ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC LIST OF EXPERIMENTS SEM: V EXAM MARKS: 50 BRANCH: EC IA MARKS: 25 SUBJECT: ANALOG COMMUNICATION

& LIC LAB SUB CODE: 06ECL58 1) Active low pass & high pass filters –second order 2) Active band pass & band reject filters –second order 3) Schmitt trigger design and test a Schmitt trigger circuit for the given values of UTP and LTP 4) Frequency synthesis using PLL 5) Design and test R-2R DAC using OP-AMP. 6) Design and test the following circuits using IC 555 (a) Astable multivibrator for given frequency and duty cycle (b) Monostable multivibrator for given pulse width W. 7) Class-C single tuned amplifier 8) Amplitude modulation using Transistor/FET (Generation and Detection) 9) Pulse Amplitude modulation and Detection 10) PWM and PPM 11) Frequency modulation using 8038/2206 12) Precision Rectifiers- both Full Wave and Half Wave

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC CYCLE WISE EXPERIMENTS SEM: V EXAM MARKS: 50 BRANCH: EC IA MARKS: 25 SUBJECT: ANALOG COMMUNICATION & LIC LAB SUB CODE: 06ECL58 CYCLE - 1 Active low pass & high pass filters –second order

1)

2) Active band pass & band reject filters –second order 3) Schmitt trigger design and test a Schmitt trigger circuit for the given values of UTP and LTP CYCLE - 2 4) Precision Rectifiers- both Full Wave and Half Wave 5) Design and test R-2R DAC using OP-AMP. 6) Design and test the following circuits using IC 555 (a) Astable multivibrator for given frequency and duty cycle (b) Monostable multivibrator for given pulse width W. CYCLE - 3 7) Class-C single tuned amplifier 8) Amplitude modulation using Transistor/FET (Generation and Detection) 9) Pulse Amplitude modulation and Detection CYCLE - 4 10) PWM and PPM 11) Frequency modulation using 8038/2206 12) Frequency synthesis using PLL

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 1(A) SECOND ORDER ACTIVE LOW PASS FILTER Aim: To obtain the frequency response of an active low pass filter for the desired cut off frequency. Components required: Resistors- 33KΩ, 10KΩ, 5.86 KΩ Capacitors 2200pF, opamp –μA 741 Design For a 2nd order Filter, F H = 1 / 2π RC Hz

Let FH = 2 KHz and R = 33 KΩ ∴ 2 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ 33 ∗ 10 3 ∗ C ∴ C = 2200 pF

The pass band gain of the filter, AF = (1+R f / R1) For a second order filter, AF = 1.586, Let R1 = 10KΩ ∴ RF = 5.86 k Ω

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

586 and make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column. The output voltage (VO) remains constant at lower frequency range. CMRIT . V SEM EC L o w p a s s R 1 1 0 K c i r c u i t D i a g r a m R 1 f 0 k 0 R 3 3 k R 3 3 k u A 3 + V+ 7 4 V1 V o 4 2 - 7 0 V 1 C 2 2 0 0 2 P f C 2 0 0 P f 0 0 Procedure: 1. Design the filter for a gain of 1. Before wiring the circuit. 5.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. 3. check all the components. Plot the graph with ‘f ‘on X-axis and gain in dB on Y axis. By varying the frequency of input from Hz range to KHz range. Result: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Set the signal generator amplitude to 10V peak to peak and observe the input voltage and output voltage on the CRO 4. note the frequency and the corresponding output voltage across pin 6 of the op amp with respect to the gnd. 6. 7. 2.

86 KΩ Capacitors 2200pF. 5.33KΩ. AF = 1. 10KΩ.586. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 1(B) SECOND ORDER ACTIVE HIGH PASS FILTER Aim: To obtain the frequency response of an active high pass filter for the desired cut off frequency. Components required: Resistors. CMRIT . Let R1 = 10KΩ ∴ RF = 5. opamp –μA 741 Design: For a 2nd order Filter. AF = (1+R f / R1) For a second order filter.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.86 k Ω DEPARTMENT OF E&C. FL= 1 / 2π RC Hz Let FL = 2 KHz and R = 33 KΩ ∴ 2 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ 33 ∗ 10 3 ∗ C ∴ C = 2200 pF The pass band gain of the filter.

output voltage on the CRO. CMRIT . V SEM EC H i g h p a s s R 1 1 0 K c i r c u i t D i a g r a m R 1 f 0 k 0 C C u A 3 + f R V+ 7 4 V1 V o 4 2 - 2 V 1 2 0 0 P f2 2 0 0 P 7 0 R 3 3 k 3 3 k 0 0 Procedure: 1. note the frequency And the corresponding output voltage across pin 6 of the op amp with respect to the gnd. 3. Design the filter for a gain of 1. 7. 5-.The output voltage (VO) remains constant at lower frequency range. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column. 6. 2. Set the signal generator amplitude to 10V peak to peak and observe the input voltage In addition.586 and make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 4.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Result: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. By varying the frequency of input from HZ range to KHA range. Plot the graph with ‘f ‘on X-axis and gain in dB on Y axis. check all the components. Before wiring the circuit.

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.86 KΩ Capacitors 2200pF. opamp –μA 741 Design: For a 2nd order Filter. Let R1 = 10KΩ ∴ RF = 5.86 k Ω The Center frequency FC = √ FH ∗ FL Hence FC = 4. CMRIT . AF = 1.5 KHz DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 5. (i) F= 1 / 2π RC Hz For High pass section Let FL = 2 KHz and R = 33 KΩ ∴ 2 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ 33 ∗ 10 3 ∗ C ∴ C = 2200 pF (ii) For low pass section Let FH = 10 KHz And R = 33 kΩ ∴ 10 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ 33 ∗ 10 3 ∗ C ∴ C = 470 pF The pass band gain of the filter.33KΩ. AF = (1+R f / R1) For a second order filter. 10KΩ. Components required: Resistors. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 2(A) SECOND ORDER ACTIVE BAND PASS FILTER Aim: To obtain the frequency response of an active band pass filter for the desired cut off frequency and to verify the roll off.586.

8 k V+ 7 4 V16 V o 4 0 3 C V 0 V 1 R C R u A + V+ 7 4 V- 0 R 3 + C ' 0 4 0 0 0 Procedure: 1. Design the two filters for the desired cut off frequencies and make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 4. Before wiring the circuit.The output voltage (VO) remains constant at lower frequency range. By varying the frequency of input from Hz range to KHz range. 3. CMRIT . 8 k 5 . 7. Result: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Set the signal generator amplitude to 10V peak to peak and observe the input voltage And output voltage on the CRO. Plot the graph with ‘f ‘on X-axis and gain in dB on Y axis. 6. note the frequency And the corresponding output voltage across pin 6 of the op amp with respect to the gnd. 5-. check all the components. 2. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC Circuit Diagram:- B A R 1 N 1 D P A S S R f F IL T E R R 1 1 0 k 2 u 1 6 R V o C ' A 7 R f 0 k 7 2 5 .

586. opamp –μA 741 Design: For a 2nd order Filter.86 KΩ Capacitors 2200pF .01 ∗ 10 -6 ∴ R = 1. Components required: Resistors. F L = 1 / 2π RC Hz ∴ 10 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ R ∗ 0. (ii) F= 1 / 2π RC Hz For High pass section Let FL = 10 KHz and C = 0.33KΩ. 10KΩ. AF = 1.86 k Ω DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 5. Let R1 = 10K Ω ∴ RF = 5. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 2(B) SECOND ORDER ACTIVE BAND REJECT FILTER Aim: To obtain the frequency response of an active band reject filter for the desired cut off frequency and to verify the roll off.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.01 µ F. CMRIT . AF = (1+R f / R1) For a second order filter.59 k Ω (ii) For low pass section Let FH = 2 KHz And R = 33 k Ω ∴ 2 ∗ 10 3 = 1 / 2 π ∗ 33 ∗ 10 3 ∗ C ∴ C = 2200 pF The pass band gain of the filter.

C T I O N V+ u A 7 4 16 V3 + R 3 = 1 0 k C ' C ' 0 DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 8 K R 5 = 3 . 8 K F I L T E R 0 S U M M E R 7 4 16 R 2 = 1 0 k R 4 = 1 0 k u A H I G H P A S S S E C TC I O N C 0 . 0 1 u R F 0 . CMRIT 4 7 . V SEM EC Circuit Diagram:- B A N D R 1 1 0 k 2 R E J E C T R f 5 7 .3 K + 0 0 L O W R ' P A S S R ' S E. 0 V- 3 1 u R + F V+ 4 V+ u A 7 4 V4 16 2 - 3 0 R 1 1 0 k 2 R 7 f = 5 .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.

7-. set R2=R3=R and C2=C3=C then choose a value of C <=1 µF Calculate the value of R using the equation R= 1 / (2 π ∗ fH ∗ C) R’=1 / (2 π ∗ fL ∗ C ) 4. 8. Result: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column.This gain is necessary to guarantee Butterworth filter response. To simplify the design.Plot the graph with ‘f ‘on X-axis and gain in dB on Y axis. note the frequency And the corresponding output voltage across pin 6 of the op amp with respect to the Ground. Set the signal generator amplitude to 10V peak to peak and observe the input voltage And output voltage on the CRO. Before wiring the circuit. 2. 6. CMRIT .586 R1 . Because of the equal resistor R2=R3 and C2=C3 values the pass band voltage gain AF = (1+R f / R1) of the second order low pass and high pass filter has to be equal To 1. V SEM EC Procedure: 1.e. R f =0. By varying the frequency of input from HZ range to KHA range.586 i.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Hence choose the value of R1 <100K and calculate the value for RF 5. 9 . Design the two filters for the desired cut off frequencies and make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. check all the components.The output voltage (VO) remains constant at lower frequency range. 3.

The input voltage is applied to the inverting terminal and the feedback voltage is applied to the non-inverting terminal. When the input voltage is greater than Va. below.2kΩ . DEPARTMENT OF E&C. the output shifts to + Vsat. the output shifts to – Vsat and when the input voltage is less than Va.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. The output is a square wave and inverted form of the input. As shown in the fig. CMRIT . A Zero Cross Detector is also a comparator where op-amp compares the input voltage with the ground level. 2. 3 DESIGN AND TEST A SCHMITT TRIGGER CIRCUIT FOR THE GIVEN VALUES OF UTP AND LTP AIM: Design a square wave generator for a given UTP and LTP.1. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: Op-Amp . It compares the potentials at two input terminals. The feedback voltage Va depends on the output voltage as well as the reference voltage. In this circuit the op-amp acts as a comparator. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT NO. the feedback voltage is Va. The input voltage at which the output changes from + Vsat to – Vsat is called Upper Threshold Point (UTP) and the input voltage at which the output shifts from – Vsat to + Vsat is called Lower Threshold Point (LTP).1 THEORY: Schmitt Trigger is also known as Regenerative Comparator. Such a comparator circuit exhibits a curve known as Hysterisis curve which is a plot of Vin vs V0.µ A741 – 1 Resistors – 1kΩ . This is a square wave generator which generate a square based on the positive feedback applied. Here the output shifts between + Vsat and –Vsat.

K.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.2V Let I1 be the current through R1 and I2 be the current through R2. 2 k 1 3 2 + - V o V i n - V c c R 2 1 k + V r e f Zero Cross Detector + 3 2 V c c 7 1 U 6 U 4 5 A 7 2 + - V o 4 1 V i n - V c c DESIGN: Given UTP = + 4V and LTP = . W. V SEM EC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Schmitt Trigger + V c c 7 1 U 6 U 4 5 A 7 4 1 R 1 2 . CMRIT . ∴ I1 + I2 = 0 DEPARTMENT OF E&C.T the current into the input terminal of an op-amp is zero.

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Coincide the point where the output shifts from + Vsat to – Vsat with any point on the input wave. Coincide the point where the output shifts from – Vsat to + Vsat with any point on the input wave. This voltage is UTP. 7. we get Vref = 1. Check the output at pin no. V SEM EC I1 = ( V0 – Va ) / R1 I2 = ( Vref – Va ) / R2 ∴ ( V0 – Va ) / R1 + ( Vref – Va ) / R2 = 0 ∴ Va = ( V0 R2 + Vref R1 ) / ( R1 + R2 ) When V0 = + Vsat. 2. 6 (square wave). 8.Vsat R2 ) / ( R1 + R2 ) ] + [ ( Vref R1 / (R1 + R2 ) ] = LTP -------(2) (1)– (2) ⇒ ( 2 Vsat R2 ) / ( R1 + R2 ) = UTP – LTP = 6V Simplifying this equation we get. 6. Va = UTP Va = LTP ∴ [ ( Vsat R2 ) / ( R1 + R2) ] + [ ( Vref R1 ) / ( R1 + R2 ) ] = UTP ------. Rig up the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. Another method of measuring UTP and LTP is using the Hysterisis Curve. When V0 = . 5. 3.(1) ∴ [ ( .4V PROCEDURE: 1. This voltage is LTP.2kΩ (1) + (2) ( 2 Vref R1 ) / ( R1 + R2 ) = UTP + LTP = 2V Simplifying the above equation.Vsat. Give a sinusoidal input of 10V peak to peak and 500 Hz from a signal generator. 7 R 2 = 3 R1 Assume R2 = 1kΩ ∴ R1 = 2. CMRIT . Measure the input voltage at this point. Measure the input voltage at this point. DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 4.

and check whether it matches with the designed values. Adjust the grounds of both the knobs.10 t t t DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 11. CMRIT .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC 9. Press the XY knob. To plot the hysterisis curve give channel 1 of CRO to the output and channel 2 of CRO to the input. Measure UTP and LTP as shown in the fig.10 Zero Cross Detector V0 10 0 . WAVEFORMS: Vin 5 4 0 -2 -5 Schmitt Trigger V0 10 0 . 10.

Vsat NOTE: The same circuit can be designed for different values of UTP and LTP. V SEM EC HYSTERISIS CURVE: V0 + Vsat Vin LTP . CMRIT . R2 = 1kΩ and Vref = 3. For UTP = 4V and LTP = 2V.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. R 1= 10kΩ .3V. RESULT: UTP DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Check whether the circuit works properly for these values.

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC

EXPERIMENT N0 4 CLASS – C - TUNED AMPLIFIER AIM: To design and test a class c – tuned amplifier to work at f0 = 734 kHz and to find its max efficiency at optimum load COMPONENTS REQUIRED

SLNO 1. 2. 3 4. 5 6 7 THEORY:

COMPONENTS Dc Regulated Power Supply Ammeter Inductor Capacitors Resistors Transistor CR0 Probe Springs Springs

RANGE +5V 0 -10MA 100MH 470Pf 1000mf 0.01mf 15k 22 BF194 -

QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 1 1 10

Class – C Tuned Amplifier Amplify Large signal at radio frequency with better frequency response. Efficiency is more than 78% and it increases with decrease in conduction angle. It is used in radio transmitters and receivers with class – c operation the collector current flows for less than half a cycle. A parallel resonant circuit can filter the pulses of collector current and produce a pure sine wave of output voltage. The max efficiency of a tuned class –c amplifier is 100% the Ac voltage drives the base and an amplified and inverted signal is then capacitive coupled to the load resistance. Because of the parallel resonant circuit, the output voltage is max at resonant frequency f0 = 1/2xLC On either side of the voltage gain drops off shown class – C is always intended to amplify a narrow ban of frequency.

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC

DESIGN: F O = 1/2π √ LC Let L = 100 µ F and C = 470 pF ∴ F O = 1 / 2 ∗ 3.142 ∗ √ 100 ∗ 10 -6 ∗ 470 ∗ 10 -12 F O = 734 KHz

T = 1/F O ∴ T = 1/ 734 ∗ 10 3 ∴ T = 1.36 µ S R B C B ≥ 10 T O Where T O = 1/F O ∴ R B C B = 10 ∗ 1/ F O C B = 10 / F O ∗ R B Let R B = 15 k Ω ∴ C B = 10 / 734 ∗ 10 3 ∗ 15 ∗ 10 3 C B = 908 pF C B = 1000 Pf

Use Standard Value

CONDUCTION ANGLE θ = T e / T ∗ 360 0 Where Te = Time period across emitter T = time period across collector

DUTY CYCLE D = ω / T Or D = θ / 360 0

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL, V SEM EC

TABULAR COLUMN: Sl.No RL (Ω
) V OUT

( Vin = 5 volts) I dc (mA) P ac = V O2/8RL P dc =VCC ∗I dc η = Pac/ Pdc % η

(V)

PROCEDURE 1. Make the connections as shown in circuit diagram set input signal frequency to the tuned circuit resonant frequency 2. Vary input voltage to get an undistorted approx sine wave by keeping load resistance to a fixed value by varying load resistance note down the output voltage and calculate current Iac 3. Tabulate the reading in tabular column\ 4. Plot the graph of rl along x – axis and n across y – axis From the graph, determine optimum load to calculate conduction angle the output is taken across emitter RESULT A class – C tuned amplifier Is designed to work at a reasonable frequency fo 734 kHz The max optimum load is 400 and conduction angle 0 = 77.

DEPARTMENT OF E&C, CMRIT

Since digital systems such as microcomputers use a binary system of ones and zeros. connecting wires. Binary inputs are either in high (+5V) or low (0V) state. THEORY: Nowadays digital systems are used in many applications because of their increasingly efficient. 13 .6 Dual power supply. bread board. D/A converter in its simplest form uses an op-amp and resistors either in the binary weighted form or R-2R form. CMRIT . Multimeter. DEPARTMENT OF E&C.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 5 EXPT. It is so called as the resistors used here are R and 2R. The fig. The binary inputs are simulated by switches b0 to b3 and the output is proportional to the binary inputs. The circuit that performs this conversion and reverse conversion are called A/D and D/A converters respectively. below shows D/A converter with resistors connected in R-2R form. reliable and economical operation.µ A741 Resistors – 10kΩ .4 22kΩ . the data to be put into the microcomputer have to be converted from analog form to digital form.R-2R DAC USING OP-AMP AIM: Demonstrate Digital to Analog conversion for digital (BCD) inputs using R-2R network. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: Op-amp .

Some of the parameters must be known with reference to converters. CMRIT + 3 . They re resolution.5V / 28 = 5 / 256 = 0. b1 and b0 may be high (+5V) or low (0V). V0 = .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC The analysis can be carried out with the help of Thevenin’s theorem. In weighted resistor type more resistors are required and the circuit is complex. settling time etc. Therefore in critical applications IC D/A converter is used. linearity error.v c c 4 1 0 V r e f 0 DEPARTMENT OF E&C. As the number of binary inputs is increased beyond 4 even D/A converter circuits get complex and their accuracy degenerates. b2. The great advantage of D/A converter of R-2R type is that it requires only two sets of precision resistance values.0195 WAVEFORMS: R 2 R L A D D E R R N E T W O R K F 1 + v c c 7 5 2 R R R R 2 R 2 = 2 k U U 6 1 A 7 4 1 V o 0 2 L S B b 0 R b 1 2 R b 2 2 R b 3 2 R M S B . The output voltage corresponding to all possible combinations of binary inputs can be calculated as below.RF [ (b3/2R) + (b2/4R) + (b1/8R) + (b0/16R) ] Where each inputs b3. Resolution = 0.

.RF [ (b3/2R) + (b2/4R) + (b1/8R) + (b0/16R) ] V0 = .1.RF .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. .1.20 x 103. CMRIT .20.25V TABULAR COLUMN: Inputs b3 b2 b1 b0 0 0 0 0 . then V0 = .Vref [ (1 / (16 x 1. . . 5 [ (0 + (1/ (8.5 volts change in output for LSB change . V SEM EC DESIGN: The equation for output voltage is given by V0 = . Vref[ (b3/2R) + (b2/4R) + (b1/8R) + (b0/16R) ] Case (i) If b0 b1 b2 b3 = 1 0 0 0 for 0.103)) + 0 + 0 + 0) Vref = 4V Case (ii) If Vref = 5V and b0 b1 b2 b3 = 0 1 0 0.0.103)) + 0 + 0) ] V0 = .5 = .103 . 1 1 1 1 Output voltage Theoretical Practical DEPARTMENT OF E&C.

CMRIT . 6 of op-amp using multimeter or CRO. Calculate the resolution of the converter. V SEM EC PROCEDURE: 1. Rig up the circuit as shown in the fig. 5. 4. Observe the output at pin no. Apply different combination of binary inputs using switches. RESULT: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 2. 6. Tabulate the readings as shown. 3.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Test the op-amp and other components before rigging up the circuit.

01µ F-1 0.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To design and verify the operation of astable multivibrator using 555 Timer for given frequency and duty cycle. CMRIT .2 7.1 4.1µ F-1 DEPARTMENT OF E&C.5kΩ .555 Resistors – 10kΩ .25k. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Timer .1 Capacitors – 0.

the upper comparator of the timer triggers the flip flop in it and the capacitor begins to discharge through RB when the capacitor voltage reaches 1/3 Vcc the lower comparator is triggered and another cycle begins.01u f 5 C CONTROL T R IG G E R GND . Astable multivibrator is a free running oscillator has two quasi stable state in one state o/p voltage remains low for a time interval of Toff and then switches over to other state in which the o/p remains high for an interval of Ton the time interval Ton and Toff are determined by the external resistors a capacitor and it does not require an external trigger. DC power supply. when the power is switched on the timing capacitor begins to charge towards 2/3 Vcc through RA & RB.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC Signal Generator. when the capacitor voltage has reached this value. Since the capacitor charges through RA and RB and discharges through RB only the charge and discharge are not equal as a consequence the output is not a symmetrical square wave and the multivibrator is called an asymmetric astable multivibrator CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ASSYMETRIC MULTIVIBRATOR RA 7 D IS C H A R G E Vcc 8 VCC RESET 4 +5V RB 6 555 TH R E S H O LD O U TP U T 3 CRO 2 1 DEPARTMENT OF E&C. astable and monostable multivibrator. CRO and connecting wires THEORY: A 555 timer is a monolithic timing circuit that can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or oscillations. CMRIT 0 0. some of the applications of 555 are square wave generator. the charging and discharging cycle repeats between 2/3 Vcc and 1/3Vcc for the charging and discharging periods t1and t2 respectively.

5K Ra + Rb = 8.1*10-6] Ra + 2Rb = 14.45/ [(Ra + 2Rb) 0. V SEM EC SYMMETRIC MULTIVIBRATOIR Vcc+5V 8 VC C 7 4 RE SE T Ra DISCHARGE Rb D1 D2 555D 6 2 THRESHOLD TRIGGER GN D 1 OUTPUT 3 O/P CO NT RO L 5 C1 C2 0 DESIGN: ASSYMETRIC: Given f = 1khz Duty cycle = 60% T = 0.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.693(Ra + 2Rb) C F = 1. CMRIT .7K DEPARTMENT OF E&C.45/ [(Ra + 2Rb) C] Duty cycle = (Ra + Rb)/Ra + 2Rb) 1K = 1.

693(Ra + Rb) C F = 1.45/ [(Ra + Rb) 0. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Switch on the DC power supply unit 3.8K Rb = 7.7K Rb = 9.57K ≅ 10K SYMETRIC Given f = 1khz Duty cycle = 50% Charging time = Discharging time T = TON =TOFF T = 0. V SEM EC Assume Ra = 4.5K Since the duty cycle is 50%.1*10-6] Ra + 2Rb = 14. Verify that Vcmax=2/3Vcc and Vc min=1/3 Vcc DEPARTMENT OF E&C.5K Ra = 7.45/ [(Ra + Rb) C] Duty cycle = (Ra + Rb)/Ra + Rb) 1K = 1. Observe the wave form on CRO at pin 3 and measure the o/p pulse amplitude 4.25K ≅ 6. Observe the wave form on CRO at pin 6 and measure Vcmax and Vc min 5. Ra = Rb 2Ra = 14. CMRIT .8K PROCEDURE: 1.25K ≅ 6.

o/p frequency and verify with specified value TABULAR COLUMN Ra Rb C F(theo) = 1. CMRIT .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC 6.45/(Ra + Rb) Ton Toff T F DY WAVEFORMS: Upper threshold voltage Lower threshold Vc at pin 6 2/3VCC 1/3VCC 0V Vout 5V at pin 3 0V t Toff t Ton Result: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Calculate the duty cycle D.

1 Capacitors – 0. V SEM EC MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To design and verify the operation of monostable multivibrator using 555 Timer for given Pulse width. DC power supply. on the application of DEPARTMENT OF E&C.555 Resistors – 10kΩ . CRO and connecting wires THEORY: Monostable multivibrator has a stable state and a quasi stable state.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.1µ F-1 Signal Generator.01µ F-1 0. CMRIT . the output of it is normally low and it corresponds to reset of the flip flop in the timer. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Timer .

the threshold comparator resets the flip flop in the timer which discharges C and the output is driven low the circuit will remain in this state until the application of the next trigger pulse CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Vcc +5V 8 BY127 Rt VCC 2 RESET T R IG G E R TH R E S H O LD 6 4 RA Input Ct 555 CRO 3 O U TP U T CONTROL GND D IS C H A R G E 7 C 0 1 0. CMRIT 0 5 .01u f DEPARTMENT OF E&C. V SEM EC external negative trigger pulse at pin 2 the circuit is triggered and the flip flop in the timer is set which in turn releases the short across C and pushes the output high.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 2/3 Vcc. At the same time the voltage across C rises exponentially with the time constant RAC and remains in this state for a period RAC even if it is triggered again during this interval.

CMRIT . V SEM EC DESIGN: Given Tp = 1ms F = 1KHz T = 1. Rig up the circuit as shown in the figure after checking all the components.. Verify the designed values and the repeat the above procedure for different set of values.1*0. Observe the waveform across the timing capacitor in one channel and the output in the other channel. TABULAR COLUMN R C Tp = 1.1*10-6 ) R = 9.1R C Let C = 0. Apply suitable inputs to the astable multivibrator (DC & Trigger inputs) 3. 4.09 K ≅ 10K PROCEDURE: 1.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.1uF R = (1*10-3 ) / (1.1RC Tp(prac) DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 2.

V SEM EC WAVEFORMS: Input trigger pulses T Trigger pulses at pin 2 t Vc c Capacitor voltage Vc at pin 5 Upper threshold voltage 2/3*Vcct t Output pulse at pin 3 T p T t RESULT: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. CMRIT .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.

V SEM EC EXPERIMENT N0 7 COLLECTOR MODULATION Aim: . Also. capacitors.IFT. connecting board.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. demodulate it. SL 100/BF 194 transistor. Components Required:. Circuit Diagram:- DEPARTMENT OF E&C. information signal given the collector. connecting wires and CRO. CMRIT . resistors. diode 0A79. Measure the modulation index using two different methods. AFT.To generate AM signal.

CMRIT . DEPARTMENT OF E&C. The secondary winding of the modulation transformer is connected in series with collector supply voltage Vcc of the Class C amplifier. V SEM EC AFT (GREEN) VCC +6v MESSAGE SIGNAL OPEN FM = 2kHz VAMPL = 5v(p-p) IFT (RED) o/p AM wave BF 194 0. The modulating output signal is coupled through a modulating transformer to the Class C amplifier.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. This means that modulating signal is applied in series with the collector power supply supply voltage of the Class C amplifier applying collector modulation.01microF -6v COLLECTOR AMPLITUDE MODULATION Theory: The modulator is a linear power amplifier that takes the low-level modulating signal and amplifies it to a high power level.01microF 2 470k 1 1 2 120 0.

5kΩ ≈ 10kΩ m= (Vmax-Vmin)/ (Vmax+Vmin) Vm= (Vmax-Vmin)/2 Waveform:- DEPARTMENT OF E&C. V SEM EC In the absence of the modulating input signal. voltage across the secondary of the modulating transformer will be added to and subtracted from the collector supply voltage. This varying supply voltage is then applied to the Class C amplifier resulting in variation in the amplitude of the carrier sine wave in accordance with the modulating signal. we get R=9. When the modulating signal occurs. the a. The tuned circuit then converts the current pulses into an amplitude-modulated wave. Therefore.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. CMRIT .01μF Substituting value of C and fm=1 kHz. there will be zero modulation voltage across the secondary of the transformer. the collector supply voltage will be applied directly to the Class C amplifier generating current pulses of equal amplitude and output of the tuned circuit will be a steady sine wave. Design:Let fm= kHz m= RC>>tc or RC≤ (1/mωm) Or RC/3= (1/mωm) ωm=2πfm Assuming value of C=0.c.

Set the carrier frequency to 2v and 455 kHz. 4.5 take C=0. 3. check all components using multimeter. 8.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. and calculate modulation index.01μF. Observations:Vmax in volts Vmin in volts μ(mod index) Vm in volts DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Feed AM output to Y-plates and modulation signal yo X-plates of CRO. 2. Design the collector modulator circuit assuming fm=1 kHz and m=0. Obtain trapezoidal pattern. 5. 6. Before wiring. 7. Tabulate the reading taken. 9. Make connections as shown in figure. CMRIT . Plot the graph of modulating signal versus modulation index. Keep carrier amplitude constant and vary the modulating voltage in steps and measure Vmax and Vmin. V SEM EC Procedure:1. Set the modulating signal to 5v and 1 kHz.

DEPARTMENT OF E&C. function generator. capacitors. connecting board and CRO. V SEM EC Graph:m Vm Result:- EXPERIMENT N0 8 ENVELOPE DETECTOR Aim: .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Plot variation of output signal amplitude versus depth of modulation. CMRIT . Components required -0A79 diodes.conduct an experiment to demonstrate envelope detector for an input AM signal. resistors.

Figure above shows the circuit of an envelope detector. During the positive half cycle. When the input signal falls below this value. As a result. diode is reverse biased and no current flows through R. In an envelope detector. for which the percentage modulation is less than 100%. CMRIT . the diode becomes reverse biased and the capacitor C slowly discharges through the load resistor RL.5 FM = 2kHz 0. The discharging process continues until the next positive half cycle when the input signal becomes greater than the voltage across capacitor. V SEM EC Circuit Diagram:- 0A79 0. It consists of a diode and a resistor-capacitor filter. Waveforms:- DEPARTMENT OF E&C. This circuit is also known as diode detector.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. the diode conducts again and the process is repeated. hence the name to it.6v AM SIGNAL 2 VAMPL = 2v FC = 455kHz MOD = 0. half cycle of the AM signal diode conducts and current flows through R whereas in the negative half cycle. the diode is forward biased and the capacitor C charges up rapidly to the peak value of the input signal.1microF 1 6k output ENVELOPE DETECTOR Theory: An envelope detector is a simple and highly effective device that is well suited for the demodulation of a narrow band AM wave. the output of the detector follows the envelope of the modulated signal. only positive half of the AM wave appears across RC. In the positive.

From the function generator apply the AM wave to the input.01µf Let Rc>>fc Or RC=3/ (mωm) Substituting value of C and ωm in above equation we get. V SEM EC Design:Let fm=1 kHz m= fc=455 kHz C=0. Plot the graph Vo versus modulation index m. Therefore. 4. Vary the modulation index knob. R=10 kΩ Procedure:1. 2. Make the connections as shown in the figure. check all the components using the multimeter. note down the Vmax and Vmin simultaneously. and note down the output voltage the output VO in steps.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Tabular column:Modulation index m Output in volts Vo DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 3. Modulation index is given by m= (Vmax-Vmin)/ (Vmax+Vmin) 6. CMRIT . Before wiring the circuit. 5.

ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC Graph:- DEPARTMENT OF E&C. CMRIT .

CMRIT . V SEM EC Vo m DEPARTMENT OF E&C.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.

1 micro F 1.7k ohms. NO 1. 5. CRO probes Voltage supply Capacitors Mother board DEPARTMENT OF E&C. 3. 6. CMRIT . COMPONENTS IC 8038 Signal generator Resistors RANGE (0-100)MHz 10 k ohms 4. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SL. V SEM EC RESULT:- EXPERIMENT N0 9 FREQUENCY MODULATION USING IC 8038 AIM:To design and conduct an experiment to generate FM wave IC8038 with f= 33 kHz.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. 2. 12 V 0. 22k ohms.00 micro F QUANTITY 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4. 82k ohms. 7.

V SEM EC DESIGN: Let R=Ra=Rb Let f=33 kHz f= 3*(2*Ra-Rb)/10*Rac*Ra Substituting for R&C in above equation.3/RC DEPARTMENT OF E&C. CMRIT . we get f=0.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.

001*10-6F Calculation Frequency deviation =Fmax-Fmin Modulation index= Frequency deviation / fm GRAPH: DEPARTMENT OF E&C. CMRIT . V SEM EC Let R=10k ohms Therefore C =0.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.

whose charging and discharging rates are controlled by programmable current generators Ia and Ib. As a result. Once the capacitor voltage reaches Vut. This causes a switch position to change from position A to B. the upper comparator (CMP 1) triggers and reset the flip-flop out put. the capacitor charges at a rate determined by current source Ia . The triangular wave is then passed through the on chip wave shaper to generate sign wave.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. triangular. we get square wave at the output of Flip flop and triangular wave across capacitor. saw tooth and pulse waveforms with a minimum number of external components. And this cycle repeats. Once the capacitor reaches lower threshold voltage. Block diagram of ICL 8038 Basis principle of IC 8038 The operation of IC 8038 is based on charging and discharging of a grounded capacitor C. When switch is at position A. CMRIT . This causes the switch position to change from position B to A. The IC 8038 waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine square . V SEM EC THEORY: Frequency modulation: FM is that form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency is varied linearly with the message signal. DEPARTMENT OF E&C. capacitor charge discharging at the rate determined by the current sink Ib . the lower comparator (CMP 2) triggers and set the flip-flop output. Now.

By making.-12V from the supply. Rig up the circuit as shown in the figure. currents Ia and Ib are made programmable through an external control voltage Bi. output waveforms are symmetrical conversely. For small deviations. CMRIT .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. one of the currents much larger than other we can get saw tooth waveform across capacitor and rectangular waveform at the output of flip-flop. The IC 8038 is fabricated with advanced monolithic technology. For equal magnitudes of Ia and Ib. merely providing dc-dc coupling with a capacitor. DEPARTMENT OF E&C. By altering this voltage. 2. the modulating signal can be applied to pins. Observe the sinusoidal waveform at pin 2. The circuit may use a simple op_amp follower to provide a buffering gain and amplitude adjustments. Working The frequency of the waveform generator is direct function of the dc voltage at terminal 8. 3. PROCEDURE: 1. and the output is stable over a wide range of temperatures and supply variations. V SEM EC To allow automatic frequency controls. An external resistor between pins 7and 8 is not necessary but it can be used to increase input impedance from about 8k. Apply +12. The sine wave has relatively high output impedance. frequency modulation is performed. output waveforms are asymmetrical. using Schottky-barrier diodes and thin film resistors.It should be same as design carrier frequency. when two currents are unequal.

Show the graph of message carrier and modulation signal. (Denoting the modulating signal as m (t). The form of pulse Amplitude modulation shown in the circuit diagram is referred to as natural PAM because the tops of the pulses follow the shape of the modulating signal. PAM is achieved simply by multiplying the carrier with the m (t) signal. The Output is a series of pulses. the samples are taken at regular interval of time. 5.7K Ω 10 K Ω 680 Ω 0. CMRIT . If enough samples are DEPARTMENT OF E&C. V SEM EC 4.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.5V and frequency of 1 kHz. RESULT: The frequency modulation is seen and the transmission bandwidth was found to be ……………kHz. 6. Sketch the waveforms. EXPERIMENT NO 11 PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION AIM: To conduct an experiment to generate PAM signal and design a circuit to demodulate the PAM signal COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SLNO 1 2 COMPONENTS Transistor Resistor RANGE SL 100 22 K Ω 4.1 µ f 0A79 30MHZ QUANTITY 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 4 5 6 THEORY: Capacitor Function Generator Diode Signal Generator CRO In PAM the amplitude of the pulses are varied in accordance with the modulating signal. Observe the output between pin 2 and ground. As shown in fig. the amplitude of which vary in proportion to the modulating signal. The balanced modulators are frequency used as multipliers for this purpose. Switch on signal generator and apply the signal amplitude of 0.

a reasonable approximation of the signal being sampled can be constructed at the receiving end.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. 7 K V o D E M O D U L A T I O N D 1 O A P A M 7 9 R C I / P 6 8 0 0 . CMRIT . P U L S E A M P L I T U D E M O D U L A T I O N V c c + 5 V Q 1 C E S L 1 0 0 1 0 K B 2 2 K C ( t ) m ( t ) 4 . V SEM EC taken. 1 u F D E M O D O / P DEPARTMENT OF E&C. This is known as PAM.

DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Set the carrier amplitude to 2 Vpp and in the frequency of 5 kHz to 15 kHz. CMRIT . Connect the CRO at the emitter of the transistor and observe the Pam waveform. Make the Connections as shown in circuit diagram. Set the i/p Signal amplitude to around 1V (p-p) and frequency to 2 kHz.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.e. Now connect the O/p(i. 2. V SEM EC DESIGN Fc>> 1/RC i. 4.. 3. PAM) signal to the demodulation circuit and observe the signal if it matched plot the waveform RESULT: The circuit to generate PAM signal and to demodulate the PAM signal were designed and the waveform were observed. R>1/FcC Let Fc =15 kHz and C=0. 5.1μF Therefore R~680Ω PROCEDURE: 1.e.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED SLNO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 THEORY: Pulse width Modulation (PWM) is also known as Pulse duration Modulation (PDM). The PWM has the disadvantage when compared to ‘PDM’ that its pulses are of varying width and COMPONENTS Op. In One variation. the tail edge is held in constant and w. the pulse width is measured in the third variation.r.Amp ( µ A – 741) Resistors Capacitor Function Generator DC Regulated Power supply Signal Generator CRO Probes CRO Springs RANGE ± 12 V 10 K Ω 15K Ω 0. the centre of the pulse is held constant and pulse width changes on either side of the centre of the pulse.t to it. the leading edge of the pulse is held constant and change in the pulse width with signal is measured with respect to the leading edge. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT NO 12 PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AIM : To Conduct an Experiment to generate a PWM Signal for the given analog signal of frequency less than 1 kHz and to design a demodulation circuit. CMRIT .01 µ f ± 12 V 30MHZ 15 QUANTITY 3 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 15 DEPARTMENT OF E&C.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. In other Variable. Three variations of PWM are possible.

0 1 u 3F1 n + P W M O / P R 2 = 1 5 4 k C 2 m ( t ) 0 . 0 1 u F 4 0 0 DEPARTMENT OF E&C. CMRIT . P m ( t ) W M M O D U L A T I O N 1 k H c ( t ) z 1 0 k R 1z 0 k 3 + 1 V+ 2 u A 7 1 0 K V+ 7 4 16 V- > 1 k H 7 4 16 V- 2 u A 7 3 4 P W M O / P + 0 0 D E M R 1 O D 2 U - L A V+ 7 T I O N P W I/ P 1 M0 k C u 2 A 7 4 V- 16 0 .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC therefore of varying power content. this means the transmitter must be powerful enough to handle the max width pulses.

2.01µF PROCEDURE: 1. V SEM EC DESIGN RC >>T Time Period Tp=0. Set the carrier amplitude to 2vpp and frequency ≥ 1 KHz (Say 1 5khz) 3. Set the signal amplitude to 2 Vpp and frequency < 1khz (Say 560 kHz) 4. Observe the o/p signal at pin 6of 2nd op-amp and observe the variation in pulse width by varying the modulating signal amplitude. DEPARTMENT OF E&C. a circuit to demodulate the PWM signal is designed and the output is observed. Now connect the output to the demodulate circuit and observe the signal it matches with m(t) RESULT: The circuit to generate a PWM signal is designed and the output waveforms are observed. 5.1ms R1C1=Tp Let R1=10K C1=0. Draw PWM Waveform 6. CMRIT . Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. In addition.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.01µF Fc=1/2пR2C2 Fc=1KhZ Let R2=15KΩ C2=0.

01mf + 5v 30mhz QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Vcc +5V m ( t ) 8 1 k H c ( t ) > 2 K z 1 0 k R 1 2 u 3 + A k 7 V+ 1 0 K BY127 4 Rt VCC 2 RESET T R IG G E R TH R E S H O LD 6 RA Input Ct 555 D IS C H A R G E 7 V+ H 1 z0 7 4 16 V- 2 u A 7 7 4 16 V- DEPARTMENT OF E&C.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. V SEM EC EXPERIMENT NO 13 PULSE POSITION MODULATION AIM : To conduct an experiment to generate PPM signal of pulse width(between 100 ms and 200ms) for a given modulating signal. CMRIT 4 + 1 4 0. the amplifier and width of the pulses is kept constant while the position of each pulse with reference to the position of a reference pulse is changed according to the instantaneous sampled value of the modulating signal. Pulse position modulation is observed from pulse width modulation. COMPONENTS REQUIRED SLNO 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 THEORY : In this type of modulation .Timer Resistors Capacitor Dc Regulated Power Supply Function Generator CRO RANGE Ma – 741 10 K Ω 18 K Ω 0. Any pulse has a leading edge and trailing edge in this system the leading edge is held in fixed position while the trailing edge varies towards or away from the leading edge in accordance to the instantaneous value of sampled signal COMPONENTS Op – amplifier 555 .01u f 0 0 0 5 CONTROL GND 3 P W M O / P C 0 CRO 3 O U TP U T .

V SEM EC DESIGN Pulse Width = 200μs Tp=1. CMRIT . DEPARTMENT OF E&C.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. Draw the PPM waveform RESULT The circuit to generate a PPM signal of pulse width 200 ms is designed and the output waveform of PPM was observed.1 RC Let C=0.01μF Therefore R=18KΩ PROCEDURE 1. Set the carrier amplitude to around 4v (p-p) and frequency = 1khz. se the signal amplitude to around 2v (p-p) and frequency around (< 1khz) 4. Observe the output signal at pin no : 3 of the 555 timer and also observe the variation in pulse position by varying the modulating signal amplitude 5. 2.

10kΩ . which converts AC voltage to DC voltage. Consider the circuit diagram shown below. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: OP-Amp . CMRIT .BY127 . Normal rectifiers using transformers cannot rectify voltages below 0.7v (diode drop). so we go for precision rectifiers. voltages less than 0.7v. 11 . During the negative half cycle.1 3. V SEM EC EXPT. Hence the total gain will be the product of individual gains.µ A741 -1 Resistors .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.3 22kΩ . In this circuit the diodes are placed in such a way that one diode is forward biased in the positive half cycle and the other in the negative half cycle.2 THEORY: Precision Rectifier name itself suggests that it rectifies even lower input voltages i.PRECISION RECTIFIER AIM: Design and test the working of Full Wave Precision Rectifier using op-amp.1 Diodes . Hence the output DEPARTMENT OF E&C. The simplified circuit will act as two inverted amplifiers connected in series. A rectifier is a device. Hence the simplified circuit is an inverting amplifier connected in series with a non-inverting amplifiers.e. D1 is reverse biased and D2 is forward biased.3kΩ . Precision rectifier converts AC to pulsating DC. Here in the positive half cycle D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased.

5V in the +ve cycle = +0.1V in the -ve cycle During the +ve half cycle the simplified circuit will be as shown below. CMRIT 4 . v ∴ V = (-R1 / R) Vin V0 = (-R / R)V DEPARTMENT OF E&C.The precision rectifier we are using is a full wave rectifier. V SEM EC will be inverted and a DC output (unidirectional) is obtained . CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: R 1 = 2 2 k D + V c c 6 U A 7 4 1 D 3 .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. 3 K 2 2 3 7 V i n R = 1 0 2 k3 1 + V c c 6 U A 7 4 V o u t 1 7 R = 1 0 k R = 1 0 k G N D DESIGN: R 2 = Given : Vo = +0.V c c .V c c 4 + + .

V ( (1 / 30k) + (1 / R2) ) As Vin = .0.5 / 0. V SEM EC = (-R / R) (-R1 / R) Vin V0 = (R1/R) Vin As V0 = 0. I2 = -V / ( R1+R ).ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.V c c 4 point A I1 = I2 + I3 From virtual ground concept VA = 0 ( VB = 0) ∴ I1 = Vin / R . I1 I 2 V R 1 R R + V c c 6 U A 7 4 1 2 3 + V c c 6 U A 7 4 V o u t 1 7 I 3 G N D R 2 V 4 .5V. CMRIT + + R = A 1 0 k B 3 .25V ∴ R1 / R = 0. During the negative half cycle. I3 = -V / R2 Vin / 10k = .V ( (R2 + 30k) / (30k x R2 ) ) DEPARTMENT OF E&C. then R1 = 20kΩ NOTE: A DRB can be used in the place of R1 and that resistance can be adjusted to 20KΩ or 22KΩ resistance can be used.25 = 2 Assume R = 10kΩ .V c c V i n - 2 7 Applying KCL at .0.25 / 10k = -V ( (1 / 30k) + (1 / R2) ) --------(1) As the second Op-Amp works as a non inverting amplifier V0 = (1 + (R / R1) + R) V = (1 + (10k / 30k) ) V ---------(2) From (1) V = . Vin = 0.25 ∴ .25 / 10k = .0. the simplified circuit will be shown below.

3.1 R2 + 3k = R2 ∴ R2 = 3.5 0.75 R2 / ( R2 + 30k ) Substituting this in the equation (2) we get V0 = (1 + 1 / 3) (0.3kΩ PROCEDURE: 1. WAVEFORMS: Vin 0.1 0 t t 0. 4. Design the same circuit for a different set of values.25 V0 0.5V peak to peak (sine wave). Give an input of 0. Check and verify the designed values.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.75 R2 / (R2 + 30k) ) 0. Rig up the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.9 R2 = 3k RESULT: DEPARTMENT OF E&C.25 0 . 2.0. CMRIT . V SEM EC ∴ V = 0.

What is the principle of Envelope detector? DEPARTMENT OF E&C. Define a high level modulation? 27. State two types of communication? 7.Define signal to noise ratio? 17. What is time domain display? 24. What is receiver 5.What is frequency deviation? 13.Define noise? 14.What is the classification of modulation? 12. What are the basic components of electronic communication.What is the advantage of SSB over DSB-SC? 31. What is frequency domain display? 23. 3.What is shot noise? 16.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL.Define amplitude modulation? 20. What is the need for modulation? 10.Define the carrier signal? 11. 4. What is baseband transmission? 9.State the equation for noise factor for cascade connection? 19.What is the function of Transistor mixer? 32. CMRIT . What is maximum power of sideband of AM? 25. Define the word communication.State the bandwidth required for amplitude modulation? 22. 2.Why amplitude modulation is used for broadcasting? 29. Define a low level modulation? 28. What is baseband signal? 8.What is noise factor? 18. What is communication channel? 6. V SEM EC Viva questions for analog communication lab 1.What is the position of the operating point of class-C? 30. What is Transmitter. What is the maximum total power of AM wave? 26.Define modulation index? 21.Define the basic sources of noise? 15.

What is quadrature null effect? 42.State various Pulse modulation methods? DEPARTMENT OF E&C.Where SSB transmission is used? 34.What is percentage modulation? 44.Define the order of the filter? 38.Define FM? 43. V SEM EC 33.What is Nyquist criteria? 36.State advantages of PWM? 50.List of some advantages of FM over AM? 47.Define pre-emphasis and De-emphasis? 45.State sampling theorem? 35.What are the advantages of using pre and de-emphasis? 46.What is carson’s rule? 49.ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL. CMRIT .Define selectivity? 41.Differentiate between butter-worth and cheybeshev filter? 40.What are the classification of filters? 39.Define wideband FM? 48.What is Roll-off factor? 37.

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