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Bhel Report Winter Training

Bhel Report Winter Training

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TRAINING REPORT

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED,BHOPAL

TRAINING REPORT ON: T.G.M

GUIDANCE :Shri B.L.Verma

BY:
RAHUL KUMAR WAHANE ADM NO. : 9531 BRANCH:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE: INDIAN SCHOOL OF MINES UNIVERSITY-DHANBAD,JHARKHAND

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We owe this moment of satisfaction with deep sense of gratitude to our project guide by Mr. Shri B.L. Verma .For invaluable guidance significant &help in my respect to accomplish the project work. Their persisting encouragement, ever-lasting passions & wholehearted

inspiration guidance, which help us a lot molding the present shape of the project.

2

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT RAHUL KUMAR WAHANE ,ROLL NO. 9531.STUDYING IN SECOND YEAR ,MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,B.TECH OF INDIAN SCHOOLM OF MINES UNIVERSITY,DHANBAD HAS SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED THE PROJECT ON T.G.M. DIVISION ,B.H.E.L. BHOPAL AND GIVEN THE SATISFACTORY ACCOUNT OF IT IN THIS

PROJECT REPORT.IN THE GUIDANCE OF

Shri B.L.Verma

DATE...................

TEACHER’S SIGN
3

with sides inclined at the pressure angle of the tooth form. but the tooth thickness will not be equal to the space width. with flat top and bottom. The helix has a number of cuts parallel to the axis to form the cutting teeth and the profile is suitably relieved to provide cutting clearance. or by hobbing at other than the theoretical pitch circle diameter. . The machine forms the gear via a generating process by rotating the gear blank and the cutter (called a hob) at the same time with a fixed gearing ratio between hob and blank. The hob has a profile given in cross-section by the fundamental rack for the gear tooth profile and is in the form of a helix so that the sides of the teeth on the hob generate the curve on the gear. For a tooth profile which is a theoretical involute. Since the gear ratio between hob and blank is fixed. It is the major industrial process for cutting (as opposed to grinding) spur gears of involute form. the fundamental rack is straight-sided. the resulting gear will have the correct pitch on the pitch circle. The necessary addendum correction to allow the use of small-numbered pinions can either be obtained by suitable modification of this rack to a cycloidal form at the tips.HOBBING A hobbing machine is a special form of milling machine that cuts gears.

The hobbing machine of claim 1. wherein the predefined speed and direction of said de-burring tool spindle is programmable through said controller. wherein the contact surface may include compositions of high speed steel. further comprising a motor to power said powered spindle. and it will not cut well. if any portion of the hob profile is perpendicular to the axis then it will have no cutting clearance generated by the usual backing off process. carbide.Hobbing is invariably used to produce throated worm wheels. The hobbing machine of claim 1. wherein the abrasive compositions include aluminum oxide or cubic boron nitride. The NHS Swiss tooth standards give rise to such problems. a rotatable cutter translatable into engagement The hobbing machine of claim 1. The hobbing machine of claim 1. and a second motor to power said de-burring tool spindle. ITS COMPONENTS:A hobbing machine comprising: a rotatable clamp fixture adapted to retain a gear blank. but it is not possible to cut all useful tooth profiles in this way. wherein the sharpened peripheral edge is adjacent to the contact surface. including: a first motor operatively connected to the clamp fixture to rotate the clamp fixture and the gear blank at a predetermined speed. The hobbing machine of claim 6 further including a controller controlling output of said second motor. or abrasive compositions. . Such small gears normally must be milled instead. The hobbing machine of claim 3.

A hobbing machine for cutting gear teeth into a gear blank. The hobbing machine of claim 8 further comprising: a second de-burring tool translatable into engagement with a second end surface of the gear blank. wherein said predefined rotary speed of said second de-burring tool spindle isprogrammable through said controller. The hobbing machine for cutting gear teeth into a gear blank of claim 11. a first motor operatively connected to the clamp fixture to rotate the clamp fixture and the gear blank ata predetermined speed. said second de-burring tool configured to remove burrs from the second end surface of thegear blank. said cutter configured to cut the gear blank and thereby produce plurality of gear teeth and potentially burrs. and said second de-burring tool configured to rotate at a predefined speed and direction. a first rotatable de-burring tool translatableinto engagement with a first end surface of the gear blankburring tool also including a contact surface extending generally in the direction of the first end surface and configured to grind off and thereby remove others of said burrs. comprising: a rotatable clamp fixture adapted to retain the gear blank. wherein said deburring tool spindle is translatable between two or more positions including a first disengaged position with respect to said first end surface and a second engaged position with respect tosaid first end surface and wherein position translation is programmable through the controller. the speed and direction selected to facilitate removal of burrs. further comprising: a second de-burring tool translatable into engagement with a .The hobbing machine of claim 7. a rotatable cutter translatable into engagement with the gear blank.

said spacersecured at one end to said powered spindle. THE CONTROLS START/STOP The green button starts the spindle motor and the red button shuts the motor off. The vertical milling machine also can function like a drill press because the spindle is perpendicular to the table and can be lowered into the work piece.second end surface of the gear blank. VERTICAL LATHE MACHINE TEETH MACHINE GRINDING The Milling Machine uses a rotating milling cutter to produce machined surfaces by progressively removing material from a work piece. Variable motor drive Variable Motor Drive used on some of the Milling Machines FORWARD/REVERSE . said second deburring tool configured toremove burrs from the second end surface of the gear blank as the gear teeth are being cut by the rotatable cutter. and a spacer adapted to position said second de-burring tool at a predetermined distance from the first deburring tool. said spacer secured at an opposing second end .

Putting the switch in the opposite position while remaining in the same range reverses the rotation of the spindle.This switch changes the rotation direction of the spindle. The milling machine must be running when changing the speed. The spindle can be locked by pressing or pulling the brake and then pushing it up. HAND BRAKE Also known as the spindle brake. When the milling machine is in high range this switch is in the forward position for cutting but in low range the switch is in the reverse position. SPINDLE SPEED This wheel is used to change the speed of the spindle for both high range and low range. CROSS-FEED HANDWHEEL This handwheel moves the table in and out. it is used to bring the spindle rotation to a stop after the power is turned off and to aid in removing collets and chucks. Not all of the milling machines in the shop have this option. POWER FEED The power feed uses a motor to control the motion of the longitudinal feed in either direction at various speeds. .

The selector will adjust the speed of the power feed and the lever activates the drive. Vertical Milling Machine QUILL FEED HANDLE You can raise and lower the quill (spindle) with this handle. QUILL STOP The quill stop can be adjusted by hand to set a limit on the quill travel is also used to disengage the quill feed. The quill must be locked when milling. pulling it back up releases the lock. The quill feed can . QUILL LOCK Pushing this lever down will lock the quill.VERTICAL FEED HANDCRANK This is used to raise and lower the table. This is useful when multiple holes have to be drilled to the same depth. QUILL FEED LEVER AND SELECTOR These are used to activate the power feed for the quill.

BORE GRINDING A bore grinding machine having a horizontal work table rotatably mounted on a base. The tool spindle assembly is mounted on a vertical slide which allows the top portion of the spindle assembly to be raised above the top surface of the work table when in grinding position and allowed to be lowered back into said passageway opening where it is out of the way and below the top of the table during loading and unloading of the work pieces to be machined. A retractable guard cover is mounted below the top of the opening to cover the grinding wheel when a worker is loading or unloading the parts to be machined on the top of the table. A wheel dressing unit is mounted below the top of the passageway opening which dresses the grinding wheel upon movement thru the opening. The work table has a portion of its central area cut away to form a passageway opening for a vertical tool spindle assembly which is mounted with its top portion in said opening. A combination wheel guard and coolant hood is pivotally mounted on the top of the work table support and it covers the work piece and work table during the grinding operation while coolant is being .

so for speed. however. CNC Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Drilling Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Drilling is commonly implemented for mass production.floodingly circulated therewith. variation of hole diameters should be minimized. The largest time sink for CNC drilling is with tool changes. The appropriate drill is brought into position . A plurality of cams are used to control the x axis movement of the work table with respect to the grinding wheel and the y axis movement of the wheel feed slide with respect to the work while a work rotation gear forming a part of the rotatable table is connected to a drive motor that controls the concurrent rotation of the work table. The drilling machine. The fastest machines for drilling varying hole sizes have multiple spindles in turrets with drills of varying diameters already mounted for drilling. is often a multi-function machining center that also mills and sometimes turns.

For hole patterns with large differences in sizes and high volume. the appropriate type of CNC drilling machine needs to be applied to a particular part geometry. so that bits do not need to be removed and replaced. In order to be cost-effective. A variety of semi-automated drilling machines are also used. drills a hole of a set depth into a part set up beneath it. For further reference for CNC processes. HEAT TREATMENT CARBURISING: .through movement of the turret. please refer to the CNC. An example is a simple drill press which. metal forming section. For low-volume jobs. If holes are close to each other and high throughput is desired. manual or semi-automated drilling may suffice. A turret-type CNC drilling machine is shown below. on command. a geared head is most appropriate. a gearless head can locate spindles close together so that the hole pattern can be completed in one pass.

The steel surface is vacuum conditioned eliminating surface oxide. Gas carburising uses a gaseous atmosphere in a sealed furnace usually containing propane (C3H8) or butane (C4H10). trapped gases and foreign material that may deter carbon saturation of the austenite. Gas carburising is the most frequently used technique. potassium cyanide or calcium cyanide. Low Pressure Carburising (LPC) is an advanced technology that offers the design engineer an alternative to atmosphere carburising for improved case depth uniformity. LPC is a method of pure carburisation combined with pure diffusion. and process flexibility. dimensional control. The depth to which the carbon diffuses is controlled by the surface concentration of carbon.1000°C using a variety of processes to produce the carbon: Pack carburising uses a solid granular form of carbon such as charcoal with an activator to assist the its break down to give active carbon which can diffuse into the steel surface. part cleanliness. . and the temperature and time of carburising.Carburising can be carried out in the temperature range 850 . Salt bath carburising uses a liquid form of a carbon containing species such as sodium cyanide.

Product consistency and repeatability are excellent using high pressure gas quenching. Controlled cooling after carburising (water. tool holders and fuel injection components to name a few.Low pressure vacuum carburising has been successfully applied to a number of different components including gears. This 3% nickel–chrome–molybdenum steel is used when a core strength of 55 to 80 tons/sq. oil or polymer quenching) produces hard martensitic layers at the surface (this is due to the increased hardenability of the carbon enriched surface region). Fixed or variable cooling rates are applied as required to control hardness and distortion with the ability to vary quench pressure depending on load size. Distortion can arise from: . shafts. Industrial sectors such as automotive. off-road. bearings. aerospace. autosport. material type and part section thickness. power generation and tooling have already found particular benefits.High Pressure Gas Quenching (HPGQ) offers a number of attractive benefits including unprecedented part cleanliness and less overall dimensional change.in is required along with a case hardness of around 60 Rockwell C. agricultural. Carburising involves the diffusion of carbon into the surface layers of a low carbon steel at high temperatures.

A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. This is most likely due to the presence of retained austenite on heat treatment. It is recommended that the steel is carburised and hardened in two separate cycles.30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13). It is basically a 0.Heavy machining prior carburising Retained austenite on quenching Poor design Metallurgical anomalies in the steel. This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. It is basically a 0.30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13). However it is likely that a steel to AISI 8620 should form a cheaper alternative and yet produce the required properties. A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage . Similar carburising and heat treatment parameters are applicable to both steels. An alternative grade depends on the size of the component.

treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite. the securing .30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13). STRESS REVEALING A process for permitting defects or stresses in a structure to be revealed. This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. It is basically a 0. A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite. Nitriding is usually carried out at temperatures around 500ºC and prior tempering should have been done at a higher temperature. Although EN 40B is often used in the un-nitrided condition for applications requiring high tensile strength at temperatures up to 600ºC. so that the faces have offset crystalline lattices. it is intended to be nitrided to improve wear and corrosion resistance. including (a) securing by molecular bonding of a face of a first element containing crystalline material with a face of a second element containing crystalline material.

but allowing to perform (c) treatment of the thin film resulting in that its free face reveals the crystalline defect lattice andor the stress fields. include stainless steel. please enter your contact information on our web site and then click the next button. We We . Inc. If you are in search of a precipitation hardening type solution. call (574) 269-7116. the thickness of the thin film being such that its free face does not reveal the crystalline defect lattice andor the stress fields. along the securing interface to form the structure. began our company in 1992 to service the medical and specialty components industries in Northern Indiana and have since expanded nationally. For questions.causing the formation of a lattice of crystalline defects andor stress fields in a crystalline zone next to the securing interface. high temperature alloys and titanium. and (b) reducing the thickness of one of the elements until at least a thin film is obtained which adheres to the other element. We will respond ASAP. HARDENING Precipitation Hardening The process of precipitation hardening. also called age hardening. The precipitation hardening capabilities of Applied Thermal Technologies. is widely used to add strength to metal alloy materials.

C.AMS 2774. the wire electrode has two parallel rolled flat surfaces. AMS 2759.R. Heat Treatment of Titanium Alloy Parts. MIL-B-7883. MIL-H-81200 TURNING Turning is the process whereby a lathe is used to produce "solids of revolution". Applied Thermal Technologies can comply with the following industry standards and specifications: AMS 2675. The . in a traditional form of latheA wire cut electric discharge machine having rollers is disclosed. AMS 2750. Nickel Alloy Brazing. Heat Treatment– P. Pyrometry. AMS 2759/4. Heat Treatment of Steel Parts– General Requirements. It can be done manually. MIL-H6875. a stainless steel solid cast and an alloy cast. AMS 2769.can also do a titanium cast design. Heat Treatment of Parts in Vacuum. Heat Treatment–Martensitic Corrosion Resistant Steel Parts. AMS 2759/3. Heat Treatment–Austenitic Corrosion Resistant Steel Parts. Heat Treatment–Cast Nickel Alloy and Cobalt Alloy Parts.AMS 2773.H. It has a wire electrode disposed in a working zone of the electric discharge machine. and Maraging Steel Parts. AMS 2759/5. After rolled. This wire electrode is rolled by a rolling device so that the cross-sectional area of this wire electrode changes from a circular area into an elongated one.AMS 2801. . . Heat Treatment–Wrought Nickel Alloy and Cobalt Alloy Parts.

And. Special brass wires are typically used. which allows extremely complex shapes to be produced. without changing the material property of the wire electrode. the wire is slowly fed through the material and the electrical discharges actually cut the workpiece.working width between these flat surfaces is smaller than the original diameter of the wire electrode before rolled. I can improve the precision of the product. you would discover that the wire itself does not actually touch the metal to be cut. flushes material away serves as a coolant to minimize the heat affected zone (thereby preventing potential damage to the workpiece) acts as a conductor for the current to pass between the electrode and the workpiece. the cutting width is narrower than before. By using the rolled wire electrode. . The path of the wire is typically controlled by a computer. In wire EDM a very thin wire serves as the electrode. this invention can reduce the cutting width limit. If you were to observe the wire EDM process under a microscope. it can reduce the cost of the wire electrode. Wire EDM is usually performed in a bath of water. the electrical discharges actually remove small amounts of material and allow the wire to be moved through the workpiece. So.

Perhaps the best way to explain wire EDM is to use an analogy. the wire is actually displacing the cheese as it cuts. A workpiece is sometimes dipped in a dielectric to develop a potential difference between the workpiece and wire electrode. EDM machining is favored in situations where high accuracy of work and low count is required. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) work by eroding the . but in EDM a thin kerf is created by removing tiny particles of metal. Also note. Electrical discharge machine supply is applied to the workpiece. Imagine stretching a thin metal wire between your hands and sliding it though a block of cheese cutting any shape you want. Wire EDM works in a similar fashion. that in dragging a wire through cheese. Electrical discharge machining is frequently used to make dies and molds. For more details regarding a typical application. particularly in low volume applications. An electrical discharge machine is considered to be the most precision oriented manufacturing process and is widely used for creating simple and complex shapes and geometries. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) remove metal from a workpiece by using a series of electric sparks to erode material. You can alter the positions of your hands on either side of the cheese to define complex and curved shapes. It has recently become a standard method of producing prototypes and some production parts. you can read about a custom bronze branding-iron that was made with EDM. An EDM machine consists of a workpiece and the wire electrode. except electrical discharge machining can handle some of the hardest materials used in industry.

There are many types of electrical discharge machines (EDM). EDM or Electrical Discharge Machining.material that appears in the electrical discharge path. Other electrical discharge machines (EDM) are commonly available. is especially well-suited for cutting intricate contours or delicate cavities that would be difficult to produce with a grinder.0005 inches per inch. The wire electrode rotates acts as wire EDM tooling and rotates a two-three axis and cuts the internal cavities in the workpiece. A CNC EDM is a computer numerical control machine and is used for removing metal using electrical discharge spark erosion. is that EDM only works with materials that are electrically conductive. There are several ways in which electrical discharge machines (EDM) function. EDM is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. Examples include a CNC EDM and a wire EDM machine. The dimensional accuracy required for an electrical discharge machine is + / .0003 feature profile accuracy across the workpiece cutting path. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) are designed and manufactured to meet most industry specifications. however. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) also require a 0.0. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) are used where fast turn around time is required. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) works by removing the workpiece that generates an arc with the wire electrode and creating a cavity in the workpiece. This material is responsible for generating an arc between the workpiece and wire electrode. A wire EDM machine is designed for precision machining purposes and is used for cutting prismatic metal components. an end . One critical limitation.

and slowly fed into the workpiece. inconel and kovar. The now specially-shaped electrode is connected to the power source. EDM is sometimes called "spark machining" because it removes metal by producing a rapid series of repetitive electrical discharges. counter boring holes in metal jigs and counter-sinking holes in metal work pieces. hardened toolsteel. These electrical discharges are passed between an electrode and the piece of metal being machined. reaming. carbide. . a graphite electrode is machined with traditional tools. titanium. The primary difference between the two involves the electrode that is used to perform the machining.mill or other cutting tools. Metals that can be machined with EDM include hastalloy. There are two primary EDM methods: ram EDM and wire EDM. The repetitive discharges create a set of successively deeper craters in the work piece until the final shape is produced. Some jig boring machines are used for accurately enlarging the existing holes and making their diameters highly accurate. The small amount of material that is removed from the workpiece is flushed away with a continuously flowing fluid. In a typical ram EDM application. attached to a ram. drilling. The fluid serves the following three purposes: Jig boring machines are mainly to perform machining operations like boring. The entire machining operation is usually performed while submerged in a fluid bath.

For long holes such as those found in gun bores. The coolant also serves to eject chips from the cutting area and to move them back and out of the hole entrance. gun drills are used. The length of the hole requires that coolant be delivered through the shaft of the gun drill to the cutting front. a part has holes machined on regular equipment and then the part is transferred to a dedicated jig boring machine for final operations on the especially accurate holes. it is important to determine what holes must be jig bored. The constant demand for accuracy within many branches of metalworking has been fulfilled with the help of applications possible by jig-boring machines. The reason for this is that jig boring requires extra time and .Jig boring can also maintain high accuracy between multiple holes or holes and surfaces. Jig Boring Jig boring is used to accurately enlarge existing holes and make their diameters highly accurate. Typically. Jig boring is used for holes that need to have diameter and total runout controlled to a high degree.005 mm (±0. Some jig boring machines are designed to machine holes with the tightest tolerances possible with a machine tool. When designing a part with holes. Dedicated jig boring machines are designed to machine holes with the tightest tolerances possible with a machine tool. Tolerances can be held readily within ±.0002 inches). Jig boring can also maintain high accuracy between multiple holes or holes and surfaces. The figures below illustrate a gun drill and the cutting/cooling configuration.

Controlled cooling after carburising (water. and the jig boring machine at the machine shop may have a back log of jobs. Boring is most accurate on a lathe since a lathe is dedicated to solids of revolution (axially symmetric parts). Distortion can arise from: Heavy machining prior carburising Retained austenite on quenching Poor design . Standard boring can be carried out on a mill fitted with a boring head or on a lathe. Jig boring can therefore have a big impact on the lead time of a part. oil or polymer quenching) produces hard martensitic layers at the surface (this is due to the increased hardenability of the carbon enriched surface region).attention.in is required along with a case hardness of around 60 Rockwell C. Carburising involves the diffusion of carbon into the surface layers of a low carbon steel at high temperatures. A cross section of a hole being jig bored is shown below. This 3% nickel–chrome–molybdenum steel is used when a core strength of 55 to 80 tons/sq.

Similar carburising and heat treatment parameters are applicable to both steels. A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. It is recommended that the steel is carburised and hardened in two separate cycles. This is most likely due to the presence of retained austenite on heat treatment.30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13).Metallurgical anomalies in the steel. A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite. However it is likely that a steel to AISI 8620 should form a cheaper alternative and yet produce the required properties.30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13). It is basically a 0. An alternative grade depends on the size of the component. It is basically a 0. .

This grade of steel can be successfully carburised. so that the faces have offset crystalline lattices. including (a) securing by molecular bonding of a face of a first element containing crystalline material with a face of a second element containing crystalline material. A greater carbon potential must be used in order to drive the carbon into the surface and a two stage treatment is recommended to overcome any potential problems with retained austenite. It is basically a 0. and (b) reducing the thickness of one of the elements until at least a thin film is obtained which adheres to the other element. Inc. is widely used to add strength to metal alloy materials. Precipitation Hardening The process of precipitation hardening. . also called age hardening.30%C version of carburising grade EN36 (832M13). include stainless steel. the thickness of the thin film being such that its free face does not reveal the crystalline defect lattice andor the stress fields. but allowing to perform (c) treatment of the thin film resulting in that its free face reveals the crystalline defect lattice andor the stress fields. along the securing interface to form the structure. The precipitation hardening capabilities of Applied Thermal Technologies. A process for permitting defects or stresses in a structure to be revealed. high temperature alloys and titanium. the securing causing the formation of a lattice of crystalline defects andor stress fields in a crystalline zone next to the securing interface.

When turning. even the platonic solids. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe. better known as CNC. early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures. metal. and can be of four different types such as straight turning. although until the advent of CNC it had become unusual to use one for this purpose for the last three quarters of the twentieth century. machine tool is referred to as having computer numerical control. and is commonly used with many other types of machine tool besides the lathe.Although EN 40B is often used in the un-nitrided condition for applications requiring high tensile strength at temperatures up to 600ºC. Nitriding is usually carried out at temperatures around 500ºC and prior tempering should have been done at a higher temperature. It is said that the lathe is the only machine tool that can reproduce itself. profiling or external grooving. Although now quite rare. plastic even stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. taper turning. a piece of material (wood. Those types of turning processes can produce various . it is intended to be nitrided to improve wear and corrosion resistance. considered to be the oldest machine tools. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries.

turning uses simple single-point cutting tools.shapes of materials such as straight. better known as CNC. In general. and is commonly used with many other types of machine tool besides the lathe. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years. In general. or grooved workpiece. metal. It is said that the lathe is the only machine tool that can reproduce itself. turning uses simple . Although now quite rare. conical. curved. early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures. When turning. . which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator. even the platonic solids. conical. or grooved workpiece. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. taper turning. curved. plastic even stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. considered to be the oldest machine tools. profiling or external grooving. although until the advent of CNC it had become unusual to use one for this purpose for the last three quarters of the twentieth century. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight. This type of machine tool is referred to as having computer numerical control. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe. and can be of four different types such as straight turning. a piece of material (wood. or by using a computer controlled and automated lathe which does not.

. or swarf in Britain. tempering is done to "toughen" the metal by transforming brittle martensite into bainite or a combination of ferrite and cementite. TEMPERING Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals. are tempered to precipitate intermetallic particles which strengthen the metal.single-point cutting tools. The bits of waste metal from turning operations are known as chips (North America). In some locales they may be known as turnings. Precipitation hardening alloys. alloys and glass. In steels. like many grades of aluminum and superalloys. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years.

SHOT PEENING . In metallurgy. Precise control of time and temperature during the tempering process are critical to achieve a metal with well balanced mechanical properties. there is always a tradeoff between strength and ductility. the microstructure can rearrange and the carbon atoms can diffuse out of the distorted BCT structure. Carbon atoms were trapped in the austenite when it was rapidly cooled. After the carbon diffuses. This delicate balance highlights many of the subtleties inherent to the tempering process. the result is nearly pure ferrite. The martensite becomes strong after being tempered because when reheated. forming the martensite.The brittle martensite becomes strong and ductile after it is tempered. typically by oil or water quenching.

Surface compressive stresses confer resistance to metal fatigue and to some forms of corrosion. In practice. Shot peening may be used for cosmetic effect. shot peening can increase fatigue life from 0%-1000%. glass or ceramic particles) with force sufficient to create plastic deformation. part material.Shot peening is a process used to produce a compressive residual stress layer and modify mechanical properties of metals. The tensile stresses deep in the part are not as problematic as tensile stresses on the surface because cracks are less likely to start in the interior. It is similar to sandblasting. Shot peening is often called for in aircraft repairs to relieve tensile stresses built up in the grinding process and replace them with beneficial compressive stresses. causing changes in the mechanical properties of the surface. Depending on the part geometry. Peening a surface spreads it plastically. It entails impacting a surface with shot (round metallic. shot intensity. The surface roughness resulting from the overlapping dimples causes light to scatter upon reflection. shot material. . this means that less material is removed by the process. except that it operates by the mechanism of plasticity rather than abrasion: each particle functions as a ball-peen hammer. shot quality. and less dust created. Plastic deformation induces a residual compressive stress in a peened surface. shot coverage. along with tensile stress in the interior.

the resulting effect is more pronounced. Shot peening was originally developed by John Almen when he was working for Buick Motor Division of General Motors Corporation. then you have the. ECC-EDDY CURRENT CLUTCH . One can obtain what is referred to as the "Intensity of the Blast Stream" by measuring the deformation on the Almen strip that is in the shot peening operation. the Almen strip is then hit with the same intensity for twice the amount of time. If the strip deforms another 10%. The study claimed that the regular welds would fail after 250.000 cycles when welds that had been shot peened would fail after 2. John Almen also created the Almen Strip to measure the comprehensive stresses in the strip created by the ball peening operation. as it was called back when he was working. He noticed that shot blasting. However.5 million cycles. This is part of the reason that shot peening is a popular operation with aerospace parts. the beneficial prestresses can anneal out at higher temperatures. As the strip reaches a 10% deformation.Because peening typically produces larger surface features than sand-blasting. "Intensity of the Blast Stream." A study done through the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee showed what shot peening can do for welds compared to welds that didn't have this operation done. and outside the weld area. made the side of the sheet metal that was exposed begin to bend and stretch.

Dedicated jig boring machines are designed to machine holes with the tightest tolerances possible with a machine tool.0002 inches).Eddy Current clutches give torque as a function of RPM. Tolerances can be held readily within ±. Jig boring can also maintain high accuracy between multiple holes or holes and surfaces. Typically. we rate the clutch with a gain factor (k).005 mm (±0. JIG BORING Jig boring is used to accurately enlarge existing holes and make their diameters highly accurate. . which is gram millimeters/rpm or Newton meters/rpm and we design the clutch to have an operating "slip rpm" between 1 and 300 rpm. you can get infinite torque adjustment. This means by increasing or decreasing the RPM. The faster you turn the rotor. the more torque. Typically. Jig boring is used for holes that need to have diameter and total runout controlled to a high degree. a part has holes machined on regular equipment and then the part is transferred to a dedicated jig boring machine for final operations on the especially accurate holes.

A cross section of a hole being jig bored is shown below. The length of the hole requires that coolant be delivered through the shaft of the gun drill to the cutting front. and the jig boring machine at the machine shop may have a back log of jobs. it is important to determine what holes must be jig bored. The reason for this is that jig boring requires extra time and attention. gun drills are used. Boring is most accurate on a lathe since a lathe is dedicated to solids of revolution (axially symmetric parts). Standard boring can be carried out on a mill fitted with a boring head or on a lathe. The figures below illustrate a gun drill and the cutting/cooling configuration. . The coolant also serves to eject chips from the cutting area and to move them back and out of the hole entrance. Jig boring can therefore have a big impact on the lead time of a part.When designing a part with holes. Gun Drilling For long holes such as those found in gun bores.

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINE WIRE CUTTING EDM is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. however.Jig boring machines are mainly to perform machining operations like boring. . inconel and kovar. is especially well-suited for cutting intricate contours or delicate cavities that would be difficult to produce with a grinder. The constant demand for accuracy within many branches of metalworking has been fulfilled with the help of applications possible by jig-boring machines. is that EDM only works with materials that are electrically conductive. an end mill or other cutting tools. One critical limitation. hardened toolsteel. drilling. counter boring holes in metal jigs and counter-sinking holes in metal work pieces. Some jig boring machines are designed to machine holes with the tightest tolerances possible with a machine tool. Jig boring can also maintain high accuracy between multiple holes or holes and surfaces. EDM or Electrical Discharge Machining. titanium. carbide. Metals that can be machined with EDM include hastalloy. reaming. Some jig boring machines are used for accurately enlarging the existing holes and making their diameters highly accurate.

The now specially-shaped electrode is connected to the power source. attached to a ram. The entire machining operation is usually performed while submerged in a fluid bath. There are two primary EDM methods: ram EDM and wire EDM. In a typical ram EDM application.EDM is sometimes called "spark machining" because it removes metal by producing a rapid series of repetitive electrical discharges. The small amount of material that is removed from the workpiece is flushed away with a continuously flowing fluid. The fluid serves the following three purposes: flushes material away serves as a coolant to minimize the heat affected zone (thereby preventing potential damage to the workpiece) acts as a conductor for the current to pass between the electrode and the workpiece. and slowly fed into the workpiece. The primary difference between the two involves the electrode that is used to perform the machining. Special brass wires are typically used. In wire EDM a very thin wire serves as the electrode. the wire is slowly fed through the material and the electrical . a graphite electrode is machined with traditional tools. These electrical discharges are passed between an electrode and the piece of metal being machined. The repetitive discharges create a set of successively deeper craters in the work piece until the final shape is produced.

but in EDM a thin kerf is created by removing tiny particles of metal. the wire is actually displacing the cheese as it cuts. You can alter the positions of your hands on either side of the cheese to define complex and curved shapes. The path of the wire is typically controlled by a computer. Electrical discharge machining is frequently used to make dies and molds. except electrical discharge machining can handle some of the hardest materials used in industry. which allows extremely complex shapes to be produced. Wire EDM is usually performed in a bath of water. It has recently become a standard method of producing prototypes and some production parts. Imagine stretching a thin metal wire between your hands and sliding it though a block of cheese cutting any shape you want. If you were to observe the wire EDM process under a microscope. that in dragging a wire through cheese. Wire EDM works in a similar fashion. you can read about a custom bronze branding-iron that was made with EDM.discharges actually cut the workpiece. you would discover that the wire itself does not actually touch the metal to be cut. particularly in low volume applications. Perhaps the best way to explain wire EDM is to use an analogy. For more details regarding a typical application. the electrical discharges actually remove small amounts of material and allow the wire to be moved through the workpiece. . Also note.

Electrical discharge machines (EDM) are used where fast turn around time is required. The dimensional accuracy required for . A workpiece is sometimes dipped in a dielectric to develop a potential difference between the workpiece and wire electrode. A CNC EDM is a computer numerical control machine and is used for removing metal using electrical discharge spark erosion. EDM machining is favored in situations where high accuracy of work and low count is required. There are many types of electrical discharge machines (EDM). Other electrical discharge machines (EDM) are commonly available. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) works by removing the workpiece that generates an arc with the wire electrode and creating a cavity in the workpiece. Examples include a CNC EDM and a wire EDM machine.Electrical discharge machines (EDM) remove metal from a workpiece by using a series of electric sparks to erode material. Electrical discharge machine supply is applied to the workpiece. An EDM machine consists of a workpiece and the wire electrode. There are several ways in which electrical discharge machines (EDM) function. A wire EDM machine is designed for precision machining purposes and is used for cutting prismatic metal components. The wire electrode rotates acts as wire EDM tooling and rotates a two-three axis and cuts the internal cavities in the workpiece. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) work by eroding the material that appears in the electrical discharge path. An electrical discharge machine is considered to be the most precision oriented manufacturing process and is widely used for creating simple and complex shapes and geometries. This material is responsible for generating an arc between the workpiece and wire electrode.

Electrical discharge machines (EDM) are designed and manufactured to meet most industry specifications.0003 feature profile accuracy across the workpiece cutting path. Electrical discharge machines (EDM) also require a 0.0005 inches per inch.0. .an electrical discharge machine is + / .

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WIRE CUTTING EDM A wire cut electric discharge machine having rollers is disclosed. the wire electrode has two parallel rolled flat surfaces. it can reduce the cost of the wire electrode. without changing the material property of the wire electrode. this invention can reduce the cutting width limit. the cutting width is narrower than before. It has a wire electrode disposed in a working zone of the electric discharge machine. This wire electrode is rolled by a rolling device so that the cross-sectional area of this wire electrode changes from a circular area into an elongated one. So. . The working width between these flat surfaces is smaller than the original diameter of the wire electrode before rolled. By using the rolled wire electrode. After rolled. And. I can improve the precision of the product.

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