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GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO MATRICULANT

This series of lectures constitutes a brief preparatory course to be studied by the matriculant before registering at the Rose-Croix University as a regular student.

We fully realize the fact that some who will receive these special lectures will have had an extensive educational background, and it may seem to them that these elementary lectures are unessential. To those we say: Let these preliminary lectures constitute, in a sense, a review and the means of acquainting you with terminology which will be used in the Rose-Croix University.

These six preliminary lectures are very general in their nature. Naturally, they have to be. They are not devoted to an explanation, description, or analysis of anyone of the subjects included in the course of the College in which you are enrolling. However, do not think that these preliminary lectures are superfluous and are not worthy of your careful study, for at the conclusion of your study of them you will be required to pass an examination upon their context. The matriculant who fails to pass with a degree of 75 per cent of accuracy will have his matriculation application rejected, and will be obliged to wait a specific time before he may again be examined on the same series.

no not allow the lectures to accumulate but read one a week. You will receive only one a week. Read it several times until you are sure that you know its contents. If you wish, read a paragraph, two paragraphs, or a page at a time. Then lay aside the lecture and see if you can repeat in your own words the ideas you have read. If you cannot express mentally the thoughts contained in the matter you have just read, they did not register suffiCiently for you to remember them or you have not properly studied them, in which instance it will be necessary for you to reread the paragraphs or page until you can recall easily what was read. When Y<Ju have finished the entire lecture, see whether you can repeat to yourself in two or three hundred words the substance of that lecture.

You must realize that there will be no exceptions made to this preliminary course insofar as the number of lectures the matriculant must receive and study, nor the percentage that he will have to acquire to pass.

Immediately make note of any words, terms, or phrases that appear in these lectures, with which you are not entirely familiar, and at the earliest opportunity refer to any standard encyclopedia or dictionary for a complete definition or explanation.

You are not to ask any questions on the nature of the contents of these six preliminary lectures, as each is self-explanatory. There are no hidden meanings or veiled information. Accompanying the last lecture will be an examination; the examination will be based on the

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GENERAL RULES

entire series of six, and you will be instructed to refer to'the six in preparing your answers. You need only write about these lectures in case of an error in the mailing, such as a duplicate lecture being sent or your failure to receive one, or because of missing pages.

After you have received your final examination, you will be allowed one week's time in which to answer, added to that time, of course, will be the necessary time for forwarding the examination to the Rose-Croix University. Upon the completion of your examination, you are to return the six preliminary lectures, which you received, to the University.

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THE MENTAL WORLD by

Cecil A. Poole

It is impossible to cover, in any course of study, the scope of thought having to do with the mind and manls mental world. Life itself is an experience of the mental world of man, and no lesson or series of lessons will explain all the phenomena of mind. The duality of man's existence is clearly indicated by the fact that he lives in two worlds: first is a world of self, a world within his own thinking; and the second is what we might call a world of other sel vesand thingB~" Outside man's own mental world are the many things that constitute what

we call his environment. Man's duality of body and mind, or body and soul, is therefore illustrated in his experience of self and environment.

In many ways it is evident that man is a small replica of the entire universe. This particularly may be observed in the duality of expression. The creative force that forms the universe, or is responsible for its beins, causes manifestation in two forms insofar as our abil1ty to perceive is concerned. These forms are what we ordinarily term ~ and matter, or the material and immaterial, The duality 1s expressed 1n man in body and soul, and man seeks in his own way to develop both, although he may not be consoious at all times of anything except his physical being.

Without going into technicalities, the mind might be considered as the seat of consciousness. It is within the mind that man believes he bas his conscious being. In mind the various processes of thought seem to take place, and even in the popular use of the word, are assigned oertain abilities and attributes of man's concept of mind, such as, the phrase "he has a mind of his own" in referring to a person's determination, or, in arriving at a decision" that "his mind is made up.," In this light we readily see that whether it is-technically correct or not, the mind is ordinarily considered to be the point of individuality that goes to make up an expression of self.

Just as the dual force causing the existence of body and soul. exists, so mind is different from 'brain. The brain is a physical organ. Its relationship to the rest of the nervous system is not oompletely understood, and while certain reflex actions and basic responses can take place without the funotioning of the brain, it is within the brain that the nervous actions and reactions are so coordinated that it is possible for man to live in a complicated environment. With the inoreased understanding of the functioning of the brain, man has gradually come to think of his thought processes as being localized in that organ. This has not always been a theory, however. At one time it was thought that the center of consciousness was in the heart and no doubt those who so thought conceived of their thinking prooesses as taking place in the heart" just as today we believe our thinking processes are taking plaoe in the head. The fact is that while there is a olose relation-

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ship between the entire nervous system and consciousness, mind and brain are not identical. Mind is a part of the immaterial force closely related to soul. The mind of man 1s a segment of the mind of his Creator, and the mind of God is the source of intelligence and universal consciousness in which all things are conceived and have purpose.

Mind, then, is not an attribute of one organ of the human body. It is a force and a power in every living cell. It is the immaterial counte~ part of the physical body itself, and its development is the process

of extension and closer coordination with .tne. mind of God of which it is but-a segment. - It is the extension of mind directed toward its own source, or, ve might say, the rest of itself, that has made possible the inspiration not only of the mystics and the masters, but also of those who have expressed themselves in the fields of' the arts. It is through the extension of mind that we balance our living and relate ourselves more closely to the fundamental purposes of existence.

We have often heard of mind power, or the power of the mind. No doubt the power does exist, but it can only be useful, like any other force or power, when properly harnessed and directed. Those who have become despondent, disappOinted, or discouraged, either because of ill-health or want of physical neceSSities, have sometimes turned to the study of mind power for the specific reason of acquiring these things of a physical nature which they felt were lacking. However, in so doing, the desire on their part has been only to augment, to add to the physical accumUlation. In other words, they had set out, to fiX their ideals and hopes of attainment upon the acquisition of more of the same class of ma.terial--that is, the body itself--and have not realized - that their aims first should· have been the cultivation of the mind and soul, a building up within the realm of mind.

It is only by using the mind and giving as much attention to its growth as we do to that of the body that mind power can become anerre~tive tool in time of need. We cannot expect to devote all o~ energies and time to the requirements of tho physical body, and at the same time expect to be proficient in the use of mind power when there arises

what we believe to be an emergency. Those who have apparently performed miracles, who have been able to face calmly the realities of change and time are those whose first aims and aspirations were based upon the cultivation of the power of the mind and the accumulation of those things which would be assets not of the body but of the soul.

It is important to realize that any study that has to do with the study of man's mental world is one of the most fundamental of all sciences

or all systems of thought. All science that man knows has originated in or through man's mental processes. He may have received inspirationj and there is the belief, upon the part of many, that divine guidance directs certain phases of our being. But, it is througn the mind that all things find expression insofar as man is concerned and, as a result, most achievements of man are mental before they are e:,c.pressed in an overt manner.

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This study of' the mental world will tak~ .us into the realm of the science of living and thinking. It is in th1s sense that these preliminary lectures will serve to introduce or review sbtJle of the fundamental principles of psychology. These lectures will discuss the . , , subject matter of psychology and its methods, and certain mentef facUlties such as learning, memory, and habit, and their relationship between our minds and the external world.

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THE MENTAL WORLD by

Cecil A. Poole

As was stated in our first lecture of this series, it is necessary for us to approach the subject matter classified under the heading of psychology in order to become familiar with the science that has to do with man himself as a living being. All sCiences are in one way or another related to man, but ~hey are not as closely related as is psychology from the standpoint of analyzing the content of man's thought and the relation -of that thought to his environment. In the biological field, physiology deals with the functions of the body and anatomy with its structure. In the philosophical field there is speculation concerning what is real in man's thought and his place in the universe. Psychology deals with both of these phases from the standpoint of man's physical and mental self, and while it too considers the biological make-up of man, as well as certain philosophical speculations concerning man, it deals primarily with man as a living being who is constantly affected by stimulations from outside through his sense faculties, a.nd from inside by his own mental process of thought, conception, and imagination.

We say that psychology, as a SCience, therefore,. partakes of both biology and philosophy. For many years, psychology was merely a phase of philosophy, and the early philosophers and many of the later and even contemporary philosophers have written upon psychological subjects. Near the close of the nineteenth oentury, psychology began to be more concerned with man as a functioning being and as such it became independent of philosophy and took on certain biological problems.

To define psychology today is very difficult~ There is no definition that is acceptable to all schools of psychological thought, and many definitions are even less acceptable to the fields of biology and philosophy. The final definition of psychology is greatly influeMed by the underlying philosophy of the one who makes the definition. If we literally trace the derivation of the word pSlchology, we find it comes from the Greek, and means "science of the soul." But the word soul itself has now many meanings; not even various religions agree upon its meaning, but generally s~eaking those who define psychology today as the "science of the soul I would substitute the word mind for ~, and consider psychology a scientifio study of mental phenomena. As we shall see later, however, those who would have psychology more dependent upon biology than upon philosophy are inclined to interpret psychology on a basis of materialism and, as SUCh, would not consider in their definition anything that was not able to be objectively demonstrated. Mind, to the materialist, .is not a reality. To the idealist, mind is even more real than any physical thing.

It will be our purpose here to interpret certain principles of psychology in terms of Rosicrucianism, which is a form of idealism. We might reiterate briefly that Rosioruoian idealism believes that the material world exists, but also that an immaterial or mental world

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exists and is of 'qual or more importance. From the Rosicrucian standpoint, therefore, the definition of psychology as "the science of mind" is quite satisfactory, although in this definition the subject has been somewhat limited.

In understanding any general definition of psychology, it is necessary, from our standpoint, to consider psychology as having both a subjectiye and an objective phase. It was pointed out in our last lecture that man lives in two worlds: the mental world and the world of his environment. All things outside of man, then, are the objects of his environment. Man is able to know his environment through the process of perception. Perception is, in t unn, dep.endent upon five .sense, faculties. Everything that man perceives in his environment comes to his mind and thereby becomes a part of his full self through the medium of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or feeling. These five sense faculties, and these five only, are man's avenues toward objective perception. Nothing can enter our minds objectively except through one or a combination of these sense faculties, They are, therefore, usually referred to as the objective senses. Through them, if you wish an easy way to remember this terminology, we perceive and have sepsations of the objects of our environment. In fact, through these sense faculties, we are aware that there is such a thing as environment.

All these things that man perceives, in other words, the sensations that enter through his faculties, help to make up his consciousness. ConSCiousness is not an object. No one has ever perceived it through the sense faculties. Objectively, consciousness cannot be proved to exist. It is, in other words, a subjective phenomenon. It is our awareness of being. While we objectively cannot prove the existence of conSCiousness, it is also very difficult to present any kind of a feasible argument that would disprove its existence. We believe that we are conscious--we are aware of our environment and of objects in it because of the sensations which we have had and the perceptions which we have accumulated within our own minds. Objective psychology, then, concerns itself with the manifestations of mind suoh as we carl observe, and with the objects we perceive. Subjective psychology concerns it:self with the working of the mind and includes the many forms of phenomena primarily private to ourselves, such as thinking, imagination, conception, judgment, and the many mental processes of which only we ourselves are aware. The subjective and objective phases of psychology can be generally classified under the heading of consciousness, but that would limit the subject entirely to oneself, as no one can per-

c ef.ve your consciousness except yourself. Bu t while you cannot perceive my conSCiousness, you can perceive my behavior, and through experience one man or woman can draw certain conclusions about the consciousness of another human being by observing behavior. Behavior necessarily reflects conSCiousness, but it may not always be a true and complete picture of consciousness. For example, I may smile and act pleased when I am bored and wish I were out of the presence of the person at whom I smile. In such a case, behavior would be in direct contrast or opposition to the actual state of consciousness. This means that consciousness itself can be directed to modify behavior.

A good actor is one who not only behaves in the manner in which the

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character he represents is expected to behave, but who also temporarily represses his own consciousness by attempting to replace it with the consciousness of the person whom he represents. This is never completely accomplished, but a degree of its accomplishment is in direct proportion to the degree of perfection of the actor's performance. It is when one is taken by surprise, when emotional, or suffering from

low physical vitality, or when an individual is under the influence of a drug, that behavior more clearly indicates the true state of consciousness. If a man is primarily a thief, he will indicate some tendency when taken off guard.

If we are to define psychology ?ts the science of Qlind, we realize that we are going to have to qualify that definition to include not only the content of mind, but the results of mental action as well. To again refer to my illustration of smiling when I wished to look bored, as indicating one form of consciousnese when actually another existed-here we have a complex SOCial, or possibly economiC, question closely connected with the content of mind--of the expression of mind. Psychology, to consider a whole picture of the human individual, has to take into consideration not only the states of consciousness and behavior of the individual, but also the factors that produce states of consciousness and types of behavior.

A great part of our thinking is affected by our env1ronment. In that environment, social and economic pressure causes us to behave in certain ways if we are to be socially aocepted. It is often necessary even to compromise between our own mental world and the SOCial world in which we live. Those who are completely antisocial fall into the classification of problems known as crime and delinquency. The behavior of these individuals is against social custom and practice. We might ask: What are the true mental states of oriminals and delinquents? Will punishment and their being forced into social conformance be the cure for their misdeeds? It is clear that the answers to these questions, while primarily social, also involve a psychological problem, and if such individuals are to be peadjustedto social· c.onformanee their consciousness must be changed. They must acquire a different outlook or viewpont, and aim in life.

The lmportance of behavior as a part of the subject matter of psychology leads some students to the extreme position of over~emphasizing the objective side of psychology. The objective psychologist reasons that there is no need to concern oneself with the study of mental states; it is only necessary to readjust the habit systems of individuals to a point of SOCial conformance. To such a study, the end would justify the means. Behavior would be the final criterion insofar as psychological study was concerned. This form of psychology, sometimes known as behaviorism, causes the whole subject of psychology to be but a branoh of biology, and therefore a study of actions and reactions of certain physiological phenomena.

We must acknowledge the place of mind and behavior in the subject matter of psyohology, and further acknowledge that no Single definition of the subject will satisfy every point of view. But whether or not

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the psychologist is an idealist or a materialist, if he is sincere and primarily interested in the study of the relationship of man to his environment, he will make the ultimate purpose of psychology the establishment of a harmonious connection between the mental world of man and his physical environment. The Rosicrucian standpoint takes intq consideration that man is a dual manifestation, whether this duality be called mind and body, material and immaterial, or subjective and ob ... jective. Regardless of the terms used, Rosicrucians make the end and purpose of psychology the fitting of man into his proper place in relation to his environment and the learning of how man's mental world and his environment may be best related for the growth and advancement of the individual-.

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It is apparent from these observations that each individual has a private and a public world. His private world is that within his own mindj his public world includes his own behavior and the behavior of others. In these two worlds, man lives, and it is considered that the man who best adjllsts himself to these two extremes is the one best fitted to carry on in life. If we are to understand man, we mustunde~ stand both the phenomena of mind and the principles of behavior. We must realize that every individual is living tn a constant state 'of struggle in adjusting his inner self to the outer world. The degree

of adjustment that takes place is usually the standard by which sanity is judged.

Before we can leave the subject of man's mind and its relation.to the external world, we must consider briefly a problem of physiological psychology which concerns itself with the perception processes. We have learned that all whtch man perceives, and thereby butlds up the content of his consciousness, comes to him through his sense faculties. To repeat what we have previously said, the sense faculties constitute the channels of all objective knowledge. This seems, on the surface, to be an obvious statement of fact but from a philosophical standpoint the question enters as to how reliable are our perceptions. When we perceive a si.mple objecrt, such as a table' 1n a room, do we aotually perceive the table or do we merely perceive the sensations which the table causes to take place in our bodies. The perception of a table

is based primarily upon two sense faculties. We can either see or feel the tablej an object suoh as a table would usually make little response to the sensations of hearing, tasting, or smelling. We therefore have a sensation transmitted to the brain from. the eye thatgi ves us a perception of space occupied by an object of a certain size and shape.

If we place our hands upon the table, we perceive again the shape, size, and the texture of the objeot. Puttlng all these sensations together, we gain the perception of a table. But have we perceived the table

or merely perceived the sensations which the table evoked in our consciousness? While this problem is one primarlly of metaphYSiCS, it nevertheless enters into the field of psychology in that we must, at all times, be conscious of the fact that perception is not, 1n itself, always reliable. We learn by experience to compensate for the errors of perception; for example, while the two rails of a railro.ad track may look as if they meet in the distanoe, we know they are parallel even though the sensation Which the eye.conveys to the brain is that of the

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two rails eventually coming together. Experience has taught us to modify perception, and it must further teach us that the relationship between mind and environment is always the result of sensation and must be constantly modified in terms of experience. The degree by which we adjust ourselves to environment indioates the degree of perfection we have attained in judging the sensations that enter our mental world.

To summarize .. psychology is the ac Lence tha t -concerns itself with the mind and with the behavior of living things. Its emphasis changes from the objective to the subjective, depending upon whether our attention is focused pr:tmarily wi thi.n our own mind or direc ted out toward our environment. The final criteria of the u~efulness of the phenomena which we perceive and which come to be the content of consciousness must always be judged in terms of our ability to perceive and to modify, in term.s of experience, the sensations which we receive from outside stimuli.

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THE MENTAL WORLD by

Cecil A. Poole

In our survey of man's mental world, we have learned that, from a psychological standpoint, there are but two things in the world: subjects and objects. We have already pointed out that the world can be considered as divided into "self" and "things." The "things" are not of the self or mind but constitute our environment. From the standpoint of the individual self, of the individual mind of man, this condition can best be descr'ibed by using the terms sUb~ect and 2br1$Cct.. The subject-object relationship is worthy of carefu study and the consideration of anyone who approaches the field of psychology. There has for

a long time been a psychological question as to whether there would be any objects if there were not subjects to perceive them. All we know about the objects that compose the external world, that is the world that lies outside of self, are the sensations which these objects have recorded upon our sense faculties.

Man, as being the container of the subject, that is himself, is continually being bombarded from the outside by stimulations that reach him through his sense faculties. We are also equipped to discriminate among these sensations, and by the proper direction of consciousness through the use of concentration and attention, which we will discuss later in this series, we pick out the objects which we wish to have brought to a focal point in our conscious state. This power of selection in consciousness is an ability that man has been given to be able to keep himself from merely being the reCipient of hundreds of various forms of stimuli, without being able to segregate or pick out from among those stimulations the things which he wants or is economically or socially forced to dwell upon.

The mind of an infant is like a mirror in its relationship to outside stimUlation. Everything that falls within the visual, or proper light range of a mirror is reflected. The mirror has no ability of its own to pick out or select those things which it will reflect, or to subordinate or refuse to reflect other things. In the same sense, the stimUlation of outside objects affects the mind of an infant. They come and go with no volitional action upon the part of the infant subject. Everything which falls within the range of vision attracts attention, and it is not until experience is gained in living in a world of objects that the child reaches the point where it can segregate these many impreSSions that reach it.

Normally, the human being in an adult state, has the ability to make selection in consciousness. We are constantly being besieged with various impressions. Some are predominate in our consciousness; some are dismissed to the background; some cannot be ignored even if we wished to ignore them. Such sensations as bright light, odor of food when hungry, loud nOise, pain, or even humor, cause a reaction upon our part whether we will it or not. Man has certain innate reaction chains.

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These are normally known as reflexes. These reflexes are inherited; they are a part of our·physical structure. One of the simplest of the reflexes is that which is coupled with self-protection. For example, if our finger touches a hot object, we immediately withdraw it, not because we stop and think about withdrawing it before the pain becomes intense, but because of an innate reflex action. This response does not come from the higher levels of the brain but from the coordination and function of the spinal nervous system. Other reflexes function at all times. The taste of food causes saliva and other digestive juices to flow, which condition makes possible the chemical process of digestion. Being startled causes certain chemical reactions in the body, ..such as the releasing of the adrenalin from the adrenal glands into

the blood stream to give us added strength to meet any external situation.

All of these reflexes a.re more or less related to man's self-protection; and these inherited tendencies have, through the evolutionary processes, been built up so that they are even more deeply seated than habit, and function to help adjust the j,ndivldual, that is, adjust the subject to the objects about him.

Those who have studied infant psychology have gone into detail as to the development of these various reflexes. Certain reflexes function within a few moments of birth,; some develop within a very shorttimsj and some are lost as the individual grows older. (For reference upon the mechanical function of reflexes in infants, you may wish to refer to The Psychological Care of the Infant and Child, by John and Rosalie Wat"SOii.) Most of thereflexeS'1n mants PhYsical make-up ar-e subject

to modification. A Russian physiologi.st, Pavlov, performed some of the earliest experiments with reflexes. One of these experiments was a study of the relation between stimulus and response. It is, of course, an obvious fact tha t when a human or animal is hungry the sight of food will bring a response which will cause the flow of various digestive juices. Pavlov experimented with dogs, and in his experiment he arranged that when food was set before the dogs a bell would· rlll1!·. T*ie experiment was repeated a number of days and, as a result, when the dogs would hear a bell ring, they would respond with a flow of saliva just as if they had seen food. This is a simple illustration of a conditioned reflex. Normally the sight of food produces a flow of saliva, but through this experiment these dogs were conditioned so that the sound of a bell, which had previously accompanied the sight of food, in itself produced the same reaction as did the food. The reflexes with which we are born are constantly being modified and conditioned to the demands of the time and of our environment and the objects which compose it. We therefore can glimpse the importance of subject ... object relationship. Our whole lives revolve about this relationship and it is how well the subjects of the universe become adjusted to the objects that determines success in life and living.

For everything that is perceived, there must be a perceiver. For everything that the perceiver beholds, there must be an object. In

the idealistic schools of philosophy, which is in accord with the Rosicrucian prinCiples, we believe that the subject is a manifestation

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of mind and closely related to life and soul. The subject which perceives, feels, thinks, and has the various mental reactions is, from this philosophical point of view, an entirely different thing than the object which is perceived, thought about, and believed to exist external to us.

Materialism claims that reality is matter and that all things in the universe are manifestations of either matter or energy, which is matter in motion. This theory falls short in that it does not account for the subject-object relationship. If all things are matter and there is no mind, then how do we know that there are objects unless there are also subjects to perceive them. The prime purpose of psychology is to study the interrelations between subjects and objects. The mental world conceives both these things in that it is within the mind that the subject which does the perceiving resides and it is also within that mind that the concepts of objects are formed. Objects of course, as objects, do not enter the mind. Concepts of objects formed in the mind are due to the conclusions drawn from the sensations perceived.

In the study of behavior and mental phenomena, the methods by which psychology approaches these topics and the subject-object relationship must be considered. There are three fundamental methods by which psychology proceeds. It is through these methods that psychology attempts to learn about mind, behaVior, and the subject-object relationship.

The three methods are introspection, inspection, and experimentation. We will devote the rest of this lecture to a discussion of these three methods.

Introspection is the be'st known, or at least the oldest, method of learning about the mind. We might say that introspection is selfobservation. The word means a looking within ourselves and observing the states of consciousness as they exist. We have certain opinions concerning ourselves that are gained involuntarily through an introspective process. We think about our minds or about our thinking selves, and we come to the conclusion of our identity of certain memories, of aims, purposes, and of fundamental underlying cna rac cer traits. All these things go to make up the ego which is the "1."

This "I" is a composite of all our past and present thinking. It is entirely private; no one can observe this internal compOSite that

makes up the individual "I" except the individual himself or herself.

The observing of our mental states is what is included in the term introspection. There are objections to introspection as a scientific method. One of these objections concerns the subject-object relationship which we have just discussed. The question is asked--How can a subject observe itself? This question has merit in that from the technical standpoint a subject can perceive only the objects which fall within the range of its perception; and it is probably also technically correct that the ego or the complete subject cannot become an object

of itself in its entirety. In other words, when I try, through a process of introspection, to observe my mental states I cannot cause the entire self to exhibit itself in one comprehensive whole as I would an object observed on the outside. My very proc~ss of looking within

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my own mental processes is causing me to distinguish between phases of my mental being and the process of introspection, and the final analysis can only be directed to various parts of consciousness. For example, I can, through a process of introspection, bring into my mind memories of past things and events. I can recreate these memories in my mind, observe them, draw conclusions concerning them, and possibly also gain useful information that will help me with some present or future circumstance. In such a case, I, the subject, am looking within myself at a part of my own consciousness which, for a temporary period of time, I am making the object. Naturally, such a close relationship between the subject and an object,- within the aubject, is modified by myself to the point where even an entirely unbiased report, from a standpoint of scientific method, cannot be considered complete.

Introspection, then, is not a perfect process but that does not mean that it is not, at least in part, a worth-while process. The physical scientist who would criticize the use of introspection must bear in mind that he himself uses it, although involuntarily. The scientist

in the laboratory who observes a physical manifestation can report upon that physical manifestation only in terms of his own mental reaction

to it. When the biologist looks through a microscope and makes a discovery concerning living tissue, he must translate that discovery into his own description which he, in turn, has through an introspective process taken from his own mind. Therefore, the criticism that introspection is not valid is an exaggeration. We must admit the limitations and imperfections of the introspective process but it still

has great usefulness in making it possible for man to examine and contemplate his mental states. Without introspection, man would know little of his whole mental being.

The second method of psychology is inspection. As previously mentioned in these lectures, if we are to understand the working of another person's mind and the reason for his behavior, we must inspect persons in the sense that we observe what they are. doing. This in8peeti~n, from a psychological point of view, comes through the observation we make of the phenomena of life about USj and while it, like introspeotion, is limited to the coloring which we ourselves in our own mental process may put upon what we see, it is nevertheless another key toward the understanding of mental processes and behavior.

Inspection causes us to analyze manls actions, his words, and his oomposite behavior. Actions frequently reflect mental oonditions. Words are a means by which man expresses his feelings, attitudes, and viewpoints. Therefore, language becomes an important point of inspection when applied to psychology. But man's expressions in arts, sciences, and other fields are also valuable for inspection because it is through those expressions that we are able to gain some insight into the mind of the individual who created the objects under inspection. A great painting indicates not only an ability and a sense of color by the artist who made it, but also some concept of his viewpoint of life and some would go so far as to say that some pieces of art reflect the depth of character.

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Experimentation is comparatively new to the field of psychology. Prior to the last few years of the Nineteenth Century, psychology was limited exclusively to a form of philosophical speculation. But, it was then that numerous psychologists and physiologists began to study human and animal nature by experimental methods, trying to correlate their processes in psychology with that of the physical sciences. I have already mentioned Pavlov's experiments with dogs, and there are many more too numerous to mention, but through experimentation certain facts have been learned about mental processes. One of the early and yet commonly used forms of experimentation in psychology has to do with the learning of habits. Animals, usually rats, were used in these experiments.

When ready for their feeding, they were placed ina complicat,ed maze. This maze was constructed in such a way that various passages lead in

a confused manner to the point where the food awaited them. There were many blind alleys where the animals would have to turn back and try another opening. Hunger was the motivating force that caused the animals to seek the food. It was found that the reaction of these animals, at first, was a matter of trial and error until they reaQhed the solution. They would blindly enter any opening, following it as far as they could, and when no results were obtained they would come back and try again. But after repeated performances, various anl'mals learned or remembered the route that lead directly to the food.

A great deal of information about the speed of learning was gained in such experiments. Other experiments have been conducted to measure the rapidity by which a human can learn facts or techniques to test his memory retention of knowledge, and even, in general, his capacity or innate intelligence. Out of experlmentation has lead the formation of intelligence tests by which an individual's innate capacity or intelligence quotient can be determined. The field of experimental psychology is extremely new. It is only within the past ten or twenty years that this experimentation has lead to the field of parapsychology, where tests are made regarding the possibility of thought transference and other phenomena which have been little understood in psychological fields.

We know that the mental world is not restricted merely to the objects and subjects that compose it, but that the mind of man has potentialities and capabilities never yet ~reamed of by any mortal being. in learning of the complete scope of this mental world, we shOuld use all the established methods of psychology, and it is particularly through experiments that we will be able to expand our knowledge of the .mind of man and man's behavior in relation to the situations and conditions where he has to live.

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THE MENTAL WORLD by

Cecil A. Poole

Some of the subjects with which psychology deals are accepted by us

as so obvious and common that we seldom give serious thought to their processes. We will, in this lecture, give brief consideration to memory, habit, and learning. Normally we think l:1.t.tle of these three faculties. Usually the only time we are conscious of memory, for example, is when it fails us; that is, when we have forgotten something. We are then annoyed by our apparent inability to bring into consciousness the thing we want to remember. The stUdy of memory, oddly enough, does not necessarily perfect it. The professor of psychology specializing in the subject of memory is not necessarily exempt from forgetting something. In other words, mental processes can be understood without necessarily implying that understanding leads to perfection.

The nature of habit and learning aI'e also very worthy subjects of investigation, but knowing how they work does not always make it easier for us to make or break a habit or to increase our learning ability. Nevertheless, if we are to use all our mental processes to the maximum that we were intended to use them, we are better off if we know something about them. We will learn later in this course that it is the total functioning of all our mental processes that makes for the adjusted and therefore contented individual.

So closely related are the faculties of memory, habit, and leal"ning, that many questions raised regarding one or more of these processes actually toUch upon phases of all three. It may actually be that the three mental processes represented by these terms are in reality manifestations of the same faculty.

The popular explanatlon of the functioning of the three processes is, in itself, ·indicative of the fact that there is close relationship between them. It is an accepted fact, for example, that a person with a good memory learns quickly, or to reverse the statement, a person who learns quickly is usually found to have a good memory; or, to put it in psychological language, to have good memory habits. Habits

are, to a certain extent, forms of unconscious memory. The ability of a living being to develop a habit relieves the conscious mind from the necessity of remembering so many details that are essential, so that many adjustments to our environment in our daily lives may take place without conscious direction.

The relationship between these three processes when constantly kept

in mind assists us in developing eaoh of them. An illustration of this fact was brought to my attention recently. It conoerns antndividual who upon arrival at his office one morning noticed that he had forgotten his wrist watcp, an article which he was accustomed to wear dally. This person while trying to analyze why he should have done such a stupid thing as to forget to put his watch on in the morning gave a

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little attention to analyzing the events of the morning to see if he could understand why su.ch a lapse of memory occurred. Upon careful consideration of the morning's events, he recalled that he had the habit every morning to perform certain acts, such as after arising he shaved, then prepared for work, ate his breakfast, and left his home. He followed this procedure quite rigidly, but on that particular morning he recalled that he had awakened a little earlier than usual, and had eaten his breakfast before shaving. In other words, he had interrupted the usual habit system that he followed daily by this apparently unimportant change in procedure. At some point in this process, probably before breakfast and after shaving, he usually put on his watch, but because on thls morning he left for work immediately after shaving, the habit of putting on the watch did not impress itself su'fficiently within his consciousness to have him perform this act. Therefore, he realized tha t the fa.ilure to wear his wa tch was not a failure of memory alone, but rather his dependence upon habit to carry him through the usual procedure and actions that preceded his leaving home for his office.

While it is true, as has already been mentioned, that habits relieve the conscious mind of the necessity of carrying a heavy burden of 'items to be remembered, it is important to realize that our habit systems

are not infallible, and if we depend upon habit exclusively we are depend ng upon conditions over which we do not have complete control

or even complete understanding. In other words, each of us, in order to keep from falling into a routine of eXistence, should acquire another habit, and that habit is to stop occaSionally and sum up our actions and thoughts for the preceding interval of time to see if we have covered everything. If the individual in the illustration had, in addition to his other habits, made it a point every morning just before leaving for the of'fice, to stop and analyze his actions, this process probably would have made him oonscious of the fact that because of the interruption of his habits, during the time he was preparing to leave home, he had forgotten to put on his watch.

This illustration and explanation may seem trivial, but when we depend upon our memory and habits we are causing trivial things to take on great importance. If we are going to assign the responsiblity

for many of the important events and acts of our daily existence to

our subconsoious or subjective minds, then it is certainly worth while for us to give some attention to the ways and means of developing these abilities so that they will be dependable but in a manner that will not make us slaves to routine procedures and habits of living.

The development of memory is in part an act of will. We can determine that we are going to remember something, but in addition to that exertion of will power, we must in some way keep a reminder of the thing to be remembered until it has become a habit. This illustrates the practice of tying a string around the finger to assure the remembrance of something tha t might otherwise be forgotten. A bette·r method yet is to have available some specific remin4er, such as a notebook, to which one

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can refer during those periods of checking up on past actions already mentioned.

While memory and habit are a most important part of our lives, we, 1n accepting them without conscious observation of their processes, are apt to overestimate their authority over us. We know when items to

be remembered slip from our consciousnes2 that our will power is futile in its efrort to bring them back to our consciousness. How often have we all had the experience of attempting to remember a name or some other simple thing, but the harder we concentrate upon brfnging it back to memory the more elusive it seems'to become. Usually such an item in the storehouse of memories is not placed there by will power and does not I'espond to the mere force of will and determinationto bring it back to consciousness.

Memory is best developed by aSSOCiating 1t with other things. Ideas that are closely related tend to improve memory. When we think of things which we have learned to associate with each oth-er, these other relationships are usually recalled. If we consider that the various habitual actions of the day bring about the associations which cause the memory to become conscious of facts in our minds, we realize the importance of giving a few moments' attention each day to an orderly arrangement of the little things that must be ta~en care of for the da~

All life is a process of learning, and learning might be broadly de ... fined as the over-all ability of the individual to fit himself to his environment. It, therefore, includes such processes as memory and habit in the final accomplishment of learning any set of facts or any series of motions. Experimentation has shown that the learning process follows these general prinCiples of the utilization of memory and

habit although specific laws of learning have never been proved to be completely accurate. We do know, however, that to learn anything we must direct our attention to it. Attention is the ability of the mind to focus itself, usually through will power, upon a certain item or group of items.. In attempting to learn something by memory we force the mind to consider repeatedly the series of words and facts to be so memorized, and gradually the association takes form in the mind until

a habit system is so established that when the first few words are brought into consciousness the rest seem to follow.

The process of learning itself sometimes is very slow. In fact, all studies of this process have indicated that while the average indivipual learns quickly at rirst, he reaches a state or level in which it seems that little progress is made. This is called Ira plateau of learning," and it is through this period that the learning process is difficult, but then with an apparent sudd~nness he realizes that the facts have been assembled and are s tor-ed 1n the storehouse of memory ready for use when the proper, associated ideas bring them forward.

This has not been an-attempt to teach anyone better methods of learning through memory or habit formation, but it has been an attempt to consider the relation betwee.n mental, processes so dependent upon each

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other. In the psychology of Rosicrucianism we learn that the subjective mind accepts all suggestions as fact. That is why it is psychologically possible to acquire a habit when we repeatedly do a thing. Formation of habits is the suggestion to the subjective mind that under certain circumstances an act should be performed, and the repeated performance of that act under those circumstances intensifies the desire of the subjective mind to bring that act into manifestat'1on whenever the same circumstances exist.

Most frequently we associate this process with the formation of undesirable habits rather than good ones. In fact, sometimes we wonder why it is so easy for us to acquire an undesirable habit, such as one which may be non-advantageous socially or even detrimental to our

heal tho Usually such an undesirable habit is associated with a certain desire for some form of satisfaction. A very common illustration of this is the use of tobacco.. Tobacco is used for its mild narcotic effect and anyone who attempts to alibi the use for any other purpose is only trying to rationalize his use of tobacco. Since he has gained a certain satisfaction and enjoyment from the narcotiC effect of tobacco, this satisfaction is transmitted with the act itself to the subjective mind and very soon a habit is so definitely established

that it becomes almost involuntary. Thus, a habitual smoker will reach for his particular type of smoking pleasure without even starting to analyze the motions. This same procedure can be used equally well in the formation of good and desirable hab:i. t s.. However, to insure the full use of the subjective mind in the formation of a good habit there must not only be the feeling of need for habit but also a true desire that the ha b l t rbe acquired so that together with the actions and motions necessary for the habit formation, a sincere pleasure accompanies the act, and a sincere desire must exist to have the act repeated. Just as the satisfaction of the narcotic effect of tobacco gives the user an unconscious desire to repeat the effect and supports the formation of the habit, so will a complete desire of acquiring any other habit fortify and help the attainment of the act itself as a habitual response ..

There is nothing more important stated in this summary of a few actions concerning these mental processes than the honest appraisal on the part of the individual of his whole learning process. Take inventory and determine what you have acquired in the field of desirable habits, knowledge, and techniques in the past weeks, months, or years. Do you find your life is a routine of very little interest when it is honestly analyzed, or have you consciously directed yourself toward the attainment of new and desirable habits that lead you to a better enjoyment

of yourself and of your environment? If your habits are all of the character that we might ordinarily place on the bad or undesirable side then you are ,letting your habit systems take control of you rather than you of them. Think of those things which you believe would be worthy of your doing, such as constructive reading occasionally, constructive concentration, meditation, and even ways in which you can physically do things which are for the benefit of your health, or for the good of

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someone else. Give some time to these ideas and you will be developing constructive habf t e, At the same time, apply this same knowledge, if you wish, to break yourself of what you consider to be an undesirable habit. Replace the habit with desirable actions--break up the train

of routine that causes you to easily fall victim to the .habits entrenched in the mind and actions.

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The Mental World by

Cecil A. Poole

When the mind is directed toward anyone thing, the function performed is similar to that of a lens which directs light to a certain pOint.

A lens in a motion-picture projector, for example, gathers the light, which is passing through the film and then through the lens, in such manner that the lig~t is concentrated upon a screen at a certain point and all the light is brought into focus, for the purpose of projecting and making clear the picture in the film. When we direct our consciou~ ness toward anyone point we are using the process of concentration to perform a like function.

A step prior to concentration is that of attention, since in order to concentrate the faculties of the mind, we must be able to pick out

from either our objective and our subjective world one specific point upon which to direct our consciousness. This direction of consciousness toward one specific thing constitutes the process of attention~

Probably every person at sometime in his life has heard the phrase, usually applied to a child, that he is "not paying attention. It For example, often a school child will suddenly be brought to the realization of the subject under discussion by a sharp remark from his teacher or from some pupil, leaving the general observer with the opinion that attention was not being given to anythin§ in particular. This phrase so commonly used, "not paying attention, is in reality a false statement in the mental and psychological sense. There does not exist a state of not-paying-attent10n, or what we might better call inattention, unless it is a complete state of unconsciousness induced by inJury to the brain, or by drugs or possibly a deep sleep. 80, when a child is found not to be directing his consciousness to where he should, or not attending to the'condit10ns or things as he should, it is a fact that he is nevertheless attending, or giving his whole consciousness to something. It is true, his attention is not given to that which his teacher or parents think it ought to be at that particular moment, but nevertheless, he may be visualizing the swimming hole or some experience he antiCipates for the next day or next week, and he is attending to that in more vividness than the average ohild would give to his curricular subjeots.

From the foregoing, we might conclude that not giving complete attention to the routine affairs of life is a trait found only in children; however, we find that adults fail to attend to the things at hand, often as frequently as the Child. As a result, we might, upon analyzation of many of the so-called failures in life, find that lack of attention to the things which should have been done was the direct

cause of failure. .

The question might well be asked here, "Just what is attention?" Various sohools of pSYChology have defined it 1n different ways, but one

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of the oldest definitions as quoted by William James--although possibly it originated even before his works on psychology were published ... - was: "Attention is the power of the mind to concentrate." This definition, of course, is not complete. It leaves us supposing or questioning too many things, such as, what power does the mind possess and what is the mind itself? Then if these things are understood and explained, as many students of philosophical and metaphysical subjects could do to their own satisfaction, we feel capable of analyzing the subject of concentration and determining just exactly how attention

may exis t and how i't may be voluntarily controlled.

Before considering attention in connection with concentration, let us analyze some of its manifestations, or some divisions into which it might be definitely separated. Our first classification of attention might be in regard to its existence, to state that it is passive or active. Passive attention might be compared with daydreaming or uncontrolled imagination; that is, when one is not forcing the mind to attend to one particular subject, the mind nevertheless is in a state of wakeful consciousness and is attending to certain ideas or thoughts in itself. On the other hand, active attention is self-determined. We take the initiative in beginning and ending the process. We might say that active attention is voluntary attention, or that to which we definitely place our will.

Another classification of attention might be what we could term sensorY attention. Sensory attention would be that which is definitely the result of the stimUlation of a sense organ: For example, while I write these comments on the subject of attention, my attention is given to the subject itself, but if within the range of my hearing there should

,be a loud, unusual explosion which would register upon the sense organ of hearing--that is, the ear--in all probability my attention would be distracted, at least for the moment, because of the sensory impression that reached by brain. Sensory attention, then, is that attention given to any stimulation to a sense organ, in many cases whether we voluntarily wish to attend to it or not.

The individual who is able to concentrate perfectly, which we have already referred to as being the ultimate end of attention, is one who can cause to be eliminated from his consciousness all sensory impressions, such as that just referred to, so completely that his attention will be constantly focused upon the actual task at hand. Such task would lie in another division of attention, which we could refer to as intellectual or ideational attention.

This intellectual attention to ideas is more within ourselves than without. It is the attention we give to memory~ imagination, judgment, reason, or all mental processes other than sensations or processes which force themselves upon our consciousness, due to sensory stimulation. Needless to say, such a state of attention is active or voluntary. We must use volition to start such a process; however, effort at the same level is not always required to continue the process. If an

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individual has a hobby, such as a stUdy of some subject like philosophy, history, or psychology, and he wishes to give it his attention, it may take some effort of will at first, but the more completely his attention is given to the subject, because of interest, the less effort

will be required to continue to direct his attention toward it.

When an individual becomes, as we often express it, "wrapped up 1n a subject at hand," we say that his attention is spontaneous; that is,

it simply continues because of interest and without apparent effort. Probably this is the first kind of attention, or th~ first manifestation of attention, that is developed in human beings shortly after birth. An infant attends to things spontaneously, although his periods of attention may be very short in duration. This again is sensory attention because a child will attend only to those things in his environment that stimulate a sense organ. Then, later 1n life, with so many factors of an individual's environment demanding his interest, spontaneous attention seems to become more and more difficult and, in fact, practically impossible unless stimulated by interest. Interest and determination, however, will bri~ about a state of mind in an' adul t , which we might term "acquired" spontaneous attention; tha t is, when an individual T s determ:1.na tion and interest comes to a certain point where a subject or a necessary task in his daily. life will bring about what we might term almost a reflex action, it will cause him to, during a required length of time, give his attention apparently without distraction or effort to the necessary task at hand.

The student who is attempting to learn laws and principles to be applied in his life must build up the required interest and determination to be able to attend easily and with a minimum of effort to the subject before him. This in turn will bring about an ability to concentrate because, returning to the consideration of the definition first given, that "Attention is the power of the mind to concentrate," we find that complete attention is actually the mind in a state of concentration. Upon a careful consideration of this statement, we realize how simple the process concentration is. The prooess itself is not difficult, for it requires no effort for us to give attention to something that is pleasant, and we do so and without realizing that the process is in action. At times the whole mind is devoted to a pleasant experience, a pleasant thought, or some antiCipated event which will bring us pleasure. All persons have experienced such a state of attention, and if they would stop to analyze their state of consciousness at such a time they would realize that they were in a complete

sta te of concentration, and, by carrying over to other s'ubjects this same mental attitude--this same condition of spontaneous concentration and attention--they would be able to concentrate upon any subject just as they have concentrated upon a thing of a more or less unimportant

na ture.

Concentration puts man's entire mental forces at work, and when they are at work the vibrations created by thought and concentration have a definite effect upon the environment that exists about the individual.

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However, we must keep in mind that in a state of concentration, for the purpose of applying these mental powers, two conditions must always be remembered. These are: It is not mants function to create. According to the physical law of the conservation of matter, all that exists has been created and will always continue to exist in one form or another. Man cannot add to this existence, but it is his function and right to combine, rearrange, and distribute that which is created to better fit his needs and purpo~es.

With the ability to attend and, in turn, to concentrate, man becomes a powerful instrument within himself. If the physical universe is to be explored, whether within a small radius, or within hundreds of light years, a particular material arrangement is necessary; that is, a certain apparatus mus t be made or obtained to aid 1n the exploration.

This is no less true in the immaterial or psychic world. If this world is to be explored and unders toed by man, then, too, a particular mental arrangement is necessary Which will serve the same purpose in relat~on to the physical world; that is, a key or a tool is needed with which

he may work to bring his mental processes to the point where they may influence and modify the condition of life and enVironment. The most valuable and important tool is the tool of concentration, which comes with the proper application Of man's God-given ability to attend.

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ROSE-CROIX UNIVERSITY Matr1culat10n Lecture Series U-C

The Mental World

by

Cec 11 A. Poole

-DPAGE ONE

In the five lectures which you have received our primary emphasis has been on human psychology. This is beoause man is distinguished from the res t of the animal world by being considered a thinking being. The process of thinking, as we know it, is primarily a human attribute. Animals have the power of thought in a varying degree, but in a degree much less than that of the human. Thinking is a prooess that continually goes on within us. We cannot at any moment distingu1sh self, consciousness, and thinking from each other. We know self through thoughts; consciousness is the stream of thought; but thinking itself is difficult to def1ne. One thing we do know--that man's think1ng 1s olosely correlated with h1s knowledge of language.

Some meohanistic schools of psychology have defined ~hinkiP8 as a process of subvocal talking; in other words, talk1ng to ourseives. We

like to think of the thought process as being more profound than mere talking to ourselves, but analys1s of our thought processes wi.ll Dlike it clear how true this explana t10n is 1n reality. It is nan's th1nk1ng that distinguishes ~psychological processes from the processes of the physical sciences. We can, as we have already pointed out, cons1der the physical phenomena as objective things, but thought is completely

within ourselves. I

It is interesting to note that the laws of physics and physiology take no acoount of the individual; that is, they deal with physioal factors. In physics and physiology sound is motion in air waves; that is, it 1s a physical phenomenon. Digestion is simply a sequence of chemical changes within the body. This explanation does not satisfy us . We acknowledge our debt to the physical SCiences, because we must study physics and physiology if we are to be aware of all the factors about us. On the other hand, we need the viewpoint of psychology, vhi® does not deal with sound as air waves, but sound as we hear it, and does not deal with diges tion as a chemical change,. bu t as hunger and thirst which we feel. There is a vast difference between considering sound as mere physical waves in the air and music as we find it 1n music appreciation. We may be able to describe the chemical prooess of digest1on, but that does not help if we have not eaten for a few days. These experiences of hunger, thirst, and music appreoiation So beyond the physical phenomena. Our understanding of the emotional possib1lit1es ot: our make-up are the result of internal sensations,

not exolusively of stimuli from the outside. Whether you know the phYSical facts or not, when you hear music your consciousness is taken up with the internal reactions to certain qualities of sound which exist in the music. You will remember an illUstration 1n a oertain monograph where it is asked if there would be any sound if a tree fell in the woods miles away from any human being. The truth is, there would only be vibrations.

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Sound is a good illustration of the difference in considering a phenomenon from the standpoint of physiology or from psychology. We have pointed out that from a physical standpoint, sound 1s no more or less than a certain series of vibrations. Sound, as 'we experience it and

as it is translated by the mind, 1s something more than vibrations. While the ear receives the Vibrations, it is the mind that translates the vibra tions into sound as we hear it. This translation by the mind causes us to interpret these vibrations in various manners.

-DPAGE TWO

One manifestation o~ sound is music. Not all of us appreciate mUSiC, but our lack of appreciat10n is not due to the v1brations of the sound but to our interpretation of them. If a person does not appreciate music and has no desire for, or particular interest in, the tonal quality that constitutes mUSiC, then in that person's mind there will be an entirely different reaction from that in the mind of the person who apprecia tes mus Lc • Nevertheless, the reaction of both of these persons will be the direct result of the same stimulation from the outside. The way in which we react to this stimulation will be the result of interpretation of the internal sensations created by the, vibrations of sound.

It is difficult to express in words our reactions to sensations of music. That is evidenced by the individual's inability to describe to another person why he enjoys music or art. You cannot explain to me why you like a particular piece of musiC, why a particular work of art appeals to you, or why you have to have a walk in the twilight. You can evidence your interest in these things by your actions and by your words, but regardless of what you do, you cannot translate your reactions in such manner as to cause me to be interested in the same thing if I do not appreciate these sensations in the same manner as you do. A teacher very much appreciates the fact that knowledge cannot be forced into another's mind. The teacher cannot, by physical effort, cause another to learn.

We see from these viewpoints that it is something within the mind that causes us to appreCiate beauty, truth, and to seek for factual information. It is not our eyes, ears, or brain that translate sensations into the things which we appreciate. These physical organs only receive the sensations. It is a composite inner experience, somewhat dependent upon a subjective faculty within, that causes us to react in appreciation to those things which we like. We may search for truth, we may want facts, but someone may ask why we want facts--why the exact date of a historical event is of importance. Yet there is a human tendency, at least on the part of anyone with any reasonable imagination and interest, to seek the truth and facts for support of his knowledge. It is difficult for us to explain objectively why we may appreciate truth in preference to error, but it may be related in some way to the consideration that mind is a phase of the soul, which is perfect, and since its tendency is toward perfection we tend also toward that goa 1. It is pr-oba bly true that wi.thin every human bei!lg the

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soul is more dominant in his whole life than most are willing to admit. This is borne out of many people's experiences--teachere have seen time and time again spontaneous manifestations of knowledge on the part of children for which they could not account. A child will evidence inna te tendencies toward knowledge and behavior which are not necessarily a part of formal education. In fact, some forms of education have been criticized for this apparent limiting of the child to a certain fixed standard of achievement. Such a system of education does not bring out the most from within the child.

We must realize truit, to a certain extent, perfection 1s already existent within the mind of every individual and education should direot its unfoldment and manifestations rather than to confine it strictly to one procedure or category. We cannot consider a human being as an inanimate thing which can be changed or molded. We must think of the human being as a growing thing, both phySically and mentally, and the experience of others should aid in directing that growth.

There is a comparatively recent tendency in psychology, known as the organismic concept. This school of thought considers man as a whole. We have discussed habit, learning, attention, consciousness, and other subjects that relate to man's mental world. There has been a tendency to think of these as independent subjects, but we know that we cannot separate attention from conSCiousness, or habit from learning, or as far as that is concerned, we cannot separate as completely independent things anyone of these psychological faculties which we have briefly examined. While each is important, the mental world of man is reflected in his total behavior. We do not view the people with whom we associate merely from a standpOint of a degree of attention that may be given to anyone particular thing, but rather from the stand.point of their reactions as living beings to the thing or subject under con-

s idera tion.

Man's behavior, as a whole, is in the final analysis more important than anyone psychological factor. This concept of the reaction and functioning of the whole human organism is a psychological procedure or system which closely parallels the prinoiples of Rosicruoianism.

We are concerned with man as a man--a living being as a unit. We are aware that the objective behavior and the mental world of the individual are not always related in the form that might be our obvious oonclusions. But we do know that man has his world of thought and consciousness and his external world, and regardless of whether a man has ever heard .of attention and habit, he can still be a satisfactorily adjusted individual.

It is important that we learn the laws and principles governing the mental world of man, but it is more important that our understanding of these laws helps the human organism as a whole to adjust itself better to the environment in which it lives. This concept is the broader concept of psychology.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR FINAL EXAMINATION

You are asked to submit a written examination upon these six matriculation lectures which you have now completed. You are to write your answers to the examination questions which follow. You may, if neoessary, refer to these lectures.

An ANSWER SHEET is provided for all answers. Use this @nly in taking your examination. Choose the best answer for each quesion and write or type it oPPosite 'the corresponding number on the ANSWER SHEET. One question in each group is answered for you as an example. Do not take the question sheet out of the matriculation lecture or write upon it.

We wish to remind you that this examination must be answered with a percentage of 79.% accuracy, or you will not matriculate. Be sure that your matriculation lectures are returned with your answers. Do not forget to place your name and address on your ANSWER SHEET.

EX:AMINATION QUESTIONS FOR MATRICULATION LECTURES OF THE COLLEGE OF HUMANITIES

-- COURSE C --

TRUE - FALSE: (40 points)

The following statements refer to the subjects included in your matriculation lectures. If the statement is true, write TRUE opposite the corresponding question number on the ANSWER SHEET. If the statement

is partly or WhOllf false, write FALSE. The first statement is answered for you on the N5WER SHEET as an example.

1. Man is a small replica of the Cosmos.

2. Psychology takes in both philosophy and biology.

3. Perception depends upon all six sense faculties.

4. Reflexes are more easily erased than habits.

5. Habits cause us to give much more conscious attention to the world.

6. It is not man's function to create.

7. Reactions to music and art are easily expressed 1n words.

8. Memory is best developed by memorizing things to be remembered.

9. There are many waking moments during which no time is given to thought.

NUMBER SIX

ROSE-CROIX UNIVERSITY Matriculation Lecture Series U-C

-BPAGE FIVE

TRUE - FALSE (continued):

10. Reflexes are part of our automatic response to life.

11. It is impossible to disprove the existence of consciousness.

12. Mind power is useless unless it is controlled and directed.

13. The goal of Rosicrucian psychology is the fitting of man to his

sphere.

14. Mind and brain are to all intents and purposes the same.

15. Certain actions and responses can take place without the brain.

16. A human seeks after Truth by nature.

17. Intellectual attention is self-starting.

18. OrganismiC psychology most closely approaches Rosicrucian psychology.

19. Thinking is not particularly related to language.

20. Behavior is an accurate reflection of human consciousness.

PASSIVE or ACTIVE: (30 points)

The activities and definitions listed below generally demand either ACTIVE or PASSIVE attention. After the corresponding number on the ANSWER SHEET, write either ACTIVE or PASSIVE. One example is given.

21. Running 26. Watching a movie 31. Willful
22. Writing 27 . Hearing 32. Talking
23. Voluntary 28. Feeling 33. Seeing
24. Thinking 29. Involuntary 34. Listening to
music
25· Daydreaming 30. Swimming
35. Reading
MATCHING: (20 points) Each of the subjects listed below refers to one of the three methods by which psychologists study behavior: INSPECTION, INTROSPECTION 1 and EXPERIMENTATION. On the ANSWER SHEET, place after the corresponding number of each subject below the method associated with it. The

first subject is answered for you.

NUMBER SIX

ROSE-CROIX UNIVERSITY Matriculation Lecture Series U-C

-BPAGE SIX

MATCHING (continued):

INSPECTION

36. Looking within

37. Observing others

38. Pavlov

INTROSPECTION

EXPERIMENTATION

41. Testing

42. Self-limited

43. Measuring

44. Looking without

45. Close relation between subject and object.

39. Basis of Intel~ ligence Tests

40. Analysis of environment

ESSAY: (10 points)

46. In 2Q words or less, briefly explain the organismic concept in psychology.

Name:

Address:

Key No.:

ANSWER SHEET u-C-6

College of __ H;.;;.;u_m_a_n_1_t_1e_s _

Course C

TRUE - FALSE: 1. True

(40 po1nts) 6.

2. 3. 4.

5· . .

7 ..

8.

11. 12.

13· .

16. 17. 18.

9. 14. 19.

22 .

....................... ,,'

23· .

(30 po1nts) 26.

27.

ACTIVE or PASSIVE: 21. Act1ve

24. 25·

28. 29. 30.

31. 32. 33. 34.

35·

MATCHING: (20 po1nts)

36 ....J.J:1.~.r.9..~P~.cti.:L.qn. ... 37.

38.

39. 40. 41.

42. 43. 44. 45.

ESSAY: (10 pOints)

46. (use other side, 1f necessary)

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