHECK: As mass in = mass out.00 3995.0 399.33 kmol/s Mol % 0.24 Out.45 13.86 74.55 0. therefore N2 in = N2 out Tabulate your results Component C2H6 O2 N2 CO2 CO H2O Total Kmol/s 0.20 12. kmol/s 0.208 3995. therefore the answer is correct 20 Conversion.59 100. kmol/s 5.5 Out.168 2949.825 + 0.225 kmol/s forms the basis for rest of the calculation for reaction 2 Amount of oxygen consumed Amount of CO formed Amount of H2O formed = 0.55 0.563 = 12. kg 150.24 Mass in = mass out .0 2949.225 x 5/2 = 0. Yield and Selectivity In most chemical processes several chemical reactions takes place simultaneously resulting in unwanted products (by-products) in addition to the desired product.963 – 0.5 kmol/s = 105.01 H2O is produced in R1 & R2 ∴Total H2O in product stream Step 9 = R1 + R2 N 2 is a tie substance.225 x coefficient ratio = 0.0 896.

Consider the following reaction A C moles of A reacted Conversion = moles of A in feed moles of B produced X 100 moles of A reacted moles of B in product Selectivity of B = moles of C in product 33 X 100 X 100 B C where C is the undesired product X 100 Yield = . To understand the difference between conversion. the yield in this process will be defined on the basis of the amount of nitrobenzene produced. As nitrobenzene is the desired product. moles of nitrobenzene produced % Yield = moles of benzene reacted total moles of benzene reacted % Conversion = moles of benzene in feed moles of nitrobenzene Selectivity of nitrobenzene = moles of dinitrobenzene E. The reaction is: C6H6 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 + H2O maximise this reaction Unfortunately. The amount of dinitrobenzene depends on the excess quantities of HNO3 in the initial reaction mixture. yield and selectivity consider the reaction between benzene and nitric acid in the production of nitrobenzene. The terms ”yield & selectivity” are terms that measures the degree to which a desired reaction proceeds relative to competing undesired reactions. Undesired products cause loss in profit by chemical plants and. in practice it is observed some of the nitrobenzene further reacts with nitric acid to form dinitrobenzene as per the following reaction: C6H5NO2 + HNO3 C6H4(NO2)2 + H2O minimise this reaction This means that the final product will contain nitrobenzene as well as unwanted dinitrobenzene in addition to water and unreacted benzene. therefore.Mass Balances more of the reactants.G. it is necessary to maximise the desired products and minimise the undesired products by controlling the reaction conditions.

yield. e. Calculate the conversion. 34 .Mass Balances Example Consider 100 kmoles of C6H6 is charged into the nitrating reactor and after 2 hrs the products were analysed and found to contain 8 kmoles of benzene and 8 kmoles of dinitrobenzene.g.5 x 100 = 91. It is normally very useful in solving problems.3 x 100 = 92 % = 84 kmol % conversion= % yield % = selectivity = 21 Tie-Substances ( inerts) A compound that goes directly from an input stream to an output stream without any chemical change is called a tie-substance. (because C6H6 reacts via R1 only) The amount of dinitrobenzene (given) ( from R2) = 8 kmol ∴Nitrobenzene reacted in R2 = 8 x ratio = 8 x 1 ∴ = 8 kmol amount of nitrobenzene in product stream = nitrobenzene from R1 – nitrobenzene reacted in R2 =92 – 8 amount of C6H6 converted 92 x 100 C6H6 in feed moles of C6H5NO2 = 100 84 x moles of C6H6 reacted moles of C6H5NO2 100 = 92 84 = moles of C6H4(NO2)2 8 = 10. the initial amount of C6H5NO2 formed is also 92 kmol. Solution 100 kmole C6H6 HNO3 Nitrating reactor 8 kmoles C6H6 8 kmoles C6H4(NO2)2 X kmoles C6H5NO2 The reaction equations are: R1 R2 C6H6 + HNO3 HNO3 C6H5NO2 C6H4(NO2)2 = 100 – 8 + + H2O H2O = 92 kmol C6H5NO2 + The amount of C6H6 reacted As 92 kmol of benzene reacted. and selectivity of nitrobenzene. It forms a “tie” between an input stream and an output stream.

we must take into consideration the associated nitrogen in air.1 105 100 If the air used is 30% in excess of that theoretically required to completely oxidize hydrochloric acid gas.1 & 15. calculate the composition by volume of dry gases.1 A reactor produces a liquid and a waste gas stream. 80 mol% nitrogen and 12 mol% carbon dioxide and the nitrogen input to the reactor was in the form of air. 22 Dry and wet basis When a gas stream containing water vapour is cooled to a point where water begins to condense out the remaining gas composition changes.9 19 18. For example. A simple alternative way to express the composition uses the concept of a dry basis. The reaction taking place is : 4HCl(g) + O2(g) → 2 Cl2(g) + 2 H2O (g) kmol 62 24 19 12 117 wet basis mol% 53.Mass Balances When oxygen is needed for a reaction to take place in most cases it is supplied in the form of air. and if the oxidation is 80% complete. the mass balance says that what went in should come out. It does NOT mean that there is no water present. hydrochloric acid is oxidised with air.5 16.3 100. the concentration of the water reduces and the concentration of the air rises.5 kmol. MEA etc. Exercise 21. The “dry gas” is simply that part of the mixture which is not water vapour.5 * 79/21 = 28. leaving the reaction chamber.e. so as the water condenses. the water is ignored in the main analysis. if the initial composition is 95% air and 5% water and most of the water is removed. As air contains nitrogen ( we will ignore argon and CO 2 ). The composition of air can be taken as 79 mol% (vol%) N2 and 21 mol% O2 If the O2 input is 7.1 In the Deacon process for manufacturing chlorine. 35 . This can be a nuisance.2 10. everything (i. the dry basis composition remains unchanged.0 dry basis kmol mol% 62 59. then N2 input = 7. If the gas has the composition 8 mol% oxygen. Note: If you look again at exercises 15.) other than CO2 formed a composite tie-substance.2 kmol. In this method.2. Therefore nitrogen output must also be 28.0 20. towards 100%. Example Component Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Oxygen Water vapour Total Exercise 22.0 24 22.2 kmol Since the nitrogen does not react. especially if the condensation occurs in stages and a new composition has to be calculated several times. calculate how much oxygen has been used in the reactor per kmol air input.

Also the number of oxygen atoms in feed should be equal to the number of oxygen atoms in the product stream. oxygen atoms of CO2 and oxygen atoms of H2O should be added together to balance the oxygen atoms in the feed stream. Even if we do not know the details of the chemical reactions taking place within the unit it is still possible to do a balance around the unit by carrying out atom balances. The atom balance is based on the concept of the conservation of atomic species. Therefore. the number of carbon atoms in the feed stream (CH4) should be equal to the number of carbon atoms in the product stream (CO2). consider methane gas is burned in a boiler to generate steam. i.e. + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O 36 . For example. That is atoms are neither created nor destroyed. Number of oxygen atoms in O2 = number of oxygen atoms in CO2 + number of oxygen atoms in H2O Atom balances can be carried out even if there is no chemical reaction taking place. reactors) there is a range of components entering and leaving the system.Mass Balances 23 Atom Balances In some of the chemical processes (e. The reaction equation is: CH4 (g) (v) Even though there is a chemical reaction taking place.g. In the product stream oxygen is present in both CO2 and H2O. the number of hydrogen atoms in feed (CH 4) should be equal to number of hydrogen atoms in the product stream (H2O). Similarly.

Since there is no C2H4 in the product stream we could eliminate calculation.6 69. even if steam is present in the gaseous product. but mass and atoms do balance. Find the molar ratio of methane and ethane in the feed stream. For the production of NH3.Mass Balances ATOM BALANCE EXAMPLE One of the processes commonly used to produce hydrogen for various refining and petrochemical operations is to react methane rich natural with excess steam in the presence of nickel catalyst. Let’s carry out recommended procedure 1) Draw flow diagram 2) Draw input/output table 3) Basis – 100 kmol of H2 rich dry product gas (most information is available).(note steam is also supplied in excess) Required to calculate ratio of CH4 and C2H6 on molar basis. nitrogen and hydrogen are needed. equation 3 and equation 4? (iii) Do all 3 reactions take place? Now the big question is If we can’t write equations and do not know the extend of reactions. As methane rich stream also contains ethane.9 In Teesside there is an ammonia plant at Billingham . 37 .3 18. Possible reactions are: C2H6  C2H4 + H2 CH4 + H2O  CO + 3H2 CH4 + 2H2O  CO2 + 4H2 CO + H2O  CO2 + H2 1 2 3 4 Problem gives analysis of product gas on dry basis. This implies that. 4) Write balanced (stoichiometry) reaction equations ( given above). Now the problem is (i) To what extent does each of the other reactions take place? (ii) How much from equation 2. it is not included in the analysis for the reason given in section 22. what can we balance? equation 1 from our Remember kmols do not necessarily balance.6 4. several reactions are possible. In this example steam is present in the product gases. The dry gas composition of the product leaving the reformer is given below:. Component CH4 C2H6 CO CO2 H2 Molar Percentage 4.6 2.

6 1 x 4. M. Since steam is the excess reactant a portion of steam in the feed will exit the reformer unreacted. S and W. E & S) and three elements(i.9 Reacted S 2xS 1xS steam(H2O) Unreacted W W steam There are four unknowns : M.6 H2 69.3 6 x 2. K mol H atom M 4xM E 6xE INPUT C atom O atom K mol OUTPUT H atom C atom O atom CH4 1xM 4.9 H2O W kmol Basis: 100 kmol of dry product gas. In steam reforming reactions carbon to steam ratio in the feed is about 3 to prevent carbon deposition on the catalyst – this reduces the activity of the catalysts.6 1 x 18. 38 . Atom Balance Solution CH4 M FURNACE C2H6 E Steam S+W Product gas dry basis composition Mol% CH4 4.3 2 x 2. The normal method of writing equation does not work! So what do we do? In the feed streams let CH4 C2H6 Reacted steam Unreacted steam = M kmol = E kmol = S kmol = W kmol Now construct the input/output atom balance table as shown below.6 CO2 4. we could eliminate this.& O). Now we are left with three unknowns (i. As W does not react( W in = W out). This excess steam will not be considered in the calculation.6 C2H6 2.6 C2H6 2xE 2.3 CO 18.6 H2 69.3 CO 18. Mass of all elements = K atoms in = K atoms out (Avagadro’s number is omitted in the atom balance because the factor 6. C.6 4 x 4.6 CO2 4. But we have only three elements: C.Mass Balances Mass of kg of element = K atoms RAM For steady state.6 1 x 18.022 x 1023 will always appear on both sides of the balance and cancel out) So we can balance atoms.E. H and O.e.e.6 2 x 4.9 2 x 69.6 1 x 4.H.

8 = 172 Now substituting for M in equation 4 4(32.2 = 2.6 – 8E + 6E + 55. 3 4 2 39 .6 + 2 x 4.6 -2E = -13. but may take longer to solve. because there is no oxygen in CH4 and C2H6.4 – 2 x 6.4 – 2E) + 6E + 2 x 27. Atom balance will always work. If it does not work then try atom balance.6 + 2 x 2.91 E 6.6 – 129. W in = W out).3 + 18.9 4M + 6E + 2S = 172 O – atom balance Oxygen in CO and CO2 could have come only from reacted steam.Mass Balances C – atom balance INPUT = OUTPUT M + 2E = 4.4 – 2E) H – atom balance 1 (only consider H2O which reacted ) 4M + 6E + 2S = 4 x 4.3 + 2 x 69.2/2 = 6. Also this water is the unreacted steam ( ie.6 M + 2E = 32.6 Always try normal mol balance first.8 kmol/ 100 kmol of dry product gases Substituting for S in equation (2) 4M + 6E + 2 x 27.2 kmol/100kmol of dry product gases Therefore. H2O is also in the output.8 = 172 129.6 kmol/ 100 kmolof dry product gases Substituting for E in equation (1) M = 32. but not reported because composition is given in dry basis.2 E = 13.6 = 172 -2E = 172 – 55.6 + 4.6 + 6 x 2.6 S = 27.6 M = 19. S = 18.4 M = (32. ratio of CH4:C2H6 = M = 19.

8 kmols This amount of hydrocarbon gases required 27. and the calculation procedure will be exactly the same as above to obtain M. 8 kmol of steam Now scale up to find the amount of steam required to react with 44.64 x = 48.2 + 6.8 ∴ Mass of required steam = 48.Mass Balances Summary of atom balance If the extent of stoichiometry cannot be determined.4 m3) Number of moles in 1000 m3 of gas = 1000/22.64 kmols of hydrocarbon gases.10 kmols 25.8 Amount of steam required = 44. 40 .E and S in kmols. We could choose a basis of 100 kmol of product gases.8 kg/ 1000 m3 of feed gas.10 x 18 = 865. Suppose now that the example asked for the number of kg of steam that react per 1000 m 3 of natural gas.64 kmols of feed gas Total mols of feed gas from our earlier calculation is = 19. 27.6 = 25. consider atom balance.4 = 44. First find out the number of kmols in 1000 m3 of feed gas( 1 kmol of any gas = 22.

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