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Commercialisation of Context-Sensitive Mobile Attention in Mobile Media Markets

Commercialisation of Context-Sensitive Mobile Attention in Mobile Media Markets

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Published by aa5520
In a society of growing information overflow, it becomes increasingly difficult for enterprises to attract the attention of consumers for marketing campaigns promoting their products and services. In this regard, mobile media offers advertisers a highly personal communication channel to their recipients. Thereby, context information provided by the mobile network allows advertisers to target their Mobile Marketing campaigns towards the momentary usage situation of mobile users.

In this media market, the objective of Mobile Marketing Providers is to commercialise the provision of such a mobile communication channel to advertisers via their Mobile Media Market platform. However, the specific characteristics of context information generate impacts on a Mobile Marketing Provider’s traditional business model. In order to address these impacts, this work develops and applies a conceptional analysis framework for the use of context information in the Mobile Marketing domain. Subsequently and based on the knowledge acquired from the analysis, an engineering recommendation framework for Mobile Media Market platforms (MoMeMa) is developed and presented. Its guidelines enable Mobile Marketing Providers to develop or align their Mobile Media Market platforms in order to unleash the benefits of context information for Mobile Marketing campaigns while being able to cope with its identified impacts.

The MoMeMa engineering recommendation framework as the main contribution of this work was developed by following the Design Science Research paradigm. Thereby, its technical feasibility was demonstrated through the development of a software prototype whereas its utility for the practice was empirically validated based on conducted expert interviews.
In a society of growing information overflow, it becomes increasingly difficult for enterprises to attract the attention of consumers for marketing campaigns promoting their products and services. In this regard, mobile media offers advertisers a highly personal communication channel to their recipients. Thereby, context information provided by the mobile network allows advertisers to target their Mobile Marketing campaigns towards the momentary usage situation of mobile users.

In this media market, the objective of Mobile Marketing Providers is to commercialise the provision of such a mobile communication channel to advertisers via their Mobile Media Market platform. However, the specific characteristics of context information generate impacts on a Mobile Marketing Provider’s traditional business model. In order to address these impacts, this work develops and applies a conceptional analysis framework for the use of context information in the Mobile Marketing domain. Subsequently and based on the knowledge acquired from the analysis, an engineering recommendation framework for Mobile Media Market platforms (MoMeMa) is developed and presented. Its guidelines enable Mobile Marketing Providers to develop or align their Mobile Media Market platforms in order to unleash the benefits of context information for Mobile Marketing campaigns while being able to cope with its identified impacts.

The MoMeMa engineering recommendation framework as the main contribution of this work was developed by following the Design Science Research paradigm. Thereby, its technical feasibility was demonstrated through the development of a software prototype whereas its utility for the practice was empirically validated based on conducted expert interviews.

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Published by: aa5520 on Sep 02, 2010
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10/30/2011

Besides the general legal aspects in Europe to which each commercial organisa-
tion has to comply with, the EU issued several directives for the protection of

38

For instance, Orange Wednesdays is a Mobile Advertising campaign, which sends cross
selling offers (e.g. information on the DVD version) to cinema visitors, shortly after a
movie has ended (Orange Corporation 2009).

Engineering Recommendation Framework for Mobile Media Markets

143

personal data of individuals. Those directives are implemented by its member
states and consequently have to be respected by Mobile Marketing Providers.

The main objective and scope of the data protection directive is to regulate the
processing of personal data
in order to protect the privacy of individuals. Per-
sonal data is defined as “any information relating to an identified or identifiable
natural person (data subject); an identifiable person is one who can be identified,
directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to
one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic,
cultural, or social identity” (European Parliament 1995). In addition, processing
denotes “any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal
data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organi-
sation, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure
by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or
combination, blocking, erasure or destruction” (European Parliament 1995).

In this regard, personal data can only be processed only if one of the following
condition categories applies:

Transparency: The data subject has the right to be informed, when personal
data is processed and has to give their consent. Furthermore, the data subject
has the right to access all personal data processed about them. They can also
demand the deletion or blocking of data that is inaccurate or not processed ac-
cording to the data protection rules (European Parliament 1995).

Legitimate Purpose: Personal data can only be processed for the declared
and legitimate purpose and must not be processed otherwise (e.g. unauthor-
ised transfer of personal data to Third Parties) (European Parliament 1995).

Proportionality: Personal data may only be processed adequately and rele-
vant for the given purpose (European Parliament 1995). This means that per-
sonal data has to be complete, accurate and does not contain more information
than required for the given purpose. Furthermore, personal data should no
longer be linkable to an individual than necessary for the given purpose.

Because the Data Protection Directive is considered not to provide sufficient
legal protection in the sector of electronic communications, the EU has decided
to supplement this directive with the directive 2002/58/EC. With the publication
of this so-called E-Privacy Directive, the former Data Protection Directive only

144

Engineering Recommendation Framework for Mobile Media Markets

applies in situations, which are not covered by the E-Privacy Directive (FIDIS
2007a).

The E-Privacy Directive is specifically concerned with processing personal data
in the electronic communications sector. It “harmonises the provisions of the
Member States required to ensure an equivalent level of protection of fundamen-
tal rights and freedoms, and in particular the right to privacy, with respect to the
processing of personal data in the electronic communications sector and to en-
sure the free movement of such data and of electronic communication equip-
ment and services in the Community” (European Parliament 2002, Art. 1).

In order to comply with these directives or its national implementation respec-
tively, Mobile Marketing Providers enabling context-sensitive Mobile Advertis-
ing campaigns have to first identify the nature of their used primary context in-
formation. Therefore, they have to determine if context information about mo-
bile users constitutes either personal or traffic data for Mobile Advertising cam-
paigns.

Whereas the definition for personal data from Data Protection Directive still ap-
plies, traffic data “... means any data processed for the purpose of the convey-
ance of a communication on an electronic communications network or for the
billing thereof” (European Parliament 2002, Art. 2). Depending on the type of
processed data, different requirements have to be addressed. For personal data,
the already outlined requirements of the Data Protection Directive apply. By
contrast, for traffic data the following main requirements according to the E-
Privacy Directive are relevant (FIDIS 2007a):

•Communications and related traffic data has to be confidential. This means
eavesdropping, wiretapping, storage, or other kinds of interception or surveil-
lance of communications is prohibited without the consent of the users con-
cerned.

•Traffic data relating to subscribers or users, stored by the provider of a public
communication network, or publicly available electronic communication ser-
vice have to be erased or to be made anonymous, once it is no longer needed.

•Traffic data, which constitutes certain application contexts of personal data
has to be treated as stated in the Data Protection Directive.

Engineering Recommendation Framework for Mobile Media Markets

145

Although, the existing discussion and interpretation of these directives shows
the actual complexity of classifying processed data as personal or traffic data
(FIDIS 2007a), the following basic classification indicators have been developed
for context information with the scope of this work:

Identity: The identity of mobile users in the form of the MSISDN is available
at least to the mobile network operator once a mobile user accesses the mobile
Internet. The MSISDN denotes a worldwide unique number which can be di-
rectly linked to the SIM-card of a mobile subscriber (Turowski and Pousttchi
2004) and consequently constitutes personal data in line with the Data Protec-
tion Directive.

Location: The E-Privacy Directive defines location data as “any data proc-
essed in an electronic communications network, indicating the geographic po-
sition of the terminal equipment of a user of a publicly available electronic
communications service” (European Parliament 2002). In this regard, the
FIDIS deliverable (FIDIS 2007a) shows the complexity and issues of this
definition for service providers:

Depending on the application context, location data can be personal data (if
linkable to an individual), can be traffic data (if anonymous and not directly
used for value added services), or can be solely location data (if used for
value added service and anonymous).

Access Time: The issue of characterising the nature of the access time of mo-
bile users to certain mobile services or applications is that the E-Privacy di-
rective did not specifically define this concept. However, by following the
definition of personal data in accordance with the Data Protection Directive, it
can be derived that like location data, the access time of mobile users to the
mobile Internet can be personal data once it is linkable to them.

Secondary Context Information: As stated earlier, additional information
about mobile users derived from primary context information is considered
secondary context information. Therefore, it can be stated that if primary con-
text information about mobile users in a certain application context represents
personal data, then consequently the derived secondary context information
is personal data as well. For instance, if the location of a mobile user consti-
tutes personal data during the usage of a location-based service, also the POS
distance of a mobile user constitutes personal data.

146

Engineering Recommendation Framework for Mobile Media Markets

In summarising the previous discussion, the FIDIS Deliverable (FIDIS 2007a)
has developed a checklist for service providers in order to find a basic orienta-
tion, which directives and corresponding articles apply to them. Aligned to the
needs of Mobile Marketing Providers, the checkpoints questioned are as fol-
lows:

• Is the data to be processed “personal data”? (cp. E-Privacy Directive, Art. 2a)

• Is the data to be processed “traffic data”? (cp. E-Privacy Directive, Art. 2b)

• Is the data to be processed “location data”? (cp. E-Privacy Directive, Art. 2c)

• Does the data relate to users or subscribers of public communications net-
works or publicly available electronic communication services? (cp. E-
Privacy Directive, Art. 6).

• Are exceptions such as access for national security and law enforcements ap-
plicable? (cp. Data Protection Directive, Art. 13 and E-Privacy Directive, Art.
15)

Based on the general requirements for mobile media market platforms, acquired
from the market environment analysis, and based on the identified impacts of
context-sensitive mobile attention in Chapter 4, the following section defines
context-sensitive mobile attention as a transaction object in mobile media mar-
kets.

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