Power Electronics and

Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
1
Chapter 2
AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
• Single-phase, half wave rectifier
– Uncontrolled
– R load
– R-L load
– R-C load
– Controlled
– Free wheeling diode
• Single-phase, full wave rectifier
– R load
– R-L load,
– Controlled R, R-L load
– continuous and discontinuous current mode
• Three-phase rectifier
– uncontrolled
– controlled
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
2
Rectifiers
• DEFINITION: Converting AC (from
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.
• Basic block diagram
• Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3-
phase).
• Output can be made fixed or variable
• Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,
Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC
AC input DC output
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
3
Single-phase, half-wave with
R-load
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
ω
t
v
o
i
o
v
s
ω
t
m
m
m avg o
V
V
t d t V V V
318 . 0
) sin(
(average), tage Output vol
0
= =
= =

π
ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
4
RMS voltage
( )
2
,
0
Output voltage (RMS)
1
sin( )
2
Output current (DC),
0.318
m
o RMS m
o m
o
V
V V t d t
V V
I
R R
π
ω ω
π
= =
= =

• DC voltage is fixed at 0.318 or 31.8% of
the peak value
• RMS voltage is reduced from 0.707
(normal sinusoidal RMS) to 0.5 or 50%
of peak value.
• Half wave is not practical because of
high distortion supply current. The
supply current contains DC component
that may saturate the input transformer
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
5
Half-wave with R-L load
+
v
TNB
_
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
i

tan and ) (
: where
) sin( ) (
: is response forced diagram, From
ly. respective response, natural" "
and forced" " as known are , : where
) ( ) ( ) (
: of form in the is Solution
equation. al differenti order first a is This
) (
) ( ) sin(
1 2 2
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
− ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
+ =
+ =

R
L
L R Z
t
Z
V
t i
i i
t i t i t i
dt
t di
L R t i t V
v v v
m
f
n f
n f
m
L R s
ω
θ ω
θ ω
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
6
R-L load
| |
| |
ωτ ω
τ
τ
τ
τ
θ θ ω ω
θ θ ω
θ θ
θ
θ ω
τ
t
m
t
m
m m
m
t
m
n f
t
n
e t
Z
V
t i
e t
Z
V
t i
Z
V
Z
V
A
Ae
Z
V
i
A
Ae t
Z
V
t i t i t i
R L Ae t i
dt
t di
L R t i




+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
.
|

\
|
= − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
= ⇒
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
= =
= +
=
) sin( ) sin( ) (
or
) sin( ) sin( ) (
as, given is current the Therefore
) sin( ) sin(
) 0 sin( ) 0 (
: i.e , conducting starts diode the before zero is
current inductor realising by solved be can
) sin( ) ( ) ( ) (
Hence
; ) (
: in results which
0
) (
) (
0, source when is response Natural
0
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
7
R-L waveform
ω
t
v
o
v
s,
π

i
o
β
v
R
v
L


0

: i.e , decreasing
is current the because negative is
: Note
dt
di
L v
v
L
L
=
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
8
Extinction angle
| |
| |
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
≤ ≤
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + −
= + − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=



otherwise
0
0 for
) sin( ) sin(
) (
load, L - R ith rectfier w the summarise To
and 0 between conducts diode the Therefore,
y. numericall solved be only can
0 ) sin( ) sin(
: to reduces which
0 ) sin( ) sin( ) (
. angle, extinction
the as known is point This OFF. turns diode
when is zero reaches current point when The
duration) that during negative
is source the (although radians n longer tha
biased forward in remains diode that the Note
β ω
θ θ ω
ω
β
β
θ θ β
θ θ β β
β
π
ωτ ω
ωτ β
ωτ β
t
e t
Z
V
t i
e
e
Z
V
i
t
m
m
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
9
RMS current, Power Factor
( )
( )( )
( )( )
RMS RMS s
RMS RMS s
RMS
RMS
o
I V
P
pf
I V S
S
P
S
P
pf
R I
t d t i t d t i I
t d t i t d t i I
.
.
i.e source,
by the supplied power apparent the is
load. by the absorbed power the to equal which
source, by the supplied power real the is where
: definition from computed is Factor Power
P
: is load by the absorbed Power
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
: is current RMS The
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
: is current (DC) average The
,
,
2
o
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
= ⇒
=
=
⋅ =
= =
= =
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
β
π
β
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
10
Half wave rectifier, R-C Load
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
i
D
π

3π 4π
V
m
V
max
v
s
v
o
V
min
π /2
i
D
3π /2
α
θ
∆V
o
( )
θ
ω
θ
ω θ ω
θ
sin
OFF is diode when
ON is diode hen w ) sin(
/
m
RC t
m
o
V v
e V
t V
v
=
¹
´
¦
=
− −
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
11
Operation
• Let C initially
uncharged. Circuit
is energised at
ωt=0
• Diode becomes
forward biased as
the source become
positive
• When diode is ON
the output is the
same as source
voltage. C charges
until V
m
• After ωt=π/2, C
discharges into
load (R).
• The source
becomes less than
the output voltage
• Diode reverse
biased; isolating
the load from
source.
• The output voltage
decays
exponentially.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
12
Estimation of θ
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) π ω ω θ
ω θ
ω θ
θ
ω
θ θ
θ ω
ω
θ
ω
θ
ω
ω
ω
ω θ θ
ω θ ω
ω θ ω
+ − = − =

=
− =



|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ =
=

|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ =

=
− −
− −
− −
− −
RC RC
RC
RC V
V
e
RC
V V
t
e
RC
V
t d
e V d
t V
t d
t V d
m
m
RC
m m
RC t
m
RC t
m
m
m
1 1
/
/
/
tan tan
1
tan
1
1
sin
cos
1
sin cos
equal, are slopes the , At
1
sin
) (
sin
and
cos
) (
sin
: are functions the of slope The
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
13
Estimation of α
( )
α
θ α
θ α π
α π ω
θ
π
π
π
π θ
ω
ω θ α π
ω θ α π
for y numericall solved be must equation This
0 ) (sin sin(
or
) sin ( ) 2 sin(
, 2 t At
sin and
2 2
-tan
: then large, is circuits, practical For
) 2 (
) 2 (
= −
= +
+ =
=
= + − = + ∞ =
− + −
− + −
RC
RC
m m
m m
e
e V V
V V
RC
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
14
Ripple Voltage
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = − ≈ ∆
= = +
+ =

= =
− = + − =
− = ∆
+ =
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
− +

RC
m
RC
m m o
RC
m
RC
m o
m
m m m m
o
e V e V V V
e V e V v
t
V V
V V V V
V V V
t
V
ω
π
ω
π
ω
π
ω
π π π
θ
α π
α π ω
π α
π θ
α α π
α π ω
2 2
2 2 2 2
min max
max
1
: as ed approximat is voltage ripple The
) 2 (
: is 2 at evaluated tage output vol The
2. then constant, is tage output vol DC
such that large is C and 2, and If
sin ) 2 sin(
: is ripple the diagram, to Reffering
2 at occurs tage output vol Min
. is tage output vol Max
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
15
Voltage ripple-cont’d
2
Approximation of exponent term yields:
2
1
Substituting,
2
The output voltage ripple is reduced
by increasing C.

As C is increased, the conduction interval
for diode d
RC
m
o m
e
RC
V
V V
RC fRC
π ω
π
ω
π
ω

≈ −
| |
∆ ≈ =
|
\ .


ecreases.
Therefore, reduction in output voltage
ripple results in larger peak diode current.

• EXAMPLE:
The half wave rectifier has 120V RMS source at
60Hz. R=500 Ohm and C=100uF. Determine (a)
the expression for output voltage, (b) voltage ripple.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
16
Controlled half-wave
ω
t
v
s
v
o
i
a
α
i
g
α
ω
t
+
v
s
_
i
g
i
a
( ) | |
( ) | |
( )
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
α
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
π
α
2
2 sin
1
2
] 2 cos( 1 [
4
sin
2
1
volatge RMS
cos 1
2
sin
2
1
: voltage Average
2
2
+ − = − =
=
+ = =



m m
m RMS
m
m o
V
t d t
V
t d t V V
V
t d t V V
+
v
o
_
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
17
Controlled h/w, R-L load
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
ωτ
α
ωτ
α
ωτ
ω
θ α
θ α α
α
θ ω ω ω ω


− ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
− =
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
+ − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
e
Z
V
A
Ae
Z
V
i
i
Ae t
Z
V
t i t i t i
m
m
t
m
n f
sin
sin 0
, 0 : condition Initial
sin ) ( ) ( ) (
+
v
s
_
i
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
ω
t
v
o
v
s
π

ω
t
α
i
o
π
β

Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
18
Extinction angle
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
degrees. for conducts diode the i.e
. angel conduction the called is Angle
y. numericall solved be only can which
sin sin 0
, 0 when defined is angle, Extinction
otherwise 0
t for
sin sin
g, simplifyin and for ng Substituti
(
) (
γ
θ β
θ β θ β β
β
β ω α
θ α θ ω
ω
ωτ
β α
ωτ
ω α

− − −
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
≤ ≤

− − − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=

− −
e
Z
V
i
i
e t
Z
V
t i
A
m
t
m
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
19
RMS voltage and current
( ) | |
( ) ( )
R I P
d t i I d t i I
V
t d t V V
RMS o
RMS o
m
m o
⋅ =
= =
− = =
∫ ∫

2
2
: is load by the absorbed power The

2
1

2
1

current RMS current Average
cos cos
2
sin
2
1
: voltage Average
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
β α
π
ω ω
π
β
α
β
α
β
α
• EXAMPLES
• 1. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V
across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.
Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.
• 2. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at
60Hz. R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45
degrees. Determine: (a) the expression for i(ωt), (b)
average current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
20
Freewheeling diode (FWD)
• Note that for single-phase, half wave
rectifier with R-L load, the load (output)
current is NOT continuos.
• A FWD (sometimes known as
commutation diode) can be placed as
shown below to make it continuos
+
v
s
_
i
o
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
i
o
+
v
o
_
i
o
D
2
is on, D
1
is off
v
o
= 0
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
D
1
is on, D
2
is off
i
o
v
o
= v
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
21
Operation of FWD
• Note that both D
1
and D
2
cannot be turned
on at the same time.
• For a positive cycle voltage source,
– D
1
is on, D
2
is off
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
– The voltage across the R-L load is the same as
the source voltage.
• For a negative cycle voltage source,
– D
1
is off, D
2
is on
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
– The voltage across the R-L load is zero.
– However, the inductor contains energy from
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the R-L path.
– But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
– Hence the “negative part” of v
o
as shown in the
normal half-wave disappear.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
22
FWD- Continuous load
current
• The inclusion of FWD results in continuos
load current, as shown below.
• Note also the output voltage has no
negative part.
π
2π 3π

i
D1
i
o
output
Diode
current
i
D2
v
o
0
ωt
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
23
Full wave rectifier with R load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
Bridge circuit
i
s
+
v
s
_
− v
o
+
i
D1
i
D2
i
o
+
v
s1
_
+
v
s2
_
Center-tapped circuit
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
24
Notes on full-wave
• Center-tapped rectifier requires center-tap
transformer. Bridge does not.
• Center tap requires only two diodes,
compared to four for bridge. Hence, per
half-cycle only one diode volt-drop is
experienced. Conduction losses is half of
bridge.
• However, the diodes ratings for center-
tapped is twice than bridge.
{
( )
m
m
m o
m
m
o
V
V
t d t V V
t t V
t t V
v
637 . 0
2
sin
1
: voltage DC
2 sin
0 sin
circuits, both For
0
= = =
≤ ≤ −
≤ ≤
=

π
ω ω
π
π ω π ω
π ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
25
Bridge waveforms
π



V
m
V
m
-V
m
-V
m
v
s
v
o
v
D1
v
D2
v
D3
v
D4
i
o
i
D1
i
D2
i
D3
i
D4
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
26
Center-tapped waveforms
π



V
m
V
m
-2V
m
-2V
m
v
s
v
o
v
D1
v
D2
i
o
i
D1
i
D2
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
27
Full wave bridge, R-L load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
π



v
o
v
s
i
o
i
D1
, i
D2
i
D3
,i
D4
output
supply
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
28
R-L load analysis:
approximation with large L
output. e approximat to
sufficient terms few a Only . increasing
for rapidly decreases makes This
decreases. harmonic th for the amplitude
voltage increases, as that Note

: are currents harmonic and DC The
1
1
1
1 2
2
where
) cos( ) (
: as described is
tage output vol Series, Fourier Using
... 4 , 2
n
I
n
n
L jn R
V
Z
V
I
R
V
I
n n
V
V
V
V
t n V V t v
n
n
n
n
n
o
o
m
n
m
o
n
n o o
ω
π
π
π ω ω
+
= = =
|
.
|

\
|
+


=
=
+ + =


=
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
29
R-L load analysis
( )
below. shown is L large ion with approximat The
, for ,
2
: i.e. terms, harmonic
the all drop to possible is it enough, large is If
R L
R
V
R
V
I t i
L
m o
o
>> = = ≈ ω ω
ω
π



v
o
i
s
i
o
approx.
2V
m
/R
i
D1
, i
D2
i
D3
,i
D4
output
supply
exact
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
30
Examples
( )
R I P
I I I I
RMS o
o RMS n o RMS
2
2
,
2
: load the to delivered Power =
= + =

• EXAMPLE: Given a bridge rectifier has an
AC source V
m
=100V at 50Hz, and R-L
load with R=10ohm, L=10mH
– a) determine the average current in the load
– b) determine the first two higher order
harmonics of the load current
– c) determine the power absorbed by the load
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
31
Controlled full wave, R load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
( ) | |
( ) | |
( )
R
V
P
V
t d t V V
V
t d t V V
RMS
o
m
m RMS
m
m o
2
2
: is load R by the absorbed power The
4
2 sin
2 2
1

sin
1
cos 1 sin
1
=
+ − =
=
+ = =


π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
α
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
32
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
Controlled, R-L load
π

v
o
Discontinuous mode
β
α
π

i
o
π

v
o
Continuous mode
π+α
α
β
i
o
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
33
Discontinuous mode
| |
zero. an greater th be must ) ( t
at current operation continous For
). ( is expression current output the
in when is mode current us discontino
and continous between boundary The
0 ) (
: condition y with numericall solved be must
and angle extinction the is that Note
) (
: ensure to need mode, us discontino For
; tan and
) (
for
) sin( ) sin( ) (
: load L - R
with wave half controlled similar to Analysis
1
2 2
) (
α π ω
α π
β
β
β
π α β
τ
ω
θ
ω
β ω α
θ α θ ω ω
ωτ α ω
+ =
+
=
+ <
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
≤ ≤
− − − ⋅
|
.
|

\
|
=

− −
o
t
m
i
R
L
R
L
L R Z
t
e t
Z
V
t i
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
34
Continuous mode
| |
( ) α
π
ω ω
π
ω
α
ω
α
α
α θ
α θ θ α π
θ α π θ α π
α π
π α
α
ωτ π
ωτ α α π
cos
2
sin
1
: as given is tage output vol (DC) Average
tan
mode, current continuous for Thus
tan
for Solving
, 0 1 ) sin(
), sin( ) sin(
: identity ry Trigonomet Using
0 ) sin( ) sin(
0 ) (
1
1
) (
) (
m
m o
V
t d t V V
R
L
R
L
e
e
i
= =
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
≥ − −
− = − +
≥ − + − − +
≥ +

+



− + −
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
35
Single-phase diode groups
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
v
p
v
n
i
o
D
1
D
3
D
4
D
2
v
o
=v
p
−v
n
• In the top group (D
1
, D
3
), the cathodes (-) of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) i
d
.
• For example, when v
s
is ( +), D
1
conducts i
d
and D
3
reverses (by taking loop around v
s
, D
1
and D
3
).
When v
s
is (-), D
3
conducts, D
1
reverses.
• In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes
are at common potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts i
d
.
• For example, when v
s
(+), D
2
carry i
d
. D
4
reverses.
When v
s
is (-), D
4
carry i
d
. D
2
reverses.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
36
Three-phase rectifiers
D
1
+
v
o
_
v
pn
v
nn
i
o
D
3
D
2
D
6
+ v
cn
-
n
+ v
bn
-
+ v
an
-
D
5
D
4
v
o
=v
p
−v
n
V
m
V
m
v
an
v
bn
v
cn
v
n
v
o
=v
p
- v
n
v
p

4π π 2π 0
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
37
Three-phase waveforms
• Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.
• Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at
the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.
• For example, if D
1
(of the top group)
conducts, v
p
is connected to v
an
.
. If D
6
(of the
bottom group) conducts, v
n
connects to v
bn
.
All other diodes are off.
• The resulting output waveform is given as:
v
o
=v
p
-v
n
• For peak of the output voltage is equal to
the peak of the line to line voltage v
ab
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
38
Three-phase, average voltage
v
o
0
π/3 2π/3
V
m, L-L
v
o
π/3
| |
phase. - single
a of n higher tha much is rectifier phase - three a
of component voltage DC output that the Note
955 . 0
3

) cos(
3

) sin(
3
1
: voltage Average
radians. 3 or degrees 60 over average its
Obtain segments. six the of one only Considers
,
,
3 2
3
,
3 2
3
,
L L m
L L m
L L m
L L m o
V
V
t
V
t d t V V




= =
=
=

π
ω
π
ω ω
π
π
π
π
π
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
39
Controlled, three-phase
+
v
o
_
v
pn
v
nn
i
o
D
3
D
2
D
6
+ v
cn
-
n
+ v
bn
-
+ v
an
-
D
5
D
4
D
1
V
m
v
an
v
bn v
cn
α
v
o
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
40
Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
α
π
ω ω
π
α
α π
α π
cos
3

) sin(
3
1
: as computed be can voltage Average
SCR. the of angle delay
the be let Figure, previous the From
,
3 2
3
,
⋅ |
.
|

\
|
=
=

+
+


L L m
L L m o
V
t d t V V
• EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has
an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load
R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50A.