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u.s. Army. Survival Manual.

u.s. Army. Survival Manual.

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U.S.

ARMY
SURVIVAL
MANUAL.
CHAPTER: SUBJECT: PAGE:
INDEX. 2.
PREFACE. 6.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. 6.
SURVIVAL ACTIONS. 6.
PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL. 9.
CHAPTER 2. PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL. 10.
LOOK AT STRESS. 11.
NATURAL REACTIONS. 14.
PREPARING YOUSELF. 16.
CHAPTER 3. SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS. 1.
IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING. 19.
SURVIVAL KITS. 19.
CHAPTER !. BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE. 21.
REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF
HEALTH.
21.
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES. 26.
LIFESAVING STEPS. 27.
BONE AND JOINT INJURY. 4.
BITES AND STINGS. 6.
!OUNDS. 4".
ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES. 44.
HERBAL MEDICINES. 47.
CHAPTER ". SHELTERS. !#.
PRIMARY SHELTER # UNIFORM. 47.
SHELTER SITE SELECTION. 4$.
TYPES OF SHELTERS. 4$.
CHAPTER 6. $ATER PROCUREMENT. 63.
!ATER SOURCES. 6.
STILL CONTRUCTION. 69.
!ATER PURIFICATION. 72.
!ATER FILTRATION DEVICES. 74.
CHAPTER #. FIRECRAFT. #".
BASIC FIRE PRICIPLES. 7%.
SITE SELECTION AND PREPERATION. 7%.
FIRE MATERIAL SELECTION. 77.
HO! TO BUILD A FIRE. 79.
HO! TO LIGHT A FIRE. $".
CHAPTER . FOOD PROCUREMENT. 3.
ANIMALS FOR FOOD. $4.
TRAPS AND SNARES. 91.
KILLING DEVICES. 1"1.
COOKING AND STORAGE OF FISH AND GAME. 1"$.
CHAPTER %. SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS. 113.
EDIBILITY OF PLANTS. 11.
2
PLANTS FOR MEDICINE. 12".
MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS. 12.
CHAPTER: SUBJECT: PAGE:
CHAPTER 10. POISONOUS PLANTS. 123.
HO! PLANTS POISON. 124.
ALL ABOUT PLANTS. 124.
RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONOUS PLANTS. 12%.
CONTACT DERMATITIS. 12%.
INGESTING POISON. 126.
CHAPTER 11. DANGEROUS ANIMALS. 126.
INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS. 127.
LEECHES. 129.
BATS. 129.
VENOMOUS SNAKES. 1".
SNAKE FREE AREAS. 11.
DANGEROUS LI&ARDS. 11.
DANGERS IN RIVERS. 11.
DANGERS IN BAYS AND ESTUARIES. 12.
SALT!ATER DANGERS. 1.
OTHER DANGEROUS SEA CREATURES. 14.
CHAPTER 12. FIELD EXPEDIENT $EAPONS& TOOLS AND
E'UIPEMENT.
13".
STAFFS. 16.
CLUBS. 16.
EDGED !EAPONS. 1$.
OTHER E'PEDIENT !EAPONS. 141.
CORDAGE AND LASHING. 142.
RUCKSACK CONSTRUCTION. 144.
CLOTHING AND INSULATION. 14%.
COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. 146.
CHAPTER 13. DESERT SURVIVAL. 1!#.
TERRAIN. 14$.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS. 149.
NEED FOR !ATER. 1%2.
HEAT CASUALTIES. 1%4.
PRECATIONS. 1%%.
DESERT HA&ARDS. 1%6.
CHAPTER 1!. TROPICAL SURVIVAL. 1"6.
TROPCIAL !EATHER. 1%6.
JUNGLE TYPES. 1%7.
TRAVEL THROUGH JUNGLE AREA. 16".
IMMEDIATE CONCIDERATIONS. 161.
!ATER PROCUREMENT. 161.
FOOD. 16.
POISONOUS PLANTS. 16.
3
CHAPTER: SUBJECT: PAGE:
CHAPTER 1". COLD $EATHER SURVIVAL. 163.
COLD REGIONS AND LOCATIONS. 164.
!INDCHILL. 16%.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COLD !EATHER
SURVIVAL.
16%.
HYGIENE. 167.
MEDICAL ASPECTS. 16$.
COLD INJURIES. 16$.
SHELTERS. 172.
FIRE. 176.
!ATER. 17$.
FOOD. 179.
TRAVEL. 1$1.
!EATHER SIGNS. 1$2.
CHAPTER 16. SEA SURVIVAL. 13.
THE OPEN SEA. 1$.
SEASHORE. 2"$.
CHAPTER 1#. EXPEDIENT $ATER CROSSINGS. 211.
RIVERS AND STREAMS. 211.
RAPIDS. 212.
RAFTS. 214.
FLOATATION DEVICES. 21$.
OTHER !ATER OBSTICLES. 219.
VEGETATION OBSTICLES. 219.
CHAPTER 1. FIELD EXPEDIENT DIRECTION FINDING. 220.
USING THE SUN AND SHADO!S. 22".
USING THE MOON. 22.
USING THE STARS. 22.
MAKING IMPROVISED COMPASS. 22%.
OTHER MEANS OF DETERMING DIRECTION. 22%.
CHAPTER 1%. SIGNALING TECHNI'UES. 226.
APPLICATION. 226.
MEANS FOR SIGNALING. 227.
CODES AND SIGNALS. 2%.
AIRCRAFT VECTORING PROCEDURES. 2$.
CHAPTER 20. SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS. 23%.
PHASES OF PLANNING. 29.
E'ECUTION. 241.
RETURN TO FRIENDLY CONTROL. 24%.
CHAPTER 21. CAMOUFLAGE. 2!#.
PERSONAL CAMOUFLAGE. 247.
METHODS OF STALKING. 2%".
CHAPTER 22. SURVIVAL IN MAN MADE HA(ARDS. 2"3.
THE NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT. 2"3.
4
BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS. 26%.
CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS. 269.
APPENDIX: SUBJECT: PAGE:
APPENDIX A. SURVIVAL KITS. 2#1.
APPENDIX B. EDIBLE AND MEDICINAL PLANTS. 2#6.
APPENDIX C. POISONOUS PLANTS. 361.
APPENDIX D. DANGEROUS INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS. 3#2.
APPENDIX E. VENOMOUS SNAKES AND LI(ARDS. 3#6.
!AYS TO AVOID SNAKE BITE. 77.
SNAKE GROUPS. 77.
DESCRIPTION OF VENOMOUS SNAKES. 7$.
LI&ARDS. $.
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF THE AMERICAS. $.
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF EUROPE. 4".
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF AFICA AND ASIA. 411.
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF AUSTRALIA. 44%.
VENOMOUS SEA SNAKES. 4%1.
POISONOUS LI&ARDS. 4%%.
APPENDIX F. DANGER FISH AND MOLLUSKS. !".
FISH THAT ATTACK MAN. 4%$.
VENOMOUS FISH AND INVERTEBRATES. 46".
FISH !ITH TO'IC FLESH. 46%.
APPENDIX G. ROPES AND KNOTS. !66.
TERMINOLOGY. 466.
BASIC KNOTS. 467.
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION LASHINGS. 471.
APPENDIX H. CLOUDS: FORETELLERS OF $EATHER. !#2.
GLOSSERY. 476.
BIBOGRAPHY. 477.
SURVIVAL:
LIVE TO SURVIVE) SURVIVE TO LIVE.
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PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL
9
1B21. D.>.+*; ) (2/>->)+ ;)66./4 68)6 +.6( 1*2 5.)6 68. .4.:-.( *7 (2/>->)+.
T8-( (2/>->)+ ;)66./4 :2(6 -43+2,. 7**,0 9)6./0 (8.+6./0 7-/.0 7-/(6 )-,0 )4,
(-<4)+( ;+)3., -4 */,./ *7 -:;*/6)43.. F*/ .=):;+.0 -4 ) 3*+, .4>-/*4:.460
1*2 9*2+, 4.., ) ,4*+ 6* <.6 9)/:M ) :8+<0+* 6* ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. 3*+,0
9-4,0 )4, /)-4 */ (4*9M 6/);( */ (4)/.( 6* <.6 ,112M ) :.)4( 6* :49/-<
7/-.4,+1 )-/3/)76M )4, ,4*:0 -42 6* :)-46)-4 8.)+68. I7 1*2 )/. -4F2/.,0 7-/(6 )-,
8)( 6*; ;/-*/-61 4* :)66./ 98)6 3+-:)6. 1*2 )/. -4.
1B22. C8)4<. 1*2/ (2/>->)+ ;)66./4 6* :..6 1*2/ -::.,-)6. ;81(-3)+ 4..,( )(
68. .4>-/*4:.46 38)4<.(. A( 1*2 /.), 68. /.(6 *7 68-( :)42)+0 A..; -4 :-4,
68. A.19*/, SURVIVAL0 98)6 .)38 +.66./ (-<4-7-.( CF-<2/. 1B1D0 )4, 68. 4..,
7*/ ) (2/>->)+ ;)66./4.
S
S46+ U7 08+ S403-041/
CS2//*24,-4<(0 P81(-3)+ C*4,-6-*40 E?2-;:.46D
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F493*+ 1C1. G342+<4/+: ,1* S3*B4B-<
CHAPTER 2.
P:;.81<19; 1, S3*B4B-<.
I6 6)A.( :238 :*/. 68)4 68. A4*9+.,<. )4, (A-++( 6* 52-+, (8.+6./(0 <.6 7**,0
:)A. 7-/.(0 )4, 6/)>.+ 9-68*26 68. )-, *7 (6)4,)/, 4)>-<)6-*4)+ ,.>-3.( 6* +->.
(233.((72++1 68/*2<8 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. S*:. ;.*;+. 9-68 +-66+. */ 4*
(2/>->)+ 6/)-4-4< 8)>. :)4)<., 6* (2/>->. +-7.B68/.)6.4-4< 3-/32:(6)43.(.
S*:. ;.*;+. 9-68 (2/>->)+ 6/)-4-4< 8)>. 4*6 2(., 68.-/ (A-++( )4, ,-.,. A A.1
-4</.,-.46 -4 )41 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( 68. :.46)+ )66-62,. *7 68. -4,->-,2)+
-4>*+>.,. H)>-4< (2/>->)+ (A-++( -( -:;*/6)46M 8)>-4< 68. 9-++ 6* (2/>->. -(
.((.46-)+. !-68*26 ) ,.(-/. 6* (2/>->.0 )3?2-/., (A-++( (./>. +-66+. ;2/;*(. )4,
-4>)+2)5+. A4*9+.,<. <*.( 6* 9)(6..
T8./. -( ) ;(138*+*<1 6* (2/>->)+. Y*2 9-++ 7)3. :)41 (6/.((*/( -4 ) (2/>->)+
.4>-/*4:.46 68)6 2+6-:)6.+1 9-++ )77.36 1*2/ :-4,. T8.(. (6/.((*/( 3)4
;/*,23. 68*2<86( )4, .:*6-*4( 68)60 -7 ;**/+1 24,./(6**,0 3)4 6/)4(7*/: )
10
3*47-,.460 9.++B6/)-4., ;./(*4 -46* )4 -4,.3-(->.0 -4.77.36->. -4,->-,2)+ 9-68
?2.(6-*4)5+. )5-+-61 6* (2/>->.. T82(0 1*2 :2(6 5. )9)/. *7 )4, 5. )5+. 6*
/.3*<4-G. 68*(. (6/.((*/( 3*::*4+1 )((*3-)6., 9-68 (2/>->)+. I6 -( )+(*
-:;./)6->. 68)6 1*2 5. )9)/. *7 1*2/ /.)36-*4( 6* 68. 9-,. >)/-.61 *7 (6/.((*/(
)((*3-)6., 9-68 (2/>->)+. T8-( 38);6./ -,.46-7-.( )4, .=;+)-4( 68. 4)62/. *7
(6/.((0 68. (6/.((*/( *7 (2/>->)+0 )4, 68*(. -46./4)+ /.)36-*4( 68)6 1*2 9-++
4)62/)++1 .=;./-.43. 98.4 7)3., 9-68 68. (6/.((*/( *7 ) /.)+B9*/+, (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*4. T8. A4*9+.,<. 1*2 <)-4 7/*: 68-( 38);6./ )4, 68. /.:)-4,./ *7 68-(
:)42)+0 9-++ ;/.;)/. 1*2 6* 3*:. 68/*2<8 68. 6*2<8.(6 6-:.( -<4B+.
A LOOK AT STRESS
2B1. B.7*/. 9. 3)4 24,./(6)4, *2/ ;(138*+*<-3)+ /.)36-*4( -4 ) (2/>->)+
(.66-4<0 -6 -( 8.+;72+ 6* 7-/(6 A4*9 ) +-66+. 5-6 )5*26 (6/.(( )4, -6( .77.36(. S6/.((
-( 4*6 ) ,-(.)(. 68)6 1*2 32/. )4, .+-:-4)6.. I4(6.),0 -6 -( ) 3*4,-6-*4 9. )++
.=;./-.43.. S6/.(( 3)4 5. ,.(3/-5., )( *2/ /.)36-*4 6* ;/.((2/.. I6 -( 68.
4):. <->.4 6* 68. .=;./-.43. 9. 8)>. )( 9. ;81(-3)++10 :.46)++10
.:*6-*4)++10 )4, (;-/-62)++1 /.(;*4, 6* +-7.H( 6.4(-*4(.
NEED FOR STRESS
2B2. !. 4.., (6/.(( 5.3)2(. -6 8)( :)41 ;*(-6->. 5.4.7-6(. S6/.(( ;/*>-,.(
2( 9-68 38)++.4<.(M -6 <->.( 2( 38)43.( 6* +.)/4 )5*26 *2/ >)+2.( )4,
(6/.4<68(. S6/.(( 3)4 (8*9 *2/ )5-+-61 6* 8)4,+. ;/.((2/. 9-68*26 5/.)A-4<. I6
6.(6( *2/ ),);6)5-+-61 )4, 7+.=-5-+-610 )4, 3)4 (6-:2+)6. 2( 6* ,* *2/ 5.(6.
B.3)2(. 9. 2(2)++1 ,* 4*6 3*4(-,./ 24-:;*/6)46 .>.46( (6/.((72+0 (6/.(( 3)4
)+(* 5. )4 .=3.++.46 -4,-3)6*/ *7 68. (-<4-7-3)43. 9. )66)38 6* )4 .>.46@-4
*68./ 9*/,(0 -6 8-<8+-<86( 98)6 -( -:;*/6)46 6* 2(.
2B. !. 4.., 6* 8)>. (*:. (6/.(( -4 *2/ +->.(0 526 6** :238 *7 )4168-4< 3)4
5. 5),. T8. <*)+ -( 6* 8)>. (6/.((0 526 4*6 )4 .=3.(( *7 -6. T** :238 (6/.((
3)4 6)A. -6( 6*++ *4 ;.*;+. )4, */<)4-G)6-*4(. T** :238 (6/.(( +.),( 6*
,-(6/.((. D-(6/.(( 3)2(.( )4 243*:7*/6)5+. 6.4(-*4 68)6 9. 6/1 6* .(3);. */0
;/.7./)5+10 )>*-,. L-(6., 5.+*9 )/. ) 7.9 *7 68. 3*::*4 (-<4( *7 ,-(6/.(( 68)6
1*2 :)1 .43*246./ 98.4 7)3., 9-68 6** :238 (6/.((E
I D-77-32+61 :)A-4< ,.3-(-*4(.
I A4</1 *2652/(6(.
I F*/<.672+4.((.
I L*9 .4./<1 +.>.+.
I C*4(6)46 9*//1-4<.
I P/*;.4(-61 7*/ :-(6)A.(.
I T8*2<86( )5*26 ,.)68 */ (2-3-,..
I T/*25+. <.66-4< )+*4< 9-68 *68./(.
I !-68,/)9-4< 7/*: *68./(.
I H-,-4< 7/*: /.(;*4(-5-+-6-.(.
I C)/.+.((4.((.
2B4. A( 1*2 3)4 (..0 (6/.(( 3)4 5. 3*4(6/236->. */ ,.(6/236->.. I6 3)4
.43*2/)<. */ ,-(3*2/)<.0 :*>. 2( )+*4< */ (6*; 2( ,.), -4 *2/ 6/)3A(0 )4,
11
:)A. +-7. :.)4-4<72+ */ (..:-4<+1 :.)4-4<+.((. S6/.(( 3)4 -4(;-/. 1*2 6*
*;./)6. (233.((72++1 )4, ;./7*/: )6 1*2/ :)=-:2: .77-3-.431 -4 ) (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*4. I6 3)4 )+(* 3)2(. 1*2 6* ;)4-3 )4, 7*/<.6 )++ 1*2/ 6/)-4-4<. Y*2/ A.1
6* (2/>->)+ -( 1*2/ )5-+-61 6* :)4)<. 68. -4.>-6)5+. (6/.((.( 1*2 9-++ .43*246./.
T8. ;./(*4 68)6 (2/>->.( -( *4. 98* 9*/A( 9-68 8-( (6/.((.( -4(6.), *7 +.66-4<
8-( (6/.((.( 9*/A *4 8-:.
SURVIVAL STRESSORS
2B%. A41 .>.46 3)4 +.), 6* (6/.(( )4,0 )( .>./1*4. 8)( .=;./-.43.,0 .>.46(
,*4H6 )+9)1( 3*:. *4. )6 ) 6-:.. O76.40 (6/.((72+ .>.46( *332/
(-:2+6)4.*2(+1. T8.(. .>.46( )/. 4*6 (6/.((0 526 68.1 ;/*,23. -6 )4, )/.
3)++., J(6/.((*/(.K S6/.((*/( )/. 68. *5>-*2( 3)2(. 98-+. (6/.(( -( 68.
/.(;*4(.. O43. 68. 5*,1 /.3*<4-G.( 68. ;/.(.43. *7 ) (6/.((*/0 -6 68.4
5.<-4( 6* )36 6* ;/*6.36 -6(.+7.
2B6. I4 /.(;*4(. 6* ) (6/.((*/0 68. 5*,1 ;/.;)/.( .-68./ 6* J7-<86 */ 7+...K T8-(
;/.;)/)6-*4 -4>*+>.( )4 -46./4)+ SOS (.46 68/*2<8*26 68. 5*,1. A( 68. 5*,1
/.(;*4,( 6* 68-( SOS0 68. 7*++*9-4< )36-*4( 6)A. ;+)3.E
I T8. 5*,1 /.+.)(.( (6*/., 72.+( C(2<)/ )4, 7)6(D 6* ;/*>-,. ?2-3A .4./<1.
I B/.)68-4< /)6. -43/.)(.( 6* (2;;+1 :*/. *=1<.4 6* 68. 5+**,.
I M2(3+. 6.4(-*4 -43/.)(.( 6* ;/.;)/. 7*/ )36-*4.
I B+**, 3+*66-4< :.38)4-(:( )/. )36->)6., 6* /.,23. 5+..,-4< 7/*: 326(.
I S.4(.( 5.3*:. :*/. )326. C8.)/-4< 5.3*:.( :*/. (.4(-6->.0 ;2;-+( ,-+)6.0
(:.++ 5.3*:.( (8)/;./D (* 68)6 1*2 )/. :*/. )9)/. *7 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<(.
I H.)/6 /)6. )4, 5+**, ;/.((2/. /-(. 6* ;/*>-,. :*/. 5+**, 6* 68. :2(3+.(.
T8-( ;/*6.36->. ;*(62/. +.6( 1*2 3*;. 9-68 ;*6.46-)+ ,)4<./(. H*9.>./0 1*2
3)44*6 :)-46)-4 68-( +.>.+ *7 )+./64.(( -4,.7-4-6.+1.
2B7. S6/.((*/( )/. 4*6 3*2/6.*2(M *4. (6/.((*/ ,*.( 4*6 +.)>. 5.3)2(.
)4*68./ *4. )//->.(. S6/.((*/( ),, 2;. T8. 32:2+)6->. .77.36 *7 :-4*/
(6/.((*/( 3)4 5. ) :)F*/ ,-(6/.(( -7 68.1 )++ 8);;.4 6** 3+*(. 6*<.68./. A( 68.
5*,1H( /.(-(6)43. 6* (6/.(( 9.)/( ,*94 )4, 68. (*2/3.( *7 (6/.(( 3*46-42. C*/
-43/.)(.D0 .>.462)++1 ) (6)6. *7 .=8)2(6-*4 )//->.(. A6 68-( ;*-460 68. )5-+-61 6*
/.(-(6 (6/.(( */ 2(. -6 -4 ) ;*(-6->. 9)1 <->.( *26 )4, (-<4( *7 ,-(6/.(( );;.)/.
A46-3-;)6-4< (6/.((*/( )4, ,.>.+*;-4< (6/)6.<-.( 6* 3*;. 9-68 68.: )/. 69*
-4</.,-.46( -4 68. .77.36->. :)4)<.:.46 *7 (6/.((. T8./.7*/.0 -6 -( .((.46-)+
68)6 1*2 5. )9)/. *7 68. 61;.( *7 (6/.((*/( 68)6 1*2 9-++ .43*246./. T8.
7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( .=;+)-4 ) 7.9 *7 68.(..
I/D3*;& I<</+::& 1* D+-08
12
2B$. I4F2/10 -++4.((0 )4, ,.)68 )/. /.)+ ;*((-5-+-6-.( 68)6 1*2 8)>. 6* 7)3..
P./8);( 4*68-4< -( :*/. (6/.((72+ 68)4 5.-4< )+*4. -4 )4 247):-+-)/
.4>-/*4:.46 98./. 1*2 3*2+, ,-. 7/*: 8*(6-+. )36-*40 )4 )33-,.460 */ 7/*:
.)6-4< (*:.68-4< +.68)+. I++4.(( )4, -4F2/1 3)4 )+(* ),, 6* (6/.(( 51 +-:-6-4<
1*2/ )5-+-61 6* :)4.2>./0 <.6 7**, )4, ,/-4A0 7-4, (8.+6./0 )4, ,.7.4, 1*2/(.+7.
E>.4 -7 -++4.(( )4, -4F2/1 ,*4H6 +.), 6* ,.)680 68.1 ),, 6* (6/.(( 68/*2<8 68.
;)-4 )4, ,-(3*:7*/6 68.1 <.4./)6.. I6 -( *4+1 51 3*46/*++-4< 68. (6/.((
)((*3-)6., 9-68 68. >2+4./)5-+-61 6* -4F2/10 -++4.((0 )4, ,.)68 68)6 1*2 3)4 8)>.
68. 3*2/)<. 6* 6)A. 68. /-(A( )((*3-)6., 9-68 (2/>->)+ 6)(A(.
U/.+*0-4/0; -/2 L-.? 1, C1/0*1<
2B9. S*:. ;.*;+. 8)>. 6/*25+. *;./)6-4< -4 (.66-4<( 98./. .>./168-4< -( 4*6
3+.)/B326. T8. *4+1 <2)/)46.. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( 68)6 4*68-4< -(
<2)/)46..,. I6 3)4 5. .=6/.:.+1 (6/.((72+ *;./)6-4< *4 +-:-6., -47*/:)6-*4 -4 )
(.66-4< 98./. 1*2 8)>. +-:-6., 3*46/*+ *7 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<(. T8-( 243./6)-461
)4, +)3A *7 3*46/*+ )+(* ),, 6* 68. (6/.(( *7 5.-4< -++0 -4F2/.,0 */ A-++.,.
E/B4*1/>+/0
2B1". E>.4 24,./ 68. :*(6 -,.)+ 3-/32:(6)43.(0 4)62/. -( ?2-6. 7*/:-,)5+.. I4
(2/>->)+0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 3*46.4, 9-68 68. (6/.((*/( *7 9.)68./0 6.//)-40 )4,
68. >)/-.61 *7 3/.)62/.( -48)5-6-4< )4 )/.). H.)60 3*+,0 /)-40 9-4,(0 :*246)-4(0
(9):;(0 ,.(./6(0 -4(.36(0 ,)4<./*2( /.;6-+.(0 )4, *68./ )4-:)+( )/. F2(6 )
7.9 *7 68. 38)++.4<.( 68)6 1*2 9-++ .43*246./ 98-+. 9*/A-4< 6* (2/>->..
D.;.4,-4< *4 8*9 1*2 8)4,+. 68. (6/.(( *7 1*2/ .4>-/*4:.460 1*2/
(2//*24,-4<( 3)4 5. .-68./ ) (*2/3. *7 7**, )4, ;/*6.36-*4 */ 3)4 5. ) 3)2(.
*7 .=6/.:. ,-(3*:7*/6 +.),-4< 6* -4F2/10 -++4.((0 */ ,.)68.
H3/9+* -/2 T84*:0
2B11. !-68*26 7**, )4, 9)6./ 1*2 9-++ 9.)A.4 )4, .>.462)++1 ,-.. T82(0
<.66-4< )4, ;/.(./>-4< 7**, )4, 9)6./ 6)A.( *4 -43/.)(-4< -:;*/6)43. )( 68.
+.4<68 *7 6-:. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (.66-4< -43/.)(.(. F*/)<-4< 3)4 )+(* 5. ) 5-<
(*2/3. *7 (6/.(( (-43. 1*2 )/. 2(., 6* 8)>-4< 1*2/ ;/*>-(-*4( -((2.,.
F-0493+
2B12. F*/3-4< 1*2/(.+7 6* 3*46-42. (2/>->-4< -( 4*6 .)(1 )( 1*2 </*9 :*/.
6-/.,. I6 -( ;*((-5+. 6* 5.3*:. (* 7)6-<2., 68)6 68. )36 *7 F2(6 (6)1-4< )9)A. -(
(6/.((72+ -4 -6(.+7.
I:1<-041/
2B1. T8./. )/. (*:. ),>)46)<.( 6* 7)3-4< ),>./(-61 9-68 *68./(. A( )
(*+,-./ 1*2 +.)/4 -4,->-,2)+ (A-++(0 526 1*2 6/)-4 6* 72436-*4 )( ;)/6 *7 ) 6.):.
A+68*2<8 9. 3*:;+)-4 )5*26 8-<8./ 8.),?2)/6./(0 9. 5.3*:. 2(., 6* 68.
-47*/:)6-*4 )4, <2-,)43. -6 ;/*>-,.(0 .(;.3-)++1 ,2/-4< 6-:.( *7 3*472(-*4.
B.-4< -4 3*46)36 9-68 *68./( )+(* ;/*>-,.( ) </.)6./ (.4(. *7 (.32/-61 )4, )
7..+-4< (*:.*4. -( )>)-+)5+. 6* 8.+; -7 ;/*5+.:( *332/. A (-<4-7-3)46 (6/.((*/
13
-4 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4( -( 68)6 *76.4 1*2 8)>. 6* /.+1 (*+.+1 *4 1*2/ *94
/.(*2/3.(.
2B14. T8. (2/>->)+ (6/.((*/( :.46-*4., -4 68-( (.36-*4 )/. 51 4* :.)4( 68.
*4+1 *4.( 1*2 :)1 7)3.. R.:.:5./0 98)6 -( (6/.((72+ 6* *4. ;./(*4 :)1 4*6
5. (6/.((72+ 6* )4*68./. Y*2/ .=;./-.43.(0 6/)-4-4<0 ;./(*4)+ *26+**A *4 +-7.0
;81(-3)+ )4, :.46)+ 3*4,-6-*4-4<0 )4, +.>.+ *7 (.+7B3*47-,.43. 3*46/-526. 6*
98)6 1*2 9-++ 7-4, (6/.((72+ -4 ) (2/>->)+ .4>-/*4:.46. T8. *5F.36 -( 4*6 6*
)>*-, (6/.((0 526 /)68./ 6* :)4)<. 68. (6/.((*/( *7 (2/>->)+ )4, :)A. 68.:
9*/A 7*/ 1*2.
2B1%. !. 4*9 8)>. ) <.4./)+ A4*9+.,<. *7 (6/.(( )4, 68. (6/.((*/( 3*::*4
6* (2/>->)+. T8. 4.=6 (6.; -( 6* .=):-4. 1*2/ /.)36-*4( 6* 68. (6/.((*/( 1*2
:)1 7)3..
NATURAL REACTIONS
2B16. M)4 8)( 5..4 )5+. 6* (2/>->. :)41 (8-76( -4 8-( .4>-/*4:.46
68/*2<8*26 68. 3.462/-.(. H-( )5-+-61 6* ),);6 ;81(-3)++1 )4, :.46)++1 6* )
38)4<-4< 9*/+, A.;6 8-: )+->. 98-+. *68./ (;.3-.( )/*24, 8-: </),2)++1 ,-.,
*77. T8. ():. (2/>->)+ :.38)4-(:( 68)6 A.;6 *2/ 7*/.7)68./( )+->. 3)4 8.+;
A..; 1*2 )+->. )( 9.++N H*9.>./0 68. (2/>->)+ :.38)4-(:( 68)6 3)4 8.+; 1*2
3)4 )+(* 9*/A )<)-4(6 1*2 -7 1*2 ,* 4*6 24,./(6)4, )4, )46-3-;)6. 68.-/
;/.(.43..
2B17. I6 -( 4*6 (2/;/-(-4< 68)6 68. )>./)<. ;./(*4 9-++ 8)>. (*:.
;(138*+*<-3)+ /.)36-*4( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8(
.=;+)-4 (*:. *7 68. :)F*/ -46./4)+ /.)36-*4( 68)6 1*2 */ )41*4. 9-68 1*2 :-<86
.=;./-.43. 9-68 68. ;/.>-*2(+1 (6)6., (2/>->)+ (6/.((*/(.
FEAR
2B1$. F.)/ -( *2/ .:*6-*4)+ /.(;*4(. 6* ,)4<./*2( 3-/32:(6)43.( 68)6 9.
5.+-.>. 8)>. 68. ;*6.46-)+ 6* 3)2(. ,.)680 -4F2/10 */ -++4.((. T8-( 8)/: -( 4*6
F2(6 +-:-6., 6* ;81(-3)+ ,):)<.M 68. 68/.)6 6* 1*2/ .:*6-*4)+ )4, :.46)+ 9.++B
5.-4< 3)4 <.4./)6. 7.)/ )( 9.++. I7 1*2 )/. 6/1-4< 6* (2/>->.0 7.)/ 3)4 8)>. )
;*(-6->. 72436-*4 -7 -6 .43*2/)<.( 1*2 6* 5. 3)26-*2( -4 (-62)6-*4( 98./.
/.3A+.((4.(( 3*2+, /.(2+6 -4 -4F2/1. U47*/624)6.+10 7.)/ 3)4 )+(* -::*5-+-G.
1*2. I6 3)4 3)2(. 1*2 6* 5.3*:. (* 7/-<86.4., 68)6 1*2 7)-+ 6* ;./7*/:
)36->-6-.( .((.46-)+ 7*/ (2/>->)+. M*(6 ;.*;+. 9-++ 8)>. (*:. ,.</.. *7 7.)/
98.4 ;+)3., -4 247):-+-)/ (2//*24,-4<( 24,./ ),>./(. 3*4,-6-*4(. T8./. -(
4* (8):. -4 68-(N Y*2 :2(6 6/)-4 1*2/(.+7 4*6 6* 5. *>./3*:. 51 1*2/ 7.)/(.
I,.)++10 68/*2<8 /.)+-(6-3 6/)-4-4<0 1*2 3)4 )3?2-/. 68. A4*9+.,<. )4, (A-++(
4..,., 6* -43/.)(. 1*2/ 3*47-,.43. )4, 68./.51 :)4)<. 1*2/ 7.)/(.
ANXIETY
2B19. A((*3-)6., 9-68 7.)/ -( )4=-.61. B.3)2(. -6 -( 4)62/)+ 7*/ 1*2 6* 5.
)7/)-,0 -6 -( )+(* 4)62/)+ 7*/ 1*2 6* .=;./-.43. )4=-.61. A4=-.61 3)4 5. )4
24.)(10 );;/.8.4(->. 7..+-4< 1*2 <.6 98.4 7)3., 9-68 ,)4<./*2( (-62)6-*4(
14
C;81(-3)+0 :.46)+0 )4, .:*6-*4)+D. !8.4 2(., -4 ) 8.)+681 9)10 )4=-.61 3)4
2/<. 1*2 6* )36 6* .4,0 */ )6 +.)(6 :)(6./0 68. ,)4<./( 68)6 68/.)6.4 1*2/
.=-(6.43.. I7 1*2 9./. 4.>./ )4=-*2(0 68./. 9*2+, 5. +-66+. :*6->)6-*4 6* :)A.
38)4<.( -4 1*2/ +-7.. I4 ) (2/>->)+ (.66-4< 1*2 3)4 /.,23. 1*2/ )4=-.61 51
;./7*/:-4< 68*(. 6)(A( 68)6 9-++ .4(2/. 1*2 3*:. 68/*2<8 68. */,.)+ )+->.. A(
1*2 /.,23. 1*2/ )4=-.610 1*2 )+(* 5/-4< 24,./ 3*46/*+ 68. (*2/3. *7 68)6
)4=-.61@1*2/ 7.)/(. I4 68-( 7*/:0 )4=-.61 -( <**,M 8*9.>./0 )4=-.61 3)4 )+(*
8)>. ) ,.>)(6)6-4< -:;)36. A4=-.61 3)4 *>./98.+: 1*2 6* 68. ;*-46 98./.
1*2 5.3*:. .)(-+1 3*472(., )4, 8)>. ,-77-32+61 68-4A-4<. O43. 68-( 8);;.4(0
-6 9-++ 5.3*:. -43/.)(-4<+1 ,-77-32+6 7*/ 1*2 6* :)A. <**, F2,<:.46( )4, (*24,
,.3-(-*4(. T* (2/>->.0 1*2 :2(6 +.)/4 6.384-?2.( 6* 3)+: 1*2/ )4=-.6-.( )4,
A..; 68.: -4 68. /)4<. 98./. 68.1 8.+;0 4*6 82/6.
ANGER AND FRUSTRATION
2B2". F/2(6/)6-*4 )/-(.( 98.4 1*2 )/. 3*46-42)++1 689)/6., -4 1*2/ )66.:;6( 6*
/.)38 ) <*)+. T8. <*)+ *7 (2/>->)+ -( 6* (6)1 )+->. 246-+ 1*2 3)4 /.)38 8.+; */
246-+ 8.+; 3)4 /.)38 1*2. T* )38-.>. 68-( <*)+0 1*2 :2(6 3*:;+.6. (*:. 6)(A(
9-68 :-4-:)+ /.(*2/3.(. I6 -( -4.>-6)5+.0 -4 6/1-4< 6* ,* 68.(. 6)(A(0 68)6
(*:.68-4< 9-++ <* 9/*4<M 68)6 (*:.68-4< 9-++ 8);;.4 5.1*4, 1*2/ 3*46/*+M )4,
68)6 9-68 1*2/ +-7. )6 (6)A.0 .>./1 :-(6)A. -( :)<4-7-., -4 6./:( *7 -6(
-:;*/6)43.. T82(0 .>.462)++10 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 3*;. 9-68 7/2(6/)6-*4 98.4 )
7.9 *7 1*2/ ;+)4( /24 -46* 6/*25+.. O4. *26</*968 *7 68-( 7/2(6/)6-*4 -( )4<./.
T8./. )/. :)41 .>.46( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 68)6 3)4 7/2(6/)6. */ )4<./ 1*2.
G.66-4< +*(60 ,):)<., */ 7*/<*66.4 .?2-;:.460 68. 9.)68./0 -48*(;-6)5+.
6.//)-40 .4.:1 ;)6/*+(0 )4, ;81(-3)+ +-:-6)6-*4( )/. F2(6 ) 7.9 (*2/3.( *7
7/2(6/)6-*4 )4, )4<./. F/2(6/)6-*4 )4, )4<./ <.4./)6. -:;2+(->. /.)36-*4(0
-//)6-*4)+ 5.8)>-*/0 ;**/+1 68*2<86B*26 ,.3-(-*4(0 )4,0 -4 (*:. -4(6)43.(0 )4 JI
?2-6K )66-62,. C;.*;+. (*:.6-:.( )>*-, ,*-4< (*:.68-4< 68.1 3)4H6 :)(6./D. I7
1*2 3)4 8)/4.(( )4, ;/*;./+1 38)44.+ 68. .:*6-*4)+ -46.4(-61 )((*3-)6., 9-68
)4<./ )4, 7/2(6/)6-*40 1*2 3)4 ;/*,236->.+1 )36 )( 1*2 )4(9./ 68. 38)++.4<.(
*7 (2/>->)+. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 ;/*;./+1 7*32( 1*2/ )4</1 7..+-4<(0 1*2 3)4 9)(6.
:238 .4./<1 -4 )36->-6-.( 68)6 ,* +-66+. 6* 72/68./ .-68./ 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+
*/ 68. 38)43.( *7 68*(. )/*24, 1*2.
DEPRESSION
2B21. Y*2 9*2+, 5. ) /)/. ;./(*4 -4,.., -7 1*2 ,-, 4*6 <.6 (),0 )6 +.)(6
:*:.46)/-+10 98.4 7)3., 9-68 68. 8)/,(8-;( *7 (2/>->)+. A( 68-( (),4.((
,..;.4(0 -6 5.3*:.( J,.;/.((-*4.K D.;/.((-*4 -( 3+*(.+1 +-4A., 9-68
7/2(6/)6-*4 )4, )4<./. F/2(6/)6-*4 9-++ 3)2(. 1*2 6* 5.3*:. -43/.)(-4<+1
)4</1 )( 1*2 7)-+ 6* /.)38 1*2/ <*)+(. I7 68. )4<./ ,*.( 4*6 8.+; 1*2 (233..,0
68.4 68. 7/2(6/)6-*4 +.>.+ <*.( .>.4 8-<8./. A ,.(6/236->. 313+. 5.69..4
)4<./ )4, 7/2(6/)6-*4 9-++ 3*46-42. 246-+ 1*2 5.3*:. 9*/4 ,*94@;81(-3)++10
.:*6-*4)++10 )4, :.46)++1. !8.4 1*2 /.)38 68-( ;*-460 1*2 (6)/6 6* <->. 2;0
)4, 1*2/ 7*32( (8-76( 7/*: J!8)6 3)4 I ,*K 6* JT8./. -( 4*68-4< I 3)4 ,*.K
D.;/.((-*4 -( )4 .=;/.((-*4 *7 68-( 8*;.+.((0 8.+;+.(( 7..+-4<. T8./. -(
4*68-4< 9/*4< 9-68 5.-4< (), )( 1*2 6.:;*/)/-+1 68-4A )5*26 1*2/ +*>., *4.(
)4, /.:.:5./ 98)6 +-7. -( +-A. 5)3A -4 J3->-+-G)6-*4K */ J68. 9*/+,.K S238
68*2<86(0 -4 7)360 3)4 <->. 1*2 68. ,.(-/. 6* 6/1 8)/,./ )4, +->. *4. :*/. ,)1.
15
O4 68. *68./ 8)4,0 -7 1*2 )++*9 1*2/(.+7 6* (-4A -46* ) ,.;/.((., (6)6.0 68.4 -6
3)4 (); )++ 1*2/ .4./<1 )4,0 :*/. -:;*/6)460 1*2/ 9-++ 6* (2/>->.. I6 -(
-:;./)6->. 68)6 1*2 /.(-(6 (2332:5-4< 6* ,.;/.((-*4.
LONELINESS AND BOREDOM
2B22. M)4 -( ) (*3-)+ )4-:)+. H2:)4 5.-4<( .4F*1 68. 3*:;)41 *7 *68./(.
V./1 7.9 ;.*;+. 9)46 6* 5. )+*4. )++ 68. 6-:.N T8./. -( ) ,-(6-436 38)43. *7
-(*+)6-*4 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (.66-4<. I(*+)6-*4 -( 4*6 5),. L*4.+-4.(( )4, 5*/.,*:
3)4 5/-4< 6* 68. (2/7)3. ?2)+-6-.( 1*2 68*2<86 *4+1 *68./( 8),. T8. .=6.46 *7
1*2/ -:)<-4)6-*4 )4, 3/.)6->-61 :)1 (2/;/-(. 1*2. !8.4 /.?2-/., 6* ,* (*0
1*2 :)1 ,-(3*>./ (*:. 8-,,.4 6)+.46( )4, )5-+-6-.(. M*(6 *7 )++0 1*2 :)1 6);
-46* ) /.(./>*-/ *7 -44./ (6/.4<68 )4, 7*/6-62,. 1*2 4.>./ A4.9 1*2 8),.
C*4>./(.+10 +*4.+-4.(( )4, 5*/.,*: 3)4 5. )4*68./ (*2/3. *7 ,.;/.((-*4. I7
1*2 )/. (2/>->-4< )+*4.0 */ 9-68 *68./(0 1*2 :2(6 7-4, 9)1( 6* A..; 1*2/ :-4,
;/*,236->.+1 *332;-.,. A,,-6-*4)++10 1*2 :2(6 ,.>.+*; ) ,.</.. *7 (.+7B
(277-3-.431. Y*2 :2(6 8)>. 7)-68 -4 1*2/ 3);)5-+-61 6* J<* -6 )+*4..J
GUILT
2B2. T8. 3-/32:(6)43.( +.),-4< 6* 1*2/ 5.-4< -4 ) (2/>->)+ (.66-4< )/.
(*:.6-:.( ,/):)6-3 )4, 6/)<-3. I6 :)1 5. 68. /.(2+6 *7 )4 )33-,.46 */ :-+-6)/1
:-((-*4 98./. 68./. 9)( ) +*(( *7 +-7.. P./8);( 1*2 9./. 68. *4+1 (2/>->*/ */
*4. *7 ) 7.9 (2/>->*/(. !8-+. 4)62/)++1 /.+-.>., 6* 5. )+->.0 1*2
(-:2+6)4.*2(+1 :)1 5. :*2/4-4< 68. ,.)68( *7 *68./( 98* 9./. +.((
7*/624)6.. I6 -( 4*6 243*::*4 7*/ (2/>->*/( 6* 7..+ <2-+61 )5*26 5.-4< (;)/.,
7/*: ,.)68 98-+. *68./( 9./. 4*6. T8-( 7..+-4<0 98.4 2(., -4 ) ;*(-6->. 9)10
8)( .43*2/)<., ;.*;+. 6* 6/1 8)/,./ 6* (2/>->. 9-68 68. 5.+-.7 68.1 9./.
)++*9., 6* +->. 7*/ (*:. </.)6./ ;2/;*(. -4 +-7.. S*:.6-:.(0 (2/>->*/( 6/-., 6*
(6)1 )+->. (* 68)6 68.1 3*2+, 3)//1 *4 68. 9*/A *7 68*(. A-++.,. !8)6.>./
/.)(*4 1*2 <->. 1*2/(.+70 ,* 4*6 +.6 <2-+6 7..+-4<( ;/.>.46 1*2 7/*: +->-4<. T8.
+->-4< 98* )5)4,*4 68.-/ 38)43. 6* (2/>->. )33*:;+-(8 4*68-4<. S238 )4 )36
9*2+, 5. 68. </.)6.(6 6/)<.,1.
PREPARING YOURSELF
2B24. Y*2/ :-((-*4 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( 6* (6)1 )+->.. T8. )((*/6:.46 *7
68*2<86( )4, .:*6-*4( 1*2 9-++ .=;./-.43. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 3)4 9*/A 7*/
1*20 */ 68.1 3)4 9*/A 6* 1*2/ ,*947)++. F.)/0 )4=-.610 )4<./0 7/2(6/)6-*40 <2-+60
,.;/.((-*40 )4, +*4.+-4.(( )/. )++ ;*((-5+. /.)36-*4( 6* 68. :)41 (6/.((*/(
3*::*4 6* (2/>->)+. T8.(. /.)36-*4(0 98.4 3*46/*++., -4 ) 8.)+681 9)10 8.+;
6* -43/.)(. 1*2/ +-A.+-8**, *7 (2/>->-4<. T8.1 ;/*:;6 1*2 6* ;)1 :*/.
)66.46-*4 -4 6/)-4-4<0 6* 7-<86 5)3A 98.4 (3)/.,0 6* 6)A. )36-*4( 68)6 .4(2/.
(2(6.4)43. )4, (.32/-610 6* A..; 7)-68 9-68 1*2/ 7.++*9 6.): :.:5./(0 )4, 6*
(6/->. )<)-4(6 +)/<. *,,(. !8.4 1*2 3)44*6 3*46/*+ 68.(. /.)36-*4( -4 )
8.)+681 9)10 68.1 3)4 5/-4< 1*2 6* ) (6)4,(6-++. I4(6.), *7 /)++1-4< 1*2/ -46./4)+
/.(*2/3.(0 1*2 +-(6.4 6* 1*2/ -46./4)+ 7.)/(. T8.(. 7.)/( 9-++ 3)2(. 1*2 6*
.=;./-.43. ;(138*+*<-3)+ ,.7.)6 +*4< 5.7*/. 1*2 ;81(-3)++1 (2332:5.
R.:.:5./0 (2/>->)+ -( 4)62/)+ 6* .>./1*4.M 5.-4< 24.=;.36.,+1 68/2(6 -46* 68.
+-7.B*/B,.)68 (6/2<<+. *7 (2/>->)+ -( 4*6. D* 4*6 5. )7/)-, *7 1*2/ J4)62/)+
16
/.)36-*4( 6* 68-( 244)62/)+ (-62)6-*4.K P/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 6* /2+. *>./ 68.(.
/.)36-*4( (* 68.1 (./>. 1*2/ 2+6-:)6. -46./.(6@(6)1-4< )+->. 9-68 8*4*/ )4,
,-<4-61.
2B2%. B.-4< ;/.;)/., -4>*+>.( A4*9-4< 68)6 1*2/ /.)36-*4( -4 ) (2/>->)+
(.66-4< )/. ;/*,236->.0 4*6 ,.(6/236->.. T8. 38)++.4<. *7 (2/>->)+ 8)(
;/*,23., 3*246+.(( .=):;+.( *7 8./*-(:0 3*2/)<.0 )4, (.+7 ()3/-7-3.. T8.(.
)/. 68. ?2)+-6-.( ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 3)4 5/-4< *26 -4 1*2 -7 1*2 8)>. ;/.;)/.,
1*2/(.+7. B.+*9 )/. ) 7.9 6-;( 6* 8.+; ;/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 ;(138*+*<-3)++1 7*/
(2/>->)+. T8/*2<8 (62,1-4< 68-( :)42)+ )4, )66.4,-4< (2/>->)+ 6/)-4-4< 1*2
3)4 ,.>.+*; 68. J(2/>->)+ )66-62,..J
KNO$ YOURSELF
2B26. Y*2 (8*2+, 6)A. 68. 6-:. 68/*2<8 6/)-4-4<0 7):-+10 )4, 7/-.4,( 6*
,-(3*>./ 98* 1*2 )/. *4 68. -4(-,.. S6/.4<68.4 1*2/ (6/*4<./ ?2)+-6-.( )4,
,.>.+*; 68. )/.)( 68)6 1*2 A4*9 )/. 4.3.(()/1 6* (2/>->..
ANTICIPATE FEARS
2B27. D*4H6 ;/.6.4, 68)6 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 4* 7.)/(. B.<-4 68-4A-4< )5*26 98)6
9*2+, 7/-<86.4 1*2 68. :*(6 -7 7*/3., 6* (2/>->. )+*4.. T/)-4 -4 68*(. )/.)( *7
3*43./4 6* 1*2. T8. <*)+ -( 4*6 6* .+-:-4)6. 68. 7.)/0 526 6* 52-+, 3*47-,.43.
-4 1*2/ )5-+-61 6* 72436-*4 ,.(;-6. 1*2/ 7.)/(.
BE REALISTIC
2B2$. D*4H6 5. )7/)-, 6* :)A. )4 8*4.(6 );;/)-()+ *7 (-62)6-*4(. S..
3-/32:(6)43.( )( 68.1 )/.0 4*6 )( 1*2 9)46 68.: 6* 5.. K..; 1*2/ 8*;.( )4,
.=;.36)6-*4( 9-68-4 68. .(6-:)6. *7 68. (-62)6-*4. !8.4 1*2 <* -46* ) (2/>->)+
(.66-4< 9-68 24/.)+-(6-3 .=;.36)6-*4(0 1*2 :)1 5. +)1-4< 68. </*24,9*/A 7*/
5-66./ ,-();;*-46:.46. F*++*9 68. ),)<.0 JH*;. 7*/ 68. 5.(60 ;/.;)/. 7*/ 68.
9*/(6.K I6 -( :238 .)(-./ 6* ),F2(6 6* ;+.)()46 (2/;/-(.( )5*26 1*2/
24.=;.36., <**, 7*/624.( 68)4 6* 5. 2;(.6 51 1*2/ 24.=;.36., 8)/(8
3-/32:(6)43.(.
ADOPT A POSITIVE ATTITUDE
2B29. L.)/4 6* (.. 68. ;*6.46-)+ <**, -4 .>./168-4<. L**A-4< 7*/ 68. <**, 4*6
*4+1 5**(6( :*/)+.0 -6 )+(* -( .=3.++.46 7*/ .=./3-(-4< 1*2/ -:)<-4)6-*4 )4,
3/.)6->-61.
REMIND YOURSELF $HAT IS AT STAKE
2B". F)-+2/. 6* ;/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 ;(138*+*<-3)++1 6* 3*;. 9-68 (2/>->)+ +.),( 6*
/.)36-*4( (238 )( ,.;/.((-*40 3)/.+.((4.((0 -4)66.46-*40 +*(( *7 3*47-,.43.0
;**/ ,.3-(-*4 :)A-4<0 )4, <->-4< 2; 5.7*/. 68. 5*,1 <->.( -4. R.:.:5./ 68)6
1*2/ +-7. )4, 68. +->.( *7 *68./( 98* ,.;.4, *4 1*2 )/. )6 (6)A..
TRAIN
17
2B1. T8/*2<8 :-+-6)/1 6/)-4-4< )4, +-7. .=;./-.43.(0 5.<-4 6*,)1 6* ;/.;)/.
1*2/(.+7 6* 3*;. 9-68 68. /-<*/( *7 (2/>->)+. D.:*4(6/)6-4< 1*2/ (A-++( -4
6/)-4-4< 9-++ <->. 1*2 68. 3*47-,.43. 6* 3)++ 2;*4 68.: (8*2+, 68. 4.., )/-(..
R.:.:5./0 68. :*/. /.)+-(6-3 68. 6/)-4-4<0 68. +.(( *>./98.+:-4< )4 )362)+
(2/>->)+ (.66-4< 9-++ 5..
LEARN STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNI'UES
2B2. P.*;+. 24,./ (6/.(( 8)>. ) ;*6.46-)+ 6* ;)4-3 -7 68.1 )/. 4*6 9.++B6/)-4.,
)4, 4*6 ;/.;)/., ;(138*+*<-3)++1 6* 7)3. 98)6.>./ 68. 3-/32:(6)43.( :)1 5..
!8-+. 1*2 *76.4 3)44*6 3*46/*+ 68. (2/>->)+ 3-/32:(6)43.( -4 98-38 1*2 7-4,
1*2/(.+70 -6 -( 9-68-4 1*2/ )5-+-61 6* 3*46/*+ 1*2/ /.(;*4(. 6* 68*(.
3-/32:(6)43.(. L.)/4-4< (6/.(( :)4)<.:.46 6.384-?2.( 3)4 (-<4-7-3)46+1
.48)43. 1*2/ 3);)5-+-61 6* /.:)-4 3)+: )4, 7*32(., )( 1*2 9*/A 6* A..;
1*2/(.+7 )4, *68./( )+->.. A 7.9 <**, 6.384-?2.( 6* ,.>.+*; -43+2,.
/.+)=)6-*4 (A-++(0 6-:. :)4)<.:.46 (A-++(0 )((./6->.4.(( (A-++(0 )4, 3*<4-6->.
/.(6/2362/-4< (A-++( C68. )5-+-61 6* 3*46/*+ 8*9 1*2 >-.9 ) (-62)6-*4D.
R.:.:5./0 J68. 9-++ 6* (2/>->.K 3)4 )+(* 5. 3*4(-,./., J68. /.72()+ 6* <->.
2;.J
CHAPTER 3.
S3*B4B-< P<-//4/9 -/2 S3*B4B-< K40:.
A (2/>->)+ ;+)4 -( ,.;.4,.46 *4 68/.. (.;)/)6. 526 -46./69-4., ;)/6( 6* 5.
(233.((72+E ;+)44-4<0 ;/.;)/)6-*40 )4, ;/)36-3..
S2/>->)+ ;+)44-4< -( 4*68-4< :*/. 68)4 /.)+-G-4< (*:.68-4< 3*2+, 8);;.4 68)6
9*2+, ;26 1*2 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 )4,0 9-68 68)6 -4 :-4,0 6)A-4< (6.;( 6*
-43/.)(. 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+. I6 3)4 8);;.4 6* )41*4.0 )4198./.0
)416-:.0 (* /.:.:5./E ,-4<3*+ 01 7<-/ 4: - 7<-/ 01 ,-4<. P+)4( )/. 5)(., *4
.>)(-*4 )4, /.3*>./1 CEORD 3*4(-,./)6-*4( )4, 68. )>)-+)5-+-61 *7 /.(2;;+1 */
.:./<.431 524,+.(. Y*2 :2(6 6)A. -46* 3*4(-,./)6-*4 68. :-((-*4 ,2/)6-*4
)4, 68. ,-(6)43. 6* 7/-.4,+1 +-4.(M 68. .4>-/*4:.460 6* -43+2,. 68. 6.//)-4 )4,
9.)68./ )4, ;*((-5+. 38)4<.( -4 68. 9.)68./ ,2/-4< ) ;/*6/)36., :-((-*4M
)4, 68. ;+)67*/: 1*2 9-++ 5. *;./)6-4< 9-680 (238 )( )4 )-/3/)760 ) :2+6-;2/;*(.
>.8-3+.0 */ ;./8);( F2(6 ) /23A()3A. P+)44-4< )+(* .46)-+( +**A-4< )6 68*(.
EOR /*26.( )4, A4*9-4< 51 :.:*/1 68. :)F*/ <.*</);8-3)+ 7.)62/.( -4 3)(.
1*2/ :); )4, 3*:;)(( )/. +*(6. Y*2 3)4 2(. 3+)((-7-., )4, 243+)((-7-.,
(*2/3.( (238 )( 68. I46./4.60 .4313+*;.,-)(0 )4, <.*</);8-3 :)<)G-4.( 6*
)((-(6 1*2 -4 ;+)44-4<.
P/.;)/)6-*4 :.)4( ;/.;)/-4< 1*2/(.+7 )4, 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6 7*/ 68*(.
3*46-4<.43-.( 68)6 1*2 8)>. -4 1*2/ ;+)4. A ;+)4 9-68*26 )41 ;/.;)/)6-*4 -(
F2(6 ) ;-.3. *7 ;);./. I6 9-++ 4*6 A..; 1*2 )+->.. P/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 51 :)A-4<
(2/. 1*2/ -::24-G)6-*4( )4, ,.46)+ 9*/A )/. 2;B6*B,)6.. P/.;)/. 1*2/
24-7*/: 51 8)>-4< 68. 4.9.(6 24-7*/: 7*/ .:./<.43-.(. I6 9-++ 8)>. 68. :*(6
18
-47/)/.,B,.7.)6-4< 3);)5-+-6-.( ;*((-5+.. Y*2 3)4 8)>. (-<4)+ ,.>-3.( )4,
(4)/. 9-/. (.94 -46* -6 )8.), *7 6-:.. B/.)A -4 1*2/ 5**6( )4, :)A. (2/. 68)6
68. 5**6( 8)>. <**, (*+.( )4, 9)6./B/.;.++.46 ;/*;./6-.(. S62,1 68. )/.)0
3+-:)6.0 6.//)-40 )4, -4,-<.4*2( :.68*,( *7 7**, )4, 9)6./ ;/*32/.:.46. Y*2
(8*2+, 3*46-42*2(+1 )((.(( ,)6)0 .>.4 )76./ 68. ;+)4 -( :),.0 6* 2;,)6. 68.
;+)4 )( 4.3.(()/1 )4, <->. 1*2 68. </.)6.(6 ;*((-5+. 38)43. *7 (2/>->)+.
A4*68./ .=):;+. *7 ;/.;)/)6-*4 -( 7-4,-4< 68. .:./<.431 .=-6( *4 )4 )-/3/)76
98.4 1*2 5*)/, -6 7*/ ) 7+-<86. P/)36-3. 68*(. 68-4<( 68)6 1*2 8)>. ;+)44.,
9-68 68. -6.:( -4 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6. C8.3A-4< .4(2/.( 68)6 -6.:( 9*/A )4, 68)6
1*2 A4*9 8*9 6* 2(. 68.:. B2-+, ) 7-/. -4 68. /)-4 (* 1*2 A4*9 68)6 98.4 -6 -(
3/-6-3)+ 6* <.6 9)/:0 1*2 3)4 ,* -6. R.>-.9 68. :.,-3)+ -6.:( -4 1*2/ A-6 )4,
8)>. -4(6/236-*4( ;/-46., *4 68.-/ 2(. (* 68)6 .>.4 -4 6-:.( *7 (6/.((0 1*2 9-++
4*6 :)A. +-7.B68/.)6.4-4< .//*/(.
IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING
B1. D.6)-+., ;/-*/ ;+)44-4< -( .((.46-)+ -4 ;*6.46-)+ (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4(.
I43+2,-4< (2/>->)+ 3*4(-,./)6-*4( -4 :-((-*4 ;+)44-4< 9-++ .48)43. 1*2/
38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+ -7 )4 .:./<.431 *332/(. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 1*2/ F*5 /.?2-/.(
68)6 1*2 9*/A -4 ) (:)++0 .43+*(., )/.) 68)6 +-:-6( 98)6 1*2 3)4 3)//1 *4 1*2/
;./(*40 ;+)4 98./. 1*2 3)4 ;26 1*2/ /23A()3A */ 1*2/ +*),B5.)/-4< .?2-;:.46
CLBED. P26 -6 98./. -6 9-++ 4*6 ;/.>.46 1*2 7/*: <.66-4< *26 *7 68. )/.) ?2-3A+10
1.6 98./. -6 -( /.),-+1 )33.((-5+..
B2. O4. -:;*/6)46 )(;.36 *7 ;/-*/ ;+)44-4< -( ;/.>.46->. :.,-3-4.. E4(2/-4<
68)6 1*2 8)>. 4* ,.46)+ ;/*5+.:( )4, 68)6 1*2/ -::24-G)6-*4( )/. 32//.46 9-++
8.+; 1*2 )>*-, ;*6.46-)+ ,.46)+ */ 8.)+68 ;/*5+.:(.
S*:. ,.46)+ ;/*5+.:( 3)4 ;/*</.(( 6* 68. ;*-46 68)6 1*2 :)1 4*6 5. )5+. 6*
.)6 .4*2<8 6* (2/>->.. F)-+2/. 6* A..; 1*2/ (8*6( 32//.46 :)1 :.)4 1*2/
5*,1 -( 4*6 -::24. 6* ,-(.)(.( 68)6 )/. ;/.>)+.46 -4 68. )/.).
B. P/.;)/-4< )4, 3)//1-4< ) (2/>->)+ A-6 -( )( -:;*/6)46 )( 68.
3*4(-,./)6-*4( :.46-*4., )5*>.. A++ A/:1 )-/3/)76 8)>. (2/>->)+ A-6( *4 5*)/,
7*/ 68. 61;. *7 )/.) *>./ 98-38 68.1 9-++ 7+1. T8./. )/. A-6( 7*/ *>./B9)6./0 8*6
3+-:)6.0 )4, 3*+, 3+-:)6. (2/>->)+. E)38 3/.9:.:5./ 9-++ )+(* 5. 9.)/-4< )4
)>-)6*/ (2/>->)+ >.(6 CA;;.4,-= A ,.(3/-5.( 68.(. (2/>->)+ A-6(D. K4*9 68.
+*3)6-*4 *7 68.(. A-6( *4 68. )-/3/)76 )4, 98)6 68.1 3*46)-4 -4 3)(. *7 3/)(8 */
,-638-4<. T8./. )/. )+(* (*+,-./ A-6( 7*/ 6/*;-3)+ )4, 6.:;./)6. (2/>->)+.
T8.(. A-6( )/. .=;.4(->. )4, 4*6 )+9)1( )>)-+)5+. 6* .>./1 (*+,-./. H*9.>./0
-7 1*2 A4*9 98)6 68.(. A-6( 3*46)-40 )4, *4 98)6 5)(-( 68.1 )/. 52-+60 1*2 9-++
5. )5+. 6* ;+)4 )4, 6* ;/.;)/. 1*2/ *94 (2/>->)+ A-6 68)6 :)1 5. 5.66./ (2-6.,
6* 1*2 68)4 )4 *77B68.B(8.+7 *4..
B4. E>.4 68. (:)++.(6 (2/>->)+ A-60 -7 ;/*;./+1 ;/.;)/.,0 -( -4>)+2)5+. 98.4
7)3., 9-68 ) (2/>->)+ ;/*5+.:. H*9.>./0 5.7*/. :)A-4< 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-60
3*4(-,./ 1*2/ 24-6H( :-((-*40 68. *;./)6-*4)+ .4>-/*4:.460 )4, 68. .?2-;:.46
)4, >.8-3+.( )((-<4., 6* 1*2/ 24-6.
SURVIVAL KITS
19
B%. T8. .4>-/*4:.46 -( 68. A.1 6* 68. 61;.( *7 -6.:( 1*2 9-++ 4.., -4 1*2/
(2/>->)+ A-6. H*9 :238 .?2-;:.46 1*2 ;26 -4 1*2/ A-6 ,.;.4,( *4 8*9 1*2 9-++
3)//1 68. A-6. A A-6 3)//-., *4 1*2/ 5*,1 9-++ 8)>. 6* 5. (:)++./ 68)4 *4.
3)//-., -4 ) >.8-3+.. A+9)1( +)1./ 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6@5*,10 +*),B5.)/-4< >.(6 */
.?2-;:.460 )4, ;+)67*/: C/23A()3A0 >.8-3+.0 */ )-/3/)76D. K..; 68. :*(6
-:;*/6)46 -6.:( *4 1*2/ 5*,1. F*/ .=):;+.0 1*2/ :); )4, 3*:;)(( (8*2+,
)+9)1( 5. *4 1*2/ 5*,10 )( (8*2+, 1*2/ 5)(-3 +-7.B(2(6)-4-4< -6.:( CA4-7.0
+-<86./D. C)//1 +.(( -:;*/6)46 -6.:( *4 1*2/ LBE. P+)3. 52+A1 -6.:( -4 68.
/23A()3A.
B6. I4 ;/.;)/-4< 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-60 (.+.36 -6.:( 68)6 )/. :2+6-;2/;*(.0
3*:;)360 +-<869.-<860 ,2/)5+.0 )4, :*(6 -:;*/6)46+10 72436-*4)+. A4 -6.: -( 4*6
<**, -7 -6 +**A( </.)6 526 ,*.(4H6 ,* 98)6 -6 9)( ,.(-<4., 7*/. I6.:( (8*2+,
3*:;+.:.46 .)38 *68./ 7/*: +)1./ 6* +)1./. A (-<4)+ :-//*/ -4 1*2/ ;*3A.6 3)4
5. 5)3A., 2; 51 ;.4 7+)/.( -4 1*2/ LBE )4, ) (-<4)+ ;)4.+ -4 1*2/ /23A()3A.
A +-<86./ -4 1*2/ 24-7*/: 3)4 5. )2<:.46., 51 ) :)<4.(-2: 5)/ -4 1*2/ LBE
)4, ),,-6-*4)+ ,/1 6-4,./ -4 1*2/ /23A()3A.
B7. Y*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6 4.., 4*6 5. .+)5*/)6.. Y*2 4.., *4+1 72436-*4)+ -6.:(
68)6 9-++ :..6 1*2/ 4..,( )4, ) 3)(. 6* 8*+, 68. -6.:(. F*/ 68. 3)(.0 1*2
:-<86 9)46 6* 2(. ) 5)4,)<. 5*=0 (*); ,-(80 6*5)33* 6-40 7-/(6 )-, 3)(.0
)::24-6-*4 ;*2380 */ )4*68./ (2-6)5+. 3)(.. T8-( 3)(. (8*2+, 5.@
I !)6./B/.;.++.46 */ 9)6./;/**7.
I E)(1 6* 3)//1 */ )66)38 6* 1*2/ 5*,1.
I S2-6)5+. 6* )33.;6 >)/-*2(B(-G., 3*:;*4.46(.
I D2/)5+..
B$. Y*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6 (8*2+, 5. 5/*A.4 ,*94 -46* 68. 7*++*9-4< 3)6.<*/-.(E
I !)6./.
I F-/..
I S8.+6./.
I F**,.
I M.,-3)+.
I S-<4)+.
I M-(3.++)4.*2(.
B9. E)38 3)6.<*/1 (8*2+, 3*46)-4 -6.:( 68)6 )++*9 1*2 6* (2(6)-4 1*2/ 5)(-3
4..,(. F*/ .=):;+.0 9)6./@ 1*2 (8*2+, 8)>. -6.:( 68)6 )++*9 1*2 6* (3**;
2;0 ,/)9 2;0 (*)A 2;0 */ (23A 2; 9)6./M (*:.68-4< 6* <)68./ /)-49)6./0
3*4,.4()6-*40 */ ;./(;-/)6-*4M (*:.68-4< 6* 6/)4(;*/6 9)6./M )4, (*:.68-4< 6*
;2/-71 */ 7-+6./ 9)6./. S*:. .=):;+.( *7 .)38 3)6.<*/1 )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I !)6./@;2/-7-3)6-*4 6)5+.6(0 4*4B+25/-3)6., 3*4,*:( 7*/ 3)//1-4< 9)6./0
5+.)380 ;*>-,*4.B-*,-4. ,/*;(0 3/)>)6(0 (;*4<.(0 (:)++ ;+)(6-3 */ /255./
625-4<0 3*++);(-5+. 3)46..4( */ 9)6./ 5)<(.
I F-/.@+-<86./0 :.6)+ :)6380 9)6./;/**7 :)638.(0 :)<4.(-2: 5)/0 3)4,+.0
:)<4-71-4< +.4(. I S8.+6./@%%" ;)/)3826. 3*/,0 +)/<. A4-7.0 :)38.6. */
8)638.60 ;*438*0 (;)3. 5+)4A.60 8)::*3A0 :*(?2-6* 4.60 9-/. ()9.
20
I F**,@A4-7.0 (4)/. 9-/.0 7-(88**A(0 7-(8 )4, (4)/. +-4.0 5*2-++*4 325.( */
(*2; ;)3A.6(0 8-<8 .4./<1 7**, 5)/(0 </)4*+) 5)/(0 <-++ */ 1.6- 4.60 )+2:-42:
7*-+0 7/..G./ 5)<(.
I M.,-3)+@*=16.6/)313+-4. 6)5+.6( C6* 6/.)6 ,-)//8.) */ -47.36-*4D0 (2/<-3)+
5+),.( */ (2/<-3)+ ;/.;)/)6-*4 A4-7.0 5266./7+1 (262/.(0 +-; 5)+:0 ()7.61 ;-4(0
(262/.(0 )46-,-)//8.)+ :.,-3)6-*4 C-:*,-2:D0 )46-:)+)/-)+ :.,-3)6-*4
C,*=1313+-4.D0 5/*),B(;.36/2: )46-5-*6-3( C/*3.;8-4 )4, G-68/*:)=D )4, 5/*),
(;.36/2: 6*;-3)+ *;868)+:-3 C.1.D )46-5-*6-30 )46-724<)+0 )46-B-47+)::)6*/1
C-52;/*7.4D0 ;.6/*+)62: <)2G.0 )4, (*);. M.,-3)+ -6.:( :)1 :)A. 2;
);;/*=-:)6.+1 %" ;./3.46 *7 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6.
I S-<4)+@(-<4)+-4< :-//*/0 (6/*5.0 ;.4 7+)/.(0 98-(6+.0 U.S. 7+)<0 ;-+*6 (3)/7 */
*68./ 5/-<86 */)4<. (-+A (3)/70 <+-46 6);.0 7+)(8+-<860 +)(./ ;*-46./0 (*+)/ 5+)4A.6.
I M-(3.++)4.*2(@9/-(6 3*:;)((0 4..,+. )4, 68/.),0 :*4.10 .=6/)
.1.<+)((.(0 A4-7. (8)/;.4./0 3*/A0 3):*27+)<. (6-3A0 )4, (2/>->)+ :)42)+.
B1". I43+2,. ) 9.);*4 *4+1 -7 68. (-62)6-*4 (* ,-36)6.(. A:5)((),*/( )4,
68.)6./ 3*::)4,./( :)1 ;/*8-5-6 9.);*4( .>.4 -4 .=6/.:. 3-/32:(6)43.(.
R.), )4, ;/)36-3. 68. (2/>->)+ 6.384-?2.( -4 68-( :)42)+ )4, );;+1 68.(.
5)(-3 3*43.;6( 6* 68*(. 1*2 /.), )5*26 -4 *68./ 3->-+-)4 ;25+-3)6-*4(.
C*4(-,./ 1*2/ :-((-*4 )4, 68. .4>-/*4:.46 -4 98-38 1*2 9-++ *;./)6.. T8.4
;/.;)/. 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6 9-68 -6.:( 68)6 )/. ,2/)5+.0 :2+6-;2/;*(.0 )4,
+-<869.-<86. I:)<-4)6-*4 :)1 5. 68. +)/<.(6 ;)/6 *7 1*2/ A-6. I6 3)4 /.;+)3.
:)41 *7 68. -6.:( -4 ) A-6. C*:5-4., 9-68 68. 9-++ 6* +->.0 -6 3)4 :.)4 68.
,-77./.43. 5.69..4 (2/>->-4< 6* /.62/4 8*:. 9-68 8*4*/ */ 4*6 /.62/4-4< )6 )++.
CHAPTER !.
B-:4. S3*B4B-< M+24.4/+.
F*/.:*(6 ):*4< 68. :)41 ;/*5+.:( 68)6 3)4 3*:;/*:-(. 1*2/ (2/>->)+
)5-+-61 )/. :.,-3)+ ;/*5+.:( /.(2+6-4< 7/*: 24;+)44., .>.46(0 (238 )( )
7*/3., +)4,-4< */ 3/)(80 .=6/.:. 3+-:)6.(0 </*24, 3*:5)60 .>)(-*40 )4,
-++4.((.( 3*46/)36., -4 3);6->-61.
M)41 .>),./( )4, (2/>->*/( 8)>. /.;*/6., ,-77-32+61 -4 6/.)6-4< -4F2/-.( )4,
-++4.(( ,2. 6* 68. +)3A *7 6/)-4-4< )4, :.,-3)+ (2;;+-.(. F*/ (*:.0 68-( +., 6*
3);62/. */ (2//.4,./.
S2/>->*/( 8)>. /.+)6., 7..+-4<( *7 );)681 )4, 8.+;+.((4.(( 5.3)2(. 68.1
3*2+, 4*6 6/.)6 68.:(.+>.( -4 68-( .4>-/*4:.46. T8. )5-+-61 6* 6/.)6 1*2/(.+7
-43/.)(.( 1*2/ :*/)+. )4, )-,( -4 1*2/ (2/>->)+ )4, .>.462)+ /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1
7*/3.(.
O4. :)4 9-68 ) 7)-/ ):*246 *7 5)(-3 :.,-3)+ A4*9+.,<. 3)4 :)A. )
,-77./.43. -4 68. +->.( *7 :)41. !-68*26 ?2)+-7-., :.,-3)+ ;./(*44.+ )>)-+)5+.0
-6 -( 1*2 98* :2(6 A4*9 98)6 6* ,* 6* (6)1 )+->..
21
RE'UIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH
4B1. T* (2/>->.0 1*2 4.., 9)6./ )4, 7**,. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* 8)>. )4, );;+1
8-<8 ;./(*4)+ 81<-.4. (6)4,)/,(.
$ATER
4B2. Y*2/ 5*,1 +*(.( 9)6./ 68/*2<8 4*/:)+ 5*,1 ;/*3.((.( C(9.)6-4<0
2/-4)6-4<0 )4, ,.7.3)6-4<D. D2/-4< )>./)<. ,)-+1 .=./6-*4 98.4 68.
)6:*(;8./-3 6.:;./)62/. -( 2" ,.</..( C.+(-2( CCD C6$ ,.</..( F)8/.48.-6
PFQD0 68. )>./)<. ),2+6 +*(.( )4, 68./.7*/. /.?2-/.( 2 6* +-6./( *7 9)6./ ,)-+1.
O68./ 7)36*/(0 (238 )( 8.)6 .=;*(2/.0 3*+, .=;*(2/.0 -46.4(. )36->-610 8-<8
)+6-62,.0 52/4(0 */ -++4.((0 3)4 3)2(. 1*2/ 5*,1 6* +*(. :*/. 9)6./. Y*2 :2(6
/.;+)3. 68-( 9)6./.
4B. D.81,/)6-*4 /.(2+6( 7/*: -4),.?2)6. /.;+)3.:.46 *7 +*(6 5*,1 7+2-,(. I6
,.3/.)(.( 1*2/ .77-3-.431 )4,0 -7 1*2 )/. -4F2/.,0 -6 -43/.)(.( 1*2/
(2(3.;6-5-+-61 6* (.>./. (8*3A. C*4(-,./ 68. 7*++*9-4< /.(2+6( *7 5*,1 7+2-,
+*((E
I A %B;./3.46 +*(( /.(2+6( -4 68-/(60 -//-6)5-+-610 4)2(.)0 )4, 9.)A4.((.
I A 1"B;./3.46 +*(( /.(2+6( -4 ,-GG-4.((0 8.),)38.0 -4)5-+-61 6* 9)+A0 )4, )
6-4<+-4< (.4()6-*4 -4 68. +-:5(.
I A 1%B;./3.46 +*(( /.(2+6( -4 ,-: >-(-*40 ;)-472+ 2/-4)6-*40 (9*++.4 6*4<2.0
,.)74.((0 )4, ) 42:5 7..+-4< -4 68. (A-4.
I A +*(( </.)6./ 68)4 1% ;./3.46 :)1 /.(2+6 -4 ,.)68.
4B4. T8. :*(6 3*::*4 (-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( *7 ,.81,/)6-*4 )/.@
I D)/A 2/-4. 9-68 ) >./1 (6/*4< *,*/.
I L*9 2/-4. *26;26.
I D)/A0 (24A.4 .1.(.
I F)6-<2..
I E:*6-*4)+ -4(6)5-+-61.
I L*(( *7 (A-4 .+)(6-3-61.
I D.+)1., 3);-++)/1 /.7-++ -4 7-4<./4)-+ 5.,(.
I T/.438 +-4. ,*94 3.46./ *7 6*4<2..
I T8-/(6. CL)(6 *4 68. +-(6 5.3)2(. 1*2 )/. )+/.),1 2B;./3.46 ,.81,/)6., 51
68. 6-:. 1*2 3/)>. 7+2-,(.D
4B%. Y*2 (8*2+, /.;+)3. 68. 9)6./ )( 1*2 +*(. -6. T/1-4< 6* :)A. 2; ) ,.7-3-6
-( ,-77-32+6 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 )4, 68-/(6 -( 4*6 ) (-<4 *7 8*9 :238 9)6./ 1*2
4..,.
4B6. M*(6 ;.*;+. 3)44*6 3*:7*/6)5+1 ,/-4A :*/. 68)4 1 +-6./ *7 9)6./ )6 )
6-:.. S*0 .>.4 98.4 4*6 68-/(610 ,/-4A (:)++ ):*246( *7 9)6./ )6 /.<2+)/
-46./>)+( .)38 8*2/ 6* ;/.>.46 ,.81,/)6-*4.
4B7. I7 1*2 )/. 24,./ ;81(-3)+ )4, :.46)+ (6/.(( */ (25F.36 6* (.>./.
3*4,-6-*4(0 -43/.)(. 1*2/ 9)6./ -46)A.. D/-4A .4*2<8 +-?2-,( 6* :)-46)-4 )
2/-4. *26;26 *7 )6 +.)(6 ".% +-6./( .>./1 24 8*2/(.
22
4B$. I4 )41 (-62)6-*4 98./. 7**, -46)A. -( +*90 ,/-4A 6 6* $ +-6./( *7 9)6./ ;./
,)1. I4 )4 .=6/.:. 3+-:)6.0 .(;.3-)++1 )4 )/-, *4.0 68. )>./)<. ;./(*4 3)4
+*(. 2.% 6* .% +-6./( *7 9)6./ 7+* 813*. I4 68-( 61;. *7 3+-:)6.0 1*2 (8*2+,
,/-4A $ 6* 12 *243.( *7 9)6./ .>./1 " :-426.(. I6 -( 5.66./ 6* /.<2+)6. 9)6./
+*(( 68/*2<8 9*/A */ /.(6 313+.( 5.3)2(. *>./ 81,/)6-*4 3)4 *332/ -7 9)6./
-46)A. .=3.., 1 1R2 ?2)/6( ;./ 8*2/. O>./ 81,/)6-*4 3)4 3)2(. +*9 (./2:
(*,-2: +.>.+( /.(2+6-4< -4 3./.5/)+ )4, ;2+:*4)/1 .,.:)0 98-38 3)4 +.), 6*
,.)68.
4B9. !-68 68. +*(( *7 9)6./ 68./. -( )+(* ) +*(( *7 .+.36/*+16.( C5*,1 ()+6(D.
T8. )>./)<. ,-.6 3)4 2(2)++1 A..; 2; 9-68 68.(. +*((.( 526 -4 )4 .=6/.:.
(-62)6-*4 */ -++4.((0 ),,-6-*4)+ (*2/3.( 4.., 6* 5. ;/*>-,.,. Y*2 (8*2+,
:)-46)-4 )4 -46)A. *7 3)/5*81,/)6.( )4, *68./ 4.3.(()/1 .+.36/*+16.(.
4B1". O7 )++ 68. ;81(-3)+ ;/*5+.:( .43*246./., -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 68. +*((
*7 9)6./ -( 68. :*(6 ;/.>.46)5+.. T8. 7*++*9-4< )/. 5)(-3 <2-,.+-4.( 7*/ 68.
;/.>.46-*4 *7 ,.81,/)6-*4E
I Always drink water when eating. !)6./ -( 2(., )4, 3*4(2:., )( ) ;)/6 *7
68. ,-<.(6-*4 ;/*3.(( )4, 3)4 +.), 6* ,.81,/)6-*4.
I Acclimatize. T8. 5*,1 ;./7*/:( :*/. .77-3-.46+1 -4 .=6/.:. 3*4,-6-*4( 98.4
)33+-:)6-G.,.
I Conserve sweat, not water. L-:-6 (9.)6B;/*,23-4< )36->-6-.( 526 ,/-4A 9)6./.
I Ration water. U46-+ 1*2 7-4, ) (2-6)5+. (*2/3.0 /)6-*4 1*2/ (9.)60 4*6 1*2/
9)6./. L-:-6 )36->-61 )4, 8.)6 <)-4 */ +*((.
4B11. Y*2 3)4 .(6-:)6. 7+2-, +*(( 51 (.>./)+ :.)4(. A 7-.+, ,/.((-4< 8*+,(
)5*26 ".2% +-6./( C1R4 3)46..4D *7 7+2-,. A (*)A., TB(8-/6 8*+,( ".% 6* ".7%
+-6./(.
4B12. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 68. ;2+(. )4, 5/.)68-4< /)6. 6* .(6-:)6. 7+2-, +*((.
U(. 68. 7*++*9-4< )( ) <2-,.E
I !-68 ) ".7%B+-6./ +*(( 68. 9/-(6 ;2+(. /)6. 9-++ 5. 24,./ 1"" 5.)6( ;./ :-426.
)4, 68. 5/.)68-4< /)6. 12 6* 2" 5/.)68( ;./ :-426..
I !-68 ) ".7%B 6* 1.%B+-6./ +*(( 68. ;2+(. /)6. 9-++ 5. 1"" 6* 12" 5.)6( ;./
:-426. )4, 2" 6* " 5/.)68( ;./ :-426..
I !-68 ) 1.%B 6* 2B+-6./ +*(( 68. ;2+(. /)6. 9-++ 5. 12" 6* 14" 5.)6( ;./ :-426.
)4, " 6* 4" 5/.)68( ;./ :-426.. V-6)+ (-<4( )5*>. 68.(. /)6.( /.?2-/. :*/.
),>)43., 3)/..
FOOD
4B1. A+68*2<8 1*2 3)4 +->. (.>./)+ 9..A( 9-68*26 7**,0 1*2 4.., )4
),.?2)6. ):*246 6* (6)1 8.)+681. !-68*26 7**, 1*2/ :.46)+ )4, ;81(-3)+
3);)5-+-6-.( 9-++ ,.6./-*/)6. /);-,+1 )4, 1*2 9-++ 5.3*:. 9.)A. F**, ;/*>-,.(
.4./<1 )4, /.;+.4-(8.( 68. (25(6)43.( 68)6 1*2/ 5*,1 52/4(. F**, ;/*>-,.(
>-6):-4(0 :-4./)+(0 ()+6(0 )4, *68./ .+.:.46( .((.46-)+ 6* <**, 8.)+68.
P*((-5+1 :*/. -:;*/6)460 -6 8.+;( :*/)+..
23
4B14. T8. 68/.. 5)(-3 (*2/3.( *7 7**, )/. ;+)46(0 )4-:)+( C-43+2,-4< 7-(8D0 )4,
-((2., /)6-*4(. I4 >)/1-4< ,.</..(0 5*68 ;/*>-,. 68. 3)+*/-.(0 3)/5*81,/)6.(0
7)6(0 )4, ;/*6.-4( 4..,., 7*/ 4*/:)+ ,)-+1 5*,1 72436-*4(. Y*2 (8*2+, 2(.
/)6-*4( 6* )2<:.46 ;+)46 )4, )4-:)+ 7**,(0 98-38 9-++ .=6.4, )4, 8.+;
:)-46)-4 ) 5)+)43., ,-.6.
4B1%. C)+*/-.( )/. ) :.)(2/. *7 8.)6 )4, ;*6.46-)+ .4./<1. T8. )>./)<.
;./(*4 4..,( 20""" 3)+*/-.( ;./ ,)1 6* 72436-*4 )6 ) :-4-:2: +.>.+. A4
),.?2)6. ):*246 *7 3)/5*81,/)6.(0 7)6(0 )4, ;/*6.-4( 9-68*26 )4 ),.?2)6.
3)+*/-3 -46)A. 9-++ +.), 6* (6)/>)6-*4 )4, 3)44-5)+-(: *7 68. 5*,1H( *94 6-((2.
7*/ .4./<1.
P<-/0:
4B16. P+)46 7**,( ;/*>-,. 3)/5*81,/)6.(@68. :)-4 (*2/3. *7 .4./<1. M)41
;+)46( ;/*>-,. .4*2<8 ;/*6.-4 6* A..; 68. 5*,1 )6 4*/:)+ .77-3-.431. A+68*2<8
;+)46( :)1 4*6 ;/*>-,. ) 5)+)43., ,-.60 68.1 9-++ (2(6)-4 1*2 .>.4 -4 68.
)/36-30 98./. :.)6H( 8.)6B;/*,23-4< ?2)+-6-.( )/. 4*/:)++1 .((.46-)+. M)41
;+)46 7**,( (238 )( 426( )4, (..,( 9-++ <->. 1*2 .4*2<8 ;/*6.-4 )4, *-+( 7*/
4*/:)+ .77-3-.431. R**6(0 </..4 >.<.6)5+.(0 )4, ;+)46 7**,( 3*46)-4-4<
4)62/)+ (2<)/ 9-++ ;/*>-,. 3)+*/-.( )4, 3)/5*81,/)6.( 68)6 <->. 68. 5*,1
4)62/)+ .4./<1.
4B17. T8. 7**, >)+2. *7 ;+)46( 5.3*:.( :*/. )4, :*/. -:;*/6)46 -7 1*2 )/.
.+2,-4< 68. .4.:1 */ -7 1*2 )/. -4 )4 )/.) 98./. 9-+,+-7. -( (3)/3.. F*/
-4(6)43.@
I Y*2 3)4 ,/1 ;+)46( 51 9-4,0 )-/0 (240 */ 7-/.. T8-( /.6)/,( (;*-+)<. (* 68)6
1*2 3)4 (6*/. */ 3)//1 68. ;+)46 7**, 9-68 1*2 6* 2(. 98.4 4..,.,.
I Y*2 3)4 *56)-4 ;+)46( :*/. .)(-+1 )4, :*/. ?2-.6+1 68)4 :.)6. T8-( -(
.=6/.:.+1 -:;*/6)46 98.4 68. .4.:1 -( 4.)/.
A/4>-<:
4B1$. M.)6 -( :*/. 4*2/-(8-4< 68)4 ;+)46 7**,. I4 7)360 -6 :)1 .>.4 5. :*/.
/.),-+1 )>)-+)5+. -4 (*:. ;+)3.(. H*9.>./0 6* <.6 :.)60 1*2 4.., 6* A4*9 68.
8)5-6( *7 )4, 8*9 6* 3);62/. 68. >)/-*2( 9-+,+-7..
4B19. T* ()6-(71 1*2/ -::.,-)6. 7**, 4..,(0 7-/(6 (..A 68. :*/. )524,)46
)4, :*/. .)(-+1 *56)-4., 9-+,+-7.0 (238 )( -4(.36(0 3/2(6)3.)4(0 :*++2(A(0
7-(80 )4, /.;6-+.(. T8.(. 3)4 ()6-(71 1*2/ -::.,-)6. 824<./ 98-+. 1*2 )/.
;/.;)/-4< 6/);( )4, (4)/.( 7*/ +)/<./ <):..
PERSONAL HYGIENE
4B2". I4 )41 (-62)6-*40 3+.)4+-4.(( -( )4 -:;*/6)46 7)36*/ -4 ;/.>.46-4<
-47.36-*4 )4, ,-(.)(.. I6 5.3*:.( .>.4 :*/. -:;*/6)46 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
P**/ 81<-.4. 3)4 /.,23. 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+.
24
4B21. A ,)-+1 (8*9./ 9-68 8*6 9)6./ )4, (*); -( -,.)+0 526 1*2 3)4 (6)1 3+.)4
9-68*26 68-( +2=2/1. U(. ) 3+*68 )4, (*);1 9)6./ 6* 9)(8 1*2/(.+7. P)1
(;.3-)+ )66.46-*4 6* 68. 7..60 )/:;-6(0 3/*6380 8)4,(0 )4, 8)-/ )( 68.(. )/.
;/-:. )/.)( 7*/ -47.(6)6-*4 )4, -47.36-*4. I7 9)6./ -( (3)/3.0 6)A. )4 J)-/K 5)68.
R.:*>. )( :238 *7 1*2/ 3+*68-4< )( ;/)36-3)+ )4, .=;*(. 1*2/ 5*,1 6* 68.
(24 )4, )-/ 7*/ )6 +.)(6 1 8*2/. B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* (2452/4.
4B22. I7 1*2 ,*4H6 8)>. (*);0 2(. )(8.( */ ()4,0 */ :)A. (*); 7/*: )4-:)+
7)6 )4, 9**, )(8.( -7 1*2/ (-62)6-*4 )++*9(. T* :)A. (*);@
I E=6/)36 </.)(. 7/*: )4-:)+ 7)6 51 3266-4< 68. 7)6 -46* (:)++ ;-.3.( )4,
3**A-4< -6 -4 ) ;*6.
I A,, .4*2<8 9)6./ 6* 68. ;*6 6* A..; 68. 7)6 7/*: (6-3A-4< )( -6 3**A(.
I C**A 68. 7)6 (+*9+10 (6-//-4< 7/.?2.46+1.
I A76./ 68. 7)6 -( /.4,./.,0 ;*2/ 68. </.)(. -46* ) 3*46)-4./ 6* 8)/,.4.
I P+)3. )(8.( -4 ) 3*46)-4./ 9-68 ) (;*26 4.)/ 68. 5*66*:.
I P*2/ 9)6./ *>./ 68. )(8.( )4, 3*++.36 68. +-?2-, 68)6 ,/-;( *26 *7 68. (;*26 -4
) (.;)/)6. 3*46)-4./. T8-( +-?2-, -( 68. ;*6)(8 */ +1..
4B2. A4*68./ 9)1 6* <.6 68. +1. -( 6* ;*2/ 68. (+2//1 C68. :-=62/. *7 )(8.(
)4, 9)6./D 68/*2<8 ) (6/)-4-4< 3+*68.
I I4 ) 3**A-4< ;*60 :-= 69* ;)/6( </.)(. 6* *4. ;)/6 +1..
I P+)3. 68-( :-=62/. *>./ ) 7-/. )4, 5*-+ -6 246-+ -6 68-3A.4(.
A76./ 68. :-=62/. C68. (*);D 3**+(0 1*2 3)4 2(. -6 -4 68. (.:- +-?2-, (6)6.
,-/.36+1 7/*: 68. ;*6. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;*2/ -6 -46* ) ;)40 )++*9 -6 6* 8)/,.40 )4,
326 -6 -46* 5)/( 7*/ +)6./ 2(..
K++7 Y13* H-/2: C<+-/
4B24. G./:( *4 1*2/ 8)4,( 3)4 -47.36 7**, )4, 9*24,(. !)(8 1*2/ 8)4,(
)76./ 8)4,+-4< )41 :)6./-)+ 68)6 -( +-A.+1 6* 3)//1 <./:(0 )76./ 2/-4)6-4< */
,.7.3)6-4<0 )76./ 3)/-4< 7*/ 68. (-3A0 )4, 5.7*/. 8)4,+-4< )41 7**,0 7**,
26.4(-+(0 */ ,/-4A-4< 9)6./. K..; 1*2/ 7-4<./4)-+( 3+*(.+1 6/-::., )4, 3+.)40
)4, A..; 1*2/ 7-4<./( *26 *7 1*2/ :*268.
K++7 Y13* H-4* C<+-/
4B2%. Y*2/ 8)-/ 3)4 5.3*:. ) 8)>.4 7*/ 5)36./-) */ 7+.)(0 +-3.0 )4, *68./
;)/)(-6.(. K..;-4< 1*2/ 8)-/ 3+.)40 3*:5.,0 )4, 6/-::., 8.+;( 1*2 )>*-,
68-( ,)4<./.
K++7 Y13* C<1084/9 C<+-/
4B26. K..; 1*2/ 3+*68-4< )4, 5.,,-4< )( 3+.)4 )( ;*((-5+. 6* /.,23. 68.
38)43.( *7 (A-4 -47.36-*4 */ ;)/)(-6-3 -47.(6)6-*4. C+.)4 1*2/ *26./ 3+*68-4<
98.4.>./ -6 5.3*:.( (*-+.,. !.)/ 3+.)4 24,./3+*68-4< )4, (*3A( .)38 ,)1.
I7 9)6./ -( (3)/3.0 J)-/K 3+.)4 1*2/ 3+*68-4< 51 (8)A-4<0 )-/-4<0 )4, (244-4< -6
25
7*/ 2 8*2/(. I7 1*2 )/. 2(-4< ) (+..;-4< 5)<0 62/4 -6 -4(-,. *26 )76./ .)38 2(.0
7+277 -60 )4, )-/ -6.
K++7 Y13* T++08 C<+-/
4B27. T8*/*2<8+1 3+.)4 1*2/ :*268 )4, 6..68 9-68 ) 6**685/2(8 )6 +.)(6 *43.
.)38 ,)1. I7 1*2 ,*4H6 8)>. ) 6**685/2(80 :)A. ) 38.9-4< (6-3A. F-4, ) 69-<
)5*26 2" 3.46-:.6./( C3:D C$ -438.(D +*4< )4, 1 3.46-:.6./ C1R -438D 9-,..
C8.9 *4. .4, *7 68. (6-3A 6* (.;)/)6. 68. 7-5./(. T8.4 5/2(8 1*2/ 6..68
68*/*2<8+1. A4*68./ 9)1 -( 6* 9/); ) 3+.)4 (6/-; *7 3+*68 )/*24, 1*2/ 7-4<./(
)4, /25 1*2/ 6..68 9-68 -6 6* 9-;. )9)1 7**, ;)/6-3+.(. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 5/2(8
1*2/ 6..68 9-68 (:)++ ):*246( *7 ()4,0 5)A-4< (*,)0 ()+60 */ (*);. R-4(. 1*2/
:*268 9-68 9)6./0 ()+6 9)6./0 */ 9-++*9 5)/A 6.). A+(*0 7+*((-4< 1*2/ 6..68 9-68
(6/-4< */ 7-5./ 8.+;( */)+ 81<-.4..
4B2$. I7 1*2 8)>. 3)>-6-.(0 1*2 3)4 :)A. 6.:;*/)/1 7-++-4<( 51 ;+)3-4< 3)4,+.
9)=0 6*5)33*0 8*6 ;.;;./0 6**68;)(6. */ ;*9,./0 */ ;*/6-*4( *7 ) <-4<.//**6
-46* 68. 3)>-61. M)A. (2/. 1*2 3+.)4 68. 3)>-61 51 /-4(-4< */ ;-3A-4< 68.
;)/6-3+.( *26 *7 68. 3)>-61 5.7*/. ;+)3-4< ) 7-++-4< -4 68. 3)>-61.
T-?+ C-*+ 1, Y13* F++0
4B29. T* ;/.>.46 (./-*2( 7**6 ;/*5+.:(0 5/.)A -4 1*2/ (8*.( 5.7*/. 9.)/-4<
68.: *4 )41 :-((-*4. !)(8 )4, :)(()<. 1*2/ 7..6 ,)-+1. T/-: 1*2/ 6*.4)-+(
(6/)-<86 )3/*((. !.)/ )4 -4(*+. )4, 68. ;/*;./ (-G. *7 ,/1 (*3A(. P*9,./
)4, 38.3A 1*2/ 7..6 ,)-+1 7*/ 5+-(6./(.
4B". I7 1*2 <.6 ) (:)++ 5+-(6./0 ,* 4*6 *;.4 -6. A4 -46)36 5+-(6./ -( ()7. 7/*:
-47.36-*4. A;;+1 ) ;),,-4< :)6./-)+ )/*24, 68. 5+-(6./ 6* /.+-.>. ;/.((2/. )4,
/.,23. 7/-36-*4. I7 68. 5+-(6./ 52/(6(0 6/.)6 -6 )( )4 *;.4 9*24,. C+.)4 )4,
,/.(( -6 ,)-+1 )4, ;), )/*24, -6. L.)>. +)/<. 5+-(6./( -46)36. T* )>*-, 8)>-4<
68. 5+-(6./ 52/(6 */ 6.)/ 24,./ ;/.((2/. )4, 3)2(. ) ;)-472+ )4, *;.4 (*/.0 ,*
68. 7*++*9-4<E
I O56)-4 ) (.9-4<B61;. 4..,+. )4, ) 3+.)4 */ (6./-+-G., 68/.),.
I R24 68. 4..,+. )4, 68/.), 68/*2<8 68. 5+-(6./ )76./ 3+.)4-4< 68. 5+-(6./.
I D.6)38 68. 4..,+. )4, +.)>. 5*68 .4,( *7 68. 68/.), 8)4<-4< *26 *7 68.
5+-(6./. T8. 68/.), 9-++ )5(*/5 68. +-?2-, -4(-,.. T8-( /.,23.( 68. (-G. *7 68.
8*+. )4, .4(2/.( 68)6 68. 8*+. ,*.( 4*6 3+*(. 2;.
I P), )/*24, 68. 5+-(6./.
G+0 S3,,4.4+/0 R+:0
4B1. Y*2 4.., ) 3./6)-4 ):*246 *7 /.(6 6* A..; <*-4<. P+)4 7*/ /.<2+)/ /.(6
;./-*,( *7 )6 +.)(6 1" :-426.( ;./ 8*2/ ,2/-4< 1*2/ ,)-+1 )36->-6-.(. L.)/4 6*
:)A. 1*2/(.+7 3*:7*/6)5+. 24,./ +.((B68)4B-,.)+ 3*4,-6-*4(. A 38)4<. 7/*:
:.46)+ 6* ;81(-3)+ )36->-61 */ >-3. >./() 3)4 5. /.7/.(8-4< 98.4 6-:. */
(-62)6-*4 ,*.( 4*6 ;./:-6 6*6)+ /.+)=)6-*4.
K++7 C->7:40+ C<+-/
26
4B2. D* 4*6 (*-+ 68. </*24, -4 68. 3):;(-6. )/.) 9-68 2/-4. */ 7.3.(. U(.
+)6/-4.(0 -7 )>)-+)5+.. !8.4 +)6/-4.( )/. 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 ,-< J3)6 8*+.(K )4,
3*>./ 68. 9)(6.. C*++.36 ,/-4A-4< 9)6./ 2;(6/.): 7/*: 68. 3):;(-6.. P2/-71
)++ 9)6./.
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
4B. M.,-3)+ ;/*5+.:( )4, .:./<.43-.( 1*2 :)1 7)3. -43+2,. 5/.)68-4<
;/*5+.:(0 (.>./. 5+..,-4<0 )4, (8*3A. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( .=;+)-4
.)38 *7 68.(. ;/*5+.:( )4, 98)6 1*2 3)4 .=;.36 -7 68.1 *332/.
BREATHING PROBLEMS
4B4. A41 *4. *7 68. 7*++*9-4< 3)4 3)2(. )-/9)1 *5(6/236-*40 /.(2+6-4< -4
(6*;;., 5/.)68-4<E
I F*/.-<4 :)66./ -4 :*268 *7 68/*)6 68)6 *5(6/236( 68. *;.4-4< 6* 68. 6/)38.).
I F)3. */ 4.3A -4F2/-.(.
I I47+)::)6-*4 )4, (9.++-4< *7 :*268 )4, 68/*)6 3)2(., 51 -48)+-4< (:*A.0
7+):.(0 )4, -//-6)6-4< >);*/( */ 51 )4 )++./<-3 /.)36-*4.
I JK-4AK -4 68. 68/*)6 C3)2(., 51 68. 4.3A 5.46 7*/9)/, (* 68)6 68. 38-4 /.(6(
2;*4 68. 38.(6D.
I T*4<2. 5+*3A( ;)(()<. *7 )-/ 6* 68. +24<( 2;*4 243*4(3-*2(4.((. !8.4 )4
-4,->-,2)+ -( 243*4(3-*2(0 68. :2(3+.( *7 68. +*9./ F)9 )4, 6*4<2. /.+)= )(
68. 4.3A ,/*;( 7*/9)/,0 3)2(-4< 68. +*9./ F)9 6* ()< )4, 68. 6*4<2. 6* ,/*;
5)3A )4, 5+*3A 68. ;)(()<. *7 )-/.
SEVERE BLEEDING
4B%. S.>./. 5+..,-4< 7/*: )41 :)F*/ 5+**, >.((.+ -4 68. 5*,1 -( .=6/.:.+1
,)4<./*2(. T8. +*(( *7 1 +-6./ *7 5+**, 9-++ ;/*,23. :*,./)6. (1:;6*:( *7
(8*3A. T8. +*(( *7 2 +-6./( 9-++ ;/*,23. ) (.>./. (6)6. *7 (8*3A 68)6 ;+)3.( 68.
5*,1 -4 .=6/.:. ,)4<./. T8. +*(( *7 +-6./( -( 2(2)++1 7)6)+.
SHOCK
4B6. S8*3A C)326. (6/.(( /.)36-*4D -( 4*6 ) ,-(.)(. -4 -6(.+7. I6 -( ) 3+-4-3)+
3*4,-6-*4 38)/)36./-G., 51 (1:;6*:( 68)6 )/-(. 98.4 3)/,-)3 *26;26 -(
-4(277-3-.46 6* 7-++ 68. )/6./-.( 9-68 5+**, 24,./ .4*2<8 ;/.((2/. 6* ;/*>-,. )4
),.?2)6. 5+**, (2;;+1 6* 68. */<)4( )4, 6-((2.(.
LIFESAVING STEPS
4B7. C*46/*+ ;)4-30 5*68 1*2/ *94 )4, 68. >-36-:H(. R.)((2/. 8-: )4, 6/1 6*
A..; 8-: ?2-.6. P./7*/: ) /);-, ;81(-3)+ .=):. L**A 7*/ 68. 3)2(. *7 68.
-4F2/1 )4, 7*++*9 68. ABC( *7 7-/(6 )-,. S6)/6 9-68 68. )-/9)1 )4, 5/.)68-4<0 526
5. ,-(3./4-4<. I4 (*:. 3)(.(0 ) ;./(*4 :)1 ,-. 7/*: )/6./-)+ 5+..,-4< :*/.
?2-3A+1 68)4 7/*: )4 )-/9)1 *5(6/236-*4. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( ,.(3/-5.
8*9 6* 6/.)6 )-/9)10 5+..,-4<0 )4, (8*3A .:./<.43-.(.
27
OPEN AIR$AY AND MAINTAIN
4B$. Y*2 3)4 *;.4 )4 )-/9)1 )4, :)-46)-4 -6 51 2(-4< 68. 7*++*9-4< (6.;(E
I Step 1. Y*2 (8*2+, 38.3A 6* (.. -7 68. >-36-: 8)( ) ;)/6-)+ */ 3*:;+.6.
)-/9)1 *5(6/236-*4. I7 8. 3)4 3*2<8 */ (;.)A0 )++*9 8-: 6* 3+.)/ 68.
*5(6/236-*4 4)62/)++1. S6)4, 510 /.)((2/. 68. >-36-:0 )4, 5. /.),1 6* 3+.)/ 8-(
)-/9)1 )4, ;./7*/: :*268B6*B:*268 /.(2(3-6)6-*4 (8*2+, 8. 5.3*:.
243*4(3-*2(. I7 8-( )-/9)1 -( 3*:;+.6.+1 *5(6/236.,0 ),:-4-(6./ )5,*:-4)+
68/2(6( 246-+ 68. *5(6/236-*4 -( 3+.)/.,.
I Step 2. U(-4< ) 7-4<./0 ?2-3A+1 (9..; 68. >-36-:H( :*268 3+.)/ *7 )41 7*/.-<4
*5F.36(0 5/*A.4 6..680 ,.462/.(0 )4, ()4,.
I Step 3. U(-4< 68. F)9 68/2(6 :.68*,0 </)(; 68. )4<+.( *7 68. >-36-:H( +*9./
F)9 )4, +-76 9-68 5*68 8)4,(0 *4. *4 .)38 (-,.0 :*>-4< 68. F)9 7*/9)/,. F*/
(6)5-+-610 /.(6 1*2/ .+5*9( *4 68. (2/7)3. *4 98-38 68. >-36-: -( +1-4<. I7 8-( +-;(
)/. 3+*(.,0 <.46+1 *;.4 68. +*9./ +-; 9-68 1*2/ 682:5 CF-<2/. 4B1D.
F493*+ !C1. J-A T8*3:0 M+0812
I Step 4. !-68 68. >-36-:H( )-/9)1 *;.40 ;-438 8-( 4*(. 3+*(., 9-68 1*2/ 682:5
)4, 7*/.7-4<./ )4, 5+*9 69* 3*:;+.6. 5/.)68( -46* 8-( +24<(. A++*9 68. +24<(
6* ,.7+)6. )76./ 68. (.3*4, -47+)6-*4 )4, ;./7*/: 68. 7*++*9-4<E
S L11? 7*/ 8-( 38.(6 6* /-(. )4, 7)++.
S L4:0+/ 7*/ .(3);-4< )-/ ,2/-4< .=8)+)6-*4.
S F++< 7*/ 7+*9 *7 )-/ *4 1*2/ 38..A.
I Step . I7 68. 7*/3., 5/.)68( ,* 4*6 (6-:2+)6. (;*46)4.*2( 5/.)68-4<0
:)-46)-4 68. >-36-:H( 5/.)68-4< 51 ;./7*/:-4< :*268B6*B:*268 /.(2(3-6)6-*4.
I Step !. T8./. -( ,)4<./ *7 68. >-36-: >*:-6-4< ,2/-4< :*268B6*B:*268
/.(2(3-6)6-*4. C8.3A 68. >-36-:H( :*268 ;./-*,-3)++1 7*/ >*:-6 )4, 3+.)/ )(
4..,.,.
NOTE: C)/,-*;2+:*4)/1 /.(2(3-6)6-*4 CCPRD :)1 5. 4.3.(()/1 )76./
3+.)4-4< 68. )-/9)10 526 *4+1 )76./ :)F*/ 5+..,-4< -( 24,./ 3*46/*+. S.. FM
21B2"0 "hysical #itness $raining0 68. A:./-3)4 H.)/6 A((*3-)6-*4 :)42)+0 68.
R., C/*(( :)42)+0 */ :*(6 *68./ 7-/(6 )-, 5**A( 7*/ ,.6)-+., -4(6/236-*4( *4
CPR.
CONTROL BLEEDING
28
4B9. I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 :2(6 3*46/*+ (./-*2( 5+..,-4< -::.,-)6.+1
5.3)2(. /.;+)3.:.46 7+2-,( 4*/:)++1 )/. 4*6 )>)-+)5+. )4, 68. >-36-: 3)4 ,-.
9-68-4 ) :)66./ *7 :-426.(. E=6./4)+ 5+..,-4< 7)++( -46* 68. 7*++*9-4<
3+)((-7-3)6-*4( C)33*/,-4< 6* -6( (*2/3.DE
I Arterial. B+**, >.((.+( 3)++., )/6./-.( 3)//1 5+**, )9)1 7/*: 68. 8.)/6 )4,
68/*2<8 68. 5*,1. A 326 )/6./1 -((2.( %right red 5+**, 7/*: 68. 9*24, -4
distinct sp&rts or p&lses 68)6 3*//.(;*4, 6* 68. /8168: *7 68. 8.)/65.)6.
B.3)2(. 68. 5+**, -4 68. )/6./-.( -( 24,./ 8-<8 ;/.((2/.0 )4 -4,->-,2)+ 3)4
+*(. ) +)/<. >*+2:. *7 5+**, -4 ) (8*/6 ;./-*, 98.4 ,):)<. 6* )4 )/6./1 *7
(-<4-7-3)46 (-G. *332/(. T8./.7*/.0 )/6./-)+ 5+..,-4< -( 68. :*(6 (./-*2( 61;. *7
5+..,-4<. I7 4*6 3*46/*++., ;/*:;6+10 -6 3)4 5. 7)6)+.
I 'eno&s. V.4*2( 5+**, -( 5+**, 68)6 -( /.62/4-4< 6* 68. 8.)/6 68/*2<8 5+**,
>.((.+( 3)++., >.-4(. A (6.),1 7+*9 *7 dark red, maroon, or %l&ish %lood
38)/)36./-G.( 5+..,-4< 7/*: ) >.-4. Y*2 3)4 2(2)++1 3*46/*+ >.4*2( 5+..,-4<
:*/. .)(-+1 68)4 )/6./-)+ 5+..,-4<.
I Capillary. T8. 3);-++)/-.( )/. 68. .=6/.:.+1 (:)++ >.((.+( 68)6 3*44.36 68.
)/6./-.( 9-68 68. >.-4(. C);-++)/1 5+..,-4< :*(6 3*::*4+1 *332/( -4 :-4*/
326( )4, (3/);.(. T8-( 61;. *7 5+..,-4< -( 4*6 ,-77-32+6 6* 3*46/*+.
4B4". Y*2 3)4 3*46/*+ .=6./4)+ 5+..,-4< 51 ,-/.36 ;/.((2/.0 -4,-/.36 C;/.((2/.
;*-46(D ;/.((2/.0 .+.>)6-*40 ,-<-6)+ +-<)6-*40 */ 6*2/4-?2.6. E)38 :.68*, -(
.=;+)-4., 5.+*9.
D4*+.0 P*+::3*+
4B41. T8. :*(6 .77.36->. 9)1 6* 3*46/*+ .=6./4)+ 5+..,-4< -( 51 );;+1-4<
;/.((2/. ,-/.36+1 *>./ 68. 9*24,. T8-( ;/.((2/. :2(6 4*6 *4+1 5. 7-/: .4*2<8
6* (6*; 68. 5+..,-4<0 526 -6 :2(6 )+(* 5. :)-46)-4., +*4< .4*2<8 6* J(.)+ *77K
68. ,):)<., (2/7)3..
4B42. I7 5+..,-4< 3*46-42.( )76./ 8)>-4< );;+-., ,-/.36 ;/.((2/. 7*/ "
:-426.(0 );;+1 ) ;/.((2/. ,/.((-4<. T8-( ,/.((-4< 3*4(-(6( *7 ) 68-3A ,/.((-4<
*7 <)2G. */ *68./ (2-6)5+. :)6./-)+ );;+-., ,-/.36+1 *>./ 68. 9*24, )4, 8.+, -4
;+)3. 9-68 ) 6-<86+1 9/);;., 5)4,)<. CF-<2/. 4B2D. I6 (8*2+, 5. 6-<86./ 68)4
)4 */,-4)/1 3*:;/.((-*4 5)4,)<. 526 4*6 (* 6-<86 68)6 -6 -:;)-/( 3-/32+)6-*4 6*
68. /.(6 *7 68. +-:5. O43. 1*2 );;+1 68. ,/.((-4<0 21 /10 *+>1B+ 40& .>.4
98.4 68. ,/.((-4< 5.3*:.( 5+**, (*)A.,.
29
F493*+ !C2. A77<4.-041/ 1, - P*+::3*+ D*+::4/9
4B4. L.)>. 68. ;/.((2/. ,/.((-4< -4 ;+)3. 7*/ 1 */ 2 ,)1(0 )76./ 98-38 1*2
3)4 /.:*>. )4, /.;+)3. -6 9-68 ) (:)++./ ,/.((-4<. I4 68. +*4<B6./: (2/>->)+
.4>-/*4:.460 :)A. 7/.(80 ,)-+1 ,/.((-4< 38)4<.( )4, -4(;.36 7*/ (-<4( *7
-47.36-*4.
E<+B-041/
4B44. R)-(-4< )4 -4F2/., .=6/.:-61 )( 8-<8 )( ;*((-5+. )5*>. 68. 8.)/6H( +.>.+
(+*9( 5+**, +*(( 51 )-,-4< 68. /.62/4 *7 5+**, 6* 68. 8.)/6 )4, +*9./-4< 68.
5+**, ;/.((2/. )6 68. 9*24,. H*9.>./0 .+.>)6-*4 )+*4. 9-++ 4*6 3*46/*+
5+..,-4< .46-/.+1M 1*2 :2(6 )+(* );;+1 ,-/.36 ;/.((2/. *>./ 68. 9*24,. !8.4
6/.)6-4< ) (4)A.5-6.0 5. (2/. 6* A..; 68. .=6/.:-61 <1A+* 68)4 68. 8.)/6.
P*+::3*+ P14/0:
4B4%. A ;/.((2/. ;*-46 -( ) +*3)6-*4 98./. 68. :)-4 )/6./1 6* 68. 9*24, +-.(
4.)/ 68. (2/7)3. *7 68. (A-4 */ 98./. 68. )/6./1 ;)((.( ,-/.36+1 *>./ ) 5*41
;/*:-4.43. CF-<2/. 4BD. Y*2 3)4 2(. ,-<-6)+ ;/.((2/. *4 ) ;/.((2/. ;*-46 6*
(+*9 )/6./-)+ 5+..,-4< 246-+ 68. );;+-3)6-*4 *7 ) ;/.((2/. ,/.((-4<. P/.((2/.
;*-46 3*46/*+ -( 4*6 )( .77.36->. 7*/ 3*46/*++-4< 5+..,-4< )( ,-/.36 ;/.((2/.
30
.=./6., *4 68. 9*24,. I6 -( /)/. 98.4 ) (-4<+. :)F*/ 3*:;/.((-5+. )/6./1
(2;;+-.( ) ,):)<., >.((.+.
F493*+ !C3. P*+::3*+ P14/0:
4B46. I7 1*2 3)44*6 /.:.:5./ 68. .=)36 +*3)6-*4 *7 68. ;/.((2/. ;*-46(0 7*++*9
68-( /2+.E A;;+1 ;/.((2/. )6 68. .4, *7 68. F*-46 F2(6 )5*>. 68. -4F2/., )/.). O4
8)4,(0 7..60 )4, 8.),0 68-( 9-++ 5. 68. 9/-(60 )4A+.0 )4, 4.3A0 /.(;.36->.+1.
$ARNING
U(. 3)26-*4 98.4 );;+1-4< ;/.((2/. 6* 68. 4.3A.
T** :238 ;/.((2/. 7*/ 6** +*4< :)1 3)2(. 243*4(3-*2(4.(( */ ,.)68.
N.>./ ;+)3. ) 6*2/4-?2.6 )/*24, 68. 4.3A.
4B47. M)-46)-4 ;/.((2/. ;*-46( 51 ;+)3-4< ) /*24, (6-3A -4 68. F*-460 5.4,-4<
68. F*-46 *>./ 68. (6-3A0 )4, 68.4 A..;-4< -6 6-<86+1 5.46 51 +)(8-4<. B1 2(-4<
68-( :.68*, 6* :)-46)-4 ;/.((2/.0 -6 7/..( 1*2/ 8)4,( 6* 9*/A -4 *68./ )/.)(.
D4940-< L49-041/
4B4$. Y*2 3)4 (6*; :)F*/ 5+..,-4< -::.,-)6.+1 */ (+*9 -6 ,*94 51 );;+1-4<
;/.((2/. 9-68 ) 7-4<./ */ 69* *4 68. 5+..,-4< .4, *7 68. >.-4 */ )/6./1.
M)-46)-4 68. ;/.((2/. 246-+ 68. 5+..,-4< (6*;( */ (+*9( ,*94 .4*2<8 6* );;+1
) ;/.((2/. 5)4,)<.0 .+.>)6-*40 )4, (* 7*/68.
T13*/4=3+0
4B49. U(. ) 6*2/4-?2.6 *4+1 98.4 ,-/.36 ;/.((2/. *>./ 68. 5+..,-4< ;*-46 )4,
)++ *68./ :.68*,( ,-, 4*6 3*46/*+ 68. 5+..,-4<. I7 1*2 +.)>. ) 6*2/4-?2.6 -4
;+)3. 6** +*4<0 68. ,):)<. 6* 68. 6-((2.( 3)4 ;/*</.(( 6* <)4</.4.0 9-68 )
+*(( *7 68. +-:5 +)6./. A4 -:;/*;./+1 );;+-., 6*2/4-?2.6 3)4 )+(* 3)2(.
;./:)4.46 ,):)<. 6* 4./>.( )4, *68./ 6-((2.( )6 68. (-6. *7 68. 3*4(6/-36-*4.
I7 1*2 :2(6 2(. ) 6*2/4-?2.60 ;+)3. -6 )/*24, 68. .=6/.:-610 5.69..4 68.
31
9*24, )4, 68. 8.)/60 % 6* 1" 3.46-:.6./( C2 6* 4 -438.(D )5*>. 68. 9*24,
(-6.. N.>./ ;+)3. -6 ,-/.36+1 *>./ 68. 9*24, */ ) 7/)362/.. F-<2/. 4B4 .=;+)-4(
8*9 6* );;+1 ) 6*2/4-?2.6.
F493*+ !C!. A77<4.-041/ 1, T13*/4=3+0
4B%". A76./ 1*2 (.32/. 68. 6*2/4-?2.60 3+.)4 )4, 5)4,)<. 68. 9*24,. A +*4.
(2/>->*/ 21+: /10 /.:*>. */ /.+.)(. )4 );;+-., 6*2/4-?2.6. H*9.>./0 -4 )
52,,1 (1(6.:0 68. 52,,1 3)4 /.+.)(. 68. 6*2/4-?2.6 ;/.((2/. .>./1 1" 6* 1%
:-426.( 7*/ 1 */ 2 :-426.( 6* +.6 5+**, 7+*9 6* 68. /.(6 *7 68. .=6/.:-61 6*
;/.>.46 +-:5 +*((.
PREVENT AND TREAT SHOCK
4B%1. A46-3-;)6. (8*3A -4 )++ -4F2/., ;./(*44.+. T/.)6 )++ -4F2/., ;./(*4( )(
7*++*9(0 /.<)/,+.(( *7 98)6 (1:;6*:( );;.)/ CF-<2/. 4B%DE
I I7 68. >-36-: -( 3*4(3-*2(0 ;+)3. 8-: *4 ) +.>.+ (2/7)3. 9-68 68. +*9./
.=6/.:-6-.( .+.>)6., 1% 6* 2" 3.46-:.6./( C6 6* $ -438.(D.
I I7 68. >-36-: -( 243*4(3-*2(0 ;+)3. 8-: *4 8-( (-,. */ )5,*:.4 9-68 8-( 8.),
62/4., 6* *4. (-,. 6* ;/.>.46 38*A-4< *4 >*:-60 5+**,0 */ *68./ 7+2-,(.
32
I I7 1*2 )/. 24(2/. *7 68. 5.(6 ;*(-6-*40 ;+)3. 68. >-36-: ;./7.36+1 7+)6. O43.
68. >-36-: -( -4 ) (8*3A ;*(-6-*40 ,* 4*6 :*>. 8-:.
I M)-46)-4 5*,1 8.)6 51 -4(2+)6-4< 68. >-36-: 7/*: 68. (2//*24,-4<( )4,0 -4
(*:. -4(6)43.(0 );;+1-4< .=6./4)+ 8.)6.
I I7 9.60 /.:*>. )++ 68. >-36-:H( 9.6 3+*68-4< )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+. )4, /.;+)3.
9-68 ,/1 3+*68-4<.
I I:;/*>-(. ) (8.+6./ 6* -4(2+)6. 68. >-36-: 7/*: 68. 9.)68./.
I U(. 9)/: +-?2-,( */ 7**,(0 ) ;/.9)/:., (+..;-4< 5)<0 )4*68./ ;./(*40
9)/:., 9)6./ -4 3)46..4(0 8*6 /*3A( 9/);;., -4 3+*68-4<0 */ 7-/.( *4 .-68./
(-,. *7 68. >-36-: 6* ;/*>-,. .=6./4)+ 9)/:68.
I I7 68. >-36-: -( 3*4(3-*2(0 (+*9+1 ),:-4-(6./ (:)++ ,*(.( *7 ) 9)/: ()+6 */
(2<)/ (*+26-*40 -7 )>)-+)5+..
I I7 68. >-36-: -( 243*4(3-*2( */ 8)( )5,*:-4)+ 9*24,(0 ,* 4*6 <->. 7+2-,( 51
:*268.
I H)>. 68. >-36-: /.(6 7*/ )6 +.)(6 24 8*2/(.
I I7 1*2 )/. ) +*4. (2/>->*/0 +-. -4 ) ,.;/.((-*4 -4 68. </*24,0 5.8-4, ) 6/..0 */
)41 *68./ ;+)3. *26 *7 68. 9.)68./0 9-68 1*2/ 8.), +*9./ 68)4 1*2/ 7..6.
I I7 1*2 )/. 9-68 ) 52,,10 /.)((.(( 1*2/ ;)6-.46 3*4(6)46+1.
F493*+ !C". T*+-0>+/0 ,1* S81.?
33
BONE AND JOINT INJURY
4B%2. Y*2 3*2+, 7)3. 5*4. )4, F*-46 -4F2/-.( 68)6 -43+2,. 7/)362/.(0
,-(+*3)6-*4(0 )4, (;/)-4(. F*++*9 68. (6.;( .=;+)-4., 5.+*9 7*/ .)38 -4F2/1.
FRACTURES
4B%. T8./. )/. 5)(-3)++1 69* 61;.( *7 7/)362/.(E *;.4 )4, 3+*(.,. !-68 )4
*;.4 C*/ 3*:;*24,D 7/)362/.0 68. 5*4. ;/*6/2,.( 68/*2<8 68. (A-4 )4,
3*:;+-3)6.( 68. )362)+ 7/)362/. 9-68 )4 *;.4 9*24,. A41 5*4. ;/*6/2,-4<
7/*: 68. 9*24, (8*2+, 5. 3+.)4., 9-68 )4 )46-(.;6-3 )4, A.;6 :*-(6. Y*2
(8*2+, (;+-46 68. -4F2/., )/.) )4, 3*46-42)++1 :*4-6*/ 5+**, 7+*9 ;)(6 68.
-4F2/1. O4+1 /.;*(-6-*4 68. 5/.)A -7 68./. -( 4* 5+**, 7+*9.
4B%4. T8. 3+*(., 7/)362/. 8)( 4* *;.4 9*24,(. F*++*9 68. <2-,.+-4.( 7*/
-::*5-+-G)6-*4 )4, (;+-46 68. 7/)362/..
4B%%. T8. (-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( *7 ) 7/)362/. )/. ;)-40 6.4,./4.((0
,-(3*+*/)6-*40 (9.++-4< ,.7*/:-610 +*(( *7 72436-*40 )4, </)6-4< C) (*24, */
7..+-4< 68)6 *332/( 98.4 5/*A.4 5*4. .4,( /25 6*<.68./D.
4B%6. T8. ,)4<./( 9-68 ) 7/)362/. )/. 68. (.>./-4< */ 68. 3*:;/.((-*4 *7 )
4./>. */ 5+**, >.((.+ )6 68. (-6. *7 7/)362/.. F*/ 68-( /.)(*4 :-4-:2:
:)4-;2+)6-*4 (8*2+, 5. ,*4.0 )4, *4+1 >./1 3)26-*2(+1. I7 1*2 4*6-3. 68. )/.)
5.+*9 68. 5/.)A 5.3*:-4< 42:50 (9*++.40 3**+ 6* 68. 6*2380 */ 62/4-4< ;)+.0
)4, 68. >-36-: (8*9-4< (-<4( *7 (8*3A0 ) :)F*/ >.((.+ :)1 8)>. 5..4
(.>./.,. Y*2 :2(6 3*46/*+ 68-( -46./4)+ 5+..,-4<. R.(.6 68. 7/)362/. )4, 6/.)6
68. >-36-: 7*/ (8*3A )4, /.;+)3. +*(6 7+2-,(.
4B%7. O76.4 1*2 :2(6 :)-46)-4 6/)36-*4 ,2/-4< 68. (;+-46-4< )4, 8.)+-4<
;/*3.((. Y*2 3)4 .77.36->.+1 ;2++ (:)++./ 5*4.( (238 )( 68. )/: */ +*9./ +.<
51 8)4,. Y*2 3)4 3/.)6. 6/)36-*4 51 9.,<-4< ) 8)4, */ 7**6 -4 68. VB4*638 *7
) 6/.. )4, ;2(8-4< )<)-4(6 68. 6/.. 9-68 68. *68./ .=6/.:-61. Y*2 3)4 68.4
(;+-46 68. 5/.)A.
4B%$. V./1 (6/*4< :2(3+.( 8*+, ) 5/*A.4 68-<85*4. C7.:2/D -4 ;+)3. :)A-4< -6
,-77-32+6 6* :)-46)-4 6/)36-*4 ,2/-4< 8.)+-4<. Y*2 3)4 :)A. )4 -:;/*>-(.,
6/)36-*4 (;+-46 2(-4< 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+ CF-<2/. 4B6D )( .=;+)-4., 5.+*9.
34
F493*+ !C6. I>7*1B4:+2 T*-.041/ S7<4/0
I G.6 69* 7*/A., 5/)438.( */ ();+-4<( )6 +.)(6 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D -4
,-):.6./. M.)(2/. *4. 7/*: 68. ;)6-.46H( )/:;-6 6* 2" 6* " 3.46-:.6./( C$ 6*
12 -438.(D ;)(6 8-( 245/*A.4 +.<. M.)(2/. 68. *68./ 7/*: 68. </*-4 6* 2" 6*
" 3.46-:.6./( C$ 6* 12 -438.(D ;)(6 68. 245/*A.4 +.<. E4(2/. 68)6 5*68
.=6.4, )4 .?2)+ ,-(6)43. 5.1*4, 68. .4, *7 68. +.<.
I P), 68. 69* (;+-46(. N*638 68. .4,( 9-68*26 7*/A( )4, +)(8 ) 2"B 6* "B
3.46-:.6./ C$B 6* 12B-438D 3/*(( :.:5./ :),. 7/*: ) %B3.46-:.6./ C2B-438D
,-):.6./ 5/)438 5.69..4 68.:.
I U(-4< )>)-+)5+. :)6./-)+ C>-4.(0 3+*680 /)98-,.D0 6-. 68. (;+-46 )/*24, 68.
2;;./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. 5*,1 )4, ,*94 68. +.4<68 *7 68. 5/*A.4 +.<. F*++*9 68.
(;+-46-4< <2-,.+-4.(.
I !-68 )>)-+)5+. :)6./-)+0 7)(8-*4 ) 9/); 68)6 9-++ .=6.4, )/*24, 68. )4A+.0 9-68
68. 69* 7/.. .4,( 6-., 6* 68. 3/*(( :.:5./.
I P+)3. ) 1"B 51 2.%B3.46-:.6./ C4B 51 1B-438D (6-3A -4 68. :-,,+. *7 68. 7/..
.4,( *7 68. )4A+. 9/); 5.69..4 68. 3/*(( :.:5./ )4, 68. 7**6. U(-4< 68.
(6-3A0 69-(6 68. :)6./-)+ 6* :)A. 68. 6/)36-*4 .)(-./.
I C*46-42. 69-(6-4< 246-+ 68. 5/*A.4 +.< -( )( +*4< */ (+-<86+1 +*4<./ 68)4 68.
245/*A.4 +.<.
I L)(8 68. (6-3A 6* :)-46)-4 6/)36-*4.
NOTE: O>./ 6-:.0 1*2 :)1 +*(. 6/)36-*4 5.3)2(. 68. :)6./-)+ 9.)A.4.,.
C8.3A 68. 6/)36-*4 ;./-*,-3)++1. I7 1*2 :2(6 38)4<. */ /.;)-/ 68. (;+-460
:)-46)-4 68. 6/)36-*4 :)42)++1 7*/ ) (8*/6 6-:..
DISLOCATIONS
4B%9. D-(+*3)6-*4( )/. 68. (.;)/)6-*4( *7 5*4. F*-46( 3)2(-4< 68. 5*4.( 6* <*
*26 *7 ;/*;./ )+-<4:.46. T8.(. :-()+-<4:.46( 3)4 5. .=6/.:.+1 ;)-472+ )4,
3)4 3)2(. )4 -:;)-/:.46 *7 4./>. */ 3-/32+)6*/1 72436-*4 5.+*9 68. )/.)
)77.36.,. Y*2 :2(6 ;+)3. 68.(. F*-46( 5)3A -46* )+-<4:.46 )( ?2-3A+1 )(
;*((-5+..
35
4B6". S-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( *7 ,-(+*3)6-*4( )/. F*-46 ;)-40 6.4,./4.((0
(9.++-4<0 ,-(3*+*/)6-*40 +-:-6., /)4<. *7 :*6-*40 )4, ,.7*/:-61 *7 68. F*-46. Y*2
6/.)6 ,-(+*3)6-*4( 51 /.,236-*40 -::*5-+-G)6-*40 )4, /.8)5-+-6)6-*4.
4B61. R.,236-*4 */ J(.66-4<K -( ;+)3-4< 68. 5*4.( 5)3A -46* 68.-/ ;/*;./
)+-<4:.46. Y*2 3)4 2(. (.>./)+ :.68*,(0 526 :)42)+ 6/)36-*4 */ 68. 2(. *7
9.-<86( 6* ;2++ 68. 5*4.( )/. 68. ()7.(6 )4, .)(-.(6. O43. ;./7*/:.,0
/.,236-*4 ,.3/.)(.( 68. >-36-:H( ;)-4 )4, )++*9( 7*/ 4*/:)+ 72436-*4 )4,
3-/32+)6-*4. !-68*26 )4 ' /)10 1*2 3)4 F2,<. ;/*;./ )+-<4:.46 51 68. +**A )4,
7..+ *7 68. F*-46 )4, 51 3*:;)/-4< -6 6* 68. F*-46 *4 68. *;;*(-6. (-,..
4B62. I::*5-+-G)6-*4 -( 4*68-4< :*/. 68)4 (;+-46-4< 68. ,-(+*3)6-*4 )76./
/.,236-*4. Y*2 3)4 2(. )41 7-.+, .=;.,-.46 :)6./-)+ 7*/ ) (;+-46 */ 1*2 3)4
(;+-46 )4 .=6/.:-61 6* 68. 5*,1. T8. 5)(-3 <2-,.+-4.( 7*/ (;+-46-4< )/. )(
7*++*9(E
I S;+-46 )5*>. )4, 5.+*9 68. 7/)362/. (-6..
I P), (;+-46( 6* /.,23. ,-(3*:7*/6.
I C8.3A 3-/32+)6-*4 5.+*9 68. 7/)362/. )76./ :)A-4< .)38 6-. *4 68. (;+-46.
4B6 T* /.8)5-+-6)6. 68. ,-(+*3)6-*40 /.:*>. 68. (;+-46( )76./ 7 6* 14 ,)1(.
G/),2)++1 2(. 68. -4F2/., F*-46 246-+ 72++1 8.)+.,.
SPRAINS
4B64. T8. )33-,.46)+ *>./(6/.638-4< *7 ) 6.4,*4 */ +-<):.46 3)2(.( (;/)-4(.
T8. (-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( )/. ;)-40 (9.++-4<0 6.4,./4.((0 )4, ,-(3*+*/)6-*4
C5+)3A )4, 5+2.D.
4B6%. !8.4 6/.)6-4< (;/)-4(0 1*2 (8*2+, 7*++*9 68. +.66./( -4 RICE )( ,.7-4.,
5.+*9E
I RBR.(6 -4F2/., )/.).
I IBI3. 7*/ 24 6* 4$ 8*2/(.
I CBC*:;/.((-*4B9/); */ (;+-46 6* 8.+; (6)5-+-G.. I7 ;*((-5+.0 +.)>. 68. 5**6 *4
) (;/)-4., )4A+. 24+.(( 3-/32+)6-*4 -( 3*:;/*:-(.,.
I EBE+.>)6. 68. )77.36., )/.).
NOTE: I3. -( ;/.7.//., 7*/ ) (;/)-4 526 3*+, (;/-4< 9)6./ :)1 5. :*/. .)(-+1
*56)-4., -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
BITES AND STINGS
4B66. I4(.36( )4, /.+)6., ;.(6( )/. 8)G)/,( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. T8.1 4*6
*4+1 3)2(. -//-6)6-*4(0 526 68.1 )/. *76.4 3)//-./( *7 ,-(.)(.( 68)6 3)2(. (.>./.
)++./<-3 /.)36-*4( -4 (*:. -4,->-,2)+(. I4 :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+, 1*2 9-++ 5.
.=;*(., 6* (./-*2(0 .>.4 7)6)+0 ,-(.)(.( 4*6 .43*246./., -4 68. U4-6., S6)6.(.
36
I T-3A( 3)4 3)//1 )4, 6/)4(:-6 ,-(.)(.(0 (238 )( R*3A1 M*246)-4 (;*66.,
7.>./ 3*::*4 -4 :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. U4-6., S6)6.(. T-3A( )+(* 6/)4(:-6 L1:.
,-(.)(..
I M*(?2-6*.( :)1 3)//1 :)+)/-)0 ,.4<2.0 )4, :)41 *68./ ,-(.)(.(.
I F+-.( 3)4 (;/.), ,-(.)(. 7/*: 3*46)36 9-68 -47.36-*2( (*2/3.(. T8.1 )/.
3)2(.( *7 (+..;-4< (-3A4.((0 61;8*-,0 38*+./)0 )4, ,1(.46./1.
I F+.)( 3)4 6/)4(:-6 ;+)<2..
I L-3. 3)4 6/)4(:-6 61;82( )4, /.+);(-4< 7.>./.
4B67. T8. 5.(6 9)1 6* )>*-, 68. 3*:;+-3)6-*4( *7 -4(.36 5-6.( )4, (6-4<( -( 6*
A..; -::24-G)6-*4( C-43+2,-4< 5**(6./ (8*6(D 2;B6*B,)6.0 )>*-, -4(.36B-47.(6.,
)/.)(0 2(. 4.66-4< )4, -4(.36 /.;.++.460 )4, 9.)/ )++ 3+*68-4< ;/*;./+1.
4B6$. I7 1*2 )/. 5-66.4 */ (624<0 ,* 4*6 (3/)638 68. 5-6. */ (6-4<M -6 :-<86
5.3*:. -47.36.,. I4(;.36 1*2/ 5*,1 )6 +.)(6 *43. ) ,)1 6* .4(2/. 68./. )/.
4* -4(.36( )66)38., 6* 1*2. I7 1*2 7-4, 6-3A( )66)38., 6* 1*2/ 5*,10 3*>./ 68.:
9-68 ) (25(6)43. C(238 )( ;.6/*+.2: F.++10 8.)>1 *-+0 */ 6/.. ();D 68)6 9-++ 326
*77 68.-/ )-/ (2;;+1. !-68*26 )-/0 68. 6-3A /.+.)(.( -6( 8*+,0 )4, 1*2 3)4 /.:*>.
-6. T)A. 3)/. 6* /.:*>. 68. 98*+. 6-3A. U(. 69..G./( -7 1*2 8)>. 68.:.
G/)(; 68. 6-3A 98./. 68. :*268;)/6( )/. )66)38., 6* 68. (A-4. D* 4*6
(?2..G. 68. 6-3AH( 5*,1. !)(8 1*2/ 8)4,( )76./ 6*238-4< 68. 6-3A. C+.)4 68.
6-3A 9*24, ,)-+1 246-+ 8.)+.,.
TREATMENT
4B69. I6 -( -:;*((-5+. 6* +-(6 68. 6/.)6:.46 *7 )++ 68. ,-77./.46 61;.( *7 5-6.( )4,
(6-4<(. H*9.>./0 1*2 3)4 <.4./)++1 6/.)6 5-6.( )4, (6-4<( )( 7*++*9(E
I I7 )46-5-*6-3( )/. )>)-+)5+. 7*/ 1*2/ 2(.0 5.3*:. 7):-+-)/ 9-68 68.: 5.7*/.
,.;+*1:.46 )4, 2(. 68.:.
I P/.,.;+*1:.46 -::24-G)6-*4( 3)4 ;/.>.46 :*(6 *7 68. 3*::*4 ,-(.)(.(
3)//-., 51 :*(?2-6*.( )4, (*:. 3)//-., 51 7+-.(.
I T8. 3*::*4 7+1B5*/4. ,-(.)(.( )/. 2(2)++1 6/.)6)5+. 9-68 ;.4-3-++-4( */
./168/*:13-4.
I M*(6 6-3AB0 7+.)B0 +*2(.B0 )4, :-6.B5*/4. ,-(.)(.( )/. 6/.)6)5+. 9-68
6.6/)313+-4..
I M*(6 )46-5-*6-3( 3*:. -4 2%" :-++-</): C:<D */ %"" :< 6)5+.6(. I7 1*2 3)44*6
/.:.:5./ 68. .=)36 ,*(. /)6. 6* 6/.)6 ) ,-(.)(.0 2 6)5+.6(0 4 6-:.( ) ,)10 7*/
1" 6* 14 ,)1( 9-++ 2(2)++1 A-++ )41 5)36./-).
BEE AND $ASP STINGS
4B7". I7 (624< 51 ) 5..0 -::.,-)6.+1 /.:*>. 68. (6-4<./ )4, >.4*: ()30 -7
)66)38.,0 51 (3/);-4< 9-68 ) 7-4<./4)-+ */ ) A4-7. 5+),.. D* 4*6 (?2..G. */
</)(; 68. (6-4<./ */ >.4*: ()30 )( (?2..G-4< 9-++ 7*/3. :*/. >.4*: -46* 68.
9*24,. !)(8 68. (6-4< (-6. 68*/*2<8+1 9-68 (*); )4, 9)6./ 6* +.((.4 68.
38)43. *7 ) (.3*4,)/1 -47.36-*4.
37
4B71. I7 1*2 A4*9 */ (2(;.36 68)6 1*2 )/. )++./<-3 6* -4(.36 (6-4<(0 )+9)1(
3)//1 )4 -4(.36 (6-4< A-6 9-68 1*2.
4B72. R.+-.>. 68. -638-4< )4, ,-(3*:7*/6 3)2(., 51 -4(.36 5-6.( 51 );;+1-4<@
I C*+, 3*:;/.((.(.
I A 3**+-4< ;)(6. *7 :2, )4, )(8.(.
I S); 7/*: ,)4,.+-*4(.
I C*3*426 :.)6.
I C/2(8., 3+*>.( *7 <)/+-3.
I O4-*4.
SPIDER BITES AND SCORPION STINGS
4B7. T8. 5+)3A 9-,*9 (;-,./ -( -,.46-7-., 51 ) /., 8*2/<+)(( *4 -6( )5,*:.4.
O4+1 68. 7.:)+. 5-6.(0 )4, -6 8)( ) 4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*:. T8. -4-6-)+ ;)-4 -( 4*6
(.>./.0 526 (.>./. +*3)+ ;)-4 /);-,+1 ,.>.+*;(. T8. ;)-4 </),2)++1 (;/.),(
*>./ 68. .46-/. 5*,1 )4, (.66+.( -4 68. )5,*:.4 )4, +.<(. A5,*:-4)+ 3/):;(
)4, ;/*</.((->. 4)2(.)0 >*:-6-4<0 )4, ) /)(8 :)1 *332/. !.)A4.((0
6/.:*/(0 (9.)6-4<0 )4, ()+->)6-*4 :)1 *332/. A4);81+)36-3 /.)36-*4( 3)4
*332/. S1:;6*:( :)1 9*/(.4 7*/ 68. 4.=6 68/.. ,)1( )4, 68.4 5.<-4 6*
(25(-,. 7*/ 68. 4.=6 9..A. T/.)6 7*/ (8*3A. B. /.),1 6* ;./7*/: CPR. C+.)4
)4, ,/.(( 68. 5-6. )/.) 6* /.,23. 68. /-(A *7 -47.36-*4. A4 )46->.4-4 -(
)>)-+)5+..
4B74. T8. 7244.+ 9.5 (;-,./ -( ) +)/<. 5/*94 */ </)1 (;-,./ 7*24, -4
A2(6/)+-). T8. (1:;6*:( )4, 68. 6/.)6:.46 7*/ -6( 5-6. )/. )( 7*/ 68. 5+)3A
9-,*9 (;-,./.
4B7%. T8. 5/*94 8*2(. (;-,./ */ 5/*94 /.3+2(. (;-,./ -( ) (:)++0 +-<86 5/*94
(;-,./ -,.46-7-., 51 ) ,)/A 5/*94 >-*+-4 *4 -6( 5)3A. T8./. -( 4* ;)-40 */ (*
+-66+. ;)-40 68)6 2(2)++1 ) >-36-: -( 4*6 )9)/. *7 68. 5-6.. !-68-4 ) 7.9 8*2/( )
;)-472+ /., )/.) 9-68 ) :*66+., 31)4*6-3 3.46./ );;.)/(. N.3/*(-( ,*.( 4*6
*332/ -4 )++ 5-6.(0 526 2(2)++1 -4 6* 4 ,)1(0 ) (6)/B(8);.,0 7-/: )/.) *7 ,..;
;2/;+. ,-(3*+*/)6-*4 );;.)/( )6 68. 5-6. (-6.. T8. )/.) 62/4( ,)/A )4,
:2::-7-., -4 ) 9..A */ 69*. T8. :)/<-4( (.;)/)6. )4, 68. (3)5 7)++( *770
+.)>-4< )4 *;.4 2+3./. S.3*4,)/1 -47.36-*4 )4, /.<-*4)+ (9*++.4 +1:;8
<+)4,( 2(2)++1 5.3*:. >-(-5+. )6 68-( (6)<.. T8. *26(6)4,-4< 38)/)36./-(6-3 *7
68. 5/*94 /.3+2(. 5-6. -( )4 2+3./ 68)6 ,*.( 4*6 8.)+ 526 ;./(-(6( 7*/ 9..A( */
:*468(. I4 ),,-6-*4 6* 68. 2+3./0 68./. -( *76.4 ) (1(6.:-3 /.)36-*4 68)6 -(
(./-*2( )4, :)1 +.), 6* ,.)68. R.)36-*4( C7.>./0 38-++(0 F*-46 ;)-40 >*:-6-4<0
)4, ) <.4./)+-G., /)(8D *332/ 38-.7+1 -4 38-+,/.4 */ ,.5-+-6)6., ;./(*4(.
4B76. T)/)462+)( )/. +)/<.0 8)-/1 (;-,./( 7*24, :)-4+1 -4 68. 6/*;-3(. M*(6 ,*
4*6 -4F.36 >.4*:0 526 (*:. S*268 A:./-3)4 (;.3-.( ,*. T8.1 8)>. +)/<.
7)4<(. I7 5-66.40 ;)-4 )4, 5+..,-4< )/. 3./6)-40 )4, -47.36-*4 -( +-A.+1. T/.)6 )
6)/)462+) 5-6. )( 7*/ )41 *;.4 9*24,0 )4, 6/1 6* ;/.>.46 -47.36-*4. I7
(1:;6*:( *7 ;*-(*4-4< );;.)/0 6/.)6 )( 7*/ 68. 5-6. *7 68. 5+)3A 9-,*9 (;-,./.
38
4B77. S3*/;-*4( )/. )++ ;*-(*4*2( 6* ) </.)6./ */ +.((./ ,.</... T8./. )/.
69* ,-77./.46 /.)36-*4(0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. (;.3-.(E
I S.>./. +*3)+ /.)36-*4 *4+10 9-68 ;)-4 )4, (9.++-4< )/*24, 68. )/.) *7 68.
(6-4<. P*((-5+. ;/-3A+1 (.4()6-*4 )/*24, 68. :*268 )4, ) 68-3AB7..+-4< 6*4<2..
I S.>./. (1(6.:-3 /.)36-*40 9-68 +-66+. */ 4* >-(-5+. +*3)+ /.)36-*4. L*3)+ ;)-4
:)1 5. ;/.(.46. S1(6.:-3 /.)36-*4 -43+2,.( /.(;-/)6*/1 ,-77-32+6-.(0 68-3AB
7..+-4< 6*4<2.0 5*,1 (;)(:(0 ,/**+-4<0 <)(6/-3 ,-(6.46-*40 ,*25+. >-(-*40
5+-4,4.((0 -4>*+246)/1 /);-, :*>.:.46 *7 68. .1.5)++(0 -4>*+246)/1 2/-4)6-*4
)4, ,.7.3)6-*40 )4, 8.)/6 7)-+2/.. D.)68 -( /)/.0 *332//-4< :)-4+1 -4 38-+,/.4
)4, ),2+6( 9-68 8-<8 5+**, ;/.((2/. */ -++4.((.(.
4B7$. T/.)6 (3*/;-*4 (6-4<( )( 1*2 9*2+, ) 5+)3A 9-,*9 5-6..
SNAKEBITES
4B79. T8. 38)43. *7 ) (4)A.5-6. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( /)68./ (:)++0 -7 1*2
)/. 7):-+-)/ 9-68 68. >)/-*2( 61;.( *7 (4)A.( )4, 68.-/ 8)5-6)6(. H*9.>./0 -6
3*2+, 8);;.4 )4, 1*2 (8*2+, A4*9 8*9 6* 6/.)6 ) (4)A.5-6.. D.)68( 7/*:
(4)A.5-6.( )/. /)/.. M*/. 68)4 *4.B8)+7 *7 68. (4)A.5-6. >-36-:( 8)>. +-66+. */
4* ;*-(*4-4<0 )4, *4+1 )5*26 *4.B?2)/6./ ,.>.+*; (./-*2( (1(6.:-3 ;*-(*4-4<.
H*9.>./0 68. 38)43. *7 ) (4)A.5-6. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 3)4 )77.36 :*/)+.0
)4, 7)-+2/. 6* 6)A. ;/.>.46->. :.)(2/.( */ 7)-+2/. 6* 6/.)6 ) (4)A.5-6. ;/*;./+1
3)4 /.(2+6 -4 4..,+.(( 6/)<.,1.
4B$". T8. ;/-:)/1 3*43./4 -4 68. 6/.)6:.46 *7 (4)A.5-6. -( 6* +-:-6 68. ):*246
*7 .>.462)+ 6-((2. ,.(6/236-*4 )/*24, 68. 5-6. )/.).
4B$1. A 5-6. 9*24,0 /.<)/,+.(( *7 68. 61;. *7 )4-:)+ 68)6 -47+-36., -60 3)4
5.3*:. -47.36., 7/*: 5)36./-) -4 68. )4-:)+H( :*268. !-68 4*4B;*-(*4*2( )(
9.++ )( ;*-(*4*2( (4)A.5-6.(0 68-( +*3)+ -47.36-*4 -( /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ ) +)/<. ;)/6
*7 68. /.(-,2)+ ,):)<. 68)6 /.(2+6(.
4B$2. S4)A. >.4*:( 4*6 *4+1 3*46)-4 ;*-(*4( 68)6 )66)3A 68. >-36-:H( 3.46/)+
4./>*2( (1(6.: C4.2/*6*=-4(D )4, 5+**, 3-/32+)6-*4 C8.:*6*=-4(D0 526 )+(*
,-<.(6->. .4G1:.( C316*6*=-4(D 6* )-, -4 ,-<.(6-4< 68.-/ ;/.1. T8.(. ;*-(*4(
3)4 3)2(. ) >./1 +)/<. )/.) *7 6-((2. ,.)680 +.)>-4< ) +)/<. *;.4 9*24,.
T8-( 3*4,-6-*4 3*2+, +.), 6* 68. 4.., 7*/ .>.462)+ ):;26)6-*4 -7 4*6 6/.)6.,.
4B$. S8*3A )4, ;)4-3 -4 ) ;./(*4 5-66.4 51 ) (4)A. 3)4 )+(* )77.36 68.
;./(*4H( /.3*>./1. E=3-6.:.460 81(6./-)0 )4, ;)4-3 3)4 (;.., 2; 68.
3-/32+)6-*40 3)2(-4< 68. 5*,1 6* )5(*/5 68. 6*=-4 ?2-3A+1. S-<4( *7 (8*3A *332/
9-68-4 68. 7-/(6 " :-426.( )76./ 68. 5-6..
4B$4. B.7*/. 1*2 (6)/6 6/.)6-4< ) (4)A.5-6.0 ,.6./:-4. 98.68./ 68. (4)A. 9)(
;*-(*4*2( */ 4*4B;*-(*4*2(. B-6.( 7/*: ) 4*4B;*-(*4*2( (4)A. 9-++ (8*9
/*9( *7 6..68. B-6.( 7/*: ) ;*-(*4*2( (4)A. :)1 8)>. /*9( *7 6..68 (8*9-4<0
526 9-++ 8)>. *4. */ :*/. ,-(6-436->. ;24362/. :)/A( 3)2(., 51 7)4<
;.4.6/)6-*4. S1:;6*:( *7 ) ;*-(*4*2( 5-6. :)1 5. (;*46)4.*2( 5+..,-4<
39
7/*: 68. 4*(. )4, )42(0 5+**, -4 68. 2/-4.0 ;)-4 )6 68. (-6. *7 68. 5-6.0 )4,
(9.++-4< )6 68. (-6. *7 68. 5-6. 9-68-4 ) 7.9 :-426.( */ 2; 6* 2 8*2/( +)6./.
4B$%. B/.)68-4< ,-77-32+610 ;)/)+1(-(0 9.)A4.((0 69-638-4<0 )4, 42:54.(( )/.
)+(* (-<4( *7 4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*:(. T8.(. (-<4( 2(2)++1 );;.)/ 1.% 6* 2 8*2/(
)76./ 68. 5-6..
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7*++*9-4< (6.;(E
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4B$7. Y*2 (8*2+, )+(* /.:.:5./ 7*2/ >./1 -:;*/6)46 <2-,.+-4.( ,2/-4< 68.
6/.)6:.46 *7 (4)A.5-6.(. D1 /10@
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)6/*;-4.N G->. :*/;8-4. */ *68./ 3.46/)+ 4./>*2( (1(6.: CCNSD ,.;/.((*/(.
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*;.4 ) ,-/.36 /*26. -46* 68. 5+**, (6/.): 7*/ >.4*: )4, -47.36-*4.
NOTE: I7 :.,-3)+ 6/.)6:.46 -( *>./ 1 8*2/ )9)10 :)A. )4 -43-(-*4 C4* +*4<./
68)4 6 :-++-:.6./( P1R4 -438Q )4, 4* ,..;./ 68)4 :-++-:.6./( P1R$ -438QD *>./
.)38 ;24362/.0 3266-4< F2(6 ,..; .4*2<8 6* .4+)/<. 68. 7)4< *;.4-4<0 526 *4+1
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68)6 1*2 8)>. ) <**, >)322: (.)+. S236-*4 68. 5-6. (-6. 6* 4 6-:.(. S236-*4
7*/ ) MINIMUM 1, 30 MINUTES. U(. :*268 (236-*4 1/<; )( ) +)(6 /.(*/6 )4,
1/<; -7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. *;.4 (*/.( -4 1*2/ :*268. S;-6 68. .4>.4*:., 5+**,
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6* :-4-:-G. +*3)+ .77.36(E
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40
$OUNDS
4B$9. A4 -46.//2;6-*4 *7 68. (A-4H( -46.</-61 38)/)36./-G.( 9*24,(. T8.(.
9*24,( 3*2+, 5. *;.4 9*24,(0 (A-4 ,-(.)(.(0 7/*(65-6.0 6/.438 7**60 */ 52/4(.
OPEN $OUNDS
4B9". O;.4 9*24,( )/. (./-*2( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 4*6 *4+1 5.3)2(. *7
6-((2. ,):)<. )4, 5+**, +*((0 526 )+(* 5.3)2(. 68.1 :)1 5.3*:. -47.36.,.
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3+*68-4<0 */ *4 *68./ 7*/.-<4 :)6./-)+ */ ,-/6 68)6 6*238.( 68. 9*24, :)1 3)2(.
-47.36-*4.
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41
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;/.(.46.
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9*24, *26 >-<*/*2(+1 .>./1 ,)1 9-68 68. 3+.)4.(6 9)6./ )>)-+)5+.. I7 ,/-4A-4<
9)6./ */ :.68*,( 6* ;2/-71 ,/-4A-4< 9)6./ )/. +-:-6.,0 ,* 4*6 2(. 1*2/ ,/-4A-4<
9)6./. F+2(8 68. 9*24, 7*/3.72++1 ,)-+1 246-+ 68. 9*24, -( 8.)+., *>./. Y*2/
(3)/ :)1 5. +)/<./ 526 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 -47.36-*4 )/. </.)6+1 /.,23.,.
I C*46-42. 68-( 6/.)6:.46 ,)-+1 246-+ )++ (-<4( *7 -47.36-*4 8)>. ,-();;.)/.,.
4B97. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. )46-5-*6-3( )4, 68. 9*24, 8)( 5.3*:. (.>./.+1
-47.36.,0 ,*.( 4*6 8.)+0 )4, */,-4)/1 ,.5/-,.:.46 -( -:;*((-5+.0 3*4(-,./
:)<<*6 68./);1 )( (6)6., 5.+*90 ,.(;-6. -6( 8)G)/,(E
I E=;*(. 68. 9*24, 6* 7+-.( 7*/ *4. ,)1 )4, 68.4 3*>./ -6.
I C8.3A ,)-+1 7*/ :)<<*6(.
I O43. :)<<*6( ,.>.+*;0 A..; 9*24, 3*>./., 526 38.3A ,)-+1.
I R.:*>. )++ :)<<*6( 98.4 68.1 8)>. 3+.)4., *26 )++ ,.), 6-((2. )4, 5.7*/.
68.1 (6)/6 *4 8.)+681 6-((2.. I43/.)(., ;)-4 )4, 5/-<86 /., 5+**, -4 68. 9*24,
-4,-3)6. 68)6 68. :)<<*6( 8)>. /.)38., 8.)+681 6-((2..
I F+2(8 68. 9*24, /.;.)6.,+1 9-68 (6./-+. 9)6./ */ 7/.(8 2/-4. 6* /.:*>. 68.
:)<<*6(.
I C8.3A 68. 9*24, .>./1 4 8*2/( 7*/ (.>./)+ ,)1( 6* .4(2/. )++ :)<<*6( 8)>.
5..4 /.:*>.,.
I B)4,)<. 68. 9*24, )4, 6/.)6 -6 )( )41 *68./ 9*24,. I6 (8*2+, 8.)+ 4*/:)++1.
SKIN DISEASES AND AILMENTS
4B9$. B*-+(0 724<)+ -47.36-*4(0 )4, /)(8.( /)/.+1 ,.>.+*; -46* ) (./-*2( 8.)+68
;/*5+.:. T8.1 3)2(. ,-(3*:7*/6 )4, 1*2 (8*2+, 6/.)6 68.: )( 7*++*9(E
B14<:
4B99. A;;+1 9)/: 3*:;/.((.( 6* 5/-4< 68. 5*-+ 6* ) 8.),. A4*68./ :.68*,
68)6 3)4 5. 2(., 6* 5/-4< ) 5*-+ 6* ) 8.), -( 68. 5*66+. (236-*4 :.68*,. U(. )4
.:;61 5*66+. 68)6 8)( 5..4 5*-+., -4 9)6./. P+)3. 68. *;.4-4< *7 68. 5*66+.
*>./ 68. 5*-+ )4, (.)+ 68. (A-4 7*/:-4< )4 )-/6-<86 .4>-/*4:.46 68)6 9-++ 3/.)6.
42
) >)322:. T8-( :.68*, 9-++ ,/)9 68. ;2( 6* 68. (A-4 (2/7)3. 98.4 );;+-.,
3*//.36+1. T8.4 *;.4 68. 5*-+ 2(-4< ) (6./-+. A4-7.0 9-/.0 4..,+.0 */ (-:-+)/
-6.:. T8*/*2<8+1 3+.)4 *26 68. ;2( 2(-4< (*); )4, 9)6./. C*>./ 68. 5*-+ (-6.0
38.3A-4< -6 ;./-*,-3)++1 6* .4(2/. 4* 72/68./ -47.36-*4 ,.>.+*;(.
F3/9-< I/,+.041/:
4B1"". K..; 68. (A-4 3+.)4 )4, ,/10 )4, .=;*(. 68. -47.36., )/.) 6* )( :238
(24+-<86 )( ;*((-5+.. D1 /10 :.*-0.8 68. )77.36., )/.). D2/-4< 68. S*268.)(6
A(-)4 3*47+-360 (*+,-./( 2(., )46-724<)+ ;*9,./(0 +1. (*);0 38+*/-4. 5+.)380
)+3*8*+0 >-4.<)/0 3*43.46/)6., ()+6 9)6./0 )4, -*,-4. 6* 6/.)6 724<)+ -47.36-*4(
9-68 >)/1-4< ,.</..( *7 (233.((. A( 9-68 )41 E3/1*08121FG :.68*, *7
6/.)6:.460 2(. 68.(. 9-68 .-3041/.
R-:8+:
4B1"1. T* 6/.)6 ) (A-4 /)(8 .77.36->.+10 7-/(6 ,.6./:-4. 98)6 -( 3)2(-4< -6. T8-(
,.6./:-4)6-*4 :)1 5. ,-77-32+6 .>.4 -4 68. 5.(6 *7 (-62)6-*4(. O5(./>. 68.
7*++*9-4< /2+.( 6* 6/.)6 /)(8.(E
I I7 -6 -( :*-(60 A..; -6 ,/1.
I I7 -6 -( ,/10 A..; -6 :*-(6.
I D* 4*6 (3/)638 -6.
4B1"2. U(. ) 3*:;/.(( *7 >-4.<)/ */ 6)44-3 )3-, ,./->., 7/*: 6.) */ 7/*:
5*-+-4< )3*/4( */ 68. 5)/A *7 ) 8)/,9**, 6/.. 6* ,/1 9..;-4< /)(8.(. K..;
,/1 /)(8.( :*-(6 51 /255-4< ) (:)++ ):*246 *7 /.4,./., )4-:)+ 7)6 */ </.)(.
*4 68. )77.36., )/.).
4B1". R.:.:5./0 6/.)6 /)(8.( )( *;.4 9*24,(M 3+.)4 )4, ,/.(( 68.: ,)-+1.
T8./. )/. :)41 (25(6)43.( )>)-+)5+. 6* (2/>->*/( -4 68. 9-+, */ -4 3);6->-61 7*/
2(. )( )46-(.;6-3( 6* 6/.)6 9*24,(. F*++*9 68. /.3*::.4,., <2-,)43.
5.+*9E
I (odine ta%lets. U(. % 6* 1% 6)5+.6( -4 ) +-6./ *7 9)6./ 6* ;/*,23. ) <**, /-4(.
7*/ 9*24,( ,2/-4< 8.)+-4<.
I )arlic. R25 -6 *4 ) 9*24, */ 5*-+ -6 6* .=6/)36 68. *-+( )4, 2(. 68. 9)6./ 6*
/-4(. 68. )77.36., )/.).
I Salt water. U(. 2 6* 6)5+.(;**4( ;./ +-6./ *7 9)6./ 6* A-++ 5)36./-).
I *ee honey. U(. -6 (6/)-<86 */ ,-((*+>., -4 9)6./.
I Sphagn&m moss. F*24, -4 5*<<1 )/.)( 9*/+,9-,.0 -6 -( ) 4)62/)+ (*2/3. *7
-*,-4.. U(. )( ) ,/.((-4<.
I S&gar. P+)3. ,-/.36+1 *4 9*24, )4, /.:*>. 68*/*2<8+1 98.4 -6 62/4( -46* )
<+)G., )4, /2441 (25(6)43.. T8.4 /.);;+1.
I Syr&p. I4 .=6/.:. 3-/32:(6)43.(0 (*:. *7 68. ():. 5.4.7-6( *7 8*4.1 )4,
(2<)/ 3)4 5. /.)+-G., 9-68 )41 8-<8B(2<)/B3*46.46 -6.:.
NOTE: A<)-40 2(. 4*43*::./3-)++1 ;/.;)/., :)6./-)+( 9-68 3)26-*4.
BURNS
43
4B1"4. T8. 7*++*9-4< 7-.+, 6/.)6:.46 7*/ 52/4( /.+-.>.( 68. ;)-4 (*:.98)60
(..:( 6* 8.+; (;.., 8.)+-4<0 )4, *77./( (*:. ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 -47.36-*4E
I F-/(60 (6*; 68. 52/4-4< ;/*3.((. P26 *26 68. 7-/. 51 /.:*>-4< 3+*68-4<0
,*2(-4< 9-68 9)6./ */ ()4,0 */ 51 /*++-4< *4 68. </*24,. C**+ 68. 52/4-4< (A-4
9-68 -3. */ 9)6./. F*/ 52/4( 3)2(., 51 98-6. ;8*(;8*/*2(0 ;-3A *26 68. 98-6.
;8*(;8*/*2( 9-68 69..G./(M ,* 4*6 ,*2(. 9-68 9)6./.
I S*)A ,/.((-4<( */ 3+.)4 /)<( 7*/ 1" :-426.( -4 ) 5*-+-4< 6)44-3 )3-, (*+26-*4
C*56)-4., 7/*: 6.)0 -44./ 5)/A *7 8)/,9**, 6/..(0 */ )3*/4( 5*-+., -4 9)6./D.
I C**+ 68. ,/.((-4<( */ 3+.)4 /)<( )4, );;+1 *>./ 52/4(. S2<)/ )4, 8*4.1
)+(* 9*/A 7*/ 52/4( 9-68 8*4.1 5.-4< .(;.3-)++1 .77.36->. )6 ;/*:*6-4< 4.9
(A-4 </*968 )4, (6*;;-4< -47.36-*4(. U(. 5*68 )( 1*2 9*2+, -4 )4 *;.4
9*24, )5*>..
I T/.)6 )( )4 *;.4 9*24,.
I R.;+)3. 7+2-, +*((. F+2-, /.;+)3.:.46 3)4 5. )38-.>., 68/*2<8 */)+
C;/.7.//.,D )4, -46/)>.4*2( /*26.( C98.4 /.(*2/3.( )/. )>)-+)5+.D. O4.
)+6./4)6. :.68*, 68/*2<8 98-38 /.81,/)6-*4 3)4 5. )38-.>., -( 68/*2<8 68.
/.36)+ /*26.. F+2-,( ,* 4*6 4.., 6* 5. (6./-+.0 *4+1 ;2/-7-.,. A ;./(*4 3)4
.77.36->.+1 )5(*/5 );;/*=-:)6.+1 1 6* 1.% +-6./( ;./ 8*2/ 51 2(-4< ) 625. 6*
,.+->./ 7+2-,( -46* 68. /.36)+ >)2+6.
I M)-46)-4 )-/9)1.
I T/.)6 7*/ (8*3A.
I C*4(-,./ 2(-4< :*/;8-4.0 24+.(( 68. 52/4( )/. 4.)/ 68. 7)3..
ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES
4B1"%. H.)6(6/*A.0 81;*68./:-)0 ,-)//8.)0 )4, -46.(6-4)+ ;)/)(-6.( )/.
.4>-/*4:.46)+ -4F2/-.( 1*2 3*2+, 7)3. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. R.), )4, 7*++*9
68. <2-,)43. ;/*>-,., 5.+*9.
HEATSTROKE
4B1"6. T8. 5/.)A,*94 *7 68. 5*,1H( 8.)6 /.<2+)6*/1 (1(6.: C5*,1
6.:;./)62/. :*/. 68)4 4".% ,.</..( C P1"% ,.</..( FQD 3)2(.( ) 8.)6(6/*A..
O68./ 8.)6 -4F2/-.(0 (238 )( 3/):;( */ ,.81,/)6-*40 ,* 4*6 )+9)1( ;/.3.,. )
8.)6(6/*A.. S-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( *7 8.)6(6/*A. )/.@
I S9*++.40 5..6B/., 7)3..
I R.,,.4., 98-6.( *7 .1.(.
I V-36-: 4*6 (9.)6-4<.
I U43*4(3-*2(4.(( */ ,.+-/-2:0 98-38 3)4 3)2(. ;)++*/0 ) 5+2-(8 3*+*/ 6* +-;(
)4, 4)-+ 5.,( C31)4*(-(D0 )4, 3**+ (A-4.
NOTE: B1 68-( 6-:.0 68. >-36-: -( -4 (.>./. (8*3A. C**+ 68. >-36-: )( /);-,+1
)( ;*((-5+.. C**+ 8-: 51 ,-;;-4< 8-: -4 ) 3**+ (6/.):. I7 *4. -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0
,*2(. 68. >-36-: 9-68 2/-4.0 9)6./0 */ )6 68. >./1 +.)(60 );;+1 3**+ 9.6
3*:;/.((.( 6* )++ 68. F*-46(0 .(;.3-)++1 68. 4.3A0 )/:;-6(0 )4, 3/*638. B. (2/.
6* 9.6 68. >-36-:H( 8.),. H.)6 +*(( 68/*2<8 68. (3)+; -( </.)6. A,:-4-(6./ IV(
)4, ;/*>-,. ,/-4A-4< 7+2-,(. Y*2 :)1 7)4 68. -4,->-,2)+.
44
4B1"7. Y*2 3)4 .=;.36 68. 7*++*9-4< (1:;6*:( ,2/-4< 3**+-4<E
I V*:-6-4<.
I D-)//8.).
I S6/2<<+-4<.
I S8->./-4<.
I S8*26-4<.
I P/*+*4<., 243*4(3-*2(4.((.
I R.5*24, 8.)6(6/*A. 9-68-4 4$ 8*2/(.
I C)/,-)3 )//.(6M 5. /.),1 6* ;./7*/: CPR.
NOTE: T/.)6 7*/ ,.81,/)6-*4 9-68 +-<86+1 ()+6., 9)6./.
CHILBLAINS
4B1"$. F/*(64-; 5.<-4( )( 7-/:0 3*+, )4, 98-6. */ </)1 )/.)( *4 68. 7)3.0
.)/(0 )4, .=6/.:-6-.( 68)6 3)4 5+-(6./ */ ;..+ F2(6 +-A. (2452/4 )( +)6. )( 2 6*
,)1( )76./ 68. -4F2/1. F/*(64-;0 */ 38-+5+)-4( )( -6 -( (*:.6-:.( 3)++.,0 -( 68.
/.(2+6 *7 6-((2. .=;*(2/. 6* 7/..G-4< 6.:;./)62/.( )4, -( 68. 5.<-44-4< *7
7/*(65-6.. T8. 9)6./ -4 )4, )/*24, 68. 3.++( 7/..G.(0 /2;62/-4< 3.++ 9)++( )4,
682( ,):)<-4< 68. 6-((2.. !)/:-4< 68. )77.36., )/.) 9-68 8)4,( */ ) 9)/:
*5F.36 6/.)6( 68-( -4F2/1. !-4, 38-++ ;+)1( ) 7)36*/ -4 68-( -4F2/1M ;/.>.46)6->.
:.)(2/.( -43+2,. +)1./( *7 ,/1 3+*68-4< )4, ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 9.64.(( )4,
9-4,.
TRENCH FOOT
4B1"9. I::./(-*4 */ 6/.438 7**6 /.(2+6( 7/*: :)41 8*2/( */ ,)1( *7 .=;*(2/.
6* 9.6 */ ,):; 3*4,-6-*4( )6 ) 6.:;./)62/. F2(6 )5*>. 7/..G-4<. T8. 4./>.(
)4, :2(3+.( (2(6)-4 68. :)-4 ,):)<.0 526 <)4</.4. 3)4 *332/. I4 .=6/.:.
3)(.( 68. 7+.(8 ,-.( )4, -6 :)1 5.3*:. 4.3.(()/1 6* 8)>. 68. 7**6 */ +.<
):;26)6.,. T8. 5.(6 ;/.>.46-*4 -( 6* A..; 1*2/ 7..6 ,/1. C)//1 .=6/) (*3A(
9-68 1*2 -4 ) 9)6./;/**7 ;)3A.6. D/1 9.6 (*3A( )<)-4(6 1*2/ 5*,1. !)(8
1*2/ 7..6 ,)-+1 )4, ;26 *4 ,/1 (*3A(.
FROSTBITE
4B11". T8-( -4F2/1 /.(2+6( 7/*: 7/*G.4 6-((2.(. F/*(65-6. .=6.4,( 6* ) ,.;68
5.+*9 68. (A-4. T8. 6-((2.( 5.3*:. (*+-, )4, -::*>)5+.. Y*2/ 7..60 8)4,(0
)4, .=;*(., 7)3-)+ )/.)( )/. ;)/6-32+)/+1 >2+4./)5+. 6* 7/*(65-6..
4B111. !8.4 9-68 *68./(0 ;/.>.46 7/*(65-6. 51 2(-4< 68. 52,,1 (1(6.:.
C8.3A 1*2/ 52,,1H( 7)3. *76.4 )4, :)A. (2/. 68)6 8. 38.3A( 1*2/(. I7 1*2
)/. )+*4.0 ;./-*,-3)++1 3*>./ 1*2/ 4*(. )4, +*9./ ;)/6 *7 1*2/ 7)3. 9-68 1*2/
:-66.4(.
4B112. D* 4*6 6/1 6* 68)9 68. )77.36., )/.)( 51 ;+)3-4< 68.: 3+*(. 6* )4 *;.4
7+):.. F/*(65-66.4 6-((2. :)1 5. -::./(., -4 7 6* 42 ,.</..( C C99 6* 1"9
,.</..( FD 9)6./ 246-+ 68)9.,. C!)6./ 6.:;./)62/. 3)4 5. ,.6./:-4., 9-68
45
68. -4(-,. 9/-(6 */ 5)51 7*/:2+) :.68*,.D D/1 68. ;)/6 )4, ;+)3. -6 4.=6 6*
1*2/ (A-4 6* 9)/: -6 )6 5*,1 6.:;./)62/..
HYPOTHERMIA
4B11. I6 -( ,.7-4., )( 68. 5*,1H( 7)-+2/. 6* :)-46)-4 )4 -44./ 3*/. 6.:;./)62/.
*7 6 ,.</..( C C97 ,.</..( FD. E=;*(2/. 6* 3**+ */ 3*+, 6.:;./)62/. *>./ )
(8*/6 */ +*4< 6-:. 3)4 3)2(. 81;*68./:-). D.81,/)6-*4 )4, +)3A *7 7**, )4,
/.(6 ;/.,-(;*(. 68. (2/>->*/ 6* 81;*68./:-). 4B114. I::.,-)6. 6/.)6:.46 -(
68. A.1. M*>. 68. >-36-: 6* 68. 5.(6 (8.+6./ ;*((-5+. )9)1 7/*: 68. 9-4,0 /)-40
)4, 3*+,. R.:*>. )++ 9.6 3+*68.( )4, <.6 68. >-36-: -46* ,/1 3+*68-4<.
R.;+)3. +*(6 7+2-,( 9-68 9)/: 7+2-,(0 )4, 9)/: 8-: -4 ) (+..;-4< 5)< 2(-4<
69* ;.*;+. C-7 ;*((-5+.D ;/*>-,-4< (A-4B6*B(A-4 3*46)36. I7 68. >-36-: -( 24)5+.
6* ,/-4A 9)/: 7+2-,(0 /.36)+ /.81,/)6-*4 :)1 5. 2(.,.
DIARRHEA
4B11%. A 3*::*40 ,.5-+-6)6-4< )-+:.46 3)2(., 51 38)4<-4< 9)6./ )4, 7**,0
,/-4A-4< 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./0 .)6-4< (;*-+., 7**,0 5.3*:-4< 7)6-<2.,0 )4,
2(-4< ,-/61 ,-(8.(. Y*2 3)4 )>*-, :*(6 *7 68.(. 3)2(.( 51 ;/)36-3-4<
;/.>.46->. :.,-3-4.. H*9.>./0 -7 1*2 <.6 ,-)//8.) )4, ,* 4*6 8)>.
)46-,-)//8.)+ :.,-3-4.0 *4. *7 68. 7*++*9-4< 6/.)6:.46( :)1 5. .77.36->.E
I L-:-6 1*2/ -46)A. *7 7+2-,( 7*/ 24 8*2/(.
I D/-4A *4. 32; *7 ) (6/*4< 6.) (*+26-*4 .>./1 2 8*2/( 246-+ 68. ,-)//8.) (+*9(
*/ (6*;(. T8. 6)44-3 )3-, -4 68. 6.) 8.+;( 6* 3*46/*+ 68. ,-)//8.). B*-+ 68.
-44./ 5)/A *7 ) 8)/,9**, 6/.. 7*/ 2 8*2/( */ :*/. 6* /.+.)(. 68. 6)44-3 )3-,.
I M)A. ) (*+26-*4 *7 *4. 8)4,72+ *7 </*24, 38)+A0 38)/3*)+0 */ ,/-., 5*4.( )4,
6/.)6., 9)6./. I7 1*2 8)>. (*:. );;+. ;*:)3. */ 68. /-4,( *7 3-6/2( 7/2-60 ),,
)4 .?2)+ ;*/6-*4 6* 68. :-=62/. 6* :)A. -6 :*/. .77.36->.. T)A. 2 6)5+.(;**4(
*7 68. (*+26-*4 .>./1 2 8*2/( 246-+ 68. ,-)//8.) (+*9( */ (6*;(.
INTESTINAL PARASITES
4B116. Y*2 3)4 2(2)++1 )>*-, 9*/: -47.(6)6-*4( )4, *68./ -46.(6-4)+ ;)/)(-6.(
-7 1*2 6)A. ;/.>.46->. :.)(2/.(. F*/ .=):;+.0 4.>./ <* 5)/.7**6. T8. :*(6
.77.36->. 9)1 6* ;/.>.46 -46.(6-4)+ ;)/)(-6.( -( 6* )>*-, 243**A., :.)60 4.>./
.)6 /)9 >.<.6)5+.( 3*46):-4)6., 51 /)9 (.9)<.0 )4, 6/1 4*6 6* 2(. 82:)4
9)(6. )( ) 7./6-+-G./. H*9.>./0 (8*2+, 1*2 5.3*:. -47.(6., )4, +)3A ;/*;./
:.,-3-4.0 1*2 3)4 2(. 8*:. /.:.,-.(. K..; -4 :-4, 68)6 68.(. 8*:.
/.:.,-.( 9*/A *4 68. ;/-43-;+. *7 38)4<-4< 68. .4>-/*4:.46 *7 68.
<)(6/*-46.(6-4)+ 6/)36. T8. 7*++*9-4< )/. 8*:. /.:.,-.( 1*2 3*2+, 2(.E
I Salt water. D-((*+>. 4 6)5+.(;**4( *7 ()+6 -4 1 +-6./ *7 9)6./ )4, ,/-4A. D*
4*6 /.;.)6 68-( 6/.)6:.46.
I $o%acco. E)6 1 6* 1 1R2 3-<)/.66.( */ );;/*=-:)6.+1 1 6.)(;**4 C;-438D *7
(:*A.+.(( 6*5)33*. T8. 4-3*6-4. -4 68. 6*5)33* 9-++ A-++ */ (624 68. 9*/:(
+*4< .4*2<8 7*/ 1*2/ (1(6.: 6* ;)(( 68.:. I7 68. -47.(6)6-*4 -( (.>./.0 /.;.)6
68. 6/.)6:.46 -4 24 6* 4$ 8*2/(0 @30 /1 :11/+*.
46
I +erosene. D/-4A 2 6)5+.(;**4( *7 A./*(.4.0 @30 /1 >1*+. I7 4.3.(()/10
1*2 3)4 /.;.)6 68-( 6/.)6:.46 -4 24 6* 4$ 8*2/(. B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* -48)+. 68.
72:.(. T8.1 :)1 3)2(. +24< -//-6)6-*4.
NOTE: T*5)33* )4, A./*(.4. 6/.)6:.46 6.384-?2.( )/. >./1 ,)4<./*2(0 5.
3)/.72+.
I ,ot peppers. P.;;./( )/. .77.36->. *4+1 -7 68.1 )/. ) (6.),1 ;)/6 *7 1*2/ ,-.6.
Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.: /)9 */ ;26 68.: -4 (*2;( */ /-3. )4, :.)6 ,-(8.(. T8.1
3/.)6. )4 .4>-/*4:.46 68)6 -( ;/*8-5-6->. 6* ;)/)(-6-3 )66)38:.46.
I )arlic. C8*; */ 3/2(8 4 3+*>.(0 :-= 9-68 1 <+)(( *7 +-?2-,0 )4, ,/-4A ,)-+1 7*/
9..A(.
HERBAL MEDICINES
4B117. O2/ :*,./4 9*4,./ ,/2<(0 +)5*/)6*/-.(0 )4, .?2-;:.46 8)>.
*5(32/., :*/. ;/-:-6->. 61;.( *7 :.,-3-4. -4>*+>-4< ,.6./:-4)6-*40 3*::*4
(.4(.0 )4, ) 7.9 (-:;+. 6/.)6:.46(. H*9.>./0 -4 :)41 )/.)( *7 68. 9*/+, 68.
;.*;+. (6-++ ,.;.4, *4 +*3)+ J9-638 ,*36*/(K */ 8.)+./( 6* 32/. 68.-/ )-+:.46(.
M)41 *7 68. 8./5( C;+)46(D )4, 6/.)6:.46( 68.1 2(. )/. )( .77.36->. )( 68.
:*(6 :*,./4 :.,-3)6-*4( )>)-+)5+.. I4 7)360 :)41 :*,./4 :.,-3)6-*4( 3*:.
7/*: /.7-4., 8./5(.
$ARNING
U(. 8./5)+ :.,-3-4.( 9-68 .=6/.:. 3)/.0 )4, *4+1
98.4 1*2 +)3A */ 8)>. +-:-6., :.,-3)+ (2;;+-.(.
S*:. 8./5)+ :.,-3-4.( )/. ,)4<./*2( )4, :)1
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CHAPTER ".
S8+<0+*:.
A (8.+6./ 3)4 ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. (240 -4(.36(0 9-4,0 /)-40 (4*90 8*6 */ 3*+,
6.:;./)62/.(0 )4, .4.:1 *5(./>)6-*4. I6 3)4 <->. 1*2 ) 7..+-4< *7 9.++B5.-4<
)4, 8.+; 1*2 :)-46)-4 1*2/ 9-++ 6* (2/>->..
I4 (*:. )/.)(0 1*2/ 4.., 7*/ (8.+6./ :)1 6)A. ;/.3.,.43. *>./ 1*2/ 4.., 7*/
7**, )4, ;*((-5+1 .>.4 1*2/ 4.., 7*/ 9)6./. F*/ .=):;+.0 ;/*+*4<.,
.=;*(2/. 6* 3*+, 3)4 3)2(. .=3.((->. 7)6-<2. )4, 9.)A4.(( C.=8)2(6-*4D.
A4 .=8)2(6., ;./(*4 :)1 ,.>.+*; ) J;)((->.K *26+**A0 68./.51 +*(-4< 68. 9-++
6* (2/>->..
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.4./<1. A 3*::*4 .//*/ -4 :)A-4< ) (8.+6./ -( 6* :)A. -6 6** +)/<.. A (8.+6./
47
:2(6 5. +)/<. .4*2<8 6* ;/*6.36 1*2 )4, (:)++ .4*2<8 6* 3*46)-4 1*2/ 5*,1
8.)60 .(;.3-)++1 -4 3*+, 3+-:)6.(.
PRIMARY SHELTER5UNIFORM
%B1. Y*2/ ;/-:)/1 (8.+6./ -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 9-++ 5. 1*2/ 24-7*/:. T8-(
;*-46 -( 6/2. /.<)/,+.(( *7 98.68./ 1*2 )/. -4 ) 8*60 3*+,0 6/*;-3)+0 ,.(./60 */
)/36-3 (-62)6-*4. F*/ 1*2/ 24-7*/: 6* ;/*6.36 1*20 -6 :2(6 5. -4 )( <**, *7 )
3*4,-6-*4 )( ;*((-5+. )4, 5. 9*/4 ;/*;./+1. !. 2(. 68. 6./: COLDER 98-38
-( ),,/.((., -4 C8);6./ 1% 6* /.:-4, 2( *7 98)6 6* ,*.
SHELTER SITE SELECTION
%B2. !8.4 1*2 )/. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 )4, /.)+-G. 68)6 (8.+6./ -( ) 8-<8
;/-*/-610 (6)/6 +**A-4< 7*/ (8.+6./ )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+.. A( 1*2 ,* (*0 /.:.:5./
98)6 1*2 9-++ 4.., )6 68. (-6.. T9* /.?2-(-6.( 7*/ (8.+6./ )/. 68)6 -6 :2(6@
I C*46)-4 :)6./-)+ 6* :)A. 68. 61;. *7 (8.+6./ 1*2 4..,.
I B. +)/<. .4*2<8 )4, +.>.+ .4*2<8 7*/ 1*2 6* +-. ,*94 3*:7*/6)5+1.
%B. Y*2 (8*2+, 7*32( *4 1*2/ 6)36-3)+ (-62)6-*4 )4, 1*2/ ()7.61 98.4
3*4(-,./-4< 68.(. /.?2-(-6.(. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* 3*4(-,./ 98.68./ 68. (-6.@
I P/*>-,.( 3*43.)+:.46 7/*: .4.:1 *5(./>)6-*4.
I H)( 3):*27+)<., .(3);. /*26.(.
I I( (2-6)5+. 7*/ (-<4)+-4<0 -7 4.3.(()/1.
I P/*>-,.( ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 9-+, )4-:)+( )4, /*3A( )4, ,.), 6/..( 68)6 :-<86
7)++.
I I( 7/.. 7/*: -4(.36(0 /.;6-+.(0 )4, ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46(.
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I S-6.( 4.)/ 5*,-.( *7 9)6./ 68)6 )/. 5.+*9 68. 8-<8B9)6./ :)/A.
%B%. I4 (*:. )/.)(0 68. (.)(*4 *7 68. 1.)/ 8)( ) (6/*4< 5.)/-4< *4 68. (-6.
1*2 (.+.36. I,.)+ (-6.( 7*/ ) (8.+6./ ,-77./ -4 9-46./ )4, (2::./. D2/-4< 3*+,
9-46./ :*468( 1*2 9-++ 9)46 ) (-6. 68)6 9-++ ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. 3*+, )4, 9-4,0
526 9-++ 8)>. ) (*2/3. *7 72.+ )4, 9)6./. D2/-4< (2::./ :*468( -4 68. ():.
)/.) 1*2 9-++ 9)46 ) (*2/3. *7 9)6./0 526 1*2 9-++ )+(* 9)46 68. (-6. 6* 5.
)+:*(6 -4(.36 7/...
%B6. !8.4 1*2 )/. 3*4(-,./-4< (8.+6./ (-6. (.+.36-*40 /.:.:5./ 68. 9*/,
BLISS )4, 68. 7*++*9-4< <2-,.+-4.(E
I BBB+.4, -4 9-68 68. (2//*24,-4<(.
I LBL*9 (-+8*2.66..
48
I IBI//.<2+)/ (8);..
I SBS:)++.
I SBS.3+2,., +*3)6-*4.
TYPES OF SHELTERS
%B7. !8.4 +**A-4< 7*/ ) (8.+6./ (-6.0 A..; -4 :-4, 68. 61;. *7 (8.+6./ 1*2
4..,. H*9.>./0 1*2 :2(6 )+(* 3*4(-,./ 68. ?2.(6-*4( 5.+*9E
I H*9 :238 6-:. )4, .77*/6 9-++ 1*2 4.., 6* 52-+, 68. (8.+6./L
I !-++ 68. (8.+6./ ),.?2)6.+1 ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. .+.:.46( C(240 9-4,0 /)-40
(4*9DL
I D* 1*2 8)>. 68. 6**+( 6* 52-+, -6L I7 4*60 3)4 1*2 :)A. -:;/*>-(., 6**+(L
I D* 1*2 8)>. 68. 61;. )4, ):*246 *7 :)6./-)+( 4..,., 6* 52-+, -6L
%B$. T* )4(9./ 68.(. ?2.(6-*4(0 1*2 4.., 6* A4*9 8*9 6* :)A. >)/-*2(
61;.( *7 (8.+6./( )4, 98)6 :)6./-)+( 1*2 4.., 6* :)A. 68.:.
PONCHO LEANCTO
%B9. I6 6)A.( *4+1 ) (8*/6 6-:. )4, :-4-:)+ .?2-;:.46 6* 52-+, 68-( +.)4B6*
CF-<2/. %B1D. Y*2 4.., ) ;*438*0 2 6* :.6./( C7 6* 1" 7..6D *7 /*;. */
;)/)3826. (2(;.4(-*4 +-4.0 68/.. (6)A.( )5*26 " 3.46-:.6./( C1 7**6D +*4<0
)4, 69* 6/..( */ 69* ;*+.( 2 6* :.6./( C7 6* 1" 7..6D );)/6. B.7*/. (.+.36-4<
68. 6/..( 1*2 9-++ 2(. */ 68. +*3)6-*4 *7 1*2/ ;*+.(0 38.3A 68. 9-4, ,-/.36-*4.
E4(2/. 68)6 68. 5)3A *7 1*2/ +.)4B6* 9-++ 5. -46* 68. 9-4,.
F493*+ "C1. P1/.81 L+-/C01
%B1". T* :)A. 68. +.)4B6*0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I T-. *77 68. 8**, *7 68. ;*438*. P2++ 68. ,/)9(6/-4< 6-<860 /*++ 68. 8**, +*4<
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I C26 68. /*;. -4 8)+7. O4 *4. +*4< (-,. *7 68. ;*438*0 6-. 8)+7 *7 68. /*;. 6*
68. 3*/4./ </*::.6. T-. 68. *68./ 8)+7 6* 68. *68./ 3*/4./ </*::.6.
I A66)38 ) ,/-; (6-3A C)5*26 ) 1"B3.46-:.6./ P4B-438Q (6-3AD 6* .)38 /*;. )5*26
2.% 3.46-:.6./( C)5*26 1 -438D 7/*: 68. </*::.6. T8.(. ,/-; (6-3A( 9-++ A..;
/)-49)6./ 7/*: /244-4< ,*94 68. /*;.( -46* 68. +.)4B6*. T1-4< (6/-4<( C)5*26
1" 3.46-:.6./( P4 -438.(Q +*4<D 6* .)38 </*::.6 )+*4< 68. ;*438*H( 6*; .,<.
49
9-++ )++*9 68. 9)6./ 6* /24 6* )4, ,*94 68. +-4. 9-68*26 ,/-;;-4< -46* 68.
(8.+6./.
I T-. 68. /*;.( )5*26 9)-(6 8-<8 *4 68. 6/..(. U(. ) /*24, 62/4 )4, 69* 8)+7
8-638.( 9-68 ) ?2-3A /.+.)(. A4*6.
I S;/.), 68. ;*438* )4, )438*/ -6 6* 68. </*24,0 ;266-4< (8)/;.4., (6-3A(
68/*2<8 68. </*::.6( )4, -46* 68. </*24,.
%B11. I7 1*2 ;+)4 6* 2(. 68. +.)4B6* 7*/ :*/. 68)4 *4. 4-<860 */ 1*2 .=;.36
/)-40 :)A. ) 3.46./ (2;;*/6 7*/ 68. +.)4B6*. M)A. 68-( (2;;*/6 9-68 ) +-4..
A66)38 *4. .4, *7 68. +-4. 6* 68. ;*438* 8**, )4, 68. *68./ .4, 6* )4
*>./8)4<-4< 5/)438. M)A. (2/. 68./. -( 4* (+)3A -4 68. +-4..
%B12. A4*68./ :.68*, -( 6* ;+)3. ) (6-3A 2;/-<86 24,./ 68. 3.46./ *7 68. +.)4B
6*. H*9.>./0 68-( :.68*, 9-++ /.(6/-36 1*2/ (;)3. )4, :*>.:.46( -4 68.
(8.+6./.
%B1. F*/ ),,-6-*4)+ ;/*6.36-*4 7/*: 9-4, )4, /)-40 ;+)3. (*:. 5/2(80 1*2/
/23A()3A0 */ *68./ .?2-;:.46 )6 68. (-,.( *7 68. +.)4B6*.
%B14. T* /.,23. 8.)6 +*(( 6* 68. </*24,0 ;+)3. (*:. 61;. *7 -4(2+)6-4<
:)6./-)+0 (238 )( +.)>.( */ ;-4. 4..,+.(0 -4(-,. 1*2/ +.)4B6*.
NOTE: !8.4 )6 /.(60 1*2 +*(. )( :238 )( $" ;./3.46 *7 1*2/ 5*,1 8.)6 6* 68.
</*24,.
%B1%. T* -43/.)(. 1*2/ (.32/-61 7/*: .4.:1 *5(./>)6-*40 +*9./ 68. +.)4B6*H(
(-+8*2.66. 51 :)A-4< 69* 38)4<.(. F-/(60 (.32/. 68. (2;;*/6 +-4.( 6* 68. 6/..(
)6 A4.. 8.-<86 C4*6 )6 9)-(6 8.-<86D 2(-4< 69* A4.. 8-<8 (6-3A( -4 68. 69*
3.46./ </*::.6( C(-,.( *7 +.)4B6*D. S.3*4,0 )4<+. 68. ;*438* 6* 68. </*24,0
(.32/-4< -6 9-68 (8)/;.4., (6-3A(0 )( )5*>..
PONCHO TENT
%B16. T8-( 6.46 CF-<2/. %B2D ;/*>-,.( ) +*9 (-+8*2.66.. I6 )+(* ;/*6.36( 1*2
7/*: 68. .+.:.46( *4 69* (-,.(.
I6 8)(0 8*9.>./0 +.(( 2()5+. (;)3. )4, *5(./>)6-*4 )/.) 68)4 ) +.)4B6*0
,.3/.)(-4< 1*2/ /.)36-*4 6-:. 6* .4.:1 ,.6.36-*4. T* :)A. 68-( 6.460 1*2
4.., ) ;*438*0 69* 1.%B 6* 2.%B:.6./ C%B 6* $B7**6D /*;.(0 (-= (8)/;.4., (6-3A(
)5*26 " 3.46-:.6./( C1 7**6D +*4<0 )4, 69* 6/..( 2 6* :.6./( C7 6* 1" 7..6D
);)/6.
50
F493*+ "C2. P1/.81 T+/0 U:4/9 OB+*8-/94/9 B*-/.8
%B17. T* :)A. 68. 6.460 1*2 (8*2+,@
I T-. *77 68. ;*438* 8**, -4 68. ():. 9)1 )( 68. ;*438* +.)4B6*.
I T-. ) 1.%B 6* 2.%B:.6./ C%B 6* $B7**6D /*;. 6* 68. 3.46./ </*::.6 *4 .)38 (-,.
*7 68. ;*438*.
I T-. 68. *68./ .4,( *7 68.(. /*;.( )6 )5*26 A4.. 8.-<86 6* 69* 6/..( 2 6*
:.6./( C7 6* 1" 7..6D );)/6 )4, (6/.638 68. ;*438* 6-<86.
I D/)9 *4. (-,. *7 68. ;*438* 6-<86 )4, (.32/. -6 6* 68. </*24, ;2(8-4<
(8)/;.4., (6-3A( 68/*2<8 68. </*::.6(.
I F*++*9 68. ():. ;/*3.,2/. *4 68. *68./ (-,..
%B1$. I7 1*2 4.., ) 3.46./ (2;;*/60 2(. 68. ():. :.68*,( )( 7*/ 68. ;*438*
+.)4B6*. A4*68./ 3.46./ (2;;*/6 -( )4 AB7/):. (.6 *26(-,. 526 *>./ 68. 3.46./
*7 68. 6.46 CF-<2/. %BD. U(. 69* 9"B 6* 12"B 3.46-:.6./B+*4< C12B 6* 16B7**6B
+*4<D (6-3A(0 *4. 9-68 ) 7*/A., .4,0 6* 7*/: 68. AB7/):.. T-. 68. 8**,H(
,/)9(6/-4< 6* 68. AB7/):. 6* (2;;*/6 68. 3.46./ *7 68. 6.46.
F493*+ "C3. P1/.81 T+/0 $408 ACF*->+
THREECPOLE PARACHUTE TEPEE
%B19. I7 1*2 8)>. ) ;)/)3826. )4, 68/.. ;*+.( )4, 68. 6)36-3)+ (-62)6-*4
)++*9(0 :)A. ) ;)/)3826. 6.;... I6 -( .)(1 )4, 6)A.( >./1 +-66+. 6-:. 6* :)A.
68-( 6.;... I6 ;/*>-,.( ;/*6.36-*4 7/*: 68. .+.:.46( )4, 3)4 )36 )( ) (-<4)+-4<
,.>-3. 51 .48)43-4< ) (:)++ ):*246 *7 +-<86 7/*: ) 7-/. */ 3)4,+.. I6 -( +)/<.
51
.4*2<8 6* 8*+, (.>./)+ ;.*;+. )4, 68.-/ .?2-;:.46 )4, 6* )++*9 (+..;-4<0
3**A-4<0 )4, (6*/-4< 7-/.9**,.
%B2". Y*2 3)4 :)A. 68-( 6.;.. CF-<2/. %B4D 2(-4< ;)/6( *7 */ ) 98*+.
;./(*44.+ :)-4 */ /.(./>. ;)/)3826. 3)4*;1. I7 2(-4< ) (6)4,)/, ;./(*44.+
;)/)3826.0 1*2 4.., 68/.. ;*+.( .% 6* 4.% :.6./( C12 6* 1% 7..6D +*4< )4,
)5*26 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D -4 ,-):.6./.
F493*+ "C!. T8*++CP1<+ P-*-.830+ T+7++
%B21. T* :)A. 68-( 6.;..0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I L)1 68. ;*+.( *4 68. </*24, )4, +)(8 68.: 6*<.68./ )6 *4. .4,.
I S6)4, 68. 7/):.9*/A 2; )4, (;/.), 68. ;*+.( 6* 7*/: ) 6/-;*,.
I F*/ :*/. (2;;*/60 ;+)3. ),,-6-*4)+ ;*+.( )<)-4(6 68. 6/-;*,. F->. */ (-=
),,-6-*4)+ ;*+.( 9*/A 5.(60 526 ,* 4*6 +)(8 68.: 6* 68. 6/-;*,.
I D.6./:-4. 68. 9-4, ,-/.36-*4 )4, +*3)6. 68. .46/)43. 9" ,.</..( */ :*/.
7/*: 68. :.)4 9-4, ,-/.36-*4.
I L)1 *26 68. ;)/)3826. *4 68. J5)3A(-,.K *7 68. 6/-;*, )4, +*3)6. 68. 5/-,+.
+**; C41+*4 9.5 +**;D )6 68. 6*; C);.=D *7 68. 3)4*;1.
52
I P+)3. 68. 5/-,+. +**; *>./ 68. 6*; *7 ) 7/..(6)4,-4< ;*+.. T8.4 ;+)3. 68.
;*+. 5)3A 2; )<)-4(6 68. 6/-;*, (* 68)6 68. 3)4*;1H( );.= -( )6 68. ():.
8.-<86 )( 68. +)(8-4< *4 68. 68/.. ;*+.(.
I !/); 68. 3)4*;1 )/*24, *4. (-,. *7 68. 6/-;*,. T8. 3)4*;1 (8*2+, 5. *7
,*25+. 68-3A4.((0 )( 1*2 )/. 9/);;-4< )4 .46-/. ;)/)3826.. Y*2 4.., *4+1
9/); 8)+7 *7 68. 6/-;*,0 )( 68. /.:)-4,./ *7 68. 3)4*;1 9-++ .43-/3+. 68. 6/-;*,
-4 68. *;;*(-6. ,-/.36-*4.
I C*4(6/236 68. .46/)43. 51 9/);;-4< 68. 7*+,., .,<.( *7 68. 3)4*;1 )/*24,
69* 7/..B(6)4,-4< ;*+.(. Y*2 3)4 68.4 ;+)3. 68. ;*+.( (-,. 51 (-,. 6* 3+*(.
68. 6.;..H( .46/)43..
I P+)3. )++ .=6/) 3)4*;1 24,./4.)68 68. 6.;.. ;*+.( )4, -4(-,. 6* 3/.)6. )
7+**/ 7*/ 68. (8.+6./.
I L.)>. ) "B 6* %"B3.46-:.6./ C12B 6* 2"B-438D *;.4-4< )6 68. 6*; 7*/
>.46-+)6-*4 -7 1*2 -46.4, 6* 8)>. ) 7-/. -4(-,. 68. 6.;...
%B22. Y*2 4.., ) 14B<*/. (.36-*4 C4*/:)++1D *7 3)4*;10 (6)A.(0 ) (6*26 3.46./
;*+.0 )4, )4 -44./ 3*/. )4, 4..,+. 6* 3*4(6/236 68-( 6.;.. CF-<2/. %B%D. Y*2
326 68. (2(;.4(-*4 +-4.( .=3.;6 7*/ 4"B 6* 4%B3.46-:.6./ C16B 6* 1$B-438D
+.4<68( )6 68. 3)4*;1H( +*9./ +)6./)+ 5)4,.
F493*+ "C". O/+CP1<+ P-*-.830+ T+7++
%B2. T* :)A. 68-( 6.;..0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I S.+.36 ) (8.+6./ (-6. )4, (3/-5. ) 3-/3+. )5*26 4 :.6./( C1 7..6D -4 ,-):.6./
*4 68. </*24,.
I S6)A. 68. ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 6* 68. </*24, 2(-4< 68. +-4.( /.:)-4-4< )6 68.
+*9./ +)6./)+ 5)4,.
I A76./ ,.3-,-4< 98./. 6* ;+)3. 68. (8.+6./ ,**/0 .:;+)3. ) (6)A. )4, 6-. 68.
7-/(6 +-4. C7/*: 68. +*9./ +)6./)+ 5)4,D (.32/.+1 6* -6.
I S6/.638 68. ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 6)26 6* 68. 4.=6 +-4.0 .:;+)3. ) (6)A. *4 68.
(3/-5., +-4.0 )4, 6-. 68. +-4. 6* -6.
I C*46-42. 68. (6)A-4< ;/*3.(( 246-+ 1*2 8)>. 6-., )++ 68. +-4.(.
I L**(.+1 )66)38 68. 6*; *7 68. ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 6* 68. 3.46./ ;*+. 9-68 )
(2(;.4(-*4 +-4. 1*2 ;/.>-*2(+1 326 )4,0 68/*2<8 6/-)+ )4, .//*/0 ,.6./:-4. 68.
;*-46 )6 98-38 68. ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 9-++ 5. ;2++., 6-<86 *43. 68. 3.46./ ;*+.
-( 2;/-<86.
I S.32/.+1 )66)38 68. :)6./-)+ 6* 68. ;*+..
53
I U(-4< ) (2(;.4(-*4 +-4. C*/ -44./ 3*/.D0 (.9 68. .4, <*/.( 6*<.68./ +.)>-4< 1
6* 1.2 :.6./( C 6* 4 7..6D 7*/ ) ,**/.
NOCPOLE PARACHUTE TEPEE
%B24. E=3.;6 7*/ 68. 3.46./ ;*+.0 1*2 2(. 68. ():. :)6./-)+( 7*/ ) 4*B;*+.
;)/)3826. 6.;.. CF-<2/. %B6D0 )( 7*/ 68. *4.B;*+. ;)/)3826. 6.;...
F493*+ "C6. N1CP1<+ P-*-.830+ T+7++
%B2%. T* :)A. 68-( 6.;..0 1*2 (8*2+,@
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+-4..
I T8/*9 68. +-4. *>./ ) 6/.. +-:50 )4, 6-. -6 6* 68. 6/.. 6/24A.
I S6)/6-4< )6 68. *;;*(-6. (-,. 7/*: 68. ,**/0 .:;+)3. ) (6)A. *4 68. (3/-5.,
.%B 6* 4.B:.6./ C12B 6* 14B7**6D 3-/3+..
I T-. 68. 7-/(6 +-4. *4 68. +*9./ +)6./)+ 5)4,.
I C*46-42. .:;+)3-4< 68. (6)A.( )4, 61-4< 68. +-4.( 6* 68.:.
%B26. A76./ (6)A-4< ,*94 68. :)6./-)+0 247)(6.4 68. +-4. 6-., 6* 68. 6/.. 6/24A0
6-<86.4 68. 6.;.. :)6./-)+ 51 ;2++-4< *4 68-( +-4.0 )4, 6-. -6 (.32/.+1 6* 68. 6/..
6/24A.
ONECMAN SHELTER
%B27. A *4.B:)4 (8.+6./ CF-<2/. %B7D 1*2 3)4 .)(-+1 :)A. 2(-4< ) ;)/)3826.
/.?2-/.( ) 6/.. )4, 68/.. ;*+.(. O4. ;*+. (8*2+, 5. )5*26 4.% :.6./( C1%
7..6D +*4< )4, 68. *68./ 69* )5*26 :.6./( C1" 7..6D +*4<.
54
F493*+ "C#. O/+CM-/ S8+<0+*
%B2$. T* :)A. 68-( (8.+6./0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I S.32/. 68. 4.%B:.6./ C1%B7**6D ;*+. 6* 68. 6/.. )6 )5*26 9)-(6 8.-<86.
I L)1 68. 69* B:.6./ C1"B7**6D ;*+.( *4 68. </*24, *4 .-68./ (-,. *7 )4, -4 68.
():. ,-/.36-*4 )( 68. 4.%B:.6./ C1%B7**6D ;*+..
I L)1 68. 7*+,., 3)4*;1 *>./ 68. 4.%B:.6./ C1%B7**6D ;*+. (* 68)6 )5*26 68.
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I T23A 68. .=3.(( :)6./-)+ 24,./ 68. B:.6./ C1"B7**6D ;*+.( )4, (;/.), -6 *4
68. </*24, -4(-,. 6* (./>. )( ) 7+**/.
I S6)A. ,*94 */ ;26 ) (;/.),./ 5.69..4 68. 69* B:.6./ C1"B7**6D ;*+.( )6 68.
(8.+6./H( .46/)43. (* 68.1 9-++ 4*6 (+-,. -49)/,.
I U(. )41 .=3.(( :)6./-)+ 6* 3*>./ 68. .46/)43..
%B29. T8. ;)/)3826. 3+*68 :)A.( 68-( (8.+6./ 9-4,B/.(-(6)460 )4, 68. (8.+6./
-( (:)++ .4*2<8 68)6 -6 -( .)(-+1 9)/:.,. A 3)4,+.0 2(., 3)/.72++10 3)4 A..;
68. -4(-,. 6.:;./)62/. 3*:7*/6)5+.. H*9.>./0 68-( (8.+6./ -( 24()6-(7)36*/1
98.4 (4*9 -( 7)++-4<0 )( .>.4 ) +-<86 (4*97)++ 9-++ 3)>. -6 -4.
PARACHUTE HAMMOCK
%B". Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) 8)::*3A 2(-4< (-= 6* .-<86 <*/.( *7 ;)/)3826. 3)4*;1
)4, 69* 6/..( )5*26 4.% :.6./( C1% 7..6D );)/6 CF-<2/. %B$D.
55
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FIELDCEXPEDIENT LEANCTO
%B1. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 9**,., )/.) )4, 8)>. .4*2<8 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+(0 1*2
3)4 :)A. ) 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 +.)4B6* CF-<2/. %B9D 9-68*26 68. )-, *7 6**+( */ 9-68
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*68./ 61;.(0 526 -6 9-++ ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. .+.:.46(.
56
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*4. ;*+. )5*26 2 :.6./( C7 7..6D +*4< )4, 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D -4 ,-):.6./M
7->. 6* .-<86 ;*+.( )5*26 :.6./( C1" 7..6D +*4< )4, 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D
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6/..(M )4, *68./ ;*+.(0 ();+-4<(0 */ >-4.( 6* 3/-((3/*(( 68. 5.):(.
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9)++ CF-<2/. %B9D. D/->. 7*2/ 1.%B:.6./B+*4< C%B7**6B+*4<D (6)A.( -46* 68.
</*24, 6* (2;;*/6 68. 9)++. S6)3A </..4 +*<( *4 6*; *7 *4. )4*68./ 5.69..4
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9-68-4 68. 9)++ 68)6 1*2 3)4 7-++ 9-68 ,-/6. T8-( )36-*4 4*6 *4+1 (6/.4<68.4( 68.
9)++ 526 :)A.( -6 :*/. 8.)6 /.7+.36->.. B-4, 68. 6*; *7 68. (2;;*/6 (6)A.( (*
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S$AMP BED
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9.-<860 6* -43+2,. .?2-;:.46.
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.4*2<8 6* (2;;*/6 1*2/ 9.-<86.
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)4, )++*9 -6 6* ,/1.
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246-+ 68./. -( .4*2<8 :)6./-)+ 6* /)-(. 68. (+..;-4< (2/7)3. )5*>. 68. 9)6./
+.>.+.
NATURAL SHELTERS
%B9. D* 4*6 *>./+**A 4)62/)+ 7*/:)6-*4( 68)6 ;/*>-,. (8.+6./. E=):;+.( )/.
3)>.(0 /*3A1 3/.>-3.(0 3+2:;( *7 52(8.(0 (:)++ ,.;/.((-*4(0 +)/<. /*3A( *4
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(2//*24,-4< 8-<8 </*24,. T8-3A0 5/2(810 +*9 </*24, )+(* 8)/5*/( :*/.
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3*2+, 7)++ *4 1*2/ (8.+6./.
DEBRIS HUT
58
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TREECPIT SNO$ SHELTER
%B42. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 3*+,0 (4*9B3*>./., )/.) 98./. .>./</..4 6/..( </*9
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59
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68. ;-6 7*/ -4(2+)6-*4.
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BEACH SHADE SHELTER
%B4%. T8. 5.)38 (8),. (8.+6./ CF-<2/. %B1D ;/*6.36( 1*2 7/*: 68. (240 9-4,0
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)4, )( ) ,-<<-4< 6**+.
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60
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I U(. 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+( (238 )( </)(( */ +.)>.( 6* 7*/: ) 5., -4(-,. 68.
(8.+6./.
DESERT SHELTERS
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9-++ /.,23. 68. 6.:;./)62/. 24,./ 68. (8.+6./.
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61
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6/.438 4% 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C1$ 6* 24 -438.(D ,..;0 )4, +*4< )4, 9-,.
.4*2<8 7*/ 1*2 6* +-. -4 3*:7*/6)5+1.
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I O4 68. *;.4 .4, *7 68. 6/.4380 ,-< *26 :*/. ()4, (* 1*2 3)4 <.6 -4 )4, *26
*7 1*2/ (8.+6./ .)(-+1.
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62
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CHAPTER 6.
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$ATER SOURCES
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63
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68. ,-/.36-*4 -4 98-38
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4.)/51.
65
F493*+ 6C1. $-0+* S13*.+: 4/ D4,,+*+/0 E/B4*1/>+/0:
6B2. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. ) /.+-)5+. (*2/3. 6* /.;+.4-(8 1*2/ 9)6./ (2;;+10 (6)1
)+./6 7*/ 9)1( -4 98-38 1*2/ .4>-/*4:.46 3)4 8.+; 1*2.
F<342. R+>-*?:.
A+3*8*+-3
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D.81,/)6. 68. 5*,1 )4, 3+*2, F2,<:.46.
U/-4.. C*46)-4( 8)/:72+ 5*,1 9)(6.(. I6 -( )5*26 2 ;./3.46 ()+6.
B+**,. I6 -( ()+61 )4, 3*4(-,./., ) 7**,M 68./.7*/.0 /.?2-/.( ),,-6-*4)+
5*,1 7+2-,( 6* ,-<.(6. M)1 6/)4(:-6 ,-(.)(.(.
S.)9)6./. I( )5*26 4 ;./3.46 ()+6. -6 6)A.( )5*26 2 +-6/.( *7 5*,1 7+2-,( 6*
/-, 68. 5*,1 *7 9)(6. 7/*: 1 +-6/. *7 (.)9)6./. T8./.7*/.0 51
,/-4A-4< (.)9)6./ 1*2 ,.;+.6. 1*2/ 5*,1T( 9)6./ (2;;+10 98-38
3)4 3)2(. ,.)68.
NOTE: DO NOT (25(6-626. 68. 7+2-,( +-(6., -4 F-<2/. 6B2 7*/ 9)6./.
F493*+ 6C2. T8+ E,,+.0: 1, S3@:04030+ F<342:
6B. H.)>1 ,.9B3*>./., </)(( 5.7*/. (24/-(.. A( 68. /)<( */ </)(( 6276(
)5(*/5 68. ,.90 9/-4< 68. 9)6./ -46* ) 3*46)-4./. R.;.)6 68. ;/*3.(( 246-+
1*2 8)>. ) (2;;+1 *7 9)6./ */ 246-+ 68. ,.9 -( <*4.. A2(6/)+-)4 4)6->.(
(*:.6-:.( :*; 2; )( :238 )( 1 +-6./ )4 8*2/ 68-( 9)1.
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S-;8*4 68. 9)6./ 9-68 ;+)(6-3 625-4< */ (3**; -6 2; 9-68 )4 -:;/*>-(., ,-;;./.
Y*2 3)4 )+(* (6277 3+*68 -4 68. 8*+. 6* )5(*/5 68. 9)6./ )4, 68.4 9/-4< -6 7/*:
68. 3+*68.
6B%. !)6./ (*:.6-:.( <)68./( -4 6/.. 3/*638.( */ /*3A 3/.>-3.(. U(. 68.
)5*>. ;/*3.,2/.( 6* <.6 68. 9)6./. I4 )/-, )/.)(0 5-/, ,/*;;-4<( )/*24, )
3/)3A -4 68. /*3A( :)1 -4,-3)6. 9)6./ -4 */ 4.)/ 68. 3/)3A.
6B6. G/..4 5):5** 68-3A.6( )/. )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 7/.(8 9)6./. !)6./
7/*: </..4 5):5** -( 3+.)/ )4, *,*/+.((. T* <.6 68. 9)6./0 5.4, ) </..4
5):5** (6)+A0 6-. -6 ,*940 )4, 326 *77 68. 6*; CF-<2/. 6BD. T8. 9)6./ 9-++ ,/-;
7/..+1 ,2/-4< 68. 4-<86. O+,0 3/)3A., 5):5** :)1 )+(* 3*46)-4 9)6./.
66
F493*+ 6C3. $-0+* F*1> G*++/ B->@11
CAUTION C P2/-71 68. 9)6./ 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4< -6.
6B7. !8./.>./ 1*2 7-4, 5)4)4) 6/..(0 ;+)46)-4 6/..(0 */ (2<)/3)4.0 1*2 3)4
<.6 9)6./. C26 ,*94 68. 6/..0 +.)>-4< )5*26 ) "B3.46-:.6./ C12B-438D (62:;0
)4, (3**; *26 68. 3.46./ *7 68. (62:; (* 68)6 68. 8*++*9 -( 5*9+B(8);.,.
!)6./ 7/*: 68. /**6( 9-++ -::.,-)6.+1 (6)/6 6* 7-++ 68. 8*++*9. T8. 7-/(6 68/..
7-++-4<( *7 9)6./ 9-++ 5. 5-66./0 526 (233..,-4< 7-++-4<( 9-++ 5. ;)+)6)5+.. T8.
(62:; CF-<2/. 6B4D 9-++ (2;;+1 9)6./ 7*/ 2; 6* 4 ,)1(. B. (2/. 6* 3*>./ -6 6*
A..; *26 -4(.36(.
F493*+ 6C!. $-0+* F*1> P<-/0-4/ 1* B-/-/- T*++ S03>7
6B$. S*:. 6/*;-3)+ >-4.( 3)4 <->. 1*2 9)6./. C26 ) 4*638 -4 68. >-4. )( 8-<8
)( 1*2 3)4 /.)380 68.4 326 68. >-4. *77 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24,. C)638 68.
,/*;;-4< +-?2-, -4 ) 3*46)-4./ */ -4 1*2/ :*268 CF-<2/. 6B%D.
CAUTION C E4(2/. 68)6 68. >-4. -( 4*6 ;*-(*4*2(.
67
F493*+ 6C". $-0+* F*1> - V4/+
6B9. T8. :-+A 7/*: 1*24<0 </..4 C24/-;.D 3*3*426( -( ) <**, 68-/(6 ?2.438./.
H*9.>./0 68. :-+A 7/*: :)62/.0 5/*940 3*3*426( 3*46)-4( )4 *-+ 68)6 )36( )( )
+)=)6->.. D/-4A -4 :*,./)6-*4 *4+1.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 ,/-4A 68. +-?2-, -7 -6 -( (6-3A10 :-+A10 */ 5-66./ 6)(6-4<.
6B1". I4 68. A:./-3)4 6/*;-3( 1*2 :)1 7-4, +)/<. 6/..( 98*(. 5/)438.(
(2;;*/6 )-/ ;+)46(. T8.(. )-/ ;+)46( :)1 8*+, ) 3*4(-,./)5+. ):*246 *7
/)-49)6./ -4 68.-/ *>./+);;-4<0 68-3A+1 </*9-4< +.)>.(. S6/)-4 68. 9)6./
68/*2<8 ) 3+*68 6* /.:*>. -4(.36( )4, ,.5/-(.
6B11. Y*2 3)4 <.6 9)6./ 7/*: ;+)46( 9-68 :*-(6 ;2+;1 3.46./(. C26 *77 )
(.36-*4 *7 68. ;+)46 )4, (?2..G. */ (:)(8 68. ;2+; (* 68)6 68. :*-(62/. /24(
*26. C)638 68. +-?2-, -4 ) 3*46)-4./.
6B12. P+)46 /**6( :)1 ;/*>-,. 9)6./. D-< */ ;/1 68. /**6( *26 *7 68. </*24,0
326 68.: -46* (8*/6 ;-.3.(0 )4, (:)(8 68. ;2+; (* 68)6 68. :*-(62/. /24( *26.
C)638 68. +-?2-, -4 ) 3*46)-4./.
6B1. F+.(81 +.)>.(0 (6.:(0 */ (6)+A(0 (238 )( 5):5**0 3*46)-4 9)6./. C26 */
4*638 68. (6)+A( )6 68. 5)(. *7 ) F*-46 6* ,/)-4 *26 68. +-?2-,.
6B14. T8. 7*++*9-4< 6/..( 3)4 )+(* ;/*>-,. 9)6./E
I "alms. T8. 52/-0 3*3*4260 (2<)/0 /)66)40 )4, 4-;( 3*46)-4 +-?2-,. B/2-(. )
+*9./ 7/*4, )4, ;2++ -6 ,*94 (* 68. 6/.. 9-++ J5+..,K )6 68. -4F2/1.
I $raveler-s tree. F*24, -4 M),)<)(3)/0 68-( 6/.. 8)( ) 32;+-A. (8.)68 )6 68.
5)(. *7 -6( +.)>.( -4 98-38 9)6./ 3*++.36(.
I .m%rella tree. T8. +.)7 5)(.( )4, /**6( *7 68-( 6/.. *7 9.(6./4 6/*;-3)+ A7/-3)
3)4 ;/*>-,. 9)6./.
I *ao%a% tree. T8-( 6/.. *7 68. ()4,1 ;+)-4( *7 4*/68./4 A2(6/)+-) )4, A7/-3)
3*++.36( 9)6./ -4 -6( 5*66+.+-A. 6/24A ,2/-4< 68. 9.6 (.)(*4. F/.?2.46+10 1*2
3)4 7-4, 3+.)/0 7/.(8 9)6./ -4 68.(. 6/..( )76./ 9..A( *7 ,/1 9.)68./.
68
CAUTION C D* 4*6 A..; 68. (); 7/*: ;+)46( +*4<./ 68)4 24 8*2/(. I6 5.<-4(
7./:.46-4<0 5.3*:-4< ,)4<./*2( )( ) 9)6./ (*2/3..
STILL CONSTRUCTION
6B1%. Y*2 3)4 2(. (6-++( -4 >)/-*2( )/.)( *7 68. 9*/+,. T8.1 ,/)9 :*-(62/.
7/*: 68. </*24, )4, 7/*: ;+)46 :)6./-)+. Y*2 4.., 3./6)-4 :)6./-)+( 6* 52-+,
) (6-++0 )4, 1*2 4.., 6-:. 6* +.6 -6 3*++.36 68. 9)6./. I6 6)A.( )5*26 24 8*2/( 6*
<.6 ".% 6* 1 +-6./ *7 9)6./.
ABOVEGROUND STILLS
6B16. Y*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 69* 61;.( *7 )5*>.</*24, (6-++(. T* :)A. 68.
B+9+0-041/ @-9 :04<<0 1*2 4.., ) (2441 (+*;. *4 98-38 6* ;+)3. 68. (6-++0 )
3+.)/ ;+)(6-3 5)<0 </..4 +.)71 >.<.6)6-*40 )4, ) (:)++ /*3A CF-<2/. 6B6D.
F493*+ 6C6. V+9+0-041/ B-9 S04<<
6B17. T* :)A. 68. (6-++0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I F-++ 68. 5)< 9-68 )-/ 51 62/4-4< 68. *;.4-4< -46* 68. 5/..G. */ 51 J(3**;-4<K
)-/ -46* 68. 5)<.
I F-++ 68. ;+)(6-3 5)< *4.B8)+7 6* 68/..B7*2/68( 72++ *7 </..4 +.)71 >.<.6)6-*4. B.
(2/. 6* /.:*>. )++ 8)/, (6-3A( */ (8)/; (;-4.( 68)6 :-<86 ;24362/. 68. 5)<.
I P+)3. ) (:)++ /*3A */ (-:-+)/ -6.: -4 68. 5)<.
I C+*(. 68. 5)< )4, 6-. 68. :*268 (.32/.+1 )( 3+*(. 6* 68. .4, *7 68. 5)< )(
;*((-5+. 6* A..; 68. :)=-:2: ):*246 *7 )-/ (;)3.. I7 1*2 8)>. ) ;-.3. *7
625-4<0 ) (:)++ (6/)90 */ ) 8*++*9 /..,0 -4(./6 *4. .4, -4 68. :*268 *7 68. 5)<
5.7*/. 1*2 6-. -6 (.32/.+1. T8.4 6-. *77 */ ;+2< 68. 625-4< (* 68)6 )-/ 9-++ 4*6
.(3);.. T8-( 625-4< 9-++ )++*9 1*2 6* ,/)-4 *26 3*4,.4(., 9)6./ 9-68*26
2461-4< 68. 5)<.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 2(. ;*-(*4*2( >.<.6)6-*4. I6 9-++ ;/*>-,. ;*-(*4*2( +-?2-,.
I P+)3. 68. 5)<0 :*268 ,*948-++0 *4 ) (+*;. -4 72++ (24+-<86. P*(-6-*4 68. :*268
*7 68. 5)< (+-<86+1 8-<8./ 68)4 68. +*9 ;*-46 -4 68. 5)<.
69
I S.66+. 68. 5)< -4 ;+)3. (* 68)6 68. /*3A 9*/A( -6(.+7 -46* 68. +*9 ;*-46 -4 68.
5)<.
6B1$. T* <.6 68. 3*4,.4(., 9)6./ 7/*: 68. (6-++0 +**(.4 68. 6-. )/*24, 68.
5)<H( :*268 )4, 6-; 68. 5)< (* 68)6 68. 9)6./ 3*++.36., )/*24, 68. /*3A 9-++
,/)-4 *26. T8.4 /.6-. 68. :*268 (.32/.+1 )4, /.;*(-6-*4 68. (6-++ 6* )++*9
72/68./ 3*4,.4()6-*4.
6B19. C8)4<. 68. >.<.6)6-*4 -4 68. 5)< )76./ .=6/)36-4< :*(6 *7 68. 9)6./
7/*: -6. T8-( 9-++ .4(2/. :)=-:2: *26;26 *7 9)6./.
6B2". M)A-4< ) 0*-/:74*-041/ @-9 :04<< -( (-:-+)/ 6* 68. >.<.6)6-*4 5)<0 *4+1
.)(-./. S-:;+1 6-. 68. ;+)(6-3 5)< *>./ ) +.)71 6/.. +-:5 9-68 ) 625. -4(./6.,0
)4, 6-. 68. :*268 *7 68. 5)< *77 6-<86+1 )/*24, 68. 5/)438 6* 7*/: )4 )-/6-<86
(.)+. T-. 68. .4, *7 68. +-:5 (* 68)6 -6 8)4<( 5.+*9 68. +.>.+ *7 68. :*268 *7
68. 5)<. T8. 9)6./ 9-++ 3*++.36 68./. CF-<2/. 6B7D.
F493*+ 6C#. $-0+* T*-/:74*-041/ B-9
6B21. T8. ():. +-:5 :)1 5. 2(., 7*/ 6* % ,)1( 9-68*26 3)2(-4< +*4<B6./:
8)/: 6* 68. +-:5. I6 9-++ 8.)+ -6(.+7 9-68-4 ) 7.9 8*2/( *7 /.:*>-4< 68. 5)<.
BELO$GROUND STILL
6B22. T* :)A. ) 5.+*9</*24, (6-++0 1*2 4.., ) ,-<<-4< 6**+0 ) 3*46)-4./0 )
3+.)/ ;+)(6-3 (8..60 ) ,/-4A-4< 625.0 )4, ) /*3A CF-<2/. 6B$D.
70
F493*+ 6C. B+<1A9*13/2 S04<<
6B2. S.+.36 ) (-6. 98./. 1*2 5.+-.>. 68. (*-+ 9-++ 3*46)-4 :*-(62/. C(238 )( )
,/1 (6/.):5., */ ) +*9 (;*6 98./. /)-49)6./ 8)( 3*++.36.,D. T8. (*-+ )6 68-(
(-6. (8*2+, 5. .)(1 6* ,-<0 )4, (24+-<86 :2(6 8-6 68. (-6. :*(6 *7 68. ,)1.
6B24. T* 3*4(6/236 68. (6-++0 1*2 (8*2+,@
I D-< ) 5*9+B(8);., 8*+. )5*26 1 :.6./ C 7..6D )3/*(( )4, 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24
-438.(D ,..;.
I D-< ) (2:; -4 68. 3.46./ *7 68. 8*+.. T8. (2:;H( ,.;68 )4, ;./-:.6./ 9-++
,.;.4, *4 68. (-G. *7 68. 3*46)-4./ 68)6 1*2 8)>. 6* ;+)3. -4 -6. T8. 5*66*: *7
68. (2:; (8*2+, )++*9 68. 3*46)-4./ 6* (6)4, 2;/-<86.
I A438*/ 68. 625-4< 6* 68. 3*46)-4./H( 5*66*: 51 7*/:-4< ) +**(. *>./8)4,
A4*6 -4 68. 625-4<.
I P+)3. 68. 3*46)-4./ 2;/-<86 -4 68. (2:;.
I E=6.4, 68. 24)438*/., .4, *7 68. 625-4< 2;0 *>./0 )4, 5.1*4, 68. +-; *7 68.
8*+..
I P+)3. 68. ;+)(6-3 (8..6 *>./ 68. 8*+.0 3*>./-4< -6( .,<.( 9-68 (*-+ 6* 8*+, -6 -4
;+)3..
I P+)3. ) /*3A -4 68. 3.46./ *7 68. ;+)(6-3 (8..6.
I L*9./ 68. ;+)(6-3 (8..6 -46* 68. 8*+. 246-+ -6 -( )5*26 4" 3.46-:.6./( C16
-438.(D 5.+*9 </*24, +.>.+. I6 4*9 7*/:( )4 -4>./6., 3*4. 9-68 68. /*3A )6 -6(
);.=. M)A. (2/. 68)6 68. 3*4.H( );.= -( ,-/.36+1 *>./ 1*2/ 3*46)-4./. A+(*
:)A. (2/. 68. ;+)(6-3 3*4. ,*.( 4*6 6*238 68. (-,.( *7 68. 8*+. 5.3)2(. 68.
.)/68 9-++ )5(*/5 68. 3*4,.4(., 9)6./.
I P26 :*/. (*-+ *4 68. .,<.( *7 68. ;+)(6-3 6* 8*+, -6 (.32/.+1 -4 ;+)3. )4, 6*
;/.>.46 68. +*(( *7 :*-(62/..
I P+2< 68. 625. 98.4 4*6 -4 2(. 6* A..; 68. :*-(62/. 7/*: .>);*/)6-4< )4, 6*
A..; -4(.36( *26.
6B2%. Y*2 3)4 ,/-4A 9)6./ 9-68*26 ,-(62/5-4< 68. (6-++ 51 2(-4< 68. 625. )( )
(6/)9. B1 *;.4-4< 68. (6-++0 1*2 /.+.)(. 68. :*-(60 9)/: )-/ 68)6 8)(
)332:2+)6.,.
71
6B26. Y*2 :)1 9)46 6* 2(. ;+)46( -4 68. 8*+. )( ) :*-(62/. (*2/3.. I7 (*0 ,-<
*26 ),,-6-*4)+ (*-+ 7/*: 68. (-,.( *7 68. 8*+. 6* 7*/: ) (+*;. *4 98-38 6* ;+)3.
68. ;+)46(. T8.4 ;/*3.., )( )5*>..
6B27. I7 ;*++26., 9)6./ -( 1*2/ *4+1 :*-(62/. (*2/3.0 ,-< ) (:)++ 6/*2<8 *26(-,.
68. 8*+. )5*26 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1" -438.(D 7/*: 68. (6-++H( +-; CF-<2/. 6B9D. D-<
68. 6/*2<8 )5*26 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1" -438.(D ,..; )4, $ 3.46-:.6./( C
-438.(D 9-,.. P*2/ 68. ;*++26., 9)6./ -4 68. 6/*2<8. B. (2/. 1*2 ,* 4*6 (;-++
)41 ;*++26., 9)6./ )/*24, 68. /-: *7 68. 8*+. 98./. 68. ;+)(6-3 (8..6 6*238.(
68. (*-+. T8. 6/*2<8 8*+,( 68. ;*++26., 9)6./ )4, 68. (*-+ 7-+6./( -6 )( 68. (6-++
,/)9( -6. T8. 9)6./ 68.4 3*4,.4(.( *4 68. ;+)(6-3 )4, ,/)-4( -46* 68.
3*46)-4./. T8-( ;/*3.(( 9*/A( .=6/.:.+1 9.++ 98.4 1*2/ *4+1 9)6./ (*2/3. -(
()+6 9)6./.
F493*+ 6C%. B+<1A9*13/2 S04<< 01 G+0 P10-@<+ $-0+* F*1> P1<<30+2 $-0+*
6B2$. Y*2 9-++ 4.., )6 +.)(6 68/.. (6-++( 6* :..6 1*2/ -4,->-,2)+ ,)-+1 9)6./
-46)A. 4..,(. I4 3*:;)/-(*4 6* 68. 5.+*9</*24, (6-++ )4, 68. 9)6./
6/)4(;-/)6-*4 5)< (6-++0 68. >.<.6)6-*4 5)< ;/*,23.( 68. 5.(6 1-.+, *7 9)6./.
$ATER PURIFICATION
6B29. R)-49)6./ 3*++.36., -4 3+.)4 3*46)-4./( */ -4 ;+)46( -( 2(2)++1 ()7. 7*/
,/-4A-4<. H*9.>./0 ;2/-71 9)6./ 7/*: +)A.(0 ;*4,(0 (9):;(0 (;/-4<(0 */
(6/.):(0 .(;.3-)++1 68. 9)6./ 4.)/ 82:)4 (.66+.:.46( */ -4 68. 6/*;-3(.
6B". !8.4 ;*((-5+.0 ;2/-71 )++ 9)6./ 1*2 <.6 7/*: >.<.6)6-*4 */ 7/*: 68.
</*24, 51 5*-+-4< */ 2(-4< -*,-4. */ 38+*/-4.. A76./ ;2/-71-4< ) 3)46..4 *7
9)6./0 1*2 :2(6 ;)/6-)++1 24(3/.9 68. 3); )4, 62/4 68. 3)46..4 2;(-,. ,*94
6* /-4(. 24;2/-7-., 9)6./ 7/*: 68. 68/.),( *7 68. 3)46..4 98./. 1*2/ :*268
6*238.(.
6B1. P2/-71 9)6./ 51 68. 7*++*9-4< :.68*,(E
I U(. 9)6./ ;2/-7-3)6-*4 6)5+.6(. CF*++*9 68. ,-/.36-*4( ;/*>-,.,.D
72
I P+)3. % ,/*;( *7 2 ;./3.46 6-4362/. *7 -*,-4. -4 ) 3)46..4 72++ *7 3+.)/ 9)6./.
I7 68. 3)46..4 -( 72++ *7 3+*2,1 */ 3*+, 9)6./0 2(. 1" ,/*;(. CL.6 68. 3)46..4 *7
9)6./ (6)4, 7*/ " :-426.( 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4<.D
I U(. 2 ,/*;( *7 1" ;./3.46 C:-+-6)/1 (6/.4<68D ;*>-,*4.B-*,-4. */ 1 ;./3.46
6-6/)6., ;*>-,*4.-*,-4.. T8. 3->-+-)4 .?2->)+.46 -( 2(2)++1 2 ;./3.46 (6/.4<680
(* 1" ,/*;( 9-++ 5. 4..,.,. L.6 (6)4, 7*/ " :-426.(. I7 68. 9)6./ -( 3*+, )4,
3+.)/0 9)-6 6" :-426.(. I7 -6H( >./1 3*+, */ 3+*2,10 ),, 4 ,/*;( )4, 9)-6 6"
:-426.(.
I P+)3. 2 ,/*;( *7 38+*/-4. 5+.)38 C%.2% ;./3.46 (*,-2: 81;*38+*/-6.D -4 )
3)46..4 *7 9)6./. L.6 (6)4, " :-426.(. I7 68. 9)6./ -( 3*+, */ 3+*2,10 9)-6 6"
:-426.(. R.:.:5./ 68)6 4*6 )++ 5+.)38 -( 68. ():. )/*24, 68. 9*/+,M 38.3A
68. )>)-+)5+. +.>.+ *7 (*,-2: 81;*38+*/-6..
I U(. ;*6)((-2: ;./:)4<)4)6.0 3*::*4+1 :)/A.6., )( C*4,1H( C/1(6)+(0 7*/
) 42:5./ *7 );;+-3)6-*4(0 -43+2,-4< .:./<.431 ,-(-47.36-*4 *7 9)6./. T8.
3/1(6)+( )/. *7 ) 4*424-7*/: (-G.0 (* 1*2 :2(6 F2,<. 68. )362)+ ,*()<. 51 68.
3*+*/ *7 68. 9)6./ )76./ ),,-4< 68. 3/1(6)+(. A,, 68/.. (:)++ 3/1(6)+( 6* 1 +-6./
C1 ?2)/6D *7 9)6./. I7 68. 9)6./ 62/4( ) 5/-<86 ;-4A )76./ 9)-6-4< " :-426.(0 68.
9)6./ -( 3*4(-,./., ;2/-7-.,. I7 68. 9)6./ 62/4( ) ,)/A ;-4A0 68./. -( 6** :238
;*6)((-2: ;./:)4<)4)6. 6* ,/-4A ()7.+1. E-68./ ),, :*/. 9)6./ 6* ,-+26. 68.
:-=62/. */ ()>. -6 7*/ 2(. )( )4 )46-(.;6-3 (*+26-*4. I7 68. 9)6./ 5.3*:.( ) 72++
/.,0 +-A. 68. 3*+*/ *7 3/)45.//1 F2-3.0 68. (*+26-*4 :)1 5. 2(., )( )4 )46-724<)+
(*+26-*4.
I B*-+ 1*2/ ,/-4A-4< 9)6./. T8-( -( 68. ()7.(6 :.68*, *7 ;2/-71-4< 1*2/ ,/-4A-4<
9)6./. B1 )38-.>-4< ) /*++-4< 5*-+0 1*2 3)4 .4(2/. 68)6 1*2 )/. ,.(6/*1-4< )++
+->-4< 9)6./5*/4. ;)68*<.4(.
6B2. B1 ,/-4A-4< 4*4;*6)5+. 9)6./ 1*2 :)1 3*46/)36 ,-(.)(.( */ (9)++*9
*/<)4-(:( 68)6 3)4 8)/: 1*2 )4, :)1 .)(-+1 +.), 6* ;*6.46-)++1 7)6)+
9)6./5*/4. -++4.((.(.
6B. T9* *7 68. :*(6 ;/.>)+.46 ;)68*<.4( 7*24, -4 :*(6 9)6./ (*2/3.(
68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+, )/.@
I G-)/,-)0 98-38 3)2(.( G-)/,-)(-( C5.)>./ 7.>./D. I6 -( 38)/)36./-G., 51 )4
.=;+*(->.0 9)6./1 ,-)//8.) )33*:;)4-., 51 (.>./. 3/):;( +)(6-4< 7 6* 14
,)1(.
I C/1;6*(;*/-,-2:0 98-38 3)2(.( C/1;6*(;*/-,-*(-(. I6 -( :238 +-A. G-)/,-)(-(0
*4+1 :*/. (.>./. )4, ;/*+*4<.,0 )4, 68./. -( 4* A4*94 32/. 526 6-:..
D-)//8.) :)1 5. :-+, )4, 3)4 +)(6 7/*: ,)1( 6* 2 9..A(.
NOTE: T8. *4+1 .77.36->. :.)4( *7 4.26/)+-G-4< C/1;6*(;*/-,-2: -( 51 5*-+-4<
*/ 51 2(-4< ) 3*::./3-)+ :-3/* 7-+6./ */ /.>./(.B*(:*(-( 7-+6/)6-*4 (1(6.:.
C8.:-3)+ ,-(-47.36)46( (238 )( -*,-4. 6)5+.6( */ 5+.)38 8)>. 4*6 (8*94 6* 5.
1"" ;./3.46 .77.36->. -4 .+-:-4)6-4< C/1;6*(;*/-,-2:.
6B4. E=):;+.( *7 *68./ ,-(.)(.( */ */<)4-(:( )/.@
I /ysentery. Y*2 :)1 .=;./-.43. (.>./.0 ;/*+*4<., ,-)//8.) 9-68 5+**,1
(6**+(0 7.>./0 )4, 9.)A4.((.
73
I Cholera and typhoid. Y*2 :)1 5. (2(3.;6-5+. 6* 68.(. ,-(.)(.( /.<)/,+.((
*7 -4*32+)6-*4(. C8*+./) 3)4 3)2(. ;/*72(.0 9)6./1 ,-)//8.)0 >*:-6-4<0 )4,
+.< 3/):;(. T1;8*-, (1:;6*:( -43+2,. 7.>./0 8.),)38.0 +*(( *7 );;.6-6.0
3*4(6-;)6-*40 )4, 5+..,-4< -4 68. 5*9.+.
I ,epatitis A. S1:;6*:( -43+2,. ,-)//8.)0 )5,*:-4)+ ;)-40 F)24,-3.0 )4, ,)/A
2/-4.. T8-( -47.36-*4 3)4 (;/.), 68/*2<8 3+*(. ;./(*4B6*B;./(*4 3*46)36 */
-4<.(6-*4 *7 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./ */ 7**,.
I #l&kes. S6)<4)460 ;*++26., 9)6./@.(;.3-)++1 -4 6/*;-3)+ )/.)(@*76.4
3*46)-4( 5+**, 7+2A.(. I7 1*2 (9)++*9 7+2A.(0 68.1 9-++ 5*/. -46* 68.
5+**,(6/.):0 +->. )( ;)/)(-6.(0 )4, 3)2(. ,-(.)(..
I 0eeches. I7 1*2 (9)++*9 ) +..380 -6 3)4 8**A *46* 68. 68/*)6 ;)(()<. */
-4(-,. 68. 4*(.. I6 9-++ (23A 5+**,0 3/.)6. ) 9*24,0 )4, :*>. 6* )4*68./ )/.).
E)38 5+..,-4< 9*24, :)1 5.3*:. -47.36.,.
$ATER FILTRATION DEVICES
6B%. I7 68. 9)6./ 1*2 7-4, -( )+(* :2,,10 (6)<4)460 )4, 7*2+B(:.++-4<0 1*2 3)4
3+.)/ 68. 9)6./@
I B1 ;+)3-4< -6 -4 ) 3*46)-4./ )4, +.66-4< -6 (6)4, 7*/ 12 8*2/(.
I B1 ;*2/-4< -6 68/*2<8 ) 7-+6./-4< (1(6.:.
NOTE: T8.(. ;/*3.,2/.( *4+1 3+.)/ 68. 9)6./ )4, :)A. -6 :*/. ;)+)6)5+..
Y*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* ;2/-71 -6.
6B6. T* :)A. ) 7-+6./-4< (1(6.:0 ;+)3. (.>./)+ 3.46-:.6./( */ +)1./( *7
7-+6./-4< :)6./-)+ (238 )( ()4,0 3/2(8., /*3A0 38)/3*)+0 */ 3+*68 -4 5):5**0 )
8*++*9 +*<0 */ )4 )/6-3+. *7 3+*68-4< CF-<2/. 6B1"D.
F493*+ 6C10. $-0+* F4<0+*4/9 S;:0+>:
6B7. R.:*>. 68. *,*/ 7/*: 9)6./ 51 ),,-4< 38)/3*)+ 7/*: 1*2/ 7-/..
C8)/3*)+ -( )+(* 8.+;72+ -4 )5(*/5-4< (*:. )</-32+62/)+ )4, -4,2(6/-)+
38.:-3)+(. L.6 68. 9)6./ (6)4, 7*/ 4% :-426.( 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4< -6.
CHAPTER #.
74
F4*+ .*-,0.
I4 :)41 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4(0 68. )5-+-61 6* (6)/6 ) 7-/. 3)4 :)A. 68. ,-77./.43.
5.69..4 +->-4< )4, ,1-4<.
F-/. 3)4 72+7-++ :)41 4..,(. I6 3)4 ;/*>-,. 9)/:68 )4, 3*:7*/6. I6 4*6 *4+1
3**A( )4, ;/.(./>.( 7**,0 -6 )+(* ;/*>-,.( 9)/:68 -4 68. 7*/: *7 8.)6., 7**,
68)6 ()>.( 3)+*/-.( *2/ 5*,1 4*/:)++1 2(.( 6* ;/*,23. 5*,1 8.)6. Y*2 3)4
2(. 7-/. 6* ;2/-71 9)6./0 (6./-+-G. 5)4,)<.(0 (-<4)+ 7*/ /.(32.0 )4, ;/*>-,.
;/*6.36-*4 7/*: )4-:)+(. I6 3)4 5. ) ;(138*+*<-3)+ 5**(6 51 ;/*>-,-4< ;.)3.
*7 :-4, )4, 3*:;)4-*4(8-;. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 7-/. 6* ;/*,23. 6**+( )4,
9.);*4(.
F-/. 3)4 3)2(. ;/*5+.:(0 )( 9.++. T8. .4.:1 3)4 ,.6.36 68. (:*A. )4, +-<86
-6 ;/*,23.(. I6 3)4 3)2(. 7*/.(6 7-/.( */ ,.(6/*1 .((.46-)+ .?2-;:.46. F-/. 3)4
)+(* 3)2(. 52/4( )4, 3)/5*4 :*4*=-,. ;*-(*4-4< 98.4 2(., -4 (8.+6./(.
!.-<8 1*2/ 4.., 7*/ 7-/. )<)-4(6 1*2/ 4.., 6* )>*-, .4.:1 ,.6.36-*4.
BASIC FIRE PRINCIPLES
7B1. T* 52-+, ) 7-/.0 -6 8.+;( 6* 24,./(6)4, 68. 5)(-3 ;/-43-;+.( *7 ) 7-/.. F2.+
C-4 ) 4*4<)(.*2( (6)6.D ,*.( 4*6 52/4 ,-/.36+1. !8.4 1*2 );;+1 8.)6 6* )
72.+0 -6 ;/*,23.( ) <)(. T8-( <)(0 3*:5-4., 9-68 *=1<.4 -4 68. )-/0 52/4(.
7B2. U4,./(6)4,-4< 68. 3*43.;6 *7 68. 7-/. 6/-)4<+. -( >./1 -:;*/6)46 -4
3*//.36+1 3*4(6/236-4< )4, :)-46)-4-4< ) 7-/.. T8. 68/.. (-,.( *7 68. 6/-)4<+.
/.;/.(.46 -4*& 8+-0& )4, ,3+<. I7 1*2 /.:*>. )41 *7 68.(.0 68. 7-/. 9-++ <* *26.
T8. 3*//.36 /)6-* *7 68.(. 3*:;*4.46( -( >./1 -:;*/6)46 7*/ ) 7-/. 6* 52/4 )6 -6(
</.)6.(6 3);)5-+-61. T8. *4+1 9)1 6* +.)/4 68-( /)6-* -( 6* ;/)36-3..
SITE SELECTION AND PREPARATION
7B. Y*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* ,.3-,. 98)6 (-6. )4, )//)4<.:.46 6* 2(.. B.7*/.
52-+,-4< ) 7-/. 3*4(-,./@
I T8. )/.) C6.//)-4 )4, 3+-:)6.D -4 98-38 1*2 )/. *;./)6-4<.
I T8. :)6./-)+( )4, 6**+( )>)-+)5+..
I T-:.M 8*9 :238 6-:. ,* 1*2 8)>.L
I N..,M 981 ,* 1*2 4.., ) 7-/.L
I S.32/-61M 8*9 3+*(. -( 68. .4.:1L
7B4. L**A 7*/ ) ,/1 (;*6 68)6@
I I( ;/*6.36., 7/*: 68. 9-4,.
I I( (2-6)5+1 ;+)3., -4 /.+)6-*4 6* 1*2/ (8.+6./ C-7 )41D.
I !-++ 3*43.46/)6. 68. 8.)6 -4 68. ,-/.36-*4 1*2 ,.(-/..
I H)( ) (2;;+1 *7 9**, */ *68./ 72.+ )>)-+)5+.. CF-<2/. 7B4 +-(6( 61;.( *7
:)6./-)+ 1*2 3)4 2(..D
75
7B%. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 9**,., */ 5/2(8B3*>./., )/.)0 3+.)/ 68. 5/2(8 )4,
(3/);. 68. (2/7)3. (*-+ 7/*: 68. (;*6 1*2 8)>. (.+.36.,. C+.)/ ) 3-/3+. )6
+.)(6 1 :.6./ C 7..6D -4 ,-):.6./ (* 68./. -( +-66+. 38)43. *7 68. 7-/. (;/.),-4<.
7B6. I7 6-:. )++*9(0 3*4(6/236 ) 7-/. 9)++ 2(-4< +*<( */ /*3A(. T8-( 9)++ 9-++ 8.+;
6* /.7+.36 */ ,-/.36 68. 8.)6 98./. 1*2 9)46 -6 CF-<2/. 7B1D. I6 9-++ )+(* /.,23.
7+1-4< (;)/A( )4, 326 ,*94 *4 68. ):*246 *7 9-4, 5+*9-4< -46* 68. 7-/..
H*9.>./0 1*2 9-++ 4.., .4*2<8 9-4, 6* A..; 68. 7-/. 52/4-4<.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 2(. 9.6 */ ;*/*2( /*3A( )( 68.1 :)1 .=;+*,. 98.4
8.)6.,.
F493*+ #C1. T;7+: 1, F4*+ $-<<:
7B7. I4 (*:. (-62)6-*4(0 1*2 :)1 7-4, 68)6 )4 24,./</*24, 7-/.;+)3. 9-++ 5.(6
:..6 1*2/ 4..,(. I6 3*43.)+( 68. 7-/. )4, (./>.( 9.++ 7*/ 3**A-4< 7**,. T*
:)A. )4 24,./</*24, 7-/.;+)3. */ D)A*6) 7-/. 8*+. CF-<2/. 7B2D@
I D-< ) 8*+. -4 68. </*24,.
I O4 68. 2;9-4, (-,. *7 68-( 8*+.0 ;*A. */ ,-< ) +)/<. 3*44.36-4< 8*+. 7*/
>.46-+)6-*4.
I B2-+, 1*2/ 7-/. -4 68. 8*+. )( -++2(6/)6.,.
76
F493*+ #C2. D-?10- F4*+ H1<+
7B$. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) (4*9B3*>./., )/.)0 2(. </..4 +*<( 6* :)A. ) ,/1 5)(. 7*/
1*2/ 7-/. CF-<2/. 7BD. T/..( 9-68 9/-(6B(-G., 6/24A( )/. .)(-+1 5/*A.4 -4
.=6/.:. 3*+,. C26 */ 5/.)A (.>./)+ </..4 +*<( )4, +)1 68.: (-,. 51 (-,. *4
6*; *7 68. (4*9. A,, *4. */ 69* :*/. +)1./(. L)1 68. 6*; +)1./ *7 +*<(
*;;*(-6. 68*(. 5.+*9 -6.
F493*+ #C3. B-:+ ,1* F4*+ 4/ S/1AC.1B+*+2 A*+-
FIRE MATERIAL SELECTION
7B9. Y*2 4.., 68/.. 61;.( *7 :)6./-)+( CF-<2/. 7B4D 6* 52-+, ) 7-/..
T4/2+*. K4/2<4/9. F3+<.
B-/38 5)/A. S:)++ 69-<(. D/10 (6)4,-4< 9**,
)4, ,/1 ,.),
5/)438.(.
S8/.,,., -44./ 5)/A
7/*: C.,)/0
C8.(64260 R., .+:
6/..(.
S:)++ (6/-;( *7 9**,. D/1 -4(-,. C8.)/6D *7
7)++.4 6/.. 6/24A( )4,
+)/<. 5/)438.(.
F-4. 9**, (8)>-4<(. L-<86./ A4*6 7/*: P-4. 6/..
(62:;( 9-68 ) 8.)>1
3*43.46/)6-*4 *7 /.(-4.
G/..4 9**, 68)6 -(
7-4.+1 (;+-6.
D.), </)((0 F./4(
M*((0 F24<-.
H.)>1 3)/,5*)/,. D/1 </)((.( 69-(6.,
-46* 52438.(.
77
S6/)9. P-.3.( *7 9**, /.:*>.,
7/*: 68. -4(-,. *7 +)/<./
;-.3.(.
P.)6 ,/1 .4*2<8 6*
52/4 C68-( :)1 5.
7*24, )6 68. 6*; *7
24,./326 5)4A(D.
S)9,2(6. !**, 68)6 8)( 5..4 ,*2(.,
9-68 8-<8+1 7+)::)5+.
:)6./-)+(0 (238 )( <)(*+-4.0
*-+ */ 9)=.
D/-., )4-:)+ ,24<.
V./1 7-4. P-638 9**,
(3/);-4<(.
A4-:)+ 7)6(.
D.), .>./</..4
4..,+.(.
C*)+0 *-+ (8)+.0 */ *-+
+1-4< *4 68. (2/7)3..
P24A C68. 3*:;+.6.+1
/*66.4 ;*/6-*4( *7
,.), 6/.. */ +*<(D.
E>./ </..4 6/..
A4*6(.
B-/, ,*94 C7-4.
7.)68./(D.
D*94 (.., 8.),(
C:-+A9..,0 ,/1
3)66)-+(0 52+/2(8 */
68-(6+.D.
F-4.0 ,/-., >.<.6)5+.
7-5/.(.
S;*4<1 68/.),( *7
,.), ;2775)++(.
D.), P)+: +.)>.(.
SA-4 +-A. :.:5/)4.
+-4-4< 5):5**.
L-46 7/*: ;*3A.6( )4,
(.):(.
C8)//., 3+*68.
!)= ;);./.
O68./ 5):5**
(8)>-4<(.
G24;*9,./.
C*66*4.
F493*+ #C!. M-0+*4-<: ,1* B34<24/9 F4*+:
7B1". T-4,./ -( ,/1 :)6./-)+ 68)6 -<4-6.( 9-68 +-66+. 8.)6@) (;)/A (6)/6( ) 7-/..
T8. 6-4,./ :2(6 5. )5(*+26.+1 ,/1 6* 5. (2/. F2(6 ) (;)/A 9-++ -<4-6. -6. I7 1*2
8)>. ) ,.>-3. 68)6 <.4./)6.( *4+1 (;)/A(0 38)//., 3+*68 9-++ 5. )+:*(6
.((.46-)+. I6 8*+,( ) (;)/A 7*/ +*4< ;./-*,(0 )++*9-4< 1*2 6* ;26 6-4,./ *4 68.
8*6 )/.) 6* <.4./)6. ) (:)++ 7+):.. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 38)//., 3+*68 51 8.)6-4<
3*66*4 3+*68 246-+ -6 62/4( 5+)3A0 526 ,*.( 4*6 52/4. O43. -6 -( 5+)3A0 1*2 :2(6
A..; -6 -4 )4 )-/6-<86 3*46)-4./ 6* A..; -6 ,/1. P/.;)/. 68-( 3+*68 9.++ -4
78
),>)43. *7 )41 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. A,, -6 6* 1*2/ -4,->-,2)+ (2/>->)+ A-6. O68./
-:;/*:;62 -6.:( 3*2+, 5. )+3*8*+ ;),( */ ;.6/*+.2: F.++1 <)2G..
7B11. K-4,+-4< -( /.),-+1 3*:52(6-5+. :)6./-)+ 68)6 1*2 ),, 6* 68. 52/4-4<
6-4,./. A<)-40 68-( :)6./-)+ (8*2+, 5. )5(*+26.+1 ,/1 6* .4(2/. /);-, 52/4-4<.
K-4,+-4< -43/.)(.( 68. 7-/.H( 6.:;./)62/. (* 68)6 -6 9-++ -<4-6. +.(( 3*:52(6-5+.
:)6./-)+.
7B12. F2.+ -( +.(( 3*:52(6-5+. :)6./-)+ 68)6 52/4( (+*9+1 )4, (6.),-+1 *43.
-<4-6.,.
HO$ TO BUILD A FIRE
7B1. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ :.68*,( 7*/ +)1-4< ) 7-/. )4, .)38 *4. 8)(
),>)46)<.(. T8. (-62)6-*4 1*2 )/. -4 9-++ ,.6./:-4. 98-38 *7 68. 7*++*9-4<
7-/.( 6* 2(..
TEPEE
7B14. T* :)A. ) 6.;.. 7-/. CF-<2/. 7B%D0 )//)4<. 68. 6-4,./ )4, ) 7.9 (6-3A( *7
A-4,+-4< -4 68. (8);. *7 ) 6.;.. */ 3*4.. L-<86 68. 3.46./. A( 68. 6.;..
52/4(0 68. *26(-,. +*<( 9-++ 7)++ -49)/,0 7..,-4< 68. 7-/.. T8-( 61;. *7 7-/. 52/4(
9.++ .>.4 9-68 9.6 9**,.
LEANCTO
7B1%. T* +)1 ) +.)4B6* 7-/. CF-<2/. 7B%D0 ;2(8 ) </..4 (6-3A -46* 68. </*24, )6 )
"B,.</.. )4<+.. P*-46 68. .4, *7 68. (6-3A -4 68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 68. 9-4,. P+)3.
(*:. 6-4,./ ,..; 24,./ 68-( +.)4B6* (6-3A. L.)4 ;-.3.( *7 A-4,+-4< )<)-4(6 68.
+.)4B6* (6-3A. L-<86 68. 6-4,./. A( 68. A-4,+-4< 3)638.( 7-/. 7/*: 68. 6-4,./0 ),,
:*/. A-4,+-4<.
CROSSCDITCH
7B16. T* 2(. 68. 3/*((B,-638 :.68*, CF-<2/. 7B%D0 (3/)638 ) 3/*(( )5*26 "
3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D -4 (-G. -4 68. </*24,. D-< 68. 3/*(( 7.% 3.46-:.6./(
C)5*26 -438.(D ,..;. P26 ) +)/<. 9), *7 6-4,./ -4 68. :-,,+. *7 68. 3/*((.
B2-+, ) A-4,+-4< ;1/):-, )5*>. 68. 6-4,./. T8. (8)++*9 ,-638 )++*9( )-/ 6*
(9..; 24,./ 68. 6-4,./ 6* ;/*>-,. ) ,/)76.
PYRAMID
7B17. T* +)1 68. ;1/):-, 7-/. CF-<2/. 7B%D0 ;+)3. 69* (:)++ +*<( */ 5/)438.(
;)/)++.+ *4 68. </*24,. P+)3. ) (*+-, +)1./ *7 (:)++ +*<( )3/*(( 68. ;)/)++.+
+*<(. A,, 68/.. */ 7*2/ :*/. +)1./( *7 +*<(0 .)38 +)1./ (:)++./ 68)4 )4, )6 )
/-<86 )4<+. 6* 68. +)1./ 5.+*9 -6. M)A. ) (6)/6./ 7-/. *4 6*; *7 68. ;1/):-,. A(
68. (6)/6./ 7-/. 52/4(0 -6 9-++ -<4-6. 68. +*<( 5.+*9 -6. T8-( <->.( 1*2 ) 7-/. 68)6
52/4( ,*949)/,0 /.?2-/-4< 4* )66.46-*4 ,2/-4< 68. 4-<86.
79
F493*+ #C". M+0812: ,1* L-;4/9 F4*+:
7B1$. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ *68./ 9)1( 6* +)1 ) 7-/. 68)6 )/. ?2-6. .77.36->.. Y*2/
(-62)6-*4 )4, 68. :)6./-)+ )>)-+)5+. -4 68. )/.) :)1 :)A. )4*68./ :.68*,
:*/. (2-6)5+..
HO$ TO LIGHT A FIRE
7B19. A+9)1( +-<86 1*2/ 7-/. 7/*: 68. 2;9-4, (-,.. M)A. (2/. 1*2 +)1 68.
6-4,./0 A-4,+-4<0 )4, 72.+ (* 68)6 1*2/ 7-/. 9-++ 52/4 )( +*4< )( 1*2 4.., -6.
I<4-6./( ;/*>-,. 68. -4-6-)+ 8.)6 /.?2-/., 6* (6)/6 68. 6-4,./ 52/4-4<. T8.1 7)++
-46* 69* 3)6.<*/-.(E :*,./4 :.68*,( )4, ;/-:-6->. :.68*,(.
MODERN METHODS
7B2". M*,./4 -<4-6./( 2(. :*,./4 ,.>-3.(. T8.(. )/. -6.:( 68)6 9. 4*/:)++1
68-4A *7 6* (6)/6 ) 7-/..
M-0.8+:
7B21. M)A. (2/. 68.(. :)638.( )/. 9)6./;/**7. A+(*0 (6*/. 68.: -4 )
9)6./;/**7 3*46)-4./ )+*4< 9-68 ) ,.;.4,)5+. (6/-A./ ;),.
C1/B+F L+/:
7B22. U(. 68-( :.68*, CF-<2/. 7B6D *4+1 *4 5/-<860 (2441 ,)1(. T8. +.4( 3)4
3*:. 7/*: 5-4*32+)/(0 ) 3):./)0 6.+.(3*;-3 (-<86(0 */ :)<4-71-4< <+)((.(.
A4<+. 68. +.4( 6* 3*43.46/)6. 68. (24H( /)1( *4 68. 6-4,./.
H*+, 68. +.4( *>./ 68. ():. (;*6 246-+ 68. 6-4,./ 5.<-4( 6* (:*+,./. G.46+1
5+*9 */ 7)4 68. 6-4,./ -46* ) 7+):. )4, );;+1 -6 6* 68. 7-/. +)1.
80
F493*+ #C6. L+/: M+0812
M+0-< M-0.8
7B2. P+)3. ) 7+)60 ,/1 +.)7 24,./ 1*2/ 6-4,./ 9-68 ) ;*/6-*4 .=;*(.,. P+)3.
68. 6-; *7 68. :.6)+ :)638 *4 68. ,/1 +.)70 8*+,-4< 68. :.6)+ :)638 -4 *4. 8)4,
)4, ) A4-7. -4 68. *68./. S3/);. 1*2/ A4-7. )<)-4(6 68. :.6)+ :)638 6*
;/*,23. (;)/A(. T8. (;)/A( 9-++ 8-6 68. 6-4,./. !8.4 68. 6-4,./ (6)/6( 6*
(:*+,./0 ;/*3.., )( )5*>..
B-00+*;
7B24. U(. ) 5)66./1 6* <.4./)6. ) (;)/A. U(. *7 68-( :.68*, ,.;.4,( *4 68.
61;. *7 5)66./1 )>)-+)5+..
A66)38 ) 9-/. 6* .)38 6./:-4)+. T*238 68. .4,( *7 68. 5)/. 9-/.( 6*<.68./
4.=6 6* 68. 6-4,./ (* 68. (;)/A( 9-++ -<4-6. -6.
G3/71A2+*
7B2%. O76.40 1*2 9-++ 8)>. )::24-6-*4 9-68 1*2/ .?2-;:.46. I7 (*0 3)/.72++1
.=6/)36 68. 52++.6 7/*: 68. (8.++ 3)(-4< 51 :*>-4< 68. 52++.6 5)3A )4, 7*/68.
U(. 68. <24;*9,./ )( 6-4,./. D-(3)/, 68. 3)(-4< )4, ;/-:./(. A (;)/A 9-++
-<4-6. 68. ;*9,./.
NOTE: B. .=6/.:.+1 3)/.72+ ,2/-4< 68-( *;./)6-*4 )( 68. ;/-:./( )/. (6-++
(.4(-6->. )4, .>.4 ) (:)++ ;-+. *7 <24;*9,./ 3)4 <->. (2/;/-(-4< /.(2+6(.
PRIMITIVE METHODS
7B26. P/-:-6->. -<4-6./( )/. 68*(. )66/-526., 6* *2/ .)/+1 )43.(6*/(. T8.1 3)4
5. 6-:.B3*4(2:-4<0 98-38 /.?2-/.( 1*2 6* 5. ;)6-.46 )4, ;./(-(6.46.
F<4/0 -/2 S0++<
7B27. T8. ,-/.36 (;)/A :.68*, -( 68. .)(-.(6 *7 68. ;/-:-6->. :.68*,( 6* 2(..
T8. 7+-46 )4, (6..+ :.68*, -( 68. :*(6 /.+-)5+. *7 68. ,-/.36 (;)/A :.68*,(.
S6/-A. ) 7+-46 */ *68./ 8)/,0 (8)/;B.,<., /*3A 9-68 ) ;-.3. *7 3)/5*4 (6..+
C(6)-4+.(( (6..+ 9-++ 4*6 ;/*,23. ) <**, (;)/AD. T8-( :.68*, /.?2-/.( ) +**(.B
F*-46., 9/-(6 )4, ;/)36-3.. !8.4 68. 6-4,./ 3)638.( ) (;)/A0 5+*9 *4 -6. T8.
(;)/A 9-++ (;/.), )4, 52/(6 -46* 7+):.(.
81
F4*+CP<1A
7B2$. T8. 7-/.B;+*9 CF-<2/. 7B7D -( ) 7/-36-*4 :.68*, *7 -<4-6-*4. T* 2(. 68-(
:.68*,0 326 ) (6/)-<86 </**>. -4 ) (*769**, 5)(. )4, ;+*9 68. 5+246 6-; *7 )
8)/,9**, (8)76 2; )4, ,*94 68. </**>.. T8. ;+*9-4< )36-*4 *7 68. (8)76
;2(8.( *26 (:)++ ;)/6-3+.( *7 9**, 7-5./(. T8.40 )( 1*2 );;+1 :*/. ;/.((2/.
*4 .)38 (6/*A.0 68. 7/-36-*4 -<4-6.( 68. 9**, ;)/6-3+.(.
F493*+ #C#. F4*+CP<1A
B1A -/2 D*4<<
7B29. T8. 6.384-?2. *7 (6)/6-4< ) 7-/. 9-68 ) 5*9 )4, ,/-++ CF-<2/. 7B$D -(
(-:;+.0 526 1*2 :2(6 .=./6 :238 .77*/6 )4, 5. ;./(-(6.46 6* ;/*,23. ) 7-/..
Y*2 4.., 68. 7*++*9-4< -6.:( 6* 2(. 68-( :.68*,E
I Socket. T8. (*3A.6 -( )4 .)(-+1 </)(;., (6*4. */ ;-.3. *7 8)/,9**, 9-68 )
(+-<86 ,.;/.((-*4 -4 *4. (-,.. U(. -6 6* 8*+, 68. ,/-++ -4 ;+)3. )4, 6* );;+1
,*949)/, ;/.((2/..
I /rill. T8. ,/-++ (8*2+, 5. ) (6/)-<860 (.)(*4., 8)/,9**, (6-3A )5*26 2
3.46-:.6./( CR4 -438D -4 ,-):.6./ )4, 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1" -438.(D +*4<. T8.
6*; .4, -( /*24, )4, 68. +*9 .4, 5+246 C6* ;/*,23. :*/. 7/-36-*4D.
I #ire %oard. A+68*2<8 )41 5*)/, :)1 5. 2(.,0 ) (.)(*4., (*769**, 5*)/,
)5*26 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D 68-3A )4, 1" 3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D 9-,. -(
;/.7./)5+.. C26 ) ,.;/.((-*4 )5*26 2 3.46-:.6./( CR4 -438D 7/*: 68. .,<. *4
*4. (-,. *7 68. 5*)/,. O4 68. 24,./(-,.0 :)A. ) VB(8);., 326 7/*: 68. .,<.
*7 68. 5*)/, 6* 68. ,.;/.((-*4.
I *ow. T8. 5*9 -( ) /.(-+-.460 </..4 (6-3A )5*26 2.% 3.46-:.6./( CR4 -438D -4
,-):.6./ 9-68 ) 5*9(6/-4<. T8. 61;. *7 9**, -( 4*6 -:;*/6)46. T8. 5*9(6/-4<
3)4 5. )41 61;. *7 3*/,)<.. T-. 68. 5*9(6/-4< 7/*: *4. .4, *7 68. 5*9 6* 68.
*68./0 9-68*26 )41 (+)3A.
82
F493*+ #C. B1A -/2 D*4<<
7B". T* 2(. 68. 5*9 )4, ,/-++0 7-/(6 ;/.;)/. 68. 7-/. +)1. T8.4 ;+)3. ) 524,+.
*7 6-4,./ 24,./ 68. VB(8);., 326 -4 68. 7-/. 5*)/,. P+)3. *4. 7**6 *4 68. 7-/.
5*)/,. L**; 68. 5*9(6/-4< *>./ 68. ,/-++ )4, ;+)3. 68. ,/-++ -4 68. ;/.326
,.;/.((-*4 *4 68. 7-/. 5*)/,. P+)3. 68. (*3A.60 8.+, -4 *4. 8)4,0 *4 68. 6*;
*7 68. ,/-++ 6* 8*+, -6 -4 ;*(-6-*4. P/.(( ,*94 *4 68. ,/-++ )4, ()9 68. 5*9 5)3A
)4, 7*/68 6* 69-/+ 68. ,/-++ CF-<2/. 7B$D. O43. 1*2 8)>. .(6)5+-(8., ) (:**68
:*6-*40 );;+1 :*/. ,*949)/, ;/.((2/. )4, 9*/A 68. 5*9 7)(6./. T8-( )36-*4
9-++ </-4, 8*6 5+)3A ;*9,./ -46* 68. 6-4,./0 3)2(-4< ) (;)/A 6* 3)638. B+*9 *4
68. 6-4,./ 246-+ -6 -<4-6.(.
7B1. P/-:-6->. 7-/.B52-+,-4< :.68*,( )/. .=8)2(6-4< )4, /.?2-/. ;/)36-3. 6*
.4(2/. (233.((. I7 1*2/ (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 /.?2-/.( 68. 2(. *7 ;/-:-6->.
:.68*,(0 /.:.:5./ 68. 7*++*9-4< 8-46( 6* 8.+; 1*2 3*4(6/236 )4, :)-46)-4 68.
7-/.E
I I7 ;*((-5+.0 2(. 4*4)/*:)6-3 (.)(*4., 8)/,9**, 7*/ 72.+.
I C*++.36 A-4,+-4< )4, 6-4,./ )+*4< 68. 6/)-+.
I A,, -4(.36 /.;.++.46 6* 68. 6-4,./.
I K..; 68. 7-/.9**, ,/1.
I D/1 ,):; 7-/.9**, 4.)/ 68. 7-/..
I B)4A 68. 7-/. 6* A..; 68. 3*)+( )+->. *>./4-<86.
I C)//1 +-<86., ;24A0 98.4 ;*((-5+..
I B. (2/. 68. 7-/. -( *26 5.7*/. +.)>-4< 3):;.
I D* 4*6 (.+.36 9**, +1-4< *4 68. </*24,. I6 :)1 );;.)/ 6* 5. ,/1 526
<.4./)++1 ,*.(4H6 ;/*>-,. .4*2<8 7/-36-*4.
CHAPTER .
F112 P*1.3*+>+/0.
83
O4. *7 :)4H( :*(6 2/<.46 /.?2-/.:.46( -( 7**,. I4 3*46.:;+)6-4< >-/62)++1 )41
81;*68.6-3)+ (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 68. :-4, -::.,-)6.+1 62/4( 6* 68*2<86( *7 7**,.
U4+.(( 68. (-62)6-*4 *332/( -4 )4 )/-, .4>-/*4:.460 .>.4 9)6./0 98-38 -( :*/.
-:;*/6)46 6* :)-46)-4-4< 5*,1 72436-*4(0 9-++ 2(2)++1 7*++*9 7**, -4 *2/ -4-6-)+
68*2<86(. T8. (2/>->*/ :2(6 /.:.:5./ 68)6 68. 68/.. .((.46-)+( *7 (2/>->)+@
9)6./0 7**,0 )4, (8.+6./@)/. ;/-*/-6-G., )33*/,-4< 6* 68. .(6-:)6. *7 68.
)362)+ (-62)6-*4. T8-( .(6-:)6. :2(6 4*6 *4+1 5. 6-:.+1 526 )332/)6. )( 9.++.
!. 3)4 +->. 7*/ 9..A( 9-68*26 7**, 526 -6 :)1 6)A. ,)1( */ 9..A( 6*
,.6./:-4. 98)6 -( ()7. 6* .)6 )4, 6* 6/); )4-:)+( -4 68. )/.). T8./.7*/.0 1*2
4.., 6* 5.<-4 7**, <)68./-4< -4 68. .)/+-.(6 (6)<.( *7 (2/>->)+ )( 1*2/
.4,2/)43. 9-++ ,.3/.)(. ,)-+1. S*:. (-62)6-*4( :)1 9.++ ,-36)6. 68)6 (8.+6./
;/.3.,. 5*68 7**, )4, 9)6./.
ANIMALS FOR FOOD
$B1. U4+.(( 1*2 8)>. 68. 38)43. 6* 6)A. +)/<. <):.0 3*43.46/)6. 1*2/ .77*/6(
*4 68. (:)++./ )4-:)+(. T8.1 )/. :*/. )524,)46 )4, .)(-./ 6* ;/.;)/.. Y*2
4.., 4*6 A4*9 )++ 68. )4-:)+ (;.3-.( 68)6 )/. (2-6)5+. )( 7**,M /.+)6->.+1 7.9
)/. ;*-(*4*2(0 )4, 68.1 :)A. ) (:)++./ +-(6 6* /.:.:5./. H*9.>./0 -6 -(
-:;*/6)46 6* +.)/4 68. 8)5-6( )4, 5.8)>-*/)+ ;)66./4( *7 3+)((.( *7 )4-:)+(.
F*/ .=):;+.0 )4-:)+( 68)6 )/. .=3.++.46 38*-3.( 7*/ 6/);;-4<0 68*(. 68)6
-48)5-6 ) ;)/6-32+)/ /)4<. )4, *332;1 ) ,.4 */ 4.(60 68*(. 68)6 8)>.
(*:.98)6 7-=., 7..,-4< )/.)(0 )4, 68*(. 68)6 8)>. 6/)-+( +.),-4< 7/*: *4.
)/.) 6* )4*68./. L)/<./0 8./,-4< )4-:)+(0 (238 )( .+A */ 3)/-5*20 /*): >)(6
)/.)( )4, )/. (*:.98)6 :*/. ,-77-32+6 6* 6/);. A+(*0 1*2 :2(6 24,./(6)4, 68.
7**, 38*-3.( *7 ) ;)/6-32+)/ (;.3-.( 6* (.+.36 68. ;/*;./ 5)-6.
$B2. Y*2 3)40 9-68 /.+)6->.+1 7.9 .=3.;6-*4(0 .)6 )4168-4< 68)6 3/)9+(0 (9-:(0
9)+A(0 */ 7+-.(. Y*2 :2(6 7-/(6 *>./3*:. 1*2/ 4)62/)+ )>./(-*4 6* ) ;)/6-32+)/
7**, (*2/3.. H-(6*/-3)++10 ;.*;+. -4 (6)/>)6-*4 (-62)6-*4( 8)>. /.(*/6., 6*
.)6-4< .>./168-4< -:)<-4)5+. 7*/ 4*2/-(8:.46. A ;./(*4 98* -<4*/.( )4
*68./9-(. 8.)+681 7**, (*2/3. ,2. 6* ) ;./(*4)+ 5-)(0 */ 5.3)2(. 8. 7..+( -6 -(
24);;.6-G-4<0 -( /-(A-4< 8-( *94 (2/>->)+. A+68*2<8 -6 :)1 ;/*>. ,-77-32+6 )6
7-/(60 1*2 :2(6 .)6 98)6 -( )>)-+)5+. 6* :)-46)-4 1*2/ 8.)+68. S*:. 3+)((.( *7
)4-:)+( )4, -4(.36( :)1 5. .)6.4 /)9 -7 4.3.(()/10 526 1*2 (8*2+,0 -7
;*((-5+.0 68*/*2<8+1 3**A )++ 7**, (*2/3.( 98.4.>./ ;*((-5+. 6* )>*-, -++4.((.
INSECTS
$B. T8. :*(6 )524,)46 )4, .)(-+1 3)2<86 +-7.B7*/: *4 .)/68 )/. -4(.36(.
M)41 -4(.36( ;/*>-,. 6% 6* $" ;./3.46 ;/*6.-4 3*:;)/., 6* 2" ;./3.46 7*/
5..7. T8-( 7)36 :)A.( -4(.36( )4 -:;*/6)460 -7 4*6 *>./+1 );;.6-G-4<0 7**,
(*2/3.. I4(.36( 6* )>*-, -43+2,. )++ ),2+6( 68)6 (6-4< */ 5-6.0 8)-/1 */ 5/-<86+1
3*+*/., -4(.36(0 )4, 3)6./;-++)/( )4, -4(.36( 68)6 8)>. ) ;24<.46 *,*/. A+(*
)>*-, (;-,./( )4, 3*::*4 ,-(.)(. 3)//-./( (238 )( 6-3A(0 7+-.(0 )4,
:*(?2-6*.(.
$B4. R*66-4< +*<( +1-4< *4 68. </*24, )/. .=3.++.46 ;+)3.( 6* +**A 7*/ ) >)/-.61
*7 -4(.36( -43+2,-4< )46(0 6./:-6.(0 5..6+.(0 )4, </25(0 98-38 )/. 5..6+.
+)/>).. D* 4*6 *>./+**A -4(.36 4.(6( *4 */ -4 68. </*24,. G/)((1 )/.)(0 (238
84
)( 7-.+,(0 )/. <**, )/.)( 6* (.)/38 5.3)2(. 68. -4(.36( )/. .)(-+1 (..4.
S6*4.(0 5*)/,(0 */ *68./ :)6./-)+( +1-4< *4 68. </*24, ;/*>-,. 68. -4(.36( 9-68
<**, 4.(6-4< (-6.(. C8.3A 68.(. (-6.(. I4(.36 +)/>). )/. )+(* .,-5+.. I4(.36(
68)6 8)>. ) 8)/, *26./ (8.++ (238 )( 5..6+.( )4, </)((8*;;./( 9-++ 8)>.
;)/)(-6.(. C**A 68.: 5.7*/. .)6-4<. R.:*>. )41 9-4<( )4, 5)/5., +.<(
)+(*. Y*2 3)4 .)6 :*(6 (*76B(8.++., -4(.36( /)9. T8. 6)(6. >)/-.( 7/*: *4.
(;.3-.( 6* )4*68./. !**, </25( )/. 5+)4,0 526 (*:. (;.3-.( *7 )46( (6*/.
8*4.1 -4 68.-/ 5*,-.(0 <->-4< 68.: ) (9..6 6)(6.. Y*2 3)4 </-4, ) 3*++.36-*4 *7
-4(.36( -46* ) ;)(6.. Y*2 3)4 :-= 68.: 9-68 .,-5+. >.<.6)6-*4. Y*2 3)4 3**A
68.: 6* -:;/*>. 68.-/ 6)(6..
$ORMS
$B%. !*/:( CAnnelideaD )/. )4 .=3.++.46 ;/*6.-4 (*2/3.. D-< 7*/ 68.: -4
,):; 82:2( (*-+ )4, -4 68. /**6 5)++ *7 </)(( 3+2:;(0 */ 9)638 7*/ 68.: *4
68. </*24, )76./ ) /)-4. A76./ 3);62/-4< 68.:0 ,/*; 68.: -46* 3+.)40 ;*6)5+.
9)6./ 7*/ )5*26 1% :-426.(. T8. 9*/:( 9-++ 4)62/)++1 ;2/<. */ 9)(8
68.:(.+>.( *260 )76./ 98-38 1*2 3)4 .)6 68.: /)9.
CRUSTACEANS
$B6. F/.(89)6./ (8/-:; /)4<. -4 (-G. 7/*: ".2% 3.46-:.6./ C1R16 -438D 2; 6*
2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D. T8.1 3)4 7*/: /)68./ +)/<. 3*+*4-.( -4 :)6( *7
7+*)6-4< )+<). */ -4 :2, 5*66*:( *7 ;*4,( )4, +)A.(.
$B7. C/)17-(8 )/. )A-4 6* :)/-4. +*5(6./( )4, 3/)5(. Y*2 3)4 ,-(6-4<2-(8
68.: 51 68.-/ 8)/, .=*(A.+.6*4 )4, 7->. ;)-/( *7 +.<(0 68. 7/*46 ;)-/ 8)>-4<
*>./(-G., ;-43./(. C/)17-(8 )/. )36->. )6 4-<860 526 1*2 3)4 +*3)6. 68.: -4 68.
,)16-:. 51 +**A-4< 24,./ )4, )/*24, (6*4.( -4 (6/.):(. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 7-4,
68.: 51 +**A-4< -4 68. (*76 :2, 4.)/ 68. 38-:4.1B+-A. 5/.)68-4< 8*+.( *7 68.-/
4.(6(. Y*2 3)4 3)638 3/)17-(8 51 61-4< 5-6( *7 *77)+ */ -46./4)+ */<)4( 6* )
(6/-4<. !8.4 68. 3/)17-(8 </)5( 68. 5)-60 ;2++ -6 6* (8*/. 5.7*/. -6 8)( ) 38)43.
6* /.+.)(. 68. 5)-6.
$B$. Y*2 3)4 7-4, ()+69)6./ +*5(6./(0 3/)5(0 )4, (8/-:; 7/*: 68. (2/7H( .,<.
*26 6* 9)6./ 1" :.6./( C 7..6D ,..;. S8/-:; :)1 3*:. 6* ) +-<86 )6 4-<86
98./. 1*2 3)4 (3**; 68.: 2; 9-68 ) 4.6. Y*2 3)4 3)638 +*5(6./( )4, 3/)5(
9-68 ) 5)-6., 6/); */ ) 5)-6., 8**A. C/)5( 9-++ 3*:. 6* 5)-6 ;+)3., )6 68. .,<.
*7 68. (2/70 98./. 1*2 3)4 6/); */ 4.6 68.:. L*5(6./( )4, 3/)5( )/. 4*362/4)+
)4, 3)2<86 5.(6 )6 4-<86.
NOTE: Y*2 :2(6 3**A )++ 7/.(89)6./ 3/2(6)3.)4(0 :*++2(A(0 )4, 7-(8. F/.(8
9)6./ 6.4,( 6* 8)/5*/ :)41 ,)4<./*2( */<)4-(:( C(.. C8);6./ 6D0 )4-:)+
)4, 82:)4 3*46):-4)46(0 )4, ;*((-5+1 )</-32+62/)+ )4, -4,2(6/-)+ ;*++26)46(.
MOLLUSKS
$B9. T8-( 3+)(( -43+2,.( *36*;2(.( )4, 7/.(89)6./ )4, ()+69)6./ (8.++7-(8
(238 )( (4)-+(0 3+):(0 :2((.+(0 5->)+>.(0 5)/4)3+.(0 ;./-9-4A+.(0 38-6*4(0 )4,
85
(.) 2/38-4( CF-<2/. $B1D. Y*2 7-4, 5->)+>.( (-:-+)/ 6* *2/ 7/.(89)6./ :2((.+
)4, 6.//.(6/-)+ )4, )?2)6-3 (4)-+( 9*/+,9-,. 24,./ )++ 9)6./ 3*4,-6-*4(.
F493*+ C1. E24@<+ M1<<3:?:
$B1". R->./ (4)-+( */ 7/.(89)6./ ;./-9-4A+.( )/. ;+.46-72+ -4 /->./(0 (6/.):(0
)4, +)A.( *7 4*/68./4 3*4-7./*2( 7*/.(6(. T8.(. (4)-+( :)1 5. ;.43-+ ;*-46 */
<+*52+)/ -4 (8);..
$B11. I4 7/.(8 9)6./0 +**A 7*/ :*++2(A( -4 68. (8)++*9(0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 9)6./ 9-68
) ()4,1 */ :2,,1 5*66*:. L**A 7*/ 68. 4)//*9 6/)-+( 68.1 +.)>. -4 68. :2, */
7*/ 68. ,)/A .++-;6-3)+ (+-6 *7 68.-/ *;.4 >)+>.(.
$B12. N.)/ 68. (.)0 +**A -4 68. 6-,)+ ;**+( )4, 68. 9.6 ()4,. R*3A( )+*4<
5.)38.( */ .=6.4,-4< )( /..7( -46* ,..;./ 9)6./ *76.4 5.)/ 3+-4<-4< (8.++7-(8.
S4)-+( )4, +-:;.6( 3+-4< 6* /*3A( )4, (.)9.., 7/*: 68. +*9 9)6./ :)/A
2;9)/,. L)/<. (4)-+(0 3)++., 38-6*4(0 ),8./. 6-<86+1 6* /*3A( )5*>. 68. (2/7
+-4..
$B1. M2((.+( 2(2)++1 7*/: ,.4(. 3*+*4-.( -4 /*3A ;**+(0 *4 +*<(0 */ )6 68.
5)(. *7 5*2+,./(.
86
CAUTION C M2((.+( :)1 5. ;*-(*4*2( -4 6/*;-3)+ G*4.( ,2/-4< 68. (2::./N
I7 ) 4*6-3.)5+. /., 6-,. 8)( *332//., 9-68-4 72 8*2/(0 ,* 4*6 .)6 )41 7-(8 */
(8.++7-(8 7/*: 68)6 9)6./ (*2/3..
$B14. S6.):0 5*-+0 */ 5)A. :*++2(A( -4 68. (8.++. T8.1 :)A. .=3.++.46 (6.9(
-4 3*:5-4)6-*4 9-68 </..4( )4, 625./(.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 .)6 (8.++7-(8 68)6 )/. 4*6 3*>./., 51 9)6./ )6 8-<8 6-,.N
FISH
$B1%. F-(8 /.;/.(.46 ) <**, (*2/3. *7 ;/*6.-4 )4, 7)6. T8.1 *77./ (*:.
,-(6-436 ),>)46)<.( 6* 68. (2/>->*/ */ .>),./. T8.1 )/. 2(2)++1 :*/.
)524,)46 68)4 :)::)+ 9-+,+-7.0 )4, 68. 9)1( 6* <.6 68.: )/. (-+.46. T* 5.
(233.((72+ )6 3)638-4< 7-(80 1*2 :2(6 A4*9 68.-/ 8)5-6(. F*/ -4(6)43.0 7-(8
6.4, 6* 7.., 8.)>-+1 5.7*/. ) (6*/:. F-(8 )/. 4*6 +-A.+1 6* 7.., )76./ ) (6*/:
98.4 68. 9)6./ -( :2,,1 )4, (9*++.4. L-<86 *76.4 )66/)36( 7-(8 )6 4-<86. !8.4
68./. -( ) 8.)>1 32//.460 7-(8 9-++ /.(6 -4 ;+)3.( 98./. 68./. -( )4 .,,10 (238
)( 4.)/ /*3A(. F-(8 9-++ )+(* <)68./ 98./. 68./. )/. ,..; ;**+(0 24,./
*>./8)4<-4< 5/2(80 )4, -4 )4, )/*24, (25:./<., 7*+-)<.0 +*<(0 */ *68./
*5F.36( 68)6 *77./ 68.: (8.+6./.
$B16. T8./. )/. 4* ;*-(*4*2( 7/.(89)6./ 7-(8. H*9.>./0 68. 3)67-(8 (;.3-.(
8)( (8)/;0 4..,+. +-A. ;/*6/2(-*4( *4 -6( ,*/()+ 7-4( )4, 5)/5.+(. T8.(. 3)4
-47+-36 ;)-472+ ;24362/. 9*24,( 68)6 ?2-3A+1 5.3*:. -47.36.,.
$B17. C**A )++ 7/.(89)6./ 7-(8 6* A-++ ;)/)(-6.(. A( ) ;/.3)26-*40 )+(* 3**A
()+69)6./ 7-(8 3)2<86 9-68-4 ) /..7 */ 9-68-4 68. -47+2.43. *7 ) 7/.(89)6./
(*2/3.. A41 :)/-4. +-7. *56)-4., 7)/68./ *26 -4 68. (.) 9-++ 4*6 3*46)-4
;)/)(-6.( 5.3)2(. *7 68. ()+69)6./ .4>-/*4:.46. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.(. /)9.
$B1$. M*(6 7-(8 .43*246./., )/. .,-5+.. T8. */<)4( *7 (*:. (;.3-.( )/.
)+9)1( ;*-(*4*2( 6* :)4M *68./ 7-(8 3)4 5.3*:. 6*=-3 5.3)2(. *7 .+.:.46( -4
68.-/ ,-.6(. C-<2)6./) -( ) 7*/: *7 82:)4 ;*-(*4-4< 3)2(., 51 68.
3*4(2:;6-*4 *7 (256/*;-3)+ )4, 6/*;-3)+ :)/-4. 7-(8 98-38 8)>. )332:2+)6.,
4)62/)++1 *332//-4< 6*=-4( 68/*2<8 68.-/ ,-.6. T8.(. 6*=-4( 52-+, 2; -4 68. 7-(8H(
6-((2.(. T8. 6*=-4( )/. A4*94 6* */-<-4)6. 7/*: (.>./)+ )+<). (;.3-.( 68)6 )/.
3*::*4 6* 3-<2)6./) .4,.:-3 /.<-*4( -4 68. +*9./ +)6-62,.(. C**A-4< ,*.(
4*6 .+-:-4)6. 68. 6*=-4(M 4.-68./ ,*.( ,/1-4<0 (:*A-4<0 */ :)/-4)6-4<. M)/-4.
7-(8 :*(6 3*::*4+1 -:;+-3)6., -4 3-<2)6./) ;*-(*4-4< -43+2,. 68. 5)//)32,)(0
F)3A(0 :)3A./.+0 6/-<<./7-(80 (4);;./(0 )4, </*2;./(. M)41 *68./ (;.3-.( *7
9)/: 9)6./ 7-(8.( 8)/5*/ 3-<2)6./) 6*=-4(. T8. *332//.43. *7 6*=-3 7-(8 -(
(;*/),-30 )4, 4*6 )++ 7-(8 *7 ) <->.4 (;.3-.( */ 7/*: ) <->.4 +*3)+-61 9-++ 5.
6*=-3. T8-( .=;+)-4( 981 /., (4);;./ )4, </*2;./ )/. ) 3*>.6., 7-(8 *77 68.
(8*/.( *7 F+*/-,) )4, 68. E)(6 C*)(6. !8-+. 68.1 )/. ) /.(6)2/)46 )4,
7-(8./:)4H( 7)>*/-6.0 )4, ) 3*::*4 7-(8 :)/A.6 38*-3.0 68.1 3)4 )+(* 5.
)((*3-)6., 9-68 1"" 3)(.( *7 7**, ;*-(*4-4<( -4 M)1 19$$0 P)+: B.)38
C*24610 F+*/-,). T8. ;*-(*4-4<( /.(2+6., -4 ) (6)6.B9-,. 9)/4-4< )<)-4(6
.)6-4< 8*<7-(80 </*2;./0 /., (4);;./0 ):5./F)3A0 )4, 5)//)32,) 3)2<86 )6 68.
D/1 T*/62<) B)4A. A :)F*/ *265/.)A *7 3-<2)6./) *332//., -4 P2./6* R-3*
87
5.69..4 A;/-+ )4, J24. 19$1 ;/*:;6-4< ) 5)4 *4 68. ()+. *7 5)//)32,)0
):5./F)3A0 )4, 5+)3AF)3A. O68./ .=):;+.( *7 ;*-(*4*2( ()+69)6./ 7-(8 )/. 68.
;*/32;-4. 7-(80 3*97-(80 68*/4 7-(80 *-+ 7-(80 )4, ;277./ CF-<2/. $B2D.
F493*+ C2. F4:8 $408 P14:1/13: F<+:8
AMPHIBIANS
$B19. F/*<( )/. .)(-+1 7*24, )/*24, 5*,-.( *7 7/.(8 9)6./. F/*<( (.+,*:
:*>. 7/*: 68. ()7.61 *7 68. 9)6./H( .,<.. A6 68. 7-/(6 (-<4 *7 ,)4<./0 68.1
;+24<. -46* 68. 9)6./ )4, 52/1 68.:(.+>.( -4 68. :2, )4, ,.5/-(. F/*<( )/.
38)/)36./-G., 51 (:**680 :*-(6 (A-4. T8./. )/. 7.9 ;*-(*4*2( (;.3-.( *7
7/*<(. A>*-, )41 5/-<86+1 3*+*/., 7/*< */ *4. 68)6 8)( ) ,-(6-436 J'K :)/A *4
-6( 5)3A )( 9.++ )( )++ 6/.. 7/*<(. D* 4*6 3*472(. 6*),( 9-68 7/*<(. T*),( :)1
5. /.3*<4-G., 51 68.-/ ,/10 J9)/61K */ 52:;1 (A-4. T8.1 )/. 2(2)++1 7*24, *4
+)4, -4 ,/-./ .4>-/*4:.46(. S.>./)+ (;.3-.( *7 6*),( (.3/.6. ) ;*-(*4*2(
(25(6)43. 68/*2<8 68.-/ (A-4 )( ) ,.7.4(. )<)-4(6 )66)3A. T8./.7*/.0 6* )>*-,
;*-(*4-4<0 ,* 4*6 8)4,+. */ .)6 6*),(.
$B2". D* 4*6 .)6 ()+):)4,./(M *4+1 )5*26 2% ;./3.46 *7 )++ ()+):)4,./( )/.
.,-5+.0 (* -6 -( 4*6 9*/68 68. /-(A *7 (.+.36-4< ) ;*-(*4*2( >)/-.61.
88
S)+):)4,./( )/. 7*24, )/*24, 68. 9)6./. T8.1 )/. 38)/)36./-G., 51 (:**680
:*-(6 (A-4 )4, 8)>. *4+1 7*2/ 6*.( *4 .)38 7**6.
REPTILES
$B21. R.;6-+.( )/. ) <**, ;/*6.-4 (*2/3. )4, /.+)6->.+1 .)(1 6* 3)638.
T8*/*2<8 3**A-4< )4, 8)4, 9)(8-4< -( -:;./)6->. 9-68 /.;6-+.(. A++ /.;6-+.(
)/. 3*4(-,./., 6* 5. 3)//-./( *7 ()+:*4.++)0 98-38 .=-(6( 4)62/)++1 *4 68.-/
(A-4. T2/6+.( )4, (4)A.( )/. .(;.3-)++1 A4*94 6* -47.36 :)4. I7 1*2 )/. -4 )4
24,./4*2/-(8., (6)6. )4, 1*2/ -::24. (1(6.: -( 9.)A0 ()+:*4.++) 3)4 5.
,.),+1. C**A 7**, 68*/*2<8+1 )4, 5. .(;.3-)++1 7)(6-,-*2( 9)(8-4< 1*2/
8)4,( )76./ 8)4,+-4< )41 /.;6-+.. L-G)/,( )/. ;+.46-72+ -4 :*(6 ;)/6( *7 68.
9*/+,. T8.1 :)1 5. /.3*<4-G., 51 68.-/ ,/10 (3)+1 (A-4. T8.1 8)>. 7->. 6*.(
*4 .)38 7**6. T8. *4+1 ;*-(*4*2( *4.( )/. 68. G-+) :*4(6./ )4, 68. M.=-3)4
5.),., +-G)/,. C)/. :2(6 5. 6)A.4 98.4 8)4,+-4< )4, ;/.;)/-4< 68. -<2)4)
)4, 68. :*4-6*/ +-G)/,0 )( 68.1 3*::*4+1 8)/5*/ 68. ()+:*4.++)+ >-/2( -4 68.-/
:*268 )4, 6..68. T8. 6)-+ :.)6 -( 68. 5.(6 6)(6-4< )4, .)(-.(6 6* ;/.;)/..
$B22. T2/6+.( )/. ) >./1 <**, (*2/3. *7 :.)6. T8./. )/. )362)++1 (.>.4
,-77./.46 7+)>*/( *7 :.)6 -4 .)38 (4);;-4< 62/6+.. M*(6 *7 68. :.)6 9-++ 3*:.
7/*: 68. 7/*46 )4, /.)/ (8*2+,./ )/.)0 )+68*2<8 ) +)/<. 62/6+. :)1 8)>. (*:.
*4 -6( 4.3A. T8. 5*= 62/6+. CF-<2/. $BD -( ) 3*::*4+1 .43*246./., 62/6+. 68)6
1*2 (8*2+, 4*6 .)6. I6 7..,( *4 ;*-(*4*2( :2(8/**:( )4, :)1 52-+, 2; )
8-<8+1 6*=-3 ;*-(*4 -4 -6( 7+.(8. C**A-4< ,*.( 4*6 ,.(6/*1 68-( 6*=-4. A+(*
)>*-, 68. 8)9A(5-++ 62/6+. CF-<2/. $BD0 7*24, -4 68. A6+)46-3 O3.)40 5.3)2(. *7
-6( ;*-(*4*2( 68*/)= <+)4,. P*-(*4*2( (4)A.(0 )++-<)6*/(0 3/*3*,-+.(0 )4,
+)/<. (.) 62/6+.( ;/.(.46 *5>-*2( 8)G)/,( 6* 68. (2/>->*/.
F493*+ C3. T3*0<+: $408 P14:1/13: F<+:8
BIRDS
$B2. A++ (;.3-.( *7 5-/,( )/. .,-5+.0 )+68*2<8 68. 7+)>*/ 9-++ >)/1
3*4(-,./)5+1. T8. *4+1 ;*-(*4*2( 5-/, -( 68. P-6*82-0 4)6->. *4+1 6* N.9
G2-4.). Y*2 :)1 (A-4 7-(8B.)6-4< 5-/,( 6* -:;/*>. 68.-/ 6)(6.. A( 9-68 )41
9-+, )4-:)+0 1*2 :2(6 24,./(6)4, 5-/,(H 3*::*4 8)5-6( 6* 8)>. ) /.)+-(6-3
38)43. *7 3);62/-4< 68.:. Y*2 3)4 6)A. ;-<.*4(0 )( 9.++ )( (*:. *68./
(;.3-.(0 7/*: 68.-/ /**(6 )6 4-<86 51 8)4,. D2/-4< 68. 4.(6-4< (.)(*40 (*:.
89
(;.3-.( 9-++ 4*6 +.)>. 68. 4.(6 .>.4 98.4 );;/*)38.,. K4*9-4< 98./. )4,
98.4 68. 5-/,( 4.(6 :)A.( 3)638-4< 68.: .)(-./ CF-<2/. $B4D. B-/,( 6.4, 6*
8)>. /.<2+)/ 7+19)1( <*-4< 7/*: 68. /**(6 6* ) 7..,-4< )/.)0 6* 9)6./0 )4, (*
7*/68. C)/.72+ *5(./>)6-*4 (8*2+, /.>.)+ 98./. 68.(. 7+19)1( )/. )4, -4,-3)6.
<**, )/.)( 7*/ 3)638-4< 5-/,( -4 4.6( (6/.638., )3/*(( 68. 7+19)1( CF-<2/. $B
%D. R**(6-4< (-6.( )4, 9)6./8*+.( )/. (*:. *7 68. :*(6 ;/*:-(-4< )/.)( 7*/
6/);;-4< */ (4)/-4<.
T;7+: 7, @4*2:. F*+=3+/0 /+:04/9
7<-.+:.
N+:04/9 7+*412:.
I4+)4, 5-/,(. T/..0 9**,( */
7-.+,(.
S;/-4< )4, .)/+1 (2::./ -4
6.:;./)6. )4, A/6-3 /.<-*4(M
1.)/ /*24, -4 68. T/*;-3(.
C/)4.( )4,
H./*4(.
M)4</*>. (9):;(
*/ 8-<8 6/..( 4.)/
9)6./.
S;/-4< )4, .)/+1 (2::./.
S*:. (;.3-.( *7
O9+(.
H-<8 6/..(. L)6. D.3.:5./ 68/*2<8 M)/38.
D23A( )4, G..(.. T24,/) )/.)( 4.)/
;*4,(0 /->./( */
+)A.(.
S;/-4< )4, .)/+1 (2::./ -4 A/6-3
/.<-*4(.
S*:. (.) 5-/,(. S)4,5)/( */ +*9
()4, -(+)4,(.
S;/-4< )4, .)/+1 (2::./ -4
6.:;./)6. )4, A/6-3 /.<-*4(.
G2++(0 A2A(0 M2//.(
)4, C*/:*/)46(.
S6..; /*3A1 3*)(6(. S;/-4< )4, .)/+1 (2::./ -4
6.:;./)6. )4, A/6-3 /.<-*4(.
F493*+ C!. B4*2:I N+:04/9 P<-.+:
F493*+ C". C-0.84/9 B4*2: 4/ - N+0
$B24. N.(6-4< 5-/,( ;/.(.46 )4*68./ 7**, (*2/3.@.<<(. R.:*>. )++ 526 69*
*/ 68/.. .<<( 7/*: 68. 3+26380 :)/A-4< 68. *4.( 68)6 1*2 +.)>.. T8. 5-/, 9-++
3*46-42. 6* +)1 :*/. .<<( 6* 7-++ 68. 3+2638. C*46-42. /.:*>-4< 68. 7/.(8 .<<(0
+.)>-4< 68. *4.( 1*2 :)/A.,.
MAMMALS
90
$B2%. M)::)+( )/. .=3.++.46 ;/*6.-4 (*2/3.( )4,0 7*/ A:./-3)4(0 68. 6)(6-.(6
7**, (*2/3.. T8./. )/. (*:. ,/)95)3A( 6* *56)-4-4< :)::)+(. I4 ) 8*(6-+.
.4>-/*4:.460 68. .4.:1 :)1 ,.6.36 )41 6/);( */ (4)/.( ;+)3., *4 +)4,. T8.
):*246 *7 -4F2/1 )4 )4-:)+ 3)4 -47+-36 -( -4 ,-/.36 ;/*;*/6-*4 6* -6( (-G.. A++
:)::)+( 8)>. 6..68 )4, 4.)/+1 )++ 9-++ 5-6. -4 (.+7B,.7.4(.. E>.4 ) (?2-//.+
3)4 -47+-36 ) (./-*2( 9*24, )4, )41 5-6. ;/.(.46( ) (./-*2( /-(A *7 -47.36-*4.
A+(*0 )41 :*68./ 3)4 5. .=6/.:.+1 )<</.((->. -4 ,.7.4(. *7 8./ 1*24<. A41
)4-:)+ 9-68 4* /*26. *7 .(3);. 9-++ 7-<86 98.4 3*/4./.,.
$B26. A++ :)::)+( )/. .,-5+.M 8*9.>./0 68. ;*+)/ 5.)/ )4, 5.)/,., (.)+
8)>. 6*=-3 +.>.+( *7 >-6):-4 A -4 68.-/ +->./(. T8. ;+)61;2(0 4)6->. 6* A2(6/)+-)
)4, T)(:)4-)0 -( )4 .<<B+)1-4<0 (.:-)?2)6-3 :)::)+ 68)6 8)( ;*-(*4*2(
3+)9( *4 -6( 8-4, +.<(. S3)>.4<-4< :)::)+(0 (238 )( 68. *;*((2:0 :)1
3)//1 ,-(.)(.(.
TRAPS AND SNARES
$B27. F*/ )4 24)/:., (2/>->*/ */ .>),./0 */ 98.4 68. (*24, *7 ) /-7+. (8*6
3*2+, 5. ) ;/*5+.:0 6/);;-4< */ (4)/-4< 9-+, <):. -( ) <**, )+6./4)6->..
S.>./)+ 9.++B;+)3., 6/);( 8)>. 68. ;*6.46-)+ 6* 3)638 :238 :*/. <):. 68)4 )
:)4 9-68 ) /-7+. -( +-A.+1 6* (8**6. T* 5. .77.36->. 9-68 )41 61;. *7 6/); */
(4)/.0 1*2 :2(6@
I B. 7):-+-)/ 9-68 68. (;.3-.( *7 )4-:)+ 1*2 -46.4, 6* 3)638.
I B. 3);)5+. *7 3*4(6/236-4< ) ;/*;./ 6/); )4, ;/*;./+1 :)(A-4< 1*2/ (3.46.
I N*6 )+)/: 68. ;/.1 51 +.)>-4< (-<4( *7 1*2/ ;/.(.43..
$B2$. T8./. )/. 4* 3)638)++ 6/);( 1*2 3)4 (.6 7*/ )++ )4-:)+(. Y*2 :2(6
,.6./:-4. 98)6 (;.3-.( )/. -4 68. )/.) )4, (.6 1*2/ 6/);( (;.3-7-3)++1 9-68
68*(. )4-:)+( -4 :-4,. L**A 7*/ 68. 7*++*9-4<E
I R24( )4, 6/)-+(.
I T/)3A(.
I D/*;;-4<(.
I C8.9., */ /255., >.<.6)6-*4.
I N.(6-4< */ /**(6-4< (-6.(.
I F..,-4< )4, 9)6./-4< )/.)(.
$B29. P*(-6-*4 1*2/ 6/);( )4, (4)/.( 98./. 68./. -( ;/**7 68)6 )4-:)+( ;)((
68/*2<8. Y*2 :2(6 ,.6./:-4. -7 -6 -( ) J/24K */ ) J6/)-+.K A 6/)-+ 9-++ (8*9 (-<4(
*7 2(. 51 (.>./)+ (;.3-.( )4, 9-++ 5. /)68./ ,-(6-436. A /24 -( 2(2)++1 (:)++./
)4, +.(( ,-(6-436 )4, 9-++ *4+1 3*46)-4 (-<4( *7 *4. (;.3-.(. Y*2 :)1
3*4(6/236 ) ;./7.36 (4)/.0 526 -6 9-++ 4*6 3)638 )4168-4< -7 8);8)G)/,+1 ;+)3., -4
68. 9**,(. A4-:)+( 8)>. 5.,,-4< )/.)(0 9)6./ 8*+.(0 )4, 7..,-4< )/.)( 9-68
6/)-+( +.),-4< 7/*: *4. 6* )4*68./. Y*2 :2(6 ;+)3. (4)/.( )4, 6/);( )/*24,
68.(. )/.)( 6* 5. .77.36->..
$B". I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 8*(6-+. .4>-/*4:.460 6/); )4, (4)/. 3*43.)+:.46 -(
-:;*/6)46. H*9.>./0 -6 -( .?2)++1 -:;*/6)46 4*6 6* 3/.)6. ) ,-(62/5)43. 68)6
9-++ )+)/: 68. )4-:)+ )4, 3)2(. -6 6* )>*-, 68. 6/);. T8./.7*/.0 -7 1*2 :2(6
91
,-<0 /.:*>. )++ 7/.(8 ,-/6 7/*: 68. )/.). M*(6 )4-:)+( 9-++ -4(6-436->.+1 )>*-, )
;-67)++B61;. 6/);. P/.;)/. 68. >)/-*2( ;)/6( *7 ) 6/); */ (4)/. )9)1 7/*: 68.
(-6.0 3)//1 68.: -40 )4, (.6 68.: 2;. S238
)36-*4( :)A. -6 .)(-./ 6* )>*-, ,-(62/5-4< 68. +*3)+ >.<.6)6-*40 68./.51 )+./6-4<
68. ;/.1. D* 4*6 2(. 7/.(8+1 3260 +->. >.<.6)6-*4 6* 3*4(6/236 ) 6/); */ (4)/..
F/.(8+1 326 >.<.6)6-*4 9-++ J5+..,K (); 68)6 8)( )4 *,*/ 68. ;/.1 9-++ 5. )5+.
6* (:.++. I6 -( )4 )+)/: (-<4)+ 6* 68. )4-:)+.
$B1. Y*2 :2(6 /.:*>. */ :)(A 68. 82:)4 (3.46 *4 )4, )/*24, 68. 6/); 1*2
(.6. A+68*2<8 5-/,( ,* 4*6 8)>. ) ,.>.+*;., (.4(. *7 (:.++0 4.)/+1 )++
:)::)+( ,.;.4, *4 (:.++ .>.4 :*/. 68)4 *4 (-<86. E>.4 68. (+-<86.(6
82:)4 (3.46 *4 ) 6/); 9-++ )+)/: 68. ;/.1 )4, 3)2(. -6 6* )>*-, 68. )/.).
A362)++1 /.:*>-4< 68. (3.46 7/*: ) 6/); -( ,-77-32+6 526 :)(A-4< -6 -( /.+)6->.+1
.)(1. U(. 68. 7+2-, 7/*: 68. <)++ )4, 2/-4. 5+),,./( *7 ;/.>-*2( A-++(. D* 4*6
2(. 82:)4 2/-4.. M2,0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 7/*: )4 )/.) 9-68 ;+.461 *7 /*66-4<
>.<.6)6-*40 -( )+(* <**,. U(. -6 6* 3*)6 1*2/ 8)4,( 98.4 8)4,+-4< 68. 6/);
)4, 6* 3*)6 68. 6/); 98.4 (.66-4< -6. I4 4.)/+1 )++ ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,0 )4-:)+(
A4*9 68. (:.++ *7 52/4., >.<.6)6-*4 )4, (:*A.. I6 -( *4+1 98.4 ) 7-/. -(
)362)++1 52/4-4< 68)6 68.1 5.3*:. )+)/:.,. T8./.7*/.0 (:*A-4< 68. 6/); ;)/6(
-( )4 .77.36->. :.)4( 6* :)(A 1*2/ (3.46. I7 *4. *7 68. )5*>. 6.384-?2.( -(
4*6 ;/)36-3)+0 )4, -7 6-:. ;./:-6(0 )++*9 ) 6/); 6* 9.)68./ 7*/ ) 7.9 ,)1( )4,
68.4 (.6 -6. D* 4*6 8)4,+. ) 6/); 98-+. -6 -( 9.)68./-4<. !8.4 1*2 ;*(-6-*4 68.
6/);0 3):*27+)<. -6 )( 4)62/)++1 )( ;*((-5+. 6* ;/.>.46 ,.6.36-*4 51 68. .4.:1
)4, 6* )>*-, )+)/:-4< 68. ;/.1.
$B2. T/);( */ (4)/.( ;+)3., *4 ) 6/)-+ */ /24 (8*2+, 2(. 7244.+-4< */
38)44.+-G)6-*4. T* 52-+, ) 38)44.+0 3*4(6/236 ) 7244.+B(8);., 5)//-./
.=6.4,-4< 7/*: 68. (-,.( *7 68. 6/)-+ 6*9)/, 68. 6/);0 9-68 68. 4)//*9.(6 ;)/6
4.)/.(6 68. 6/);. C8)44.+-G)6-*4 (8*2+, 5. -43*4(;-32*2( 6* )>*-, )+./6-4<
68. ;/.1. A( 68. )4-:)+ <.6( 6* 68. 6/);0 -6 3)44*6 62/4 +.76 */ /-<86 )4,
3*46-42.( -46* 68. 6/);. F.9 9-+, )4-:)+( 9-++ 5)3A 2;0 ;/.7.//-4< 6* 7)3. 68.
,-/.36-*4 *7 6/)>.+. C8)44.+-G)6-*4 ,*.( 4*6 8)>. 6* 5. )4 -:;)(()5+. 5)//-./.
Y*2 *4+1 8)>. 6* :)A. -6 -43*4>.4-.46 7*/ 68. )4-:)+ 6* <* *>./ */ 68/*2<8 68.
5)//-./. F*/ 5.(6 .77.360 68. 38)44.+-G)6-*4 (8*2+, /.,23. 68. 6/)-+H( 9-,68 6*
F2(6 (+-<86+1 9-,./ 68)4 68. 6)/<.6., )4-:)+H( 5*,1. M)-46)-4 68-( 3*4(6/-36-*4
)6 +.)(6 )( 7)/ 5)3A 7/*: 68. 6/); )( 68. )4-:)+( 5*,1 +.4<680 68.4 5.<-4 68.
9-,.4-4< 6*9)/, 68. :*268 *7 68. 7244.+.
USE OF BAIT
$B. B)-6-4< ) 6/); */ (4)/. -43/.)(.( 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 3)638-4< )4 )4-:)+.
!8.4 3)638-4< 7-(80 1*2 :2(6 5)-6 4.)/+1 )++ 68. ,.>-3.(. S233.(( 9-68 )4
245)-6., 6/); ,.;.4,( *4 -6( ;+)3.:.46 -4 ) <**, +*3)6-*4. A 5)-6., 6/); 3)4
)362)++1 ,/)9 )4-:)+( 6* -6. T8. 5)-6 (8*2+, 5. (*:.68-4< 68. )4-:)+ A4*9(.
H*9.>./0 68-( 5)-6 (8*2+, 4*6 5. (* /.),-+1 )>)-+)5+. -4 68. -::.,-)6. )/.)
68)6 68. )4-:)+ 3)4 <.6 -6 3+*(. 51. F*/ .=):;+.0 5)-6-4< ) 6/); 9-68 3*/4 -4 68.
:-,,+. *7 ) 3*/47-.+, 9*2+, 4*6 5. +-A.+1 6* 9*/A. L-A.9-(.0 -7 3*/4 -( 4*6 </*94
-4 68. /.<-*40 ) 3*/4B5)-6., 6/); :)1 )/*2(. )4 )4-:)+H( 32/-*(-61 )4, A..; -6
)+./6., 98-+. -6 ;*4,./( 68. (6/)4<. 7**,. U4,./ (238 3-/32:(6)43.( -6 :)1
92
4*6 <* 7*/ 68. 5)-6. O4. 5)-6 68)6 9*/A( 9.++ *4 (:)++ :)::)+( -( 68. ;.)426
5266./ 7/*: ) :.)+0 /.),1B6*B.)6 CMRED /)6-*4. S)+6 -( )+(* ) <**, 5)-6. !8.4
2(-4< (238 5)-6(0 (3)66./ 5-6( *7 -6 )/*24, 68. 6/); 6* <->. 68. ;/.1 ) 38)43. 6*
():;+. -6 )4, ,.>.+*; ) 3/)>-4< 7*/ -6. T8. )4-:)+ 9-++ 68.4 *>./3*:. (*:. *7
-6( 3)26-*4 5.7*/. -6 <.6( 6* 68. 6/);.
$B4. I7 1*2 (.6 )4, 5)-6 ) 6/); 7*/ *4. (;.3-.( 526 )4*68./ (;.3-.( 6)A.( 68.
5)-6 9-68*26 5.-4< 3)2<860 6/1 6* ,.6./:-4. 98)6 68. )4-:)+ 9)(. T8.4 (.6 )
;/*;./ 6/); 7*/ 68)6 )4-:)+0 2(-4< 68. ():. 5)-6.
NOTE: O43. 1*2 8)>. (233.((72++1 6/);;., )4 )4-:)+0 1*2 9-++ 4*6 *4+1 <)-4
3*47-,.43. -4 1*2/ )5-+-610 1*2 9-++ )+(* 8)>. /.(2;;+-., 1*2/(.+7 9-68 5)-6 7*/
(.>./)+ :*/. 6/);(.
CONSTRUCTION
$B%. T/);( )4, (4)/.( cr&sh, choke, hang, */ entangle 68. ;/.1. A (-4<+.
6/); */ (4)/. 9-++ 3*::*4+1 -43*/;*/)6. 69* */ :*/. *7 68.(. ;/-43-;+.(. T8.
:.38)4-(:( 68)6 ;/*>-,. ;*9./ 6* 68. 6/); )/. 2(2)++1 >./1 (-:;+.. T8.
(6/2<<+-4< >-36-:0 68. 7*/3. *7 </)>-610 */ ) 5.46 ();+-4<H( 6.4(-*4 ;/*>-,.( 68.
;*9./.
$B6. T8. 8.)/6 *7 )41 6/); */ (4)/. -( 68. 6/-<<./. !8.4 ;+)44-4< ) 6/); */
(4)/.0 )(A 1*2/(.+7 8*9 -6 (8*2+, )77.36 68. ;/.10 98)6 -( 68. (*2/3. *7 ;*9./0
)4, 98)6 9-++ 5. 68. :*(6 .77-3-.46 6/-<<./. Y*2/ )4(9./( 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 ,.>-(.
) (;.3-7-3 6/); 7*/ ) (;.3-7-3 (;.3-.(. T/);( )/. ,.(-<4., 6* 3)638 )4, 8*+, */
6* 3)638 )4, A-++. S4)/.( )/. 6/);( 68)6 -43*/;*/)6. ) 4**(. 6* )33*:;+-(8
.-68./ 72436-*4.
S4>7<+ S/-*+
$B7. A (-:;+. (4)/. CF-<2/. $B6D 3*4(-(6( *7 ) 4**(. ;+)3., *>./ ) 6/)-+ */
,.4 8*+. )4, )66)38., 6* ) 7-/:+1 ;+)46., (6)A.. I7 68. 4**(. -( (*:. 61;. *7
3*/,)<. ;+)3., 2;/-<86 *4 ) <):. 6/)-+0 2(. (:)++ 69-<( */ 5+),.( *7 </)(( 6*
8*+, -6 2;. F-+):.46( 7/*: (;-,./ 9.5( )/. .=3.++.46 7*/ 8*+,-4< 4**(.( *;.4.
M)A. (2/. 68. 4**(. -( +)/<. .4*2<8 6* ;)(( 7/..+1 *>./ 68. )4-:)+H( 8.),.
A( 68. )4-:)+ 3*46-42.( 6* :*>.0 68. 4**(. 6-<86.4( )/*24, -6( 4.3A. T8.
:*/. 68. )4-:)+ (6/2<<+.(0 68. 6-<86./ 68. 4**(. <.6(. T8-( 61;. *7 (4)/.
2(2)++1 ,*.( 4*6 A-++ 68. )4-:)+. I7 1*2 2(. 3*/,)<.0 -6 :)1 +**(.4 .4*2<8 6*
(+-; *77 68. )4-:)+H( 4.3A. !-/. -( 68./.7*/. 68. 5.(6 38*-3. 7*/ ) (-:;+. (4)/..
93
F493*+ C6. S4>7<+ S/-*+
D*-9 N11:+
$B$. U(. ) ,/)< 4**(. *4 )4 )4-:)+ /24 CF-<2/. $B7D. P+)3. 7*/A., (6-3A( *4
.-68./ (-,. *7 68. /24 )4, +)1 ) (62/,1 3/*(( :.:5./ )3/*(( 68.:. T-. 68.
4**(. 6* 68. 3/*(( :.:5./ )4, 8)4< -6 )6 ) 8.-<86 )5*>. 68. )4-:)+H( 8.),.
CN**(.( ,.(-<4., 6* 3)638 51 68. 8.), (8*2+, 4.>./ 5. +*9 .4*2<8 7*/ 68.
;/.1 6* (6.; -46* 9-68 ) 7**6.D A( 68. 4**(. 6-<86.4( )/*24, 68. )4-:)+H( 4.3A0
68. )4-:)+ ;2++( 68. 3/*(( :.:5./ 7/*: 68. 7*/A., (6-3A( )4, ,/)<( -6 )+*4<.
T8. (2//*24,-4< >.<.6)6-*4 ?2-3A+1 3)638.( 68. 3/*(( :.:5./ )4, 68. )4-:)+
5.3*:.( .46)4<+.,.
F493*+ C#. D*-9 N11:+
TA40.8CU7
$B9. A 69-638B2; -( ) (2;;+. ();+-4< 68)60 98.4 5.46 *>./ )4, (.32/., 9-68 )
6/-<<./-4< ,.>-3.0 9-++ ;/*>-,. ;*9./ 6* ) >)/-.61 *7 (4)/.(. S.+.36 ) 8-3A*/1 */
*68./ 8)/,9**, ();+-4< )+*4< 68. 6/)-+. A 69-638 2; 9-++ 9*/A :238 7)(6./ )4,
9-68 :*/. 7*/3. -7 1*2 /.:*>. )++ 68. 5/)438.( )4, 7*+-)<..
94
TA40.8CU7 S/-*+
$B4". A (-:;+. 69-638B2; (4)/. 2(.( 69* 7*/A., (6-3A(0 .)38 9-68 ) +*4< )4,
(8*/6 +.< CF-<2/. $B$D. B.4, 68. 69-638B2; )4, :)/A 68. 6/)-+ 5.+*9 -6. D/->.
68. +*4< +.< *7 *4. 7*/A., (6-3A 7-/:+1 -46* 68. </*24, )6 68)6 ;*-46. E4(2/. 68.
326 *4 68. (8*/6 +.< *7 68-( (6-3A -( ;)/)++.+ 6* 68. </*24,. T-. 68. +*4< +.< *7
68. /.:)-4-4< 7*/A., (6-3A 6* ) ;-.3. *7 3*/,)<. (.32/., 6* 68. 69-638B2;. C26
68. (8*/6 +.< (* 68)6 -6 3)638.( *4 68. (8*/6 +.< *7 68. *68./ 7*/A., (6-3A.
E=6.4, ) 4**(. *>./ 68. 6/)-+. S.6 68. 6/); 51 5.4,-4< 68. 69-638 2; )4,
.4<)<-4< 68. (8*/6 +.<( *7 68. 7*/A., (6-3A(. !8.4 )4 )4-:)+ 3)638.( -6( 8.),
-4 68. 4**(.0 -6 ;2++( 68. 7*/A., (6-3A( );)/60 )++*9-4< 68. 69-638B2; 6* (;/-4< 2;
)4, 8)4< 68. ;/.1.
NOTE: D* 4*6 2(. </..4 (6-3A( 7*/ 68. 6/-<<./. T8. (); 68)6 **G.( *26 3*2+,
<+2. 68.: 6*<.68./.
F493*+ C. TA40.8CU7 S/-*+
S=34**+< P1<+
$B41. A (?2-//.+ ;*+. -( ) +*4< ;*+. ;+)3., )<)-4(6 ) 6/.. -4 )4 )/.) (8*9-4< )
+*6 *7 (?2-//.+ )36->-61 CF-<2/. $B9D. P+)3. (.>./)+ 9-/. 4**(.( )+*4< 68. 6*;
)4, (-,.( *7 68. ;*+. (* 68)6 ) (?2-//.+ 6/1-4< 6* <* 2; */ ,*94 68. ;*+. 9-++
8)>. 6* ;)(( 68/*2<8 *4. */ :*/. *7 68.:. P*(-6-*4 68. 4**(.( C% 6* 6
3.46-:.6./( P2 6* 2 1R4B-438.(Q -4 ,-):.6./D )5*26 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D *77
68. ;*+.. P+)3. 68. 6*; )4, 5*66*: 9-/. 4**(.( 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D
7/*: 68. 6*; )4, 5*66*: *7 68. ;*+. 6* ;/.>.46 68. (?2-//.+ 7/*: <.66-4< -6( 7..6
*4 ) (*+-, (2/7)3.. I7 68-( 8);;.4(0 68. (?2-//.+ 9-++ 38.9 68/*2<8 68. 9-/..
S?2-//.+( )/. 4)62/)++1 32/-*2(. A76./ )4 -4-6-)+ ;./-*, *7 3)26-*40 68.1 9-++ 6/1 6*
<* 2; */ ,*94 68. ;*+. )4, 9-++ 5. 3)2<86 -4 68. 4**(.. T8. (6/2<<+-4< )4-:)+
9-++ (**4 7)++ 7/*: 68. ;*+. )4, (6/)4<+.. O68./ (?2-//.+( 9-++ (**4 5. ,/)94 6*
68. 3*::*6-*4. I4 68-( 9)10 1*2 3)4 3)638 (.>./)+ (?2-//.+(. Y*2 3)4
.:;+)3. :2+6-;+. ;*+.( 6* -43/.)(. 68. 3)638.
95
F493*+. C%. S=34**+< P1<+
OD4@A- B4*2 P1<+
$B42. A4 OF-59) 5-/, ;*+. -( ) (4)/. 68)6 8)( 5..4 2(., 51 N)6->. A:./-3)4(
7*/ 3.462/-.( CF-<2/. $B1"D. T* 5. .77.36->.0 -6 (8*2+, 5. ;+)3., -4 ) /.+)6->.+1
*;.4 )/.) )9)1 7/*: 6)++ 6/..(. F*/ 5.(6 /.(2+6(0 ;-3A ) (;*6 4.)/ 7..,-4<
)/.)(0 ,2(6-4< )/.)(0 */ 9)6./-4< 8*+.(. C26 ) ;*+. 1.$ 6* 2.1 :.6./( C6 6* 7
7..6D +*4< )4, 6/-: )9)1 )++ +-:5( )4, 7*+-)<.. D* 4*6 2(. /.(-4*2( 9**, (238
)( ;-4.. S8)/;.4 68. 2;;./ .4, 6* ) ;*-460 68.4 ,/-++ ) (:)++B,-):.6./ 8*+. %
6* 7.% 3.46-:.6./( C2 6* -438.(D ,*94 7/*: 68. 6*;. C26 ) (:)++ (6-3A 1" 6*
1% 3.46-:.6./( C4 6* 6 -438.(D +*4< )4, (8);. *4. .4, (* 68)6 -6 9-++ )+:*(6 7-6
-46* 68. 8*+.. T8-( -( 68. ;./38. P+)46 68. +*4< ;*+. -4 68. </*24, 9-68 68.
;*-46., .4, 2;. T-. ) (:)++ 9.-<860 )5*26 .?2)+ 6* 68. 9.-<86 *7 68. 6)/<.6.,
(;.3-.(0 6* ) +.4<68 *7 3*/,)<.. P)(( 68. 7/.. .4, *7 68. 3*/,)<. 68/*2<8 68.
8*+.0 )4, 6-. ) (+-; 4**(. 68)6 3*>./( 68. ;./38. T-. ) (-4<+. *>./8)4, A4*6 -4
68. 3*/,)<. )4, ;+)3. 68. ;./38 )<)-4(6 68. 8*+.. A++*9 68. 3*/,)<. 6* (+-;
68/*2<8 68. 8*+. 246-+ 68. *>./8)4, A4*6 /.(6( )<)-4(6 68. ;*+. )4, 68. 6*; *7
68. ;./38. T8. 6.4(-*4 *7 68. *>./8)4, A4*6 )<)-4(6 68. ;*+. )4, ;./38 9-++
8*+, 68. ;./38 -4 ;*(-6-*4. S;/.), 68. 4**(. *>./ 68. ;./380 .4(2/-4< -6
3*>./( 68. ;./38 )4, ,/);.( *>./ *4 5*68 (-,.(. M*(6 5-/,( ;/.7./ 6* /.(6 *4
(*:.68-4< )5*>. </*24, )4, 9-++ +)4, *4 68. ;./38. A( (**4 )( 68. 5-/,
+)4,(0 68. ;./38 9-++ 7)++0 /.+.)(-4< 68. *>./8)4, A4*6 )4, )++*9-4< 68. 9.-<86
6* ,/*;. T8. 4**(. 9-++ 6-<86.4 )/*24, 68. 5-/,H( 7..60 3);62/-4< -6. I7 68.
9.-<86 -( 6** 8.)>10 -6 9-++ 326 *77 68. 5-/,H( 7..60 )++*9-4< -6 6* .(3);.. A4*68./
>)/-)6-*4 9*2+, 5. 6* 2(. (;/-4< 6.4(-*4 (238 )( ) 6/.. 5/)438 -4 ;+)3. *7 68.
9.-<86.
96
F493*+ C10. OD4@A- B4*2 P1<+
N11:4/9 $-/2
$B4. A 4**(. (6-3A */ J4**(-4< 9)4,K -( 2(.72+ 7*/ 3);62/-4< /**(6-4< 5-/,( */
(:)++ :)::)+( CF-<2/. $B 11D. I6 /.?2-/.( ) ;)6-.46 *;./)6*/. T8-( 9)4, -(
:*/. ) 9.);*4 68)4 ) 6/);. I6 3*4(-(6( *7 ) ;*+. C)( +*4< )( 1*2 3)4
.77.36->.+1 8)4,+.D 9-68 ) (+-; 4**(. *7 9-/. */ (6-77 3*/,)<. )6 68. (:)++ .4,.
T* 3)638 )4 )4-:)+0 1*2 (+-; 68. 4**(. *>./ 68. 4.3A *7 ) /**(6-4< 5-/, )4,
;2++ -6 6-<86. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;+)3. -6 *>./ ) ,.4 8*+. )4, 8-,. -4 ) 4.)/51 5+-4,.
!8.4 68. )4-:)+ .:./<.( 7/*: 68. ,.40 1*2 F./A 68. ;*+. 6* 6-<86.4 68. 4**(.
)4, 682( 3);62/. 68. )4-:)+. C)//1 ) (6*26 3+25 6* A-++ 68. ;/.1.
F493*+ C11. N11:4/9 $-/2
T*+-2<+ S7*4/9 S/-*+
$B44. U(. ) 6/.),+. (4)/. )<)-4(6 (:)++ <):. *4 ) 6/)-+ CF-<2/. $B12D. D-< )
(8)++*9 8*+. -4 68. 6/)-+. T8.4 ,/->. ) 7*/A., (6-3A C7*/A ,*94D -46* 68. </*24,
*4 .)38 (-,. *7 68. 8*+. *4 68. ():. (-,. *7 68. 6/)-+. S.+.36 69* 7)-/+1 (6/)-<86
(6-3A( 68)6 (;)4 68. 69* 7*/A(. P*(-6-*4 68.(. 69* (6-3A( (* 68)6 68.-/ .4,(
.4<)<. 68. 7*/A(. P+)3. (.>./)+ (6-3A( *>./ 68. 8*+. -4 68. 6/)-+ 51 ;*(-6-*4-4<
*4. .4, *>./ 68. +*9./ 8*/-G*46)+ (6-3A )4, 68. *68./ *4 68. </*24, *4 68.
*68./ (-,. *7 68. 8*+.. C*>./ 68. 8*+. 9-68 .4*2<8 (6-3A( (* 68)6 68. ;/.1
:2(6 (6.; *4 )6 +.)(6 *4. *7 68.: 6* (.6 *77 68. (4)/.. T-. *4. .4, *7 ) ;-.3.
*7 3*/,)<. 6* ) 69-638B2; */ 6* ) 9.-<86 (2(;.4,., *>./ ) 6/.. +-:5. B.4, 68.
69-638B2; */ /)-(. 68. (2(;.4,., 9.-<86 6* ,.6./:-4. 98./. 1*2 9-++ 6-. 68.
6/-<<./. T8. 6/-<<./ (8*2+, 5. )5*26 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D +*4<. F*/: )
4**(. 9-68 68. *68./ .4, *7 68. 3*/,)<.. R*26. )4, (;/.), 68. 4**(. *>./
68. 6*; *7 68. (6-3A( *>./ 68. 8*+.. P+)3. 68. 6/-<<./ (6-3A )<)-4(6 68.
8*/-G*46)+ (6-3A( )4, /*26. 68. 3*/,)<. 5.8-4, 68. (6-3A( (* 68)6 68. 6.4(-*4 *7
68. ;*9./ (*2/3. 9-++ 8*+, -6 -4 ;+)3.. A,F2(6 68. 5*66*: 8*/-G*46)+ (6-3A (*
68)6 -6 9-++ 5)/.+1 8*+, )<)-4(6 68. 6/-<<./. A( 68. )4-:)+ ;+)3.( -6( 7**6 *4 )
(6-3A )3/*(( 68. 8*+.0 68. 5*66*: 8*/-G*46)+ (6-3A :*>.( ,*940 /.+.)(-4< 68.
6/-<<./ )4, )++*9-4< 68. 4**(. 6* 3)638 68. )4-:)+ 51 68. 7**6. B.3)2(. *7 68.
,-(62/5)43. *4 68. 6/)-+0 )4 )4-:)+ 9-++ 5. 9)/1. Y*2 :2(6 68./.7*/. 2(.
38)44.+-G)6-*4. T* -43/.)(. 68. .77.36->.4.(( *7 68-( 6/);0 ) (:)++ 5)-6 9.++
:)1 5. ,2< -46* 68. 5*66*: *7 68. 8*+.. P+)3. (*:. 5)-6 -4 68. 5*66*: *7 68.
8*+. 6* +2/. 68. )4-:)+ 6* 68. (4)/..
97
F493*+ C12. T*+-2<+ S7*4/9 S/-*+
F493*+ ! D+-2,-<<
$B4%. T8. 7-<2/. 4 ,.),7)++ -( ) 6/-<<./ 2(., 6* ,/*; ) 9.-<86 *46* ) ;/.1 )4,
3/2(8 -6 CF-<2/. $B1D. T8. 61;. *7 9.-<86 2(., :)1 >)/10 526 -6 (8*2+, 5.
8.)>1 .4*2<8 6* A-++ */ -43);)3-6)6. 68. ;/.1 -::.,-)6.+1. C*4(6/236 68.
7-<2/. 4 2(-4< 68/.. 4*638., (6-3A(. T8.(. 4*638.( 8*+, 68. (6-3A( 6*<.68./ -4
) 7-<2/. 4 ;)66./4 98.4 24,./ 6.4(-*4. P/)36-3. :)A-4< 68-( 6/-<<./
5.7*/.8)4,M -6 /.?2-/.( 3+*(. 6*+./)43.( )4, ;/.3-(. )4<+.( -4 -6( 3*4(6/236-*4.
98
F493*+ C13. F493*+ ! D+-2,-<<
P-430+ D+-2,-<<
$B46. T8. P)-26. ,.),7)++ -( (-:-+)/ 6* 68. 7-<2/. 4 526 2(.( ) ;-.3. *7 3*/,)<.
)4, ) 3)638 (6-3A CF-<2/. $B 14D. I6 8)( 68. ),>)46)<. *7 5.-4< .)(-./ 6* (.6
68)4 68. 7-<2/. 4. T-. *4. .4, *7 ) ;-.3. *7 3*/,)<. 6* 68. +*9./ .4, *7 68.
,-)<*4)+ (6-3A. T-. 68. *68./ .4, *7 68. 3*/,)<. 6* )4*68./ (6-3A )5*26 %
3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D +*4<. T8-( (6-3A -( 68. 3)638 (6-3A. B/-4< 68. 3*/,
8)+79)1 )/*24, 68. >./6-3)+ (6-3A 9-68 68. 3)638 (6-3A )6 ) 9"B,.</.. )4<+..
P+)3. 68. 5)-6 (6-3A 9-68 *4. .4, )<)-4(6 68. ,/*; 9.-<860 */ ) ;.< ,/->.4 -46*
68. </*24,0 )4, 68. *68./ )<)-4(6 68. 3)638 (6-3A. !8.4 ) ;/.1 ,-(62/5( 68.
5)-6 (6-3A0 -6 7)++( 7/..0 /.+.)(-4< 68. 3)638 (6-3A. A( 68. ,-)<*4)+ (6-3A 7+-.( 2;0
68. 9.-<86 7)++(0 3/2(8-4< 68. ;/.1. T* -43/.)(. 68. .77.36->.4.(( *7 68-( 6/);0
) (:)++ 5)-6 9.++ :)1 5. ,2< -46* 68. 5*66*: *7 68. 8*+.. P+)3. (*:. 5)-6 -4
68. 5*66*: *7 68. 8*+. 6* +2/. 68. )4-:)+( 6* 68. (4)/..
F493*+ C1!. P-430+ D+-2,-<<
B1A T*-7
$B47. A 5*9 6/); -( *4. *7 68. ,.),+-.(6 6/);( CF-<2/. $B1%D. I6 -( ,)4<./*2(
6* :)4 )( 9.++ )( )4-:)+(. T* 3*4(6/236 68-( 6/);0 52-+, ) 5*9 )4, )438*/ -6 6*
68. </*24, 9-68 ;.<(. A,F2(6 68. )-:-4< ;*-46 )( 1*2 )438*/ 68. 5*9. L)(8 )
99
6*<<+. (6-3A 6* 68. 6/-<<./ (6-3A. T9* 2;/-<86 (6-3A( ,/->.4 -46* 68. </*24, 8*+,
68. 6/-<<./ (6-3A -4 ;+)3. )6 ) ;*-46 98./. 68. 6*<<+. (6-3A 9-++ .4<)<. 68.
;2++., 5*9(6/-4<. P+)3. ) 3)638 (6-3A 5.69..4 68. 6*<<+. (6-3A )4, ) (6)A.
,/->.4 -46* 68. </*24,. T-. ) 6/-; 9-/. */ 3*/,)<. 6* 68. 3)638 (6-3A )4, /*26. -6
)/*24, (6)A.( )4, )3/*(( 68. <):. 6/)-+ 98./. 1*2 6-. -6 *77 C)( -4 F-<2/. $B
1%D. !8.4 68. ;/.1 6/-;( 68. 6/-; 9-/.0 68. 5*9 +**(.( )4 )//*9 -46* -6. A
4*638 -4 68. 5*9 (./>.( 6* 8.+; )-: 68. )//*9.
F493*+ C1". B1A T*-7
$ARNING
T8-( -( ) +.68)+ 6/);. A;;/*)38 -6 9-68 3)26-*4 )4, 7/*: 68. /.)/ *4+1N
P49 S7+-* S8-,0
$B4$. T* 3*4(6/236 68. ;-< (;.)/ (8)760 (.+.36 ) (6*26 ;*+. )5*26 2.% :.6./( C$
7..6D +*4< CF-<2/. $B16D. A6 68. (:)++./ .4,0 7-/:+1 +)(8 (.>./)+ (:)++ (6)A.(.
L)(8 68. +)/<. .4, 6-<86+1 6* ) 6/.. )+*4< 68. <):. 6/)-+. T-. ) +.4<68 *7
3*/,)<. 6* )4*68./ 6/.. )3/*(( 68. 6/)-+. T-. ) (62/,10 (:**68 (6-3A 6* 68.
*68./ .4, *7 68. 3*/,. F/*: 68. 7-/(6 6/..0 6-. ) 6/-; 9-/. */ 3*/, +*9 6* 68.
</*24,0 (6/.638 -6 )3/*(( 68. 6/)-+0 )4, 6-. -6 6* ) 3)638 (6-3A. M)A. ) (+-; /-4<
7/*: >-4.( */ *68./ (2-6)5+. :)6./-)+. E43-/3+. 68. 6/-; 9-/. )4, 68. (:**68
(6-3A 9-68 68. (+-; /-4<. E:;+)3. *4. .4, *7 )4*68./ (:**68 (6-3A 9-68-4 68.
(+-; /-4< )4, -6( *68./ .4, )<)-4(6 68. (.3*4, 6/... P2++ 68. (:)++./ .4, *7 68.
(;.)/ (8)76 )3/*(( 68. 6/)-+ )4, ;*(-6-*4 -6 5.69..4 68. (8*/6 3*/, )4, 68.
(:**68 (6-3A. A( 68. )4-:)+ 6/-;( 68. 6/-; 9-/.0 68. 3)638 (6-3A ;2++( 68. (+-;
/-4< *77 68. (:**68 (6-3A(0 /.+.)(-4< 68. (;.)/ (8)76 68)6 (;/-4<( )3/*(( 68.
6/)-+ )4, -:;)+.( 68. ;/.1 )<)-4(6 68. 6/...
100
$ARNING.
T8-( -( ) +.68)+ 6/);. A;;/*)38 -6 9-68 3)26-*4 )4, 7/*: 68. /.)/ *4+1N
F493*+ C16. P49 S7+-* S8-,0
B100<+ T*-7
$B49. A 5*66+. 6/); -( ) (-:;+. 6/); 7*/ :-3. )4, >*+.( CF-<2/. $B17D. D-< )
8*+. " 6* 4% 3.46-:.6./( C12 6* 1$ -438.(D ,..; 68)6 -( 9-,./ )6 68. 5*66*:
68)4 )6 68. 6*;. M)A. 68. 6*; *7 68. 8*+. )( (:)++ )( ;*((-5+.. P+)3. ) ;-.3.
*7 5)/A */ 9**, *>./ 68. 8*+. 9-68 (:)++ (6*4.( 24,./ -6 6* 8*+, -6 2; 2.% 6* %
3.46-:.6./( C1 6* 2 -438.(D *77 68. </*24,. M-3. */ >*+.( 9-++ 8-,. 24,./ 68.
3*>./ 6* .(3);. ,)4<./ )4, 7)++ -46* 68. 8*+.. T8.1 3)44*6 3+-:5 *26 5.3)2(.
*7 68. 9)++H( 5)3A9)/, (+*;.. U(. 3)26-*4 98.4 38.3A-4< 68-( 6/);M -6 -( )4
.=3.++.46 8-,-4< ;+)3. 7*/ (4)A.(.
F493*+ C1#. B100<+ T*-7
KILLING DEVICES
$B%". T8./. )/. (.>./)+ A-++-4< ,.>-3.( 68)6 1*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 6* 8.+; 1*2
*56)-4 (:)++ <):. 6* 8.+; 1*2 (2/>->.. T8. /)55-6 (6-3A0 68. (;.)/0 68. 5*9
)4, )//*90 )4, 68. (+-4< )/. (238 ,.>-3.(.
RABBIT STICK
$B%1. O4. *7 68. (-:;+.(6 )4, :*(6 .77.36->. A-++-4< ,.>-3.( -( ) (6*26 (6-3A )(
+*4< )( 1*2/ )/:0 7/*: 7-4<./6-; 6* (8*2+,./0 3)++., ) J/)55-6 (6-3A.K Y*2 3)4
68/*9 -6 .-68./ *>./8)4, */ (-,.)/: )4, 9-68 3*4(-,./)5+. 7*/3.. I6 -( 5.(6
68/*94 (* 68)6 -6 7+-.( (-,.9)1(0 -43/.)(-4< 68. 38)43. *7 8-66-4< 68. 6)/<.6. I6
-( >./1 .77.36->. )<)-4(6 (:)++ <):. 68)6 (6*;( )4, 7/..G.( )( ) ,.7.4(..
SPEAR
$B%2. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) (;.)/ 6* A-++ (:)++ <):. )4, 6* 7-(8. J)5 9-68 68.
(;.)/@,* 4*6 68/*9 -6. P)/)</);8 $B67 .=;+)-4( (;.)/ 7-(8-4<.
BO$ AND ARRO$
101
$B%. A <**, 5*9 -( 68. /.(2+6 *7 :)41 8*2/( *7 9*/A. Y*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 )
(2-6)5+. (8*/6B6./: 5*9 7)-/+1 .)(-+1. !8.4 -6 +*(.( -6( (;/-4< */ 5/.)A(0 1*2
3)4 /.;+)3. -6. S.+.36 ) 8)/,9**, (6-3A )5*26 1 :.6./ C 7..6D +*4< 68)6 -( 7/..
*7 A4*6( */ +-:5(. C)/.72++1 (3/);. 68. +)/<. .4, ,*94 246-+ -6 8)( 68. ():.
;2++ )( 68. (:)++ .4,. C)/.72+ .=):-4)6-*4 9-++ (8*9 68. 4)62/)+ 32/>. *7 68.
(6-3A. A+9)1( (3/);. 7/*: 68. (-,. 68)6 7)3.( 1*20 */ 68. 5*9 9-++ 5/.)A 68.
7-/(6 6-:. 1*2 ;2++ -6. D.),0 ,/1 9**, -( ;/.7./)5+. 6* </..4 9**,. T* -43/.)(.
68. ;2++0 +)(8 ) (.3*4, 5*9 6* 68. 7-/(60 7/*46 6* 7/*460 7*/:-4< )4 J'K 98.4
>-.9., 7/*: 68. (-,.. A66)38 68. 6-;( *7 68. 5*9( 9-68 3*/,)<. )4, *4+1 2(. )
5*9(6/-4< *4 *4. 5*9.
$B%4. S.+.36 )//*9( 7/*: 68. (6/)-<86.(6 ,/1 (6-3A( )>)-+)5+.. T8. )//*9(
(8*2+, 5. )5*26 8)+7 )( +*4< )( 68. 5*9. S3/);. .)38 (8)76 (:**68 )++
)/*24,. Y*2 9-++ ;/*5)5+1 8)>. 6* (6/)-<86.4 68. (8)76. Y*2 3)4 5.4, )4
)//*9 (6/)-<86 51 8.)6-4< 68. (8)76 *>./ 8*6 3*)+(. D* 4*6 )++*9 68. (8)76 6*
(3*/38 */ 52/4. H*+, 68. (8)76 (6/)-<86 246-+ -6 3**+(.
$B%%. Y*2 3)4 :)A. )//*98.),( 7/*: 5*4.0 <+)((0 :.6)+0 */ ;-.3.( *7 /*3A.
Y*2 3)4 )+(* (8)/;.4 )4, 7-/. 8)/,.4 68. .4, *7 68. (8)76. F-/. 8)/,.4-4< -(
)362)++1 ) :-(4*:./. T* 7-/.B8)/,.4 9**,0 8*+, -6 *>./ 8*6 3*)+( */ ;+24<. -6
,..; 24,./ 68. 3*)+( -4 68. )(8.(0 5.-4< 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* 52/4 */ (3*/38 68.
9**,. T8. ;2/;*(. *7 7-/. 8)/,.4-4< -( 6* 8)/,.4 68. 9**, 51 ,/1-4< 68.
:*-(62/. *26 *7 -6.
$B%6. Y*2 :2(6 4*638 68. .4,( *7 68. )//*9( 7*/ 68. 5*9(6/-4<. C26 */ 7-+. 68.
4*638M ,* 4*6 (;+-6 -6. F+.638-4< C),,-4< 7.)68./( 6* 68. 4*638., .4, *7 )4
)//*9D -:;/*>.( 68. )//*9H( 7+-<86 38)/)36./-(6-3(. F+.638-4< -( /.3*::.4,.,
526 4*6 4.3.(()/1 *4 ) 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 )//*9.
SLING
$B%7. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) (+-4< 51 61-4< 69* ;-.3.( *7 3*/,)<.0 .)38 )5*26 6"
3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D +*4<0 )6 *;;*(-6. .4,( *7 ) ;)+:B(-G., ;-.3. *7
+.)68./ */ 3+*68. P+)3. ) /*3A -4 68. 3+*68 )4, 9/); *4. 3*/, )/*24, 1*2/
:-,,+. 7-4<./ )4, 8*+, -4 1*2/ ;)+:. H*+, 68. *68./ 3*/, 5.69..4 1*2/
7*/.7-4<./ )4, 682:5. T* 68/*9 68. /*3A0 (;-4 68. (+-4< (.>./)+ 6-:.( -4 )
3-/3+. )4, /.+.)(. 68. 3*/, 5.69..4 1*2/ 682:5 )4, 7*/.7-4<./. P/)36-3. 6*
<)-4 ;/*7-3-.431. T8. (+-4< -( >./1 .77.36->. )<)-4(6 (:)++ <):..
FISHING DEVICES
$B%$. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 1*2/ *94 7-(88**A(0 4.6(0 )4, 6/);(. T8. ;)/)</);8(
5.+*9 ,-(32(( (.>./)+ :.68*,( 6* *56)-4 7-(8.
IMPROVISED FISHHOOKS
$B%9. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 7-(88**A( 7/*: ;-4(0 4..,+.(0 9-/.0 (:)++
4)-+(0 */ )41 ;-.3. *7 :.6)+. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 9**,0 5*4.0 3*3*426 (8.++0
68*/4(0 7+-460 (.)(8.++0 */ 6*/6*-(. (8.++. Y*2 3)4 )+(* :)A. 7-(88**A( 7/*: )41
3*:5-4)6-*4 *7 68.(. -6.:( CF-<2/. $B1$D.
102
F493*+ C1. I>7*1B4:+2 F4:8811?:
$B6". T* :)A. ) 9**,.4 8**A0 326 ) ;-.3. *7 8)/,9**, )5*26 2.%
3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D +*4< )4, )5*26 6 :-++-:.6./( C1R4 -438D -4 ,-):.6./ 6*
7*/: 68. (8)4A. C26 ) 4*638 -4 *4. .4, -4 98-38 6* ;+)3. 68. ;*-46. P+)3. 68.
;*-46 C;-.3. *7 5*4.0 9-/.0 4)-+D -4 68. 4*638. H*+, 68. ;*-46 -4 68. 4*638 )4,
6-. (.32/.+1 (* 68)6 -6 ,*.( 4*6 :*>. *26 *7 ;*(-6-*4. T8-( -( ) 7)-/+1 +)/<.
8**A. T* :)A. (:)++./ 8**A(0 2(. (:)++./ :)6./-)+.
$B61. A <*/<. */ (A.9./ -( ) (:)++ (8)76 *7 9**,0 5*4.0 :.6)+0 */ *68./
:)6./-)+. I6 -( (8)/; *4 5*68 .4,( )4, 4*638., -4 68. :-,,+. 98./. 1*2 6-.
3*/,)<.. B)-6 68. <*/<. 51 ;+)3-4< ) ;-.3. *7 5)-6 *4 -6 +.4<689-(.. !8.4 68.
7-(8 (9)++*9( 68. 5)-60 -6 )+(* (9)++*9( 68. <*/<.. I7 1*2 )/. 6.4,-4< 68.
7-(8-4< +-4. 98.4 68. 7-(8 5-6.(0 ,* 4*6 )66.:;6 6* ;2++ *4 68. +-4. 6* (.6 68.
8**A )( 1*2 9*2+, 9-68 ) 3*4>.46-*4)+ 8**A. A++*9 68. 7-(8 6* (9)++*9 68.
5)-6 6* <.6 68. <*/<. )( 7)/ ,*94 -6( 68/*)6 5.7*/. 68. <*/<. (.6( -6(.+7.
STAKEOUT
$B62. A (6)A.*26 -( ) 7-(8-4< ,.>-3. 1*2 3)4 2(. -4 ) 8*(6-+. .4>-/*4:.46
CF-<2/. $B19D. T* 3*4(6/236 ) (6)A.*260 ,/->. 69* (2;;+. ();+-4<( -46* 68.
5*66*: *7 68. +)A.0 ;*4,0 */ (6/.): 9-68 68.-/ 6*;( F2(6 5.+*9 68. 9)6./
(2/7)3.. T-. ) 3*/, 5.69..4 68.: F2(6 (+-<86+1 5.+*9 68. (2/7)3.. T-. 69*
(8*/6 3*/,( 9-68 8**A( */ <*/<.( 6* 68-( 3*/,0 .4(2/-4< 68)6 68.1 3)44*6 9/);
)/*24, 68. ;*+.( */ .)38 *68./. T8.1 (8*2+, )+(* 4*6 (+-; )+*4< 68. +*4< 3*/,.
B)-6 68. 8**A( */ <*/<.(.
F493*+ C1%. S0-?+130
GILL NET
103
$B6. I7 ) <-++ 4.6 -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 1*2 3)4 :)A. *4. 2(-4< ;)/)3826.
(2(;.4(-*4 +-4. */ (-:-+)/ :)6./-)+ CF-<2/. $B2"D. R.:*>. 68. 3*/. +-4.( 7/*:
68. (2(;.4(-*4 +-4. )4, 6-. 68. 3)(-4< 5.69..4 69* 6/..(. A66)38 (.>./)+ 3*/.
+-4.( 6* 68. 3)(-4< 51 ,*25+-4< 68.: *>./ )4, 61-4< 68.: 9-68 ;/2(-A A4*6( */
<-/68 8-638.(. T8.(. +-4.( (8*2+, 5. (-= 6-:.( 68. ,.(-/., ,.;68 *7 68. 4.6 C7*/
.=):;+.0 ) 6B7**6 P1$"B 3.46-:.6./Q ;-.3. *7 (6/-4< <-/68B8-638., *>./ 68.
3)(-4< 9-++ <->. 1*2 69* B7**6 P9"B3.46-:.6./Q ;-.3.(0 98-38 )76./ 3*:;+.6-4<
68. 4.60 9-++ ;/*>-,. ) 1B7**6 P"B3.46-:.6./Q ,..; 4.6D. T8. +.4<68 *7 68.
,.(-/., 4.6 )4, 68. (-G. *7 68. :.(8 ,.6./:-4. 68. 42:5./ *7 3*/. +-4.( 2(.,
)4, 68. (;)3. 5.69..4 68.:. T8. /.3*::.4,., (-G. *7 68. (;)3.( -4 68.
4.6 :.(8 -( )5*26 1 -438 C2.% 3.46-:.6./(D (?2)/.. S6)/6-4< )6 *4. .4, *7 68.
3)(-4<0 6-. 68. (.3*4, )4, 68. 68-/, 3*/. +-4.( 6*<.68./ 2(-4< )4 *>./8)4,
A4*6. T8.4 6-. 68. 7*2/68 )4, 7-7680 (-=68 )4, (.>.4680 )4, (* *40 246-+ 1*2
/.)38 68. +)(6 3*/. +-4.. Y*2 (8*2+, 4*9 8)>. )++ 3*/. +-4.( 6-., -4 ;)-/( 9-68 )
(-4<+. 3*/. +-4. 8)4<-4< )6 .)38 .4,. S6)/6 68. (.3*4, /*9 9-68 68. 7-/(6 3*/.
+-4.0 6-. -6 6* 68. (.3*4,0 68. 68-/, 6* 68. 7*2/680 )4, (* *4.
F493*+ C20. M-?4/9 - G4<< N+0
$B64. T* A..; 68. /*9( .>.4 )4, 6* /.<2+)6. 68. (-G. *7 68. :.(80 6-. )
<2-,.+-4. 6* 68. 6/..(. P*(-6-*4 68. <2-,.+-4. *4 68. *;;*(-6. (-,. *7 68. 4.6
1*2 )/. 9*/A-4< *4. M*>. 68. <2-,.+-4. ,*94 )76./ 3*:;+.6-4< .)38 /*9.
T8. +-4.( 9-++ )+9)1( 8)4< -4 ;)-/( )4, 1*2 )+9)1( 6-. ) 3*/, 7/*: *4. ;)-/ 6*
) 3*/, 7/*: )4 ),F*-4-4< ;)-/. C*46-42. 61-4< /*9( 246-+ 68. 4.6 -( 68. ,.(-/.,
9-,68. T8/.), ) (2(;.4(-*4 +-4. 3)(-4< )+*4< 68. 5*66*: *7 68. 4.6 6*
(6/.4<68.4 -6. U(. 68. <-++ 4.6 )( (8*94 -4 F-<2/. $B21. A4<+-4< 68. <-++ 4.6 9-++
8.+; 6* /.,23. 68. ):*246 *7 ,.5/-( 68)6 :)1 )332:2+)6. -4 68. 4.6. B. (2/.
6* 38.3A -6 7/.?2.46+1.
104
F493*+ C21. S+004/9 - G4<< N+0 4/ 08+ S0*+->
FISH TRAPS
$B6%. Y*2 :)1 6/); 7-(8 2(-4< (.>./)+ :.68*,( CF-<2/. $B22D. F-(8 5)(A.6(
)/. *4. :.68*,. Y*2 3*4(6/236 68.: 51 +)(8-4< (.>./)+ (6-3A( 6*<.68./ 9-68
>-4.( -46* ) 7244.+ (8);.. Y*2 3+*(. 68. 6*;0 +.)>-4< ) 8*+. +)/<. .4*2<8 7*/
68. 7-(8 6* (9-: 68/*2<8.
F493*+ C22. V-*413: T;7+: 1, F4:8 T*-7:
105
$B66. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 6/);( 6* 3)638 ()+69)6./ 7-(80 )( (38**+( /.<2+)/+1
);;/*)38 68. (8*/. 9-68 68. -43*:-4< 6-,. )4, *76.4 :*>. ;)/)++.+ 6* 68.
(8*/.. P-3A ) +*3)6-*4 )6 8-<8 6-,. )4, 52-+, 68. 6/); )6 +*9 6-,.. O4 /*3A1
(8*/.(0 2(. 4)62/)+ /*3A ;**+(. O4 3*/)+ -(+)4,(0 2(. 4)62/)+ ;**+( *4 68.
(2/7)3. *7 /..7( 51 5+*3A-4< 68. *;.4-4<( )( 68. 6-,. /.3.,.(. O4 ()4,1
(8*/.(0 2(. ()4,5)/( )4, 68. ,-638.( 68.1 .43+*(.. B2-+, 68. 6/); )( ) +*9
(6*4. 9)++ .=6.4,-4< *269)/, -46* 68. 9)6./ )4, 7*/:-4< )4 )4<+. 9-68 68.
(8*/..
SPEARFISHING
$B67. I7 1*2 )/. 4.)/ (8)++*9 9)6./ C)5*26 9)-(6 ,..;D 98./. 68. 7-(8 )/.
+)/<. )4, ;+.46-72+0 1*2 3)4 (;.)/ 68.:. T* :)A. ) (;.)/0 326 ) +*4<0 (6/)-<86
();+-4< CF-<2/. $B2D. S8)/;.4 68. .4, 6* ) ;*-46 */ )66)38 ) A4-7.0 F)<<.,
;-.3. *7 5*4.0 */ (8)/;.4., :.6)+. Y*2 3)4 )+(* :)A. ) (;.)/ 51 (;+-66-4<
68. (8)76 ) 7.9 -438.( ,*94 7/*: 68. .4, )4, -4(./6-4< ) ;-.3. *7 9**, 6* )36
)( ) (;/.),./. Y*2 68.4 (8)/;.4 68. 69* (.;)/)6., 8)+>.( 6* ;*-46(. T*
(;.)/ 7-(80 7-4, )4 )/.) 98./. 7-(8 .-68./ <)68./ */ 98./. 68./. -( ) 7-(8 /24.
P+)3. 68. (;.)/ ;*-46 -46* 68. 9)6./ )4, (+*9+1 :*>. -6 6*9)/, 68. 7-(8. T8.40
9-68 ) (2,,.4 ;2(80 -:;)+. 68. 7-(8 *4 68. (6/.): 5*66*:. D* 4*6 6/1 6* +-76 68.
7-(8 9-68 68. (;.)/0 )( -6 9-68 ;/*5)5+1 (+-; *77 )4, 1*2 9-++ +*(. -6M 8*+, 68.
(;.)/ 9-68 *4. 8)4, )4, </)5 )4, 8*+, 68. 7-(8 9-68 68. *68./. D* 4*6 68/*9
68. (;.)/0 .(;.3-)++1 -7 68. ;*-46 -( ) A4-7.. Y*2 3)44*6 )77*/, 6* +*(. ) A4-7. -4
) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. B. )+./6 6* 68. ;/*5+.:( 3)2(., 51 +-<86 /.7/)36-*4 98.4
+**A-4< )6 *5F.36( -4 68. 9)6./. Y*2 :2(6 )-: +*9./ 68)4 68. *5F.360 2(2)++1 )6
68. 5*66*: *7 68. 7-(80 6* 8-6 1*2/ :)/A.
F493*+ C1. I>7*1B4:+2 F4:8811?:
CHOP FISHING
$B6$. A6 4-<860 -4 )4 )/.) 9-68 8-<8 7-(8 ,.4(-610 1*2 3)4 2(. ) +-<86 6* )66/)36
7-(8. T8.40 )/:., 9-68 ) :)38.6. */ (-:-+)/ 9.);*40 1*2 3)4 <)68./ 7-(8
2(-4< 68. 5)3A (-,. *7 68. 5+),. 6* (6/-A. 68.:. D* 4*6 2(. 68. (8)/; (-,. )(
1*2 9-++ 326 68.: -4 69* ;-.3.( )4, .4, 2; +*(-4< (*:. *7 68. 7-(8.
106
FISH POISON
$B69. A4*68./ 9)1 6* 3)638 7-(8 -( 51 2(-4< ;*-(*4. P*-(*4 9*/A( ?2-3A+1. I6
)++*9( 1*2 6* /.:)-4 3*43.)+., 98-+. -6 6)A.( .77.36. I6 )+(* .4)5+.( 1*2 6*
3)638 (.>./)+ 7-(8 )6 *4. 6-:.. !8.4 2(-4< 7-(8 ;*-(*40 5. (2/. 6* <)68./ )++
*7 68. )77.36., 7-(80 5.3)2(. :)41 ,.), 7-(8 7+*)6-4< ,*94(6/.): 3*2+,
)/*2(. (2(;-3-*4. S*:. ;+)46( 68)6 </*9 -4 9)/: /.<-*4( *7 68. 9*/+, 3*46)-4
/*6.4*4.0 ) (25(6)43. 68)6 (624( */ A-++( 3*+,B5+**,., )4-:)+( 526 ,*.( 4*6
8)/: ;./(*4( 98* .)6 68. )4-:)+(. T8. 5.(6 ;+)3. 6* 2(. /*6.4*4.0 */
/*6.4*4.B;/*,23-4< ;+)46(0 -( -4 ;*4,( */ 68. 8.),9)6./( *7 (:)++ (6/.):(
3*46)-4-4< 7-(8. R*6.4*4. 9*/A( ?2-3A+1 *4 7-(8 -4 9)6./ 21 ,.</..( C C7"
,.</..( FD */ )5*>.. T8. 7-(8 /-(. 8.+;+.((+1 6* 68. (2/7)3.. I6 9*/A( (+*9+1
-4 9)6./ 1" 6* 21 ,.</..( C C%" 6* 7" ,.</..( FD )4, -( -4.77.36->. -4 9)6./
5.+*9 1" ,.</..( C C%" ,.</..( FD. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;+)46(0 2(., )( -4,-3)6.,0
9-++ (624 */ A-++ 7-(8E
I Anamirta cocc&l&s CF-<2/. $B24D. T8-( 9**,1 >-4. </*9( -4 (*268./4 A(-)
)4, *4 -(+)4,( *7 68. S*268 P)3-7-3. C/2(8 68. 5.)4B(8);., (..,( )4, 68/*9
68.: -4 68. 9)6./.
I Croton tigli&m CF-<2/. $B24D. T8-( (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/.. </*9( -4 9)(6. )/.)(
*4 -(+)4,( *7 68. S*268 P)3-7-3. I6 5.)/( (..,( -4 68/.. )4<+., 3);(2+.(.
C/2(8 68. (..,( )4, 68/*9 68.: -46* 68. 9)6./.
I *arringtonia CF-<2/. $B24D. T8.(. +)/<. 6/..( </*9 4.)/ 68. (.) -4 M)+)1)
)4, ;)/6( *7 P*+14.(-). T8.1 5.)/ ) 7+.(81 *4.B(..,., 7/2-6. C/2(8 68. (..,(
)4, 5)/A )4, 68/*9 -46* 68. 9)6./.
I /erris eliptica CF-<2/. $B24D. T8-( +)/<. <.42( *7 6/*;-3)+ (8/25( )4, 9**,1
>-4.( -( 68. :)-4 (*2/3. *7 3*::./3-)++1 ;/*,23., /*6.4*4.. G/-4, 68. /**6(
-46* ) ;*9,./ )4, :-= 9-68 9)6./. T8/*9 ) +)/<. ?2)46-61 *7 68. :-=62/. -46*
68. 9)6./.
I /&%oisia CF-<2/. $B24D. T8-( (8/25 </*9( -4 A2(6/)+-) )4, 5.)/( 98-6.
3+2(6./( *7 7+*9./( )4, 5.//1+-A. 7/2-6. C/2(8 68. ;+)46( )4, 68/*9 68.: -46*
68. 9)6./.
I $ephrosia CF-<2/. $B24D. T8-( (;.3-.( *7 (:)++ (8/25(0 98-38 5.)/( 5.)4+-A.
;*,(0 </*9( 68/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3(. C/2(8 */ 5/2-(. 524,+.( *7 +.)>.( )4,
(6.:( )4, 68/*9 68.: -46* 68. 9)6./.
107
F493*+ C2!. F4:8CP14:1/4/9 P<-/0:
I 0ime. Y*2 3)4 <.6 +-:. 7/*: 3*::./3-)+ (*2/3.( )4, -4 )</-32+62/)+ )/.)(
68)6 2(. +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 -6. Y*2 :)1 ;/*,23. 1*2/ *94 51 52/4-4< 3*/)+ */
(.)(8.++(. T8/*9 68. +-:. -46* 68. 9)6./.
I 1&t h&sks. C/2(8 </..4 82(A( 7/*: 5266./426( */ 5+)3A 9)+426(. T8/*9 68.
82(A( -46* 68. 9)6./.
COOKING AND STORAGE OF FISH AND GAME
$B7". Y*2 :2(6 A4*9 8*9 6* ;/.;)/. 7-(8 )4, <):. 7*/ 3**A-4< )4, (6*/)<.
-4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. I:;/*;./ 3+.)4-4< */ (6*/)<. 3)4 /.(2+6 -4 -4.,-5+. 7-(8
*/ <):..
FISH
$B71. D* 4*6 .)6 7-(8 68)6 );;.)/( (;*-+.,. C**A-4< ,*.( 4*6 .4(2/. 68)6
(;*-+., 7-(8 9-++ 5. .,-5+.. S-<4( *7 (;*-+)<. )/.@
I S24A.4 .1.(.
I P.32+-)/ *,*/.
I S2(;-3-*2( 3*+*/. CG-++( (8*2+, 5. /., 6* ;-4A. S3)+.( (8*2+, 5. )
;/*4*243., (8),. *7 </)10 4*6 7),.,.D
I D.46( 68)6 (6)1 -4 68. 7-(8H( 7+.(8 )76./ ;/.((., 9-68 1*2/ 682:5.
I S+-:10 /)68./ 68)4 :*-(6 */ 9.60 5*,1.
I S8)/; */ ;.;;./1 6)(6..
108
$B72. E)6-4< (;*-+., */ /*66.4 7-(8 :)1 3)2(. ,-)//8.)0 4)2(.)0 3/):;(0
>*:-6-4<0 -638-4<0 ;)/)+1(-(0 */ ) :.6)++-3 6)(6. -4 68. :*268. T8.(. (1:;6*:(
);;.)/ (2,,.4+10 1 6* 6 8*2/( )76./ .)6-4<. I4,23. >*:-6-4< -7 (1:;6*:(
);;.)/.
$B7. F-(8 (;*-+( ?2-3A+1 )76./ ,.)680 .(;.3-)++1 *4 ) 8*6 ,)1. P/.;)/. 7-(8 7*/
.)6-4< )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+. )76./ 3)638-4< -6. C26 *26 68. <-++( )4, 68. +)/<.
5+**, >.((.+( 68)6 +-. 4.)/ 68. (;-4.. G26 7-(8 68)6 )/. :*/. 68)4 1"
3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D +*4<. S3)+. */ (A-4 68. 7-(8.
$B74. Y*2 3)4 -:;)+. ) 98*+. 7-(8 *4 ) (6-3A )4, 3**A -6 *>./ )4 *;.4 7-/..
H*9.>./0 5*-+-4< 68. 7-(8 9-68 68. (A-4 *4 -( 68. 5.(6 9)1 6* <.6 68. :*(6 7**,
>)+2.. T8. 7)6( )4, *-+ )/. 24,./ 68. (A-4 )4,0 51 5*-+-4<0 1*2 3)4 ()>. 68.
F2-3.( 7*/ 5/*68. Y*2 3)4 2(. )41 *7 68. :.68*,( 2(., 6* 3**A ;+)46 7**, 6*
3**A 7-(8. P)3A 7-(8 -46* ) 5)++ *7 3+)1 )4, 52/1 -6 -4 68. 3*)+( *7 ) 7-/. 246-+ 68.
3+)1 8)/,.4(. B/.)A *;.4 68. 3+)1 5)++ 6* <.6 6* 68. 3**A., 7-(8. F-(8 -( ,*4.
98.4 68. :.)6 7+)A.( *77. I7 1*2 ;+)4 6* A..; 68. 7-(8 7*/ +)6./0 (:*A. */ 7/1 -6.
T* ;/.;)/. 7-(8 7*/ (:*A-4<0 326 *77 68. 8.), )4, /.:*>. 68. 5)3A5*4..
SNAKES
$B7%. T* (A-4 ) (4)A.0 7-/(6 326 *77 -6( 8.),0 6* -43+2,. 1" 6* 1% 3.46-:.6./( C4
6* 6 -438.(D 5.8-4, 68. 8.),. T8-( 9-++ .4(2/. 1*2 /.:*>. 68. >.4*: ()30
98-38 -( +*3)6., )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. 8.),. B2/1 68. ()3 6* ;/.>.46 72/68./
3*46)36. T8.4 326 68. (A-4 ,*94 68. 5*,1 2 6* 4 3.46-:.6./( C1 6* 1 1R2
-438.(D. P..+ 68. (A-4 5)3A0 68.4 </)(; 68. (A-4 -4 *4. 8)4, )4, 68. 5*,1 -4
68. *68./ )4, ;2++ );)/6 CF-<2/. $B2%D. O4 +)/<.0 52+A1 (4)A.( -6 :)1 5.
4.3.(()/1 6* (+-6 68. 5.++1 (A-4. C**A (4)A.( -4 68. ():. :)44./ )( (:)++
<):.. R.:*>. 68. .46/)-+( )4, ,-(3)/,. C26 68. (4)A. -46* (:)++ (.36-*4(
)4, 5*-+ */ /*)(6 -6.
F493*+ C2". C<+-/4/9 - S/-?+
BIRDS
109
$B76. A76./ A-++-4< 68. 5-/,0 /.:*>. -6( 7.)68./( 51 .-68./ ;+23A-4< */ (A-44-4<.
R.:.:5./0 (A-44-4< /.:*>.( (*:. *7 68. 7**, >)+2.. O;.4 2; 68. 5*,1
3)>-61 )4, /.:*>. 68. .46/)-+(0 ()>-4< 68. 3/)9 C-4 (..,B.)6-4< 5-/,(D0 8.)/60
)4, +->./. C26 *77 68. 7..6. C**A 51 5*-+-4< */ /*)(6-4< *>./ ) (;-6. B.7*/.
3**A-4< (3)>.4<./ 5-/,(0 5*-+ 68.: )6 +.)(6 2" :-426.( 6* A-++ ;)/)(-6.(.
SKINNING AND BUTCHERING GAME
$B77. B+.., 68. )4-:)+ 51 3266-4< -6( 68/*)6. I7 ;*((-5+.0 3+.)4 68. 3)/3)((
4.)/ ) (6/.):. P+)3. 68. 3)/3)(( 5.++1 2; )4, (;+-6 68. 8-,. 7/*: 68/*)6 6* 6)-+0
3266-4< )/*24, )++ (.=2)+ */<)4( CF-<2/. $B26D. R.:*>. 68. :2(A <+)4,( )6
;*-46( A )4, B 6* )>*-, 6)-46-4< 68. :.)6. F*/ (:)++./ :)::)+(0 326 68. 8-,.
)/*24, 68. 5*,1 )4, -4(./6 69* 7-4<./( 24,./ 68. 8-,. *4 5*68 (-,.( *7 68. 326
)4, ;2++ 5*68 ;-.3.( *77 CF-<2/. $B27D.
NOTE: !8.4 3266-4< 68. 8-,.0 -4(./6 68. A4-7. 5+),. 24,./ 68. (A-4 )4, 62/4
68. 5+),. 2; (* 68)6 *4+1 68. 8-,. <.6( 326. T8-( 9-++ )+(* ;/.>.46 3266-4< 8)-/
)4, <.66-4< -6 *4 68. :.)6.
F493*+ C26. S?4//4/9 -/2 B30.8+*4/9 L-*9+ G->+
F493*+ C2#. S?4//4/9 S>-<< G->+
$B7$. R.:*>. 68. .46/)-+( 7/*: (:)++./ <):. 51 (;+-66-4< 68. 5*,1 *;.4 )4,
;2++-4< 68.: *26 9-68 68. 7-4<./(. D* 4*6 7*/<.6 68. 38.(6 3)>-61. F*/ +)/<./
<):.0 326 68. <2++.6 )9)1 7/*: 68. ,-);8/)<:. R*++ 68. .46/)-+( *26 *7 68.
5*,1. C26 )/*24, 68. )42(0 68.4 /.)38 -46* 68. +*9./ )5,*:-4)+ 3)>-610 </)(;
68. +*9./ -46.(6-4.0 )4, ;2++ 6* /.:*>.. R.:*>. 68. 2/-4. 5+),,./ 51 ;-438-4<
110
-6 *77 )4, 3266-4< -6 5.+*9 68. 7-4<./(. I7 1*2 (;-++ 2/-4. *4 68. :.)60 9)(8 -6 6*
)>*-, 6)-46-4< 68. :.)6. S)>. 68. 8.)/6 )4, +->./. C26 68.(. *;.4 )4, -4(;.36
7*/ (-<4( *7 9*/:( */ *68./ ;)/)(-6.(. A+(* -4(;.36 68. +->./H( 3*+*/M -6 3*2+,
-4,-3)6. ) ,-(.)(., )4-:)+. T8. +->./H( (2/7)3. (8*2+, 5. (:**68 )4, 9.6 )4,
-6( 3*+*/ ,..; /., */ ;2/;+.. I7 68. +->./ );;.)/( ,-(.)(.,0 ,-(3)/, -6.
H*9.>./0 ) ,-(.)(., +->./ ,*.( 4*6 -4,-3)6. 1*2 3)44*6 .)6 68. :2(3+. 6-((2..
$B79. C26 )+*4< .)38 +.< 7/*: )5*>. 68. 7**6 6* 68. ;/.>-*2(+1 :),. 5*,1
326. R.:*>. 68. 8-,. 51 ;2++-4< -6 )9)1 7/*: 68. 3)/3)((0 3266-4< 68.
3*44.36->. 6-((2. 98./. 4.3.(()/1. C26 *77 68. 8.), )4, 7..6.
$B$". C26 +)/<./ <):. -46* :)4)<.)5+. ;-.3.(. F-/(60 (+-3. 68. :2(3+. 6-((2.
3*44.36-4< 68. 7/*46 +.<( 6* 68. 5*,1. T8./. )/. 4* 5*4.( */ F*-46( 3*44.36-4<
68. 7/*46 +.<( 6* 68. 5*,1 *4 7*2/B+.<<., )4-:)+(. C26 68. 8-4,?2)/6./( *77
98./. 68.1 F*-4 68. 5*,1. Y*2 :2(6 326 )/*24, ) +)/<. 5*4. )6 68. 6*; *7 68.
+.< )4, 326 6* 68. 5)++B)4,B(*3A.6 8-; F*-46. C26 68. +-<):.46( )/*24, 68. F*-46
)4, 5.4, -6 5)3A 6* (.;)/)6. -6. R.:*>. 68. +)/<. :2(3+.( C68. 6.4,./+*-4 */
J5)3A (6/);JD 68)6 +-. *4 .-68./ (-,. *7 68. (;-4.. S.;)/)6. 68. /-5( 7/*: 68.
5)3A5*4.. T8./. -( +.(( 9*/A )4, +.(( 9.)/ *4 1*2/ A4-7. -7 1*2 5/.)A 68.
/-5( 7-/(60 68.4 326 68/*2<8 68. 5/.)A(.
$B$1. B*-+ +)/<. :.)6 ;-.3.( */ 3**A 68.: *>./ ) (;-6. Y*2 3)4 (6.9 */ 5*-+
(:)++./ ;-.3.(0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 68*(. 68)6 /.:)-4 )66)38., 6* 5*4. )76./ 68. -4-6-)+
52638./-4<0 )( (*2; */ 5/*68. Y*2 3)4 3**A 5*,1 */<)4( (238 )( 68. 8.)/60
+->./0 ;)43/.)(0 (;+..40 )4, A-,4.1( 2(-4< 68. ():. :.68*,( )( 7*/ :2(3+.
:.)6. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 3**A )4, .)6 68. 5/)-4. C26 68. 6*4<2. *260 (A-4 -60 5*-+ -6
246-+ 6.4,./0 )4, .)6 -6.
SMOKING MEAT
$B$2. T* (:*A. :.)60 ;/.;)/. )4 .43+*(2/. )/*24, ) 7-/. F-<2/. $B2$D. T9*
;*438*( (4);;., 6*<.68./ 9-++ 9*/A. T8. 7-/. ,*.( 4*6 4.., 6* 5. 5-< */ 8*6.
T8. -46.46 -( 6* ;/*,23. (:*A. )4, 8.)60 4*6 7+):.. D* 4*6 2(. /.(-4*2(
9**, 5.3)2(. -6( (:*A. 9-++ /2-4 68. :.)6. U(. 8)/,9**,( 6* ;/*,23. <**,
(:*A.. T8. 9**, (8*2+, 5. (*:.98)6 </..4. I7 -6 -( 6** ,/10 (*)A -6. C26 68.
:.)6 -46* 68-4 (+-3.(0 4* :*/. 68)4 6 :-++-:.6./( C)5*26 1R4 -438D 68-3A0 )4,
,/);. 68.: *>./ ) 7/):.9*/A. M)A. (2/. 4*4. *7 68. :.)6 6*238.( )4*68./
;-.3.. K..; 68. ;*438* .43+*(2/. )/*24, 68. :.)6 6* 8*+, 68. (:*A. )4,
A..; ) 3+*(. 9)638 *4 68. 7-/.. D* 4*6 +.6 68. 7-/. <.6 6** 8*6. M.)6 (:*A.,
*>./4-<86 -4 68-( :)44./ 9-++ +)(6 )5*26 1 9..A. T9* ,)1( *7 3*46-42*2(
(:*A-4< 9-++ ;/.(./>. 68. :.)6 7*/ 2 6* 4 9..A(. P/*;./+1 (:*A., :.)6 9-++
+**A +-A. ) ,)/A0 32/+.,0 5/-66+. (6-3A )4, 1*2 3)4 .)6 -6 9-68*26 72/68./ 3**A-4<.
Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. ) ;-6 6* (:*A. :.)6 CF-<2/. $B29D.
111
F493*+ C2. T+7++ S>1?+*
F493*+ C2%. S>1?4/9 M+-0 OB+* - P40
DRYING MEAT
$B$. T* ;/.(./>. :.)6 51 ,/1-4<0 326 -6 -46* 6B:-++-:.6./ C1R4B-438D (6/-;( 9-68
68. </)-4. H)4< 68. :.)6 (6/-;( *4 ) /)3A -4 ) (2441 +*3)6-*4 9-68 <**,
)-/7+*9. K..; 68. (6/-;( *26 *7 68. /.)38 *7 )4-:)+(. C*>./ 68. (6/-;( 6* A..;
*77 5+*97+-.(. A++*9 68. :.)6 6* ,/1 68*/*2<8+1 5.7*/. .)6-4<. P/*;./+1 ,/-.,
:.)6 9-++ 8)>. ) ,/10 3/-(; 6.=62/. )4, 9-++ 4*6 7..+ 3**+ 6* 68. 6*238.
OTHER PRESERVATION METHODS
$B$4. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;/.(./>. :.)6( 2(-4< 68. 7/..G-4< */ 5/-4. )4, ()+6
:.68*,(. I4 3*+, 3+-:)6.(0 1*2 3)4 7/..G. )4, A..; :.)6 -4,.7-4-6.+1.
F/..G-4< -( 4*6 ) :.)4( *7 ;/.;)/-4< :.)6. Y*2 :2(6 (6-++ 3**A -6 5.7*/.
.)6-4<. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;/.(./>. :.)6 51 (*)A-4< -6 68*/*2<8+1 -4 ) ()+69)6./
(*+26-*4. T8. (*+26-*4 :2(6 3*>./ 68. :.)6. Y*2 3)4 2(. ()+6 51 -6(.+7 526
:)A. (2/. 1*2 9)(8 *77 68. ()+6 5.7*/. 3**A-4<.
112
CHAPTER %.
S3*B4B-< U:+ 1, P<-/0:.
A76./ 8)>-4< (*+>., 68. ;/*5+.:( *7 7-4,-4< 9)6./0 (8.+6./0 )4, )4-:)+ 7**,0
1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 3*4(-,./ 68. 2(. *7 ;+)46( 1*2 3)4 .)6. I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4
1*2 (8*2+, )+9)1( 5. *4 68. +**A*26 7*/ 7):-+-)/ 9-+, 7**,( )4, +->. *77 68.
+)4, 98.4.>./ ;*((-5+..
Y*2 :2(6 4*6 3*246 *4 5.-4< )5+. 6* <* 7*/ ,)1( 9-68*26 7**, )( (*:.
(*2/3.( 9*2+, (2<<.(6. E>.4 -4 68. :*(6 (6)6-3 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 :)-46)-4-4<
8.)+68 68/*2<8 ) 3*:;+.6. )4, 426/-6-*2( ,-.6 -( .((.46-)+ 6* :)-46)-4-4<
(6/.4<68 )4, ;.)3. *7 :-4,.
N)62/. 3)4 ;/*>-,. 1*2 9-68 7**, 68)6 9-++ +.6 1*2 (2/>->. )+:*(6 )41 */,.)+0 -7
1*2 ,*4H6 .)6 68. 9/*4< ;+)46. Y*2 :2(6 68./.7*/. +.)/4 )( :238 )( ;*((-5+.
5.7*/.8)4, )5*26 68. 7+*/) *7 68. /.<-*4 98./. 1*2 9-++ 5. *;./)6-4<. P+)46(
3)4 ;/*>-,. 1*2 9-68 :.,-3-4.( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. P+)46( 3)4 (2;;+1 1*2
9-68 9.);*4( )4, /)9 :)6./-)+( 6* 3*4(6/236 (8.+6./( )4, 52-+, 7-/.(. P+)46(
3)4 .>.4 ;/*>-,. 1*2 9-68 38.:-3)+( 7*/ ;*-(*4-4< 7-(80 ;/.(./>-4< )4-:)+
8-,.(0 )4, 7*/ 3):*27+)<-4< 1*2/(.+7 )4, 1*2/ .?2-;:.46.
NOTE: Y*2 9-++ 7-4, -++2(6/)6-*4( *7 68. ;+)46( ,.(3/-5., -4 68-( 38);6./ -4
A;;.4,-=.( B )4, C.
EDIBILITY OF PLANTS
9B1. P+)46( )/. >)+2)5+. (*2/3.( *7 7**, 5.3)2(. 68.1 )/. 9-,.+1 )>)-+)5+.0
.)(-+1 ;/*32/.,0 )4,0 -4 68. ;/*;./ 3*:5-4)6-*4(0 3)4 :..6 )++ 1*2/ 426/-6-*4)+
4..,(.
$ARNING C T8. 3/-6-3)+ 7)36*/ -4 2(-4< ;+)46( 7*/ 7**, -( 6* )>*-, )33-,.46)+
;*-(*4-4<. E)6 *4+1 68*(. ;+)46( 1*2 3)4 ;*(-6->.+1 -,.46-71 )4, 1*2 A4*9 )/.
()7. 6* .)6.
9B2. A5(*+26.+1 -,.46-71 ;+)46( 5.7*/. 2(-4< 68.: )( 7**,. P*-(*4 8.:+*3A
8)( A-++., ;.*;+. 98* :-(6**A -6 7*/ -6( /.+)6->.(0 9-+, 3)//*6( )4, 9-+,
;)/(4-;(.
9B. Y*2 :)1 7-4, 1*2/(.+7 -4 ) (-62)6-*4 98./. 1*2 8)>. 8), 68. 38)43. 6*
+.)/4 68. ;+)46 +-7. *7 68. /.<-*4 -4 98-38 1*2 :2(6 (2/>->.. I4 68-( 3)(. 1*2
3)4 2(. 68. U4->./()+ E,-5-+-61 T.(6 6* ,.6./:-4. 98-38 ;+)46( 1*2 3)4 .)6 )4,
98-38 6* )>*-,.
9B4. I6 -( -:;*/6)46 6* 5. )5+. 6* /.3*<4-G. 5*68 32+6->)6., )4, 9-+, .,-5+.
;+)46( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. M*(6 *7 68. -47*/:)6-*4 -4 68-( 38);6./ -( ,-/.36.,
6*9)/, -,.46-71-4< 9-+, ;+)46( 5.3)2(. -47*/:)6-*4 /.+)6-4< 6* 32+6->)6., ;+)46(
-( :*/. /.),-+1 )>)-+)5+..
113
9B%. C*4(-,./ 68. 7*++*9-4< 98.4 3*++.36-4< 9-+, ;+)46( 7*/ 7**,E
I P+)46( </*9-4< 4.)/ 8*:.( )4, *332;-., 52-+,-4<( */ )+*4< /*),(-,.( :)1
8)>. 5..4 (;/)1., 9-68 ;.(6-3-,.(. !)(8 68.(. ;+)46( 68*/*2<8+1. I4 :*/.
8-<8+1 ,.>.+*;., 3*246/-.( 9-68 :)41 )26*:*5-+.(0 )>*-, /*),(-,. ;+)46(0 -7
;*((-5+.0 ,2. 6* 3*46):-4)6-*4 7/*: .=8)2(6 .:-((-*4(.
I P+)46( </*9-4< -4 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./ */ -4 9)6./ 3*46)-4-4< )iardia lam%lia
)4, *68./ ;)/)(-6.( )/. 3*46):-4)6., 68.:(.+>.(. B*-+ */ ,-(-47.36 68.:.
I S*:. ;+)46( ,.>.+*; .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2( 724<)+ 6*=-4(. T* +.((.4 68.
38)43. *7 )33-,.46)+ ;*-(*4-4<0 ,* 4*6 .)6 )41 7/2-6 68)6 -( (6)/6-4< 6* (;*-+ */
-( (8*9-4< (-<4( *7 :-+,.9 */ 724<2(.
I P+)46( *7 68. ():. (;.3-.( :)1 ,-77./ -4 68.-/ 6*=-3 */ (256*=-3 3*:;*24,(
3*46.46 5.3)2(. *7 <.4.6-3 */ .4>-/*4:.46)+ 7)36*/(. O4. .=):;+. *7 68-( -(
68. 7*+-)<. *7 68. 3*::*4 38*A.38.//1.
S*:. 38*A.38.//1 ;+)46( 8)>. 8-<8 3*43.46/)6-*4( *7 ,.),+1 31)4-,.
3*:;*24,( 526 *68./( 8)>. +*9 3*43.46/)6-*4( */ 4*4.. H*/(.( 8)>. ,-.,
7/*: .)6-4< 9-+6., 9-+, 38.//1 +.)>.(. A>*-, )41 9..,0 +.)>.(0 */ (..,( 9-68
)4 )+:*4, +-A. (3.460 ) 38)/)36./-(6-3 *7 68. 31)4-,. 3*:;*24,(.
I S*:. ;.*;+. )/. :*/. (2(3.;6-5+. 6* <)(6/-3 ,-(6/.(( C7/*: ;+)46(D 68)4
*68./(. I7 1*2 )/. (.4(-6->. -4 68-( 9)10 )>*-, 24A4*94 9-+, ;+)46(. I7 1*2 )/.
.=6/.:.+1 (.4(-6->. 6* ;*-(*4 ->10 )>*-, ;/*,236( 7/*: 68-( 7):-+10 -43+2,-4<
)41 ;)/6( 7/*: (2:)3(0 :)4<*.(0 )4, 3)(8.9(.
I S*:. .,-5+. 9-+, ;+)46(0 (238 )( )3*/4( )4, 9)6./ +-+1 /8-G*:.(0 )/. 5-66./.
T8.(. 5-66./ (25(6)43.(0 2(2)++1 6)44-4 3*:;*24,(0 :)A. 68.: 24;)+)6)5+..
B*-+-4< 68.: -4 (.>./)+ 38)4<.( *7 9)6./ 9-++ 2(2)++1 /.:*>. 68.(. 5-66./
;/*;./6-.(.
I M)41 >)+2)5+. 9-+, ;+)46( 8)>. 8-<8 3*43.46/)6-*4( *7 *=)+)6. 3*:;*24,(0
)+(* A4*94 )( *=)+-3 )3-,. O=)+)6.( ;/*,23. ) (8)/; 52/4-4< (.4()6-*4 -4
1*2/ :*268 )4, 68/*)6 )4, ,):)<. 68. A-,4.1(. B)A-4<0 /*)(6-4<0 */ ,/1-4<
2(2)++1 ,.(6/*1( 68.(. *=)+)6. 3/1(6)+(. T8. 3*/: C52+5D *7 68. F)3AB-4B68.B
;2+;-6 -( A4*94 )( 68. JI4,-)4 62/4-;0K 526 1*2 3)4 .)6 -6 *4+1 )76./ /.:*>-4<
68.(. 3/1(6)+( 51 (+*9 5)A-4< */ 51 ,/1-4<.
WARNING - Do not eat mushrooms in a survival situation! The only way
to tell if a mushroom is edible is by ositive identifi!ation" There is no
room for e#erimentation" $ymtoms !aused by the most dan%erous
mushrooms affe!tin% the !entral nervous system may not show u until
several days after in%estion" By that time, it is too late to reverse their
effe!ts"
PLANT IDENTIFICATION
9B6. Y*2 -,.46-71 ;+)46(0 *68./ 68)4 51 :.:*/-G-4< ;)/6-32+)/ >)/-.6-.( 68/*2<8
7):-+-)/-610 51 2(-4< (238 7)36*/( )( +.)7 (8);. )4, :)/<-40 +.)7 )//)4<.:.46(0
)4, /**6 (6/2362/..
9B7. T8. 5)(-3 +.)7 :)/<-4( CF-<2/. 9B1D )/. 6**68.,0 +*5.,0 )4, 6**68+.(( */
(:**68.
114
F493*+ %C1. L+-, M-*94/:
9B$. T8.(. +.)>.( :)1 5. +)43.B(8);.,0 .++-;6-3)+0 .<<B(8);.,0 *5+*4<0
9.,<.B(8);.,0 6/-)4<2+)/0 +*4< ;*-46.,0 */ 6*;B(8);., CF-<2/. 9B2D.
F493*+ %C2. L+-, S8-7+:
9B9. T8. 5)(-3 61;.( *7 +.)7 )//)4<.:.46( CF-<2/. 9BD )/. *;;*(-6.0
)+6./4)6.0 3*:;*24,0 (-:;+.0 )4, 5)()+ /*(.66..
F493*+ %C3. L+-, A**-/9+>+/0:
115
9B1". T8. 5)(-3 61;.( *7 /**6 (6/2362/.( )/. 68. 6);/**60 625./0 52+50 /8-G*:.0
3+*>.0 3*/:0 )4, 3/*94 CF-<2/. 9B4D. B2+5( )/. 7):-+-)/ 6* 2( )( *4-*4( )4,0
98.4 (+-3., -4 8)+70 9-++ (8*9 3*43.46/-3 /-4<(. C+*>.( )/. 68*(. 52+5+-A.
(6/2362/.( 68)6 /.:-4, 2( *7 <)/+-3 )4, 9-++ (.;)/)6. -46* (:)++ ;-.3.( 98.4
5/*A.4 );)/6. T8-( 38)/)36./-(6-3 (.;)/)6.( 9-+, *4-*4( 7/*: 9-+, <)/+-3.
T);/**6( /.(.:5+. 3)//*6( )4, :)1 5. (-4<+.B/**6., */ 5/)438.,0 526 2(2)++1
*4+1 *4. ;+)46 (6)+A )/-(.( 7/*: .)38 /**6. T25./( )/. +-A. ;*6)6*.( )4,
,)1+-+-.(. Y*2 9-++ 7-4, 68.(. (6/2362/.( .-68./ *4 (6/-4<( */ -4 3+2(6./(
24,./4.)68 68. ;)/.46 ;+)46(. R8-G*:.( )/. +)/<. 3/..;-4< /**6(6*3A */
24,./</*24, (6.:(. M)41 ;+)46( )/-(. 7/*: 68. J.1.(K *7 68.(. /**6(.
C*/:( )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 52+5( 526 )/. (*+-, 98.4 326 /)68./ 68)4 ;*((.((-4<
/-4<(. A 3/*94 -( 68. 61;. *7 /**6 (6/2362/. 7*24, *4 ;+)46( (238 )(
)(;)/)<2(. C/*94( +**A :238 +-A. ) :*; 8.), 24,./ 68. (*-+H( (2/7)3..
F493*+ %C!. R110 S0*3.03*+:
9B11. L.)/4 )( :238 )( ;*((-5+. )5*26 68. 24-?2. 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 ;+)46(
1*2 -46.4, 6* 2(. 7*/ 7**,. S*:. ;+)46( 8)>. 5*68 .,-5+. )4, ;*-(*4*2(
;)/6(. M)41 )/. .,-5+. *4+1 )6 3./6)-4 6-:.( *7 68. 1.)/. O68./( :)1 8)>.
;*-(*4*2( /.+)6->.( 68)6 +**A >./1 (-:-+)/ 6* 68. >)/-.6-.( 1*2 3)4 .)6 */ 2(.
7*/ :.,-3-4..
UNIVERSAL EDIBILITY TEST
9B12. T8./. )/. :)41 ;+)46( 68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+,. T)(6-4< */ (9)++*9-4<
.>.4 ) (:)++ ;*/6-*4 *7 (*:. 3)4 3)2(. (.>./. ,-(3*:7*/60 .=6/.:. -46./4)+
,-(*/,./(0 )4, .>.4 ,.)68. T8./.7*/.0 -7 1*2 8)>. 68. (+-<86.(6 ,*256 )5*26 )
;+)46H( .,-5-+-610 );;+1 68. U4->./()+ E,-5-+-61 T.(6 CF-<2/. 9B%D 5.7*/. .)6-4<
)41 ;*/6-*4 *7 -6.
1. T.(6 *4+1 *4. ;)/6 *7 ) ;*6.46-)+ 7**, ;+)46 )6 ) 6-:..
2. S.;)/)6. 68. ;+)46 -46* -6( 5)(-3 3*:;*4.46(@+.)>.(0 (6.:(0 /**6(0 52,(0
)4, 7+*9./(.
116
. S:.++ 68. 7**, 7*/ (6/*4< */ )3-, *,*/(. R.:.:5./0 (:.++ )+*4. ,*.( 4*6
-4,-3)6. ) ;+)46 -( .,-5+. */ -4.,-5+..
4. D* 4*6 .)6 7*/ $ 8*2/( 5.7*/. (6)/6-4< 68. 6.(6.
%. D2/-4< 68. $ 8*2/( 1*2 )5(6)-4 7/*: .)6-4<0 6.(6 7*/ 3*46)36 ;*-(*4-4< 51
;+)3-4< ) ;-.3. *7 68. ;+)46 ;)/6 1*2 )/. 6.(6-4< *4 68. -4(-,. *7 1*2/ .+5*9 */
9/-(6. U(2)++1 1% :-426.( -( .4*2<8 6-:. 6* )++*9 7*/ ) /.)36-*4.
6. D2/-4< 68. 6.(6 ;./-*,0 6)A. 4*68-4< 51 :*268 .=3.;6 ;2/-7-., 9)6./ )4, 68.
;+)46 ;)/6 1*2 )/. 6.(6-4<.
7. S.+.36 ) (:)++ ;*/6-*4 *7 ) (-4<+. ;)/6 )4, ;/.;)/. -6 68. 9)1 1*2 ;+)4 6*
.)6 -6.
$. B.7*/. ;+)3-4< 68. ;/.;)/., ;+)46 ;)/6 -4 1*2/ :*2680 6*238 ) (:)++ ;*/6-*4
C) ;-438D 6* 68. *26./ (2/7)3. *7 1*2/ +-; 6* 6.(6 7*/ 52/4-4< */ -638-4<.
9. I7 )76./ :-426.( 68./. -( 4* /.)36-*4 *4 1*2/ +-;0 ;+)3. 68. ;+)46 ;)/6 *4
1*2/ 6*4<2.0 8*+,-4< -6 68./. 7*/ 1% :-426.(.
1". I7 68./. -( 4* /.)36-*40 68*/*2<8+1 38.9 ) ;-438 )4, 8*+, -6 -4 1*2/ :*268
7*/ 1% :-426.(. D* 4*6 (9)++*9.
11. I7 4* 52/4-4<0 -638-4<0 42:5-4<0 (6-4<-4<0 */ *68./ -//-6)6-*4 *332/( ,2/-4<
68. 1% :-426.(0 (9)++*9 68. 7**,.
12. !)-6 $ 8*2/(. I7 )41 -++ .77.36( *332/ ,2/-4< 68-( ;./-*,0 -4,23. >*:-6-4<
)4, ,/-4A ) +*6 *7 9)6./.
1. I7 4* -++ .77.36( *332/0 .)6 ".2% 32; *7 68. ():. ;+)46 ;)/6 ;/.;)/., 68.
():. 9)1. !)-6 )4*68./ $ 8*2/(. I7 4* -++ .77.36( *332/0 68. ;+)46 ;)/6 )(
;/.;)/., -( ()7. 7*/ .)6-4<.
CAUTION
T+:0 -<< 7-*0: 1, 08+ 7<-/0 ,1* +24@4<40;& -: :1>+ 7<-/0: 8-B+ @108 +24@<+
-/2 4/+24@<+ 7-*0:. D1 /10 -::3>+ 08-0 - 7-*0 08-0 7*1B+2 +24@<+ A8+/
.11?+2 4: -<:1 +24@<+ A8+/ *-A. T+:0 08+ 7-*0 *-A 01 +/:3*+ +24@4<40;
@+,1*+ +-04/9 *-A. T8+ :->+ 7-*0 1* 7<-/0 >-; 7*123.+ B-*;4/9
*+-.041/: 4/ 24,,+*+/0 4/24B423-<:.
F493*+ %C". U/4B+*:-< E24@4<40; T+:0
9B1. B.7*/. 6.(6-4< ) ;+)46 7*/ .,-5-+-610 :)A. (2/. 68./. )/. .4*2<8 ;+)46( 6*
:)A. 68. 6.(6-4< 9*/68 1*2/ 6-:. )4, .77*/6. E)38 ;)/6 *7 ) ;+)46 C/**6(0
+.)>.(0 7+*9./(0 )4, (* *4D /.?2-/.( :*/. 68)4 24 8*2/( 6* 6.(6. D* 4*6 9)(6.
6-:. 6.(6-4< ) ;+)46 68)6 -( 4*6 /.+)6->.+1 )524,)46 -4 68. )/.).
9B14. R.:.:5./0 .)6-4< +)/<. ;*/6-*4( *7 ;+)46 7**, *4 )4 .:;61 (6*:)38
:)1 3)2(. ,-)//8.)0 4)2(.)0 */ 3/):;(. T9* <**, .=):;+.( *7 68-( )/. (238
7):-+-)/ 7**,( )( </..4 );;+.( )4, 9-+, *4-*4(. E>.4 )76./ 6.(6-4< ;+)46 7**,
)4, 7-4,-4< -6 ()7.0 .)6 -6 -4 :*,./)6-*4.
9B1%. Y*2 3)4 (.. 7/*: 68. (6.;( )4, 6-:. -4>*+>., -4 6.(6-4< 7*/ .,-5-+-61 F2(6
8*9 -:;*/6)46 -6 -( 6* 5. )5+. 6* -,.46-71 .,-5+. ;+)46(.
9B16. T* )>*-, ;*6.46-)++1 ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46(0 (6)1 )9)1 7/*: )41 9-+, */
24A4*94 ;+)46( 68)6 8)>.@
117
I M-+A1 */ ,-(3*+*/., ();.
I B.)4(0 52+5(0 */ (..,( -4(-,. ;*,(.
I A 5-66./ */ (*);1 6)(6..
I S;-4.(0 7-4. 8)-/(0 */ 68*/4(.
I F*+-)<. 68)6 /.(.:5+.( ,-++0 3)//*60 ;)/(4-;0 */ ;)/(+.1.
I A4 )+:*4, (3.46 -4 9**,1 ;)/6( )4, +.)>.(.
I G/)-4 8.),( 9-68 ;-4A0 ;2/;+-(80 */ 5+)3A (;2/(.
I A 68/..B+.)7., </*968 ;)66./4.
9B17. U(-4< 68. )5*>. 3/-6./-) )( .+-:-4)6*/( 98.4 38**(-4< ;+)46( 7*/ 68.
U4->./()+ E,-5-+-61 T.(6 9-++ 3)2(. 1*2 6* )>*-, (*:. .,-5+. ;+)46(. M*/.
-:;*/6)460 68.(. 3/-6./-) 9-++ *76.4 8.+; 1*2 )>*-, ;+)46( 68)6 )/. ;*6.46-)++1
6*=-3 6* .)6 */ 6*238.
9B1$. A4 .46-/. .4313+*;.,-) *7 .,-5+. 9-+, ;+)46( 3*2+, 5. 9/-66.40 526 (;)3.
+-:-6( 68. 42:5./ *7 ;+)46( ;/.(.46., 8./.. L.)/4 )( :238 )( ;*((-5+. )5*26
68. ;+)46 +-7. *7 68. )/.)( 98./. 1*2 6/)-4 /.<2+)/+1 )4, 98./. 1*2 .=;.36 6*
5. 6/)>.+-4< */ 9*/A-4<. F-<2/. 9B6 +-(6 (*:. *7 68. :*(6 3*::*4 .,-5+. )4,
:.,-3-4)+ ;+)46(. D.6)-+., ,.(3/-;6-*4( )4, ;8*6*</);8( *7 68.(. )4, *68./
3*::*4 ;+)46( )/. -4 A;;.4,-= B.
I A:)/)468 CAmaranths retro2le3 )4, *68./ (;.3-.(D
I A//*9/**6 CSagittari&s (;.3-.(D
I A(;)/)<2( CAsparag&s o22icialsD
I B..38426 C#ags (;.3-.(D
I B+)3A5.//-.( CR&%es (;.3-.(D
I B+2.5.//-.( C'accini&m (;.3-.(D
I B2/,*3A CArcti&m lappaD
I C)66)-+ C$ypha (;.3-.(D
I C8.(6426 CCastanea (;.3-.(D
I C8-3*/1 CCichori&m inty%&sD
I C827) CCyper&s esc&lent&sD
I D)4,.+-*4 C$ara3ac&m o22icinaleD
I D)1+-+1 C,emerocallis 2&lva4
I N.66+. C.rtica (;.3-.(D
I O)A( C5&erc&s (;.3-.(D
I P./(-::*4 C/iospyros virginianaD
I P+)46)-4 C"lantago (;.3-.(D
I P*A.9.., C"hytolacca americanaD
I P/-3A+1 ;.)/ 3)362( C6p&ntia (;.3-.(D
I P2/(+)4. C"ort&laca oleraceaD
I S)(()7/)( CSassa2ras al%id&mD
I S8..; (*//.+ CR&me3 acetosellaD
I S6/)95.//-.( C#ragaria (;.3-.(D
I T8-(6+. CCirsi&m (;.3-.(D
I !)6./ +-+1 )4, +*62( C1&phar, 1el&m%o0 )4, *68./ (;.3-.(D
I !-+, *4-*4 )4, <)/+-3 CAlli&m (;.3-.(D
I !-+, /*(. CRosa (;.3-.(D
I !**, (*//.+ C63alis (;.3-.(D
I B):5** C*am%&sa )4, *68./ (;.3-.(D
118
I B)4)4)( C7&sa (;.3-.(D
I B/.),7/2-6 CArtocarp&s incisaD
I C)(8.9 426 CAnacardi&m occidentalD
I C*3*426 CCocoa n&ci2era4
I M)4<* C7angi2era indicaD
I P)+:( C>)/-*2( (;.3-.(D
I P);)1) CCarica (;.3-.(D
I S2<)/3)4. CSacchar&m o22icinar&mD
I T)/* CColocasia (;.3-.(DA
I )3)3-) CAcacia 2arnesianaD
I A<)>. CAgave (;.3-.(D
I C)362( C>)/-*2( (;.3-.(D
I D)6. ;)+: C"hoeni3 dactyli2eraD
I D.(./6 ):)/)468 CAmaranths palmerD
F493*+ %C6. F112 P<-/0:
SEA$EEDS
9B19. O4. ;+)46 1*2 (8*2+, 4.>./ *>./+**A -( (.)9..,. I6 -( ) 7*/: *7 :)/-4.
)+<). 7*24, *4 */ 4.)/ *3.)4 (8*/.(. T8./. )/. )+(* (*:. .,-5+. 7/.(89)6./
>)/-.6-.(. S.)9.., -( ) >)+2)5+. (*2/3. *7 -*,-4.0 *68./ :-4./)+(0 )4, >-6):-4
C. L)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 (.)9.., -4 )4 24)332(6*:., (6*:)38 3)4 ;/*,23. )
(.>./. +)=)6->. .77.36. F-<2/. 9B7 +-(6( >)/-*2( 61;.( *7 .,-5+. (.)9..,.
I D2+(. CRhodymenia palmataD
I G/..4 (.)9.., C.lva lact&caD
I I/-(8 :*(( CChondr&s crisp&sD
I K.+; CAlaria esc&lentaD
I L)>./ C"orphyra (;.3-.(D
I M*F)5)4 CSargass&m 2&lvell&mD
I S2<)/ 9/)3A C0aminaria saccharinaD
F493*+ %C#. T;7+: 1, E24@<+ S+-A++2
9B2". !8.4 <)68./-4< (.)9.., 7*/ 7**,0 7-4, +->-4< ;+)46( )66)38., 6* /*3A( */
7+*)6-4< 7/... S.)9.., 9)(8., *4(8*/. )41 +.4<68 *7 6-:. :)1 5. (;*-+., */
,.3)1.,. Y*2 3)4 ,/1 7/.(8+1 8)/>.(6., (.)9.., 7*/ +)6./ 2(..
9B21. D-77./.46 61;.( *7 (.)9.., (8*2+, 5. ;/.;)/., -4 ,-77./.46 9)1(. Y*2
3)4 ,/1 68-4 )4, 6.4,./ >)/-.6-.( -4 68. (24 */ *>./ ) 7-/. 246-+ 3/-(;. C/2(8
)4, ),, 68.(. 6* (*2;( */ 5/*68(. B*-+ 68-3A0 +.)68./1 (.)9..,( 7*/ ) (8*/6
6-:. 6* (*76.4 68.:. E)6 68.: )( ) >.<.6)5+. */ 9-68 *68./ 7**,(. Y*2 3)4
.)6 (*:. >)/-.6-.( /)9 )76./ 6.(6-4< 7*/ .,-5-+-61.
PREPARATION OF PLANT FOOD
9B22. A+68*2<8 (*:. ;+)46( */ ;+)46 ;)/6( )/. .,-5+. /)90 1*2 :2(6 3**A
*68./( 7*/ 68.: 6* 5. .,-5+. */ ;)+)6)5+.. E,-5+. :.)4( 68)6 ) ;+)46 */ 7**,
9-++ ;/*>-,. 1*2 9-68 4.3.(()/1 426/-.46(M ;)+)6)5+. :.)4( 68)6 -6 -( ;+.)(-4< 6*
119
.)6. M)41 9-+, ;+)46( )/. .,-5+. 526 5)/.+1 ;)+)6)5+.. I6 -( ) <**, -,.) 6*
+.)/4 6* -,.46-710 ;/.;)/.0 )4, .)6 9-+, 7**,(.
9B2. M.68*,( 2(., 6* -:;/*>. 68. 6)(6. *7 ;+)46 7**, -43+2,. (*)A-4<0
5*-+-4<0 3**A-4<0 */ +.)38-4<. L.)38-4< -( ,*4. 51 3/2(8-4< 68. 7**, C7*/
.=):;+.0 )3*/4(D0 ;+)3-4< -6 -4 ) (6/)-4./0 )4, ;*2/-4< 5*-+-4< 9)6./ 68/*2<8 -6
*/ -::./(-4< -6 -4 /244-4< 9)6./.
9B24. B*-+ +.)>.(0 (6.:(0 )4, 52,( 246-+ 6.4,./0 38)4<-4< 68. 9)6./0 -7
4.3.(()/10 6* /.:*>. )41 5-66./4.((. 9B2%. B*-+0 5)A.0 */ /*)(6 625./( )4,
/**6(. D/1-4< 8.+;( 6* /.:*>. 3)2(6-3 *=)+)6.( 7/*: (*:. /**6( +-A. 68*(. -4
68. Ar&m 7):-+1.
9B26. L.)38 )3*/4( -4 9)6./0 -7 4.3.(()/10 6* /.:*>. 68. 5-66./4.((. S*:.
426(0 (238 )( 38.(6426(0 )/. <**, /)90 526 6)(6. 5.66./ /*)(6.,.
9B27. Y*2 3)4 .)6 :)41 </)-4( )4, (..,( /)9 246-+ 68.1 :)62/.. !8.4 68.1
)/. 8)/, */ ,/10 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* 5*-+ */ </-4, 68.: -46* :.)+ */ 7+*2/.
9B2$. T8. (); 7/*: :)41 6/..(0 (238 )( :);+.(0 5-/38.(0 9)+426(0 )4,
(13):*/.(0 3*46)-4( (2<)/. Y*2 :)1 5*-+ 68.(. ();( ,*94 6* ) (1/2; 7*/
(9..6.4-4<. I6 6)A.( )5*26 % +-6./( *7 :);+. (); 6* :)A. 1 +-6./ *7 :);+.
(1/2;N
PLANTS FOR MEDICINE
9B29. I4 2(-4< ;+)46( 7*/ :.,-3)+ 6/.)6:.460 ;*(-6->. -,.46-7-3)6-*4 *7 68. ;+)46(
-4>*+>., -( )( 3/-6-3)+ )( 98.4 2(-4< 68.: 7*/ 7**,. P/*;./ 2(. *7 68.(. ;+)46(
-( .?2)++1 -:;*/6)46.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
9B". T8. 7*++*9-4< 6./:( )4, 68.-/ ,.7-4-6-*4( )/. )((*3-)6., 9-68 :.,-3-4)+
;+)46 2(.E I "o&ltice. T8-( -( 3/2(8., +.)>.( */ *68./ ;+)46 ;)/6(0 ;*((-5+1
8.)6.,0 68)6 )/. );;+-., 6* ) 9*24, */ (*/. .-68./ ,-/.36+1 */ 9/);;., -4 3+*68
*/ ;);./. P*2+6-3.(0 98.4 8*60 -43/.)(. 68. 3-/32+)6-*4 -4 68. )77.36., )/.)
)4, 8.+; 8.)+-4< 68/*2<8 68. 38.:-3)+( ;/.(.46 -4 68. ;+)46(. A( 68. ;*2+6-3.
,/-.( *260 -6 ,/)9( 68. 6*=-4( *26 *7 ) 9*24,. A ;*2+6-3. (8*2+, 5. ;/.;)/., 6*
) J:)(8., ;*6)6*.(B+-A.K 3*4(-(6.431 )4, );;+-., )( 9)/: )( 68. ;)6-.46 3)4
(6)4,.
I (n2&sion or tisane or tea. T8-( 5+.4, -( 68. ;/.;)/)6-*4 *7 :.,-3-4)+ 8./5( 7*/
-46./4)+ */ .=6./4)+ );;+-3)6-*4. Y*2 ;+)3. ) (:)++ ?2)46-61 *7 ) 8./5 -4 )
3*46)-4./0 ;*2/ 8*6 9)6./ *>./ -60 )4, +.6 -6 (6..; C3*>./., */ 243*>./.,D
5.7*/. 2(.. C)/. :2(6 )+9)1( 5. 6)A.4 6* 4*6 ,/-4A 6** :238 *7 ) 6.) -4 68.
5.<-44-4< *7 6/.)6:.46 )( -6 :)1 8)>. ),>./(. /.)36-*4( *4 )4 .:;61
(6*:)38.
I /ecoction. T8-( -( 68. .=6/)36 *7 ) 5*-+.,B,*94 */ (-::./., 8./5 +.)7 */
/**6. Y*2 ),, 8./5 +.)7 */ /**6 6* 9)6./. Y*2 5/-4< 68.: 6* ) (2(6)-4., 5*-+ */
120
(-::./ 68.: 6* ,/)9 68.-/ 38.:-3)+( -46* 68. 9)6./. T8. )>./)<. /)6-* -(
)5*26 2$ 6* %6 </):( C1 6* 2 *243.(D *7 8./5 6* ".% +-6./ *7 9)6./.
I 83pressed 9&ice. T8.(. )/. +-?2-,( */ ();( (?2..G., 7/*: ;+)46 :)6./-)+
)4, .-68./ );;+-., 6* 68. 9*24, */ :),. -46* )4*68./ :.,-3-4..
9B1. M)41 4)62/)+ /.:.,-.( 9*/A (+*9./ 68)4 68. :.,-3-4.( 1*2 A4*9.
T8./.7*/.0 (6)/6 9-68 (:)++./ ,*(.( )4, )++*9 :*/. 6-:. 7*/ 68.: 6* 6)A.
.77.36. N)62/)++10 (*:. 9-++ )36 :*/. /);-,+1 68)4 *68./(. M)41 *7 68.(.
6/.)6:.46( )/. ),,/.((., -4 :*/. ,.6)-+ -4 C8);6./ 4.
SPECIFIC REMEDIES
9B2. T8. 7*++*9-4< /.:.,-.( )/. 7*/ 2(. *4+1 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. D* 4*6
2(. 68.: /*26-4.+1 )( (*:. 3)4 5. ;*6.46-)++1 6*=-3 )4, 8)>. (./-*2( +*4<B
6./: .77.36( C7*/ .=):;+.0 3)43./D.
I Antidiarrheals 2or diarrhea. T8-( 3)4 5. *4. *7 68. :*(6 ,.5-+-6)6-4< -++4.((.(
7*/ ) (2/>->*/ */ ;/-(*4./ *7 9)/. D/-4A 6.) :),. 7/*: 68. /**6( *7
5+)3A5.//-.( )4, 68.-/ /.+)6->.( 6* (6*; ,-)//8.). !8-6. *)A 5)/A )4, *68./
5)/A( 3*46)-4-4< 6)44-4 )/. )+(* .77.36->. 98.4 :),. -46* ) (6/*4< 6.).
H*9.>./0 5.3)2(. *7 ;*((-5+. 4.<)6->. .77.36( *4 68. A-,4.1(0 2(. 68.: 9-68
3)26-*4 )4, *4+1 98.4 4*68-4< .+(. -( )>)-+)5+.. C+)10 )(8.(0 38)/3*)+0
;*9,./., 38)+A0 ;*9,./., 5*4.(0 )4, ;.36-4 3)4 5. 3*4(2:., */ :-=., -4 )
6)44-3 )3-, 6.) 9-68 <**, /.(2+6(. T8.(. ;*9,./., :-=62/.( (8*2+, 5. 6)A.4
-4 ) ,*(. *7 69* 6)5+.(;**4( .>./1 2 8*2/(. C+)1 )4, ;.36-4 3)4 5. :-=.,
6*<.68./ 6* <->. ) 3/2,. 7*/: *7 K)*;.36)6.. P.36-4 -( *56)-4)5+. 7/*: 68.
-44./ ;)/6 *7 3-6/2( 7/2-6 /-4,( */ 7/*: );;+. ;*:)3.. T.) :),. 7/*:
3*95.//10 3/)45.//10 */ 8)G.+ +.)>.( 9*/A(0 6**. B.3)2(. *7 -6( -48./.46
,)4<./ 6* )4 )+/.),1 24,./B4*2/-(8., (2/>->*/0 (.>./)+ *7 68.(. :.68*,( :)1
4.., 6* 5. 6/-., (-:2+6)4.*2(+1 6* (6*; ,.5-+-6)6-4< ,-)//8.)0 98-38 3)4 ?2-3A+1
,.81,/)6. .>.4 ) 8.)+681 -4,->-,2)+.
I Antihemorrhagics 2or %leeding. M)A. :.,-3)6-*4( 6* (6*; 5+..,-4< 7/*:
;+)46)-4 +.)>.(0 */0 :*(6 .77.36->.+10 7/*: 68. +.)>.( *7 68. 3*::*4 1)//*9 */
9*24,9*/6 :Achillea mille2oli&m4. T8.(. :*(6+1 <->. ) ;81(-3)+ 5)//-./ 6* 68.
5+..,-4<. P/-3A+1 ;.)/ C68. /)90 ;..+., ;)/6D */ 9-638 8)G.+ 3)4 5. );;+-., 6*
9*24,(. B*68 )/. <**, 7*/ 68.-/ )(6/-4<.46 ;/*;./6-.( C68.1 (8/-4A 5+**,
>.((.+(D. F*/ 5+..,-4< <2:( */ :*268 (*/.(0 (9..6 <2: 3)4 5. 38.9., */
2(., )( ) 6**68;-3A. T8-( ;/*>-,.( (*:. 38.:-3)+ )4, )46-(.;6-3 ;/*;./6-.(
)( 9.++.
I Antiseptics to clean in2ections. U(. )46-(.;6-3( 6* 3+.)4(. 9*24,(0 (4)A.
5-6.(0 (*/.(0 */ /)(8.(. Y*2 3)4 :)A. )46-(.;6-3( 7/*: 68. .=;/.((., F2-3. *7
9-+, *4-*4 */ <)/+-30 68. .=;/.((., F2-3. 7/*: 38-3A9.., +.)>.(0 */ 68.
3/2(8., +.)>.( *7 ,*3A. Y*2 3)4 )+(* :)A. )46-(.;6-3( 7/*: ) ,.3*36-*4 *7
52/,*3A /**60 :)++*9 +.)>.( */ /**6(0 */ 98-6. *)A 5)/A C6)44-3 )3-,D. P/-3A+1
;.)/0 (+-;;./1 .+:0 1)//*90 )4, (9..6 <2: )/. )++ <**, )46-(.;6-3( )( 9.++. A++
68.(. :.,-3)6-*4( )/. 7*/ .=6./4)+ 2(. *4+1. T9* *7 68. 5.(6 )46-(.;6-3( )/.
(2<)/ )4, 8*4.1. S2<)/ (8*2+, 5. );;+-., 6* 68. 9*24, 246-+ -6 5.3*:.(
(1/2;10 68.4 9)(8., *77 )4, /.);;+-.,. H*4.1 (8*2+, 5. );;+-., 68/.. 6-:.(
,)-+1 C(.. C8);6./ 4D. H*4.1 -( 51 7)/ 68. 5.(6 *7 68. )46-(.;6-3( 7*/ *;.4
9*24,( )4, 52/4(0 9-68 (2<)/ 5.-4< (.3*4,.
121
I Antipyretics 2or 2evers. T/.)6 ) 7.>./ 9-68 ) 6.) :),. 7/*: 9-++*9 5)/A0 )4
-472(-*4 *7 .+,./ 7+*9./( */ 7/2-60 +-4,.4 7+*9./ 6.)0 )4, )(;.4 */ (+-;;./1 .+:
5)/A ,.3*36-*4. Y)//*9 6.) -( )+(* <**,. P.;;./:-46 6.) -( /.;*/6.,+1 <**,
7*/ 7.>./(.
I Colds and sore throats. T/.)6 68.(. -++4.((.( 9-68 ) ,.3*36-*4 :),. 7/*:
.-68./ ;+)46)-4 +.)>.( */ 9-++*9 5)/A. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. ) 6.) :),. 7/*:
52/,*3A /**6(0 :)++*9 */ :2++.-4 7+*9./( */ /**6(0 )4, 1)//*9 */ :-46 +.)>.(.
I Analgesics 2or aches, pains, and sprains. T/.)6 68.(. 3*4,-6-*4( 9-68
.=6./4)++1 );;+-., ;*2+6-3.( *7 ,*3A0 ;+)46)-40 38-3A9..,0 9-++*9 5)/A0 <)/+-30
*/ (*//.+. S9..6 <2: 8)( (*:. )4)+<.(-3 C;)-4 /.+-.7D ;/*;./6-.(. C8.9-4<
68. 9-++*9 5)/A */ :)A-4< ) 6.) 7/*: -6 -( 68. 5.(6 7*/ ;)-4 /.+-.7 )( -6 3*46)-4(
68. /)9 3*:;*4.46 *7 )(;-/-4. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. ()+>.( :),. 51 :-=-4< 68.
.=;/.((., F2-3.( *7 68.(. ;+)46( -4 )4-:)+ 7)6 */ >.<.6)5+. *-+(.
I Antihistamines and astringents 2or itching or contact dermatitis. R.+-.>. 68.
-638 7/*: -4(.36 5-6.(0 (2452/40 */ ;+)46 ;*-(*4-4< /)(8.( 51 );;+1-4< )
;*2+6-3. *7 F.9.+9.., :(mpatiens %i2lora4 */ 9-638 8)G.+0 98-38 <->. ) 3**+-4<
/.+-.7 )4, ,/1 *26 68. 9..;-4< :,amamelis virginiana4 +.)>.(. T8. F.9.+9..,
F2-3. 9-++ 8.+; 98.4 );;+-., 6* ;*-(*4 ->10 /)(8.(0 */ -4(.36 (6-4<(. J.9.+9..,
)4, )+*. >./) 8.+; /.+-.>. (2452/4. I4 ),,-6-*40 ,)4,.+-*4 ();0 3/2(8.,
3+*>.( *7 <)/+-30 )4, (9..6 <2: 8)>. 5..4 2(.,. C/2(8., +.)>.( *7 52/,*3A
8)>. /.3.->., *4+1 (*B(* /.;*/6( *7 (233.((0 526 3/2(8.,0 </..4 ;+)46)-4
+.)>.( (8*9 /.+-.7 *>./ ) 7.9 ,)1(. J.9.+9.., -( ;/*5)5+1 68. 5.(6 *7 68.(.
;+)46(. T*5)33* 9-++ ,.),.4 68. 4./>. .4,-4<( )4, 3)4 )+(* 5. 2(., 6* 6/.)6
6**68)38.(.
I Sedatives. G.6 8.+; -4 7)++-4< )(+..; 51 5/.9-4< ) 6.) :),. 7/*: :-46
+.)>.( */ ;)((-*47+*9./ +.)>.(.
I ,emorrhoids. T/.)6 68.: 9-68 .=6./4)+ 9)(8.( 7/*: .+: 5)/A */ *)A 5)/A
6.)0 7/*: 68. .=;/.((., F2-3. *7 ;+)46)-4 +.)>.(0 */ 7/*: ) S*+*:*4H( (.)+ /**6
,.3*36-*4. T)44-3 )3-, */ 9-638 8)G.+ 9-++ ;/*>-,. (**68-4< /.+-.7 5.3)2(. *7
68.-/ )(6/-4<.46 ;/*;./6-.(.
I ,eat rash. T)44-3 )3-, */ 9-638 8)G.+ 9-++ ;/*>-,. (**68-4< /.+-.7 5.3)2(. *7
68.-/ )(6/-4<.46 ;/*;./6-.( 526 3*/4(6)/38 */ )41 3/2(8., )4, ;*9,./.,0 4*4B
;*-(*4*2( ;+)46 (8*2+, 8.+; 6* ,/1 *26 68. /)(8 )76./ ) 68*/*2<8 3+.)4(-4<.
I Constipation. R.+-.>. 3*4(6-;)6-*4 51 ,/-4A-4< ,.3*36-*4( 7/*: ,)4,.+-*4
+.)>.(0 /*(. 8-;(0 */ 9)+426 5)/A. E)6-4< /)9 ,)1+-+1 7+*9./( 9-++ )+(* 8.+;.
L)/<. ):*246( *7 9)6./ -4 )41 7*/: )/. 3/-6-3)+ 6* /.+-.>-4< 3*4(6-;)6-*4.
I Antihelminthics 2or worms or intestinal parasites. M*(6 6/.)6:.46 7*/ 9*/:(
*/ ;)/)(-6.( )/. 6*=-3@F2(6 :*/. (* 7*/ 68. 9*/:( */ ;)/)(-6.( 68)4 7*/
82:)4(. T8./.7*/.0 )++ 6/.)6:.46( (8*2+, 5. 2(., -4 :*,./)6-*4. T/.)6:.46(
-43+2,. 6.) :),. 7/*: 6)4(1 :$anacet&m v&lgare4 */ 7/*: 9-+, 3)//*6
C;*-(*4*2(D +.)>.(. V./1 (6/*4< 6)44-3 )3-, 3)4 )+(* 5. 2(., 9-68 3)26-*4 )(
-6 -( >./1 8)/, *4 68. +->./. S.. C8);6./ 4 7*/ :*/. ,.9*/:-4< 6.384-?2.(.
I Anti2lat&lents 2or gas and cramps. U(. ) 6.) :),. 7/*: 3)//*6 (..,(M 2(.
6.) :),. 7/*: :-46 +.)>.( 6* (.66+. 68. (6*:)38.
I Anti2&ngal washes. M)A. ) ,.3*36-*4 *7 9)+426 +.)>.(0 *)A 5)/A0 */ )3*/4(
6* 6/.)6 /-4<9*/: )4, )68+.6.H( 7**6. A;;+1 -6 7/.?2.46+1 6* 68. (-6.0 )+6./4)6-4<
9-68 .=;*(2/. 6* ,-/.36 (24+-<86. B/*),+.)7 ;+)46)-4 8)( )+(* 5..4 2(., 9-68
(233.(( 526 )41 6/.)6:.46 (8*2+, 5. 2(., -4 ),,-6-*4 6* (24+-<86 -7 ;*((-5+..
J.9.+9.., )4, >-4.<)/ :)A. .=3.++.46 9)(8.( 526 )/. (*:.6-:.( ,-77-32+6 6*
7-4,.
122
I *&rns. T)44-3 )3-,0 (2<)/0 )4, 8*4.1 3)4 5. 2(., )( .=;+)-4., -4 C8);6./
4. I /enti2rices 2or teeth. S.. C8);6./ 4 7*/ *68./ 6.384-?2.( -4 ),,-6-*4 6*
2(-4< 69-<( *7 (9..6 <2: 7*/ -6( )46-B-47+)::)6*/10 )4)+<.(-30 )4, )46-(.;6-3
;/*;./6-.(.
I (nsect repellents. G)/+-3 )4, *4-*4( 3)4 5. .)6.4 )4, 68. /)9 ;+)46 F2-3.
/255., *4 68. (A-4 6* /.;.+ (*:. -4(.36(. S)(()7/)( +.)>.( 3)4 5. /255., *4
68. (A-4. C.,)/ 38-;( :)1 8.+; /.;.+ -4(.36( )/*24, 1*2/ (8.+6./.
I $annic acid. B.3)2(. 6)44-3 )3-, -( 2(., 7*/ (* :)41 6/.)6:.46( C52/4(0
)46-8.:*//8)<-3(0 )46-8.+:-468-3(0 )46-(.;6-3(0 )46-,-)//8.)+(0 )46-724<)+(0
5/*438-6-(0 (A-4 -47+)::)6-*40 +-3.D0 ) 4*6. )( 6* -6( ;/.;)/)6-*4 -( -4 */,./. A++
68/.),1 ;+)46(0 .(;.3-)++1 6/..(0 3*46)-4 6)44-3 )3-,. H)/,9**, 6/..(
<.4./)++1 3*46)-4 :*/. 68)4 (*769**, 6/..(. O7 68. 8)/,9**,(0 *)A@
.(;.3-)++1 /., )4, 38.(6426@3*46)-4 68. 8-<8.(6 ):*246. T8. 9)/61 +**A-4<
A4*6( -4 *)A 6/..( 3)4 3*46)-4 )( :238 )( 2$ ;./3.46 6)44-3 )3-,. T8-( A4*60
68. -44./ 5)/A *7 6/..(0 )4, ;-4. 4..,+.( C326 -46* 2B3.46-:.6./ P1B-438Q (6/-;(D0
3)4 )++ 5. 5*-+., ,*94 6* .=6/)36 6)44-3 )3-,. B*-+-4< 3)4 5. ,*4. -4 )( +-66+.
)( 1% :-426.( C>./1 9.)AD0 6* 2 8*2/( C:*,./)6.D0 68/*2<8 12 8*2/( 6* ,)1(
C>./1 (6/*4<D. T8. (6/*4<./ 3*43*36-*4( 9-++ 8)>. ) ,)/A 3*+*/ 68)6 9-++ >)/1
,.;.4,-4< *4 68. 61;. *7 6/... A++ 9-++ 8)>. )4 -43/.)(-4<+1 >-+. 6)(6. -4
/.+)6-*4 6* 68.-/ 3*43.46/)6-*4.
MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS
9B. P+)46( 3)4 5. 1*2/ )++1 )( +*4< )( 1*2 2(. 68.: 3)26-*2(+1. B. (2/.
68)6 1*2 A4*9 68. ;+)46 )4, 8*9 6* 2(. -6. S*:. ),,-6-*4)+ 2(.( *7 ;+)46( )/.
)( 7*++*9(E
I M)A. ,1.( 7/*: >)/-*2( ;+)46( 6* 3*+*/ 3+*68-4< */ 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/ (A-4.
U(2)++10 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 5*-+ 68. ;+)46( 6* <.6 68. 5.(6 /.(2+6(. O4-*4(A-4(
;/*,23. 1.++*90 9)+426 82++( ;/*,23. 5/*940 )4, ;*A.5.//-.( ;/*>-,. ;2/;+.
,1..
I M)A. 7-5./( )4, 3*/,)<. 7/*: ;+)46 7-5./(. M*(6 3*::*4+1 2(., )/. 68.
(6.:( 7/*: 4.66+.( )4, :-+A9..,(0 1233) ;+)46(0 )4, 68. -44./ 5)/A *7 6/..(
+-A. 68. +-4,.4.
I M)A. 6-4,./ 7*/ (6)/6-4< 7-/.( 7/*: 3)66)-+ 7+2770 3.,)/ 5)/A0 +-<86./ A4*6 9**,
7/*: ;-4. 6/..(0 */ 8)/,.4., (); 7/*: /.(-4*2( 9**, 6/..(.
I M)A. -4(2+)6-*4 51 7+277-4< 2; 7.:)+. 3)66)-+ 8.),( */ :-+A9.., ,*94.
I M)A. -4(.36 /.;.++.46( 51 ;+)3-4< ()(()7/)( +.)>.( -4 1*2/ (8.+6./ */ 51
52/4-4< */ (:2,<-4< 3)66)-+ (.., 8)-/ 7-5./(.
9B4. !8.68./ 1*2 2(. ;+)46( 7*/ 7**,0 :.,-3-4.0 */ 68. 3*4(6/236-*4 *7
(8.+6./( */ .?2-;:.460 68. ?+; 6* 68.-/ ()7. 2(. -( 71:404B+ 42+/04,4.-041/.
CHAPTER 10.
P14:1/13: P<-/0:.
123
S233.((72+ 2(. *7 ;+)46( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 ,.;.4,( *4 ;*(-6->.
-,.46-7-3)6-*4. K4*9-4< ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( -( )( -:;*/6)46 6* 1*2 )( A4*9-4<
.,-5+. ;+)46(. K4*9-4< 68. ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 )>*-, (2(6)-4-4<
-4F2/-.( 7/*: 68.:.
HO$ PLANTS POISON
1"B1. P+)46( <.4./)++1 ;*-(*4 51@
I Contact. T8-( 3*46)36 9-68 ) ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46 3)2(.( )41 61;. *7 (A-4
-//-6)6-*4 */ ,./:)6-6-(.
I (ngestion. T8-( *332/( 98.4 ) ;./(*4 .)6( ) ;)/6 *7 ) ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46.
I A%sorption or inhalation. T8-( 8);;.4( 98.4 ) ;./(*4 .-68./ )5(*/5( 68.
;*-(*4 68/*2<8 68. (A-4 */ -48)+.( -6 -46* 68. /.(;-/)6*/1 (1(6.:.
1"B2. P+)46 ;*-(*4-4< /)4<.( 7/*: :-4*/ -//-6)6-*4 6* ,.)68. A 3*::*4
?2.(6-*4 )(A., -(0 JH*9 ;*-(*4*2( -( 68-( ;+)46LK I6 -( ,-77-32+6 6* ()1 8*9
;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( )/. 5.3)2(.@
I S*:. ;+)46( /.?2-/. ) +)/<. ):*246 *7 3*46)36 5.7*/. 1*2 4*6-3. )41
),>./(. /.)36-*4 )+68*2<8 *68./( 9-++ 3)2(. ,.)68 9-68 *4+1 ) (:)++ ):*246.
I E>./1 ;+)46 9-++ >)/1 -4 68. ):*246 *7 6*=-4( -6 3*46)-4( ,2. 6* ,-77./.46
</*9-4< 3*4,-6-*4( )4, (+-<86 >)/-)6-*4( -4 (25(;.3-.(.
I E>./1 ;./(*4 8)( ) ,-77./.46 +.>.+ *7 /.(-(6)43. 6* 6*=-3 (25(6)43.(.
I S*:. ;./(*4( :)1 5. :*/. (.4(-6->. 6* ) ;)/6-32+)/ ;+)46.
1"B. S*:. 3*::*4 >4:.1/.+7041/: )5*26 ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( )/.@
I ;atch the animals and eat what they eat. M*(6 *7 68. 6-:. 68-( (6)6.:.46 -(
6/2.0 526 (*:. )4-:)+( 3)4 .)6 ;+)46( 68)6 )/. ;*-(*4*2( 6* 82:)4(.
I *oil the plant in water and any poisons will %e removed. B*-+-4< /.:*>.(
:)41 ;*-(*4(0 526 4*6 )++.
I "lants with a red color are poisono&s. S*:. ;+)46( 68)6 )/. /., )/.
;*-(*4*2(0 526 4*6 )++.
1"B4. T8. ;*-46 -( 68./. -( 4* *4. /2+. 6* )-, -4 -,.46-71-4< ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46(.
Y*2 :2(6 :)A. )4 .77*/6 6* +.)/4 )( :238 )5*26 68.: )( ;*((-5+..
ALL ABOUT PLANTS
1"B%. M)41 ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( +**A +-A. 68.-/ .,-5+. /.+)6->.( */ +-A. *68./ .,-5+.
;+)46(. F*/ .=):;+.0 ;*-(*4 8.:+*3A );;.)/( >./1 (-:-+)/ 6* 9-+, 3)//*6.
C./6)-4 ;+)46( )/. ()7. 6* .)6 -4 3./6)-4 (.)(*4( */ (6)<.( *7 </*968 526
;*-(*4*2( -4 *68./ (6)<.(. F*/ .=):;+.0 68. +.)>.( *7 68. ;*A.9.., )/.
.,-5+. 98.4 -6 7-/(6 (6)/6( 6* </*90 526 68.1 (**4 5.3*:. ;*-(*4*2(. Y*2 3)4
.)6 (*:. ;+)46( )4, 68.-/ 7/2-6( *4+1 98.4 68.1 )/. /-;.. F*/ .=):;+.0 68. /-;.
7/2-6 *7 M)1 );;+. -( .,-5+.0 526 )++ *68./ ;)/6( )4, 68. </..4 7/2-6 )/.
;*-(*4*2(. S*:. ;+)46( 3*46)-4 5*68 .,-5+. )4, ;*-(*4*2( ;)/6(M ;*6)6*.(
)4, 6*:)6*.( )/. 3*::*4 ;+)46 7**,(0 526 68.-/ </..4 ;)/6( )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
124
1"B6. S*:. ;+)46( 5.3*:. 6*=-3 )76./ 9-+6-4<. F*/ .=):;+.0 98.4 68. 5+)3A
38.//1 (6)/6( 6* 9-+60 81,/*31)4-3 )3-, ,.>.+*;(. S;.3-7-3 ;/.;)/)6-*4 :.68*,(
:)A. (*:. ;+)46( .,-5+. 68)6 )/. ;*-(*4*2( /)9. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68. 68-4+1
(+-3., )4, 68*/*2<8+1 ,/-., C,/1-4< :)1 6)A. ) 1.)/D 3*/:( *7 68. F)3AB-4B68.
;2+;-60 526 68.1 )/. ;*-(*4*2( -7 4*6 68*/*2<8+1 ,/-.,.
1"B7. L.)/4 6* -,.46-71 )4, 2(. ;+)46( 5.7*/. ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. S*:.
(*2/3.( *7 -47*/:)6-*4 )5*26 ;+)46( )/. ;):;8+.6(0 5**A(0 7-+:(0 4)62/. 6/)-+(0
5*6)4-3)+ <)/,.4(0 +*3)+ :)/A.6(0 )4, +*3)+ 4)6->.(. G)68./ )4, 3/*((B
/.7./.43. -47*/:)6-*4 7/*: )( :)41 (*2/3.( )( ;*((-5+.0 5.3)2(. :)41
(*2/3.( 9-++ 4*6 3*46)-4 )++ 68. -47*/:)6-*4 4..,.,.
RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONOUS PLANTS
1"B$. Y*2/ 5.(6 ;*+-31 -( 6* 5. )5+. 6* ;*(-6->.+1 -,.46-71 ;+)46( 51 (-<86 )4, 6*
A4*9 68.-/ 2(.( */ ,)4<./(. M)41 6-:.( )5(*+26. 3./6)-461 -( 4*6 ;*((-5+.. I7
1*2 8)>. +-66+. */ 4* A4*9+.,<. *7 68. +*3)+ >.<.6)6-*40 2(. 68. /2+.( 6* (.+.36
;+)46( 7*/ 68. U4->./()+ E,-5-+-61 T.(6. R.:.:5./0 -B142@
I A++ :2(8/**:(. M2(8/**: -,.46-7-3)6-*4 -( >./1 ,-77-32+6 )4, :2(6 5. ;/.3-(.
@.>.4 :*/. (* 68)4 9-68 *68./ ;+)46(. S*:. :2(8/**:( 3)2(. ,.)68 >./1
?2-3A+1. S*:. :2(8/**:( 8)>. 4* A4*94 )46-,*6.. T9* <.4./)+ 61;.( *7
:2(8/**: ;*-(*4-4< )/. <)(6/*-46.(6-4)+ )4, 3.46/)+ 4./>*2( (1(6.:.
I C*46)36 9-68 */ 6*238-4< ;+)46( 244.3.(()/-+1.
CONTACT DERMATITIS
1"B9. C*46)36 ,./:)6-6-( 7/*: ;+)46( 9-++ 2(2)++1 3)2(. 68. :*(6 6/*25+. -4 68.
7-.+,. T8. .77.36( :)1 5. ;./(-(6.460 (;/.), 51 (3/)638-4<0 )4, ;)/6-32+)/+1
,)4<./*2( -7 68./. -( 3*46)36 -4 */ )/*24, 68. .1.(.
1"B1". T8. ;/-43-;)+ 6*=-4 *7 68.(. ;+)46( -( 2(2)++1 )4 *-+ 68)6 <.6( *4 68. (A-4
2;*4 3*46)36 9-68 68. ;+)46. T8. *-+ 3)4 )+(* <.6 *4 .?2-;:.46 )4, 68.4 -47.36
98*.>./ 6*238.( 68. .?2-;:.46. N.>./ 52/4 ) 3*46)36 ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46
5.3)2(. 68. (:*A. :)1 5. )( 8)/:72+ )( 68. ;+)46. Y*2 8)>. ) </.)6./
,)4<./ *7 5.-4< )77.36., 98.4 1*2 )/. *>./8.)6., )4, (9.)6-4<. T8.
-47.36-*4 :)1 5. +*3)+ */ -6 :)1 (;/.), *>./ 68. 5*,1.
1"B11. S1:;6*:( :)1 6)A. 7/*: ) 7.9 8*2/( 6* (.>./)+ ,)1( 6* );;.)/.
S1:;6*:( 3)4 -43+2,. 52/4-4<0 /.,,.4-4<0 -638-4<0 (9.++-4<0 )4, 5+-(6./(.
1"B12. !8.4 1*2 7-/(6 3*46)36 68. ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( */ 98.4 68. 7-/(6
(1:;6*:( );;.)/0 6/1 6* /.:*>. 68. *-+ 51 9)(8-4< 9-68 (*); )4, 3*+, 9)6./.
I7 9)6./ -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 9-;. 1*2/ (A-4 /.;.)6.,+1 9-68 ,-/6 */ ()4,. D* 4*6
2(. ,-/6 -7 1*2 8)>. 5+-(6./(. T8. ,-/6 :)1 5/.)A *;.4 68. 5+-(6./( )4, +.)>.
68. 5*,1 *;.4 6* -47.36-*4. A76./ 1*2 8)>. /.:*>., 68. *-+0 ,/1 68. )/.). Y*2
3)4 9)(8 9-68 ) 6)44-3 )3-, (*+26-*4 )4, 3/2(8 )4, /25 F.9.+9.., *4 68.
)77.36., )/.) 6* 6/.)6 ;+)46B3)2(., /)(8.(. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 6)44-3 )3-, 7/*:
*)A 5)/A.
125
1"B1. P*-(*4*2( ;+)46( 68)6 3)2(. 3*46)36 ,./:)6-6-( )/.@
I C*98)<..
I P*-(*4 ->1.
I P*-(*4 *)A.
I P*-(*4 (2:)3.
I R.4<)( 6/...
I T/2:;.6 >-4..
INGESTION POISONING
1"B14. I4<.(6-*4 ;*-(*4-4< 3)4 5. >./1 (./-*2( )4, 3*2+, +.), 6* ,.)68 >./1
?2-3A+1. D* 4*6 .)6 )41 ;+)46 24+.(( 1*2 8)>. ;*(-6->.+1 -,.46-7-., -6 7-/(6.
K..; ) +*< *7 )++ ;+)46( .)6.4.
1"B1%. S1:;6*:( *7 -4<.(6-*4 ;*-(*4-4< 3)4 -43+2,. 4)2(.)0 >*:-6-4<0
,-)//8.)0 )5,*:-4)+ 3/):;(0 ,.;/.((., 8.)/65.)6 )4, /.(;-/)6-*40
8.),)38.(0 8)++23-4)6-*4(0 ,/1 :*2680 243*4(3-*2(4.((0 3*:)0 )4, ,.)68.
1"B16. I7 1*2 (2(;.36 ;+)46 ;*-(*4-4<0 6/1 6* /.:*>. 68. ;*-(*4*2( :)6./-)+
7/*: 68. >-36-:H( :*268 )4, (6*:)38 )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+.. I7 68. >-36-: -(
3*4(3-*2(0 -4,23. >*:-6-4< 51 6-3A+-4< 68. 5)3A *7 8-( 68/*)6 */ 51 <->-4< 8-:
9)/: ()+69)6./. I7 68. >-36-: -( 3*4(3-*2(0 ,-+26. 68. ;*-(*4 51 ),:-4-(6./-4<
+)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 9)6./ */ :-+A.
1"B17. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;+)46( 3)4 3)2(. -4<.(6-*4 ;*-(*4-4< -7 .)6.4E
I C)(6*/ 5.)4.
I C8-4)5.//1.
I D.)68 3):)(.
I L)46)4).
I M)438-4..+.
I O+.)4,./.
I P)4<-.
I P81(-3 426.
I P*-(*4 )4, 9)6./ 8.:+*3A(.
I R*()/1 ;.).
I S6/1384-4. 6/...
1"B1$. A;;.4,-= C ;/*>-,.( ;8*6*</);8( )4, ,.(3/-;6-*4( *7 68.(. ;+)46(.
CHAPTER 11.
D-/9+*13: A/4>-<:.
T8. 68/.)6 7/*: )4-:)+( -( +.(( 68)4 7/*: *68./ ;)/6( *7 68. .4>-/*4:.46.
H*9.>./0 3*::*4 (.4(. 6.++( 1*2 6* )>*-, .43*246./( 9-68 +-*4(0 5.)/(0 )4,
126
*68./ +)/<. */ ,)4<./*2( )4-:)+(. Y*2 (8*2+, )+(* )>*-, +)/<. </)G-4<
)4-:)+( 9-68 8*/4(0 8**>.(0 )4, </.)6 9.-<86. M*>. 3)/.72++1 68/*2<8 68.-/
.4>-/*4:.46. C)26-*4 :)1 ;/.>.46 24.=;.36., :..6-4<(. D* 4*6 )66/)36
+)/<. ;/.,)6*/( 51 +.)>-4< 7**, +1-4< )/*24, 1*2/ 3):;. C)/.72++1 (2/>.1 68.
(3.4. 5.7*/. .46./-4< 9)6./ */ 7*/.(6(.
S:)++./ )4-:)+( )362)++1 ;/.(.46 :*/. *7 ) 68/.)6 6* 1*2 68)4 +)/<. )4-:)+(.
T* 3*:;.4()6. 7*/ 68.-/ (-G.0 4)62/. 8)( <->.4 :)41 (:)++ )4-:)+( 9.);*4(
(238 )( 7)4<( )4, (6-4<./( 6* ,.7.4, 68.:(.+>.(. E)38 1.)/0 ) 7.9 ;.*;+.
)/. 5-66.4 51 (8)/A(0 :)2+., 51 )++-<)6*/(0 )4, )66)3A., 51 5.)/(. M*(6 *7
68.(. -43-,.46( 9./. -4 (*:. 9)1 68. >-36-:H( 7)2+6. H*9.>./0 .)38 1.)/ :*/.
>-36-:( ,-. 7/*: 5-6.( 51 /.+)6->.+1 (:)++ >.4*:*2( (4)A.( 68)4 51 +)/<.
,)4<./*2( )4-:)+(. E>.4 :*/. >-36-:( ,-. 7/*: )++./<-3 /.)36-*4( 6* 5..
(6-4<(. T8.(. (:)++./ )4-:)+( )/. 68. *4.( 1*2 )/. :*/. +-A.+1 6* :..6 )(
1*2 249-66-4<+1 :*>. -46* 68.-/ 8)5-6)60 */ 68.1 (+-; -46* 1*2/ .4>-/*4:.46
244*6-3.,.
K..;-4< ) +.>.+ 8.), )4, )4 )9)/.4.(( *7 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<( 9-++ A..; 1*2
)+->. -7 1*2 2(. ) 7.9 (-:;+. ()7.61 ;/*3.,2/.(. D* 4*6 +.6 32/-*(-61 )4,
3)/.+.((4.(( A-++ */ -4F2/. 1*2.
INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS
11B1. I4(.36(0 .=3.;6 3.46-;.,.( )4, :-++-;.,.(0 8)>. (-= +.<(M )/)384-,(
8)>. .-<86. A++ 68.(. (:)++ 3/.)62/.( 5.3*:. ;.(6( 98.4 68.1 5-6.0 (6-4<0 */
-//-6)6. 1*2.
11B2. A+68*2<8 68.-/ >.4*: 3)4 5. ?2-6. ;)-472+0 5..0 9)(;0 )4, 8*/4.6 (6-4<(
/)/.+1 A-++ ) ;./(*4 98* -( 4*6 )++./<-3 6* 68)6 ;)/6-32+)/ 6*=-4. E>.4 68. :*(6
,)4<./*2( (;-,./( /)/.+1 A-++0 )4, 68. .77.36( *7 6-3AB5*/4. ,-(.)(.( )/. >./1
(+*9B)36-4<. H*9.>./0 -4 )++ 3)(.(0 )>*-,)43. -( 68. 5.(6 ,.7.4(.. I4
.4>-/*4:.46( A4*94 6* 8)>. (;-,./( )4, (3*/;-*4(0 38.3A 1*2/ 7**6<.)/ )4,
3+*68-4< .>./1 :*/4-4<. A+(* 38.3A 1*2/ 5.,,-4< )4, (8.+6./. U(. 3)/. 98.4
62/4-4< *>./ /*3A( )4, +*<(. S.. A;;.4,-= D 7*/ .=):;+.( *7 ,)4<./*2(
-4(.36( )4, )/)384-,(.
SCORPIONS
11B. Y*2 7-4, (3*/;-*4( C*&thot&s (;.3-.(D -4 ,.(./6(0 F24<+.(0 )4, 7*/.(6( *7
6/*;-3)+0 (256/*;-3)+0 )4, 9)/: 6.:;./)6. )/.)( *7 68. 9*/+,. T8.1 )/. :*(6+1
4*362/4)+. D.(./6 (3*/;-*4( /)4<. 7/*: 5.+*9 (.) +.>.+ -4 D.)68 V)++.1 6*
.+.>)6-*4( )( 8-<8 )( 06"" :.6./( C120""" 7..6D -4 68. A4,.(. T1;-3)++1
5/*94 */ 5+)3A -4 :*-(6 )/.)(0 68.1 :)1 5. 1.++*9 */ +-<86 </..4 -4 68. ,.(./6.
T8.-/ )>./)<. (-G. -( )5*26 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D. H*9.>./0 68./. )/. 2"B
3.46-:.6./ C$B-438D <-)46( -4 68. F24<+.( *7 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 N.9 G2-4.)0 )4,
(*268./4 A7/-3). F)6)+-6-.( 7/*: (3*/;-*4 (6-4<( )/. /)/.0 526 ,* *332/ 9-68
38-+,/.40 68. .+,./+10 )4, -++ ;./(*4(. S3*/;-*4( /.(.:5+. (:)++ +*5(6./( 9-68
/)-(.,0 F*-46., 6)-+( 5.)/-4< ) (6-4<./ -4 68. 6-;. N)62/. :-:-3( 68. (3*/;-*4(
9-68 98-; (3*/;-*4( */ >-4.<)//**4(. T8.(. )/. 8)/:+.(( )4, 8)>. ) 6)-+ +-A.
) 9-/. */ 98-;0 /)68./ 68)4 68. F*-46., 6)-+ )4, (6-4<./ *7 6/2. (3*/;-*4(.
127
SPIDERS
11B4. T8. 5/*94 /.3+2(.0 */ 7-,,+.5)3A (;-,./0 *7 N*/68 A:./-3) C0o3osceles
recl&saD -( /.3*<4-G., 51 ) ;/*:-4.46 >-*+-4B(8);., +-<86 (;*6 *4 68. 5)3A *7
-6( 5*,1. A( -6( 4):. (2<<.(6(0 68-( (;-,./ +-A.( 6* 8-,. -4 ,)/A ;+)3.(.
T8*2<8 -6( 5-6. -( /)/.+1 7)6)+0 -6 3)4 3)2(. .=3.((->. 6-((2. ,.<.4./)6-*4
)/*24, 68. 9*24,0 +.),-4< 6* ):;26)6-*4 *7 68. ,-<-6( -7 +.76 246/.)6.,.
11B%. M.:5./( *7 68. 9-,*9 7):-+1 C0atrodect&s (;.3-.(D :)1 5. 7*24,
9*/+,9-,.0 68*2<8 68. 5+)3A 9-,*9 *7 N*/68 A:./-3) -( ;./8);( 68. :*(6 9.++B
A4*94. F*24, -4 9)/:./ )/.)( *7 68. 9*/+,0 68. 9-,*9( )/. (:)++0 ,)/A
(;-,./( 9-68 *76.4 8*2/<+)((B(8);., 98-6.0 /.,0 */ */)4<. (;*6( *4 68.-/
)5,*:.4(.
11B6. F244.+9.5( CAtra3 (;.3-.(D )/. +)/<.0 </)1 */ 5/*94 A2(6/)+-)4 (;-,./(.
C824A10 9-68 (8*/6 +.<(0 68.1 )/. )5+. 6* :*>. .)(-+1 2; )4, ,*94 68. 3*4.B
(8);., 9.5( 7/*: 98-38 68.1 <.6 68.-/ 4):.. T8. +*3)+ ;*;2+)3. 3*4(-,./(
68.: ,.),+1. A>*-, 68.: )( 68.1 :*>. )5*260 2(2)++1 )6 4-<860 -4 (.)/38 *7
;/.1. S1:;6*:( *7 68.-/ 5-6. )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 68*(. *7 68. 9-,*9H(@(.>./. ;)-4
)33*:;)4-., 51 (9.)6-4< )4, (8->./-4<0 9.)A4.((0 )4, ,-()5+-4< .;-(*,.(
68)6 3)4 +)(6 ) 9..A.
11B7. T)/)462+)( )/. +)/<.0 8)-/1 (;-,./( C$heraphosidae )4, 0ycosa
(;.3-.(D 5.(6 A4*94 5.3)2(. 68.1 )/. *76.4 (*+, -4 ;.6 (6*/.(. T8./. -( *4.
(;.3-.( -4 E2/*;.0 526 :*(6 3*:. 7/*: 6/*;-3)+ A:./-3). S*:. S*268
A:./-3)4 (;.3-.( ,* -4F.36 ) ,)4<./*2( 6*=-40 526 :*(6 (-:;+1 ;/*,23. )
;)-472+ 5-6.. S*:. 6)/)462+)( 3)4 5. )( +)/<. )( ) ,-44./ ;+)6.. T8.1 )++ 8)>.
+)/<. 7)4<( 7*/ 3);62/-4< 7**, (238 )( 5-/,(0 :-3.0 )4, +-G)/,(. I7 5-66.4 51 )
6)/)462+)0 ;)-4 )4, 5+..,-4< )/. 3./6)-40 )4, -47.36-*4 -( +-A.+1.
CENTIPEDES AND MILLIPEDES
11B$. C.46-;.,.( )4, :-++-;.,.( )/. :*(6+1 (:)++ )4, 8)/:+.((0 )+68*2<8
(*:. 6/*;-3)+ )4, ,.(./6 (;.3-.( :)1 /.)38 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1" -438.(D. A
7.9 >)/-.6-.( *7 3.46-;.,.( 8)>. ) ;*-(*4*2( 5-6.0 526 -47.36-*4 -( 68. </.)6.(6
,)4<./0 )( 68.-/ (8)/; 3+)9( ,-< -4 )4, ;24362/. 68. (A-4. T* ;/.>.46 (A-4
;24362/.(0 5/2(8 68.: *77 -4 68. ,-/.36-*4 68.1 )/. 6/)>.+-4<.
BEES& $ASPS& AND HORNETS
11B9. B..(0 9)(;(0 )4, 8*/4.6( 3*:. -4 :)41 >)/-.6-.( )4, 8)>. ) 9-,.
,->./(-61 *7 8)5-6( )4, 8)5-6)6(. Y*2 /.3*<4-G. 5..( 51 68.-/ 8)-/1 )4, 2(2)++1
68-3A 5*,10 98-+. 68. 9)(;(0 8*/4.6(0 )4, 1.++*9 F)3A.6( 8)>. :*/. (+.4,./0
4.)/+1 8)-/+.(( 5*,-.(. S*:. 5..(0 (238 )( 8*4.15..(0 +->. -4 3*+*4-.(.
T8.1 :)1 5. .-68./ ,*:.(6-3)6., */ +->-4< 9-+, -4 3)>.( */ 8*++*9 6/..(. Y*2
:)1 7-4, *68./ 5..(0 (238 )( 3)/;.46./ 5..(0 -4 -4,->-,2)+ 4.(6 8*+.( -4 9**,
*/ -4 68. </*24, +-A. 52:5+.5..(. T8. :)-4 ,)4<./ 7/*: 5..( -( 68. 5)/5.,
(6-4<./ +*3)6., *4 68.-/ )5,*:.4(. !8.4 ) 5.. (6-4<( 1*20 -6 /-;( -6( (6-4<./
*26 *7 -6( )5,*:.4 )+*4< 9-68 68. >.4*: ()30 )4, ,-.(. E=3.;6 7*/ A-++./ 5..(0
128
:*(6 5..( 6.4, 6* 5. :*/. ,*3-+. 68)4 9)(;(0 8*/4.6(0 )4, 1.++*9 F)3A.6(0
98-38 8)>. (:**68 (6-4<./( )4, )/. 3);)5+. *7 /.;.)6., )66)3A(.
11B1". A>*-,)43. -( 68. 5.(6 6)36-3 7*/ (.+7B;/*6.36-*4. !)638 *26 7*/ 7+*9./(
*/ 7/2-6 98./. 5..( :)1 5. 7..,-4<. B. 3)/.72+ *7 :.)6B.)6-4< 1.++*9 F)3A.6(
98.4 3+.)4-4< 7-(8 */ <):.. T8. )>./)<. ;./(*4 8)( ) /.+)6->.+1 :-4*/ )4,
6.:;*/)/1 /.)36-*4 6* 5.. (6-4<( )4, /.3*>./( -4 ) 3*2;+. *7 8*2/( 98.4 68.
;)-4 )4, 8.),)38. <* )9)1. T8*(. 98* )/. )++./<-3 6* 5.. >.4*: 8)>.
(.>./. /.)36-*4( -43+2,-4< )4);81+)36-3 (8*3A0 3*:)0 )4, ,.)68. I7
)46-8-(6):-4. :.,-3-4. -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+. )4, 1*2 3)44*6 7-4, ) (25(6-626.0 )4
)++./<1 (277././ -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( -4 </)>. ,)4<./.
TICKS
11B11. T-3A( )/. 3*::*4 -4 68. 6/*;-3( )4, 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(. T8.1 )/.
7):-+-)/ 6* :*(6 *7 2(. T-3A( )/. (:)++0 /*24, )/)384-,(. T8.1 3)4 8)>.
.-68./ ) (*76 */ 8)/, 5*,1. T-3A( /.?2-/. ) 5+**, 8*(6 6* (2/>->. )4,
/.;/*,23.. T8-( :)A.( 68.: ,)4<./*2( 5.3)2(. 68.1 (;/.), ,-(.)(.( +-A.
L1:. ,-(.)(.0 R*3A1 M*246)-4 (;*66., 7.>./0 .43.;8)+-6-(0 )4, *68./( 68)6
3)4 2+6-:)6.+1 5. ,-()5+-4< */ 7)6)+. T8./. -( +-66+. 1*2 3)4 ,* 6* 6/.)6 68.(.
,-(.)(.( *43. 68.1 )/. 3*46/)36.,0 526 6-:. -( 1*2/ )++1 (-43. -6 6)A.( )6 +.)(6
6 8*2/( *7 )66)38:.46 6* 68. 8*(6 7*/ 68. 6-3A 6* 6/)4(:-6 68. ,-(.)(.
*/<)4-(:(. T82(0 1*2 8)>. 6-:. 6* 68*/*2<8+1 -4(;.36 1*2/ 5*,1 7*/ 68.-/
;/.(.43.. B.9)/. *7 6-3A( 98.4 ;)((-4< 68/*2<8 68. 68-3A >.<.6)6-*4 68.1
3+-4< 6*0 98.4 3+.)4-4< 8*(6 )4-:)+( 7*/ 7**,0 )4, 98.4 <)68./-4< 4)62/)+
:)6./-)+( 6* 3*4(6/236 ) (8.+6./. A+9)1( 2(. -4(.36 /.;.++.46(0 -7 ;*((-5+..
LEECHES
11B12. L..38.( )/. 5+**,(23A-4< 3/.)62/.( 9-68 ) 9*/:+-A. );;.)/)43..
Y*2 7-4, 68.: -4 68. 6/*;-3( )4, -4 6.:;./)6. G*4.(. Y*2 9-++ 3./6)-4+1
.43*246./ 68.: 98.4 (9-::-4< -4 -47.(6., 9)6./( */ :)A-4< .=;.,-.46 9)6./
3/*((-4<(. Y*2 3)4 7-4, 68.: 98.4 ;)((-4< 68/*2<8 (9):;10 6/*;-3)+
>.<.6)6-*4 )4, 5*<(. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 7-4, 68.: 98-+. 3+.)4-4< 7**, )4-:)+(0
(238 )( 62/6+.(0 7*24, -4 7/.(8 9)6./. L..38.( 3)4 3/)9+ -46* (:)++ *;.4-4<(M
68./.7*/.0 )>*-, 3):;-4< -4 68.-/ 8)5-6)6( 98.4 ;*((-5+.. K..; 1*2/ 6/*2(./(
623A., -4 1*2/ 5**6(. C8.3A 1*2/(.+7 7/.?2.46+1 7*/ +..38.(. S9)++*9., */
.)6.40 +..38.( 3)4 5. ) </.)6 8)G)/,. I6 -( 68./.7*/. .((.46-)+ 6* 6/.)6 9)6./
7/*: ?2.(6-*4)5+. (*2/3.( 51 5*-+-4< */ 2(-4< 38.:-3)+ 9)6./ 6/.)6:.46(.
S2/>->*/( 8)>. ,.>.+*;., (.>./. -47.36-*4( 7/*: 9*24,( -4(-,. 68. 68/*)6 */
4*(. 98.4 (*/.( 7/*: (9)++*9., +..38.( 5.3):. -47.36.,.
BATS
11B1. D.(;-6. 68. +.<.4,(0 5)6( C/esmod&s (;.3-.(D )/. ) /.+)6->.+1 (:)++
8)G)/, 6* 1*2. T8./. )/. :)41 5)6 >)/-.6-.( 9*/+,9-,.0 526 1*2 7-4, 68. 6/2.
>):;-/. 5)6( *4+1 -4 C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3). T8.1 )/. (:)++0 )<-+. 7+-./(
68)6 +)4, *4 68.-/ (+..;-4< >-36-:(0 :*(6+1 3*9( )4, 8*/(.(0 6* +); ) 5+**,
:.)+ )76./ 5-6-4< 68.-/ >-36-:. T8.-/ ()+->) 3*46)-4( )4 )46-3*)<2+)46 68)6
A..;( 68. 5+**, (+*9+1 7+*9-4< 98-+. 68.1 7..,. A++ 5)6( )/. 3*4(-,./., 6*
129
3)//1 /)5-.(. A41 ;81(-3)+ 3*46)36 -( 3*4(-,./., 6* 5. ) /)5-.( /-(A. T8.1 3)4
3)//1 *68./ ,-(.)(.( )4, -47.36-*4( )4, 9-++ 5-6. /.),-+1 98.4 8)4,+.,.
H*9.>./0 6)A-4< (8.+6./ -4 ) 3)>. *332;-., 51 5)6( ;/.(.46( 68. :238 </.)6./
8)G)/, *7 -48)+-4< ;*9,./., 5)6 ,24<0 */ <2)4*. B)6 ,24< 3)//-.( :)41
*/<)4-(:( 68)6 3)4 3)2(. ,-(.)(.(. E)6-4< 68*/*2<8+1 3**A., 7+1-4< 7*=.( */
*68./ 5)6( ;/.(.46( 4* ,)4<./ 7/*: /)5-.( )4, *68./ ,-(.)(.(0 526 )<)-40 68.
.:;8)(-( -( *4 68*/*2<8 3**A-4<.
VENOMOUS SNAKES
11B14. T8./. )/. 4* -47)++-5+. /2+.( 7*/ .=;.,-.46 -,.46-7-3)6-*4 *7 >.4*:*2(
(4)A.( -4 68. 7-.+,0 5.3)2(. 68. <2-,.+-4.( )++ /.?2-/. 3+*(. *5(./>)6-*4 */
:)4-;2+)6-*4 *7 68. (4)A.H( 5*,1. T8. 5.(6 (6/)6.<1 -( 6* +.)>. )++ (4)A.(
)+*4.. !8./. (4)A.( )/. ;+.46-72+ )4, >.4*:*2( (;.3-.( )/. ;/.(.460 68.
/-(A *7 68.-/ 5-6.( 4.<)6.( 68.-/ 7**, >)+2.. A;;+1 68. 7*++*9-4< ()7.61 /2+.(
98.4 6/)>.+-4< -4 )/.)( 98./. 68./. )/. >.4*:*2( (4)A.(E
I !)+A 3)/.72++1 )4, 9)638 98./. 1*2 (6.;. S6.; *46* +*<( /)68./ 68)4 *>./
68.: -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. D2/-4< .>)(-*40 )+9)1( (6.; *>./ */ <* )/*24,
+*<( 6* +.)>. 7.9./ (-<4( 7*/ 6/)3A./(.
I L**A 3+*(.+1 98.4 ;-3A-4< 7/2-6 */ :*>-4< )/*24, 9)6./.
I D* 4*6 6.)(.0 :*+.(60 */ 8)/)(( (4)A.(. S4)A.( 3)44*6 3+*(. 68.-/ .1.(.
T8./.7*/.0 1*2 3)44*6 6.++ -7 68.1 )/. )(+..;. S*:. (4)A.(0 (238 )( :):5)(0
3*5/)(0 )4, 52(8:)(6./(0 9-++ )66)3A )<</.((->.+1 98.4 3*/4./., */ <2)/,-4<
) 4.(6.
I U(. (6-3A( 6* 62/4 +*<( )4, /*3A(.
I !.)/ ;/*;./ 7**6<.)/0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 )6 4-<86.
I C)/.72++1 38.3A 5.,,-4<0 (8.+6./0 )4, 3+*68-4<.
I B. 3)+: 98.4 1*2 .43*246./ (./;.46(. S4)A.( 3)44*6 8.)/ )4, 1*2 3)4
*33)(-*4)++1 (2/;/-(. 68.: 98.4 68.1 )/. (+..;-4< */ (244-4<. N*/:)++10 68.1
9-++ 7+.. -7 <->.4 68. *;;*/624-61.
I U(. .=6/.:. 3)/. -7 1*2 :2(6 A-++ (4)A.( 7*/ 7**, */ ()7.61. A+68*2<8 -6 -( 4*6
3*::*40 9)/:0 (+..;-4< 82:)4 5*,-.( *33)(-*4)++1 )66/)36 (4)A.(.
11B1%. A;;.4,-= E ;/*>-,.( ,.6)-+., ,.(3/-;6-*4( *7 68. (4)A.( +-(6., -4
F-<2/. 11B1.
T8+ A>+*4.-:
I A:./-3)4 C*;;./8.), CAgkistrodon
contortri3
I B2(8:)(6./ C0achesis m&taD
I C*/)+ (4)A. C7icr&r&s 2&lvi&sD
I C*66*4:*268 CAgkistrodon piscivor&sD
I F./B,.B+)43. C*othrops atro3D
I R)66+.(4)A. CCrotal&s (;.3-.(D
E3*17+
I C*::*4 ),,./ :'ipers %er&s4
I P)++)(H >-;./ :Agkistrodon halys4
A,*4.- -/2 A:4-
130
I B**:(+)4< C/ispholid&s typ&sD
I C*5/) C1a9a (;.3-.(D
I G)5**4 >-;./ C*itis ga%onicaD
I G/..4 6/.. ;-6 >-;./ C$rimeres&r&s gramine&sD
I H)52 ;-6 >-;./ C$rimeres&r&s 2lavoviridisD
I K/)-6 C*&ngar&s caer&le&sD
I M)+)1)4 ;-6 >-;./ CCallaselasma rhodostomaD
I M):5) C/endraspis (;.3-.(D
I P277 ),,./ C*itis arietansD
I R8-4*3./*( >-;./ C*itis nasicornisD
I R2((.++H( >-;./ C'ipera r&sselliiD
I S)4, >-;./ CCerastes viperaD
I S)9B(3)+., >-;./ C8chis carinat&sD
I !)<+./H( ;-6 >-;./ C$rimeres&r&s wagleriD
A3:0*-<4-
I D.)68 ),,./ CAcanthophis antarctic&sD
I T)-;)4 C63y&ran&s sc&tellat&sD
I T-<./ (4)A. C1otechis sc&tat&sD
I Y.++*9B5.++-., (.) (4)A. C"elamis plat&r&s4
F493*+ 11C1. V+/1>13: S/-?+: 1, 08+ $1*<2
SNAKECFREE AREAS
11B16. T8. ;*+)/ /.<-*4( )/. 7/.. *7 (4)A.( ,2. 6* 68.-/ -48*(;-6)5+.
.4>-/*4:.46(. O68./ )/.)( 3*4(-,./., 6* 5. 7/.. *7 >.4*:*2( (4)A.( )/.
N.9 &.)+)4,0 C25)0 H)-6-0 J):)-3)0 P2./6* R-3*0 I/.+)4,0 P*+14.(-)0 )4,
H)9)--.
DANGEROUS LI(ARDS
11B17. T8. G-+) :*4(6./ C,eloderma s&spectr&mD *7 68. A:./-3)4 S*2689.(6
)4, M.=-3* -( ) ,)4<./*2( )4, ;*-(*4*2( +-G)/, 9-68 ,)/A0 8-<8+1 6.=62/.,
(A-4 :)/A., 51 ;-4A-(8 :*66+-4<. I6 -( 61;-3)++1 % 6* 4% 3.46-:.6./( C14 6* 1$
-438.(D -4 +.4<68 )4, 8)( ) 68-3A0 (62:;1 6)-+. T8. G-+) :*4(6./ -( 24+-A.+1 6*
5-6. 24+.(( :*+.(6., 526 8)( ) ;*-(*4*2( 5-6..
11B1$. T8. M.=-3)4 5.),., +-G)/, C,eloderma horrid&mD /.(.:5+.( -6(
/.+)6->.0 68. G-+) :*4(6./. H*9.>./0 -6 8)( :*/. 24-7*/: (;*6( /)68./ 68)4
5)4,( *7 3*+*/. I6 )+(* -( ;*-(*4*2( )4, 8)( ) ,*3-+. 4)62/.. Y*2 :)1 7-4, -6
7/*: M.=-3* 6* C.46/)+ A:./-3).
11B19. T8. A*:*,* ,/)<*4 -( ) <-)46 +-G)/, C'aran&s komodoensisD 68)6
</*9( 6* :*/. 68)4 :.6./( C1" 7..6D -4 +.4<68. I6 3)4 5. ,)4<./*2( -7 1*2 6/1
6* 3);62/. -6. T8-( I4,*4.(-)4 +-G)/, 3)4 9.-<8 :*/. 68)4 1% A-+*</):( C""
;*24,(D.
DANGERS IN RIVERS
131
11B2". C*::*4 (.4(. 9-++ 6.++ 1*2 6* )>*-, 3*47/*46)6-*4( 9-68 8-;;*;*6):-0
)++-<)6*/(0 3/*3*,-+.(0 )4, *68./ +)/<. /->./ 3/.)62/.(. H*9.>./0 68./. )/. )+(*
68. 7*++*9-4< (:)++./ /->./ 3/.)62/.( 9-68 98-38 1*2 (8*2+, 5. 3)26-*2(.
11B21. E+.36/-3 ..+( C8lectrophor&s electric&sD :)1 /.)38 2 :.6./( C7 7..6D -4
+.4<68 )4, 2" 3.46-:.6./( C$ -438.(D -4 ,-):.6./. A>*-, 68.:. T8.1 )/.
3);)5+. *7 <.4./)6-4< 2; 6* %"" >*+6( *7 .+.36/-3-61 -4 3./6)-4 */<)4( *7 68.-/
5*,1. T8.1 2(. 68-( (8*3A 6* (624 ;/.1 )4, .4.:-.(. N*/:)++10 1*2 7-4,
68.(. ..+( -4 68. O/-4*3* )4, A:)G*4 R->./ (1(6.:( -4 S*268 A:./-3). T8.1
(..: 6* ;/.7./ (8)++*9 9)6./( 68)6 )/. :*/. 8-<8+1 *=1<.4)6., )4, ;/*>-,.
:*/. 7**,. T8.1 )/. 52+A-./ 68)4 A:./-3)4 ..+(. T8.-/ 2;;./ 5*,1 -( ,)/A
</)1 */ 5+)3A 9-68 ) +-<86./B3*+*/., 24,./5.++1.
11B22. P-/)48)( CSerrasalmo (;.3-.(D )/. )4*68./ 8)G)/, *7 68. O/-4*3* )4,
A:)G*4 R->./ (1(6.:(0 )( 9.++ )( 68. P)/)<2)1 R->./ B)(-40 98./. 68.1 )/.
4)6->.. T8.(. 7-(8 >)/1 </.)6+1 -4 (-G. )4, 3*+*/)6-*40 526 2(2)++1 8)>. )
3*:5-4)6-*4 *7 */)4<. 24,./(-,.( )4, ,)/A 6*;(. T8.1 8)>. 98-6.0 /)G*/B
(8)/; 6..68 68)6 )/. 3+.)/+1 >-(-5+.. T8.1 :)1 5. )( +*4< )( %" 3.46-:.6./(
C2" -438.(D. U(. </.)6 3)/. 98.4 3/*((-4< 9)6./( 98./. 68.1 +->.. B+**,
)66/)36( 68.:. T8.1 )/. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( -4 (8)++*9 9)6./( ,2/-4< 68. ,/1
(.)(*4.
11B2. B. 3)/.72+ 98.4 8)4,+-4< )4, 3);62/-4< +)/<. 7/.(89)6./ 62/6+.(0 (238
)( 68. (4);;-4< 62/6+.( )4, (*76B(8.++., 62/6+.( *7 N*/68 A:./-3) )4, 68.
:)6):)6) )4, *68./ 62/6+.( *7 S*268 A:./-3). A++ *7 68.(. 62/6+.( 9-++ 5-6. -4
(.+7B,.7.4(. )4, 3)4 ):;26)6. 7-4<./( )4, 6*.(.
11B24. T8. ;+)61;2( */ ,23A5-++ C6rnithorhync&s anatin&sD -( 68. *4+1 :.:5./
*7 -6( 7):-+1 )4, -( .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G.,. I6 8)( ) +*4< 5*,1 3*>./., 9-68 </)1-(80
(8*/6 8)-/0 ) 6)-+ +-A. ) 5.)>./0 )4, ) 5-++ +-A. ) ,23A. G/*9-4< 2; 6* 6"
3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D -4 +.4<680 -6 :)1 );;.)/ 6* 5. ) <**, 7**, (*2/3.0 526
68-( .<< +)1-4< :)::)+0 68. *4+1 *4. -4 68. 9*/+,0 -( >./1 ,)4<./*2(. T8.
:)+. 8)( ) ;*-(*4*2( (;2/ *4 .)38 8-4, 7**6 68)6 3)4 -47+-36 -46.4(.+1 ;)-472+
9*24,(. Y*2 7-4, 68. ;+)61;2( *4+1 -4 A2(6/)+-)0 :)-4+1 )+*4< :2, 5)4A( *4
9)6./9)1(.
DANGERS IN BAYS AND ESTUARIES
11B2%. I4 )/.)( 98./. (.)( )4, /->./( 3*:. 6*<.68./0 68./. )/. ,)4<./(
)((*3-)6., 9-68 5*68 7/.(89)6./ )4, ()+69)6./. I4 (8)++*9 ()+6 9)6./(0 68./.
)/. :)41 3/.)62/.( 68)6 3)4 -47+-36 ;)-4 )4, 3)2(. -47.36-*4 6* ,.>.+*;.
S6.;;-4< *4 (.) 2/38-4(0 7*/ .=):;+.0 3)4 ;/*,23. ;)-4 )4, -47.36-*4. !8.4
:*>-4< )5*26 -4 (8)++*9 9)6./0 9.)/ (*:. 7*/: *7 7**6<.)/ )4, (8277+. 1*2/
7..6 )+*4< 68. 5*66*:0 /)68./ 68)4 ;-3A-4< 2; 1*2/ 7..6 )4, (6.;;-4<.
11B26. S6-4</)1( C/asyatidae (;.3-.(D )/. ) /.)+ 8)G)/, -4 (8)++*9 9)6./(0
.(;.3-)++1 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./(. T8. 61;. *7 5*66*: );;.)/( 6* 5. -//.+.>)46. T8./.
-( ) </.)6 >)/-)43. 5.69..4 (;.3-.(0 526 )++ 8)>. ) (8)/; (;-A. -4 68.-/ 6)-+ 68)6
:)1 5. >.4*:*2( )4, 3)4 3)2(. .=6/.:.+1 ;)-472+ 9*24,( -7 (6.;;., *4. A++
132
/)1( 8)>. ) 61;-3)+ (8);. 68)6 /.(.:5+.( ) A-6.. Y*2 7-4, 68.: )+*4< 68.
3*)(6( *7 68. A:./-3)(0 A7/-3)0 )4, A2(6/)+-).
SALT$ATER DANGERS
11B27. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 7-(8 68)6 1*2 (8*2+, 4*6 8)4,+.0 6*2380 */ 3*46)36.
T8./. )/. )+(* *68./( 68)6 1*2 (8*2+, 4*6 .)6. T8.(. 7-(8 )/. ,.(3/-5.,
5.+*9.
11B2$. S8)/A( )/. 68. :*(6 7.)/., )4-:)+ -4 68. (.). U(2)++10 (8)/A )66)3A(
3)44*6 5. )>*-,., )4, )/. 3*4(-,./., )33-,.46(. Y*2 (8*2+, 6)A. .>./1
;/.3)26-*4 6* )>*-, )41 3*46)36 9-68 (8)/A(. T8./. )/. :)41 (8)/A (;.3-.(0
526 -4 <.4./)+0 ,)4<./*2( (8)/A( 8)>. 9-,. :*268( )4, >-(-5+. 6..680 98-+.
/.+)6->.+1 8)/:+.(( *4.( 8)>. (:)++ :*268( *4 68. 24,./(-,. *7 68.-/ 8.),(.
H*9.>./0 )41 (8)/A 3)4 -47+-36 ;)-472+ )4, *76.4 7)6)+ -4F2/-.(0 .-68./ 68/*2<8
5-6.( */ 68/*2<8 )5/)(-*4( 7/*: 68.-/ /*2<8 (A-4.
11B29. R)55-67-(8 */ (;-4.7**6 CSiganidae (;.3-.(D +->. :)-4+1 *4 3*/)+ /..7(
-4 68. I4,-)4 )4, P)3-7-3 *3.)4(. T8.1 8)>. >./1 (8)/;0 ;*((-5+1 >.4*:*2(
(;-4.( -4 68.-/ 7-4(. H)4,+. 68.: 9-68 3)/.0 -7 )6 )++. T8-( 7-(80 +-A. :)41
*68./( *7 68. ,)4<./*2( 7-(8 -4 68-( (.36-*40 -( 3*4(-,./., .,-5+. 51 4)6->.
;.*;+.( 98./. 68. 7-(8 )/. 7*24,0 526 ,.)68( *332/ 7/*: 3)/.+.(( 8)4,+-4<.
S..A *68./ 4*4B;*-(*4*2( 7-(8 6* .)6 -7 ;*((-5+..
11B". T)4< */ (2/<.*47-(8 CAcanth&ridae (;.3-.(D )>./)<. 2" 6* 2%
3.46-:.6./( C$ 6* 1" -438.(D -4 +.4<68 )4, *76.4 )/. 5.)26-72++1 3*+*/.,. T8.1
)/. 3)++., (2/<.*47-(8 5.3)2(. *7 68. (3)+;.+B+-A. (;-4.( +*3)6., -4 68. 6)-+.
T8. 9*24,( -47+-36., 51 68.(. (;-4.( 3)4 5/-4< )5*26 ,.)68 68/*2<8 -47.36-*40
.4>.4*:)6-*40 )4, +*(( *7 5+**,0 98-38 :)1 -43-,.46)++1 )66/)36 (8)/A(.
11B1. T*),7-(8 C*atrachoididae (;.3-.(D +->. -4 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./( *77 68. G2+7
C*)(6 *7 68. U4-6., S6)6.( )4, )+*4< 5*68 3*)(6( *7 C.46/)+ )4, S*268
A:./-3). T8.(. ,2++1B3*+*/., 7-(8 )>./)<. 1$ 6* 2% 3.46-:.6./( C7 6* 1"
-438.(D -4 +.4<68. T8.1 61;-3)++1 52/1 68.:(.+>.( -4 68. ()4, 6* )9)-6 7-(8 )4,
*68./ ;/.1. T8.1 8)>. (8)/;0 >./1 6*=-3 (;-4.( )+*4< 68.-/ 5)3A(.
11B2. P*-(*4*2( (3*/;-*4 7-(8 */ G.5/) 7-(8 CScorpaenidae (;.3-.(D )/.
:*(6+1 )/*24, /..7( -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ I4,-)4 )4, P)3-7-3 *3.)4( )4, *33)(-*4)++1
-4 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4 )4, A.<.)4 (.)(. T8.1 )>./)<. " 6* 7% 3.46-:.6./(
C12 6* 29 -438.(D -4 +.4<68. T8.-/ 3*+*/)6-*4 -( 8-<8+1 >)/-)5+.0 7/*: /.,,-(8
5/*94 6* )+:*(6 ;2/;+. */ 5/*94-(8 1.++*9. T8.1 8)>. +*4<0 9)>1 7-4( )4,
(;-4.( )4, 68.-/ (6-4< -( -46.4(.+1 ;)-472+. L.(( ;*-(*4*2( /.+)6->.( +->. -4 68.
A6+)46-3 O3.)4.
11B. S6*4.7-(8 CSynance9a (;.3-.(D )/. -4 68. P)3-7-3 )4, I4,-)4 *3.)4(.
T8.1 3)4 -4F.36 ) ;)-472+ >.4*: 7/*: 68.-/ ,*/()+ (;-4.( 98.4 (6.;;., *4 */
8)4,+., 3)/.+.((+1. T8.1 )/. )+:*(6 -:;*((-5+. 6* (.. 5.3)2(. *7 68.-/
+2:;1 (8);. )4, ,/)5 3*+*/(. T8.1 /)4<. -4 (-G. 2; 6* 4" 3.46-:.6./( C16
-438.(D.
133
11B4. !..>./ 7-(8 C$rachinidae (;.3-.(D )>./)<. " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D
+*4<. T8.1 )/. 8)/, 6* (.. )( 68.1 +-. 52/-., -4 68. ()4, *77 68. 3*)(6( *7
E2/*;.0 A7/-3)0 )4, 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4. T8.-/ 3*+*/ -( 2(2)++1 ) ,2++ 5/*94.
T8.1 8)>. >.4*:*2( (;-4.( *4 68. 5)3A )4, <-++(.
NOTE: A;;.4,-= F ;/*>-,.( :*/. ,.6)-+( *4 68.(. >.4*:*2( 7-(8 )4, 6*=-3
:*++2(A(.
11B%. T8. +->./( *7 ;*+)/ 5.)/( )/. 3*4(-,./., 6*=-3 ,2. 6* 8-<8
3*43.46/)6-*4( *7 >-6):-4 A. T8./. -( ) 38)43. *7 ,.)68 )76./ .)6-4< 68-(
*/<)4. A4*68./ 6*=-3 :.)6 -( 68. 7+.(8 *7 68. 8)9A(5-++ 62/6+.. T8.(. )4-:)+(
)/. ,-(6-4<2-(8., 51 ) ,*94B62/4., 5-++ )4, 1.++*9 ;*+A) ,*6( *4 68.-/ 4.3A
)4, 7/*46 7+-;;./(. T8.1 9.-<8 :*/. 68)4 27% A-+*</):( C6"% ;*24,(D )4, )/.
24+-A.+1 6* 5. 3);62/.,.
11B6. M)41 7-(8 +->-4< -4 +)<**4(0 .(62)/-.(0 */ /..7( 4.)/ (8*/. )/.
;*-(*4*2( 6* .)60 68*2<8 (*:. )/. *4+1 (.)(*4)++1 ,)4<./*2(. A+68*2<8 68.
:)F*/-61 )/. 6/*;-3)+ 7-(8M 5. 9)/1 *7 .)6-4< )41 24-,.46-7-)5+. 7-(8 98./.>./
1*2 )/.. S*:. ;/.,)6*/1 7-(80 (238 )( 5)//)32,) )4, (4);;./0 :)1 5.3*:.
6*=-3 -7 68. 7-(8 68.1 7.., *4 -4 (8)++*9 9)6./( )/. ;*-(*4*2(. T8. :*(6
;*-(*4*2( 61;.( );;.)/ 6* 8)>. ;)//*6 +-A. 5.)A( )4, 8)/, (8.++B+-A. (A-4(
9-68 (;-4.( )4, 3)4 *76.4 -47+)6. 68.-/ 5*,-.( +-A. 5)++**4(. H*9.>./0 )6
3./6)-4 6-:.( *7 68. 1.)/0 -4,-<.4*2( ;*;2+)6-*4( 3*4(-,./ 68. ;277./ )
,.+-3)31.
11B7. T8. 5+*97-(8 */ ;277./ C$etraodontidae (;.3-.(D )/. :*/. 6*+./)46 *7
3*+, 9)6./. T8.1 +->. )+*4< 6/*;-3)+ )4, 6.:;./)6. 3*)(6( 9*/+,9-,.0 .>.4 -4
(*:. *7 68. /->./( *7 S*268.)(6 A(-) )4, A7/-3). S6*26 5*,-., )4, /*24,0
:)41 *7 68.(. 7-(8 8)>. (8*/6 (;-4.( )4, 3)4 -47+)6. 68.:(.+>.( -46* ) 5)++
98.4 )+)/:., */ )<-6)6.,. T8.-/ 5+**,0 +->./0 )4, <*4),( )/. (* 6*=-3 68)6 )(
+-66+. )( 2$ :-++-</):( C1 *243.D 3)4 5. 7)6)+. T8.(. 7-(8 >)/1 -4 3*+*/ )4,
(-G.0 </*9-4< 2; 6* 7% 3.46-:.6./( C29 -438.(D -4 +.4<68.
11B$. T8. 6/-<<./7-(8 C*alistidae (;.3-.(D *332/ -4 </.)6 >)/-.610 :*(6+1 -4
6/*;-3)+ (.)(. T8.1 )/. ,..; 5*,-., )4, 3*:;/.((.,0 /.(.:5+-4< ) (.)<*-4<
;)43)A. 2; 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D -4 +.4<680 9-68 +)/<. )4, (8)/;
,*/()+ (;-4.(. A>*-, 68.: )++0 )( :)41 8)>. ;*-(*4*2( 7+.(8.
11B9. A+68*2<8 :*(6 ;.*;+. )>*-, 68.: 5.3)2(. *7 68.-/ 7./*3-610 68.1
*33)(-*4)++1 .)6 5)//)32,) CSphyraena %arrac&daD. T8.(. ;/.,)6*/( *7
:*(6+1 6/*;-3)+ (.)( 3)4 /.)38 )+:*(6 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D -4 +.4<68 )4, 8)>.
)66)3A., 82:)4( 9-68*26 ;/*>*3)6-*4. T8.1 *33)(-*4)++1 3)//1 68. ;*-(*4
3-<2)6./) -4 68.-/ 7+.(80 :)A-4< 68.: ,.),+1 -7 3*4(2:.,.
OTHER DANGEROUS SEA CREATURES
11B4". T8. 5+2.B/-4<., *36*;2(0 F.++17-(80 )4, 68. 3*4. )4, )2<./ (8.++( )/.
*68./ ,)4<./*2( (.) 3/.)62/.(. T8./.7*/.0 1*2 (8*2+, )+9)1( 5. )+./6 )4,
:*>. 3)/.72++1 -4 )41 5*,1 *7 9)6./.
134
11B41. M*(6 *36*;- )/. .=3.++.46 98.4 ;/*;./+1 ;/.;)/.,. H*9.>./0 68. 5+2.B
/-4<., *36*;2( C,apalochlaena l&n&lataD 3)4 -47+-36 ) ,.),+1 5-6. 7/*: -6(
;)//*6 +-A. 5.)A. F*/624)6.+10 -6 -( /.(6/-36., 6* 68. G/.)6 B)//-./ R..7 *7
A2(6/)+-) )4, -( >./1 (:)++. I6 -( .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G., 51 -6( </)1-(8 98-6. *>./)++
3*+*/ )4, -//-,.(3.46 5+2. /-4<(. A268*/-6-.( 9)/4 68)6 )++ 6/*;-3)+ *36*;2(
(;.3-.( (8*2+, 5. 6/.)6., 9-68 3)26-*4 5.3)2(. *7 68.-/ ;*-(*4*2( 5-6.(0
)+68*2<8 68.-/ 7+.(8 -( .,-5+..
11B42. D.)68( /.+)6., 6* F.++17-(8 )/. /)/.0 526 68. (6-4< 68.1 -47+-36 -(
.=6/.:.+1 ;)-472+. T8. P*/62<2.(. :)4B*7B9)/ /.(.:5+.( ) +)/<. ;-4A */
;2/;+. 5)++**4 7+*)6-4< *4 68. (.). I6 8)( ;*-(*4*2( 6.46)3+.( 8)4<-4< 2; 6*
12 :.6./( C4" 7..6D 5.+*9 -6( 5*,1. T8. 82<. 6.46)3+.( )/. )362)++1 3*+*4-.(
*7 (6-4<-4< 3.++(. M*(6 A4*94 ,.)68( 7/*: F.++17-(8 )/. )66/-526., 6* 68. :)4B
*7B9)/. O68./ F.++17-(8 3)4 -47+-36 >./1 ;)-472+ (6-4<( )( 9.++. A>*-, 68. +*4<
6.46)3+.( *7 )41 F.++17-(80 .>.4 68*(. 9)(8., 2; *4 68. 5.)38 )4, );;)/.46+1
,.),.
11B4. T8. (256/*;-3)+ )4, 6/*;-3)+ 3*4. (8.++( CConidae (;.3-.(D 8)>. )
>.4*:*2( 8)/;**4 +-A. 5)/5. A++ 8)>. ) 7-4. 4.6+-A. ;)66./4 *4 68. (8.++. A
:.:5/)4. :)1 ;*((-5+1 *5(32/. 68-( 3*+*/)6-*4. T8./. )/. (*:. >./1
;*-(*4*2( 3*4. (8.++(0 .>.4 (*:. +.68)+ *4.( -4 68. I4,-)4 )4, P)3-7-3
*3.)4(. A>*-, )41 (8.++ (8);., +-A. )4 -3. 3/.): 3*4..
11B44. T8. )2<./ (8.++ */ 6./.5/) C$ere%ridae (;.3-.(D )/. :238 +*4<./ )4,
68-44./ 68)4 68. 3*4. (8.++(0 526 3)4 5. 4.)/+1 )( ,.),+1. T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4
6.:;./)6. )4, 6/*;-3)+ (.)(. T8*(. -4 68. I4,-)4 )4, P)3-7-3 *3.)4( 8)>. )
:*/. 6*=-3 >.4*: -4 68.-/ (6-4<-4< 5)/5. D* 4*6 .)6 68.(. (4)-+(0 )( 68.-/ 7+.(8
:)1 5. ;*-(*4*2(.
CHAPTER 12.
F4+<2CEF7+24+/0 $+-71/:& T11<:& -/2
E=347>+/0.
A( ) (*+,-./0 1*2 A4*9 68. -:;*/6)43. *7 ;/*;./ 3)/. )4, 2(. *7 1*2/
9.);*4(0 6**+(0 )4, .?2-;:.46. T8-( -( .(;.3-)++1 6/2. *7 1*2/ A4-7.. Y*2
:2(6 )+9)1( A..; -6 (8)/; )4, /.),1 6* 2(.. A A4-7. -( 1*2/ :*(6 >)+2)5+.
6**+ -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. I:)<-4. 5.-4< -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 9-68*26 )41
9.);*4(0 6**+(0 */ .?2-;:.46 .=3.;6 1*2/ A4-7.. I6 3*2+, 8);;.4N Y*2 :-<86
.>.4 5. 9-68*26 ) A4-7.. Y*2 9*2+, ;/*5)5+1 7..+ 8.+;+.((0 526 9-68 68. ;/*;./
A4*9+.,<. )4, (A-++(0 1*2 3)4 .)(-+1 -:;/*>-(. 4..,., -6.:(.
I4 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4(0 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* 7)(8-*4 )41 42:5./ )4, 61;. *7 7-.+,B
.=;.,-.46 6**+( )4, .?2-;:.46 6* (2/>->.. T8. 4.., 7*/ )4 -6.: :2(6
*269.-<8 68. 9*/A -4>*+>., -4 :)A-4< -6. Y*2 (8*2+, )(A0 JI( -6 4.3.(()/1 */
F2(6 4-3. 6* 8)>.LK R.:.:5./ 68)6 24,2. 8)(6. :)A.( 9)(6.. E=):;+.( *7
135
6**+( )4, .?2-;:.46 68)6 3*2+, :)A. 1*2/ +-7. :238 .)(-./ )/. /*;.(
CA;;.4,-= GD0 /23A()3A(0 3+*68.(0 )4, 4.6(.
!.);*4( (./>. ) ,2)+ ;2/;*(.. Y*2 2(. 68.: 6* *56)-4 )4, ;/.;)/. 7**,
)4, 6* ;/*>-,. (.+7B,.7.4(.. A 9.);*4 3)4 )+(* <->. 1*2 ) 7..+-4< *7 (.32/-61
)4, ;/*>-,. 1*2 9-68 68. )5-+-61 6* 8246 *4 68. :*>..
STAFFS
12B1. A (6)77 (8*2+, 5. *4. *7 68. 7-/(6 6**+( 1*2 *56)-4. F*/ 9)+A-4<0 -6
;/*>-,.( (2;;*/6 )4, 8.+;( -4 )(3.4,-4< )4, ,.(3.4,-4< (6..; (+*;.(. I6
;/*>-,.( (*:. 9.);*4H( 3);)5-+-6-.( -7 2(., ;/*;./+10 .(;.3-)++1 )<)-4(6
(4)A.( )4, ,*<(. I6 (8*2+, 5. );;/*=-:)6.+1 68. ():. 8.-<86 )( 1*2 */ )6
+.)(6 .1.5/*9 8.-<86. T8. (6)77 (8*2+, 5. 4* +)/<./ 68)4 1*2 3)4 .77.36->.+1
9-.+, 98.4 6-/., )4, 24,./4*2/-(8.,. I6 ;/*>-,.( -4>)+2)5+. .1. ;/*6.36-*4
98.4 1*2 )/. :*>-4< 68/*2<8 8.)>1 5/2(8 )4, 68*/4( -4 ,)/A4.((.
CLUBS
12B2. Y*2 8*+, 3+25(M 1*2 ,* 4*6 68/*9 68.:. H*9.>./0 68. 3+25 3)4 .=6.4,
1*2/ )/.) *7 ,.7.4(. 5.1*4, 1*2/ 7-4<./6-;(. I6 )+(* (./>.( 6* -43/.)(. 68.
7*/3. *7 ) 5+*9 9-68*26 -4F2/-4< 1*2/(.+7. T8. 68/.. 5)(-3 61;.( *7 3+25( )/.
.=;+)-4., 5.+*9.
SIMPLE CLUB
12B. A (-:;+. 3+25 -( ) (6)77 */ 5/)438. I6 :2(6 5. (8*/6 .4*2<8 7*/ 1*2 6*
(9-4< .)(-+10 526 +*4< .4*2<8 )4, (6/*4< .4*2<8 7*/ 1*2 6* ,):)<. 98)6.>./
1*2 8-6. I6( ,-):.6./ (8*2+, 7-6 3*:7*/6)5+1 -4 1*2/ ;)+:0 526 -6 (8*2+, 4*6 5.
(* 68-4 )( 6* )++*9 68. 3+25 6* 5/.)A .)(-+1 2;*4 -:;)36. A (6/)-<86B</)-4.,
8)/,9**, -( 5.(6 -7 1*2 3)4 7-4, -6.
$EIGHTED CLUB
12B4. A 9.-<86., 3+25 -( )41 (-:;+. 3+25 9-68 ) 9.-<86 *4 *4. .4,. T8.
9.-<86 :)1 5. ) 4)62/)+ 9.-<860 (238 )( ) A4*6 *4 68. 9**,0 */ (*:.68-4<
),,.,0 (238 )( ) (6*4. +)(8., 6* 68. 3+25.
12B%. T* :)A. ) 9.-<86., 3+250 7-/(6 7-4, ) (6*4. 68)6 8)( ) (8);. 68)6 9-++
)++*9 1*2 6* +)(8 -6 (.32/.+1 6* 68. 3+25. A (6*4. 9-68 ) (+-<86 8*2/<+)(( (8);.
9*/A( 9.++. I7 1*2 3)44*6 7-4, ) (2-6)5+1 (8);., (6*4.0 68.4 7)(8-*4 ) </**>.
*/ 38)44.+ -46* 68. (6*4. 51 J;.3A-4<0K /.;.)6.,+1 /);;-4< 68. 3+25 (6*4. 9-68
) (:)++./ 8)/, (6*4..
12B6. N.=60 7-4, ) ;-.3. *7 9**, 68)6 -( 68. /-<86 +.4<68 7*/ 1*2. A (6/)-<86B
</)-4., 8)/,9**, -( 5.(6. T8. +.4<68 *7 68. 9**, (8*2+, 7..+ 3*:7*/6)5+. -4
/.+)6-*4 6* 68. 9.-<86 *7 68. (6*4.. F-4)++10 +)(8 68. (6*4. 6* 68. 8)4,+. 2(-4<
) 6.384-?2. (8*94 -4 F-<2/. 12B1. T8. 6.384-?2. 1*2 2(. 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 68.
61;. *7 8)4,+. 1*2 38**(..
136
F493*+ 12C1. L-:84/9 C<3@:
SLING CLUB
12B7. A (+-4< 3+25 -( )4*68./ 61;. *7 9.-<86., 3+25. A 9.-<86 8)4<( $ 6* 1"
3.46-:.6./( C 6* 4 -438.(D 7/*: 68. 8)4,+. 51 ) (6/*4<0 7+.=-5+. +)(8-4<
CF-<2/. 12B2D. T8-( 61;. *7 3+25 5*68 .=6.4,( 68. 2(./H( /.)38 )4, :2+6-;+-.(
68. 7*/3. *7 68. 5+*9.
F493*+ 12C2. S<4/9 C<3@
137
EDGED $EAPONS
12B$. K4->.(0 (;.)/ 5+),.(0 )4, )//*9 ;*-46( 7)++ 24,./ 68. 3)6.<*/1 *7 .,<.,
9.);*4(. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( .=;+)-4 8*9 6* :)A. (238 9.);*4(.
KNIVES
12B9. A A4-7. 8)( 68/.. 5)(-3 72436-*4(. I6 3)4 ;24362/.0 (+)(8 */ 38*;0 )4,
326. A A4-7. -( )+(* )4 -4>)+2)5+. 6**+ 2(., 6* 3*4(6/236 *68./ (2/>->)+ -6.:(.
Y*2 :)1 7-4, 1*2/(.+7 9-68*26 ) A4-7. */ 1*2 :)1 4.., )4*68./ 61;. A4-7. */ )
(;.)/. T* -:;/*>-(. 1*2 3)4 2(. (6*4.0 5*4.0 9**,0 */ :.6)+ 6* :)A. ) A4-7.
*/ (;.)/ 5+),..
S01/+
12B1". T* :)A. ) (6*4. A4-7.0 1*2 9-++ 4.., ) (8)/;B.,<., ;-.3. *7 (6*4.0 )
38-;;-4< 6**+0 )4, ) 7+)A-4< 6**+. A 38-;;-4< 6**+ -( ) +-<860 5+246B.,<., 6**+
2(., 6* 5/.)A *77 (:)++ ;-.3.( *7 (6*4.. A 7+)A-4< 6**+ -( ) ;*-46., 6**+ 2(., 6*
5/.)A *77 68-40 7+)66.4., ;-.3.( *7 (6*4.. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) 38-;;-4< 6**+ 7/*:
9**,0 5*4.0 */ :.6)+0 )4, ) 7+)A-4< 6**+ 7/*: 5*4.0 )46+./ 6-4.(0 */ (*76 -/*4
CF-<2/. 12BD.
F493*+ 12C3. M-?4/9 - S01/+ K/4,+
138
12B11. S6)/6 :)A-4< 68. A4-7. 51 /*2<8-4< *26 68. ,.(-/., (8);. *4 1*2/
(8)/; ;-.3. *7 (6*4.0 2(-4< 68. 38-;;-4< 6**+. T/1 6* :)A. 68. A4-7. 7)-/+1 68-4.
T8.40 ;/.(( 68. 7+)A-4< 6**+ )<)-4(6 68. .,<.(. T8-( )36-*4 9-++ 3)2(. 7+)A.( 6*
3*:. *77 68. *;;*(-6. (-,. *7 68. .,<.0 +.)>-4< ) /)G*/B(8)/; .,<.. U(. 68.
7+)A-4< 6**+ )+*4< 68. .46-/. +.4<68 *7 68. .,<. 1*2 4.., 6* (8)/;.4.
E>.462)++10 1*2 9-++ 8)>. ) >./10 (8)/; 3266-4< .,<. 68)6 1*2 3)4 2(. )( )
A4-7..
12B12. L)(8 68. 5+),. 6* (*:. 61;. *7 8-+6 CF-<2/. 12BD.
NOTE: S6*4. 9-++ :)A. )4 .=3.++.46 ;24362/-4< 6**+ )4, ) <**, 38*;;-4< 6**+
526 9-++ 4*6 8*+, ) 7-4. .,<.. S*:. (6*4.( (238 )( 38./6 */ 7+-46 3)4 8)>. >./1
7-4. .,<.(.
B1/+
12B1. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 5*4. )( )4 .77.36->. 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 .,<., 9.);*4.
F-/(60 1*2 9-++ 4.., 6* (.+.36 ) (2-6)5+. 5*4.. T8. +)/<./ 5*4.(0 (238 )( 68.
+.< 5*4. *7 ) ,../ */ )4*68./ :.,-2:B(-G., )4-:)+0 )/. 5.(6. L)1 68. 5*4.
2;*4 )4*68./ 8)/, *5F.36. S8)66./ 68. 5*4. 51 8-66-4< -6 9-68 ) 8.)>1 *5F.360
(238 )( ) /*3A. F/*: 68. ;-.3.(0 (.+.36 ) (2-6)5+. ;*-46., (;+-46./. Y*2 3)4
72/68./ (8);. )4, (8)/;.4 68-( (;+-46./ 51 /255-4< -6 *4 ) /*2<8B(2/7)3., /*3A.
I7 68. ;-.3. -( 6** (:)++ 6* 8)4,+.0 1*2 3)4 (6-++ 2(. -6 51 ),,-4< ) 8)4,+. 6* -6.
S.+.36 ) (2-6)5+. ;-.3. *7 8)/,9**, 7*/ ) 8)4,+. )4, +)(8 68. 5*4. (;+-46./
(.32/.+1 6* -6.
NOTE: U(. 68. 5*4. A4-7. *4+1 6* ;24362/.. I6 9-++ 4*6 8*+, )4 .,<. )4, -6
:)1 7+)A. */ 5/.)A -7 2(., ,-77./.46+1.
$112
12B14. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 .,<., 9.);*4( 7/*: 9**,. U(. 68.(.
*4+1 6* ;24362/.. B):5** -( 68. *4+1 9**, 68)6 9-++ 8*+, ) (2-6)5+. .,<.. T*
:)A. ) A4-7. 7/*: 9**,0 7-/(6 (.+.36 ) (6/)-<86B</)-4., ;-.3. *7 8)/,9**, 68)6
-( )5*26 " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D +*4< )4, 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D -4
,-):.6./. F)(8-*4 68. 5+),. )5*26 1% 3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D +*4<. S8)>. -6
,*94 6* ) ;*-46. U(. *4+1 68. (6/)-<86 </)-4., ;*/6-*4( *7 68. 9**,. D* 4*6
2(. 68. 3*/. */ ;-680 )( -6 9*2+, :)A. ) 9.)A ;*-46.
12B1%. H)/,.4 68. ;*-46 51 ) ;/*3.(( A4*94 )( 7-/. 8)/,.4-4<. I7 ) 7-/. -(
;*((-5+.0 ,/1 68. 5+),. ;*/6-*4 *>./ 68. 7-/. (+*9+1 246-+ +-<86+1 38)//.,. T8.
,/-./ 68. 9**,0 68. 8)/,./ 68. ;*-46. A76./ +-<86+1 38)//-4< 68. 5+),. ;*/6-*40
(8)/;.4 -6 *4 ) 3*)/(. (6*4.. I7 2(-4< 5):5** )4, )76./ 7)(8-*4-4< 68. 5+),.0
/.:*>. )41 *68./ 9**, 6* :)A. 68. 5+),. 68-44./ 7/*: 68. -4(-,. ;*/6-*4 *7
68. 5):5**. R.:*>)+ -( ,*4. 68-( 9)1 5.3)2(. 5):5**H( 8)/,.(6 ;)/6 -( -6(
*26./ +)1./. K..; )( :238 *7 68-( +)1./ )( ;*((-5+. 6* .4(2/. 68. 8)/,.(6
5+),. ;*((-5+.. !8.4 38)//-4< 5):5** *>./ ) 7-/.0 38)/ *4+1 68. -4(-,. 9**,M
,* 4*6 38)/ 68. *26(-,..
M+0-<
139
12B16. M.6)+ -( 68. 5.(6 :)6./-)+ 6* :)A. 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 .,<., 9.);*4(.
M.6)+0 98.4 ;/*;./+1 ,.(-<4.,0 3)4 72+7-++ ) A4-7.H( 68/.. 2(.(@;24362/.0 (+-3.
*/ 38*;0 )4, 326. F-/(60 (.+.36 ) (2-6)5+. ;-.3. *7 :.6)+0 *4. 68)6 :*(6
/.(.:5+.( 68. ,.(-/., .4, ;/*,236. D.;.4,-4< *4 68. (-G. )4, */-<-4)+
(8);.0 1*2 3)4 *56)-4 ) ;*-46 )4, 3266-4< .,<. 51 /255-4< 68. :.6)+ *4 )
/*2<8B(2/7)3., (6*4.. I7 68. :.6)+ -( (*76 .4*2<80 1*2 3)4 8)::./ *26 *4.
.,<. 98-+. 68. :.6)+ -( 3*+,. U(. ) (2-6)5+. 7+)60 8)/, (2/7)3. )( )4 )4>-+ )4,
) (:)++./0 8)/,./ *5F.36 *7 (6*4. */ :.6)+ )( ) 8)::./ 6* 8)::./ *26 68.
.,<.. M)A. ) A4-7. 8)4,+. 7/*: 9**,0 5*4.0 */ *68./ :)6./-)+ 68)6 9-++ ;/*6.36
1*2/ 8)4,.
O08+* M-0+*4-<:
12B17. Y*2 3)4 2(. *68./ :)6./-)+( 6* ;/*,23. .,<., 9.);*4(. G+)(( -( )
<**, )+6./4)6->. 6* )4 .,<., 9.);*4 */ 6**+0 -7 4* *68./ :)6./-)+ -( )>)-+)5+..
O56)-4 ) (2-6)5+. ;-.3. -4 68. ():. :)44./ )( ,.(3/-5., 7*/ 5*4.. G+)(( 8)(
) 4)62/)+ .,<. 526 -( +.(( ,2/)5+. 7*/ 8.)>1 9*/A. Y*2 3)4 )+(* (8)/;.4
;+)(6-3@-7 -6 -( 68-3A .4*2<8 */ 8)/, .4*2<8@-46* ) ,2/)5+. ;*-46 7*/
;24362/-4<.
SPEAR BLADES
12B1$. T* :)A. (;.)/(0 2(. 68. ():. ;/*3.,2/.( 6* :)A. 68. 5+),. 68)6 1*2
2(., 6* :)A. ) A4-7. 5+),.. T8.4 (.+.36 ) (8)76 C) (6/)-<86 ();+-4<D 1.2 6* 1.%
:.6./( C4 6* % 7..6D +*4<. T8. +.4<68 (8*2+, )++*9 1*2 6* 8)4,+. 68. (;.)/
.)(-+1 )4, .77.36->.+1. A66)38 68. (;.)/ 5+),. 6* 68. (8)76 2(-4< +)(8-4<. T8.
;/.7.//., :.68*, -( 6* (;+-6 68. 8)4,+.0 -4(./6 68. 5+),.0 68.4 9/); */ +)(8 -6
6-<86+1. Y*2 3)4 2(. *68./ :)6./-)+( 9-68*26 ),,-4< ) 5+),.. S.+.36 ) 1.2B 6*
1.%B:.6./ C4B 6* %B7**6D +*4< (6/)-<86 8)/,9**, (8)76 )4, (8)>. *4. .4, 6* )
;*-46. I7 ;*((-5+.0 7-/.B8)/,.4 68. ;*-46. B):5** )+(* :)A.( )4 .=3.++.46
(;.)/. S.+.36 ) ;-.3. 1.2 6* 1.% :.6./( C4 6* % 7..6D +*4<. S6)/6-4< $ 6* 1"
3.46-:.6./( C 6* 4 -438.(D 5)3A 7/*: 68. .4, 2(., )( 68. ;*-460 (8)>. ,*94
68. .4, )6 ) 4%B,.</.. )4<+. CF-<2/. 12B4D. R.:.:5./0 6* (8)/;.4 68.
.,<.(0 (8)>. *4+1 68. -44./ ;*/6-*4.
F493*+ 12C!. B->@11 S7+-*
ARRO$ POINTS
12B19. T* :)A. )4 )//*9 ;*-460 2(. 68. ():. ;/*3.,2/.( 7*/ :)A-4< ) (6*4.
A4-7. 5+),.. C8./60 7+-460 )4, (8.++B61;. (6*4.( )/. 5.(6 7*/ )//*9 ;*-46(. Y*2
140
3)4 7)(8-*4 5*4. +-A. (6*4.@51 7+)A-4<. Y*2 3)4 :)A. )4 .77-3-.46 )//*9
;*-46 2(-4< 5/*A.4 <+)((.
OTHER EXPEDIENT $EAPONS
12B2". Y*2 3)4 :)A. *68./ 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 9.);*4( (238 )( 68. 68/*9-4<
(6-3A0 )/38./1 .?2-;:.460 )4, 68. 5*+). T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( .=;+)-4 8*9
6* :)A. 68.(..
THRO$ING STICK
12B21. T8. 68/*9-4< (6-3A0 3*::*4+1 A4*94 )( 68. /)55-6 (6-3A0 -( >./1
.77.36->. )<)-4(6 (:)++ <):. C(?2-//.+(0 38-;:24A(0 )4, /)55-6(D. T8. /)55-6
(6-3A -6(.+7 -( ) 5+246 (6-3A0 4)62/)++1 32/>., )6 )5*26 ) 4%B ,.</.. )4<+..
S.+.36 ) (6-3A 9-68 68. ,.(-/., )4<+. 7/*: 8.)>1 8)/,9**, (238 )( *)A.
S8)>. *77 69* *;;*(-6. (-,.( (* 68)6 68. (6-3A -( 7+)6 +-A. ) 5**:./)4< CF-<2/.
12B%D. Y*2 :2(6 ;/)36-3. 68. 68/*9-4< 6.384-?2. 7*/ )332/)31 )4, (;..,.
F-/(60 )+-<4 68. 6)/<.6 51 .=6.4,-4< 68. 4*4 68/*9-4< )/: -4 +-4. 9-68 68. :-,B
6* +*9./B(.36-*4 *7 68. 6)/<.6. S+*9+1 )4, /.;.)6.,+1 /)-(. 68. 68/*9-4< )/:
2; )4, 5)3A 246-+ 68. 68/*9-4< (6-3A 3/*((.( 68. 5)3A )6 )5*26 ) 4%B,.</..
)4<+. */ -( -4 +-4. 9-68 68. 4*4 68/*9-4< 8-;. B/-4< 68. 68/*9-4< )/: 7*/9)/,
246-+ -6 -( F2(6 (+-<86+1 )5*>. )4, ;)/)++.+ 6* 68. 4*4 68/*9-4< )/:. T8-( 9-++ 5.
68. 68/*9-4< (6-3AH( /.+.)(. ;*-46. P/)36-3. (+*9+1 )4, /.;.)6.,+1 6* )66)-4
)332/)31.
F493*+ 12C". R-@@40 S04.?
ARCHERY E'UIPMENT
12B22. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) 5*9 )4, )//*9 CF-<2/. 12B6D 7/*: :)6./-)+( )>)-+)5+.
-4 1*2/ (2/>->)+ )/.). T* :)A. ) 5*90 2(. 68. ;/*3.,2/. ,.(3/-5., -4
;)/)</);8( $B% 68/*2<8 $B%6 -4 C8);6./ $.
141
F493*+ 12C6. A*.8+*; E=347>+/0
12B2. !8-+. -6 :)1 5. /.+)6->.+1 (-:;+. 6* :)A. ) 5*9 )4, )//*90 -6 -( 4*6
.)(1 6* 2(. *4.. Y*2 :2(6 ;/)36-3. 2(-4< -6 ) +*4< 6-:. 6* 5. /.)(*4)5+1 (2/.
68)6 1*2 9-++ 8-6 1*2/ 6)/<.6. A+(*0 ) 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 5*9 9-++ 4*6 +)(6 >./1 +*4<
5.7*/. 1*2 8)>. 6* :)A. ) 4.9 *4.. F*/ 68. 6-:. )4, .77*/6 -4>*+>.,0 1*2
:)1 9.++ ,.3-,. 6* 2(. )4*68./ 61;. *7 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 9.);*4.
BOLA
12B24. T8. 5*+) -( )4*68./ 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 9.);*4 68)6 -( .)(1 6* :)A.
CF-<2/. 12B7D. I6 -( .(;.3-)++1 .77.36->. 7*/ 3);62/-4< /244-4< <):. */ +*9B
7+1-4< 7*9+ -4 ) 7+*3A. T* 2(. 68. 5*+)0 8*+, -6 51 68. 3.46./ A4*6 )4, 69-/+ -6
)5*>. 1*2/ 8.),. R.+.)(. 68. A4*6 (* 68)6 68. 5*+) 7+-.( 6*9)/, 1*2/ 6)/<.6.
!8.4 1*2 /.+.)(. 68. 5*+)0 68. 9.-<86., 3*/,( 9-++ (.;)/)6.. T8.(. 3*/,(
9-++ 9/); )/*24, )4, -::*5-+-G. 68. 7*9+ */ )4-:)+ 68)6 1*2 8-6.
F493*+ 12C#. B1<-
CORDAGE AND LASHING
12B2%. M)41 :)6./-)+( )/. (6/*4< .4*2<8 7*/ 2(. )( 3*/,)<. )4, +)(8-4<. A
42:5./ *7 4)62/)+ )4, :)4:),. :)6./-)+( )/. )>)-+)5+. -4 ) (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*4. F*/ .=):;+.0 1*2 3)4 :)A. ) 3*66*4 9.5 5.+6 :238 :*/. 2(.72+ 51
142
24/)>.+-4< -6. Y*2 3)4 68.4 2(. 68. (6/-4< 7*/ *68./ ;2/;*(.( C7-(8-4< +-4.0
68/.), 7*/ (.9-4<0 )4, +)(8-4<D.
NATURAL CORDAGE SELECTION
12B26. B.7*/. :)A-4< 3*/,)<.0 68./. )/. ) 7.9 (-:;+. 6.(6( 1*2 3)4 ,* 6*
,.6./:-4. 1*2 :)6./-)+H( (2-6)5-+-61. F-/(60 ;2++ *4 ) +.4<68 *7 68. :)6./-)+ 6*
6.(6 7*/ (6/.4<68. N.=60 69-(6 -6 5.69..4 1*2/ 7-4<./( )4, /*++ 68. 7-5./(
6*<.68./. I7 -6 9-68(6)4,( 68-( 8)4,+-4< )4, ,*.( 4*6 (4); );)/60 6-. )4
*>./8)4, A4*6 9-68 68. 7-5./( )4, <.46+1 6-<86.4. I7 68. A4*6 ,*.( 4*6 5/.)A0
68. :)6./-)+ -( 2()5+.. F-<2/. 12B$ (8*9( >)/-*2( :.68*,( *7 :)A-4<
3*/,)<..
F493*+ 12C. M-?4/9 L4/+: F*1> P<-/0 F4@+*:
LASHING MATERIAL
12B27. T8. 5.(6 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+ 7*/ +)(8-4< (:)++ *5F.36( -( (-4.9. Y*2 3)4
:)A. (-4.9 7/*: 68. 6.4,*4( *7 +)/<. <):.0 (238 )( ,../. R.:*>. 68.
6.4,*4( 7/*: 68. <):. )4, ,/1 68.: 3*:;+.6.+1. S:)(8 68. ,/-., 6.4,*4(
(* 68)6 68.1 (.;)/)6. -46* 7-5./(. M*-(6.4 68. 7-5./( )4, 69-(6 68.: -46* )
3*46-42*2( (6/)4,. I7 1*2 4.., (6/*4<./ +)(8-4< :)6./-)+0 1*2 3)4 5/)-, 68.
(6/)4,(. !8.4 1*2 2(. (-4.9 7*/ (:)++ +)(8-4<(0 1*2 ,* 4*6 4.., A4*6( )(
68. :*-(6.4., (-4.9 -( (6-3A1 )4, -6 8)/,.4( 98.4 ,/1.
12B2$. Y*2 3)4 (8/., )4, 5/)-, ;+)46 7-5./( 7/*: 68. -44./ 5)/A *7 (*:. 6/..(
6* :)A. 3*/,. Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. +-4,.40 .+:0 8-3A*/10 98-6. *)A0 :2+5.//10
38.(64260 )4, /., )4, 98-6. 3.,)/ 6/..(. A76./ 1*2 :)A. 68. 3*/,0 6.(6 -6 6* 5.
(2/. -6 -( (6/*4< .4*2<8 7*/ 1*2/ ;2/;*(.. Y*2 3)4 :)A. 68.(. :)6./-)+(
(6/*4<./ 51 5/)-,-4< (.>./)+ (6/)4,( 6*<.68./.
12B29. Y*2 3)4 2(. /)98-,. 7*/ +)/<./ +)(8-4< F*5(. M)A. /)98-,. 7/*: 68.
(A-4( *7 :.,-2: */ +)/<. <):.. A76./ (A-44-4< 68. )4-:)+0 /.:*>. )41
.=3.(( 7)6 )4, )41 ;-.3.( *7 :.)6 7/*: 68. (A-4. D/1 68. (A-4 3*:;+.6.+1.
Y*2 ,* 4*6 4.., 6* (6/.638 -6 )( +*4< )( 68./. )/. 4* 7*+,( 6* 6/); :*-(62/..
Y*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. 6* /.:*>. 68. 8)-/ 7/*: 68. (A-4. C26 68. (A-4 98-+. -6 -( ,/1.
M)A. 326( )5*26 6 :-++-:.6./( C1R4 -438D 9-,.. S6)/6 7/*: 68. 3.46./ *7 68.
8-,. )4, :)A. *4. 3*46-42*2( 3-/32+)/ 3260 9*/A-4< 3+*3A9-(. 6* 68. 8-,.H(
*26./ .,<.. S*)A 68. /)98-,. 7*/ 2 6* 4 8*2/( */ 246-+ -6 -( (*76. U(. -6 9.60
143
(6/.638-4< -6 )( :238 )( ;*((-5+. 98-+. );;+1-4< -6. I6 9-++ 5. (6/*4< )4,
,2/)5+. 98.4 -6 ,/-.(.
RUCKSACK CONSTRUCTION
12B". T8. :)6./-)+( 7*/ 3*4(6/236-4< ) /23A()3A */ ;)3A )/. )+:*(6 +-:-6+.((.
Y*2 3)4 2(. 9**,0 5):5**0 /*;.0 ;+)46 7-5./0 3+*68-4<0 )4-:)+ (A-4(0 3)4>)(0
)4, :)41 *68./ :)6./-)+( 6* :)A. ) ;)3A.
12B1. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 3*4(6/236-*4 6.384-?2.( 7*/ /23A()3A(. M)41 )/.
>./1 .+)5*/)6.0 526 68*(. 68)6 )/. (-:;+. )4, .)(1 )/. *76.4 68. :*(6 /.),-+1
:),. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
HORSESHOE PACK
12B2. T8-( ;)3A -( (-:;+. 6* :)A. )4, 2(. )4, /.+)6->.+1 3*:7*/6)5+. 6*
3)//1 *>./ *4. (8*2+,./. L)1 )>)-+)5+. (?2)/.B(8);., :)6./-)+0 (238 )(
;*438*0 5+)4A.60 */ 3)4>)(0 7+)6 *4 68. </*24,. L)1 -6.:( *4 *4. .,<. *7 68.
:)6./-)+. P), 68. 8)/, -6.:(. R*++ 68. :)6./-)+ C9-68 68. -6.:(D 6*9)/, 68.
*;;*(-6. .,<. )4, 6-. 5*68 .4,( (.32/.+1. A,, .=6/) 6-.( )+*4< 68. +.4<68 *7
68. 524,+.. Y*2 3)4 ,/);. 68. ;)3A *>./ *4. (8*2+,./ 9-68 ) +-4. 3*44.36-4<
68. 69* .4,( CF-<2/. 12B9D.
F493*+ 12C%. H1*:+:81+ P-.?
S'UARE PACK
12B. T8-( ;)3A -( .)(1 6* 3*4(6/236 -7 /*;. */ 3*/,)<. -( )>)-+)5+..
O68./9-(.0 1*2 :2(6 7-/(6 :)A. 3*/,)<.. T* :)A. 68-( ;)3A0 3*4(6/236 )
(?2)/. 7/):. 7/*: 5):5**0 +-:5(0 */ (6-3A(. S-G. 9-++ >)/1 7*/ .)38 ;./(*4
)4, 68. ):*246 *7 .?2-;:.46 3)//-., CF-<2/. 12B1"D.
144
F493*+ 12C10. S=3-*+ P-.?
CLOTHING AND INSULATION
12B4. Y*2 3)4 2(. :)41 :)6./-)+( 7*/ 3+*68-4< )4, -4(2+)6-*4. B*68 :)4B
:),. :)6./-)+(0 (238 )( ;)/)3826.(0 )4, 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+(0 (238 )( (A-4( )4,
;+)46 :)6./-)+(0 )/. )>)-+)5+. )4, *77./ (-<4-7-3)46 ;/*6.36-*4.
PARACHUTE ASSEMBLY
12B%. C*4(-,./ 68. .46-/. ;)/)3826. )((.:5+1 )( ) /.(*2/3.. U(. .>./1
;-.3. *7 :)6./-)+ )4, 8)/,9)/.0 6* -43+2,. 68. 3)4*;10 (2(;.4(-*4 +-4.(0
3*44.36*/ (4);(0 )4, ;)/)3826. 8)/4.((. B.7*/. ,-()((.:5+-4< 68.
;)/)3826.0 3*4(-,./ )++ *7 1*2/ (2/>->)+ /.?2-/.:.46( )4, ;+)4 6* 2(. ,-77./.46
;*/6-*4( *7 68. ;)/)3826. )33*/,-4<+1. F*/ .=):;+.0 3*4(-,./ (8.+6./
/.?2-/.:.46(0 4.., 7*/ ) /23A()3A0 )4, )41 ),,-6-*4)+ 3+*68-4< */ -4(2+)6-*4
4..,(.
ANIMAL SKINS
12B6. T8. (.+.36-*4 *7 )4-:)+ (A-4( -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 9-++ :*(6 *76.4 5.
+-:-6., 6* 98)6 1*2 :)4)<. 6* 6/); */ 8246. H*9.>./0 -7 68./. -( )4
)524,)43. *7 9-+,+-7.0 (.+.36 68. 8-,.( *7 +)/<./ )4-:)+( 9-68 8.)>-./ 3*)6(
)4, +)/<. 7)6 3*46.46. D* 4*6 2(. 68. (A-4( *7 -47.36., */ ,-(.)(., )4-:)+( -7
;*((-5+.. S-43. 68.1 +->. -4 68. 9-+,0 )4-:)+( )/. 3)//-./( *7 ;.(6( (238 )(
6-3A(0 +-3.0 )4, 7+.)(. B.3)2(. *7 68.(. ;.(6(0 2(. 9)6./ 6* 68*/*2<8+1 3+.)4
)41 (A-4 *56)-4., 7/*: )41 )4-:)+. I7 9)6./ -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 )6 +.)(6 (8)A. *26
68. (A-4 68*/*2<8+1. A( 9-68 /)98-,.0 +)1 *26 68. (A-4 )4, /.:*>. )++ 7)6 )4,
:.)6. D/1 68. (A-4 3*:;+.6.+1. U(. 68. 8-4,?2)/6./ F*-46 )/.)( 6* :)A.
(8*.(0 :-66.4(0 */ (*3A(. !.)/ 68. 8-,. 9-68 68. 72/ 6* 68. -4(-,. 7*/ -6(
-4(2+)6-4< 7)36*/.
145
PLANT FIBERS
12B7. S.>./)+ ;+)46( )/. (*2/3.( *7 -4(2+)6-*4 7/*: 3*+,. C)66)-+ -( )
:)/(8+)4, ;+)46 7*24, )+*4< +)A.(0 ;*4,(0 )4, 68. 5)3A9)6./( *7 /->./(. T8.
72GG *4 68. 6*;( *7 68. (6)+A( 7*/:( ,.), )-/ (;)3.( )4, :)A.( ) <**, ,*94B
+-A. -4(2+)6-*4 98.4 ;+)3., 5.69..4 69* ;-.3.( *7 :)6./-)+. M-+A9.., 8)(
;*++.4 +-A. (..,( 68)6 )36 )( <**, -4(2+)6-*4. T8. 82(A 7-5./( 7/*: 3*3*426(
)/. >./1 <**, 7*/ 9.)>-4< /*;.( )4,0 98.4 ,/-.,0 :)A. .=3.++.46 6-4,./ )4,
-4(2+)6-*4.
COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS
12B$. Y*2 3)4 2(. :)41 :)6./-)+( 6* :)A. .?2-;:.46 7*/ 68. 3**A-4<0
.)6-4<0 )4, (6*/-4< *7 7**,. U(2)++1 )++ :)6./-)+( 3)4 (./>. (*:. 61;. *7
;2/;*(. 98.4 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
B1A<:
12B9. U(. 9**,0 5*4.0 8*/40 5)/A0 */ *68./ (-:-+)/ :)6./-)+ 6* :)A. 5*9+(.
T* :)A. 9**,.4 5*9+(0 2(. ) 8*++*9., *26 ;-.3. *7 9**, 68)6 9-++ 8*+, 1*2/
7**, )4, .4*2<8 9)6./ 6* 3**A -6 -4. H)4< 68. 9**,.4 3*46)-4./ *>./ 68. 7-/.
)4, ),, 8*6 /*3A( 6* 68. 9)6./ )4, 7**,. R.:*>. 68. /*3A( )( 68.1 3**+ )4,
),, :*/. 8*6 /*3A( 246-+ 1*2/ 7**, -( 3**A.,.
CAUTION
D* 4*6 2(. /*3A( 9-68 )-/ ;*3A.6(0 (238 )( +-:.(6*4. )4, ()4,(6*4.. T8.1
:)1 .=;+*,. 98-+. 8.)6-4< -4 68. 7-/..
12B4". Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 68-( :.68*, 9-68 3*46)-4./( :),. *7 5)/A */ +.)>.(.
H*9.>./0 68.(. 3*46)-4./( 9-++ 52/4 )5*>. 68. 9)6./+-4. 24+.(( 1*2 A..;
68.: :*-(6 */ A..; 68. 7-/. +*9.
12B41. A (.36-*4 *7 5):5** )+(* 9*/A( >./1 9.++ 7*/ 3**A-4<. B. (2/. 1*2
326 *26 ) (.36-*4 5.69..4 69* (.)+., F*-46( CF-<2/. 12B11D.
146
F493*+ 12C11. C1/0-4/+*: ,1* B14<4/9 F112
CAUTION C A (.)+., (.36-*4 *7 5):5** 9-++ .=;+*,. -7 8.)6., 5.3)2(. *7
6/);;., )-/ )4, 9)6./ -4 68. (.36-*4.
FORKS& KNIVES& AND SPOONS
12B42. C)/>. 7*/A(0 A4->.(0 )4, (;**4( 7/*: 4*4/.(-4*2( 9**,( (* 68)6 1*2
,* 4*6 <.6 ) 9**, /.(-4 )76./ 6)(6. */ ,* 4*6 6)-46 68. 7**,. N*4/.(-4*2(
9**,( -43+2,. *)A0 5-/380 )4, *68./ 8)/,9**, 6/..(.
NOTE: D* 4*6 2(. 68*(. 6/..( 68)6 (.3/.6. ) (1/2; */ /.(-4 +-A. +-?2-, *4 68.
5)/A */ 98.4 326.
POTS
12B4. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ;*6( 7/*: 62/6+. (8.++( */ 9**,. A( ,.(3/-5., 9-68
5*9+(0 2(-4< 8*6 /*3A( -4 ) 8*++*9., *26 ;-.3. *7 9**, -( >./1 .77.36->..
B):5** -( 68. 5.(6 9**, 7*/ :)A-4< 3**A-4< 3*46)-4./(.
12B44. T* 2(. 62/6+. (8.++(0 7-/(6 68*/*2<8+1 5*-+ 68. 2;;./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. (8.++.
T8.4 2(. -6 6* 8.)6 7**, )4, 9)6./ *>./ ) 7+):. CF-<2/. 12B11D.
$ATER BOTTLES
12B4%. M)A. 9)6./ 5*66+.( 7/*: 68. (6*:)38( *7 +)/<./ )4-:)+(. T8*/*2<8+1
7+2(8 68. (6*:)38 *26 9-68 9)6./0 68.4 6-. *77 68. 5*66*:. L.)>. 68. 6*; *;.40
9-68 (*:. :.)4( *7 7)(6.4-4< -6 3+*(.,.
CHAPTER 13.
D+:+*0 S3*B4B-<.
T* (2/>->. )4, .>),. -4 )/-, */ ,.(./6 )/.)(0 1*2 :2(6 24,./(6)4, )4,
;/.;)/. 7*/ 68. .4>-/*4:.46 1*2 9-++ 7)3.. Y*2 :2(6 ,.6./:-4. 1*2/
.?2-;:.46 4..,(0 68. 6)36-3( 1*2 9-++ 2(.0 )4, 8*9 68. .4>-/*4:.46 9-++ )77.36
1*2 )4, 1*2/ 6)36-3(. Y*2/ (2/>->)+ 9-++ ,.;.4, 2;*4 1*2/ A4*9+.,<. *7 68.
6.//)-40 5)(-3 3+-:)6-3 .+.:.46(0 1*2/ )5-+-61 6* 3*;. 9-68 68.(. .+.:.46(0 )4,
1*2/ 9-++ 6* (2/>->..
TERRAIN
1B1. M*(6 )/-, )/.)( 8)>. (.>./)+ 61;.( *7 6.//)-4. T8. 7->. 5)(-3 ,.(./6
6.//)-4 61;.( )/.@
I M*246)-4*2( C8-<8 )+6-62,.D.
I R*3A1 ;+)6.)2.
147
I S)4, ,24.(.
I S)+6 :)/(8.(.
I B/*A.40 ,-((.36., 6.//)-4 CJ<.5.+K */ J9),-JD.
1B2. D.(./6 6.//)-4 :)A.( :*>.:.46 ,-77-32+6 )4, ,.:)4,-4<. L)4,
4)>-<)6-*4 9-++ 5. .=6/.:.+1 ,-77-32+6 )( 68./. :)1 5. >./1 7.9 +)4,:)/A(.
C*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.46 :)1 5. >./1 +-:-6.,M 68./.7*/.0 68. 68/.)6 *7 .=;*(2/.
6* 68. .4.:1 /.:)-4( 3*4(6)46.
MOUNTAIN DESERTS
1B. S3)66./., /)4<.( */ )/.)( *7 5)//.4 8-++( */ :*246)-4( (.;)/)6., 51
,/10 7+)6 5)(-4( 38)/)36./-G. :*246)-4 ,.(./6(. H-<8 </*24, :)1 /-(.
</),2)++1 */ )5/2;6+1 7/*: 7+)6 )/.)( 6* (.>./)+ 68*2()4, :.6./( )5*>. (.)
+.>.+. M*(6 *7 68. -47/.?2.46 /)-47)++ *332/( *4 8-<8 </*24, )4, /24( *77
/);-,+1 -4 68. 7*/: *7 7+)(8 7+**,(. T8.(. 7+**,9)6./( ./*,. ,..; <2++-.( )4,
/)>-4.( )4, ,.;*(-6 ()4, )4, </)>.+ )/*24, 68. .,<.( *7 68. 5)(-4(. !)6./
/);-,+1 .>);*/)6.(0 +.)>-4< 68. +)4, )( 5)//.4 )( 5.7*/.0 )+68*2<8 68./. :)1
5. (8*/6B+->., >.<.6)6-*4. I7 .4*2<8 9)6./ .46./( 68. 5)(-4 6* 3*:;.4()6. 7*/
68. /)6. *7 .>);*/)6-*40 (8)++*9 +)A.( :)1 ,.>.+*;0 (238 )( 68. G/.)6 S)+6
L)A. -4 U6)8 */ 68. D.), S.). M*(6 *7 68.(. +)A.( 8)>. ) 8-<8 ()+6 3*46.46.
ROCKY PLATEAU DESERTS
1B4. R*3A1 ;+)6.)2 ,.(./6( 8)>. /.+)6->.+1 (+-<86 /.+-.7 -46./(;./(., 9-68
.=6.4(->. 7+)6 )/.)( 9-68 ?2)46-6-.( *7 (*+-, */ 5/*A.4 /*3A )6 */ 4.)/ 68.
(2/7)3.. T8./. :)1 5. (6..;B9)++.,0 ./*,., >)++.1(0 A4*94 )( 9),-( -4 68.
M-,,+. E)(6 )4, )//*1*( */ 3)41*4( -4 68. U4-6., S6)6.( )4, M.=-3*.
A+68*2<8 68.-/ 7+)6 5*66*:( :)1 5. (2;./7-3-)++1 )66/)36->. )( )((.:5+1 )/.)(0
68. 4)//*9./ >)++.1( 3)4 5. .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2( 6* :.4 )4, :)6./-)+ ,2. 6*
7+)(8 7+**,-4< )76./ /)-4(. T8. G*+)4 H.-<86( -( )4 .=):;+. *7 ) /*3A1 ;+)6.)2
,.(./6.
SANDY OR DUNE DESERTS
1B%. S)4,1 */ ,24. ,.(./6( )/. .=6.4(->. 7+)6 )/.)( 3*>./., 9-68 ()4, */
</)>.+. JF+)6K -( ) /.+)6->. 6./:0 )( (*:. )/.)( :)1 3*46)-4 ()4, ,24.( 68)6
)/. *>./ "" :.6./( C10""" 7..6D 8-<8 )4, 16 6* 24 A-+*:.6./( C1" 6* 1% :-+.(D
+*4<. T/)77-3)5-+-61 -4 (238 6.//)-4 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 68. 9-4,9)/, */ +..9)/,
(+*;. *7 68. ,24.( )4, 68. 6.=62/. *7 68. ()4,. H*9.>./0 *68./ )/.)( :)1 5.
7+)6 7*/ 0""" :.6./( C1"0""" 7..6D )4, :*/.. P+)46 +-7. :)1 >)/1 7/*: 4*4. 6*
(3/25 *>./ 2 :.6./( C7 7..6D 8-<8. E=):;+.( *7 68-( 61;. *7 ,.(./6 -43+2,. 68.
.,<.( *7 68. S)8)/)0 68. .:;61 ?2)/6./ *7 68. A/)5-)4 D.(./60 )/.)( *7
C)+-7*/4-) )4, N.9 M.=-3*0 )4, 68. K)+)8)/- -4 S*268 A7/-3).
SALT MARSHES
1B6. S)+6 :)/(8.( )/. 7+)60 ,.(*+)6. )/.)(0 (*:.6-:.( (62,,., 9-68 3+2:;(
*7 </)(( 526 ,.>*-, *7 *68./ >.<.6)6-*4. T8.1 *332/ -4 )/-, )/.)( 98./.
/)-49)6./ 8)( 3*++.36.,0 .>);*/)6.,0 )4, +.76 +)/<. ,.;*(-6( *7 )+A)+- ()+6( )4,
148
9)6./ 9-68 ) 8-<8 ()+6 3*43.46/)6-*4. T8. 9)6./ -( (* ()+61 -6 -( 24,/-4A)5+.. A
3/2(6 68)6 :)1 5. 2.% 6* " 3.46-:.6./( C1 6* 12 -438.(D 68-3A 7*/:( *>./ 68.
()+69)6./.
1B7. I4 )/-, )/.)(0 68./. )/. ()+6 :)/(8.( 824,/.,( *7 A-+*:.6./( (?2)/..
T8.(. )/.)( 2(2)++1 (2;;*/6 :)41 -4(.36(0 :*(6 *7 98-38 5-6.. A>*-, ()+6
:)/(8.(. T8-( 61;. *7 6.//)-4 -( 8-<8+1 3*//*(->. 6* 5**6(0 3+*68-4<0 )4, (A-4.
A <**, .=):;+. -( 68. S8)66 )+ A/)5 9)6./9)1 )+*4< 68. I/)4BI/)? 5*/,./.
BROKEN TERRAIN
1B$. A++ )/-, )/.)( 3*46)-4 5/*A.4 */ 8-<8+1 ,-((.36., 6.//)-4. R)-4(6*/:(
68)6 ./*,. (*76 ()4, )4, 3)/>. *26 3)41*4( 7*/: 68-( 6.//)-4. A 9),- :)1
/)4<. 7/*: :.6./( C1" 7..6D 9-,. )4, 2 :.6./( C7 7..6D ,..; 6* (.>./)+
824,/., :.6./( 9-,. )4, ,..;. T8. ,-/.36-*4 -6 6)A.( >)/-.( )( :238 )( -6(
9-,68 )4, ,.;68. I6 69-(6( )4, 62/4( )4, 7*/:( ) :)G.+-A. ;)66./4. A 9),- 9-++
<->. 1*2 <**, 3*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.460 526 ,* 4*6 6/1 6* :*>. 68/*2<8 -6
5.3)2(. -6 -( >./1 ,-77-32+6 6.//)-4 6* 4.<*6-)6..
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
1B9. S2/>->-4< )4, .>),-4< 68. .4.:1 -4 )4 )/-, )/.) ,.;.4,( *4 98)6 1*2
A4*9 )4, 8*9 ;/.;)/., 1*2 )/. 7*/ 68. .4>-/*4:.46)+ 3*4,-6-*4( 1*2 9-++
7)3.. D.6./:-4. 98)6 .?2-;:.46 1*2 9-++ 4..,0 68. 6)36-3( 1*2 9-++ 2(.0 )4,
68. .4>-/*4:.46H( -:;)36 *4 68.: )4, 1*2.
1B1". I4 ) ,.(./6 )/.) 68./. )/. (.>.4 .4>-/*4:.46)+ 7)36*/( 68)6 1*2 :2(6
3*4(-,./@
I L*9 /)-47)++.
I I46.4(. (24+-<86 )4, 8.)6.
I !-,. 6.:;./)62/. /)4<..
I S;)/(. >.<.6)6-*4.
I H-<8 :-4./)+ 3*46.46 4.)/ </*24, (2/7)3..
I S)4,(6*/:(.
I M-/)<.(.
LO$ RAINFALL
1B11. L*9 /)-47)++ -( 68. :*(6 *5>-*2( .4>-/*4:.46)+ 7)36*/ -4 )4 )/-, )/.).
S*:. ,.(./6 )/.)( /.3.->. +.(( 68)4 1" 3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D *7 /)-4
)442)++10 )4, 68-( /)-4 3*:.( -4 5/-.7 6*//.46( 68)6 ?2-3A+1 /24 *77 68. </*24,
(2/7)3.. Y*2 3)44*6 (2/>->. +*4< 9-68*26 9)6./ -4 8-<8 ,.(./6 6.:;./)62/.(.
I4 ) ,.(./6 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 :2(6 7-/(6 3*4(-,./ 68. ):*246 *7 9)6./ 1*2
8)>. )4, *68./ 9)6./ (*2/3.(.
INTENSE SUNLIGHT AND HEAT
1B12. I46.4(. (24+-<86 )4, 8.)6 )/. ;/.(.46 -4 )++ )/-, )/.)(. A-/
6.:;./)62/. 3)4 /-(. )( 8-<8 )( 6" ,.</..( C C14" ,.</..( FD ,2/-4< 68. ,)1.
149
H.)6 <)-4 /.(2+6( 7/*: ,-/.36 (24+-<860 8*6 5+*9-4< ()4,B+),.4 9-4,(0 /.7+.36->.
8.)6 C68. (24H( /)1( 5*243-4< *77 68. ()4,D0 )4, 3*4,236->. 8.)6 7/*: ,-/.36
3*46)36 9-68 68. ,.(./6 ()4, )4, /*3A CF-<2/. 1B1D.
F493*+ 13C1. T;7+: 1, H+-0 G-4/
1B1. T8. 6.:;./)62/. *7 ,.(./6 ()4, )4, /*3A 61;-3)++1 /)4<. 7/*: 16 6* 22
,.</..( C C" 6* 4" ,.</..( FD :*/. 68)4 68)6 *7 68. )-/. F*/ -4(6)43.0 98.4
68. )-/ 6.:;./)62/. -( 4 ,.</..( C C11" ,.</..( FD0 68. ()4, 6.:;./)62/.
:)1 5. 6" ,.</..( C C14" ,.</..( FD.
1B14. I46.4(. (24+-<86 )4, 8.)6 -43/.)(. 68. 5*,1H( 4.., 7*/ 9)6./. T*
3*4(./>. 1*2/ 5*,1 7+2-,( )4, .4./<10 1*2 9-++ 4.., ) (8.+6./ 6* /.,23. 1*2/
.=;*(2/. 6* 68. 8.)6 *7 68. ,)1. T/)>.+ )6 4-<86 6* +.((.4 1*2/ 2(. *7 9)6./.
1B1%. R),-*( )4, (.4(-6->. -6.:( *7 .?2-;:.46 .=;*(., 6* ,-/.36 -46.4(.
(24+-<86 9-++ :)+72436-*4.
$IDE TEMPERATURE RANGE
1B16. T.:;./)62/.( -4 )/-, )/.)( :)1 <.6 )( 8-<8 )( %% ,.</..( C C1"
,.</..( FD ,2/-4< 68. ,)1 )4, )( +*9 )( 1" ,.</..( C C%" ,.</..( FD ,2/-4<
68. 4-<86. T8. ,/*; -4 6.:;./)62/. )6 4-<86 *332/( /);-,+1 )4, 9-++ 38-++ )
;./(*4 98* +)3A( 9)/: 3+*68-4< )4, -( 24)5+. 6* :*>. )5*26. T8. 3**+
.>.4-4<( )4, 4-<86( )/. 68. 5.(6 6-:.( 6* 9*/A */ 6/)>.+. I7 1*2/ ;+)4 -( 6* /.(6
)6 4-<860 1*2 9-++ 7-4, ) 9**+ (9.)6./0 +*4< 24,./9.)/0 )4, ) 9**+ (6*3A-4<
3); .=6/.:.+1 8.+;72+.
150
SPARSE VEGETATION
1B17. V.<.6)6-*4 -( (;)/(. -4 )/-, )/.)(. Y*2 9-++ 68./.7*/. 8)>. 6/*25+.
7-4,-4< (8.+6./ )4, 3):*27+)<-4< 1*2/ :*>.:.46(. D2/-4< ,)1+-<86 8*2/(0
+)/<. )/.)( *7 6.//)-4 )/. >-(-5+. )4, .)(-+1 3*46/*++., 51 ) (:)++ *;;*(-4<
7*/3..
1B1$. I7 6/)>.+-4< -4 8*(6-+. 6.//-6*/10 7*++*9 68. ;/-43-;+.( *7 ,.(./6
3):*27+)<.E
I H-,. */ (..A (8.+6./ -4 ,/1 9)(8.( C9),-(D 9-68 68-3A./ </*968( *7 >.<.6)6-*4
)4, 3*>./ 7/*: *5+-?2. *5(./>)6-*4.
I U(. 68. (8),*9( 3)(6 7/*: 5/2(80 /*3A(0 */ *263/*;;-4<(. T8. 6.:;./)62/.
-4 (8),., )/.)( 9-++ 5. 11 6* 17 ,.</..( C C%2 6* 6 ,.</..( FD 3**+./ 68)4
68. )-/ 6.:;./)62/..
I C*>./ *5F.36( 68)6 9-++ /.7+.36 68. +-<86 7/*: 68. (24.
1B19. B.7*/. :*>-4<0 (2/>.1 68. )/.) 7*/ (-6.( 68)6 ;/*>-,. 3*>./ )4,
3*43.)+:.46. Y*2 9-++ 8)>. 6/*25+. .(6-:)6-4< ,-(6)43.. T8. .:;6-4.(( *7
,.(./6 6.//)-4 3)2(.( :*(6 ;.*;+. 6* 24,./.(6-:)6. ,-(6)43. 51 ) 7)36*/ *7
68/..E !8)6 );;.)/( 6* 5. 1 A-+*:.6./ C1R2 :-+.D )9)1 -( /.)++1 A-+*:.6./( C1
R4 :-+.(D )9)1.
HIGH MINERAL CONTENT
1B2". A++ )/-, /.<-*4( 8)>. )/.)( 98./. 68. (2/7)3. (*-+ 8)( ) 8-<8 :-4./)+
3*46.46 C5*/)=0 ()+60 )+A)+-0 )4, +-:.D. M)6./-)+ -4 3*46)36 9-68 68-( (*-+ 9.)/(
*26 ?2-3A+10 )4, 9)6./ -4 68.(. )/.)( -( .=6/.:.+1 8)/, )4, 24,/-4A)5+..
!.66-4< 1*2/ 24-7*/: -4 (238 9)6./ 6* 3**+ *77 :)1 3)2(. ) (A-4 /)(8. T8.
G/.)6 S)+6 L)A. )/.) -4 U6)8 -( )4 .=):;+. *7 68-( 61;. *7 :-4./)+B+),.4 9)6./
)4, (*-+. T8./. -( +-66+. */ 4* ;+)46 +-7.M 68./.7*/.0 (8.+6./ -( 8)/, 6* 7-4,. A>*-,
68.(. )/.)( -7 ;*((-5+..
SANDSTORMS
1B21. S)4,(6*/:( C()4,B+),.4 9-4,(D *332/ 7/.?2.46+1 -4 :*(6 ,.(./6(. T8.
Seistan ,.(./6 9-4, -4 I/)4 )4, A7<8)4-(6)4 5+*9( 3*4(6)46+1 7*/ 2; 6* 12"
,)1(. !-68-4 S)2,- A/)5-)0 9-4,( 61;-3)++1 /)4<. 7/*: .2 6* 4.$ A-+*:.6./(
;./ 8*2/ CA;8D C2 6* :-+.( ;./ 8*2/ P:;8QD )4, 3)4 /.)38 112 6* 12$ A;8 C67
6* 77 :;8D -4 .)/+1 )76./4**4. E=;.36 :)F*/ ()4,(6*/:( )4, ,2(6 (6*/:( )6
+.)(6 *43. ) 9..A.
1B22. T8. </.)6.(6 ,)4<./ -( <.66-4< +*(6 -4 ) (9-/+-4< 9)++ *7 ()4,. !.)/
<*<<+.( )4, 3*>./ 1*2/ :*268 )4, 4*(. 9-68 3+*68. I7 4)62/)+ (8.+6./ -(
24)>)-+)5+.0 :)/A 1*2/ ,-/.36-*4 *7 6/)>.+0 +-. ,*940 )4, (-6 *26 68. (6*/:.
1B2. D2(6 )4, 9-4,B5+*94 ()4, -46./7./. 9-68 /),-* 6/)4(:-((-*4(.
T8./.7*/.0 5. /.),1 6* 2(. *68./ :.)4( 7*/ (-<4)+-4<0 (238 )( ;1/*6.384-3(0
(-<4)+ :-//*/(0 */ :)/A./ ;)4.+(0 -7 )>)-+)5+..
151
MIRAGES
1B24. M-/)<.( )/. *;6-3)+ ;8.4*:.4) 3)2(., 51 68. /.7/)36-*4 *7 +-<86
68/*2<8 8.)6., )-/ /-(-4< 7/*: ) ()4,1 */ (6*41 (2/7)3.. T8.1 *332/ -4 68.
-46./-*/ *7 68. ,.(./6 )5*26 1" A-+*:.6./( C6 :-+.(D 7/*: 68. 3*)(6. T8.1 :)A.
*5F.36( 68)6 )/. 1.% A-+*:.6./( C1 :-+.D */ :*/. )9)1 );;.)/ 6* :*>..
1B2%. T8-( :-/)<. .77.36 :)A.( -6 ,-77-32+6 7*/ 1*2 6* -,.46-71 )4 *5F.36 7/*: )
,-(6)43.. I6 )+(* 5+2/( ,-(6)46 /)4<. 3*46*2/( (* :238 68)6 1*2 7..+
(2//*24,., 51 ) (8..6 *7 9)6./ 7/*: 98-38 .+.>)6-*4( (6)4, *26 )( J-(+)4,(.J
1B26. T8. :-/)<. .77.36 :)A.( -6 8)/, 7*/ ) ;./(*4 6* -,.46-71 6)/<.6(0
.(6-:)6. /)4<.0 )4, (.. *5F.36( 3+.)/+1. H*9.>./0 -7 1*2 3)4 <.6 6* 8-<8
</*24, C :.6./( P1" 7..6Q */ :*/. )5*>. 68. ,.(./6 7+**/D0 1*2 3)4 <.6 )5*>.
68. (2;./8.)6., )-/ 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24, )4, *>./3*:. 68. :-/)<. .77.36.
M-/)<.( :)A. +)4, 4)>-<)6-*4 ,-77-32+6 5.3)2(. 68.1 *5(32/. 4)62/)+ 7.)62/.(.
Y*2 3)4 (2/>.1 68. )/.) )6 ,)940 ,2(A0 */ 51 :**4+-<86 98.4 68./. -( +-66+.
+-A.+-8**, *7 :-/)<..
1B27. L-<86 +.>.+( -4 ,.(./6 )/.)( )/. :*/. -46.4(. 68)4 -4 *68./ <.*</);8-3
)/.)(. M**4+-6 4-<86( )/. 2(2)++1 3/1(6)+ 3+.)/0 9-4,( ,-. ,*940 8)G. )4,
<+)/. ,-();;.)/0 )4, >-(-5-+-61 -( .=3.++.46. Y*2 3)4 (.. +-<86(0 /., 7+)(8+-<86(0
)4, 5+)3A*26 +-<86( )6 </.)6 ,-(6)43.(. S*24, 3)//-.( >./1 7)/.
1B2$. C*4>./(.+10 ,2/-4< 4-<86( 9-68 +-66+. :**4+-<860 >-(-5-+-61 -( .=6/.:.+1
;**/. T/)>.+-4< -( .=6/.:.+1 8)G)/,*2(. Y*2 :2(6 )>*-, <.66-4< +*(60 7)++-4<
-46* /)>-4.(0 */ (62:5+-4< -46* .4.:1 ;*(-6-*4(. M*>.:.46 ,2/-4< (238 )
4-<86 -( ;/)36-3)+ *4+1 -7 1*2 8)>. ) 3*:;)(( )4, 8)>. (;.46 68. ,)1 /.(6-4<0
*5(./>-4<0 )4, :.:*/-G-4< 68. 6.//)-40 )4, (.+.36-4< 1*2/ /*26..
NEED FOR $ATER
1B29. T8. (25F.36 *7 :)4 )4, 9)6./ -4 68. ,.(./6 8)( <.4./)6.,
3*4(-,./)5+. -46./.(6 )4, 3*472(-*4 (-43. 68. .)/+1 ,)1( *7 !*/+, !)/ II 98.4
68. U.S. A/:1 9)( ;/.;)/-4< 6* 7-<86 -4 N*/68 A7/-3). A6 *4. 6-:.0 68. U.S.
A/:1 68*2<86 -6 3*2+, 3*4,-6-*4 :.4 6* ,* 9-68 +.(( 9)6./ 51 ;/*</.((->.+1
/.,23-4< 68.-/ 9)6./ (2;;+-.( ,2/-4< 6/)-4-4<. T8.1 3)++., -6 9)6./ ,-(3-;+-4.. I6
3)2(., 824,/.,( *7 8.)6 3)(2)+6-.(.
1B". A A.1 7)36*/ -4 ,.(./6 (2/>->)+ -( 24,./(6)4,-4< 68. /.+)6-*4(8-;
5.69..4 ;81(-3)+ )36->-610 )-/ 6.:;./)62/.0 )4, 9)6./ 3*4(2:;6-*4. T8. 5*,1
/.?2-/.( ) 3./6)-4 ):*246 *7 9)6./ 7*/ ) 3./6)-4 +.>.+ *7 )36->-61 )6 ) 3./6)-4
6.:;./)62/.. F*/ .=):;+.0 ) ;./(*4 ;./7*/:-4< 8)/, 9*/A -4 68. (24 )6 4
,.</..( C C1"9 ,.</..( FD /.?2-/.( 19 +-6./( C% <)++*4(D *7 9)6./ ,)-+1. L)3A
*7 68. /.?2-/., ):*246 *7 9)6./ 3)2(.( ) /);-, ,.3+-4. -4 )4 -4,->-,2)+H( )5-+-61
6* :)A. ,.3-(-*4( )4, 6* ;./7*/: 6)(A( .77-3-.46+1.
1B1. Y*2/ 5*,1H( 4*/:)+ 6.:;./)62/. -( 6.9 ,.</..( C C9$.6 ,.</..( FD.
Y*2/ 5*,1 <.6( /-, *7 .=3.(( 8.)6 C3**+( *77D 51 (9.)6-4<. T8. 9)/:./ 1*2/
5*,1 5.3*:.(@98.68./ 3)2(., 51 9*/A0 .=./3-(.0 */ )-/ 6.:;./)62/.@68.
152
:*/. 1*2 (9.)6. T8. :*/. 1*2 (9.)60 68. :*/. :*-(62/. 1*2 +*(.. S9.)6-4<
-( 68. ;/-43-;)+ 3)2(. *7 9)6./ +*((. I7 1*2 (6*; (9.)6-4< ,2/-4< ;./-*,( *7
8-<8 )-/ 6.:;./)62/. )4, 8.)>1 9*/A */ .=./3-(.0 1*2 9-++ ?2-3A+1 ,.>.+*; 8.)6
(6/*A.. T8-( -( )4 .:./<.431 68)6 /.?2-/.( -::.,-)6. :.,-3)+ )66.46-*4.
1B2. F-<2/. 1B2 (8*9( ,)-+1 9)6./ /.?2-/.:.46( 7*/ >)/-*2( +.>.+( *7 9*/A.
U4,./(6)4,-4< 8*9 68. )-/ 6.:;./)62/. )4, 1*2/ ;81(-3)+ )36->-61 )77.36 1*2/
9)6./ /.?2-/.:.46( )++*9( 1*2 6* 6)A. :.)(2/.( 6* <.6 68. :*(6 7/*: 1*2/
9)6./ (2;;+1. T8.(. :.)(2/.( )/.@
I F-4, (8),.N G.6 *26 *7 68. (24N
I P+)3. (*:.68-4< 5.69..4 1*2 )4, 68. 8*6 </*24,.
I L-:-6 1*2/ :*>.:.46(N
I C*4(./>. 1*2/ (9.)6. !.)/ 1*2/ 3*:;+.6. 24-7*/: 6* -43+2,. TB(8-/6. R*++
68. (+..>.( ,*940 3*>./ 1*2/ 8.),0 )4, ;/*6.36 1*2/ 4.3A 9-68 ) (3)/7 */
(-:-+)/ -6.:. T8.(. (6.;( 9-++ ;/*6.36 1*2/ 5*,1 7/*: 8*6B5+*9-4< 9-4,( )4,
68. ,-/.36 /)1( *7 68. (24. Y*2/ 3+*68-4< 9-++ )5(*/5 1*2/ (9.)60 A..;-4< -6
)<)-4(6 1*2/ (A-4 (* 68)6 1*2 <)-4 -6( 72++ 3**+-4< .77.36. B1 (6)1-4< -4 68.
(8),. ?2-.6+10 72++1 3+*68.,0 4*6 6)+A-4<0 A..;-4< 1*2/ :*268 3+*(.,0 )4,
5/.)68-4< 68/*2<8 1*2/ 4*(.0 1*2/ 9)6./ /.?2-/.:.46 7*/ (2/>->)+ ,/*;(
,/):)6-3)++1.
I I7 9)6./ -( (3)/3.0 ,* 4*6 .)6. F**, /.?2-/.( 9)6./ 7*/ ,-<.(6-*4M 68./.7*/.0
.)6-4< 7**, 9-++ 2(. 9)6./ 68)6 1*2 4.., 7*/ 3**+-4<.
153
F493*+ 13C2. D-4<; $-0+* R+=34*+>+/0: ,1* T8*++ L+B+<: 1, A.04B40;
1B. T8-/(6 -( 4*6 ) /.+-)5+. <2-,. 7*/ 1*2/ 4.., 7*/ 9)6./. A ;./(*4 98*
2(.( 68-/(6 )( ) <2-,. 9-++ ,/-4A *4+1 69*B68-/,( *7 8-( ,)-+1 9)6./ /.?2-/.:.46.
T* ;/.>.46 68-( J>*+246)/1K ,.81,/)6-*40 2(. 68. 7*++*9-4< <2-,.E
I A6 6.:;./)62/.( 5.+*9 $ ,.</..( C C1"" ,.</..( FD0 ,/-4A ".% +-6./ *7 9)6./
.>./1 8*2/.
I A6 6.:;./)62/.( )5*>. $ ,.</..( C C1"" ,.</..( FD0 ,/-4A 1 +-6./ *7 9)6./
.>./1 8*2/.
1B4. D/-4A-4< 9)6./ )6 /.<2+)/ -46./>)+( 8.+;( 1*2/ 5*,1 /.:)-4 3**+ )4,
,.3/.)(.( (9.)6-4<. E>.4 98.4 1*2/ 9)6./ (2;;+1 -( +*90 (-;;-4< 9)6./
3*4(6)46+1 9-++ A..; 1*2/ 5*,1 3**+./ )4, /.,23. 9)6./ +*(( 68/*2<8 (9.)6-4<.
C*4(./>. 1*2/ 7+2-,( 51 /.,23-4< )36->-61 ,2/-4< 68. 8.)6 *7 ,)1. D1 /10
/)6-*4 1*2/ 9)6./N I7 1*2 6/1 6* /)6-*4 9)6./0 1*2 (6)4, ) <**, 38)43. *7
5.3*:-4< ) 8.)6 3)(2)+61.
HEAT CASUALTIES
1B%. Y*2/ 38)43.( *7 5.3*:-4< ) 8.)6 3)(2)+61 )( ) (2/>->*/ )/. </.)60
,2. 6* -4F2/10 (6/.((0 )4, +)3A *7 3/-6-3)+ -6.:( *7 .?2-;:.46. F*++*9-4< )/. 68.
154
:)F*/ 61;.( *7 8.)6 3)(2)+6-.( )4, 68.-/ 6/.)6:.46 98.4 <400<+ 9)6./ )4, /1
:.,-3)+ 8.+; )/. )>)-+)5+..
HEAT CRAMPS
1B6. T8. +*(( *7 ()+6 ,2. 6* .=3.((->. (9.)6-4< 3)2(.( 8.)6 3/):;(.
S1:;6*:( )/. :*,./)6. 6* (.>./. :2(3+. 3/):;( -4 +.<(0 )/:(0 */ )5,*:.4.
T8.(. (1:;6*:( :)1 (6)/6 )( ) :-+, :2(32+)/ ,-(3*:7*/6. Y*2 (8*2+, 4*9
(6*; )++ )36->-610 <.6 -4 68. (8),.0 )4, ,/-4A 9)6./. I7 1*2 7)-+ 6* /.3*<4-G. 68.
.)/+1 (1:;6*:( )4, 3*46-42. 1*2/ ;81(-3)+ )36->-610 1*2 9-++ 8)>. (.>./.
:2(3+. 3/):;( )4, ;)-4. T/.)6 )( 7*/ 8.)6 .=8)2(6-*40 5.+*9.
HEAT EXHAUSTION
1B7. A +)/<. +*(( *7 5*,1 9)6./ )4, ()+6 3)2(.( 8.)6 .=8)2(6-*4.
S1:;6*:( )/. 8.),)38.0 :.46)+ 3*472(-*40 -//-6)5-+-610 .=3.((->. (9.)6-4<0
9.)A4.((0 ,-GG-4.((0 3/):;(0 )4, ;)+.0 :*-(60 3*+, C3+)::1D (A-4.
I::.,-)6.+1 <.6 68. ;)6-.46 24,./ (8),.. M)A. 8-: +-. *4 ) (6/.638./ */
(-:-+)/ -6.: )5*26 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D *77 68. </*24,. L**(.4 8-(
3+*68-4<. S;/-4A+. 8-: 9-68 9)6./ )4, 7)4 8-:. H)>. 8-: ,/-4A (:)++ ):*246(
*7 9)6./ .>./1 :-426.(. E4(2/. 8. (6)1( ?2-.6 )4, /.(6(.
HEAT STROKE
1B$. A4 .=6/.:. +*(( *7 9)6./ )4, ()+6 )4, 1*2/ 5*,1H( -4)5-+-61 6* 3**+
-6(.+7 3)4 3)2(. 8.)6 (6/*A.. T8. ;)6-.46 :)1 ,-. -7 4*6 3**+., -::.,-)6.+1.
S1:;6*:( )/. 68. +)3A *7 (9.)60 8*6 )4, ,/1 (A-40 8.),)38.0 ,-GG-4.((0 7)(6
;2+(.0 4)2(.) )4, >*:-6-4<0 )4, :.46)+ 3*472(-*4 +.),-4< 6*
243*4(3-*2(4.((. I::.,-)6.+1 <.6 68. ;./(*4 6* (8),.. L)1 8-: *4 )
(6/.638./ */ (-:-+)/ -6.: )5*26 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D *77 68. </*24,.
L**(.4 8-( 3+*68-4<. P*2/ 9)6./ *4 8-: C-6 ,*.( 4*6 :)66./ -7 68. 9)6./ -(
;*++26., */ 5/)3A-(8D )4, 7)4 8-:. M)(()<. 8-( )/:(0 +.<(0 )4, 5*,1. I7 8.
/.<)-4( 3*4(3-*2(4.((0 +.6 8-: ,/-4A (:)++ ):*246( *7 9)6./ .>./1 :-426.(.
PRECAUTIONS
1B9. I4 ) ,.(./6 (2/>->)+ )4, .>)(-*4 (-62)6-*40 -6 -( 24+-A.+1 68)6 1*2 9-++
8)>. ) :.,-3 */ :.,-3)+ (2;;+-.( 9-68 1*2 6* 6/.)6 8.)6 -4F2/-.(. T8./.7*/.0
6)A. .=6/) 3)/. 6* )>*-, 8.)6 -4F2/-.(. R.(6 ,2/-4< 68. ,)1. !*/A ,2/-4< 68.
3**+ .>.4-4<( )4, 4-<86(. U(. 68. 52,,1 (1(6.: 6* 9)638 7*/ 8.)6 -4F2/1.
O5(./>. 68. 7*++*9-4< <2-,.+-4.(E
I M)A. (2/. 1*2 6.++ (*:.*4. 98./. 1*2 )/. <*-4< )4, 98.4 1*2 9-++ /.62/4.
I !)638 7*/ (-<4( *7 8.)6 -4F2/1. I7 (*:.*4. 3*:;+)-4( *7 6-/.,4.(( */
9)4,./( )9)1 7/*: 68. </*2;0 8. :)1 5. ) 8.)6 3)(2)+61.
I D/-4A 9)6./ )6 +.)(6 *43. )4 8*2/.
I G.6 -4 68. (8),. 98.4 /.(6-4<M ,* 4*6 +-. ,-/.36+1 *4 68. </*24,.
I D* 4*6 6)A. *77 1*2/ (8-/6 )4, 9*/A ,2/-4< 68. ,)1.
I C8.3A 68. 3*+*/ *7 1*2/ 2/-4.. A +-<86 3*+*/ :.)4( 1*2 )/. ,/-4A-4< .4*2<8
9)6./0 ) ,)/A 3*+*/ :.)4( 1*2 4.., 6* ,/-4A :*/..
155
DESERT HA(ARDS
1B4". T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 8)G)/,( 24-?2. 6* ,.(./6 (2/>->)+. T8.(. -43+2,.
-4(.36(0 (4)A.(0 68*/4., ;+)46( )4, 3)36-0 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./0 (2452/40 .1.
-//-6)6-*40 )4, 3+-:)6-3 (6/.((.
1B41. I4(.36( *7 )+:*(6 .>./1 61;. )5*24, -4 68. ,.(./6. M)40 )( ) (*2/3.
*7 9)6./ )4, 7**,0 )66/)36( +-3.0 :-6.(0 9)(;(0 )4, 7+-.(. T8.1 )/. .=6/.:.+1
24;+.)()46 )4, :)1 3)//1 ,-(.)(.(. O+, 52-+,-4<(0 /2-4(0 )4, 3)>.( )/.
7)>*/-6. 8)5-6)6( *7 (;-,./(0 (3*/;-*4(0 3.46-;.,.(0 +-3.0 )4, :-6.(. T8.(.
)/.)( ;/*>-,. ;/*6.36-*4 7/*: 68. .+.:.46( )4, )+(* )66/)36 *68./ 9-+,+-7..
T8./.7*/.0 6)A. .=6/) 3)/. 98.4 (6)1-4< -4 68.(. )/.)(. !.)/ <+*>.( )6 )++
6-:.( -4 68. ,.(./6. D* 4*6 ;+)3. 1*2/ 8)4,( )4198./. 9-68*26 7-/(6 +**A-4< 6*
(.. 98)6 -( 68./.. V-(2)++1 -4(;.36 )4 )/.) 5.7*/. (-66-4< */ +1-4< ,*94. !8.4
1*2 <.6 2;0 (8)A. *26 )4, -4(;.36 1*2/ 5**6( )4, 3+*68-4<. A++ ,.(./6 )/.)(
8)>. (4)A.(. T8.1 -48)5-6 /2-4(0 4)6->. >-++)<.(0 <)/5)<. ,2:;(0 3)>.(0 )4,
4)62/)+ /*3A *263/*;;-4<( 68)6 *77./ (8),.. N.>./ <* 5)/.7**6 */ 9)+A 68/*2<8
68.(. )/.)( 9-68*26 3)/.72++1 -4(;.36-4< 68.: 7*/ (4)A.(. P)1 )66.46-*4 6*
98./. 1*2 ;+)3. 1*2/ 7..6 )4, 8)4,(. M*(6 (4)A.5-6.( /.(2+6 7/*: (6.;;-4<
*4 */ 8)4,+-4< (4)A.(. A>*-, 68.:. O43. 1*2 (.. ) (4)A.0 <->. -6 ) 9-,.
5./68.
CHAPTER 1!.
T*174.-< S3*B4B-<.
M*(6 ;.*;+. 68-4A *7 68. 6/*;-3( )( ) 82<. )4, 7*/5-,,-4< 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6
68/*2<8 98-38 .>./1 (6.; 6)A.4 :2(6 5. 8)3A., *260 )4, 98./. .>./1 -438 *7
68. 9)1 -( 3/)9+-4< 9-68 ,)4<./. A362)++10 *>./ 8)+7 *7 68. +)4, -4 68. 6/*;-3( -(
32+6->)6., -4 (*:. 9)1.
A A4*9+.,<. *7 7-.+, (A-++(0 68. )5-+-61 6* -:;/*>-(.0 )4, 68. );;+-3)6-*4 *7 68.
;/-43-;+.( *7 (2/>->)+ 9-++ -43/.)(. 68. ;/*(;.36( *7 (2/>->)+. D* 4*6 5. )7/)-,
*7 5.-4< )+*4. -4 68. F24<+.M 7.)/ 9-++ +.), 6* ;)4-3. P)4-3 9-++ +.), 6*
.=8)2(6-*4 )4, ,.3/.)(. 1*2/ 38)43. *7 (2/>->)+.
E>./168-4< -4 68. F24<+. 68/->.(0 -43+2,-4< ,-(.)(. <./:( )4, ;)/)(-6.( 68)6
5/.., )6 )4 )+)/:-4< /)6.. N)62/. 9-++ ;/*>-,. 9)6./0 7**,0 )4, ;+.461 *7
:)6./-)+( 6* 52-+, (8.+6./(.
I4,-<.4*2( ;.*;+.( 8)>. +->., 7*/ :-++.44-) 51 8246-4< )4, <)68./-4<.
H*9.>./0 -6 9-++ 6)A. )4 *26(-,./ (*:. 6-:. 6* <.6 2(., 6* 68. 3*4,-6-*4( )4,
68. 4*4B(6*; )36->-61 *7 6/*;-3)+ (2/>->)+.
TROPICAL $EATHER
156
14B1. H-<8 6.:;./)62/.(0 8.)>1 /)-47)++0 )4, *;;/.((->. 82:-,-61 38)/)36./-G.
.?2)6*/-)+ )4, (256/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(0 .=3.;6 )6 8-<8 )+6-62,.(. A6 +*9 )+6-62,.(0
6.:;./)62/. >)/-)6-*4 -( (.+,*: +.(( 68)4 1" ,.</..( C C%" ,.</..( FD )4, -(
*76.4 :*/. 68)4 % ,.</..( C C9% ,.</..( FD. A6 )+6-62,.( *>./ 10%"" :.6./(
C40921 7..6D0 -3. *76.4 7*/:( )6 4-<86. T8. /)-4 8)( ) 3**+-4< .77.360 526 98.4 -6
(6*;(0 68. 6.:;./)62/. (*)/(.
14B2. R)-47)++ -( 8.)>10 *76.4 9-68 6824,./ )4, +-<864-4<. S2,,.4 /)-4 5.)6(
*4 68. 6/.. 3)4*;10 62/4-4< 6/-3A+.( -46* /)<-4< 6*//.46( )4, 3)2(-4< /->./( 6*
/-(.. J2(6 )( (2,,.4+10 68. /)-4 (6*;(. V-*+.46 (6*/:( :)1 *332/0 2(2)++1
6*9)/, 68. .4, *7 68. (2::./ :*468(.
14B. H2//-3)4.(0 313+*4.(0 )4, 61;8**4( ,.>.+*; *>./ 68. (.) )4, /2(8
-4+)4,0 3)2(-4< 6-,)+ 9)>.( )4, ,.>)(6)6-*4 )(8*/.. I4 38**(-4< 3):;(-6.(0
:)A. (2/. 1*2 )/. )5*>. )41 ;*6.46-)+ 7+**,-4<. P/.>)-+-4< 9-4,( >)/1
5.69..4 9-46./ )4, (2::./. T8. ,/1 (.)(*4 8)( /)-4 *43. ) ,)1 )4, 68.
:*4(**4 8)( 3*46-42*2( /)-4. I4 S*268.)(6 A(-)0 9-4,( 7/*: 68. I4,-)4
O3.)4 5/-4< 68. :*4(**40 526 68. )/.) -( ,/1 98.4 68. 9-4, 5+*9( 7/*: 68.
+)4,:)(( *7 C8-4).
14B4. T/*;-3)+ ,)1 )4, 4-<86 )/. *7 .?2)+ +.4<68. D)/A4.(( 7)++( ?2-3A+1 )4,
,)15/.)A -( F2(6 )( (2,,.4.
JUNGLE TYPES
14B%. T8./. -( 4* (6)4,)/, F24<+.. T8. 6/*;-3)+ )/.) :)1 5. )41 *7 68.
7*++*9-4<E
I R)-4 7*/.(6(.
I S.3*4,)/1 F24<+.(.
I S.:- .>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ )4, :*4(**4 7*/.(6(.
I S3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6(.
I S)>)44)(.
I S)+69)6./ (9):;(.
I F/.(89)6./ (9):;(.
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS
14B6. T8. 3+-:)6. >)/-.( +-66+. -4 /)-4 7*/.(6(. Y*2 7-4, 68.(. 7*/.(6( )3/*((
68. .?2)6*/ -4 68. A:)G*4 )4, C*4<* 5)(-4(0 ;)/6( *7 I4,*4.(-)0 )4, (.>./)+
P)3-7-3 -(+)4,(. U; 6* .% :.6./( C12 7..6D *7 /)-4 7)++( 68/*2<8*26 68. 1.)/.
T.:;./)62/.( /)4<. 7/*: )5*26 2 ,.</..( C C9" ,.</..( FD -4 68. ,)1 6* 21
,.</..( C C7" ,.</..( FD )6 4-<86.
14B7. T8./. )/. 7->. +)1./( *7 >.<.6)6-*4 -4 68-( F24<+. CF-<2/. 14B1D. !8./.
246*238., 51 :)40 F24<+. 6/..( /-(. 7/*: 5266/.(( /**6( 6* 8.-<86( *7 6"
:.6./( C19$ 7..6D. B.+*9 68.:0 (:)++./ 6/..( ;/*,23. ) 3)4*;1 (* 68-3A 68)6
+-66+. +-<86 /.)38.( 68. F24<+. 7+**/. S..,+-4<( (6/2<<+. 5.4.)68 68.: 6* /.)38
+-<860 )4, :)((.( *7 >-4.( )4, +-)4)( 69-4. 2; 6* 68. (24. F./4(0 :*((.(0
157
)4, 8./5)3.*2( ;+)46( ;2(8 68/*2<8 ) 68-3A 3)/;.6 *7 +.)>.(0 )4, ) </.)6
>)/-.61 *7 724<- </*9 *4 +.)>.( )4, 7)++.4 6/.. 6/24A(.
F493*+ 1!C1. F4B+ L-;+*: 1, T*174.-< R-4/ F1*+:0 V+9+0-041/
14B$. B.3)2(. *7 68. +)3A *7 +-<86 *4 68. F24<+. 7+**/0 68./. -( +-66+.
24,./</*968 6* 8):;./ :*>.:.460 526 ,.4(. </*968 +-:-6( >-(-5-+-61 6* )5*26
%" :.6./( C16% 7..6D. Y*2 3)4 .)(-+1 +*(. 1*2/ (.4(. *7 ,-/.36-*4 -4 68-(
F24<+.0 )4, -6 -( .=6/.:.+1 8)/, 7*/ )-/3/)76 6* (.. 1*2.
SECONDARY JUNGLES
14B9. S.3*4,)/1 F24<+. -( >./1 (-:-+)/ 6* /)-4 7*/.(6. P/*+-7-3 </*9680 98./.
(24+-<86 ;.4.6/)6.( 6* 68. F24<+. 7+**/0 61;-7-.( 68-( 61;. *7 7*/.(6. S238 </*968
8);;.4( :)-4+1 )+*4< /->./5)4A(0 *4 F24<+. 7/-4<.(0 )4, 98./. :)4 8)(
3+.)/., /)-4 7*/.(6. !8.4 )5)4,*4.,0 6)4<+., :)((.( *7 >.<.6)6-*4 ?2-3A+1
/.3+)-: 68.(. 32+6->)6., )/.)(. Y*2 3)4 *76.4 7-4, 32+6->)6., 7**, ;+)46(
):*4< 68-( >.<.6)6-*4.
SEMIEVERGREEN SEASONAL AND MONSOON FORESTS
14B1". T8. 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 68. A:./-3)4 )4, A7/-3)4 (.:- .>./</..4
(.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6( 3*//.(;*4, 9-68 68*(. *7 68. A(-)4 :*4(**4 7*/.(6(. T8.
38)/)36./-(6-3( )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I T8.-/ 6/..( 7)++ -46* 69* (6*/-.( *7 6/.. (6/)6). T8*(. -4 68. 2;;./ (6*/1 /)4<.
7/*: 1$ 6* 24 :.6./( C6" 6* 79 7..6DM 68*(. -4 68. +*9./ (6*/1 /)4<. 7/*: 7 6*
1 :.6./( C2 6* 4 7..6D.
I T8. ,-):.6./ *7 68. 6/..( )>./)<.( ".% :.6./ C2 7..6D.
I T8.-/ +.)>.( 7)++ ,2/-4< ) (.)(*4)+ ,/*2<86.
14B11. E=3.;6 7*/ 68. ()<*0 4-;)0 )4, 3*3*426 ;)+:(0 68. ():. .,-5+. ;+)46(
</*9 -4 68.(. )/.)( )( -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6(.
14B12. Y*2 7-4, 68.(. 7*/.(6( -4 ;*/6-*4( *7 C*+2:5-) )4, V.4.G2.+) )4, 68.
A:)G*4 5)(-4 -4 S*268 A:./-3)M -4 ;*/6-*4( *7 (*268.)(6 3*)(6)+ K.41)0
T)4G)4-)0 )4, M*G):5-?2. -4 A7/-3)M -4 N*/68B.)(6./4 I4,-)0 :238 *7 B2/:)0
T8)-+)4,0 I4,*38-4)0 J)>)0 )4, ;)/6( *7 *68./ I4,*4.(-)4 -(+)4,( -4 A(-).
158
TROPICAL SCRUB AND THORN FORESTS
14B1. T8. 38-.7 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 6/*;-3)+ (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6( )/. )(
7*++*9(E
I T8./. -( ) ,.7-4-6. ,/1 (.)(*4.
I T/..( )/. +.)7+.(( ,2/-4< 68. ,/1 (.)(*4.
I T8. </*24, -( 5)/. .=3.;6 7*/ ) 7.9 6276., ;+)46( -4 52438.(M </)((.( )/.
243*::*4.
I P+)46( 9-68 68*/4( ;/.,*:-4)6..
I F-/.( *332/ 7/.?2.46+1.
14B14. Y*2 7-4, 6/*;-3)+ (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6( *4 68. 9.(6 3*)(6 *7 M.=-3*0
68. Y23)6)4 ;.4-4(2+)0 V.4.G2.+)0 )4, B/)G-+M *4 68. 4*/689.(6 3*)(6 )4,
3.46/)+ ;)/6( *7 A7/-3)M )4, -4 T2/A.(6)4 )4, I4,-) -4 A(-).
14B1%. !-68-4 68. 6/*;-3)+ (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6 )/.)(0 1*2 9-++ 7-4, -6 8)/, 6*
*56)-4 7**, ;+)46( ,2/-4< 68. ,/1 (.)(*4. D2/-4< 68. /)-41 (.)(*40 ;+)46( )/.
3*4(-,./)5+1 :*/. )524,)46.
TROPICAL SAVANNAS
14B16. G.4./)+ 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 68. ()>)44) )/. 68)6 -6@
I I( 7*24, 9-68-4 68. 6/*;-3)+ G*4.( -4 S*268 A:./-3) )4, A7/-3).
I L**A( +-A. ) 5/*),0 </)((1 :.),*90 9-68 6/..( (;)3., )6 9-,. -46./>)+(.
I F/.?2.46+1 8)( /., (*-+.
I G/*9( (3)66./., 6/..( 68)6 2(2)++1 );;.)/ (6246., )4, <4)/+., +-A. );;+.
6/..(. P)+:( )+(* *332/ *4 ()>)44)(.
14B17. Y*2 7-4, ()>)44)( -4 ;)/6( *7 V.4.G2.+)0 B/)G-+0 )4, 68. G2-)4)( -4
S*268 A:./-3). I4 A7/-3)0 1*2 7-4, 68.: -4 68. (*268./4 S)8)/) C4*/68B3.46/)+
C):./**4 )4, G)5*4 )4, (*268./4 S2,)4D0 B.4-40 T*<*0 :*(6 *7 N-<./-)0
4*/68B.)(6./4 R.;25+-3 *7 C*4<*0 4*/68./4 U<)4,)0 9.(6./4 K.41)0 ;)/6 *7
M)+)9-0 ;)/6 *7 T)4G)4-)0 (*268./4 &-:5)59.0 M*G):5-?2.0 )4, 9.(6./4
M),)<)(3)/.
SALT$ATER S$AMPS
14B1$. S)+69)6./ (9):;( )/. 3*::*4 -4 3*)(6)+ )/.)( (25F.36 6* 6-,)+
7+**,-4<. M)4</*>. 6/..( 68/->. -4 68.(. (9):;(. M)4</*>. 6/..( 3)4 /.)38
8.-<86( *7 12 :.6./( C9 7..6D. T8.-/ 6)4<+., /**6( )/. )4 *5(6)3+. 6*
:*>.:.46. V-(-5-+-61 -4 68-( 61;. *7 (9):; -( ;**/0 )4, :*>.:.46 -(
.=6/.:.+1 ,-77-32+6. S*:.6-:.(0 (6/.):( 68)6 1*2 3)4 /)76 7*/: 38)44.+(0 526
1*2 2(2)++1 :2(6 6/)>.+ *4 7**6 68/*2<8 68-( (9):;.
14B19. Y*2 7-4, ()+69)6./ (9):;( -4 !.(6 A7/-3)0 M),)<)(3)/0 M)+)1(-)0 68.
P)3-7-3 -(+)4,(0 C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3)0 )4, )6 68. :*268 *7 68. G)4<.(
R->./ -4 I4,-). T8. (9):;( )6 68. :*268( *7 68. O/-4*3* )4, A:)G*4 /->./(
159
)4, /->./( *7 G21)4) 3*4(-(6 *7 :2, )4, 6/..( 68)6 *77./ +-66+. (8),.. T-,.( -4
()+69)6./ (9):;( 3)4 >)/1 )( :238 )( 12 :.6./( C 7..6D.
14B2". E>./168-4< -4 ) ()+69)6./ (9):; :)1 );;.)/ 8*(6-+. 6* 1*20 7/*:
+..38.( )4, -4(.36( 6* 3/*3*,-+.( )4, 3)-:)4(. A>*-, 68. ,)4<./*2( )4-:)+(
-4 68-( (9):;.
14B21. A>*-, 68-( (9):; )+6*<.68./ -7 1*2 3)4. I7 68./. )/. 9)6./ 38)44.+(
68/*2<8 -60 1*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* 2(. ) /)76 6* .(3);..
FRESH$ATER S$AMPS
14B22. Y*2 7-4, 7/.(89)6./ (9):;( -4 +*9B+1-4< -4+)4, )/.)(. T8.-/
38)/)36./-(6-3( )/. :)((.( *7 68*/41 24,./</*9680 /..,(0 </)((.(0 )4,
*33)(-*4)+ (8*/6 ;)+:( 68)6 /.,23. >-(-5-+-61 )4, :)A. 6/)>.+ ,-77-32+6. T8./.
)/. *76.4 -(+)4,( 68)6 ,*6 68.(. (9):;(0 )++*9-4< 1*2 6* <.6 *26 *7 68. 9)6./.
!-+,+-7. -( )524,)46 -4 68.(. (9):;(.
TRAVEL THROUGH JUNGLE AREAS
14B2. !-68 ;/)36-3.0 :*>.:.46 68/*2<8 68-3A 24,./</*968 )4, F24<+. 3)4 5.
,*4. .77-3-.46+1. A+9)1( 9.)/ +*4< (+..>.( 6* )>*-, 326( )4, (3/)638.(.
14B24. T* :*>. .)(-+10 1*2 :2(6 ,.>.+*; JF24<+. .1.0K 68)6 -(0 1*2 (8*2+, 4*6
3*43.46/)6. *4 68. ;)66./4 *7 52(8.( )4, 6/..( 6* 1*2/ -::.,-)6. 7/*46. Y*2
:2(6 7*32( *4 68. F24<+. 72/68./ *26 )4, 7-4, 4)62/)+ 5/.)A( -4 68. 7*+-)<..
L**A thro&gh 68. F24<+.0 4*6 )6 -6. S6*; )4, (6**; ,*94 *33)(-*4)++1 6* +**A
)+*4< 68. F24<+. 7+**/. T8-( )36-*4 :)1 /.>.)+ <):. 6/)-+( 68)6 1*2 3)4 7*++*9.
14B2%. S6)1 )+./6 )4, :*>. (+*9+1 )4, (6.),-+1 68/*2<8 ,.4(. 7*/.(6 */
F24<+.. S6*; ;./-*,-3)++1 6* +-(6.4 )4, 6)A. 1*2/ 5.)/-4<(. U(. ) :)38.6. 6*
326 68/*2<8 ,.4(. >.<.6)6-*40 526 ,* 4*6 326 244.3.(()/-+1 */ 1*2 9-++ ?2-3A+1
9.)/ 1*2/(.+7 *26. I7 2(-4< ) :)38.6.0 (6/*A. 2;9)/, 98.4 3266-4< >-4.( 6*
/.,23. 4*-(. 5.3)2(. (*24, 3)//-.( +*4< ,-(6)43.( -4 68. F24<+.. U(. ) (6-3A
6* ;)/6 68. >.<.6)6-*4. U(-4< ) (6-3A 9-++ )+(* 8.+; ,-(+*,<. 5-6-4< )46(0
(;-,./(0 */ (4)A.(. D1 /10 </)(; )6 5/2(8 */ >-4.( 98.4 3+-:5-4< (+*;.(M
68.1 :)1 8)>. -//-6)6-4< (;-4.( */ (8)/; 68*/4(.
14B26. M)41 F24<+. )4, 7*/.(6 )4-:)+( 7*++*9 <):. 6/)-+(. T8.(. 6/)-+( 9-4,
)4, 3/*((0 526 7/.?2.46+1 +.), 6* 9)6./ */ 3+.)/-4<(. U(. 68.(. 6/)-+( -7 68.1
+.), -4 1*2/ ,.(-/., ,-/.36-*4 *7 6/)>.+.
14B27. I4 :)41 3*246/-.(0 .+.36/-3 )4, 6.+.;8*4. +-4.( /24 7*/ :-+.( 68/*2<8
(;)/(.+1 -48)5-6., )/.)(. U(2)++10 68. /-<86B*7B9)1 -( 3+.)/ .4*2<8 6* )++*9
.)(1 6/)>.+. !8.4 6/)>.+-4< )+*4< 68.(. +-4.(0 5. 3)/.72+ )( 1*2 );;/*)38
6/)4(7*/:./ )4, /.+)1 (6)6-*4(. I4 .4.:1 6.//-6*/10 68.1 :)1 5. <2)/,.,.
14B2$. M*>.:.46 68/*2<8 F24<+.( */ ,.4(. >.<.6)6-*4 /.?2-/.( 1*2 6*
3*4(6)46+1 5. )+./6 )4, )9)/. *7 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<(. T8. 7*++*9-4< 6/)>.+ 6-;(
9-++ 8.+; 1*2 (233..,E
160
I P-4;*-46 1*2/ -4-6-)+ +*3)6-*4 )( )332/)6.+1 )( ;*((-5+. 6* ,.6./:-4. ) <.4./)+
+-4. *7 6/)>.+ 6* ()7.61. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. ) 3*:;)((0 2(. ) 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46
,-/.36-*4B7-4,-4< :.68*,.
I T)A. (6*3A *7 9)6./ (2;;+-.( )4, .?2-;:.46.
I M*>. -4 *4. ,-/.36-*40 526 4*6 4.3.(()/-+1 -4 ) (6/)-<86 +-4.. A>*-, *5(6)3+.(.
I4 .4.:1 6.//-6*/10 6)A. ),>)46)<. *7 4)62/)+ 3*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.46.
I M*>. (:**68+1 68/*2<8 68. F24<+.. D* 4*6 5+24,./ 68/*2<8 -6 (-43. 1*2 9-++
<.6 :)41 326( )4, (3/)638.(. T2/4 1*2/ (8*2+,./(0 (8-76 1*2/ 8-;(0 5.4, 1*2/
5*,10 )4, (8*/6.4 */ +.4<68.4 1*2/ (6/-,. )( 4.3.(()/1 6* (+-,. 5.69..4 68.
24,./</*968.
IMMEDIATE CONSIDERATIONS
14B29. T8./. -( +.(( +-A.+-8**, *7 1*2/ /.(32. 7/*: 5.4.)68 ) ,.4(. F24<+.
3)4*;1 68)4 -4 *68./ (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4(. Y*2 9-++ ;/*5)5+1 8)>. 6* 6/)>.+ 6*
/.)38 ()7.61.
14B". I7 1*2 )/. 68. >-36-: *7 )4 )-/3/)76 3/)(80 68. :*(6 -:;*/6)46 -6.:( 6*
6)A. 9-68 1*2 7/*: 68. 3/)(8 (-6. )/. ) :)38.6.0 ) 3*:;)((0 ) 7-/(6 )-, A-60 )4,
) ;)/)3826. */ *68./ :)6./-)+ 7*/ 2(. )( :*(?2-6* 4.66-4< )4, (8.+6./.
14B1. T)A. (8.+6./ 7/*: 6/*;-3)+ /)-40 (240 )4, -4(.36(. M)+)/-)B3)//1-4<
:*(?2-6*.( )4, *68./ -4(.36( )/. -::.,-)6. ,)4<./(0 (* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7
)<)-4(6 5-6.(.
14B2. D* 4*6 +.)>. 68. 3/)(8 )/.) 9-68*26 3)/.72++1 5+)G-4< */ :)/A-4< 1*2/
/*26.. U(. 1*2/ 3*:;)((. K4*9 98)6 ,-/.36-*4 1*2 )/. 6)A-4<.
14B. I4 68. 6/*;-3(0 .>.4 68. (:)++.(6 (3/)638 3)4 ?2-3A+1 5.3*:.
,)4<./*2(+1 -47.36.,. P/*:;6+1 6/.)6
)41 9*24,0 4* :)66./ 8*9 :-4*/.
$ATER PROCUREMENT
14B4. A+68*2<8 9)6./ -( )524,)46 -4 :*(6 6/*;-3)+ .4>-/*4:.46(0 1*2 :)1
8)>. 6/*25+. 7-4,-4< -6. I7 1*2 ,* 7-4, 9)6./0 -6 :)1 4*6 5. ()7. 6* ,/-4A. S*:.
*7 68. :)41 (*2/3.( )/. >-4.(0 /**6(0 ;)+: 6/..(0 )4, 3*4,.4()6-*4. Y*2 3)4
(*:.6-:.( 7*++*9 )4-:)+( 6* 9)6./. O76.4 1*2 3)4 <.6 4.)/+1 3+.)/ 9)6./ 7/*:
:2,,1 (6/.):( */ +)A.( 51 ,-<<-4< ) 8*+. -4 ()4,1 (*-+ )5*26 1 :.6./ C 7..6D
7/*: 68. 5)4A. !)6./ 9-++ (..; -46* 68. 8*+.. Y*2 :2(6 ;2/-71 )41 9)6./
*56)-4., -4 68-( :)44./.
ANIMALS5SIGNS OF $ATER
14B%. A4-:)+( 3)4 *76.4 +.), 1*2 6* 9)6./. M*(6 )4-:)+( /.?2-/. 9)6./
/.<2+)/+1. G/)G-4< )4-:)+(0 (238 )( ,../0 )/. 2(2)++1 4.>./ 7)/ 7/*: 9)6./
)4, 2(2)++1 ,/-4A )6 ,)94 )4, ,2(A. C*4>./<-4< <):. 6/)-+( *76.4 +.), 6*
9)6./. C)/4->*/.( C:.)6 .)6./(D )/. 4*6 /.+-)5+. -4,-3)6*/( *7 9)6./. T8.1 <.6
:*-(62/. 7/*: 68. )4-:)+( 68.1 .)6 )4, 3)4 <* 9-68*26 9)6./ 7*/ +*4< ;./-*,(.
161
14B6. B-/,( 3)4 (*:.6-:.( )+(* +.), 1*2 6* 9)6./. G/)-4 .)6./(0 (238 )(
7-438.( )4, ;-<.*4(0 )/. 4.>./ 7)/ 7/*: 9)6./. T8.1 ,/-4A )6 ,)94 )4, ,2(A.
!8.4 68.1 7+1 (6/)-<86 )4, +*90 68.1 )/. 8.),-4< 7*/ 9)6./. !8.4 /.62/4-4<
7/*: 9)6./0 68.1 )/. 72++ )4, 9-++ 7+1 7/*: 6/.. 6* 6/..0 /.(6-4< 7/.?2.46+1. D*
4*6 /.+1 *4 9)6./ 5-/,( 6* +.), 1*2 6* 9)6./. T8.1 7+1 +*4< ,-(6)43.( 9-68*26
(6*;;-4<. H)9A(0 .)<+.(0 )4, *68./ 5-/,( *7 ;/.1 <.6 +-?2-,( 7/*: 68.-/ >-36-:(M
1*2 3)44*6 2(. 68.: )( ) 9)6./ -4,-3)6*/.
14B7. I4(.36(0 .(;.3-)++1 5..(0 3)4 5. <**, -4,-3)6*/( *7 9)6./. B..(
(.+,*: /)4<. :*/. 68)4 6 A-+*:.6./( C4 :-+.(D 7/*: 68.-/ 4.(6( */ 8->.(.
T8.1 9-++ 2(2)++1 8)>. ) 9)6./ (*2/3. -4 68-( /)4<.. A46( 4.., 9)6./. A
3*+2:4 *7 )46( :)/38-4< 2; ) 6/.. -( <*-4< 6* ) (:)++ /.(./>*-/ *7 6/);;.,
9)6./. Y*2 7-4, (238 /.(./>*-/( .>.4 -4 )/-, )/.)(. M*(6 7+-.(0 .(;.3-)++1 68.
E2/*;.)4 :)(*4 7+10 (6)1 9-68-4 1"" :.6./( C" 7..6D *7 9)6./. T8-( 7+1 -(
.)(-+1 /.3*<4-G., 51 -6( -/-,.(3.46 </..4 5*,1.
14B$. H2:)4 6/)3A( 9-++ 2(2)++1 +.), 6* ) 9.++0 5*/. 8*+.0 */ (*)A. S3/25 */
/*3A( :)1 3*>./ -6 6* /.,23. .>);*/)6-*4. R.;+)3. 68. 3*>./ )76./ 2(..
$ATER5FROM PLANTS
14B9. Y*2 9-++ .43*246./ :)41 61;.( *7 >.<.6)6-*4 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4
,.;.4,-4< 2;*4 1*2/ )/.). P+)46( (238 )( >-4.(0 /**6(0 )4, ;)+: 6/..( )/.
<**, (*2/3.( *7 9)6./.
V4/+:
14B4". V-4.( 9-68 /*2<8 5)/A )4, (8**6( )5*26 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D 68-3A
3)4 5. ) 2(.72+ (*2/3. *7 9)6./. Y*2 :2(6 +.)/4 51 .=;./-.43. 98-38 )/. 68.
9)6./B5.)/-4< >-4.(0 5.3)2(. 4*6 )++ 8)>. ,/-4A)5+. 9)6./. S*:. :)1 .>.4
8)>. ) ;*-(*4*2( ();. T8. ;*-(*4*2( *4.( 1-.+, ) (6-3A10 :-+A1 (); 98.4
326. N*4B;*-(*4*2( >-4.( 9-++ <->. ) 3+.)/ 7+2-,. S*:. >-4.( 3)2(. ) (A-4
-//-6)6-*4 *4 3*46)36M 68./.7*/. +.6 68. +-?2-, ,/-; -46* 1*2/ :*2680 /)68./ 68)4
;26 1*2/ :*268 6* 68. >-4.. P/.7./)5+10 2(. (*:. 61;. *7 3*46)-4./. U(. 68.
;/*3.,2/. ,.(3/-5., -4 C8);6./ 6 6* *56)-4 9)6./ 7/*: ) >-4..
R110:
1$
14B41. I4 A2(6/)+-)0 68. 9)6./ 6/..0 ,.(./6 *)A0 )4, 5+**, 9**, 8)>. /**6(
4.)/ 68. (2/7)3.. P/1 68.(. /**6( *26 *7 68. </*24, )4, 326 68.: -46* "B
3.46-:.6./ C1B7**6D +.4<68(. R.:*>. 68. 5)/A )4, (23A *26 68. :*-(62/.0 */
(8)>. 68. /**6 6* ) ;2+; )4, (?2..G. -6 *>./ 1*2/ :*268.
P-<> T*++:
14B42. T8. 52/-0 3*3*4260 )4, 4-;) ;)+:( )++ 3*46)-4 ) (2<)/1 7+2-, 68)6 -( >./1
<**, 6* ,/-4A. T* *56)-4 68. +-?2-,0 5.4, ) 7+*9./-4< (6)+A *7 *4. *7 68.(.
;)+:( ,*949)/,0 )4, 326 *77 -6( 6-;. I7 1*2 326 ) 68-4 (+-3. *77 68. (6)+A .>./1
162
12 8*2/(0 68. 7+*9 9-++ /.4.90 :)A-4< -6 ;*((-5+. 6* 3*++.36 2; 6* ) +-6./ ;./ ,)1.
N-;) ;)+: (8**6( </*9 7/*: 68. 5)(.0 (* 68)6 1*2 3)4 9*/A )6 </*24, +.>.+.
O4 </*94 6/..( *7 *68./ (;.3-.(0 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* 3+-:5 68.: 6* /.)38 )
7+*9./-4< (6)+A. M-+A 7/*: 3*3*426( 8)( ) +)/<. 9)6./ 3*46.460 526 :)1
3*46)-4 ) (6/*4< +)=)6->. -4 /-;. 426(. D/-4A-4< 6** :238 *7 68-( :-+A :)1
3)2(. 1*2 6* +*(. :*/. 7+2-, 68)4 1*2 ,/-4A.
$ATER5FROM CONDENSATION
14B4. O76.4 -6 /.?2-/.( 6** :238 .77*/6 6* ,-< 7*/ /**6( 3*46)-4-4< 9)6./. I6
:)1 5. .)(-./ 6* +.6 ) ;+)46 ;/*,23. 9)6./ 7*/ 1*2 -4 68. 7*/: *7 3*4,.4()6-*4.
T1-4< ) 3+.)/ ;+)(6-3 5)< )/*24, ) </..4 +.)71 5/)438 9-++ 3)2(. 9)6./ -4 68.
+.)>.( 6* .>);*/)6. )4, 3*4,.4(. -4 68. 5)<. P+)3-4< 326 >.<.6)6-*4 -4 )
;+)(6-3 5)< 9-++ )+(* ;/*,23. 3*4,.4()6-*4. T8-( -( ) (*+)/ (6-++ CC8);6./ 6D.
FOOD
14B44. F**, -( 2(2)++1 )524,)46 -4 ) 6/*;-3)+ (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. T* *56)-4
)4-:)+ 7**,0 2(. 68. ;/*3.,2/.( *26+-4., -4 C8);6./ $.
14B4%. I4 ),,-6-*4 6* )4-:)+ 7**,0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* (2;;+.:.46 1*2/ ,-.6 9-68
.,-5+. ;+)46(. T8. 5.(6 ;+)3.( 6* 7*/)<. )/. 68. 5)4A( *7 (6/.):( )4, /->./(.
!8./.>./ 68. (24 ;.4.6/)6.( 68. F24<+.0 68./. 9-++ 5. ) :)(( *7 >.<.6)6-*40
526 /->./5)4A( :)1 5. 68. :*(6 )33.((-5+. )/.)(.
14B46. I7 1*2 )/. 9.)A0 ,* 4*6 .=;.4, .4./<1 3+-:5-4< */ 7.++-4< ) 6/.. 7*/
7**,. T8./. )/. :*/. .)(-+1 *56)-4., (*2/3.( *7 7**, 4.)/./ 68. </*24,. D*
4*6 ;-3A :*/. 7**, 68)4 1*2 4..,. F**, (;*-+( /);-,+1 -4 6/*;-3)+ 3*4,-6-*4(.
L.)>. 7**, *4 68. </*9-4< ;+)46 246-+ 1*2 4.., -60 )4, .)6 -6 7/.(8.
14B47. T8./. )/. )4 )+:*(6 24+-:-6., 42:5./ *7 .,-5+. ;+)46( 7/*: 98-38 6*
38**(.. U4+.(( 1*2 3)4 ;*(-6->.+1 -,.46-71 68.(. ;+)46(0 -6 :)1 5. ()7./ )6 7-/(6
6* 5.<-4 9-68 ;)+:(0 5):5**(0 )4, 3*::*4 7/2-6(. A;;.4,-= B ;/*>-,.(
,.6)-+., ,.(3/-;6-*4( )4, ;8*6*</);8( *7 (*:. *7 68. :*(6 3*::*4 7**,
;+)46( +*3)6., -4 ) 6/*;-3)+ G*4..
POISONOUS PLANTS
14B4$. T8. ;/*;*/6-*4 *7 ;*-(*4*2( ;+)46( -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4( -( 4* </.)6./
68)4 -4 )41 *68./ )/.) *7 68. 9*/+,. H*9.>./0 -6 :)1 );;.)/ 68)6 :*(6 ;+)46(
-4 68. 6/*;-3( )/. ;*-(*4*2( 5.3)2(. *7 68. </.)6 ,.4(-61 *7 ;+)46 </*968 -4
(*:. 6/*;-3)+ )/.)( CA;;.4,-= CD.
CHAPTER 1".
C1<2 $+-08+* S3*B4B-<.
163
O4. *7 68. :*(6 ,-77-32+6 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4( -( ) 3*+, 9.)68./ (3.4)/-*.
R.:.:5./0 3*+, 9.)68./ -( )4 ),>./()/1 68)6 3)4 5. )( ,)4<./*2( )( )4
.4.:1 (*+,-./. E>./1 6-:. 1*2 >.462/. -46* 68. 3*+,0 1*2 )/. ;-66-4< 1*2/(.+7
)<)-4(6 68. .+.:.46(. !-68 ) +-66+. A4*9+.,<. *7 68. .4>-/*4:.460 ;/*;./
;+)4(0 )4, );;/*;/-)6. .?2-;:.460 1*2 3)4 *>./3*:. 68. .+.:.46(. A( 1*2
/.:*>. *4. */ :*/. *7 68.(. 7)36*/(0 (2/>->)+ 5.3*:.( -43/.)(-4<+1 ,-77-32+6.
R.:.:5./0 9-46./ 9.)68./ -( 8-<8+1 >)/-)5+.. P/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 6* ),);6 6*
5+-GG)/, 3*4,-6-*4( .>.4 ,2/-4< (2441 )4, 3+.)/ 9.)68./.
C*+, -( ) 7)/ </.)6./ 68/.)6 6* (2/>->)+ 68)4 -6 );;.)/(. I6 ,.3/.)(.( 1*2/
)5-+-61 6* 68-4A )4, 9.)A.4( 1*2/ 9-++ 6* ,* )4168-4< .=3.;6 6* <.6 9)/:. C*+,
-( )4 -4(-,-*2( .4.:1M )( -6 42:5( 68. :-4, )4, 5*,10 -6 (25,2.( 68. 9-++ 6*
(2/>->..
C*+, :)A.( -6 >./1 .)(1 6* 7*/<.6 1*2/ 2+6-:)6. <*)+@6* (2/>->..
COLD REGIONS AND LOCATIONS
1%B1. C*+, /.<-*4( -43+2,. )/36-3 )4, (25 )/36-3 )/.)( )4, )/.)( -::.,-)6.+1
),F*-4-4< 68.:. Y*2 3)4 3+)((-71 )5*26 4$ ;./3.46 *7 68. N*/68./4
H.:-(;8./.H( 6*6)+ +)4,:)(( )( ) 3*+, /.<-*4 ,2. 6* 68. -47+2.43. )4, .=6.46
*7 )-/ 6.:;./)62/.(. O3.)4 32//.46( )77.36 3*+, 9.)68./ )4, 3)2(. +)/<.
)/.)( 4*/:)++1 -43+2,., -4 68. 6.:;./)6. G*4. 6* 7)++ 9-68-4 68. 3*+, /.<-*4(
,2/-4< 9-46./ ;./-*,(. E+.>)6-*4 )+(* 8)( ) :)/A., .77.36 *4 ,.7-4-4< 3*+,
/.<-*4(.
1%B2. !-68-4 68. 3*+, 9.)68./ /.<-*4(0 1*2 :)1 7)3. 69* 61;.( *7 3*+,
9.)68./ .4>-/*4:.46(@9.6 */ ,/1. K4*9-4< -4 98-38 .4>-/*4:.46 1*2/ )/.)
*7 *;./)6-*4( 7)++( 9-++ )77.36 ;+)44-4< )4, .=.326-*4 *7 ) 3*+, 9.)68./
*;./)6-*4.
$ET COLD $EATHER ENVIRONMENTS
1%B. !.6 3*+, 9.)68./ 3*4,-6-*4( .=-(6 98.4 68. )>./)<. 6.:;./)62/. -4 )
24B8*2/ ;./-*, -( B1" ,.</..( C C14 ,.</..( FD */ )5*>.. C8)/)36./-(6-3( *7
68-( 3*4,-6-*4 )/. 7/..G-4< ,2/-4< 68. 3*+,./ 4-<86 8*2/( )4, 68)9-4< ,2/-4<
68. ,)1. A+68*2<8 68. 6.:;./)62/.( )/. 9)/:./ ,2/-4< 68-( 3*4,-6-*40 68.
6.//)-4 -( 2(2)++1 >./1 (+*;;1 ,2. 6* (+2(8 )4, :2,. Y*2 :2(6 3*43.46/)6. *4
;/*6.36-4< 1*2/(.+7 7/*: 68. 9.6 </*24, )4, 7/*: 7/..G-4< /)-4 */ 9.6 (4*9.
DRY COLD $EATHER ENVIRONMENTS
1%B4. D/1 3*+, 9.)68./ 3*4,-6-*4( .=-(6 98.4 68. )>./)<. 6.:;./)62/. -4 )
24B8*2/ ;./-*, /.:)-4( 5.+*9 B1" ,.</..( C C14 ,.</..( FD. E>.4 68*2<8
68. 6.:;./)62/.( -4 68-( 3*4,-6-*4 )/. :238 +*9./ 68)4 4*/:)+0 1*2 ,* 4*6
8)>. 6* 3*46.4, 9-68 68. 7/..G-4< )4, 68)9-4<. I4 68.(. 3*4,-6-*4(0 1*2 4..,
:*/. +)1./( *7 -44./ 3+*68-4< 6* ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 6.:;./)62/.( )( +*9 )( B6"
,.</..( C CB76 ,.</..( FD. E=6/.:.+1 8)G)/,*2( 3*4,-6-*4( .=-(6 98.4 9-4,
)4, +*9 6.:;./)62/. 3*:5-4..
164
$INDCHILL
1%B%. !-4,B38-++ -43/.)(.( 68. 8)G)/,( -4 3*+, /.<-*4(. !-4,B38-++ -( 68. .77.36
*7 :*>-4< )-/ *4 .=;*(., 7+.(8. F*/ -4(6)43.0 9-68 ) 27.$BA;8 C1%BA4*6D 9-4,
)4, ) 6.:;./)62/. *7 B1" ,.</..( C C14 ,.</..( FD0 68. .?2->)+.46 9-4,B38-++
6.:;./)62/. -( B2 ,.</..( C CB9 ,.</..( FD. F-<2/. 1%B1 <->.( 68. 9-4,B38-++
7)36*/( 7*/ >)/-*2( 6.:;./)62/.( )4, 9-4, (;..,(.
F493*+ 1"C1. $4/2C.84<< T-@<+
1%B6. R.:.:5./0 .>.4 98.4 68./. -( 4* 9-4,0 1*2 9-++ 3/.)6. 68. .?2->)+.46
9-4, 51 (A--4<0 /244-4<0 5.-4< 6*9., *4 (A-( 5.8-4, ) >.8-3+.0 */ 9*/A-4<
)/*24, )-/3/)76 68)6 ;/*,23. 9-4,5+)(6(.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COLD $EATHER SURVIVAL
1%B7. I6 -( :*/. ,-77-32+6 7*/ 1*2 6* ()6-(71 1*2/ 5)(-3 9)6./0 7**,0 )4, (8.+6./
4..,( -4 ) 3*+, .4>-/*4:.46 68)4 -4 ) 9)/: .4>-/*4:.46. E>.4 -7 1*2 8)>.
68. 5)(-3 /.?2-/.:.46(0 1*2 :2(6 )+(* 8)>. ),.?2)6. ;/*6.36->. 3+*68-4< )4,
68. 9-++ 6* (2/>->.. T8. 9-++ 6* (2/>->. -( )( -:;*/6)46 )( 68. 5)(-3 4..,(.
T8./. 8)>. 5..4 -43-,.46( 98.4 6/)-4., )4, 9.++B.?2-;;., -4,->-,2)+( 8)>.
4*6 (2/>->., 3*+, 9.)68./ (-62)6-*4( 5.3)2(. 68.1 +)3A., 68. 9-++ 6* +->..
C*4>./(.+10 68-( 9-++ 8)( (2(6)-4., -4,->-,2)+( +.(( 9.++B6/)-4., )4, .?2-;;.,.
1%B$. T8./. )/. :)41 ,-77./.46 -6.:( *7 3*+, 9.)68./ .?2-;:.46 )4, 3+*68-4<
-((2., 51 68. U.S. A/:1 6*,)1. S;.3-)+-G., 24-6( :)1 8)>. )33.(( 6* 4.9./0
+-<869.-<86 <.)/ (238 )( ;*+1;/*;1+.4. 24,./9.)/0 G*/.BT.= *26./9.)/ )4,
5**6(0 )4, *68./ (;.3-)+ .?2-;:.46. H*9.>./0 68. *+,./ <.)/ 9-++ A..; 1*2
165
9)/: )( +*4< )( 1*2 );;+1 ) 7.9 3*+, 9.)68./ ;/-43-;+.(. I7 68. 4.9./ 61;.(
*7 3+*68-4< )/. )>)-+)5+.0 2(. 68.:. I7 4*60 68.4 1*2/ 3+*68-4< (8*2+, 5.
.46-/.+1 9**+0 9-68 68. ;*((-5+. .=3.;6-*4 *7 ) 9-4,5/.)A./.
1%B9. Y*2 :2(6 4*6 *4+1 8)>. .4*2<8 3+*68-4< 6* ;/*6.36 1*2 7/*: 68. 3*+,0
1*2 :2(6 )+(* A4*9 8*9 6* :)=-:-G. 68. 9)/:68 1*2 <.6 7/*: -6. F*/
.=):;+.0 )+9)1( A..; 1*2/ 8.), 3*>./.,. Y*2 3)4 +*(. 4" 6* 4% ;./3.46 *7
5*,1 8.)6 7/*: )4 24;/*6.36., 8.), )4, .>.4 :*/. 7/*: 68. 24;/*6.36.,
4.3A0 9/-(60 )4, )4A+.(. T8.(. )/.)( *7 68. 5*,1 )/. <**, /),-)6*/( *7 8.)6
)4, 8)>. >./1 +-66+. -4(2+)6-4< 7)6. T8. 5/)-4 -( >./1 (2(3.;6-5+. 6* 3*+, )4,
3)4 (6)4, 68. +.)(6 ):*246 *7 3**+-4<. B.3)2(. 68./. -( :238 5+**,
3-/32+)6-*4 -4 68. 8.),0 :*(6 *7 98-38 -( *4 68. (2/7)3.0 1*2 3)4 +*(. 8.)6
?2-3A+1 -7 1*2 ,* 4*6 3*>./ 1*2/ 8.),.
1%B1". T8./. )/. 7*2/ 5)(-3 ;/-43-;+.( 6* 7*++*9 6* A..; 9)/:. A4 .)(1 9)1
6* /.:.:5./ 68.(. 5)(-3 ;/-43-;+.( -( 6* 2(. 68. 9*/, COLDER )( 7*++*9(E
I CBK..; 3+*68-4< 3+.)4. T8-( ;/-43-;+. -( )+9)1( -:;*/6)46 7*/ ()4-6)6-*4 )4,
3*:7*/6. I4 9-46./0 -6 -( )+(* -:;*/6)46 7/*: 68. (6)4,;*-46 *7 9)/:68. C+*68.(
:)66., 9-68 ,-/6 )4, </.)(. +*(. :238 *7 68.-/ -4(2+)6-*4 >)+2.. H.)6 3)4
.(3);. :*/. .)(-+1 7/*: 68. 5*,1 68/*2<8 68. 3+*68-4<H( 3/2(8., */ 7-++., 2;
)-/ ;*3A.6(.
I OBA>*-, *>./8.)6-4<. !8.4 1*2 <.6 6** 8*60 1*2 (9.)6 )4, 1*2/ 3+*68-4<
)5(*/5( 68. :*-(62/.. T8-( )77.36( 1*2/ 9)/:68 -4 69* 9)1(E ,):;4.((
,.3/.)(.( 68. -4(2+)6-*4 ?2)+-61 *7 3+*68-4<0 )4, )( (9.)6 .>);*/)6.(0 1*2/
5*,1 3**+(. A,F2(6 1*2/ 3+*68-4< (* 68)6 1*2 ,* 4*6 (9.)6. D* 68-( 51 ;)/6-)++1
*;.4-4< 1*2/ ;)/A) */ F)3A.60 51 /.:*>-4< )4 -44./ +)1./ *7 3+*68-4<0 51
/.:*>-4< 8.)>1 *26./ :-66.4(0 */ 51 68/*9-4< 5)3A 1*2/ ;)/A) 8**, */
38)4<-4< 6* +-<86./ 8.),<.)/. T8. 8.), )4, 8)4,( )36 )( .77-3-.46 8.)6
,-((-;)6./( 98.4 *>./8.)6.,.
I LB!.)/ 1*2/ 3+*68-4< +**(. )4, -4 +)1./(. !.)/-4< 6-<86 3+*68-4< )4,
7**6<.)/ /.(6/-36( 5+**, 3-/32+)6-*4 )4, -4>-6.( 3*+, -4F2/1. I6 )+(* ,.3/.)(.(
68. >*+2:. *7 )-/ 6/);;., 5.69..4 68. +)1./(0 /.,23-4< -6( -4(2+)6-4< >)+2..
S.>./)+ +)1./( *7 +-<869.-<86 3+*68-4< )/. 5.66./ 68)4 *4. .?2)++1 68-3A +)1./ *7
3+*68-4<0 5.3)2(. 68. +)1./( 8)>. ,.), )-/(;)3. 5.69..4 68.:. T8. ,.),
)-/(;)3. ;/*>-,.( .=6/) -4(2+)6-*4. A+(*0 +)1./( *7 3+*68-4< )++*9 1*2 6* 6)A.
*77 */ ),, 3+*68-4< +)1./( 6* ;/.>.46 .=3.((->. (9.)6-4< */ 6* -43/.)(.
9)/:68.
I DBK..; 3+*68-4< ,/1. I4 3*+, 6.:;./)62/.(0 1*2/ -44./ +)1./( *7 3+*68-4< 3)4
5.3*:. 9.6 7/*: (9.)6 )4, 1*2/ *26./ +)1./0 -7 4*6 9)6./ /.;.++.460 3)4
5.3*:. 9.6 7/*: (4*9 )4, 7/*(6 :.+6., 51 5*,1 8.)6. !.)/ 9)6./ /.;.++.46
*26./ 3+*68-4<0 -7 )>)-+)5+.. I6 9-++ (8., :*(6 *7 68. 9)6./ 3*++.36., 7/*:
:.+6-4< (4*9 )4, 7/*(6. B.7*/. .46./-4< ) 8.)6., (8.+6./0 5/2(8 *77 68. (4*9
)4, 7/*(6. D.(;-6. 68. ;/.3)26-*4( 1*2 6)A.0 68./. 9-++ 5. 6-:.( 98.4 1*2
3)44*6 A..; 7/*: <.66-4< 9.6. A6 (238 6-:.(0 ,/1-4< 1*2/ 3+*68-4< :)1
5.3*:. ) :)F*/ ;/*5+.:. O4 68. :)/380 8)4< 1*2/ ,):; :-66.4( )4, (*3A(
*4 1*2/ /23A()3A. S*:.6-:.( -4 7/..G-4< 6.:;./)62/.(0 68. 9-4, )4, (24 9-++
166
,/1 68-( 3+*68-4<. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;+)3. ,):; (*3A( */ :-66.4(0 247*+,.,0 4.)/
1*2/ 5*,1 (* 68)6 1*2/ 5*,1 8.)6 3)4 ,/1 68.:. I4 ) 3):;(-6.0 8)4< ,):;
3+*68-4< -4(-,. 68. (8.+6./ 4.)/ 68. 6*;0 2(-4< ,/1-4< +-4.( */ -:;/*>-(., /)3A(.
Y*2 :)1 .>.4 5. )5+. 6* ,/1 .)38 -6.: 51 8*+,-4< -6 5.7*/. )4 *;.4 7-/.. D/1
+.)68./ -6.:( (+*9+1. I7 4* *68./ :.)4( )/. )>)-+)5+. 7*/ ,/1-4< 1*2/ 5**6(0
;26 68.: 5.69..4 1*2/ (+..;-4< 5)< (8.++ )4, +-4./. Y*2/ 5*,1 8.)6 9-++ 8.+;
6* ,/1 68. +.)68./.
I EBE=):-4. 1*2/ 24-7*/: 7*/ 9*/4 )/.)(0 6.)/(0 )4, 3+.)4+-4.((.
I RBR.;)-/ 1*2/ 24-7*/: .)/+1 5.7*/. 6.)/( )4, 8*+.( 5.3*:. 6** +)/<. 6*
;)638. I:;/*>-(., (.9-4< A-6( 3)4 5. :),. 7/*: 5*4.(0 ;+)46 7-5./(0 %%"
3*/,0 )4, +)/<. 68*/4(.
1%B11. A 8.)>10 ,*94B+-4., (+..;-4< 5)< -( ) >)+2)5+. ;-.3. *7 (2/>->)+ <.)/
-4 3*+, 9.)68./. E4(2/. 68. ,*94 /.:)-4( ,/1. I7 9.60 -6 +*(.( ) +*6 *7 -6(
-4(2+)6-*4 >)+2.. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. ) (+..;-4< 5)<0 1*2 3)4 :)A. *4. *26 *7
;)/)3826. 3+*68 */ (-:-+)/ :)6./-)+ )4, 4)62/)+ ,/1 :)6./-)+0 (238 )( +.)>.(0
;-4. 4..,+.(0 */ :*((. P+)3. 68. ,/1 :)6./-)+ 5.69..4 69* +)1./( *7 68.
:)6./-)+.
1%B12. O68./ -:;*/6)46 (2/>->)+ -6.:( )/. ) A4-7.M 9)6./;/**7 :)638.( -4 )
9)6./;/**7 3*46)-4./0 ;/.7./)5+1 *4. 9-68 ) 7+-46 )66)38.,M ) ,2/)5+. 3*:;)((M
:);M 9)638M 9)6./;/**7 </*24, 3+*68 )4, 3*>./M 7+)(8+-<86M 5-4*32+)/(M ,)/A
<+)((.(M 7)661 .:./<.431 7**,(M 7**, <)68./-4< <.)/M )4, (-<4)+-4< -6.:(.
1%B1. R.:.:5./0 ) 3*+, 9.)68./ .4>-/*4:.46 3)4 5. >./1 8)/(8. G->. )
<**, ,.)+ *7 68*2<86 6* (.+.36-4< 68. /-<86 .?2-;:.46 7*/ (2/>->)+ -4 68. 3*+,.
I7 24(2/. *7 )4 -6.: 1*2 8)>. 4.>./ 2(.,0 6.(6 -6 -4 )4 J*>./4-<86 5)3A1)/,K
.4>-/*4:.46 5.7*/. >.462/-4< 72/68./. O43. 1*2 8)>. (.+.36., -6.:( 68)6 )/.
.((.46-)+ 7*/ 1*2/ (2/>->)+0 ,* 4*6 +*(. 68.: )76./ 1*2 .46./ ) 3*+, 9.)68./
.4>-/*4:.46.
HYGIENE
1%B14. A+68*2<8 9)(8-4< 1*2/(.+7 :)1 5. -:;/)36-3)+ )4, 243*:7*/6)5+. -4 )
3*+, .4>-/*4:.460 1*2 :2(6 ,* (*. !)(8-4< 8.+;( ;/.>.46 (A-4 /)(8.( 68)6
3)4 ,.>.+*; -46* :*/. (./-*2( ;/*5+.:(.
1%B1%. I4 (*:. (-62)6-*4(0 1*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* 6)A. ) (4*9 5)68. T)A. )
8)4,72+ *7 (4*9 )4, 9)(8 1*2/ 5*,1 98./. (9.)6 )4, :*-(62/. )332:2+)6.0
(238 )( 24,./ 68. )/:( )4, 5.69..4 68. +.<(0 )4, 68.4 9-;. 1*2/(.+7 ,/1. I7
;*((-5+.0 9)(8 1*2/ 7..6 ,)-+1 )4, ;26 *4 3+.)40 ,/1 (*3A(. C8)4<. 1*2/
24,./9.)/ )6 +.)(6 69-3. ) 9..A. I7 1*2 )/. 24)5+. 6* 9)(8 1*2/ 24,./9.)/0
6)A. -6 *770 (8)A. -60 )4, +.6 -6 )-/ *26 7*/ )4 8*2/ */ 69*.
1%B16. I7 1*2 )/. 2(-4< ) ;/.>-*2(+1 2(., (8.+6./0 38.3A 1*2/ 5*,1 )4,
3+*68-4< 7*/ +-3. .)38 4-<86. I7 1*2/ 3+*68-4< 8)( 5.3*:. -47.(6.,0 2(.
-4(.36-3-,. ;*9,./ -7 1*2 8)>. )41. O68./9-(.0 8)4< 1*2/ 3+*68.( -4 68. 3*+,0
68.4 5.)6 )4, 5/2(8 68.:. T8-( 9-++ 8.+; <.6 /-, *7 68. +-3.0 526 4*6 68. .<<(.
167
1%B17. I7 1*2 (8)>.0 6/1 6* ,* (* 5.7*/. <*-4< 6* 5.,. T8-( 9-++ <->. 1*2/ (A-4
) 38)43. 6* /.3*>./ 5.7*/. .=;*(-4< -6 6* 68. .+.:.46(.
MEDICAL ASPECTS
1%B1$. !8.4 1*2 )/. 8.)+6810 1*2/ -44./ 3*/. 6.:;./)62/. C6*/(*
6.:;./)62/.D /.:)-4( )+:*(6 3*4(6)46 )6 7 ,.</..( C C9$.6 ,.</..( FD.
S-43. 1*2/ +-:5( )4, 8.), 8)>. +.(( ;/*6.36->. 5*,1 6-((2. 68)4 1*2/ 6*/(*0
68.-/ 6.:;./)62/.( >)/1 )4, :)1 4*6 /.)38 3*/. 6.:;./)62/..
1%B19. Y*2/ 5*,1 8)( ) 3*46/*+ (1(6.: 68)6 +.6( -6 /.)36 6* 6.:;./)62/.
.=6/.:.( 6* :)-46)-4 ) 6.:;./)62/. 5)+)43.. T8./. )/. 68/.. :)-4 7)36*/(
68)6 )77.36 68-( 6.:;./)62/. 5)+)43.@8.)6 ;/*,236-*40 8.)6 +*((0 )4,
.>);*/)6-*4. T8. ,-77./.43. 5.69..4 68. 5*,1H( 3*/. 6.:;./)62/. )4, 68.
.4>-/*4:.46H( 6.:;./)62/. <*>./4( 68. 8.)6 ;/*,236-*4 /)6.. Y*2/ 5*,1 3)4
<.6 /-, *7 8.)6 5.66./ 68)4 -6 3)4 ;/*,23. -6. S9.)6-4< 8.+;( 6* 3*46/*+ 68. 8.)6
5)+)43.. M)=-:2: (9.)6-4< 9-++ <.6 /-, *7 8.)6 )5*26 )( 7)(6 )( :)=-:2:
.=./6-*4 ;/*,23.( -6.
1%B2". S8->./-4< 3)2(.( 68. 5*,1 6* ;/*,23. 8.)6. I6 )+(* 3)2(.( 7)6-<2.
68)60 -4 62/40 +.),( 6* ) ,/*; -4 5*,1 6.:;./)62/.. A-/ :*>.:.46 )/*24, 1*2/
5*,1 )77.36( 8.)6 +*((. I6 8)( 5..4 4*6., 68)6 ) 4)A., :)4 .=;*(., 6* (6-++ )-/
)6 */ )5*26 " ,.</..( C C2 ,.</..( FD 3)4 :)-46)-4 ) 8.)6 5)+)43. -7 8.
(8->./( )( 8)/, )( 8. 3)4. H*9.>./0 8. 3)4H6 (8->./ 7*/.>./.
1%B21. I6 8)( )+(* 5..4 4*6., 68)6 ) :)4 )6 /.(6 9.)/-4< 68. :)=-:2: )/36-3
3+*68-4< -4 ) 3*+, .4>-/*4:.46 3)4 A..; 8-( -46./4)+ 8.)6 5)+)43. ,2/-4<
6.:;./)62/.( 9.++ 5.+*9 7/..G-4<. H*9.>./0 6* 9-68(6)4, /.)++1 3*+,
3*4,-6-*4( 7*/ )41 +.4<68 *7 6-:.0 8. 9-++ 8)>. 6* 5.3*:. )36->. */ (8->./.
COLD INJURIES
1%B22. T8. 5.(6 9)1 6* ,.)+ 9-68 -4F2/-.( )4, (-3A4.((.( -( 6* 6)A. :.)(2/.(
6* ;/.>.46 68.: 7/*: 8);;.4-4< -4 68. 7-/(6 ;+)3.. T/.)6 )41 -4F2/1 */ (-3A4.((
68)6 *332/( )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+. 6* ;/.>.46 -6 7/*: 9*/(.4-4<.
1%B2. T8. A4*9+.,<. *7 (-<4( )4, (1:;6*:( )4, 68. 2(. *7 68. 52,,1
(1(6.: )/. 3/-6-3)+ -4 :)-46)-4-4< 8.)+68. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8( .=;+)-4
(*:. 3*+, -4F2/-.( 68)6 3)4 *332/.
HYPOTHERMIA
1%B24. H1;*68./:-) -( 68. +*9./-4< *7 68. 5*,1 6.:;./)62/. )6 ) /)6. 7)(6./
68)4 68. 5*,1 3)4 ;/*,23. 8.)6. C)2(.( *7 81;*68./:-) :)1 5. <.4./)+
.=;*(2/. */ 68. (2,,.4 9.66-4< *7 68. 5*,1 51 7)++-4< -46* ) +)A. */ (;/)1-4<
9-68 72.+ */ *68./ +-?2-,(.
1%B2%. T8. -4-6-)+ (1:;6*: -( (8->./-4<. T8-( (8->./-4< :)1 ;/*</.(( 6* 68.
;*-46 68)6 -6 -( 243*46/*++)5+. )4, -46./7./.( 9-68 )4 -4,->-,2)+H( )5-+-61 6* 3)/.
7*/ 8-:(.+7. T8-( 5.<-4( 98.4 68. 5*,1H( 3*/. 6.:;./)62/. 7)++( 6* )5*26 %.%
168
,.</..( C C96 ,.</..( FD. !8.4 68. 3*/. 6.:;./)62/. /.)38.( % 6* 2
,.</..( C C9% 6* 9" ,.</..( FD0 (+2<<-(8 68-4A-4<0 -//)6-*4)+ /.)(*4-4<0 )4, )
7)+(. 7..+-4< *7 9)/:68 :)1 *332/. C*/. 6.:;./)62/.( *7 2 6* " ,.</..( C
C9" 6* $6 ,.</..( FD )4, 5.+*9 /.(2+6 -4 :2(3+. /-<-,-610 243*4(3-*2(4.((0
)4, 5)/.+1 ,.6.36)5+. (-<4( *7 +-7.. I7 68. >-36-:H( 3*/. 6.:;./)62/. 7)++( 5.+*9
2% ,.</..( C C77 ,.</..( FD0 ,.)68 -( )+:*(6 3./6)-4.
1%B26. T* 6/.)6 81;*68./:-)0 /.9)/: 68. .46-/. 5*,1. I7 68./. )/. :.)4(
)>)-+)5+.0 /.9)/: 68. ;./(*4 51 7-/(6 -::./(-4< 68. 6/24A )/.) *4+1 -4 9)/:
9)6./ *7 7.7 6* 4. ,.</..( C C1"" 6* 11" ,.</..( FD.
CAUTION C R.9)/:-4< 68. 6*6)+ 5*,1 -4 ) 9)/: 9)6./ 5)68 (8*2+, 5. ,*4.
*4+1 -4 ) 8*(;-6)+ .4>-/*4:.46 5.3)2(. *7 68. -43/.)(., /-(A *7 3)/,-)3 )//.(6
)4, /.9)/:-4< (8*3A.
1%B27. O4. *7 68. ?2-3A.(6 9)1( 6* <.6 8.)6 6* 68. -44./ 3*/. -( 6* <->. 9)/:
9)6./ .4.:)(. H*9.>./0 (238 )4 )36-*4 :)1 4*6 5. ;*((-5+. -4 ) (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*4. A4*68./ :.68*, -( 6* 9/); 68. >-36-: -4 ) 9)/:., (+..;-4< 5)< 9-68
)4*68./ ;./(*4 98* -( )+/.),1 9)/:M 5*68 (8*2+, 5. 4)A.,.
CAUTION C T8. -4,->-,2)+ ;+)3., -4 68. (+..;-4< 5)< 9-68 68. >-36-: 3*2+,
)+(* 5.3*:. ) 81;*68./:-) >-36-: -7 +.76 -4 68. 5)< 6** +*4<.
1%B2$. I7 68. ;./(*4 -( 3*4(3-*2(0 <->. 8-: 8*60 (9..6.4., 7+2-,(. H*4.1 */
,.=6/*(. )/. 5.(60 526 -7 68.1 )/. 24)>)-+)5+.0 (2<)/0 3*3*)0 */ ) (-:-+)/
(*+25+. (9..6.4./ :)1 5. 2(.,.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 7*/3. )4 243*4(3-*2( ;./(*4 6* ,/-4A.
1%B29. T8./. )/. 69* ,)4<./( -4 6/.)6-4< 81;*68./:-)@/.9)/:-4< 6** /);-,+1
)4, J)76./B,/*;.K R.9)/:-4< 6** /);-,+1 3)4 3)2(. 68. >-36-: 6* 8)>.
3-/32+)6*/1 ;/*5+.:(0 /.(2+6-4< -4 8.)/6 7)-+2/.. A76./ ,/*; -( 68. (8)/; 5*,1
3*/. 6.:;./)62/. ,/*; 68)6 *332/( 98.4 6)A-4< 68. >-36-: 7/*: 68. 9)/:
9)6./. I6( ;/*5)5+. 3)2(. -( 68. /.62/4 *7 ;/.>-*2(+1 (6)<4)46 +-:5 5+**, 6*
68. 3*/. C-44./ 6*/(*D )/.) )( /.3-/32+)6-*4 *332/(. C*43.46/)6-4< *4 9)/:-4<
68. 3*/. )/.) )4, (6-:2+)6-4< ;./-;8./)+ 3-/32+)6-*4 9-++ +.((.4 68. .77.36( *7
)76./B,/*;. I::./(-4< 68. 6*/(* -4 ) 9)/: 5)680 -7 ;*((-5+.0 -( 68. 5.(6
6/.)6:.46.
FROSTBITE
1%B". T8-( -4F2/1 -( 68. /.(2+6 *7 7/*G.4 6-((2.(. L-<86 7/*(65-6. -4>*+>.( *4+1
68. (A-4 68)6 6)A.( *4 ) ,2++ 98-6-(8 ;)++*/. D..; 7/*(65-6. .=6.4,( 6* ) ,.;68
5.+*9 68. (A-4. T8. 6-((2.( 5.3*:. (*+-, )4, -::*>)5+.. Y*2/ 7..60 8)4,(0
)4, .=;*(., 7)3-)+ )/.)( )/. ;)/6-32+)/+1 >2+4./)5+. 6* 7/*(65-6..
1%B1. T8. 5.(6 7/*(65-6. ;/.>.46-*40 98.4 1*2 )/. 9-68 *68./(0 -( 6* 2(. 68.
52,,1 (1(6.:. C8.3A 1*2/ 52,,1H( 7)3. *76.4 )4, :)A. (2/. 68)6 8. 38.3A(
1*2/(. I7 1*2 )/. )+*4.0 ;./-*,-3)++1 3*>./ 1*2/ 4*(. )4, +*9./ ;)/6 *7 1*2/
7)3. 9-68 1*2/ :-66.4., 8)4,.
169
1%B2. T8. 7*++*9-4< ;*-46./( 9-++ )-, 1*2 -4 A..;-4< 9)/: )4, ;/.>.46-4<
7/*(65-6. 98.4 -6 -( .=6/.:.+1 3*+, */ 98.4 1*2 8)>. +.(( 68)4 ),.?2)6.
3+*68-4<E
I #ace. M)-46)-4 3-/32+)6-*4 51 J:)A-4< 7)3.(.K !)/: 9-68 1*2/ 8)4,(.
I 8ars. !-<<+. )4, :*>. 1*2/ .)/(. !)/: 9-68 1*2/ 8)4,(.
I ,ands. M*>. 1*2/ 8)4,( -4(-,. 1*2/ <+*>.(. !)/: 51 ;+)3-4< 1*2/ 8)4,(
3+*(. 6* 1*2/ 5*,1.
I #eet. M*>. 1*2/ 7..6 )4, 9-<<+. 1*2/ 6*.( -4(-,. 1*2/ 5**6(.
1%B. A +*(( *7 7..+-4< -4 1*2/ 8)4,( )4, 7..6 -( ) (-<4 *7 7/*(65-6.. I7 1*2
8)>. +*(6 7..+-4< 7*/ *4+1 ) (8*/6 6-:.0 68. 7/*(65-6. -( ;/*5)5+1 +-<86.
O68./9-(.0 )((2:. 68. 7/*(65-6. -( ,..;. T* /.9)/: ) +-<86 7/*(65-6.0 2(. 1*2/
8)4,( */ :-66.4( 6* 9)/: 1*2/ 7)3. )4, .)/(. P+)3. 1*2/ 8)4,( 24,./ 1*2/
)/:;-6(. P+)3. 1*2/ 7..6 4.=6 6* 1*2/ 52,,1H( (6*:)38. A ,..; 7/*(65-6.
-4F2/10 -7 68)9., )4, /.7/*G.40 9-++ 3)2(. :*/. ,):)<. 68)4 ) 4*4:.,-3)++1
6/)-4., ;./(*4 3)4 8)4,+.. F-<2/. 1%B20 +-(6( (*:. J,*( )4, ,*4H6(K
/.<)/,-4< 7/*(65-6..
D1. D1/J0.
P./-*,-3)++1 38.3A 7*/
7/*(65-6..
R*5 -4F2/1 9-68 (4*9.
R.9)/: +-<86 7/*(65-6.. D/-4A )+3*8*+-3 5.>./)<.(.
K..; -4F2/., )/.)( 7/*:
/.7/..G-4<.
S:*A..
T/1 6* 68)9 *26 ) ,..; 7/*(65-6. -4F2/1 -7 1*2 )/.
)9)1 7/*: ,.7-4-6->. :.,-3)+ 3)/..
F493*+ 1"C2. F*1:0@40+ D1: -/2 D1/I0:
TRENCH FOOT AND IMMERSION FOOT
1%B4. T8.(. 3*4,-6-*4( /.(2+6 7/*: :)41 8*2/( */ ,)1( *7 .=;*(2/. 6* 9.6
*/ ,):; 3*4,-6-*4( )6 ) 6.:;./)62/. F2(6 )5*>. 7/..G-4<. T8. (1:;6*:( )/.
) (.4()6-*4 *7 ;-4( )4, 4..,+.(0 6-4<+-4<0 42:54.((0 )4, 68.4 ;)-4. T8. (A-4
9-++ -4-6-)++1 );;.)/ 9.60 (*<<10 98-6.0 )4, (8/->.+.,. A( -6 ;/*</.((.( )4,
,):)<. );;.)/(0 68. (A-4 9-++ 6)A. *4 ) /., )4, 68.4 ) 5+2-(8 */ 5+)3A
,-(3*+*/)6-*4. T8. 7..6 5.3*:. 3*+,0 (9*++.40 )4, 8)>. ) 9)=1 );;.)/)43..
!)+A-4< 5.3*:.( ,-77-32+6 )4, 68. 7..6 7..+ 8.)>1 )4, 42:5. T8. 4./>.( )4,
:2(3+.( (2(6)-4 68. :)-4 ,):)<.0 526 <)4</.4. 3)4 *332/. I4 .=6/.:.
3)(.(0 68. 7+.(8 ,-.( )4, -6 :)1 5.3*:. 4.3.(()/1 6* 8)>. 68. 7**6 */ +.<
):;26)6.,. T8. 5.(6 ;/.>.46-*4 -( 6* A..; 1*2/ 7..6 ,/1. C)//1 .=6/) (*3A(
9-68 1*2 -4 ) 9)6./;/**7 ;)3A.6. Y*2 3)4 ,/1 9.6 (*3A( )<)-4(6 1*2/ 6*/(*
C5)3A */ 38.(6D. !)(8 1*2/ 7..6 )4, ;26 *4 ,/1 (*3A( ,)-+1.
DEHYDRATION
1%B%. !8.4 524,+., 2; -4 :)41 +)1./( *7 3+*68-4< ,2/-4< 3*+, 9.)68./0 1*2
:)1 5. 24)9)/. 68)6 1*2 )/. +*(-4< 5*,1 :*-(62/.. Y*2/ 8.)>1 3+*68-4<
)5(*/5( 68. :*-(62/. 68)6 .>);*/)6.( -4 68. )-/. Y*2 :2(6 ,/-4A 9)6./ 6*
170
/.;+)3. 68-( +*(( *7 7+2-,. Y*2/ 4.., 7*/ 9)6./ -( )( </.)6 -4 ) 3*+,
.4>-/*4:.46 )( -6 -( -4 ) 9)/: .4>-/*4:.46 CC8);6./ 1D. O4. 9)1 6* 6.++ -7
1*2 )/. 5.3*:-4< ,.81,/)6., -( 6* 38.3A 68. 3*+*/ *7 1*2/ 2/-4. *4 (4*9. I7
1*2/ 2/-4. :)A.( 68. (4*9 ,)/A 1.++*90 1*2 )/. 5.3*:-4< ,.81,/)6., )4,
4.., 6* /.;+)3. 5*,1 7+2-,(. I7 -6 :)A.( 68. (4*9 +-<86 1.++*9 6* 4* 3*+*/0 1*2/
5*,1 7+2-,( 8)>. ) :*/. 4*/:)+ 5)+)43..
COLD DIURESIS
1%B6. E=;*(2/. 6* 3*+, -43/.)(.( 2/-4. *26;26. I6 )+(* ,.3/.)(.( 5*,1 7+2-,(
68)6 1*2 :2(6 /.;+)3..
SUNBURN
1%B7. E=;*(., (A-4 3)4 5.3*:. (2452/4., .>.4 98.4 68. )-/ 6.:;./)62/.
-( 5.+*9 7/..G-4<. T8. (24H( /)1( /.7+.36 )6 )++ )4<+.( 7/*: (4*90 -3.0 )4,
9)6./0 8-66-4< (.4(-6->. )/.)( *7 (A-4@+-;(0 4*(6/-+(0 )4, .1.+-,(. E=;*(2/. 6*
68. (24 /.(2+6( -4 (2452/4 :*/. ?2-3A+1 )6 8-<8 )+6-62,.( 68)4 )6 +*9 )+6-62,.(.
A;;+1 (2452/4 3/.): */ +-; ()+>. 6* 1*2/ 7)3. 98.4 -4 68. (24.
SNO$ BLINDNESS
1%B$. T8. /.7+.36-*4 *7 68. (24H( 2+6/)>-*+.6 /)1( *77 ) (4*9B3*>./., )/.)
3)2(.( 68-( 3*4,-6-*4. T8. (1:;6*:( *7 (4*9 5+-4,4.(( )/. ) (.4()6-*4 *7
</-6 -4 68. .1.(0 ;)-4 -4 )4, *>./ 68. .1.( 68)6 -43/.)(.( 9-68 .1.5)++
:*>.:.460 /., )4, 6.)/1 .1.(0 )4, ) 8.),)38. 68)6 -46.4(-7-.( 9-68 3*46-42.,
.=;*(2/. 6* +-<86. P/*+*4<., .=;*(2/. 6* 68.(. /)1( 3)4 /.(2+6 -4 ;./:)4.46
.1. ,):)<.. T* 6/.)6 (4*9 5+-4,4.((0 5)4,)<. 1*2/ .1.( 246-+ 68. (1:;6*:(
,-();;.)/.
1%B9. Y*2 3)4 ;/.>.46 (4*9 5+-4,4.(( 51 9.)/-4< (24<+)((.(. I7 1*2 ,*4H6
8)>. (24<+)((.(0 -:;/*>-(.. C26 (+-6( -4 ) ;-.3. *7 3)/,5*)/,0 68-4 9**,0 6/..
5)/A0 */ *68./ )>)-+)5+. :)6./-)+ CF-<2/. 1%BD. P266-4< (**6 24,./ 1*2/ .1.(
9-++ 8.+; /.,23. (8-4. )4, <+)/..
F493*+ 1"C3. I>7*1B4:+2 S3/9<-::+:
CONSTIPATION
171
1%B4". I6 -( >./1 -:;*/6)46 6* /.+-.>. 1*2/(.+7 98.4 4..,.,. D* 4*6 ,.+)1
5.3)2(. *7 68. 3*+, 3*4,-6-*4. D.+)1-4< /.+-.>-4< 1*2/(.+7 5.3)2(. *7 68.
3*+,0 .)6-4< ,.81,/)6., 7**,(0 ,/-4A-4< 6** +-66+. +-?2-,0 )4, -//.<2+)/ .)6-4<
8)5-6( 3)4 3)2(. 1*2 6* 5.3*:. 3*4(6-;)6.,. A+68*2<8 4*6 ,-()5+-4<0
3*4(6-;)6-*4 3)4 3)2(. (*:. ,-(3*:7*/6. I43/.)(. 1*2/ 7+2-, -46)A. 6* )6 +.)(6
2 +-6./( )5*>. 1*2/ 4*/:)+ 2 6* +-6./( ,)-+1 -46)A. )4,0 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 .)6 7/2-6
)4, *68./ 7**,( 68)6 9-++ +**(.4 68. (6**+.
INSECT BITES
1%B41. I4(.36 5-6.( 3)4 5.3*:. -47.36., 68/*2<8 3*4(6)46 (3/)638-4<. F+-.(
3)4 3)//1 >)/-*2( ,-(.)(. ;/*,23-4< <./:(. T* ;/.>.46 -4(.36 5-6.(0 2(.
-4(.36 /.;.++.46 )4, 4.66-4< )4, 9.)/ ;/*;./ 3+*68-4<. S.. C8);6./ 11 7*/
-47*/:)6-*4 *4 -4(.36 5-6.( )4, C8);6./ 4 7*/ 6/.)6:.46.
SHELTERS
1%B42. Y*2/ .4>-/*4:.46 )4, 68. .?2-;:.46 1*2 3)//1 9-68 1*2 9-++ ,.6./:-4.
68. 61;. *7 (8.+6./ 1*2 3)4 52-+,. Y*2 3)4 52-+, (8.+6./( -4 9**,., )/.)(0
*;.4 3*246/10 )4, 5)//.4 )/.)(. !**,., )/.)( 2(2)++1 ;/*>-,. 68. 5.(6
+*3)6-*40 98-+. 5)//.4 )/.)( 8)>. *4+1 (4*9 )( 52-+,-4< :)6./-)+. !**,.,
)/.)( ;/*>-,. 6-:5./ 7*/ (8.+6./ 3*4(6/236-*40 9**, 7*/ 7-/.0 3*43.)+:.46 7/*:
*5(./>)6-*40 )4, ;/*6.36-*4 7/*: 68. 9-4,.
NOTE: I4 .=6/.:. 3*+,0 ,* 4*6 2(. :.6)+0 (238 )( )4 )-/3/)76 72(.+)<.0 7*/
(8.+6./. T8. :.6)+ 9-++ 3*4,236 )9)1 7/*: 68. (8.+6./ 98)6 +-66+. 8.)6 1*2 3)4
<.4./)6..
1%B4. S8.+6./( :),. 7/*: -3. */ (4*9 2(2)++1 /.?2-/. 6**+( (238 )( -3. )=.(
*/ ()9(. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* .=;.4, :238 6-:. )4, .4./<1 6* 52-+, (238 )
(8.+6./. B. (2/. 6* >.46-+)6. )4 .43+*(., (8.+6./0 .(;.3-)++1 -7 1*2 -46.4, 6*
52-+, ) 7-/. -4 -6. A+9)1( 5+*3A ) (8.+6./H( .46/)43.0 -7 ;*((-5+.0 6* A..; 68.
8.)6 -4 )4, 68. 9-4, *26. U(. ) /23A()3A */ (4*9 5+*3A. C*4(6/236 ) (8.+6./
4* +)/<./ 68)4 4..,.,. T8-( 9-++ /.,23. 68. ):*246 *7 (;)3. 6* 8.)6. A 7)6)+
.//*/ -4 3*+, 9.)68./ (8.+6./ 3*4(6/236-*4 -( :)A-4< 68. (8.+6./ (* +)/<. 68)6 -6
(6.)+( 5*,1 8.)6 /)68./ 68)4 8.+;( ()>. -6.
1%B44. N.>./ (+..; ,-/.36+1 *4 68. </*24,. L)1 ,*94 (*:. ;-4. 5*2<8(0
</)((0 */ *68./ -4(2+)6-4< :)6./-)+ 6* A..; 68. </*24, 7/*: )5(*/5-4< 1*2/
5*,1 8.)6.
1%B4%. N.>./ 7)++ )(+..; 9-68*26 62/4-4< *26 1*2/ (6*>. */ +):;. C)/5*4
:*4*=-,. ;*-(*4-4< 3)4 /.(2+6 7/*: ) 7-/. 52/4-4< -4 )4 24>.46-+)6., (8.+6./.
C)/5*4 :*4*=-,. -( ) </.)6 ,)4<./. I6 -( 3*+*/+.(( )4, *,*/+.((. A41 6-:.
1*2 8)>. )4 *;.4 7+):.0 -6 :)1 <.4./)6. 3)/5*4 :*4*=-,.. A+9)1( 38.3A
1*2/ >.46-+)6-*4. E>.4 -4 ) >.46-+)6., (8.+6./0 -43*:;+.6. 3*:52(6-*4 3)4
3)2(. 3)/5*4 :*4*=-,. ;*-(*4-4<. U(2)++10 68./. )/. 4* (1:;6*:(.
U43*4(3-*2(4.(( )4, ,.)68 3)4 *332/ 9-68*26 9)/4-4<. S*:.6-:.(0
8*9.>./0 ;/.((2/. )6 68. 6.:;+.(0 52/4-4< *7 68. .1.(0 8.),)38.0 ;*24,-4<
;2+(.0 ,/*9(-4.((0 */ 4)2(.) :)1 *332/. T8. *4. 38)/)36./-(6-30 >-(-5+. (-<4
172
*7 3)/5*4 :*4*=-,. ;*-(*4-4< -( ) 38.//1 /., 3*+*/-4< -4 68. 6-((2.( *7 68.
+-;(0 :*2680 )4, -4(-,. *7 68. .1.+-,(. G.6 -46* 7/.(8 )-/ )6 *43. -7 1*2 8)>.
)41 *7 68.(. (1:;6*:(.
1%B46. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 61;.( *7 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 (8.+6./( 1*2 3)4 ?2-3A+1
52-+, */ .:;+*1. M)41 2(. (4*9 7*/ -4(2+)6-*4.
SNO$ CAVE SHELTER
1%B47. T8. (4*9 3)>. (8.+6./ CF-<2/. 1%B4D -( ) :*(6 .77.36->. ,9.++-4<
5.3)2(. *7 68. -4(2+)6-4< ?2)+-6-.( *7 (4*9. R.:.:5./ 68)6 -6 6)A.( 6-:. )4,
.4./<1 6* 52-+, )4, 68)6 1*2 9-++ <.6 9.6 98-+. 52-+,-4< -6. F-/(60 1*2 4.., 6*
7-4, ) ,/-76 )5*26 :.6./( C1" 7..6D ,..; -46* 98-38 1*2 3)4 ,-<. !8-+.
52-+,-4< 68-( (8.+6./0 A..; 68. /**7 )/38., 7*/ (6/.4<68 )4, 6* )++*9 :.+6.,
(4*9 6* ,/)-4 ,*94 68. (-,.(. B2-+, 68. (+..;-4< ;+)67*/: 8-<8./ 68)4 68.
.46/)43.. S.;)/)6. 68. (+..;-4< ;+)67*/: 7/*: 68. (4*9 3)>.H( 9)++( */ ,-< )
(:)++ 6/.438 5.69..4 68. ;+)67*/: )4, 68. 9)++. T8-( ;+)67*/: 9-++ ;/.>.46 68.
:.+6-4< (4*9 7/*: 9.66-4< 1*2 )4, 1*2/ .?2-;:.46. T8-( 3*4(6/236-*4 -(
.(;.3-)++1 -:;*/6)46 -7 1*2 8)>. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 8.)6 -4 68. (4*9 3)>..
E4(2/. 68. /**7 -( 8-<8 .4*2<8 (* 68)6 1*2 3)4 (-6 2; *4 68. (+..;-4< ;+)67*/:.
B+*3A 68. .46/)43. 9-68 ) (4*9 5+*3A */ *68./ :)6./-)+ )4, 2(. 68. +*9./
.46/)43. )/.) 7*/ 3**A-4<. T8. 9)++( )4, 3.-+-4< (8*2+, 5. )6 +.)(6 "
3.46-:.6./( C1 7**6D 68-3A. I4(6)++ ) >.46-+)6-*4 (8)76. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. ) ,/-76
+)/<. .4*2<8 6* 52-+, ) (4*9 3)>.0 1*2 3)4 :)A. ) >)/-)6-*4 *7 -6 51 ;-+-4<
(4*9 -46* ) :*24, +)/<. .4*2<8 6* ,-< *26.
173
F493*+ 1"C!. S/1A DA+<<4/9:
SNO$ TRENCH SHELTER
1%B4$. T8. -,.) 5.8-4, 68-( (8.+6./ CF-<2/. 1%B4D -( 6* <.6 1*2 5.+*9 68. (4*9
)4, 9-4, +.>.+ )4, 2(. 68. (4*9H( -4(2+)6-4< ?2)+-6-.(. I7 1*2 )/. -4 )4 )/.) *7
3*:;)36., (4*90 326 (4*9 5+*3A( )4, 2(. 68.: )( *>./8.), 3*>./. I7 4*60
1*2 3)4 2(. ) ;*438* */ *68./ :)6./-)+. B2-+, *4+1 *4. .46/)43. )4, 2(. )
(4*9 5+*3A */ /23A()3A )( ) ,**/.
SNO$ BLOCK AND PARACHUTE SHELTER
1%B49. U(. (4*9 5+*3A( 7*/ 68. (-,.( )4, ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 7*/ *>./8.),
3*>./ CF-<2/. 1%B4D. I7 (4*97)++ -( 8.)>10 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 3+.)/ (4*9 7/*: 68.
6*; )6 /.<2+)/ -46./>)+( 6* ;/.>.46 68. 3*++);(. *7 68. ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+.
SNO$ HOUSE OR IGLOO
1%B%". I4 3./6)-4 )/.)(0 68. 4)6->.( 7/.?2.46+1 2(. 68-( 61;. *7 (8.+6./ C F-<2/.
1%B4D )( 8246-4< )4, 7-(8-4< (8.+6./(. T8.1 )/. .77-3-.46 (8.+6./( 526 /.?2-/.
(*:. ;/)36-3. 6* :)A. 68.: ;/*;./+1. A+(*0 1*2 :2(6 5. -4 )4 )/.) 68)6 -(
174
(2-6)5+. 7*/ 3266-4< (4*9 5+*3A( )4, 8)>. 68. .?2-;:.46 6* 326 68.: C(4*9
()9 */ A4-7.D.
LEANCTO SHELTER
1%B%1. C*4(6/236 68-( (8.+6./ -4 68. ():. :)44./ )( 7*/ *68./ .4>-/*4:.46(.
H*9.>./0 ;-+. (4*9 )/*24, 68. (-,.( 7*/ -4(2+)6-*4 CF-<2/. 1%B%D.
F493*+ 1"C". L+-/C01 M-2+ F*1> N-03*-< S8+<0+*
FALLEN TREE SHELTER
1%B%2. T* 52-+, 68-( (8.+6./0 7-4, ) 7)++.4 6/.. )4, ,-< *26 68. (4*9 24,./4.)68
-6 CF-<2/. 1%B6D. T8. (4*9 9-++ 4*6 5. ,..; 24,./ 68. 6/... I7 1*2 :2(6
/.:*>. 5/)438.( 7/*: 68. -4(-,.0 2(. 68.: 6* +-4. 68. 7+**/.
F493*+ 1"C6. F-<<+/ T*++ -: S8+<0+*
TREECPIT SHELTER
1%B%. D-< (4*9 *26 7/*: 24,./ ) (2-6)5+. +)/<. 6/... I6 9-++ 4*6 5. )( ,..;
4.)/ 68. 5)(. *7 68. 6/... U(. 68. 326 5/)438.( 6* +-4. 68. (8.+6./. U(. )
</*24, (8..6 )( *>./8.), 3*>./ 6* ;/.>.46 (4*9 7/*: 7)++-4< *77 68. 6/.. -46*
68. (8.+6./. I7 52-+6 ;/*;./+10 1*2 3)4 8)>. 6"B,.</.. >-(-5-+-61 CC8);6./ %0
F-<2/. %B12D.
20CMAN LIFE RAFT
1%B%4. T8-( /)76 -( 68. (6)4,)/, *>./ 9)6./ /)76 *4 U.S. A-/ F*/3. )-/3/)76.
Y*2 3)4 2(. -6 )( ) (8.+6./. D* 4*6 +.6 +)/<. ):*246( *7 (4*9 52-+, 2; *4 68.
175
*>./8.), ;/*6.36-*4. I7 ;+)3., -4 )4 *;.4 )/.)0 -6 )+(* (./>.( )( ) <**,
(-<4)+ 6* *>./8.), )-/3/)76.
FIRE
1%B%%. F-/. -( .(;.3-)++1 -:;*/6)46 -4 3*+, 9.)68./. I6 4*6 *4+1 ;/*>-,.( )
:.)4( 6* ;/.;)/. 7**,0 526 )+(* 6* <.6 9)/: )4, 6* :.+6 (4*9 */ -3. 7*/
9)6./. I6 )+(* ;/*>-,.( 1*2 9-68 ) (-<4-7-3)46 ;(138*+*<-3)+ 5**(6 51 :)A-4<
1*2 7..+ ) +-66+. :*/. (.32/. -4 1*2/ (-62)6-*4.
1%B%6. U(. 68. 6.384-?2.( ,.(3/-5., -4 C8);6./ 7 6* 52-+, )4, +-<86 1*2/ 7-/..
I7 1*2 )/. -4 .4.:1 6.//-6*/10 /.:.:5./ 68)6 68. (:*A.0 (:.++0 )4, +-<86 7/*:
1*2/ 7-/. :)1 /.>.)+ 1*2/ +*3)6-*4. L-<86 /.7+.36( 7/*: (2//*24,-4< 6/..( */
/*3A(0 :)A-4< .>.4 -4,-/.36 +-<86 ) (*2/3. *7 ,)4<./. S:*A. 6.4,( 6* <*
(6/)-<86 2; -4 3*+,0 3)+: 9.)68./0 :)A-4< -6 ) 5.)3*4 ,2/-4< 68. ,)10 526
8.+;-4< 6* 3*43.)+ 68. (:.++ )6 4-<86. I4 9)/:./ 9.)68./0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 )
9**,., )/.)0 (:*A. 6.4,( 6* 82< 68. </*24,0 :)A-4< -6 +.(( >-(-5+. -4 68.
,)10 526 :)A-4< -6( *,*/ (;/.),.
1%B%7. I7 1*2 )/. -4 .4.:1 6.//-6*/10 326 +*9 6/.. 5*2<8( /)68./ 68)4 68. .46-/.
6/.. 7*/ 7-/.9**,. F)++.4 6/..( )/. .)(-+1 (..4 7/*: 68. )-/.
1%B%$. A++ 9**, 9-++ 52/40 526 (*:. 61;.( *7 9**, 3/.)6. :*/. (:*A. 68)4
*68./(. F*/ -4(6)43.0 3*4-7./*2( 6/..( 68)6 3*46)-4 /.(-4 )4, 6)/ 3/.)6. :*/.
)4, ,)/A./ (:*A. 68)4 ,.3-,2*2( 6/..(.
1%B%9. T8./. )/. 7.9 :)6./-)+( 6* 2(. 7*/ 72.+ -4 68. 8-<8 :*246)-4*2(
/.<-*4( *7 68. )/36-3. Y*2 :)1 7-4, (*:. </)((.( )4, :*((0 526 >./1 +-66+..
T8. +*9./ 68. .+.>)6-*40 68. :*/. 72.+ )>)-+)5+.. Y*2 :)1 7-4, (*:. (3/25
9-++*9 )4, (:)++0 (6246., (;/23. 6/..( )5*>. 68. 6/.. +-4.. O4 (.) -3.0 72.+(
)/. (..:-4<+1 4*4.=-(6.46. D/-769**, */ 7)6( :)1 5. 68. *4+1 72.+( )>)-+)5+.
6* ) (2/>->*/ *4 68. 5)//.4 3*)(6+-4.( -4 68. )/36-3 )4, (25 )/36-3 /.<-*4(.
1%B6". A524,)46 72.+( 9-68-4 68. 6/.. +-4. )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I S;/23. 6/..( )/. 3*::*4 -4 68. -46./-*/ /.<-*4(. A( ) 3*4-7./0 (;/23. :)A.(
) +*6 *7 (:*A. 98.4 52/4., -4 68. (;/-4< )4, (2::./ :*468(. H*9.>./0 -6
52/4( )+:*(6 (:*A.B7/.. -4 +)6. 7)++ )4, 9-46./.
I T8. 6):)/)3A 6/.. -( )+(* ) 3*4-7./. I6 -( 68. *4+1 6/.. *7 68. ;-4. 7):-+1 68)6
+*(.( -6( 4..,+.( -4 68. 7)++. !-68*26 -6( 4..,+.(0 -6 +**A( +-A. ) ,.), (;/23.0
526 -6 8)( :)41 A4*551 52,( )4, 3*4.( *4 -6( 5)/. 5/)438.(. !8.4 52/4-4<0
6):)/)3A 9**, :)A.( ) +*6 *7 (:*A. )4, -( .=3.++.46 7*/ (-<4)++-4< ;2/;*(.(.
I B-/38 6/..( )/. ,.3-,2*2( )4, 68. 9**, 52/4( 8*6 )4, 7)(60 )( -7 (*)A., 9-68
*-+ */ A./*(.4.. M*(6 5-/38.( </*9 4.)/ (6/.):( )4, +)A.(0 526 *33)(-*4)++1
1*2 9-++ 7-4, ) 7.9 *4 8-<8./ </*24, )4, )9)1 7/*: 9)6./.
I !-++*9 )4, )+,./ </*9 -4 )/36-3 /.<-*4(0 4*/:)++1 -4 :)/(8 )/.)( */ 4.)/
+)A.( )4, (6/.):(. T8.(. 9**,( 52/4 8*6 )4, 7)(6 9-68*26 :238 (:*A..
1%B61. D/-., :*((0 </)((0 )4, (3/25 9-++*9 )/. *68./ :)6./-)+( 1*2 3)4 2(.
7*/ 72.+. T8.(. )/. 2(2)++1 ;+.46-72+ 4.)/ (6/.):( -4 624,/)( C*;.40 6/..+.((
176
;+)-4(D. B1 524,+-4< */ 69-(6-4< </)((.( */ *68./ (3/25 >.<.6)6-*4 6* 7*/: )
+)/<.0 (*+-, :)((0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. ) (+*9./ 52/4-4<0 :*/. ;/*,236->. 72.+.
1%B62. I7 72.+ */ *-+ -( )>)-+)5+. 7/*: ) 9/.3A., >.8-3+. */ ,*94., )-/3/)760 2(.
-6 7*/ 72.+. L.)>. 68. 72.+ -4 68. 6)4A 7*/ (6*/)<.0 ,/)9-4< *4 68. (2;;+1 *4+1
)( 1*2 4.., -6. O-+ 3*4<.)+( -4 .=6/.:.+1 3*+, 6.:;./)62/.(0 68./.7*/.0 ,/)-4
-6 7/*: 68. >.8-3+. */ )-/3/)76 98-+. (6-++ 9)/: -7 68./. -( 4* ,)4<./ *7 .=;+*(-*4
*/ 7-/.. I7 1*2 8)>. 4* 3*46)-4./0 +.6 68. *-+ ,/)-4 *46* 68. (4*9 */ -3.. S3**;
2; 68. 72.+ )( 1*2 4.., -6.
CAUTION C D* 4*6 .=;*(. 7+.(8 6* ;.6/*+.2:0 *-+0 )4, +25/-3)46( -4 .=6/.:.+1
3*+, 6.:;./)62/.(. T8. +-?2-, (6)6. *7 68.(. ;/*,236( -( ,.3.;6->. -4 68)6 -6
3)4 3)2(. 7/*(65-6..
1%B6. S*:. ;+)(6-3 ;/*,236(0 (238 )( MRE (;**4(0 8.+:.6 >-(*/(0 >-(*/
8*2(-4<(0 )4, 7*): /255./ 9-++ -<4-6. ?2-3A+1 7/*: ) 52/4-4< :)638. T8.1 9-++
)+(* 52/4 +*4< .4*2<8 6* 8.+; (6)/6 ) 7-/.. F*/ .=):;+.0 ) ;+)(6-3 (;**4 9-++
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PLANTS
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.)/+1 :*/4-4< -4 )/.)( 98./. 68./. -( ,)4<./ *7 )>)+)438.(. O4 /-,<.(0 (4*9
<)68./( *4 68. +.. (-,. -4 *>./8)4<-4< ;-+.( 3)++., 3*/4-3.(. T8.(. *76.4
.=6.4, 7)/ *26 7/*: 68. /-,<. )4, :)1 5/.)A +**(. -7 (6.;;., *4.
$EATHER SIGNS
1%B97. I4 :*(6 (-62)6-*4( 1*2 3)4 ,.6./:-4. 68. .77.36( 68)6 9.)68./ 3)4
8)>. *4 5)(-3 (2/>->)+ 4..,(. S.>./)+ <**, -4,-3)6*/( *7 3+-:)6-3 38)4<.(
-43+2,. 68. 7*++*9-4<E
$IND
1%B9$. Y*2 3)4 ,.6./:-4. 9-4, ,-/.36-*4 51 ,/*;;-4< </)(( */ ) 7.9 +.)>.( */
51 9)638-4< 68. 6/..6*;(. O43. 1*2 ,.6./:-4. 68. 9-4, ,-/.36-*40 1*2 3)4
;/.,-36 68. 61;. *7 9.)68./ 68)6 -( -::-4.46. R);-,+1 (8-76-4< 9-4,( -4,-3)6.
)4 24(.66+., )6:*(;8./. )4, ) +-A.+1 38)4<. -4 68. 9.)68./.
CLOUDS
1%B99. C+*2,( 3*:. -4 ) >)/-.61 *7 (8);.( )4, ;)66./4(. A <.4./)+
A4*9+.,<. *7 3+*2,( )4, 68. )6:*(;8./-3 3*4,-6-*4( 68.1 -4,-3)6. 3)4 8.+;
1*2 ;/.,-36 68. 9.)68./. A;;.4,-= H .=;+)-4( 3+*2, 7*/:)6-*4( -4 :*/. ,.6)-+.
182
SMOKE
1%B1"". S:*A. /-(-4< -4 ) 68-4 >./6-3)+ 3*+2:4 -4,-3)6.( 7)-/ 9.)68./. L*9
/-(-4< */ J7+)66.4., *26K (:*A. -4,-3)6.( (6*/:1 9.)68./.
BIRDS AND INSECTS
1%B1"1. B-/,( )4, -4(.36( 7+1 +*9./ 6* 68. </*24, 68)4 4*/:)+ -4 8.)>10
:*-(62/.B+),.4 )-/. S238 7+-<86 -4,-3)6.( 68)6 /)-4 -( +-A.+1. M*(6 -4(.36 )36->-61
-43/.)(.( 5.7*/. ) (6*/:0 526 5.. )36->-61 -43/.)(.( 5.7*/. 7)-/ 9.)68./.
LO$CPRESSURE FRONT
1%B1"2. S+*9B:*>-4< */ -:;./3.;6-5+. 9-4,( )4, 8.)>10 82:-, )-/ *76.4
-4,-3)6. ) +*9B;/.((2/. 7/*46. S238 ) 7/*46 ;/*:-(.( 5), 9.)68./ 68)6 9-++
;/*5)5+1 +-4<./ 7*/ (.>./)+ ,)1(. Y*2 3)4 J(:.++K )4, J8.)/K 68-( 7/*46. T8.
(+2<<-(80 82:-, )-/ :)A.( 9-+,./4.(( *,*/( :*/. ;/*4*243., 68)4 ,2/-4<
8-<8B;/.((2/. 3*4,-6-*4(. I4 ),,-6-*40 (*24,( )/. (8)/;./ )4, 3)//1 7)/68./ -4
+*9B;/.((2/. 3*4,-6-*4( 68)4 8-<8B;/.((2/. 3*4,-6-*4(.
CHAPTER 16.
S+- S3*B4B-<.
S.) (2/>->)+ -( ;./8);( 68. :*(6 ,-77-32+6 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4. S8*/6B */ +*4<B
6./: (2/>->)+ ,.;.4,( 2;*4 /)6-*4(0 .?2-;:.46 )>)-+)5+.0 )4, 1*2/ -4<.42-61.
Y*2 :2(6 5. /.(*2/3.72+ 6* (2/>->..
!)6./ 3*>./( )5*26 7% ;./3.46 *7 68. .)/68H( (2/7)3.0 9-68 )5*26 7" ;./3.46
5.-4< *3.)4( )4, (.)(. Y*2 3)4 )((2:. 68)6 1*2 9-++ (*:.6-:. 3/*(( >)(6
.=;)4(.( *7 9)6./. T8./. -( )+9)1( 68. 38)43. 68)6 68. ;+)4. */ (8-; 1*2 )/.
*4 9-++ 5.3*:. 3/-;;+., 51 (238 8)G)/,( )( (6*/:(0 3*++-(-*40 7-/.0 */ 9)/.
THE OPEN SEA
16B1. A( ) (2/>->*/ *4 68. *;.4 (.)0 1*2 9-++ 7)3. 9)>.( )4, 9-4,. Y*2 :)1
)+(* 7)3. .=6/.:. 8.)6 */ 3*+,. T* A..; 68.(. .4>-/*4:.46)+ 8)G)/,( 7/*:
5.3*:-4< (./-*2( ;/*5+.:(0 6)A. ;/.3)26-*4)/1 :.)(2/.( )( (**4 )(
;*((-5+.. U(. 68. )>)-+)5+. /.(*2/3.( 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 7/*: 68. .+.:.46(
)4, 7/*: 8.)6 */ .=6/.:. 3*+, )4, 82:-,-61.
16B2. P/*6.36-4< 1*2/(.+7 7/*: 68. .+.:.46( :..6( *4+1 *4. *7 1*2/ 5)(-3
4..,(. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* 5. )5+. 6* *56)-4 9)6./ )4, 7**,. S)6-(71-4< 68.(.
5)(-3 4..,( 9-++ 8.+; ;/.>.46 (./-*2( ;81(-3)+ )4, ;(138*+*<-3)+ ;/*5+.:(.
H*9.>./0 1*2 :2(6 )+(* A4*9 8*9 6* 6/.)6 8.)+68 ;/*5+.:( 68)6 :)1 )/-(..
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
183
16B. Y*2/ (2/>->)+ )6 (.) ,.;.4,( 2;*4 1*2/@
I K4*9+.,<. *7 )4, )5-+-61 6* 2(. 68. )>)-+)5+. (2/>->)+ .?2-;:.46.
I S;.3-)+ (A-++( )4, )5-+-61 6* 3*;. 9-68 68. 8)G)/,( 1*2 7)3..
I !-++ 6* +->..
16B4. !8.4 1*2 5*)/, ) (8-; */ )-/3/)760 7-4, *26 98)6 (2/>->)+ .?2-;:.46 -(
*4 5*)/,0 98./. -6 -( (6*9.,0 )4, 98)6 -6 3*46)-4(. F*/ -4(6)43.0 8*9 :)41
+-7. ;/.(./>./( )4, +-7.5*)6( */ /)76( )/. *4 5*)/,L !8./. )/. 68.1 +*3)6.,L
!8)6 61;. *7 (2/>->)+ .?2-;:.46 ,* 68.1 8)>.L H*9 :238 7**,0 9)6./0 )4,
:.,-3-4. ,* 68.1 3*46)-4L H*9 :)41 ;.*;+. 3)4 5. (2;;*/6.,L A+(*0 -7 1*2
)/. /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ *68./ ;./(*44.+ *4 5*)/,0 :)A. (2/. 1*2 A4*9 98./.
68.1 )/. )4, 68.1 A4*9 98./. 1*2 )/..
DO$N AT SEA
16B%. I7 1*2/ )-/3/)76 <*.( ,*94 )6 (.)0 6)A. 68. 7*++*9-4< )36-*4(. !8.68./
1*2 )/. -4 68. 9)6./ */ -4 ) /)760 1*2 (8*2+,@
I G.6 3+.)/ )4, 2;9-4, *7 68. )-/3/)76 )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+.0 526 (6)1 -4 68.
>-3-4-61 246-+ 68. )-/3/)76 (-4A(.
I G.6 3+.)/ *7 72.+B3*>./., 9)6./ -4 3)(. 68. 72.+ -<4-6.(.
I T/1 6* 7-4, *68./ (2/>->*/(.
16B6. A (.)/38 7*/ (2/>->*/( 2(2)++1 6)A.( ;+)3. )/*24, 68. .46-/. )/.) *7 )4,
4.)/ 68. 3/)(8 (-6.. M-((-4< ;./(*44.+ :)1 5. 243*4(3-*2( )4, 7+*)6-4< +*9
-4 68. 9)6./. F-<2/. 16B10 -++2(6/)6.( 68/.. /.(32. ;/*3.,2/.(.
184
F493*+ 16C1. R+:.3+ F*1> $-0+*
16B7. T8. 5.(6 6.384-?2. 7*/ /.(32-4< ;./(*44.+ 7/*: 68. 9)6./ -( 6* 68/*9
68.: ) +-7. ;/.(./>./ )66)38., 6* ) +-4. CAD. A4*68./ -( 6* (.4, ) (9-::./
C/.(32./D 7/*: 68. /)76 9-68 ) +-4. )66)38., 6* ) 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3. 68)6 9-++
(2;;*/6 68. /.(32./H( 9.-<86 CBD. T8-( ,.>-3. 9-++ 8.+; 3*4(./>. ) /.(32./H(
.4./<1 98-+. /.3*>./-4< 68. (2/>->*/. T8. +.)(6 )33.;6)5+. 6.384-?2. -( 6*
(.4, )4 )66)38., (9-::./ 9-68*26 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( 6* /.6/-.>. ) (2/>->*/ CCD.
I4 )++ 3)(.(0 68. /.(32./ 9.)/( ) +-7. ;/.(./>./. A /.(32./ (8*2+, 4*6
24,./.(6-:)6. 68. (6/.4<68 *7 ) ;)4-3B(6/-3A.4 ;./(*4 -4 68. 9)6./. A 3)/.72+
);;/*)38 3)4 ;/.>.46 -4F2/1 6* 68. /.(32./.
16B$. !8.4 68. /.(32./ );;/*)38.( ) (2/>->*/ -4 6/*25+. 7/*: 5.8-4,0 68./.
-( +-66+. ,)4<./ 68. (2/>->*/ 9-++ A-3A0 (3/)6380 */ </)5 8-:. T8. /.(32./ (9-:(
6* ) ;*-46 ,-/.36+1 5.8-4, 68. (2/>->*/ )4, </)(;( 68. +-7. ;/.(./>./H( 5)3A
(6/);. T8. /.(32./ 2(.( 68. (-,.(6/*A. 6* ,/)< 68. (2/>->*/ 6* 68. /)76.
16B9. I7 1*2 )/. -4 68. 9)6./0 :)A. 1*2/ 9)1 6* ) /)76. I7 4* /)76( )/.
)>)-+)5+.0 6/1 6* 7-4, ) +)/<. ;-.3. *7 7+*)6-4< ,.5/-( 6* 3+-4< 6*. R.+)=M )
;./(*4 98* A4*9( 8*9 6* /.+)= -4 *3.)4 9)6./ -( -4 >./1 +-66+. ,)4<./ *7
,/*94-4<. T8. 5*,1H( 4)62/)+ 52*1)431 9-++ A..; )6 +.)(6 68. 6*; *7 68. 8.),
)5*>. 9)6./0 526 (*:. :*>.:.46 -( 4..,., 6* A..; 68. 7)3. )5*>. 9)6./.
185
16B1". F+*)6-4< *4 1*2/ 5)3A 6)A.( 68. +.)(6 .4./<1. L-. *4 1*2/ 5)3A -4 68.
9)6./0 (;/.), 1*2/ )/:( )4, +.<(0 )4, )/38 1*2/ 5)3A. B1 3*46/*++-4< 1*2/
5/.)68-4< -4 )4, *260 1*2/ 7)3. 9-++ )+9)1( 5. *26 *7 68. 9)6./ )4, 1*2 :)1
.>.4 (+..; -4 68-( ;*(-6-*4 7*/ (8*/6 ;./-*,(. Y*2/ 8.), 9-++ 5. ;)/6-)++1
(25:./<.,0 526 1*2/ 7)3. 9-++ 5. )5*>. 9)6./. I7 1*2 3)44*6 7+*)6 *4 1*2/
5)3A */ -7 68. (.) -( 6** /*2<80 7+*)6 7)3.,*94 -4 68. 9)6./ )( (8*94 -4 F-<2/.
16B2.
F493*+ 16C2. F<1-04/9 P1:4041/
16B11. T8. 7*++*9-4< )/. 68. 5.(6 (9-::-4< (6/*A.( ,2/-4< ) (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*4E
I /og paddle. T8-( (6/*A. -( .=3.++.46 98.4 3+*68., */ 9.)/-4< ) +-7. F)3A.6.
A+68*2<8 (+*9 -4 (;..,0 -6 /.?2-/.( >./1 +-66+. .4./<1.
I *reaststroke. U(. 68-( (6/*A. 6* (9-: 24,./9)6./0 68/*2<8 *-+ */ ,.5/-(0 */ -4
/*2<8 (.)(. I6 -( ;/*5)5+1 68. 5.(6 (6/*A. 7*/ +*4<B/)4<. (9-::-4<E -6 )++*9(
1*2 6* 3*4(./>. 1*2/ .4./<1 )4, :)-46)-4 ) /.)(*4)5+. (;..,.
I Sidestroke. I6 -( ) <**, /.+-.7 (6/*A. 5.3)2(. 1*2 2(. *4+1 *4. )/: 6*
:)-46)-4 :*:.462: )4, 52*1)431.
I *ackstroke. T8-( (6/*A. -( )+(* )4 .=3.++.46 /.+-.7 (6/*A.. I6 /.+-.>.( 68.
:2(3+.( 68)6 1*2 2(. 7*/ *68./ (6/*A.(. U(. -6 -7 )4 24,./9)6./ .=;+*(-*4 -(
+-A.+1.
16B12. I7 1*2 )/. -4 )4 )/.) 98./. (2/7)3. *-+ -( 52/4-4<@
I D-(3)/, 1*2/ (8*.( )4, 52*1)46 +-7. ;/.(./>./.
NOTE: I7 1*2 8)>. )4 24-47+)6., +-7. ;/.(./>./0 A..; -6.
I C*>./ 1*2/ 4*(.0 :*2680 )4, .1.( )4, ?2-3A+1 <* 24,./9)6./.
I S9-: 24,./9)6./ )( 7)/ )( ;*((-5+. 5.7*/. (2/7)3-4< 6* 5/.)68..
I B.7*/. (2/7)3-4< 6* 5/.)68. )4, 98-+. (6-++ 24,./9)6./0 2(. 1*2/ 8)4,( 6*
;2(8 52/4-4< 7+2-, )9)1 7/*: 68. )/.) 98./. 1*2 9-(8 6* (2/7)3.. O43. )4
)/.) -( 3+.)/ *7 52/4-4< +-?2-,0 1*2 3)4 (2/7)3. )4, 6)A. ) 7.9 5/.)68(. T/1 6*
7)3. ,*949-4, 5.7*/. -48)+-4<.
I S25:./<. 7..6 7-/(6 )4, 3*46-42. )( )5*>. 246-+ 3+.)/ *7 68. 7+):.(.
186
16B1. I7 1*2 )/. -4 *-+B3*>./., 9)6./ 68)6 -( 7/.. *7 7-/.0 8*+, 1*2/ 8.), 8-<8
6* A..; 68. *-+ *26 *7 1*2/ .1.(. A66)38 1*2/ +-7. ;/.(./>./ 6* 1*2/ 9/-(6 )4,
68.4 2(. -6 )( ) /)76.
16B14. I7 1*2 8)>. ) +-7. ;/.(./>./0 1*2 3)4 (6)1 )7+*)6 7*/ )4 -4,.7-4-6. ;./-*,.
I4 68-( 3)(.0 2(. 68. JH.)6 E(3);-4< L.((.4-4< P*(62/. CHELPDK 5*,1
;*(-6-*4 CF-<2/. 16BD. R.:)-4 (6-++ )4, )((2:. 68. 7.6)+ ;*(-6-*4 6* 8.+; 1*2
/.6)-4 5*,1 8.)6. Y*2 +*(. )5*26 %" ;./3.46 *7 1*2/ 5*,1 8.)6 68/*2<8 1*2/
8.),. T8./.7*/.0 A..; 1*2/ 8.), *26 *7 68. 9)6./. O68./ )/.)( *7 8-<8 8.)6
+*(( )/. 68. 4.3A0 68. (-,.(0 )4, 68. </*-4.
F493*+ 16C3. HELP P1:4041/
16B1%. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) /)76 C)+(* (.. R)76 P/*3.,2/.(D@
I C8.3A 68. ;81(-3)+ 3*4,-6-*4 *7 )++ *4 5*)/,. G->. 7-/(6 )-, -7 4.3.(()/1.
T)A. (.)(-3A4.(( ;-++( -7 )>)-+)5+.. T8. 5.(6 9)1 6* 6)A. 68.(. ;-++( -( 6* ;+)3.
68.: 24,./ 68. 6*4<2. )4, +.6 68.: ,-((*+>.. T8./. )/. )+(* (2;;*(-6*/-.( */
-4F.36-*4( )<)-4(6 (.)(-3A4.((. V*:-6-4<0 98.68./ 7/*: (.)(-3A4.(( */ *68./
3)2(.(0 -43/.)(.( 68. ,)4<./ *7 ,.81,/)6-*4.
I T/1 6* ()+>)<. )++ 7+*)6-4< .?2-;:.46@/)6-*4(M 3)46..4(0 68./:*( F2<(0 )4,
*68./ 3*46)-4./(M 3+*68-4<M (.)6 32(8-*4(M ;)/)3826.(M )4, )4168-4< .+(. 68)6
9-++ 5. 2(.72+ 6* 1*2. S.32/. 68. ()+>)<., -6.:( -4 */ 6* 1*2/ /)76. M)A. (2/.
68. -6.:( 8)>. 4* (8)/; .,<.( 68)6 3)4 ;24362/. 68. /)76.
I I7 68./. )/. *68./ /)76(0 +)(8 68. /)76( 6*<.68./ (* 68.1 )/. )5*26 7.% :.6./(
C2% 7..6D );)/6. B. /.),1 6* ,/)9 68.: 3+*(./ 6*<.68./ -7 1*2 (.. */ 8.)/ )4
)-/3/)76. I6 -( .)(-./ 7*/ )4 )-/3/.9 6* (;*6 /)76( 68)6 )/. 3+*(. 6*<.68./ /)68./
68)4 (3)66./.,.
I R.:.:5./0 /.(32. )6 (.) -( ) 3**;./)6->. .77*/6. U(. )++ )>)-+)5+. >-(2)+ */
.+.36/*4-3 (-<4)++-4< ,.>-3.( 6* (-<4)+ )4, :)A. 3*46)36 9-68 /.(32./(. F*/
.=):;+.0 /)-(. ) 7+)< */ /.7+.36-4< :)6./-)+ *4 )4 *)/ )( 8-<8 )( ;*((-5+. 6*
)66/)36 )66.46-*4.
I L*3)6. 68. .:./<.431 /),-* )4, <.6 -6 -46* *;./)6-*4. O;./)6-4< -4(6/236-*4(
)/. *4 -6. U(. 68. .:./<.431 6/)4(3.->./ *4+1 98.4 7/-.4,+1 )-/3/)76 )/. +-A.+1
6* 5. -4 68. )/.).
187
I H)>. *68./ (-<4)+-4< ,.>-3.( /.),1 7*/ -4(6)46 2(.. I7 1*2 )/. -4 .4.:1
6.//-6*/10 )>*-, 2(-4< ) (-<4)+-4< ,.>-3. 68)6 9-++ )+./6 68. .4.:1. H*9.>./0 -7
1*2/ (-62)6-*4 -( ,.(;./)6.0 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* (-<4)+ 68. .4.:1 7*/ /.(32. -7
1*2 )/. 6* (2/>->..
I C8.3A 68. /)76 7*/ -47+)6-*40 +.)A(0 )4, ;*-46( *7 ;*((-5+. 38)7-4<. M)A. (2/.
68. :)-4 52*1)431 38):5./( )/. 7-/: C9.++ /*24,.,D 526 4*6 *>./+1 6-<86
CF-<2/. 16B4D. C8.3A -47+)6-*4 /.<2+)/+1. A-/ .=;)4,( 9-68 8.)6M 68./.7*/.0 *4
8*6 ,)1(0 /.+.)(. (*:. )-/ )4, ),, )-/ 98.4 68. 9.)68./ 3**+(. I
D.3*46):-4)6. 68. /)76 *7 )++ 72.+. P.6/*+.2: 9-++ 9.)A.4 -6( (2/7)3.( )4,
5/.)A ,*94 -6( <+2., F*-46(.
I T8/*9 *26 68. (.) )438*/0 */ -:;/*>-(. ) ,/)< 7/*: 68. /)76H( 3)(.0 ) 5)-+-4<
523A.60 */ ) /*++ *7 3+*68-4<. A (.) )438*/ 8.+;( 1*2 (6)1 3+*(. 6* 1*2/
,-638-4< (-6.0 :)A-4< -6 .)(-./ 7*/ (.)/38./( 6* 7-4, 1*2 -7 1*2 8)>. /.+)1.,
1*2/ +*3)6-*4. !-68*26 ) (.) )438*/0 1*2/ /)76 :)1 ,/-76 *>./ 16" A-+*:.6./(
C96 :-+.(D -4 ) ,)10 :)A-4< -6 :238 8)/,./ 6* 7-4, 1*2. Y*2 3)4 ),F2(6 68. (.)
)438*/ 6* )36 )( ) ,/)< 6* (+*9 ,*94 68. /)6. *7 6/)>.+ 9-68 68. 32//.460 */ )( )
:.)4( 6* 6/)>.+ 9-68 68. 32//.46. Y*2 :)A. 68-( ),F2(6:.46 51 *;.4-4< */
3+*(-4< 68. (.) )438*/H( );.=. !8.4 *;.40 68. (.) )438*/ CF-<2/. 16B%D )36(
)( ) ,/)< 68)6 A..;( 1*2 -4 68. <.4./)+ )/.). !8.4 3+*(.,0 -6 7*/:( ) ;*3A.6
7*/ 68. 32//.46 6* (6/-A. )4, ;/*;.+( 68. /)76 -4 68. 32//.46H( ,-/.36-*4.
F493*+ 16C!. I/,<-04/9 08+ R-,0
F493*+ 16C". S+- A/.81*
16B16. A+(* ),F2(6 68. (.) )438*/ (* 68)6 98.4 68. /)76 -( *4 68. 9)>.H( 3/.(60
68. (.) )438*/ -( -4 68. 9)>.H( 6/*2<8 CF-<2/. 16B6D.
188
F493*+ 16C6. D+7<1;>+/0 1, 08+ S+- A/.81*
I !/); 68. (.) )438*/ /*;. 9-68 3+*68 6* ;/.>.46 -6( 38)7-4< 68. /)76. T8.
)438*/ )+(* 8.+;( 6* A..; 68. /)76 8.),., -46* 68. 9-4, )4, 9)>.(.
I I4 (6*/:1 9)6./0 /-< 68. (;/)1 )4, 9-4,(8-.+, )6 *43.. I4 ) 2%B:)4 /)760 A..;
68. 3)4*;1 ./.36., )6 )++ 6-:.(. K..; 1*2/ /)76 )( ,/1 )( ;*((-5+.. K..; -6
;/*;./+1 5)+)43.,. A++ ;./(*44.+ (8*2+, (6)1 (.)6.,0 68. 8.)>-.(6 *4. -4 68.
3.46./.
I C)+:+1 3*4(-,./ )++ )(;.36( *7 1*2/ (-62)6-*4 )4, ,.6./:-4. 98)6 1*2 )4,
1*2/ 3*:;)4-*4( :2(6 ,* 6* (2/>->.. I4>.46*/1 )++ .?2-;:.460 7**,0 )4,
9)6./. !)6./;/**7 -6.:( 68)6 ()+6 9)6./ :)1 )77.36. T8.(. -43+2,.
3*:;)((.(0 9)638.(0 (.=6)460 :)638.(0 )4, +-<86./(. R)6-*4 7**, )4, 9)6./.
I A((-<4 ) ,261 ;*(-6-*4 6* .)38 ;./(*4 */ )((-<4 6.):(0 7*/ .=):;+.0 9)6./
3*++.36*/(0 7**, 3*++.36*/(0 +**A*26(0 /),-* *;./)6*/(0 (-<4)+./(0 )4, 9)6./
5)-+./(.
NOTE: L**A*26 ,261 (8*2+, 4*6 .=3.., 2 8*2/(. K..; -4 :-4, )4, /.:-4,
*68./( 68)6 3**;./)6-*4 -( *4. *7 68. A.1( 6* (2/>->)+.
I K..; ) +*<. R.3*/, 68. 4)>-<)6*/H( +)(6 7-=0 68. 6-:. *7 ,-638-4<0 68. 4):.(
)4, ;81(-3)+ 3*4,-6-*4 *7 ;./(*44.+0 )4, 68. /)6-*4 (38.,2+.. A+(* /.3*/, 68.
9-4,(0 9.)68./0 ,-/.36-*4 *7 (9.++(0 6-:.( *7 (24/-(. )4, (24(.60 )4, *68./
4)>-<)6-*4)+ ,)6).
I I7 1*2 )/. ,*94 -4 247/-.4,+1 9)6./(0 6)A. (;.3-)+ (.32/-61 :.)(2/.( 6* )>*-,
,.6.36-*4. D* 4*6 6/)>.+ -4 68. ,)16-:.. T8/*9 *26 68. (.) )438*/ )4, 9)-6
7*/ 4-<867)++ 5.7*/. ;),,+-4< */ 8*-(6-4< ()-+. K..; +*9 -4 68. /)76M (6)1 3*>./.,
9-68 68. 5+2. (-,. *7 68. 3):*27+)<. 3+*68 2;. B. (2/. ) ;)((-4< (8-; */
)-/3/)76 -( 7/-.4,+1 */ 4.26/)+ 5.7*/. 6/1-4< 6* )66/)36 -6( )66.46-*4. I7 68. .4.:1
,.6.36( 1*2 )4, 1*2 )/. 3+*(. 6* 3);62/.0 ,.(6/*1 68. +*<5**A0 /),-*0
4)>-<)6-*4 .?2-;:.460 :);(0 (-<4)+-4< .?2-;:.460 )4, 7-/.)/:(. J2:;
*>./5*)/, )4, (25:./<. -7 68. .4.:1 (6)/6( (6/)7-4<.
I D.3-,. 98.68./ 6* (6)1 -4 ;*(-6-*4 */ 6* 6/)>.+. A(A 1*2/(.+70 JH*9 :238
-47*/:)6-*4 9)( (-<4)+., 5.7*/. 68. )33-,.46L I( 1*2/ ;*(-6-*4 A4*94 6*
/.(32./(L D* 1*2 A4*9 -6 1*2/(.+7L I( 68. 9.)68./ 7)>*/)5+. 7*/ ) (.)/38L
A/. *68./ (8-;( */ )-/3/)76 +-A.+1 6* ;)(( 1*2/ ;/.(.46 ;*(-6-*4L H*9 :)41
,)1( (2;;+1 *7 7**, )4, 9)6./ ,* 1*2 8)>.LJ
COLD $EATHER CONSIDERATIONS
16B17. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 3*+, 3+-:)6.@
I P26 *4 )4 )46-.=;*(2/. (2-6. I7 24)>)-+)5+.0 ;26 *4 )41 .=6/) 3+*68-4<
)>)-+)5+.. K..; 3+*68.( +**(. )4, 3*:7*/6)5+..
189
I T)A. 3)/. 4*6 6* (4)< 68. /)76 9-68 (8*.( */ (8)/; *5F.36(. K..; 68. /.;)-/
A-6 98./. 1*2 3)4 /.),-+1 /.)38 -6.
I R-< ) 9-4,5/.)A0 (;/)1 (8-.+,0 )4, 3)4*;1.
I T/1 6* A..; 68. 7+**/ *7 68. /)76 ,/1. C*>./ -6 9-68 3)4>)( */ 3+*68 7*/
-4(2+)6-*4.
I H2,,+. 9-68 *68./( 6* A..; 9)/:0 :*>-4< .4*2<8 6* A..; 68. 5+**,
3-/32+)6-4<. S;/.), )4 .=6/) 6)/;)2+-40 ()-+0 */ ;)/)3826. *>./ 68. </*2;.
I G->. .=6/) /)6-*4(0 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 6* :.4 (277./-4< 7/*: .=;*(2/. 6* 3*+,.
16B1$. T8. </.)6.(6 68/.)6 1*2 7)3. 98.4 (25:./<., -4 3*+, 9)6./ -( ,.)68
,2. 6* 81;*68./:-). T8. )>./)<. *3.)4 6.:;./)62/. )/*24, 68. 9*/+, -( *4+1
11 ,.</..( C C%1 ,.</..( FD. H*9.>./0 ,* 4*6 5. 7**+., 51 9)/: 9)6./@
81;*68./:-) 3)4 .>.4 *332/ -4 27B,.</.. C C$"B,.</.. FD 9)6./. !8.4 1*2
)/. -::./(., -4 3*+, 9)6./0 81;*68./:-) *332/( /);-,+1 ,2. 6* 68. ,.3/.)(.,
-4(2+)6-4< ?2)+-61 *7 9.6 3+*68-4< )4, 68. /.(2+6 *7 9)6./ ,-(;+)3-4< 68. +)1./ *7
(6-++ )-/ 68)6 4*/:)++1 (2//*24,( 68. 5*,1. T8. /)6. *7 8.)6 .=38)4<. -4 9)6./
-( )5*26 2% 6-:.( </.)6./ 68)4 -6 -( -4 )-/ *7 68. ():. 6.:;./)62/.. F-<2/. 16B7
+-(6( +-7. .=;.36)431 6-:.( 7*/ -::./(-*4 -4 9)6./.
$-0+* T+>7+*-03*+. T4>+.
21." # 1%.% ,.</..( C C7" # 6" ,.</..( FD 12 8*2/(
1%.% # 1"." ,.</..( C C6" # %" ,.</..( FD 6 8*2/(
1"." " # 4.% ,.</..( C C%" # 4" ,.</..(
FD
1 8*2/
4.% ,.</..( C C4" ,.</..( FD )4, 5.+*9 L.(( 68)4 1 8*2/
NOTE: !.)/-4< )4 )46-.=;*(2/. (2-6 :)1
-43/.)(. 68.(. 6-:. 2; ) :)=-:2: *7 24 8*2/(.
F493*+ 16C#. L4,+ EF7+.0-/.; T4>+: ,1* I>>+*:41/ 4/ $-0+*
16B19. Y*2/ 5.(6 ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 68. .77.36( *7 3*+, 9)6./ -( 6* <.6 -46* 68.
+-7. /)760 (6)1 ,/10 )4, -4(2+)6. 1*2/ 5*,1 7/*: 68. 3*+, (2/7)3. *7 68. 5*66*: *7
68. /)76. I7 68.(. )36-*4( )/. 4*6 ;*((-5+.0 9.)/-4< )4 )46-.=;*(2/. (2-6 9-++
.=6.4, 1*2/ +-7. .=;.36)431 3*4(-,./)5+1. R.:.:5./0 A..; 1*2/ 8.), )4,
4.3A *26 *7 68. 9)6./ )4, 9.++ -4(2+)6., 7/*: 68. 3*+, 9)6./H( .77.36( 98.4 68.
6.:;./)62/. -( 5.+*9 19 ,.</..( C C66 ,.</..( FD. !.)/-4< +-7. ;/.(./>./(
-43/.)(.( 68. ;/.,-36., (2/>->)+ 6-:. )( 5*,1 ;*(-6-*4 -4 68. 9)6./ -43/.)(.(
68. 38)43. *7 (2/>->)+.
HOT $EATHER CONSIDERATIONS
16B2". I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 8*6 3+-:)6.@
I R-< ) (24(8),. */ 3)4*;1. L.)>. .4*2<8 (;)3. 7*/ >.46-+)6-*4.
I C*>./ 1*2/ (A-40 98./. ;*((-5+.0 6* ;/*6.36 -6 7/*: (2452/4. U(. (2452/4
3/.):0 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 *4 )++ .=;*(., (A-4. Y*2/ .1.+-,(0 68. 5)3A *7 1*2/ .)/(0
)4, 68. (A-4 24,./ 1*2/ 38-4 (2452/4 .)(-+1.
RAFT PROCEDURES
190
16B21. M*(6 *7 68. /)76( -4 68. U.S. A/:1 )4, A-/ F*/3. -4>.46*/-.( 3)4
()6-(71 68. 4..,( 7*/ ;./(*4)+ ;/*6.36-*40 :*,. *7 6/)>.+0 )4, .>)(-*4 )4,
3):*27+)<..
NOTE: B.7*/. 5*)/,-4< )41 /)760 /.:*>. )4, 6.68./ C)66)38D 1*2/ +-7.
;/.(./>./ 6* 1*2/(.+7 */ 68. /)76. E4(2/. 68./. )/. 4* *68./ :.6)++-3 */ (8)/;
*5F.36( *4 1*2/ 3+*68-4< */ .?2-;:.46 68)6 3*2+, ,):)<. 68. /)76. A76./
5*)/,-4< 68. /)760 ,*4 1*2/ +-7. ;/.(./>./ )<)-4.
16B22. F*/ )++ /)76(0 /.:.:5./ 68. 7->. A(. T8.(. )/. 68. 7-/(6 68-4<( 1*2
(8*2+, ,* -7 1*2 )/. 68. 7-/(6 ;./(*4 -46* 68. /)76E
I A-/BC8.3A 68)6 )++ 38):5./( )/. -47+)6., )4, 68)6 )++ -47+)6-*4 >)+>.( )/.
3+*(., )4, .?2)+-G)6-*4 625. 3+):;( C7*24, *4 68. 2%B0 %B0 )4, 46B:)4 /)76(D
)/. 3+):;., *77 98.4 72++1 -47+)6.,.
I A((-(6)43.BA((-(6 *68./( -46* 68. /)76. R.:*>. )++ ;24362/.B;/*,23-4< -6.:(
7/*: ;*3A.6( )4, :*>. 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( 6* 68. /.)/ *7 68. 5*,1. U(. ;/*;./
5*)/,-4< 6.384-?2.(M 7*/ .=):;+.0 68. 5*)/,-4< +**; *4 68. (.>.4B:)4 /)76
)4, 68. 5*)/,-4< /):;( *4 68. 2%B0 %B0 )4, 46B:)4 /)76(.
I A438*/BE4(2/. 68. (.) )438*/ -( ;/*;./+1 ,.;+*1.,. I6 3)4 5. 7*24, 1$"
,.</..( )9)1 7/*: 68. .?2)+-G)6-*4 625. *4 68. 2%B0 %B0 )4, 46B:)4 /)76(.
I A33.((*/1 5)<BL*3)6. 68. )33.((*/1 5)<. I6 9-++ 5. 6.68./., 6* 68. /)76
5.69..4 68. (:**68 (-,. *7 68. CO2 5*66+. )4, 68. 3+*(.(6 5*)/,-4< /):;.
I A((.((:.46BA((.(( 68. (-62)6-*4 )4, A..; ) ;*(-6->. :.46)+ )66-62,..
O/+CM-/ R-,0
16B2. T8. *4.B:)4 /)76 8)( ) :)-4 3.++ -47+)6-*4. I7 68. CO2 5*66+. (8*2+,
:)+72436-*4 */ -7 68. /)76 ,.>.+*;( ) +.)A0 1*2 3)4 -47+)6. -6 51 :*268.
16B24. T8. (;/)1 (8-.+, )36( )( ) (8.+6./ 7/*: 68. 3*+,0 9-4,0 )4, 9)6./. I4
(*:. 3)(.(0 68-( (8-.+, (./>.( )( -4(2+)6-*4. T8. /)76H( -4(2+)6., 5*66*: +-:-6(
68. 3*4,236-*4 *7 3*+, 68./.51 ;/*6.36-4< 1*2 7/*: 81;*68./:-) CF-<2/. 16B$D.
F493*+ 16C. O/+CM-/ R-,0 $408 S7*-; S84+<2
191
16B2%. Y*2 3)4 6/)>.+ :*/. .77.36->.+1 51 -47+)6-4< */ ,.7+)6-4< 68. /)76 6* 6)A.
),>)46)<. *7 68. 9-4, */ 32//.46. Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. (;/)1 (8-.+, )( ) ()-+ 98-+.
68. 5)++)(6 523A.6( (./>. 6* -43/.)(. ,/)< -4 68. 9)6./. Y*2 :)1 2(. 68. (.)
)438*/ 6* 3*46/*+ 68. /)76H( (;.., )4, ,-/.36-*4.
16B26. T8./. )/. /)76( ,.>.+*;., 7*/ 2(. -4 6)36-3)+ )/.)( 68)6 )/. 5+)3A.
T8.(. /)76( 5+.4, 9-68 68. (.)H( 5)3A</*24,. Y*2 3)4 72/68./ :*,-71 68.(.
/)76( 7*/ .>)(-*4 51 ;)/6-)++1 ,.7+)6-4< 68.: 6* *56)-4 ) +*9./ ;/*7-+..
16B27. A +)41)/, 3*44.36( 68. *4.B:)4 /)76 6* ) ;)/)3826-(6 C(2/>->*/D +)4,-4<
-4 68. 9)6./. Y*2 C68. (2/>->*/D -47+)6. -6 2;*4 +)4,-4<. Y*2 ,* 4*6 (9-: 6*
68. /)760 526 ;2++ -6 6* 1*2 >-) 68. +)41)/,. T8. /)76 :)1 8-6 68. 9)6./ 2;(-,.
,*940 526 1*2 3)4 /-<86 -6 51 );;/*)38-4< 68. (-,. 6* 98-38 68. 5*66+. -(
)66)38., )4, 7+-;;-4< 68. /)76 *>./. T8. (;/)1 (8-.+, :2(6 5. -4 68. /)76 6*
.=;*(. 68. 5*)/,-4< 8)4,+.(. F*++*9 68. 7->. A( *26+-4., 24,./ /)76
;/*3.,2/.( )5*>. 98.4 5*)/,-4< 68. /)76 CF-<2/. 16B9D.
F493*+ 16C%. B1-*24/9 08+ O/+CM-/ R-,0
16B2$. I7 1*2 8)>. )4 )/: -4F2/10 68. 5.(6 9)1 6* 5*)/, -( 51 62/4-4< 1*2/
5)3A 6* 68. (:)++ .4, *7 68. /)760 ;2(8-4< 68. /)76 24,./ 1*2/ 5266*3A(0 )4,
+1-4< 5)3A. A4*68./ 9)1 6* 5*)/, 68. /)76 -( 6* ;2(8 ,*94 *4 -6( (:)++ .4,
246-+ *4. A4.. -( -4(-,. )4, +-. 7*/9)/, CF-<2/. 16B1"D.
F493*+ 16C10. O08+* M+0812: 1, B1-*24/9 08+ O/+CM-/ R-,0
16B29. I4 /*2<8 (.)(0 -6 :)1 5. .)(-./ 7*/ 1*2 6* </)(; 68. (:)++ .4, *7 68.
/)76 )4,0 -4 ) ;/*4. ;*(-6-*40 6* A-3A )4, ;2++ 1*2/(.+7 -46* 68. /)76. !8.4 1*2
)/. +1-4< 7)3. ,*94 -4 68. /)760 ,.;+*1 )4, ),F2(6 68. (.) )438*/. T* (-6
2;/-<860 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* ,-(3*44.36 *4. (-,. *7 68. (.)6 A-6 )4, /*++ 6* 68)6
(-,.. T8.4 1*2 ),F2(6 68. (;/)1 (8-.+,. T8./. )/. 69* >)/-)6-*4( *7 68. *4.B
:)4 /)76M 68. -:;/*>., :*,.+ -43*/;*/)6.( )4 -47+)6)5+. (;/)1 (8-.+, )4, 7+**/
68)6 ;/*>-,. ),,-6-*4)+ -4(2+)6-*4. T8. (;/)1 (8-.+, 8.+;( A..; 1*2 ,/1 )4,
192
9)/: -4 3*+, *3.)4( )4, ;/*6.36( 1*2 7/*: 68. (24 -4 68. 8*6 3+-:)6.( CF-<2/.
16B11D.
F493*+ 16C11. O/+CM-/ R-,0 $408 S7*-; S84+<2 I/,<-0+2
S+B+/CM-/ R-,0
16B". S*:. :2+6-;+)3. )-/3/)76 3)//1 68. (.>.4B:)4 /)76. I6 -( ) 3*:;*4.46
*7 68. (2/>->)+ ,/*; A-6 CF-<2/. 16B12D. T8-( /)76 :)1 -47+)6. 2;(-,. ,*94 )4,
/.?2-/. 1*2 6* /-<86 68. /)76 5.7*/. 5*)/,-4<. A+9)1( 9*/A 7/*: 68. 5*66+. (-,.
6* ;/.>.46 -4F2/1 -7 68. /)76 62/4( *>./. F)3-4< -46* 68. 9-4,0 68. 9-4, ;/*>-,.(
),,-6-*4)+ 8.+; -4 /-<86-4< 68. /)76. U(. 68. 8)4,+.( *4 68. -4(-,. 5*66*: *7 68.
/)76 7*/ 5*)/,-4< CF-<2/. 16B1D.
F493*+ 16C12. S+B+/CM-/ R-,0
193
F493*+ 16C13. M+0812 1, R49804/9 R-,0
16B1. U(. 68. 5*)/,-4< /):; -7 (*:.*4. 8*+,( ,*94 68. /)76H( *;;*(-6. (-,..
I7 1*2 ,*4H6 8)>. 8.+;0 )<)-4 9*/A 7/*: 68. 5*66+. (-,. 9-68 68. 9-4, )6 1*2/
5)3A 6* 8.+; 8*+, ,*94 68. /)76. F*++*9 68. 7->. A( *26+-4., -4 ;)/)</);8 16B
22. T8.4 </)(; )4 *)/+*3A )4, 5*)/,-4< 8)4,+.0 A-3A 1*2/ +.<( 6* <.6 1*2/
5*,1 ;/*4. *4 68. 9)6./0 )4, 68.4 A-3A )4, ;2++ 1*2/(.+7 -46* 68. /)76. I7 1*2
)/. 9.)A */ -4F2/.,0 1*2 :)1 ;)/6-)++1 ,.7+)6. 68. /)76 6* :)A. 5*)/,-4< .)(-./
CF-<2/. 16B14D.
F493*+ 16C1!. M+0812 1, B1-*24/9 S+B+/CM-/ R-,0
16B2. U(. 68. 8)4, ;2:; 6* A..; 68. 52*1)431 38):5./( )4, 3/*(( (.)6
7-/:. N.>./ *>./ -47+)6. 68. /)76.
2"C& 3"C& -/2 !6CM-/ R-,0:
16B. Y*2 :)1 7-4, 2%B0 %B0 */ 46B:)4 /)76( -4 :2+6-;+)3. )-/3/)76 CF-<2/.
16B1%D. T8. 2"B:)4 /)76 8)( 5..4 ,-(3*46-42.,. T8. /)76( )/. (6*9., -4 /)76
3*:;)/6:.46( *4 68. *26(-,. *7 68. 72(.+)<.0 2(2)++1 *4 68. 9-4<(0 )+*4<(-,.
68. 2;;./ 8)+7 *7 68. ;*/6 C+.76D (-,. *7 68. )-/3/)76. T8./. 9-++ )+9)1( 5.
.4*2<8 /)76 (;)3. 6* )33*::*,)6. )++ ;./(*44.+ *4 .)38 61;. *7 )-/3/)76. I7
68. 42:5./ *7 ;./(*44.+ .=3..,( 68. :)=-:2: 42:5./ *7 /)76 (;)3.(0
),,-6-*4)+ /)76( 9-++ 5. 3.46./+-4. +*),., )4, /)638.6B(6/);;., 6* 68. 3)/<* 5)1
194
7+**/. S*:. :)1 5. )26*:)6-3)++1 ,.;+*1., 7/*: 68. 3*3A;-6 */ 7/*: (6)6-*4(
9-68-4 68. 3)/<* )/.)0 2(2)++1 4.)/ 68. 3/.9 38-.7H( (6)6-*40 98-+. *68./( :)1
4.., :)42)+ ,.;+*1:.46. N* :)66./ 8*9 68. /)76 +)4,( -4 68. 9)6./0 -6 -(
/.),1 7*/ 5*)/,-4<. A +)41)/, 3*44.36( 68. )33.((*/1 A-6 6* 68. /)76 )4, 1*2
/.6/-.>. 68. A-6 51 8)4,. Y*2 :2(6 :)42)++1 -47+)6. 68. 3.46./ 38):5./ 9-68
68. 8)4, ;2:;. B*)/, 68. 2%B 0 %B0 */ 46B:)4 /)76 7/*: 68. )-/3/)760 -7
;*((-5+.. I7 4*60 5*)/, -4 68. 7*++*9-4< :)44./E
I A;;/*)38 68. +*9./ 5*)/,-4< /):;0 7*++*9-4< 68. )//*9( ;/-46., *4 68.
*26(-,. *7 68. /)76.
I R.:*>. 1*2/ +-7. ;/.(./>./ )4, 6.68./ -6 6* 1*2/(.+7 (* 68)6 -6 6/)-+( 5.8-4,
1*2.
I G/)(; 68. 5*)/,-4< 8)4,+.( )4, A-3A 1*2/ +.<( 6* <.6 1*2/ 5*,1 -46* ) ;/*4.
;*(-6-*4 *4 68. 9)6./H( (2/7)3.M 68.4 A-3A )4, ;2++ 246-+ 1*2 )/. -4(-,. 68. /)76.
F493*+ 16C1". 2"CM-/ R-,0
16B4. A4 -43*:;+.6.+1 -47+)6., /)76 9-++ :)A. 5*)/,-4< .)(-./. A;;/*)38 68.
-46./(.36-*4 *7 68. /)76 )4, /):;0 </)(; 68. 2;;./ 5*)/,-4< 8)4,+.0 )4, (9-4<
*4. +.< *46* 68. 3.46./ *7 68. /):;0 )( -4 :*246-4< ) 8*/(..
16B%. I::.,-)6.+1 6-<86.4 68. .?2)+-G./ 3+):; 2;*4 .46./-4< 68. /)76 6*
;/.>.46 ,.7+)6-4< 68. .46-/. /)76 -4 3)(. *7 ) ;24362/. CF-<2/. 16B16D.
195
F493*+ 16C16. I>>+24-0+ A.041/5M3<047<-.+ R-,0
16B6. U(. 68. ;2:; 6* A..; 68.(. /)76(H 38):5./( )4, 3.46./ /-4< 7-/:.
T8.1 (8*2+, 5. 9.++ /*24,., 526 4*6 *>./+1 6-<86. T8. 3.46./ /-4<( A..; 68.
3.46./ *7 68. 7+**/ )7+*)60 )4, <->. /)76 *332;)46( (*:.68-4< 6* 5/)3. 68.-/ 7..6
)<)-4(6 6* ;/.>.46 )++ *332;)46( 7/*: (+-,-4< 6*9)/, 68. 3.46./.
SAILING RAFTS
16B7. R)76( ,* 4*6 8)>. A..+(0 68./.7*/.0 1*2 3)4H6 ()-+ 68.: -46* 68. 9-4,.
H*9.>./0 )41*4. 3)4 ()-+ ) /)76 ,*949-4,. Y*2 3)4 (233.((72++1 ()-+ 68.
(.>.4B:)4 /)76 1" ,.</..( *77 7/*: 68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 68. 9-4,. D* 4*6 6/1 6* ()-+
68. /)76 24+.(( +)4, -( 4.)/. I7 1*2 ,.3-,. 6* ()-+ )4, 68. 9-4, -( 5+*9-4<
6*9)/, ) ,.(-/., ,.(6-4)6-*40 72++1 -47+)6. 68. /)760 (-6 8-<80 6)A. -4 68. (.)
)438*/0 /-< ) ()-+0 )4, 2(. )4 *)/ )( ) /2,,./.
16B$. I4 68. (.>.4B:)4 /)760 ./.36 ) (?2)/. ()-+ -4 68. 5*9 2(-4< 68. *)/(
)4, 68.-/ .=6.4(-*4( )( 68. :)(6 )4, 3/*((5)/ CF-<2/. 16B17D. Y*2 :)1 2(. )
9)6./;/**7 6)/;)2+-4 */ ;)/)3826. :)6./-)+ 7*/ 68. ()-+. I7 68. /)76 8)( 4*
/.<2+)/ :)(6 (*3A.6 )4, (6.;0 ./.36 68. :)(6 51 61-4< -6 (.32/.+1 6* 68. 7/*46
3/*(( (.)6 2(-4< 5/)3.(. P), 68. 5*66*: *7 68. :)(6 6* ;/.>.46 -6 7/*:
38)7-4< */ ;2438-4< ) 8*+. 68/*2<8 68. 7+**/0 98.68./ */ 4*6 68./. -( ) (*3A.6.
T8. 8..+ *7 ) (8*.0 9-68 68. 6*. 9.,<., 24,./ 68. (.)60 :)A.( ) <**,
-:;/*>-(., :)(6 (6.;. D* 4*6 (.32/. 68. 3*/4./( *7 68. +*9./ .,<. *7 68. ()-+.
H*+, 68. +-4.( )66)38., 6* 68. 3*/4./( 9-68 1*2/ 8)4,( (* 68)6 ) <2(6 *7 9-4,
9-++ 4*6 /-; 68. ()-+0 5/.)A 68. :)(60 */ 3);(-G. 68. /)76.
196
F493*+ 16C1#. S-4< C1/:0*3.041/
16B9. T)A. .>./1 ;/.3)26-*4 6* ;/.>.46 68. /)76 7/*: 62/4-4< *>./. I4 /*2<8
9.)68./0 A..; 68. (.) )438*/ )9)1 7/*: 68. 5*9. H)>. 68. ;)((.4<./( (-6
+*9 -4 68. /)760 9-68 68.-/ 9.-<86 ,-(6/-526., 6* 8*+, 68. 2;9-4, (-,. ,*94. T*
;/.>.46 7)++-4< *260 68.1 (8*2+, )+(* )>*-, (-66-4< *4 68. (-,.( *7 68. /)76 */
(6)4,-4< 2;. A>*-, (2,,.4 :*>.:.46( 9-68*26 9)/4-4< 68. *68./
;)((.4<./(. !8.4 68. (.) )438*/ -( 4*6 -4 2(.0 6-. -6 6* 68. /)76 )4, (6*9 -6 -4
(238 ) :)44./ 68)6 -6 9-++ 8*+, -::.,-)6.+1 -7 68. /)76 3);(-G.(.
$ATER
16B4". !)6./ -( 1*2/ :*(6 -:;*/6)46 4..,. !-68 -6 )+*4.0 1*2 3)4 +->. 7*/ 6.4
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1*2/ +-;(0 6*4<2.0 )4, 68/*)6 5.7*/. (9)++*9-4<.
S81*0C$-0+* R-041/:
16B41. !8.4 1*2 8)>. ) +-:-6., 9)6./ (2;;+1 )4, 1*2 3)4H6 /.;+)3. -6 51
38.:-3)+ */ :.38)4-3)+ :.)4(0 2(. 68. 9)6./ .77-3-.46+1. P/*6.36 7/.(89)6./
(2;;+-.( 7/*: (.)9)6./ 3*46):-4)6-*4. K..; 1*2/ 5*,1 9.++ (8),.,0 5*68
7/*: *>./8.), (24 )4, 7/*: /.7+.36-*4 *77 68. (.) (2/7)3.. A++*9 >.46-+)6-*4 *7
)-/M ,):;.4 1*2/ 3+*68.( ,2/-4< 68. 8*66.(6 ;)/6 *7 68. ,)1. D* 4*6 .=./6
1*2/(.+7. R.+)= )4, (+..; 98.4 ;*((-5+.. F-= 1*2/ ,)-+1 9)6./ /)6-*4 )76./
3*4(-,./-4< 68. ):*246 *7 9)6./ 1*2 8)>.0 68. *26;26 *7 (*+)/ (6-++( )4,
,.()+6-4< A-60 )4, 68. 42:5./ )4, ;81(-3)+ 3*4,-6-*4 *7 1*2/ ;)/61.
197
16B42. I7 1*2 ,*4H6 8)>. 9)6./0 ,*4H6 .)6. I7 1*2/ 9)6./ /)6-*4 -( 69* +-6./( */
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3)6380 (238 )( 5-/,(0 7-(80 (8/-:;. T8. +-7. /)76H( :*6-*4 )4, 1*2/ )4=-.61 :)1
3)2(. 4)2(.). I7 1*2 .)6 98.4 4)2(.)6.,0 1*2 :)1 +*(. 1*2/ 7**,
-::.,-)6.+1. I7 4)2(.)6.,0 /.(6 )4, /.+)= )( :238 )( 1*2 3)40 )4, 6)A. *4+1
9)6./.
16B4. T* /.,23. 1*2/ +*(( *7 9)6./ 68/*2<8 ;./(;-/)6-*40 (*)A 1*2/ 3+*68.( -4
68. (.) )4, 9/-4< 68.: *26 5.7*/. ;266-4< 68.: *4 )<)-4. D*4H6 *>./,* 68-(
,2/-4< 8*6 ,)1( 98.4 4* 3)4*;1 */ (24 (8-.+, -( )>)-+)5+.. T8-( -( ) 6/),.B*77
5.69..4 3**+-4< )4, 68. ()+69)6./ 5*-+(0 (*/.(0 )4, /)(8.( 68)6 9-++ /.(2+6. B.
3)/.72+ 4*6 6* <.6 68. 5*66*: *7 68. /)76 9.6.
16B44. !)638 68. 3+*2,( )4, 5. /.),1 7*/ )41 38)43. *7 (8*9./(. K..; 68.
6)/;)2+-4 8)4,1 7*/ 3)638-4< 9)6./. I7 -6 -( .43/2(6., 9-68 ,/-., ()+60 9)(8 -6 -4
(.)9)6./. N*/:)++10 ) (:)++ ):*246 *7 (.)9)6./ :-=., 9-68 /)-4 9-++ 8)/,+1
5. 4*6-3.)5+. )4, 9-++ 4*6 3)2(. )41 ;81(-3)+ /.)36-*4. I4 /*2<8 (.)( 1*2
3)44*6 <.6 243*46):-4)6., 7/.(8 9)6./.
16B4%. A6 4-<860 (.32/. 68. 6)/;)2+-4 +-A. ) (24(8),.0 )4, 62/4 2; -6( .,<.( 6*
3*++.36 ,.9. I6 -( )+(* ;*((-5+. 6* 3*++.36 ,.9 )+*4< 68. (-,.( *7 68. /)76 2(-4<
) (;*4<. */ 3+*68. !8.4 -6 /)-4(0 ,/-4A )( :238 )( 1*2 3)4 8*+,.
M-/3-< R+B+*:+ O:>1:4: D+:-<4/-01*
16B46. M*(6 /)76( 6*,)1 )/. .?2-;;., 9-68 ) :)42)+ /.>./(. *(:*(-(
,.()+-4)6*/ CMRODD. T8. MROD -( ) >./1 8-<8+1 .77-3-.46 9)6./ ;2/-7-./
,.(-<4., 6* /.:*>. ()+6 ;)/6-3+.( 7/*: (.)9)6./0 68./.51 :)A-4< (.)9)6./
;*6)5+.. T8. 69* :*(6 3*::*4 :*,.+( )/. 68. S2/>->*/ % )4, 68. S2/>->*/
"60 98-38 :)A. % )4, 6 <)++*4( *7 ;*6)5+. 9)6./ -4 ) 24B8*2/ ;./-*, -7 2(.,
3*46-42*2(+1. !)6./ ;/*32/.:.46 )6 (.) -( ) 24B 8*2/B)B,)1 F*5. T8.
MRODH( +-7. 313+. -( 2; 6* %"0""" <)++*4( *7 9)6./. T8. MROD 8)( ) 1"B1.)/
(8.+7 +-7. 5.7*/. -6 :2(6 5. /.;)3A., 51 68. :)427)362/./.
T* *;./)6. 68. MROD0 ;+)3. 5*68 68. -46)A. C+)/<./ ,2)+ 8*(.D )4, 68.
;*6)5+. 9)6./ (2;;+1 8*(. -46* 68. 9)6./. B.<-4 ) 2B(.3*4, 313+. *7 ;2:;-4<
68. 8)4,+.@*4. (.3*4, 2;0 *4. (.3*4, ,*94. A ;/.((2/. -4,-3)6*/ 9-++
;/*6/2,. 7/*: 68. ;2:; 8*2(-4< 6* (8*9 68)6 68. ;/*;./ 7+*9 -( 5.-4<
:)-46)-4.,. A4 */)4<. 5)4, 9-++ 5. >-(-5+. 98.4 68. 3*//.36 /8168: -(
:)-46)-4.,. P2/<. 68. )46-:-3/*5-)+ ;)3A-4< )<.46 7/*: 68. 7-+6./ :.,-2: 7*/
2 :-426.(. T8.4 5.<-4 6* 3*++.36 ;*6)5+. 9)6./.
NOTE: E4(2/. 68)6 68. 9)6./ -( 7/.. 7/*: )41 ;.6/*+.2: /.(-,2. CF.6 72.+0
81,/)2+-3 7+2-,0 */ *-+D 5.7*/. 2(-4< )4 MROD. T8. 7-+6./ :.,-2: -( >./1
(.4(-6->. 6* ;.6/*+.2:0 *-+(0 )4, +25/-3)46(0 )4, 9-++ /.4,./ 68. 7-+6./ 2(.+.((0
,.(6/*1-4< 1*2/ 9)6./ ;/*,236-*4 3);)5-+-61.
S1<-* S04<<
198
16B47. !8.4 (*+)/ (6-++( )/. )>)-+)5+.0 /.), 68. -4(6/236-*4( )4, (.6 68.: 2;
-::.,-)6.+1. U(. )( :)41 (6-++( )( ;*((-5+.0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. 42:5./ *7
:.4 -4 68. /)76 )4, 68. ):*246 *7 (24+-<86 )>)-+)5+.. S.32/. (*+)/ (6-++( 6* 68.
/)76 9-68 3)/.. S*+)/ (6-++( *4+1 9*/A *4 7+)60 3)+: (.)(.
D+:-<04/9 K40:
16B4$. !8.4 ,.()+6-4< A-6( )/. )>)-+)5+. -4 ),,-6-*4 6* (*+)/ (6-++(0 2(. 68.:
*4+1 7*/ -::.,-)6. 9)6./ 4..,( */ ,2/-4< +*4< *>./3)(6 ;./-*,( 98.4 1*2
3)44*6 2(. (*+)/ (6-++(. I4 )41 .>.460 A..; ,.()+6-4< A-6( )4, .:./<.431 9)6./
(6*/.( 7*/ ;./-*,( 98.4 1*2 3)44*6 2(. (*+)/ (6-++( */ 3)638 /)-49)6./.
$-0+* F*1> F4:8
16B49. D/-4A 68. )?2.*2( 7+2-, 7*24, )+*4< 68. (;-4. )4, -4 68. .1.( *7 +)/<.
7-(8. C)/.72++1 326 68. 7-(8 -4 8)+7 6* <.6 68. 7+2-, )+*4< 68. (;-4. )4, (23A 68.
.1.. I7 1*2 )/. (* (8*/6 *7 9)6./ 68)6 1*2 4.., 6* ,* 68-(0 68.4 21 /10 ,/-4A
)41 *7 68. *68./ 5*,1 7+2-,(. T8.(. *68./ 7+2-,( )/. /-38 -4 ;/*6.-4 )4, 7)6 )4,
9-++ 2(. 2; :*/. *7 1*2/ /.(./>. 9)6./ -4 ,-<.(6-*4 68)4 68.1 (2;;+1.
S+- I.+
16B%". I4 )/36-3 9)6./(0 2(. *+, (.) -3. 7*/ 9)6./. T8-( -3. -( 5+2-(80 8)(
/*24,., 3*/4./(0 )4, (;+-46./( .)(-+1. I6 -( 4.)/+1 7/.. *7 ()+6. N.9 -3. -( </)10
:-+A10 8)/,0 )4, ()+61. !)6./ 7/*: -3.5./<( -( 7/.(80 526 -3.5./<( )/.
,)4<./*2( 6* );;/*)38. U(. 68.: )( ) (*2/3. *7 9)6./ *4+1 -4 .:./<.43-.(.
16B%1. A( -4 )41 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 68./. )/. ,)4<./( 98.4 1*2 )/.
(25(6-626-4< */ 3*:;/*:-(-4< 4.3.((-6-.(. E>.4 68*2<8 9)6./ -( *4. *7 1*2/
5)(-3 4..,(0 A..; -4 :-4, 68. 7*++*9-4< 6-;(.
DO NOT5
I D/-4A (.)9)6./.
I D/-4A 2/-4..
I D/-4A )+3*8*+.
I S:*A..
I E)60 24+.(( 9)6./ -( )>)-+)5+..
16B%2. S+..; )4, /.(6 )/. 68. 5.(6 9)1( *7 .4,2/-4< ;./-*,( *7 /.,23., 9)6./
)4, 7**, -46)A.. H*9.>./0 :)A. (2/. 68)6 1*2 8)>. .4*2<8 (8),. 98.4
4);;-4< ,2/-4< 68. ,)1. I7 68. (.) -( /*2<80 6-. 1*2/(.+7 6* 68. /)760 3+*(. )41
3*>./0 )4, /-,. *26 68. (6*/: )( 5.(6 1*2 3)4. R+<-F -( 68. A.1 9*/,@)6
+.)(6 6/1 6* /.+)=.
FOOD PROCUREMENT
16B%. I4 68. *;.4 (.)0 7-(8 9-++ 5. 68. :)-4 7**, (*2/3.. T8./. )/. (*:.
;*-(*4*2( )4, ,)4<./*2( *3.)4 7-(80 5260 -4 <.4./)+0 98.4 *26 *7 (-<86 *7
+)4,0 7-(8 )/. ()7. 6* .)6. N.)/./ 68. (8*/. 68./. )/. 7-(8 68)6 )/. 5*68
199
,)4<./*2( )4, ;*-(*4*2( 6* .)6. T8./. )/. (*:. 7-(80 (238 )( 68. /.,
(4);;./ )4, 5)//)32,)0 68)6 )/. 4*/:)++1 .,-5+. 526 ;*-(*4*2( 98.4 6)A.4
7/*: 68. 9)6./( *7 )6*++( )4, /..7(. F+1-4< 7-(8 9-++ .>.4 F2:; -46* 1*2/ /)76N
F4:8
16B%4. !8.4 7-(8-4<0 ,* 4*6 8)4,+. 68. 7-(8-4< +-4. 9-68 5)/. 8)4,( )4, 4.>./
9/); -6 )/*24, 1*2/ 8)4,( */ 6-. -6 6* ) +-7. /)76. T8. ()+6 68)6 ),8./.( 6* -6 3)4
:)A. -6 ) (8)/; 3266-4< .,<.0 )4 .,<. ,)4<./*2( 5*68 6* 68. /)76 )4, 1*2/
8)4,(. !.)/ <+*>.(0 -7 68.1 )/. )>)-+)5+.0 */ 2(. ) 3+*68 6* 8)4,+. 7-(8 )4, 6*
)>*-, -4F2/1 7/*: (8)/; 7-4( )4, <-++ 3*>./(.
16B%%. I4 9)/: /.<-*4(0 <26 )4, 5+.., 7-(8 -::.,-)6.+1 )76./ 3)638-4< 68.:.
C26 7-(8 68)6 1*2 ,* 4*6 .)6 -::.,-)6.+1 -46* 68-40 4)//*9 (6/-;( )4, 8)4< 68.:
6* ,/1. A 9.++B,/-., 7-(8 (6)1( .,-5+. 7*/ (.>./)+ ,)1(. F-(8 4*6 3+.)4., )4,
,/-., :)1 (;*-+ -4 8)+7 ) ,)1. F-(8 9-68 ,)/A :.)6 )/. >./1 ;/*4. 6*
,.3*:;*(-6-*4. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 .)6 68.: )++ -::.,-)6.+10 ,* 4*6 .)6 )41 *7 68.
+.76*>./(. U(. 68. +.76*>./( 7*/ 5)-6.
16B%6. N.>./ .)6 7-(8 68)6 8)>. ;)+.0 (8-41 <-++(0 (24A.4 .1.(0 7+)551 (A-4 )4,
7+.(80 */ )4 24;+.)()46 *,*/. G**, 7-(8 (8*9 68. *;;*(-6. 38)/)36./-(6-3(.
S.) 7-(8 8)>. ) ()+69)6./ */ 3+.)4 7-(81 *,*/. D* 4*6 3*472(. ..+( 9-68 (.)
(4)A.( 68)6 8)>. )4 *5>-*2(+1 (3)+1 5*,1 )4, (6/*4<+1 3*:;/.((.,0 ;),,+.B
(8);., 6)-+. B*68 ..+( )4, (.) (4)A.( )/. .,-5+.0 526 1*2 :2(6 8)4,+. 68.
+)66./ 9-68 3)/. 5.3)2(. *7 68.-/ ;*-(*4*2( 5-6.(. T8. 8.)/60 5+**,0 -46.(6-4)+
9)++0 )4, +->./ *7 :*(6 7-(8 )/. .,-5+.. C**A 68. -46.(6-4.(. A+(* .,-5+. )/. 68.
;)/6+1 ,-<.(6., (:)++./ 7-(8 68)6 1*2 :)1 7-4, -4 68. (6*:)38( *7 +)/<. 7-(8. I4
),,-6-*40 (.) 62/6+.( )/. .,-5+..
16B%7. S8)/A :.)6 -( ) <**, (*2/3. *7 7**, 98.68./ /)90 ,/-.,0 */ 3**A.,.
S8)/A :.)6 (;*-+( >./1 /);-,+1 ,2. 6* 68. 8-<8 3*43.46/)6-*4 *7 2/.) -4 68.
5+**,M 68./.7*/.0 5+.., -6 -::.,-)6.+1 )4, (*)A -6 -4 (.>./)+ 38)4<.( *7 9)6./.
P.*;+. ;/.7./ (*:. (8)/A (;.3-.( *>./ *68./(. C*4(-,./ 68.: )++ .,-5+.
.=3.;6 68. G/..4+)4, (8)/A0 98*(. 7+.(8 3*46)-4( 8-<8 ?2)46-6-.( *7 >-6):-4
A. D* 4*6 .)6 68. +->./(0 ,2. 6* 8-<8 >-6):-4 A 3*46.46.
F4:84/9 A42:
16B%$. T8. )33.((*/1 A-6 3*46)-4( ) >./1 <**, 7-(8-4< A-6 68)6 (8*2+, :..6
1*2/ 4..,( F2(6 )5*26 )4198./. )/*24, 68. 9*/+,. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. ,-77./.46
:)6./-)+( 6* :)A. 7-(8-4< )-,( )( ,.(3/-5., -4 68. 7*++*9-4< ;)/)</);8(E
I #ishing line. U(. ;-.3.( *7 6)/;)2+-4 */ 3)4>)(. U4/)>.+ 68. 68/.),( )4, 6-.
68.: 6*<.68./ -4 (8*/6 +.4<68( -4 </*2;( *7 68/.. */ :*/. 68/.),(. S8*.+)3.(
)4, ;)/)3826. (2(;.4(-*4 +-4. )+(* 9*/A 9.++.
I #ish hooks. N* *4. )6 (.) (8*2+, 5. 9-68*26 7-(8-4< .?2-;:.460 526 -7 1*2
)/.0 -:;/*>-(. 8**A( )( (8*94 -4 C8);6./ $.
I #ish l&res. Y*2 3)4 7)(8-*4 +2/.( 51 )66)38-4< ) ,*25+. 8**A 6* )41 (8-41
;-.3. *7 :.6)+.
200
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(:)++ 7-(8 *26 *7 68. (.)9..,.
T8.(. 1*2 :)1 .)6 */ 2(. 7*/ 5)-6. Y*2 :)1 .)6 (.)9.., -6(.+70 526 *4+1
98.4 1*2 8)>. ;+.461 *7 ,/-4A-4< 9)6./. I:;/*>-(. </);;+.( 7/*: 9**,. U(.
) 8.)>1 ;-.3. *7 9**, )( 68. :)-4 (8)760 )4, +)(8 68/.. (:)++./ ;-.3.( 6* 68.
(8)76 )( </);;+.(.
I *ait. Y*2 3)4 2(. (:)++ 7-(8 )( 5)-6 7*/ +)/<./ *4.(. S3**; 68. (:)++ 7-(8 2;
9-68 ) 4.6. I7 1*2 ,*4H6 8)>. ) 4.60 :)A. *4. 7/*: 3+*68 *7 (*:. 61;.. H*+,
68. 4.6 24,./ 68. 9)6./ )4, (3**; 2;9)/,. U(. )++ 68. <26( 7/*: 5-/,( )4,
7-(8 7*/ 5)-6. !8.4 2(-4< 5)-60 6/1 6* A..; -6 :*>-4< -4 68. 9)6./ 6* <->. -6 68.
);;.)/)43. *7 5.-4< )+->..
H+<7,3< F4:84/9 H4/0:
16B%9. Y*2/ 7-(8-4< (8*2+, 5. (233.((72+ -7 1*2 /.:.:5./ 68. 7*++*9-4<
-:;*/6)46 8-46(E
I B. .=6/.:.+1 3)/.72+ 9-68 7-(8 68)6 8)>. 6..68 )4, (;-4.(.
I C26 ) +)/<. 7-(8 +**(. /)68./ 68)4 /-(A 3);(-G-4< 68. /)76. T/1 6* 3)638 (:)++
/)68./ 68)4 +)/<. 7-(8.
I D* 4*6 ;24362/. 1*2/ /)76 9-68 8**A( */ *68./ (8)/; -4(6/2:.46(.
I D* 4*6 7-(8 98.4 +)/<. (8)/A( )/. -4 68. )/.).
I !)638 7*/ (38**+( *7 7-(8M 6/1 6* :*>. 3+*(. 6* 68.(. (38**+(.
I F-(8 )6 4-<86 2(-4< ) +-<86. T8. +-<86 )66/)36( 7-(8.
I I4 68. ,)16-:.0 (8),. )66/)36( (*:. 7-(8. Y*2 :)1 7-4, 68.: 24,./ 1*2/ /)76.
I I:;/*>-(. ) (;.)/ 51 61-4< ) A4-7. 6* )4 *)/ 5+),.. T8-( (;.)/ 3)4 8.+; 1*2
3)638 +)/<./ 7-(80 526 1*2 :2(6 <.6 68.: -46* 68. /)76 ?2-3A+1 */ 68.1 9-++ (+-; *77
68. 5+),.. A+(*0 6-. 68. A4-7. >./1 (.32/.+1 */ 1*2 :)1 +*(. -6.
I A+9)1( 6)A. 3)/. *7 1*2/ 7-(8-4< .?2-;:.46. D/1 1*2/ 7-(8-4< +-4.(0 3+.)4 )4,
(8)/;.4 68. 8**A(0 )4, ,* 4*6 )++*9 68. 8**A( 6* (6-3A -46* 68. 7-(8-4< +-4.(.
B4*2:
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3)638. S*:.6-:.( 5-/,( :)1 +)4, *4 1*2/ /)760 526 2(2)++1 68.1 )/. 3)26-*2(.
Y*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* )66/)36 (*:. 5-/,( 51 6*9-4< ) 5/-<86 ;-.3. *7 :.6)+
5.8-4, 68. /)76. T8-( 9-++ 5/-4< 68. 5-/, 9-68-4 (8**6-4< /)4<.0 ;/*>-,., 1*2
8)>. ) 7-/.)/:.
16B61. I7 ) 5-/, +)4,( 9-68-4 1*2/ /.)380 1*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* 3)638 -6. I7 68.
5-/,( ,* 4*6 +)4, 3+*(. .4*2<8 */ +)4, *4 68. *68./ .4, *7 68. /)760 1*2 :)1
5. )5+. 6* 3)638 68.: 9-68 ) 5-/, 4**(.. B)-6 68. 3.46./ *7 68. 4**(. )4, 9)-6
7*/ 68. 5-/, 6* +)4,. !8.4 68. 5-/,H( 7..6 )/. -4 68. 3.46./ *7 68. 4**(.0 ;2++ -6
6-<86.
16B62. U(. )++ ;)/6( *7 68. 5-/,. U(. 68. 7.)68./( 7*/ -4(2+)6-*40 68. .46/)-+(
)4, 7..6 7*/ 5)-60 )4, (* *4. U(. 1*2/ -:)<-4)6-*4.
201
MEDICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED $ITH SEA SURVIVAL
16B6. A6 (.)0 1*2 :)1 5.3*:. (.)(-3A0 <.6 ()+69)6./ (*/.(0 */ 7)3. (*:. *7
68. ():. :.,-3)+ ;/*5+.:( 68)6 *332/ *4 +)4,0 (238 )( ,.81,/)6-*40
81;*68./:-)0 */ (2452/4. T8.(. ;/*5+.:( 3)4 5.3*:. 3/-6-3)+ -7 +.76
246/.)6.,.
S+-:4.?/+::
16B64. S.)(-3A4.(( -( 68. 4)2(.) )4, >*:-6-4< 3)2(., 51 68. :*6-*4 *7 68.
/)76. I6 3)4 /.(2+6 -4@
I E=6/.:. 7+2-, +*(( )4, .=8)2(6-*4.
I L*(( *7 68. 9-++ 6* (2/>->..
I O68./( 5.3*:-4< (.)(-3A.
I A66/)36-*4 *7 (8)/A( 6* 68. /)76.
I U43+.)4 3*4,-6-*4(.
16B6%. T* 6/.)6 (.)(-3A4.((@
I !)(8 5*68 68. ;)6-.46 )4, 68. /)76 6* /.:*>. 68. (-<86 )4, *,*/ *7 >*:-6.
I K..; 68. ;)6-.46 7/*: .)6-4< 7**, 246-+ 8-( 4)2(.) -( <*4..
I H)>. 68. ;)6-.46 +-. ,*94 )4, /.(6.
I G->. 68. ;)6-.46 (.)(-3A4.(( ;-++( -7 )>)-+)5+.. I7 68. ;)6-.46 -( 24)5+. 6* 6)A.
68. ;-++( */)++10 -4(./6 68.: /.36)++1 7*/ )5(*/;6-*4 51 68. 5*,1. D* 4*6 6)A.
(.)(-3A4.(( ;-++( -7 1*2 )/. )+/.),1 (.)(-3A. T8.1 6.4, 6* :)A. 68. ;)6-.46
.>.4 (-3A./M )+9)1( 6)A. (.)(-3A4.(( ;-++( 5.7*/. 68. (1:;6*:( );;.)/.
NOTE: S*:. ;.*;+. )6 (.) 8)>. ()-, 68)6 ./.36-4< ) 3)4*;1 */ 2(-4< 68.
8*/-G*4 */ ) 3+*2, )( ) 7*3)+ ;*-46 8.+;., *>./3*:. (.)(-3A4.((. O68./(
8)>. ()-, 68)6 (9-::-4< )+*4<(-,. 68. /)76 7*/ (8*/6 ;./-*,( 8.+;.,0 526
.=6/.:. 3)/. :2(6 5. 6)A.4 -7 (9-::-4<.
S-<0A-0+* S1*+:
16B66. T8.(. (*/.( /.(2+6 7/*: ) 5/.)A -4 (A-4 .=;*(., 6* ()+69)6./ 7*/ )4
.=6.4,., ;./-*,. T8.1 :)1 )+(* *332/ )6 68. )/.)( 68)6 1*2/ 3+*68-4< 5-4,(
1*2@1*2/ 9)-(60 )4A+.(0 */ 9/-(6. T8. (*/.( :)1 7*/: (3)5( )4, ;2(. D* 4*6
*;.4 */ ,/)-4 68. (*/.(. F+2(8 68.: 9-68 7/.(89)6./0 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 )4, )++*9 6*
,/1. A;;+1 )4 )46-(.;6-30 -7 )>)-+)5+..
I>>+*:41/ R10& F*1:0@40+& -/2 H;7108+*>4-
16B67. T8.(. ;/*5+.:( )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 68*(. .43*246./., -4 3*+, 9.)68./
.4>-/*4:.46(. S1:;6*:( )4, 6/.)6:.46 )/. 68. ():. )( 3*>./., -4 C8);6./
1%.
B<4/2/+:: 1* H+-2-.8+
202
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-::.,-)6.+1 9-68 ()+69)6./0 68.4 9-68 7/.(89)6./0 -7 )>)-+)5+.. A;;+1 *-46:.460
-7 )>)-+)5+.. B)4,)<. 5*68 .1.( 1$ 6* 24 8*2/(0 */ +*4<./ -7 ,):)<. -( (.>./..
I7 68. <+)/. 7/*: 68. (A1 )4, 9)6./ 3)2(.( 1*2/ .1.( 6* 5.3*:. 5+**,(8*6
)4, -47+):.,0 5)4,)<. 68.: +-<86+1. T/1 6* ;/.>.46 68-( ;/*5+.: 51 9.)/-4<
(24<+)((.(. I:;/*>-(. (24<+)((.( -7 4.3.(()/1.
C1/:047-041/
16B69. T8-( 3*4,-6-*4 -( ) 3*::*4 ;/*5+.: *4 ) /)76. D* 4*6 6)A. ) +)=)6->.0
)( 68-( 9-++ 3)2(. 72/68./ ,.81,/)6-*4. E=./3-(. )( :238 )( ;*((-5+. )4, ,/-4A
)4 ),.?2)6. ):*246 *7 9)6./0 -7 )>)-+)5+..
D4,,4.3<0 U*4/-041/
16B7". T8-( ;/*5+.: -( 4*6 242(2)+ )4, -( ,2. :)-4+1 6* ,.81,/)6-*4. I6 -(
5.(6 4*6 6* 6/.)6 -60 )( -6 3*2+, 3)2(. 72/68./ ,.81,/)6-*4.
S3/@3*/
16B71. S2452/4 -( ) (./-*2( ;/*5+.: -4 (.) (2/>->)+. T/1 6* ;/.>.46 (2452/4
51 (6)1-4< -4 68. (8),. )4, A..;-4< 1*2/ 8.), )4, (A-4 3*>./.,. U(. 3/.):
*/ +-; ()+>. 7/*: 1*2/ 7-/(6B)-, A-6. R.:.:5./0 /.7+.36-*4 7/*: 68. 9)6./ )+(*
3)2(.( (2452/4 -4 ;+)3.( 98./. 68. (24 2(2)++1 ,*.(4H6 52/4 1*2@6.4,./
(A-4 24,./ 68. .)/+*5.(0 .1.5/*9(0 4*(.0 38-40 )4, 24,./)/:(.
SHARKS
16B72. !8.68./ 1*2 )/. -4 68. 9)6./ */ -4 ) 5*)6 */ /)760 1*2 :)1 (.. :)41
61;.( *7 (.) +-7. )/*24, 1*2. S*:. :)1 5. :*/. ,)4<./*2( 68)4 *68./(.
G.4./)++10 (8)/A( )/. 68. </.)6.(6 ,)4<./ 6* 1*2. O68./ )4-:)+(0 (238 )(
98)+.(0 ;*/;*-(.(0 )4, (6-4</)1(0 :)1 +**A ,)4<./*2(0 526 /.)++1 ;*(. +-66+.
68/.)6 -4 68. *;.4 (.).
16B7. O7 68. :)41 824,/.,( *7 (8)/A (;.3-.(0 *4+1 )5*26 2" (;.3-.( )/.
A4*94 6* )66)3A :)4. T8. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( )/. 68. </.)6 98-6. (8)/A0 68.
8)::./8.),0 68. :)A*0 )4, 68. 6-<./ (8)/A. O68./ (8)/A( A4*94 6* )66)3A
:)4 -43+2,. 68. </)10 5+2.0 +.:*40 ()4,0 42/(.0 52++0 )4, *3.)4-3 98-6.B6-;
(8)/A(. C*4(-,./ )41 (8)/A +*4<./ 68)4 1 :.6./ C 7..6D ,)4<./*2(.
16B74. T8./. )/. (8)/A( -4 )++ *3.)4( )4, (.)( *7 68. 9*/+,. !8-+. :)41 +->.
)4, 7.., -4 68. ,.;68( *7 68. (.)0 *68./( 8246 4.)/ 68. (2/7)3.. T8. (8)/A(
+->-4< 4.)/ 68. (2/7)3. )/. 68. *4.( 1*2 9-++ :*(6 +-A.+1 (... T8.-/ ,*/()+ 7-4(
7/.?2.46+1 ;/*F.36 )5*>. 68. 9)6./. S8)/A( -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ )4, (256/*;-3)+
(.)( )/. 7)/ :*/. )<</.((->. 68)4 68*(. -4 6.:;./)6. 9)6./(.
16B7%. A++ (8)/A( )/. 5)(-3)++1 .)6-4< :)38-4.(. T8.-/ 4*/:)+ ,-.6 -( +->.
)4-:)+( *7 )41 61;.0 )4, 68.1 9-++ (6/-A. )6 -4F2/., */ 8.+;+.(( )4-:)+(. S-<860
(:.++0 */ (*24, :)1 <2-,. 68.: 6* 68.-/ ;/.1. S8)/A( 8)>. )4 )326. (.4(. *7
(:.++ )4, 68. (:.++ *7 5+**, -4 68. 9)6./ .=3-6.( 68.:. T8.1 )/. )+(* >./1
203
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)4-:)+ */ (9-::./0 24,./9)6./ .=;+*(-*4(0 */ .>.4 ) 7-(8 (6/2<<+-4< *4 ) 7-(8
+-4. 9-++ )66/)36 ) (8)/A.
16B76. S8)/A( 3)4 5-6. 7/*: )+:*(6 )41 ;*(-6-*4M 68.1 ,* 4*6 8)>. 6* 62/4 *4
68.-/ (-,. 6* 5-6.. T8. F)9( *7 (*:. *7 68. +)/<./ (8)/A( )/. (* 7)/ 7*/9)/,
68)6 68.1 3)4 5-6. 7+*)6-4< *5F.36( .)(-+1 9-68*26 69-(6-4< 6* 68. (-,..
16B77. S8)/A( :)1 8246 )+*4.0 526 :*(6 /.;*/6( *7 )66)3A( 3-6. :*/. 68)4 *4.
(8)/A ;/.(.46. T8. (:)++./ (8)/A( 6.4, 6* 6/)>.+ -4 (38**+( )4, )66)3A -4
:)((. !8.4.>./ *4. *7 68. (8)/A( 7-4,( ) >-36-:0 68. *68./ (8)/A( 9-++ ?2-3A+1
F*-4 -6. S8)/A( 9-++ .)6 ) 9*24,., (8)/A )( ?2-3A+1 )( 68.-/ ;/.1.
16B7$. S8)/A( 7.., )6 )++ 8*2/( *7 68. ,)1 )4, 4-<86. M*(6 /.;*/6., (8)/A
3*46)36( )4, )66)3A( 9./. ,2/-4< ,)1+-<860 )4, :)41 *7 68.(. 8)>. 5..4 -4
68. +)6. )76./4**4. S*:. *7 68. :.)(2/.( 68)6 1*2 3)4 6)A. 6* ;/*6.36
1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 (8)/A( 98.4 1*2 )/. -4 68. 9)6./ )/.@
I Stay with other swimmers. A </*2; 3)4 :)-46)-4 ) 6"B,.</.. 9)638. A
</*2; 3)4 .-68./ 7/-<86.4 */ 7-<86 *77 (8)/A( 5.66./ 68)4 *4. :)4.
I Always watch 2or sharks. K..; )++ 1*2/ 3+*68-4< *40 6* -43+2,. 1*2/ (8*.(.
H-(6*/-3)++10 (8)/A( 8)>. )66)3A., 68. 243+*68., :.4 -4 </*2;( 7-/(60 :)-4+1 -4
68. 7..6. C+*68-4< )+(* ;/*6.36( )<)-4(6 )5/)(-*4( (8*2+, 68. (8)/A 5/2(8
)<)-4(6 1*2.
I Avoid &rinating. I7 1*2 :2(60 *4+1 ,* (* -4 (:)++ ):*246(. L.6 -6 ,-((-;)6.
5.69..4 ,-(38)/<.(. I7 1*2 :2(6 ,.7.3)6.0 ,* (* -4 (:)++ ):*246( )4, 68/*9
-6 )( 7)/ )9)1 7/*: 1*2 )( ;*((-5+.. D* 68. ():. -7 1*2 :2(6 >*:-6.
16B79. I7 ) (8)/A )66)3A -( -::-4.46 98-+. 1*2 )/. -4 68. 9)6./0 (;+)(8 )4, 1.++
F2(6 .4*2<8 6* A..; 68. (8)/A )6 5)1. S*:.6-:.( 1.++-4< 24,./9)6./ */
(+);;-4< 68. 9)6./ /.;.)6.,+1 9-++ (3)/. 68. (8)/A )9)1. C*4(./>. 1*2/
(6/.4<68 7*/ 7-<86-4< -4 3)(. 68. (8)/A )66)3A(.
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-7 ;*((-5+.. I7 1*2 8-6 68. (8)/A *4 68. 4*(.0 1*2 :)1 -4F2/. 1*2/ 8)4, -7 -6
<+)43.( *77 )4, 8-6( -6( 6..68.
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9)6./.
I D* 4*6 68/*9 <)/5)<. *>./5*)/,.
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I K..; ?2-.6 )4, ,* 4*6 :*>. )/*24,.
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3*4,236 68. 52/-)+ )6 4-<86.
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204
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-6.
DETECTING LAND
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-4,-3)6*/( 68)6 +)4, -( 4.)/.
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(8.+>.( *7 3*/)+ /..7( *76.4 3)2(.( ) </..4-(8 6-46 -4 68. (A1.
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*4.( 3)2(., 51 *;.4 9)6./.
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9)6./0 98-38 :)1 :.)4 +)4, -( 4.)/.
16B$$. A6 4-<860 */ -4 7*<0 :-(60 */ /)-40 1*2 :)1 ,.6.36 +)4, 51 *,*/( )4,
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9)1. Y*2 8.)/ 68. /*)/ *7 (2/7 +*4< 5.7*/. 1*2 (.. 68. (2/7. T8. 3*46-42.,
3/-.( *7 (.)5-/,( 3*:-4< 7/*: *4. ,-/.36-*4 -4,-3)6. 68.-/ /**(6-4< ;+)3. *4
4.)/51 +)4,.
16B$9. T8./. 2(2)++1 )/. :*/. 5-/,( 4.)/ +)4, 68)4 *>./ 68. *;.4 (.). T8.
,-/.36-*4 7/*: 98-38 7+*3A( 7+1 )6 ,)94 )4, 6* 98-38 68.1 7+1 )6 ,2(A :)1
-4,-3)6. 68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 +)4,. D2/-4< 68. ,)10 5-/,( )/. (.)/38-4< 7*/ 7**, )4,
68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 7+-<86 8)( 4* (-<4-7-3)43..
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.(;.3-)++1 ,2/-4< 68. :-,,+. *7 68. ,)1. B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* :-(6)A. ) :-/)<. 7*/
4.)/51 +)4,. A :-/)<. ,-();;.)/( */ -6( );;.)/)43. )4, .+.>)6-*4 38)4<.
98.4 >-.9., 7/*: (+-<86+1 ,-77./.46 8.-<86(.
16B91. Y*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* ,.6.36 +)4, 51 68. ;)66./4 *7 68. 9)>.( C/.7/)36.,D
)( 68.1 );;/*)38 +)4, CF-<2/. 16B1$D. B1 6/)>.+-4< 9-68 68. 9)>.( )4,
;)/)++.+ 6* 68. (+-<86+1 62/52+.46 )/.) :)/A., J'K *4 68. -++2(6/)6-*40 1*2 (8*2+,
/.)38 +)4,.
205
F493*+ 16C1. $-B+ P-00+*/: A@130 -/ I:<-/2
RAFTING OR BEACHING TECHNI'UES
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)(8*/.0 1*2 3)4 2(2)++1 2(. 68. *4. :)4 /)76 9-68*26 ,)4<./. H*9.>./0 <*-4<
)(8*/. -4 ) (6/*4< (2/7 -( ,)4<./*2(. T)A. 1*2/ 6-:.. S.+.36 1*2/ +)4,-4<
;*-46 3)/.72++1. T/1 4*6 6* +)4, 98.4 68. (24 -( +*9 )4, (6/)-<86 -4 7/*46 *7 1*2.
T/1 6* +)4, *4 68. +.. (-,. *7 )4 -(+)4, */ *4 ) ;*-46 *7 +)4, F266-4< *26 -46* 68.
9)6./. K..; 1*2/ .1.( *;.4 7*/ <);( -4 68. (2/7 +-4.0 )4, 8.), 7*/ 68.:.
A>*-, 3*/)+ /..7( )4, /*3A1 3+-77(. T8./. )/. 4* 3*/)+ /..7( 4.)/ 68. :*268( *7
7/.(89)6./ (6/.):(. A>*-, /-; 32//.46( */ (6/*4< 6-,)+ 32//.46( 68)6 :)1 3)//1
1*2 7)/ *26 6* (.). E-68./ (-<4)+ )(8*/. 7*/ 8.+; */ ()-+ )/*24, )4, +**A 7*/ )
(+*;-4< 5.)38 98./. 68. (2/7 -( <.46+..
16B9. I7 1*2 8)>. 6* <* 68/*2<8 68. (2/7 6* /.)38 (8*/.0 6)A. ,*94 68. :)(6.
K..; 1*2/ 3+*68.( )4, (8*.( *4 6* )>*-, (.>./. 326(. A,F2(6 )4, -47+)6. 1*2/
+-7. >.(6. T/)-+ 68. (.) )438*/ *>./ 68. (6.: 2(-4< )( :238 +-4. )( 1*2 8)>..
U(. 68. *)/( */ ;),,+.( )4, 3*4(6)46+1 ),F2(6 68. (.) )438*/ 6* A..; ) (6/)-4
*4 68. )438*/ +-4.. T8.(. )36-*4( 9-++ A..; 68. /)76 ;*-46., 6*9)/, (8*/. )4,
;/.>.46 68. (.) 7/*: 68/*9-4< 68. (6./4 )/*24, )4, 3);(-G-4< 1*2. U(. 68.
*)/( */ ;),,+.( 6* 8.+; /-,. -4 *4 68. (.)9)/, (-,. *7 ) +)/<. 9)>..
16B94. T8. (2/7 :)1 5. -//.<2+)/ )4, >.+*3-61 :)1 >)/10 (* :*,-71 1*2/
;/*3.,2/. )( 3*4,-6-*4( ,.:)4,. A <**, :.68*, *7 <.66-4< 68/*2<8 68. (2/7
-( 6* 8)>. 8)+7 68. :.4 (-6 *4 *4. (-,. *7 68. /)760 8)+7 *4 68. *68./0 7)3-4<
)9)1 7/*: .)38 *68./. !8.4 ) 8.)>1 (.) 5.)/( ,*940 8)+7 (8*2+, /*9 C;2++D
6*9)/, 68. (.) 246-+ 68. 3/.(6 ;)((.(M 68.4 68. *68./ 8)+7 (8*2+, /*9 C;2++D
6*9)/, 68. (8*/. 246-+ 68. 4.=6 8.)>1 (.) 3*:.( )+*4<.
16B9%. A<)-4(6 ) (6/*4< 9-4, )4, 8.)>1 (2/70 68. /)76 :2(6 8)>. )++ ;*((-5+.
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5/*),(-,. */ 68/*94 .4, *>./ .4,. I7 ;*((-5+.0 )>*-, :..6-4< ) +)/<. 9)>. )6
68. :*:.46 -6 5/.)A(.
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;)((-4< *>./ ) 9)>. (* /);-,+1 68)6 -6 ,/*;( (2,,.4+1 )76./ 6*;;-4< 68. 3/.(6.
I7 68. /)76 62/4( *>./ -4 68. (2/70 6/1 6* </)5 8*+, *7 -6 )4, /-,. -6 -4.
206
16B97. A( 68. /)76 4.)/( 68. 5.)380 /-,. -4 *4 68. 3/.(6 *7 ) +)/<. 9)>..
P),,+. */ /*9 8)/, )4, /-,. -4 6* 68. 5.)38 )( 7)/ )( 1*2 3)4. D* 4*6 F2:;
*26 *7 68. /)76 246-+ -6 8)( </*24,.,0 68.4 ?2-3A+1 <.6 *26 )4, 5.)38 -6.
16B9$. I7 1*2 8)>. ) 38*-3.0 ,* 4*6 +)4, )6 4-<86. I7 1*2 8)>. /.)(*4 6*
5.+-.>. 68)6 ;.*;+. +->. *4 68. (8*/.0 +)1 )9)1 7/*: 68. 5.)380 (-<4)+0 )4,
9)-6 7*/ 68. -48)5-6)46( 6* 3*:. *26 )4, 5/-4< 1*2 -4.
16B99. I7 1*2 .43*246./ (.) -3.0 +)4, *4+1 *4 +)/<.0 (6)5+. 7+*.(. A>*-,
-3.5./<( 68)6 :)1 3);(-G. )4, (:)++ 7+*.( */ 68*(. *5>-*2(+1 ,-(-46.</)6-4<.
U(. *)/( )4, 8)4,( 6* A..; 68. /)76 7/*: /255-4< *4 68. .,<. *7 68. -3..
T)A. 68. /)76 *26 *7 68. 9)6./ )4, (6*/. -6 9.++ 5)3A 7/*: 68. 7+*.H( .,<.. Y*2
:)1 5. )5+. 6* 2(. -6 7*/ (8.+6./. K..; 68. /)76 -47+)6., )4, /.),1 7*/ 2(..
A41 7+*. :)1 5/.)A 2; 9-68*26 9)/4-4<.
S$IMMING ASHORE
16B1"". I7 /)76-4< )(8*/. -( 4*6 ;*((-5+. )4, 1*2 8)>. 6* (9-:0 9.)/ 1*2/
(8*.( )4, )6 +.)(6 *4. 68-3A4.(( *7 3+*68-4<. U(. 68. (-,.(6/*A. */
5/.)(6(6/*A. 6* 3*4(./>. (6/.4<68.
16B1"1. I7 68. (2/7 -( :*,./)6.0 /-,. -4 *4 68. 5)3A *7 ) (:)++ 9)>. 51
(9-::-4< 7*/9)/, 9-68 -6. D->. 6* ) (8)++*9 ,.;68 6* .4, 68. /-,. F2(6 5.7*/.
68. 9)>. 5/.)A(.
16B1"2. I4 8-<8 (2/70 (9-: 6*9)/, (8*/. -4 68. 6/*2<8 5.69..4 9)>.(. !8.4
68. (.)9)/, 9)>. );;/*)38.(0 7)3. -6 )4, (25:./<.. A76./ -6 ;)((.(0 9*/A
6*9)/, (8*/. -4 68. 4.=6 6/*2<8. I7 3)2<86 -4 68. 24,./6*9 *7 ) +)/<. 9)>.0
;2(8 *77 68. 5*66*: */ (9-: 6* 68. (2/7)3. )4, ;/*3.., 6*9)/, (8*/. )(
)5*>..
16B1". I7 1*2 :2(6 +)4, *4 ) /*3A1 (8*/.0 +**A 7*/ ) ;+)3. 98./. 68. 9)>.(
/2(8 2; *46* 68. /*3A(. A>*-, ;+)3.( 98./. 68. 9)>.( .=;+*,. 9-68 ) 8-<80
98-6. (;/)1. S9-: (+*9+1 98.4 :)A-4< 1*2/ );;/*)38. Y*2 9-++ 4.., 1*2/
(6/.4<68 6* 8*+, *4 6* 68. /*3A(. Y*2 (8*2+, 5. 72++1 3+*68., )4, 9.)/ (8*.(
6* /.,23. -4F2/1.
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68. 5/.)A./(. F)3. 6*9)/, (8*/. )4, 6)A. ) (-66-4< ;*(-6-*4 9-68 1*2/ 7..6 -4
7/*460 6" 6* 9" 3.46-:.6./( C2 */ 7..6D +*9./ 68)4 1*2/ 8.),. T8-( ;*(-6-*4
9-++ +.6 1*2/ 7..6 )5(*/5 68. (8*3A 98.4 1*2 +)4, */ (6/-A. (25:./<.,
5*2+,./( */ /..7(. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 /.)38 (8*/. 5.8-4, 68. 9)>. 1*2 ;-3A.,0
(9-: 9-68 1*2/ 8)4,( *4+1. A( 68. 4.=6 9)>. );;/*)38.(0 6)A. ) (-66-4<
;*(-6-*4 9-68 1*2/ 7..6 7*/9)/,. R.;.)6 68. ;/*3.,2/. 246-+ 1*2 +)4,.
16B1"%. !)6./ -( ?2-.6./ -4 68. +.. *7 ) 8.)>1 </*968 *7 (.)9..,. T)A.
),>)46)<. *7 (238 </*968. D* 4*6 (9-: 68/*2<8 68. (.)9..,M 3/)9+ *>./ 68.
6*; 51 </)(;-4< 68. >.<.6)6-*4 9-68 *>./8)4, :*>.:.46(.
207
16B1"6. C/*(( ) /*3A1 */ 3*/)+ /..7 )( 1*2 9*2+, +)4, *4 ) /*3A1 (8*/..
K..; 1*2/ 7..6 3+*(. 6*<.68./ )4, 1*2/ A4..( (+-<86+1 5.46 -4 ) /.+)=., (-66-4<
;*(62/. 6* 32(8-*4 68. 5+*9( )<)-4(6 68. 3*/)+.
PICKUP OR RESCUE
16B1"7. O4 (-<86-4< /.(32. 3/)76 );;/*)38-4< 7*/ ;-3A2; C5*)60 (8-;0
3*4>.46-*4)+ )-/3/)760 */ 8.+-3*;6./D0 ?2-3A+1 3+.)/ )41 +-4.( C7-(8-4< +-4.(0
,.()+6-4< A-6 +-4.(D */ *68./ <.)/ 68)6 3*2+, 3)2(. .46)4<+.:.46 ,2/-4< /.(32..
S.32/. )++ +**(. -6.:( -4 68. /)76. T)A. ,*94 3)4*;-.( )4, ()-+( 6* .4(2/. )
()7./ ;-3A2;. A76./ (.32/-4< )++ -6.:(0 ;26 *4 1*2/ 8.+:.60 -7 )>)-+)5+.. F2++1
-47+)6. 1*2/ +-7. ;/.(./>./. R.:)-4 -4 68. /)760 24+.(( *68./9-(. -4(6/236.,0 )4,
/.:*>. )++ .?2-;:.46 .=3.;6 68. ;/.(./>./(. I7 ;*((-5+.0 1*2 9-++ /.3.->. 8.+;
7/*: /.(32. ;./(*44.+ +*9./., -46* 68. 9)6./. R.:.:5./0 7*++*9 )++
-4(6/236-*4( <->.4 51 68. /.(32. ;./(*44.+.
16B1"$. I7 68. 8.+-3*;6./ /.3*>./1 -( 24)((-(6.,0 ,* 68. 7*++*9-4< 5.7*/.
;-3A2;E
I S.32/. )++ 68. +**(. .?2-;:.46 -4 68. /)760 )33.((*/1 5)<0 */ -4 ;*3A.6(.
I D.;+*1 68. (.) )438*/0 (6)5-+-61 5)<(0 )4, )33.((*/1 5)<.
I P)/6-)++1 ,.7+)6. 68. /)76 )4, 7-++ -6 9-68 9)6./.
I U4(4); 68. (2/>->)+ A-6 3*46)-4./ 7/*: 68. ;)/)3826. 8)/4.((.
I G/)(; 68. /)76 8)4,8*+, )4, /*++ *26 *7 68. /)76.
I A++*9 68. /.3*>./1 ,.>-3. */ 68. 3)5+. 6* </*24, *26 *4 68. 9)6./H( (2/7)3..
I M)-46)-4 68. 8)4,8*+, 246-+ 68. /.3*>./1 ,.>-3. -( -4 1*2/ *68./ 8)4,.
I M*246 68. /.3*>./1 ,.>-3.0 )>*-,-4< .46)4<+.:.46 9-68 68. /)76.
I S-<4)+ 68. 8*-(6 *;./)6*/ 7*/ ;-3A2; 51 ;+)3-4< *4. )/: (6/)-<86 *26 6* 68.
(-,. 9-68 1*2/ 682:5 2; 98-+. 1*2 8*+, *4 9-68 68. *68./. V-<*/*2(+1 (;+)(8
68. 9)6./ )4, 68.4 /)-(. 1*2/ )/: -4 68. J682:5( 2;K (-<4)+. O43.
/.3*>./.,0 DO NOT /.)38 7*/ 68. 8.+-3*;6./ */ 3/.9:)4 6* 6/1 6* )((-(6 8-:.
A++*9 68. )-/3/.9 ;./(*44.+ 6* ;2++ 1*2 -46* 68. )-/3/)76 51 68.:(.+>.(.
SEASHORES
16B1"9. S.)/38 ;+)4.( */ (8-;( ,* 4*6 )+9)1( (;*6 ) ,/-76-4< /)76 */ (9-::./.
Y*2 :)1 8)>. 6* +)4, )+*4< 68. 3*)(6 5.7*/. 5.-4< /.(32.,. S2/>->-4< )+*4<
68. (.)(8*/. -( ,-77./.46 7/*: *;.4 (.) (2/>->)+. F**, )4, 9)6./ )/. :*/.
)524,)46 )4, (8.+6./ -( *5>-*2(+1 .)(-./ 6* +*3)6. )4, 3*4(6/236.
16B11". I7 1*2 )/. -4 7/-.4,+1 6.//-6*/1 )4, ,.3-,. 6* 6/)>.+0 -6 -( 5.66./ 6* :*>.
)+*4< 68. 3*)(6 68)4 6* <* -4+)4,. D* 4*6 +.)>. 68. 3*)(6 .=3.;6 6* )>*-,
*5(6)3+.( C(9):;( )4, 3+-77(D */ 24+.(( 1*2 7-4, ) 6/)-+ 68)6 1*2 A4*9 +.),( 6*
82:)4 8)5-6)6-*4.
16B111. I4 6-:. *7 9)/0 /.:.:5./ 68)6 68. .4.:1 ;)6/*+( :*(6 3*)(6+-4.(.
T8.(. ;)6/*+( :)1 3)2(. ;/*5+.:( 7*/ 1*2 -7 1*2 +)4, *4 ) 8*(6-+. (8*/.. Y*2
9-++ 8)>. .=6/.:.+1 +-:-6., 6/)>.+ *;6-*4( -4 68-( (-62)6-*4. A>*-, )++ 3*46)36
9-68 *68./ 82:)4( )4, :)A. .>./1 .77*/6 6* 3*>./ )++ 6/)3A( 1*2 +.)>. *4 68.
(8*/..
208
SPECIAL HEALTH HA(ARDS
16B112. S2/>->-4< *4 68. (.)(8*/. 3./6)-4+1 3)4 ;/*>-,. ) </.)6./ )524,)43.
*7 1*2/ 5)(-3 4..,(0 526 8)G)/,( )+(* .=-(6. C*/)+0 ;*-(*4*2( )4, )<</.((->.
7-(80 3/*3*,-+.(0 (.) 2/38-4(0 (.) 5-(32-6(0 (;*4<.(0 )4.:*4.(0 6-,.(0 )4,
24,./6*9 3)4 ;*(. (;.3-)+ 8.)+68 8)G)/,( 68)6 1*2 (8*2+, 5. )9)/. *7 )4,
A4*9 8*9 6* 8)4,+..
C1*-<
16B11. C*/)+0 ,.), */ )+->.0 3)4 -47+-36 ;)-472+ 326(. T8./. )/. 824,/.,( *7
9)6./ 8)G)/,( 68)6 3)4 3)2(. ,..; ;24362/. 9*24,(0 (.>./. 5+..,-4<0 )4,
68. ,)4<./ *7 -47.36-*4. C+.)4 )++ 3*/)+ 326( 68*/*2<8+1. D* 4*6 2(. -*,-4. 6*
,-(-47.36 )41 3*/)+ 326(. S*:. 3*/)+ ;*+1;( 7.., *4 -*,-4. )4, :)1 </*9
-4(-,. 1*2/ 7+.(8 -7 1*2 2(. -*,-4..
P14:1/13: F4:8
16B114. M)41 /..7 7-(8 8)>. 6*=-3 7+.(8. F*/ (*:. (;.3-.(0 68. 7+.(8 -(
)+9)1( ;*-(*4*2(0 7*/ *68./ (;.3-.(0 *4+1 )6 3./6)-4 6-:.( *7 68. 1.)/. T8.
;*-(*4( )/. ;/.(.46 -4 )++ ;)/6( *7 68. 7-(80 526 .(;.3-)++1 -4 68. +->./0
-46.(6-4.(0 )4, .<<(. T8-( -( ,2. 6* 68.-/ -4<.(6-4< *7 ) ;*-(*4*2( 5)36./-)+
68)6 </*9( *4+1 *4 3*/)+ /..7(. T8-( 5)36./-) -( 6*=-3 6* 82:)4(.
16B11%. F-(8 6*=-4( )/. 9)6./ (*+25+.M 4* ):*246 *7 3**A-4< 9-++ 4.26/)+-G.
68.:. T8.1 )/. 6)(6.+.((0 68./.7*/.0 68. (6)4,)/, .,-5-+-61 6.(6( )/. 2(.+.((.
B-/,( )/. +.)(6 (2(3.;6-5+. 6* 68. ;*-(*4(. T8./.7*/.0 ,* 4*6 68-4A 68)6
5.3)2(. ) 5-/, 3)4 .)6 ) 7-(80 -6 -( ) ()7. (;.3-.( 7*/ 1*2 6* .)6.
16B116. T8. 6*=-4( 9-++ ;/*,23. ) 42:54.(( *7 68. +-;(0 6*4<2.0 6*.(0 )4, 6-;(
*7 68. 7-4<./(0 (.>./. -638-4<0 )4, ) 3+.)/ /.>./()+ *7 6.:;./)62/. (.4()6-*4(.
C*+, -6.:( );;.)/ 8*6 )4, 8*6 -6.:( 3*+,. T8./. 9-++ ;/*5)5+1 )+(* 5.
4)2(.)0 >*:-6-4<0 +*(( *7 (;..380 ,-GG-4.((0 )4, ) ;)/)+1(-( 68)6 .>.462)++1
5/-4<( ,.)68.
16B117. I4 ),,-6-*4 6* 7-(8 9-68 ;*-(*4*2( 7+.(80 68./. )/. 68*(. 68)6 )/.
,)4<./*2( 6* 6*238. M)41 (6-4</)1( 8)>. ) ;*-(*4*2( 5)/5 -4 68.-/ 6)-+.
T8./. )/. )+(* (;.3-.( 68)6 3)4 ,.+->./ )4 .+.36/-3 (8*3A. S*:. /..7 7-(80
(238 )( (6*4.7-(8 )4, 6*),7-(80 8)>. >.4*:*2( (;-4.( 68)6 3)4 3)2(. >./1
;)-472+ )+68*2<8 (.+,*: 7)6)+ -4F2/-.(. T8. >.4*: 7/*: 68.(. (;-4.( 3)2(.( )
52/4-4< (.4()6-*4 */ .>.4 )4 )<*4-G-4< ;)-4 68)6 -( *26 *7 ;/*;*/6-*4 6* 68.
);;)/.46 (.>./-61 *7 68. 9*24,. A F.++17-(80 98-+. 4*6 2(2)++1 7)6)+0 3)4 -47+-36 )
>./1 ;)-472+ (6-4< -7 -6 6*238.( 1*2 9-68 -6( 6.46)3+.(. S.. C8);6./ 11 )4,
A;;.4,-= F 7*/ ,.6)-+( *4 ;)/6-32+)/+1 ,)4<./*2( 7-(8 *7 68. (.) )4, (.)(8*/..
A99*+::4B+ F4:8
16B11$. Y*2 (8*2+, )+(* )>*-, (*:. 7./*3-*2( 7-(8. T8. 5*+, )4, -4?2-(-6->.
5)//)32,) 8)( )66)3A., :.4 9.)/-4< (8-41 *5F.36(. I6 :)1 38)/<. +-<86( */
(8-41 *5F.36( )6 4-<86. T8. (.) 5)((0 98-38 3)4 </*9 6* 1.7 :.6./( C6 7..6D0 -(
209
)4*68./ 7-(8 6* )>*-,. T8. :*/)1 ..+0 98-38 8)( :)41 (8)/; 6..68 )4, </*9(
6* 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D0 3)4 )+(* 5. )<</.((->. -7 ,-(62/5.,.
S+- S/-?+:
16B119. S.) (4)A.( )/. >.4*:*2( )4, (*:.6-:.( 7*24, -4 :-, *3.)4.
T8.1 )/. 24+-A.+1 6* 5-6. 24+.(( ;/*>*A.,. AB142 68.:.
C*1.124<+:
16B12". C/*3*,-+.( -48)5-6 6/*;-3)+ ()+69)6./ 5)1( )4, :)4</*>.B5*/,./.,
.(62)/-.( )4, /)4<. 2; 6* 6% A-+*:.6./( C9 :-+.(D -46* 68. *;.4 (.). F.9
/.:)-4 4.)/ -48)5-6., )/.)(. Y*2 3*::*4+1 7-4, 3/*3*,-+.( -4 68. /.:*6.
)/.)( *7 68. E)(6 I4,-.( )4, S*268.)(6 A(-). C*4(-,./ (;.3-:.4( *>./ 1
:.6./ C 7..6D +*4< ,)4<./*2(0 .(;.3-)++1 7.:)+.( <2)/,-4< 68.-/ 4.(6(.
C/*3*,-+. :.)6 -( )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 7**, 98.4 )>)-+)5+..
S+- U*.84/:& S+- B4:.340:& S71/9+:& -/2 A/+>1/+:
16B121. T8.(. )4-:)+( 3)4 3)2(. .=6/.:.0 68*2<8 (.+,*: 7)6)+0 ;)-4.
U(2)++1 7*24, -4 6/*;-3)+ (8)++*9 9)6./ 4.)/ 3*/)+ 7*/:)6-*4(0 (.) 2/38-4(
/.(.:5+. (:)++0 /*24, ;*/32;-4.(. I7 (6.;;., *40 68.1 (+-; 7-4. 4..,+.( *7
+-:. */ (-+-3) -46* 68. (A-40 98./. 68.1 5/.)A *77 )4, 7.(6./. I7 ;*((-5+.0
/.:*>. 68. (;-4.( )4, 6/.)6 68. -4F2/1 7*/ -47.36-*4. T8. *68./ )4-:)+(
:.46-*4., -47+-36 -4F2/1 (-:-+)/+1.
T42+: -/2 U/2+*01A
16B122. I7 3)2<86 -4 ) +)/<. 9)>.H( 24,./6*90 ;2(8 *77 68. 5*66*: */ (9-: 6*
68. (2/7)3. )4, ;/*3.., (8*/.9)/, -4 ) 6/*2<8 5.69..4 9)>.(. D* 4*6 7-<86
)<)-4(6 68. ;2++ *7 68. 24,./6*9. S9-: 9-68 -6 */ ;./;.4,-32+)/ 6* -6 246-+ -6
+*(.( (6/.4<680 68.4 (9-: 7*/ (8*/..
FOOD
16B12. O56)-4-4< 7**, )+*4< ) (.)(8*/. (8*2+, 4*6 ;/.(.46 ) ;/*5+.:.
T8./. )/. :)41 61;.( *7 (.)9.., )4, *68./ ;+)46( 1*2 3)4 .)(-+1 7-4, )4,
.)6. S.. C8);6./ 9 )4, A;;.4,-= B 7*/ ) ,-(32((-*4 *7 68.(. ;+)46(. T8./. -(
)+(* ) </.)6 >)/-.61 *7 )4-:)+ +-7. 68)6 3)4 (2;;+1 1*2/ 4.., 7*/ 7**, -4 68-(
61;. *7 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
M1<<3:?:
16B124. M2((.+(0 +-:;.6(0 3+):(0 (.) (4)-+(0 *36*;2(.(0 (?2-,(0 )4, (.)
(+2<( )/. )++ .,-5+.. S8.++7-(8 9-++ 2(2)++1 (2;;+1 :*(6 *7 68. ;/*6.-4 .)6.4 51
3*)(6)+ (2/>->*/(. A>*-, 68. 5+2.B/-4<., *36*;2( )4, 3*4. (8.++( C,.(3/-5.,
-4 C8);6./ 11 )4, A;;.4,-= FD. A+(*0 5.9)/. *7 J/., 6-,.(K 68)6 :)A.
:*++2(3( ;*-(*4*2(. A;;+1 68. .,-5-+-61 6.(6 *4 .)38 (;.3-.( 5.7*/. .)6-4<.
$1*>:
210
16B12%. C*)(6)+ 9*/:( )/. <.4./)++1 .,-5+.0 526 -6 -( 5.66./ 6* 2(. 68.: 7*/
7-(8 5)-6. A>*-, 5/-(6+. 9*/:( 68)6 +**A +-A. 72GG1 3)6./;-++)/(. A+(*0 )>*-,
625.9*/:( 68)6 8)>. (8)/;B.,<., 625.(. A//*9 9*/:(0 )+-)( ):;8-*=2(0 )/.
4*6 6/2. 9*/:(. Y*2 7-4, 68.: -4 68. ()4,. T8.1 )/. .=3.++.46 .-68./ 7/.(8 */
,/-.,.
C*-@:& L1@:0+*:& -/2 B-*/-.<+:
16B126. T8.(. )4-:)+( )/. (.+,*: ,)4<./*2( 6* :)4 )4, )/. )4 .=3.++.46
7**, (*2/3.. T8. ;-43./( *7 +)/<./ 3/)5( */ +*5(6./( 3)4 3/2(8 ) :)4H( 7-4<./.
M)41 (;.3-.( 8)>. (;-4.( *4 68.-/ (8.++(0 :)A-4< -6 ;/.7./)5+. 6* 9.)/ <+*>.(
98.4 3)638-4< 68.:. B)/4)3+.( 3)4 3)2(. (3/);.( */ 326( )4, )/. ,-77-32+6 6*
,.6)38 7/*: 68.-/ )438*/0 526 68. +)/<./ (;.3-.( )/. )4 .=3.++.46 7**, (*2/3..
S+- U*.84/:
16B127. T8.(. )/. 3*::*4 )4, 3)4 3)2(. ;)-472+ -4F2/-.( 98.4 (6.;;., *4
*/ 6*238.,. T8.1 )/. )+(* ) <**, (*2/3. *7 7**,. H)4,+. 68.: 9-68 <+*>.(
)4, /.:*>. )++ (;-4.(.
S+- C3.3>@+*:
16B12$. T8-( )4-:)+ -( )4 -:;*/6)46 7**, (*2/3. -4 68. I4,*BP)3-7-3 /.<-*4(.
U(. 68.: 98*+. )76./ .>-(3./)6-*4 */ /.:*>. 68. 7->. :2(32+)/ (6/-;( 68)6 /24
68. +.4<68 *7 -6( 5*,1. E)6 68.: (:*A.,0 ;-3A+.,0 */ 3**A.,.
CHAPTER 1#.
EF7+24+/0 $-0+* C*1::4/9:.
I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* 3/*(( ) 9)6./ *5(6)3+.. I6 :)1 5. -4
68. 7*/: *7 ) /->./0 ) (6/.):0 ) +)A.0 ) 5*<0 ?2-3A()4,0 ?2)<:-/.0 */ :2(A.<.
E>.4 -4 68. ,.(./60 7+)(8 7+**,( *332/0 :)A-4< (6/.):( )4 *5(6)3+.. !8)6.>./
68. *5(6)3+.0 1*2 4.., 6* A4*9 8*9 6* 3/*(( -6 ()7.+1.
RIVERS AND STREAMS
17B1. Y*2 3)4 );;+1 )+:*(6 .>./1 ,.(3/-;6-*4 6* /->./( )4, (6/.):(. T8.1
:)1 5. (8)++*9 */ ,..;0 (+*9 */ 7)(6 :*>-4<0 4)//*9 */ 9-,.. B.7*/. 1*2 6/1
6* 3/*(( ) /->./ */ (6/.):0 ,.>.+*; ) <**, ;+)4.
17B2. Y*2/ 7-/(6 (6.; -( 6* +**A 7*/ ) 8-<8 ;+)3. 7/*: 98-38 1*2 3)4 <.6 ) <**,
>-.9 *7 68. /->./ */ (6/.):. F/*: 68-( ;+)3.0 1*2 3)4 +**A 7*/ ) ;+)3. 6* 3/*((.
I7 68./. -( 4* 8-<8 ;+)3.0 3+-:5 ) 6/... G**, 3/*((-4< +*3)6-*4( -43+2,.@
I A +.>.+ (6/.638 98./. -6 5/.)A( -46* (.>./)+ 38)44.+(. T9* */ 68/.. 4)//*9
38)44.+( )/. 2(2)++1 .)(-./ 6* 3/*(( 68)4 ) 9-,. /->./.
211
I A (8)++*9 5)4A */ ()4,5)/. I7 ;*((-5+.0 (.+.36 ) ;*-46 2;(6/.): 7/*: 68.
5)4A */ ()4,5)/ (* 68)6 68. 32//.46 9-++ 3)//1 1*2 6* -6 -7 1*2 +*(. 1*2/ 7**6-4<.
I A 3*2/(. )3/*(( 68. /->./ 68)6 +.),( ,*94(6/.): (* 68)6 1*2 9-++ 3/*(( 68.
32//.46 )6 )5*26 ) 4%B ,.</.. )4<+..
17B. T8. 7*++*9-4< )/.)( ;*((.(( ;*6.46-)+ 8)G)/,(M )>*-, 68.:0 -7 ;*((-5+.E
I O5(6)3+.( *4 68. *;;*(-6. (-,. *7 68. /->./ 68)6 :-<86 8-4,./ 1*2/ 6/)>.+. T/1
6* (.+.36 68. (;*6 7/*: 98-38 6/)>.+ 9-++ 5. 68. ()7.(6 )4, .)(-.(6.
I A +.,<. *7 /*3A( 68)6 3/*((.( 68. /->./. T8-( *76.4 -4,-3)6.( ,)4<./*2(
/);-,( */ 3)41*4(.
I A ,..; */ /);-, 9)6./7)++ */ ) ,..; 38)44.+. N.>./ 6/1 6* 7*/, ) (6/.):
,-/.36+1 )5*>. */ .>.4 3+*(. 6* (238 8)G)/,(.
I R*3A1 ;+)3.( 68)6 3*2+, 3)2(. 1*2 6* (2(6)-4 (./-*2( -4F2/-.( 7/*: (+-;;-4< */
7)++-4<. U(2)++10 (25:./<., /*3A( )/. >./1 (+-3A0 :)A-4< 5)+)43. .=6/.:.+1
,-77-32+6. A4 *33)(-*4)+ /*3A 68)6 5/.)A( 68. 32//.460 8*9.>./0 :)1 8.+; 1*2.
I A4 .(62)/1 *7 ) /->./ 5.3)2(. -6 -( 4*/:)++1 9-,.0 8)( (6/*4< 32//.46(0 )4, -(
(25F.36 6* 6-,.(. T8.(. 6-,.( 3)4 -47+2.43. (*:. /->./( :)41 A-+*:.6./( 7/*:
68.-/ :*268(. G* 5)3A 2;(6/.): 6* )4 .)(-./ 3/*((-4< (-6..
I E,,-.(0 98-38 3)4 ;/*,23. ) ;*9./72+ 5)3A9)/, ;2++ ,*94(6/.): *7 68.
*5(6/236-*4 3)2(-4< 68. .,,1 )4, ;2++ 1*2 24,./ 68. (2/7)3..
17B4. T8. ,.;68 *7 ) 7*/,)5+. /->./ */ (6/.): -( 4* ,.6.//.46 -7 1*2 3)4 A..;
1*2/ 7**6-4<. I4 7)360 ,..; 9)6./ (*:.6-:.( /24( :*/. (+*9+1 )4, -( 68./.7*/.
()7./ 68)4 7)(6B:*>-4< (8)++*9 9)6./. Y*2 3)4 )+9)1( ,/1 1*2/ 3+*68.( +)6./0
*/ -7 4.3.(()/10 1*2 3)4 :)A. ) /)76 6* 3)//1 1*2/ 3+*68-4< )4, .?2-;:.46
)3/*(( 68. /->./.
17B%. Y*2 :2(6 4*6 6/1 6* (9-: */ 9),. )3/*(( ) (6/.): */ /->./ 98.4 68.
9)6./ -( )6 >./1 +*9 6.:;./)62/.(. T8-( (9-: 3*2+, 5. 7)6)+. T/1 6* :)A. )
/)76 *7 (*:. 61;.. !),. )3/*(( -7 1*2 3)4 <.6 *4+1 1*2/ 7..6 9.6. D/1 68.:
>-<*/*2(+1 )( (**4 )( 1*2 /.)38 68. *68./ 5)4A.
RAPIDS
17B6. I7 4.3.(()/10 1*2 3)4 ()7.+1 3/*(( ) ,..;0 (9-76 /->./ */ /);-,(. T*
(9-: )3/*(( ) ,..;0 (9-76 /->./0 (9-: 9-68 68. 32//.460 4.>./ 7-<86 -6. T/1 6*
A..; 1*2/ 5*,1 8*/-G*46)+ 6* 68. 9)6./. T8-( 9-++ /.,23. 68. ,)4<./ *7 5.-4<
;2++., 24,./.
17B7. I4 7)(60 (8)++*9 /);-,(0 +-. *4 1*2/ 5)3A0 7..6 ;*-46-4< ,*94(6/.):0
7-44-4< 1*2/ 8)4,( )+*4<(-,. 1*2/ 8-;(. T8-( )36-*4 9-++ -43/.)(. 52*1)431
)4, 8.+; 1*2 (6../ )9)1 7/*: *5(6)3+.(. K..; 1*2/ 7..6 2; 6* )>*-, <.66-4<
68.: 5/2-(., */ 3)2<86 51 /*3A(.
17B$. I4 ,..; /);-,(0 +-. *4 1*2/ (6*:)380 8.), ,*94(6/.):0 )4<+-4< 6*9)/,
68. (8*/. 98.4.>./ 1*2 3)4. !)638 7*/ *5(6)3+.( )4, 5. 3)/.72+ *7
5)3A9)6./ .,,-.( )4, 3*4>./<-4< 32//.46(0 )( 68.1 *76.4 3*46)-4 ,)4<./*2(
(9-/+(. C*4>./<-4< 32//.46( *332/ 98./. 4.9 9)6./3*2/(.( .46./ 68. /->./ */
98./. 9)6./ 8)( 5..4 ,->./6., )/*24, +)/<. *5(6)3+.( (238 )( (:)++ -(+)4,(.
212
17B9. T* 7*/, ) (9-760 6/.)38./*2( (6/.):0 );;+1 68. 7*++*9-4< (6.;(E
I R.:*>. 1*2/ ;)46( )4, (8-/6 6* +.((.4 68. 9)6./H( ;2++ *4 1*2. K..; 1*2/
7**6<.)/ *4 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/ 7..6 )4, )4A+.( 7/*: /*3A(. I6 9-++ )+(* ;/*>-,. 1*2
9-68 7-/:./ 7**6-4<.
I T-. 1*2/ ;)46( )4, *68./ )/6-3+.( 6* 68. 6*; *7 1*2/ /23A()3A */ -4 ) 524,+.0 -7
1*2 8)>. 4* ;)3A. T8-( 9)10 -7 1*2 8)>. 6* /.+.)(. 1*2/ .?2-;:.460 )++ 1*2/
)/6-3+.( 9-++ 5. 6*<.68./. I6 -( .)(-./ 6* 7-4, *4. +)/<. ;)3A 68)4 6* 7-4, (.>./)+
(:)++ -6.:(.
I C)//1 1*2/ ;)3A 9.++ 2; *4 1*2/ (8*2+,./( )4, 5. (2/. 1*2 3)4 .)(-+1
/.:*>. -60 -7 4.3.(()/1. N*6 5.-4< )5+. 6* <.6 ) ;)3A *77 ?2-3A+1 .4*2<8 3)4
,/)< .>.4 68. (6/*4<.(6 (9-::./( 24,./.
I F-4, ) (6/*4< ;*+. )5*26 7.% 3.46-:.6./( C -438.(D -4 ,-):.6./ )4, 2.1 6*
2.4 :.6./( C7 6* $ 7..6D +*4< 6* 8.+; 1*2 7*/, 68. (6/.):. G/)(; 68. ;*+. )4,
;+)46 -6 7-/:+1 *4 1*2/ 2;(6/.): (-,. 6* 5/.)A 68. 32//.46. P+)46 1*2/ 7..6
7-/:+1 9-68 .)38 (6.;0 )4, :*>. 68. ;*+. 7*/9)/, ) +-66+. ,*94(6/.): 7/*: -6(
;/.>-*2( ;*(-6-*40 526 (6-++ 2;(6/.): 7/*: 1*2. !-68 1*2/ 4.=6 (6.;0 ;+)3. 1*2/
7**6 5.+*9 68. ;*+.. K..; 68. ;*+. 9.++ (+)46., (* 68)6 68. 7*/3. *7 68. 32//.46
A..;( 68. ;*+. )<)-4(6 1*2/ (8*2+,./ CF-<2/. 17B1D.
I C/*(( 68. (6/.): (* 68)6 1*2 9-++ 3/*(( 68. ,*94(6/.): 32//.46 )6 ) 4%B
,.</.. )4<+..
F493*+ 1#C1. O/+ M-/ C*1::4/9 SA4,0 S0*+->
17B1". U(-4< 68-( :.68*,0 1*2 3)4 ()7.+1 3/*(( 32//.46( 2(2)++1 6** (6/*4< 7*/
*4. ;./(*4 6* (6)4, )<)-4(6. D* 4*6 3*43./4 1*2/(.+7 )5*26 1*2/ ;)3AH(
9.-<860 )( 68. 9.-<86 9-++ 8.+; /)68./ 68)4 8-4,./ 1*2 -4 7*/,-4< 68. (6/.):.
17B11. I7 68./. )/. *68./ ;.*;+. 9-68 1*20 3/*(( 68. (6/.): 6*<.68./. E4(2/.
68)6 .>./1*4. 8)( ;/.;)/., 68.-/ ;)3A )4, 3+*68-4< )( *26+-4., )5*>..
P*(-6-*4 68. 8.)>-.(6 ;./(*4 *4 68. ,*94(6/.): .4, *7 68. ;*+. )4, 68.
+-<86.(6 *4 68. 2;(6/.): .4,. I4 2(-4< 68-( :.68*,0 68. 2;(6/.): ;./(*4
5/.)A( 68. 32//.460 )4, 68*(. 5.+*9 3)4 :*>. 9-68 /.+)6->. .)(. -4 68. .,,1
7*/:., 51 68. 2;(6/.): ;./(*4. I7 68. 2;(6/.): ;./(*4 <.6( 6.:;*/)/-+1
(9.;6 *77 8-( 7..60 68. *68./( 3)4 8*+, (6.),1 98-+. 8. /.<)-4( 8-( 7**6-4<
CF-<2/. 17B2D.
213
F493*+ 1#C2. S+B+*-< M+/ C*1::4/9 SA4,0 S0*+->
17B12. I7 1*2 8)>. 68/.. */ :*/. ;.*;+. )4, ) /*;. )>)-+)5+.0 1*2 3)4 2(.
68. 6.384-?2. (8*94 -4 F-<2/. 17B 6* 3/*(( 68. (6/.):. T8. +.4<68 *7 68.
/*;. :2(6 5. 68/.. 6-:.( 68. 9-,68 *7 68. (6/.):.
F493*+ 1#C3. I/24B423-<: T4+2 T19+08+* 01 C*1:: S0*+->
RAFTS
214
17B1. I7 1*2 8)>. 69* ;*438*(0 1*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 ) 5/2(8 /)76 */ )4
A2(6/)+-)4 ;*438* /)76. !-68 .-68./ *7 68.(. /)76(0 1*2 3)4 ()7.+1 7+*)6 1*2/
.?2-;:.46 )3/*(( ) (+*9B:*>-4< (6/.): */ /->./.
BRUSH RAFT
17B14. T8. 5/2(8 /)760 -7 ;/*;./+1 3*4(6/236.,0 9-++ (2;;*/6 )5*26 11%
A-+*</):( C2% ;*24,(D. T* 3*4(6/236 -60 2(. ;*438*(0 7/.(8 </..4 5/2(80 69*
(:)++ ();+-4<(0 )4, /*;. */ >-4. )( 7*++*9( CF-<2/. 17B4DE
I P2(8 68. 8**, *7 .)38 ;*438* 6* 68. -44./ (-,. )4, 6-<86+1 6-. *77 68. 4.3A(
2(-4< 68. ,/)9(6/-4<(.
I A66)38 68. /*;.( */ >-4.( )6 68. 3*/4./ )4, (-,. </*::.6( *7 .)38 ;*438*.
M)A. (2/. 68.1 )/. +*4< .4*2<8 6* 3/*(( 6* )4, 6-. 9-68 68. *68./( )66)38., )6
68. *;;*(-6. 3*/4./ */ (-,..
I S;/.), *4. ;*438* *4 68. </*24, 9-68 68. -44./ (-,. 2;. P-+. 7/.(80 </..4
5/2(8 C4* 68-3A 5/)438.(D *4 68. ;*438* 246-+ 68. 5/2(8 (6)3A -( )5*26 4%
3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D 8-<8. P2++ 68. ,/)9(6/-4< 2; 68/*2<8 68. 3.46./ *7 68.
5/2(8 (6)3A.
I M)A. )4 'B7/):. 7/*: 69* (:)++ ();+-4<( )4, ;+)3. -6 *4 6*; *7 68. 5/2(8
(6)3A. T-. 68. 'B7/):. (.32/.+1 -4 ;+)3. 9-68 68. ;*438* ,/)9(6/-4<.
I P-+. )4*68./ 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D *7 5/2(8 *4 6*; *7 68. 'B7/):.0 68.4
3*:;/.(( 68. 5/2(8 (+-<86+1.
I P2++ 68. ;*438* (-,.( 2; )/*24, 68. 5/2(8 )4,0 2(-4< 68. /*;.( */ >-4.(
)66)38., 6* 68. 3*/4./ */ (-,. </*::.6(0 6-. 68.: ,-)<*4)++1 7/*: 3*/4./ 6*
3*/4./ )4, 7/*: (-,. 6* (-,..
I S;/.), 68. (.3*4, ;*438*0 -44./ (-,. 2;0 4.=6 6* 68. 5/2(8 524,+..
I R*++ 68. 5/2(8 524,+. *46* 68. (.3*4, ;*438* (* 68)6 68. 6-., (-,. -( ,*94.
T-. 68. (.3*4, ;*438* )/*24, 68. 5/2(8 524,+. -4 68. ():. :)44./ )( 1*2
6-., 68. 7-/(6 ;*438* )/*24, 68. 5/2(8.
I P+)3. -6 -4 68. 9)6./ 9-68 68. 6-., (-,. *7 68. (.3*4, ;*438* 7)3-4< 2;.
F493*+ 1#C!. B*3:8 R-,0
AUSTRALIAN PONCHO RAFT
17B1%. I7 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. 6-:. 6* <)68./ 5/2(8 7*/ ) 5/2(8 /)760 1*2 3)4 :)A.
)4 A2(6/)+-)4 ;*438* /)76. T8-( /)760 )+68*2<8 :*/. 9)6./;/**7 68)4 68.
;*438* 5/2(8 /)760 9-++ *4+1 7+*)6 )5*26 % A-+*</):( C77 ;*24,(D *7
.?2-;:.46. T* 3*4(6/236 68-( /)760 2(. 69* ;*438*(0 69* /23A()3A(0 69* 1.2B
215
:.6./ C4B7**6D ;*+.( */ 5/)438.(0 )4, /*;.(0 >-4.(0 5**6+)3.(0 */ 3*:;)/)5+.
:)6./-)+ )( 7*++*9( CF-<2/. 17B%DE
I P2(8 68. 8**, *7 .)38 ;*438* 6* 68. -44./ (-,. )4, 6-<86+1 6-. *77 68. 4.3A(
2(-4< 68. ,/)9(6/-4<(.
I S;/.), *4. ;*438* *4 68. </*24, 9-68 68. -44./ (-,. 2;. P+)3. )4, 3.46./
68. 69* 1.2B:.6./ C4B 7**6D ;*+.( *4 68. ;*438* )5*26 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$
-438.(D );)/6.
I P+)3. 1*2/ /23A()3A(0 ;)3A(0 */ *68./ .?2-;:.46 5.69..4 68. ;*+.(. A+(*0
;+)3. *68./ -6.:( 68)6 1*2 9)46 6* A..; ,/1 5.69..4 68. ;*+.(. S4); 68.
;*438* (-,.( 6*<.68./.
I U(. 1*2/ 52,,1H( 8.+; 6* 3*:;+.6. 68. /)76. H*+, 68. (4);;., ;*/6-*4 *7 68.
;*438* -4 68. )-/ )4, /*++ -6 6-<86+1 ,*94 6* 68. .?2-;:.46. M)A. (2/. 1*2 /*++
68. 72++ 9-,68 *7 68. ;*438*.
I T9-(6 68. .4,( *7 68. /*++ 6* 7*/: ;-<6)-+( -4 *;;*(-6. ,-/.36-*4(. F*+, 68.
;-<6)-+( *>./ 68. 524,+. )4, 6-. 68.: (.32/.+1 -4 ;+)3. 2(-4< /*;.(0 5**6+)3.(0
*/ >-4.(.
I S;/.), 68. (.3*4, ;*438* *4 68. </*24,0 -44./ (-,. 2;. I7 1*2 4.., :*/.
52*1)4310 ;+)3. (*:. 7/.(8 </..4 5/2(8 *4 68-( ;*438*.
I P+)3. 68. .?2-;:.46 524,+.0 6-., (-,. ,*940 *4 68. 3.46./ *7 68. (.3*4,
;*438*. !/); 68. (.3*4, ;*438* )/*24, 68. .?2-;:.46 524,+. 7*++*9-4< 68.
():. ;/*3.,2/. 1*2 2(., 7*/ 9/);;-4< 68. .?2-;:.46 -4 68. 7-/(6 ;*438*.
I T-. /*;.(0 5**6+)3.(0 >-4.(0 */ *68./ 5-4,-4< :)6./-)+ )/*24, 68. /)76 )5*26
" 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D 7/*: 68. .4, *7 .)38 ;-<6)-+. P+)3. )4, (.32/.
9.);*4( *4 6*; *7 68. /)76.
I T-. *4. .4, *7 ) /*;. 6* )4 .:;61 3)46..4 )4, 68. *68./ .4, 6* 68. /)76.
T8-( 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 6* 6*9 68. /)76.
F493*+ 1#C". A3:0*-<4-/ P1/.81 R-,0
PONCHO DONUT RAFT
17B16. A4*68./ 61;. *7 /)76 -( 68. ;*438* ,*426 /)76. I6 6)A.( :*/. 6-:. 6*
3*4(6/236 68)4 68. 5/2(8 /)76 */ A2(6/)+-)4 ;*438* /)760 526 -6 -( .77.36->.. T*
3*4(6/236 -60 2(. *4. ;*438*0 (:)++ ();+-4<(0 9-++*9 */ >-4.(0 )4, /*;.0
5**6+)3.(0 */ *68./ 5-4,-4< :)6./-)+ CF-<2/. 17B6D )( 7*++*9(E
I M)A. ) 7/):.9*/A 3-/3+. 51 ;+)3-4< (.>./)+ (6)A.( -4 68. </*24, 68)6 /*2<8+1
*26+-4. )4 -44./ )4, *26./ 3-/3+..
216
I U(-4< 1*24< ();+-4<(0 9-++*90 */ >-4.(0 3*4(6/236 ) ,*426 /-4< 9-68-4 68.
3-/3+.( *7 (6)A.(.
I !/); (.>./)+ ;-.3.( *7 3*/,)<. )/*24, 68. ,*426 /-4< )5*26 " 6* 6"
3.46-:.6./( C12 6* 24 -438.(D );)/6 )4, 6-. 68.: (.32/.+1.
I P2(8 68. ;*438*H( 8**, 6* 68. -44./ (-,. )4, 6-<86+1 6-. *77 68. 4.3A 2(-4< 68.
,/)9(6/-4<.
I P+)3. 68. ;*438* *4 68. </*24,0 -44./ (-,. 2;. P+)3. 68. ,*426 /-4< *4 68.
3.46./ *7 68. ;*438*. !/); 68. ;*438* 2; )4, *>./ 68. ,*426 /-4< )4, 6-. *77
.)38 </*::.6 *4 68. ;*438* 6* 68. /-4<.
I T-. *4. .4, *7 ) /*;. 6* )4 .:;61 3)46..4 )4, 68. *68./ .4, 6* 68. /)76.
T8-( /*;. 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 6* 6*9 68. /)76.
F493*+ 1#C6. P1/.81 D1/30 R-,0
17B17. !8.4 +)2438-4< )41 *7 68. )5*>. /)76(0 6)A. 3)/. 4*6 6* ;24362/. */
6.)/ -6 51 ,/)<<-4< -6 *4 68. </*24,. B.7*/. 1*2 (6)/6 6* 3/*(( 68. /->./ */
(6/.):0 +.6 68. /)76 +)1 *4 68. 9)6./ ) 7.9 :-426.( 6* .4(2/. 68)6 -6 7+*)6(.
17B1$. I7 68. /->./ -( 6** ,..; 6* 7*/,0 ;2(8 68. /)76 -4 7/*46 *7 1*2 98-+. 1*2
)/. (9-::-4<. T8. ,.(-<4 *7 68. )5*>. /)76( ,*.( 4*6 )++*9 68.: 6* 3)//1 )
;./(*4H( 72++ 5*,1 9.-<86. U(. 68.: )( ) 7+*)6 6* <.6 1*2 )4, 1*2/ .?2-;:.46
()7.+1 )3/*(( 68. /->./ */ (6/.):.
17B19. B. (2/. 6* 38.3A 68. 9)6./ 6.:;./)62/. 5.7*/. 6/1-4< 6* 3/*(( ) /->./
*/ 9)6./ *5(6)3+.. I7 68. 9)6./ -( .=6/.:.+1 3*+, )4, 1*2 )/. 24)5+. 6* 7-4, )
(8)++*9 7*/,-4< ;+)3. -4 68. /->./0 ,* 4*6 6/1 6* 7*/, -6. D.>-(. *68./ :.)4( 7*/
3/*((-4<. F*/ -4(6)43.0 1*2 :-<86 -:;/*>-(. ) 5/-,<. 51 7.++-4< ) 6/.. *>./ 68.
/->./. O/ 1*2 :-<86 52-+, ) /)76 +)/<. .4*2<8 6* 3)//1 1*2 )4, 1*2/ .?2-;:.46.
F*/ 68-(0 8*9.>./0 1*2 9-++ 4.., )4 )=.0 ) A4-7.0 ) /*;. */ >-4.(0 )4, 6-:..
LOG RAFT
17B2". Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) /)76 2(-4< )41 ,/10 ,.),0 (6)4,-4< 6/..( 7*/ +*<(.
H*9.>./0 (;/23. 6/..( 7*24, -4 ;*+)/ )4, (25 ;*+)/ /.<-*4( :)A. 68. 5.(6
/)76(. A (-:;+. :.68*, 7*/ :)A-4< ) /)76 -( 6* 2(. ;/.((2/. 5)/( +)(8.,
(.32/.+1 )6 .)38 .4, *7 68. /)76 6* 8*+, 68. +*<( 6*<.68./ CF-<2/. 17B7D.
217
F493*+ 1#C#. U:+ 1, P*+::3*+ B-*:
FLOTATION DEVICES
17B21. I7 68. 9)6./ -( 9)/: .4*2<8 7*/ (9-::-4< )4, 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. 68.
6-:. */ :)6./-)+( 6* 3*4(6/236 *4. *7 68. ;*438*B61;. /)76(0 1*2 3)4 2(.
>)/-*2( 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( 6* 4.<*6-)6. 68. 9)6./ *5(6)3+.. S*:. -6.:( 1*2 3)4
2(. 7*/ 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( )/.@
I $ro&sers. K4*6 .)38 6/*2(./ +.< )6 68. 5*66*: )4, 3+*(. 68. 7+1. !-68 5*68
8)4,(0 </)(; 68. 9)-(65)4, )6 68. (-,.( )4, (9-4< 68. 6/*2(./( -4 68. )-/ 6*
6/); )-/ -4 .)38 +.<. Q2-3A+1 ;/.(( 68. (-,.( *7 68. 9)-(65)4, 6*<.68./ )4,
8*+, -6 24,./9)6./ (* 68)6 68. )-/ 9-++ 4*6 .(3);.. Y*2 4*9 8)>. 9)6./ 9-4<(
6* A..; 1*2 )7+*)6 )( 1*2 3/*(( 68. 5*,1 *7 9)6./.
NOTE: !.6 68. 6/*2(./( 5.7*/. -47+)6-4< 6* 6/); 68. )-/ 5.66./ Y*2 :)1 8)>. 6*
/.-47+)6. 68. 6/*2(./( (.>./)+ 6-:.( 98.4 3/*((-4< ) +)/<. 5*,1 *7 9)6./.
I 8mpty containers. L)(8 6*<.68./ .:;61 <)( 3)4(0 9)6./ F2<(0 )::* 3)4(0
5*=.(0 */ *68./ -6.:( 68)6 9-++ 6/); */ 8*+, )-/. U(. 68.: )( 9)6./ 9-4<(. U(.
68-( 61;. *7 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3. *4+1 -4 ) (+*9 :*>-4< /->./ */ (6/.):.
I "lastic %ags and ponchos. F-++ 69* */ :*/. ;+)(6-3 5)<( 9-68 )-/ )4, (.32/.
68.: 6*<.68./ )6 68. *;.4-4<. U(. 1*2/ ;*438* )4, /*++ </..4 >.<.6)6-*4
6-<86+1 -4(-,. -6 (* 68)6 1*2 8)>. ) /*++ )6 +.)(6 2" 3.46-:.6./( C$ -438.(D -4
,-):.6./. T-. 68. .4,( *7 68. /*++ (.32/.+1. Y*2 3)4 9.)/ -6 )/*24, 1*2/ 9)-(6
*/ )3/*(( *4. (8*2+,./ )4, 24,./ 68. *;;*(-6. )/:.
I 0ogs. U(. ) (6/)4,., ,/-76 +*< -7 *4. -( )>)-+)5+.0 */ 7-4, ) +*< 4.)/ 68. 9)6./
6* 2(. )( ) 7+*)6. B. (2/. 6* 6.(6 68. +*< 5.7*/. (6)/6-4< 6* 3/*((. S*:. 6/..
+*<(@;)+:0 7*/ .=):;+.@9-++ (-4A .>.4 98.4 68. 9**, -( ,.),. A4*68./
:.68*, -( 6* 6-. 69* +*<( )5*26 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D );)/6. S-6 5.69..4
68. +*<( 9-68 1*2/ 5)3A )<)-4(6 *4. )4, 1*2/ +.<( *>./ 68. *68./ CF-<2/. 17B
$D.
I Cattails. G)68./ (6)+A( *7 3)66)-+( )4, 6-. 68.: -4 ) 524,+. 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1"
-438.(D */ :*/. -4 ,-):.6./. T8. :)41 )-/ 3.++( -4 .)38 (6)+A 3)2(. ) (6)+A 6*
7+*)6 246-+ -6 /*6(. T.(6 68. 3)66)-+ 524,+. 6* 5. (2/. -6 9-++ (2;;*/6 1*2/ 9.-<86
5.7*/. 6/1-4< 6* 3/*(( ) 5*,1 *7 9)6./.
218
F493*+ 1#C. L19 F<10-041/
17B22. T8./. )/. :)41 *68./ 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( 68)6 1*2 3)4 ,.>-(. 51 2(-4<
(*:. -:)<-4)6-*4. J2(6 :)A. (2/. 6* 6.(6 68. ,.>-3. 5.7*/. 6/1-4< 6* 2(. -6.
OTHER $ATER OBSTACLES
17B2. O68./ 9)6./ *5(6)3+.( 68)6 1*2 :)1 7)3. )/. 5*<(0 ?2)<:-/.0 :2(A.<0
*/ ?2-3A()4,. D* 4*6 6/1 6* 9)+A )3/*(( 68.(.. T/1-4< 6* +-76 1*2/ 7..6 98-+.
(6)4,-4< 2;/-<86 9-++ :)A. 1*2 (-4A ,..;./. T/1 6* 51;)(( 68.(. *5(6)3+.(. I7
1*2 )/. 24)5+. 6* 51;)(( 68.:0 1*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* 5/-,<. 68.: 2(-4< +*<(0
5/)438.(0 */ 7*+-)<..
17B24. A 9)1 6* 3/*(( ) 5*< -( 6* +-. 7)3. ,*940 9-68 1*2/ )/:( )4, +.<(
(;/.),. U(. ) 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3. */ 7*/: ;*3A.6( *7 )-/ -4 1*2/ 3+*68-4<. S9-: */
;2++ 1*2/ 9)1 )3/*(( :*>-4< (+*9+1 )4, 6/1-4< 6* A..; 1*2/ 5*,1 8*/-G*46)+.
17B2%. I4 (9):;(0 68. )/.)( 68)6 8)>. >.<.6)6-*4 )/. 2(2)++1 7-/: .4*2<8 6*
(2;;*/6 1*2/ 9.-<86. H*9.>./0 >.<.6)6-*4 9-++ 2(2)++1 4*6 5. ;/.(.46 -4 *;.4
:2, */ 9)6./ )/.)(. I7 1*2 )/. )4 )>./)<. (9-::./0 1*2 (8*2+, 8)>. 4*
;/*5+.: (9-::-4<0 3/)9+-4<0 */ ;2++-4< 1*2/ 9)1 68/*2<8 :-+.( *7 5*< */
(9):;.
17B26. Q2-3A()4, -( ) :-=62/. *7 ()4, )4, 9)6./ 68)6 7*/:( ) (8-76-4< :)((.
I6 1-.+,( .)(-+1 6* ;/.((2/. )4, (23A( ,*94 )4, .4<2+7( *5F.36( /.(6-4< *4 -6(
(2/7)3.. I6 >)/-.( -4 ,.;68 )4, -( 2(2)++1 +*3)+-G.,. Q2-3A()4, 3*::*4+1
*332/( *4 7+)6 (8*/.(0 -4 (-+6B38*A., /->./( 9-68 (8-76-4< 9)6./3*2/(.(0 )4, 4.)/
68. :*268( *7 +)/<. /->./(. I7 1*2 )/. 243./6)-4 98.68./ ) ()4,1 )/.) -(
?2-3A()4,0 6*(( ) (:)++ (6*4. *4 -6. T8. (6*4. 9-++ (-4A -4 ?2-3A()4,.
A+68*2<8 ?2-3A()4, 8)( :*/. (236-*4 68)4 :2, */ :23A0 1*2 3)4 3/*(( -6 F2(6
)( 1*2 9*2+, 3/*(( ) 5*<. L-. 7)3. ,*940 (;/.), 1*2/ )/:( )4, +.<(0 )4,
:*>. (+*9+1 )3/*((.
VEGETATION OBSTACLES
17B27. S*:. 9)6./ )/.)( 1*2 :2(6 3/*(( :)1 8)>. 24,./9)6./ )4, 7+*)6-4<
;+)46( 68)6 9-++ :)A. (9-::-4< ,-77-32+6. H*9.>./0 1*2 3)4 (9-: 68/*2<8
/.+)6->.+1 ,.4(. >.<.6)6-*4 -7 1*2 /.:)-4 3)+: )4, ,* 4*6 68/)(8 )5*26. S6)1
)( 4.)/ 68. (2/7)3. )( ;*((-5+. )4, 2(. 68. 5/.)(6(6/*A. 9-68 (8)++*9 +.< )4,
)/: :*6-*4. R.:*>. 68. ;+)46( )/*24, 1*2 )( 1*2 9*2+, 3+*68-4<. !8.4
219
1*2 <.6 6-/.,0 7+*)6 */ (9-: *4 1*2/ 5)3A 246-+ 1*2 8)>. /.(6., .4*2<8 6*
3*46-42. 9-68 68. 5/.)(6(6/*A..
17B2$. T8. :)4</*>. (9):; -( )4*68./ 61;. *7 *5(6)3+. 68)6 *332/( )+*4<
6/*;-3)+ 3*)(6+-4.(. M)4</*>. 6/..( */ (8/25( 68/*9 *26 :)41 ;/*; /**6( 68)6
7*/: ,.4(. :)((.(. T* <.6 68/*2<8 ) :)4</*>. (9):;0 9)-6 7*/ +*9 6-,.. I7
1*2 )/. *4 68. -4+)4, (-,.0 +**A 7*/ ) 4)//*9 </*>. *7 6/..( )4, 9*/A 1*2/ 9)1
(.)9)/, 68/*2<8 68.(.. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 6/1 6* 7-4, 68. 5., *7 ) 9)6./9)1 */
3/..A 68/*2<8 68. 6/..( )4, 7*++*9 -6 6* 68. (.). I7 1*2 )/. *4 68. (.)9)/,
(-,.0 9*/A -4+)4, )+*4< (6/.):( */ 38)44.+(. B. *4 68. +**A*26 7*/ 3/*3*,-+.(
)+*4< 38)44.+( )4, -4 (8)++*9 9)6./. I7 68./. )/. )41 4.)/ 1*20 +.)>. 68.
9)6./ )4, (3/):5+. *>./ 68. :)4</*>. /**6(. !8-+. 3/*((-4< ) :)4</*>.
(9):;0 -6 -( ;*((-5+. 6* <)68./ 7**, 7/*: 6-,)+ ;**+( */ 6/.. /**6(.
17B29. A +)/<. (9):; )/.) /.?2-/.( :*/. 6-:. )4, .77*/6. T8./.7*/.0 -7 1*2
>3:0 3/*(( ) +)/<. (9):; )/.)0 3*4(6/236 (*:. 61;. *7 /)76.
CHAPTER 1.
F4+<2CEF7+24+/0 D4*+.041/ F4/24/9.
I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 9-++ 5. .=6/.:.+1 7*/624)6. -7 1*2 8);;.4 6* 8)>. )
:); )4, 3*:;)((. I7 1*2 ,* 8)>. 68.(. 69* ;-.3.( *7 .?2-;:.460 1*2 9-++
:*(6 +-A.+1 5. )5+. 6* :*>. 6*9)/, 8.+;. I7 1*2 )/. 4*6 ;/*7-3-.46 -4 2(-4< )
:); )4, 3*:;)((0 1*2 :2(6 6)A. 68. (6.;( 6* <)-4 68-( (A-++.
T8./. )/. (.>./)+ :.68*,( 51 98-38 1*2 3)4 ,.6./:-4. ,-/.36-*4 51 2(-4< 68.
(24 )4, 68. (6)/(. T8.(. :.68*,(0 8*9.>./0 9-++ <->. 1*2 *4+1 ) <.4./)+
,-/.36-*4. Y*2 3)4 3*:. 2; 9-68 ) :*/. 4.)/+1 6/2. ,-/.36-*4 -7 1*2 A4*9 68.
6.//)-4 *7 68. 6.//-6*/1 */ 3*246/1.
Y*2 :2(6 +.)/4 )++ 1*2 3)4 )5*26 68. 6.//)-4 *7 68. 3*246/1 */ 6.//-6*/1 6* 98-38
1*2 */ 1*2/ 24-6 :)1 5. (.460 .(;.3-)++1 )41 ;/*:-4.46 7.)62/.( */ +)4,:)/A(.
T8-( A4*9+.,<. *7 68. 6.//)-4 6*<.68./ 9-68 2(-4< 68. :.68*,( .=;+)-4.,
5.+*9 9-++ +.6 1*2 3*:. 2; 9-68 7)-/+1 6/2. ,-/.36-*4( 6* 8.+; 1*2 4)>-<)6..
USING THE SUN AND SHADO$S
1$B1. T8. .)/68H( /.+)6-*4(8-; 6* 68. (24 3)4 8.+; 1*2 6* ,.6./:-4. ,-/.36-*4
*4 .)/68. T8. (24 )+9)1( /-(.( -4 68. .)(6 )4, (.6( -4 68. 9.(60 526 4*6
.=)36+1 ,2. .)(6 */ ,2. 9.(6. T8./. -( )+(* (*:. (.)(*4)+ >)/-)6-*4.
S8),*9( 9-++ :*>. -4 68. *;;*(-6. ,-/.36-*4 *7 68. (24. I4 68. N*/68./4
H.:-(;8./.0 68.1 9-++ :*>. 7/*: 9.(6 6* .)(60 )4, 9-++ ;*-46 4*/68 )6 4**4. I4
68. S*268./4 H.:-(;8./.0 (8),*9( 9-++ -4,-3)6. (*268 )6 4**4. !-68 ;/)36-3.0
1*2 3)4 2(. (8),*9( 6* ,.6./:-4. 5*68 ,-/.36-*4 )4, 6-:. *7 ,)1. T8.
(8),*9 :.68*,( 2(., 7*/ ,-/.36-*4 7-4,-4< )/. 68. (8),*9B6-; )4, 9)638
:.68*,(.
220
SHADO$CTIP METHODS
1$B2. I4 68. 7-/(6 (8),*9B6-; :.68*,0 7-4, ) (6/)-<86 (6-3A 1 :.6./ C 7..6D +*4<0
)4, ) +.>.+ (;*6 7/.. *7 5/2(8 *4 98-38 68. (6-3A 9-++ 3)(6 ) ,.7-4-6. (8),*9.
T8-( :.68*, -( (-:;+. )4, )332/)6. )4, 3*4(-(6( *7 7*2/ (6.;(E
I Step 1. P+)3. 68. (6-3A */ 5/)438 -46* 68. </*24, )6 ) +.>.+ (;*6 98./. -6 9-++
3)(6 ) ,-(6-436->. (8),*9. M)/A 68. (8),*9H( 6-; 9-68 ) (6*4.0 69-<0 */ *68./
:.)4(. T8-( 7-/(6 (8),*9 :)/A -( )+9)1( 9.(6@+B+*;A8+*+ *4 .)/68.
I Step 2. !)-6 1" 6* 1% :-426.( 246-+ 68. (8),*9 6-; :*>.( ) 7.9 3.46-:.6./(.
M)/A 68. (8),*9 6-;H( 4.9 ;*(-6-*4 -4 68. ():. 9)1 )( 68. 7-/(6. T8-( :)/A
9-++ /.;/.(.46 E)(6.
I Step 3. D/)9 ) (6/)-<86 +-4. 68/*2<8 68. 69* :)/A( 6* *56)-4 )4 );;/*=-:)6.
.)(6B9.(6 +-4..
I Step 4. S6)4, 9-68 68. 7-/(6 :)/A C9.(6D 6* 1*2/ +.76 )4, 68. (.3*4, :)/A 6*
1*2/ /-<86@1*2 )/. 4*9 7)3-4< 4*/68. T8-( 7)36 -( 6/2. +B+*;A8+*+ *4 .)/68.
1$B. A4 )+6./4)6. :.68*, -( :*/. )332/)6. 526 /.?2-/.( :*/. 6-:.. S.6 2;
1*2/ (8),*9 (6-3A )4, :)/A 68. 7-/(6 (8),*9 -4 68. :*/4-4<. U(. ) ;-.3. *7
(6/-4< 6* ,/)9 ) 3+.)4 )/3 68/*2<8 68-( :)/A )4, )/*24, 68. (6-3A. A6 :-,,)10
68. (8),*9 9-++ (8/-4A )4, ,-();;.)/. I4 68. )76./4**40 -6 9-++ +.4<68.4 )<)-4
)4, )6 68. ;*-46 98./. -6 6*238.( 68. )/30 :)A. ) (.3*4, :)/A. D/)9 ) +-4.
68/*2<8 68. 69* :)/A( 6* <.6 )4 )332/)6. .)(6B9.(6 +-4. CF-<2/. 1$B1D.
F493*+ 1C1. S8-21ACT47 M+0812
221
THE $ATCH METHOD
1$B4. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ,.6./:-4. ,-/.36-*4 2(-4< ) 3*::*4 */ )4)+*< 9)638@
*4. 68)6 8)( 8)4,(. T8. ,-/.36-*4 9-++ 5. )332/)6. -7 1*2 )/. 2(-4< 6/2. +*3)+
6-:.0 9-68*26 )41 38)4<.( 7*/ ,)1+-<86 ()>-4<( 6-:.. R.:.:5./0 68. 72/68./
1*2 )/. 7/*: 68. .?2)6*/0 68. :*/. )332/)6. 68-( :.68*, 9-++ 5.. I7 1*2 *4+1
8)>. ) ,-<-6)+ 9)6380 ,/)9 ) 3+*3A 7)3. *4 ) 3-/3+. *7 ;);./ 9-68 68. 3*//.36
6-:. *4 -6 )4, 2(. -6 6* ,.6./:-4. 1*2/ ,-/.36-*4 )6 68)6 6-:.. Y*2 :)1 )+(*
38**(. 6* ,/)9 ) 3+*3A 7)3. *4 68. </*24, */ +)1 1*2/ 9)638 *4 68. </*24, 7*/
) :*/. )332/)6. /.),-4<.
1$B%. I4 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./.0 8*+, 68. 9)638 8*/-G*46)+ )4, ;*-46 68.
8*2/ 8)4, )6 68. (24. B-(.36 68. )4<+. 5.69..4 68. 8*2/ 8)4, )4, 68. 12B
*H3+*3A :)/A 6* <.6 68. 4*/68B(*268 +-4. CF-<2/. 1$B2D. I7 68./. -( )41 ,*256 )(
6* 98-38 .4, *7 68. +-4. -( 4*/680 /.:.:5./ 68)6 68. (24 /-(.( -4 68. .)(60 (.6(
-4 68. 9.(60 )4, -( ,2. (*268 )6 4**4. T8. (24 -( -4 68. .)(6 5.7*/. 4**4 )4,
-4 68. 9.(6 )76./ 4**4.
F493*+ 1C2. $-0.8 M+0812
NOTE: I7 1*2/ 9)638 -( (.6 *4 ,)1+-<86 ()>-4<( 6-:.0 2(. 68. :-,9)1 ;*-46
5.69..4 68. 8*2/ 8)4, )4, 1 *H3+*3A 6* ,.6./:-4. 68. 4*/68B(*268 +-4..
1$B6. I4 68. S*268./4 H.:-(;8./.0 ;*-46 68. 9)638H( 12B*H3+*3A :)/A 6*9)/,
68. (24M ) :-,;*-46 8)+79)1 5.69..4 12 )4, 68. 8*2/ 8)4, 9-++ <->. 1*2 68.
4*/68B(*268 +-4. CF-<2/. 1$B2D.
1$B7. A4*68./ :.68*, -( 3)++., 68. 24B8*2/ 3+*3A :.68*,. T)A. 68. +*3)+
:-+-6)/1 6-:. )4, ,->-,. -6 51 69*. I:)<-4. 68-( /.(2+6 6* 4*9 /.;/.(.46 68.
8*2/ 8)4,. I4 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./.0 ;*-46 68-( /.(2+6-4< 8*2/ 8)4, )6 68.
(240 )4, 68. 12 9-++ ;*-46 4*/68. F*/ .=):;+.0 -6 -( 14"" 8*2/(. D->-,. 14""
51 69* )4, 68. )4(9./ -( 7""0 98-38 9-++ /.;/.(.46 68. 8*2/. H*+,-4< 68.
9)638 8*/-G*46)+0 ;*-46 68. 7 )6 68. (24 )4,
12 9-++ ;*-46 4*/68. I4 68. S*268./4 H.:-(;8./.0 ;*-46 68. 12 )6 68. (240 )4,
68. /.(2+6-4< J8*2/K 7/*: 68. ,->-(-*4 9-++ ;*-46 (*268.
222
USING THE MOON
1$B$. B.3)2(. 68. :**4 8)( 4* +-<86 *7 -6( *940 9. 3)4 *4+1 (.. -6 98.4 -6
/.7+.36( 68. (24H( +-<86. A( -6 */5-6( 68. .)/68 *4 -6( 2$B,)1 3-/32-60 68. (8);. *7
68. /.7+.36., +-<86 >)/-.( )33*/,-4< 6* -6( ;*(-6-*4. !. ()1 68./. -( ) 4.9
:**4 */ 4* :**4 98.4 -6 -( *4 68. *;;*(-6. (-,. *7 68. .)/68 7/*: 68. (24.
T8.40 )( -6 :*>.( )9)1 7/*: 68. .)/68H( (8),*90 -6 5.<-4( 6* /.7+.36 +-<86 7/*:
-6( /-<86 (-,. )4, 9)=.( 6* 5.3*:. ) 72++ :**4 5.7*/. 9)4-4<0 */ +*(-4<
(8);.0 6* );;.)/ )( ) (+->./ *4 68. +.76 (-,.. Y*2 3)4 2(. 68-( -47*/:)6-*4 6*
-,.46-71 ,-/.36-*4.
1$B9. I7 68. :**4 /-(.( 5.7*/. 68. (24 8)( (.60 68. -++2:-4)6., (-,. 9-++ 5. 68.
9.(6. I7 68. :**4 /-(.( )76./ :-,4-<860 68. -++2:-4)6., (-,. 9-++ 5. 68. .)(6.
T8-( *5>-*2( ,-(3*>./1 ;/*>-,.( 2( 9-68 ) /*2<8 .)(6B9.(6 /.7./.43. ,2/-4<
68. 4-<86.
USING THE STARS
1$B1". Y*2/ +*3)6-*4 -4 68. N*/68./4 */ S*268./4 H.:-(;8./. ,.6./:-4.(
98-38 3*4(6.++)6-*4 1*2 2(. 6* ,.6./:-4. 1*2/ 4*/68 */ (*268 ,-/.36-*4. E)38
(A1 -( .=;+)-4., 5.+*9.
THE NORTHERN SKY
1$B11. T8. :)-4 3*4(6.++)6-*4( 6* +.)/4 )/. 68. U/() M)F*/0 )+(* A4*94 )(
68. B-< D-;;./ */ 68. P+*90 )4, C)((-*;.-)0 )+(* A4*94 )( 68. L)G1 !
CF-<2/. 1$BD. U(. 68.: 6* +*3)6. P*+)/-(0 )+(* A4*94 )( 68. ;*+.(6)/ */ 68.
N*/68 S6)/. P*+)/-( -( 3*4(-,./., 6* /.:)-4 (6)6-*4)/10 )( -6 /*6)6.( *4+1 1."$
,.</..( )/*24, 68. 4*/68./4 3.+.(6-)+ ;*+.. T8. N*/68 S6)/ -( 68. +)(6 (6)/ *7
68. L-66+. D-;;./H( 8)4,+. )4, 3)4 5. 3*472(., 9-68 68. B-< D-;;./. H*9.>./0
68. L-66+. D-;;./ -( :),. 2; *7 (.>.4 /)68./ ,-: (6)/( )4, -( 4*6 .)(-+1 (..4
24+.(( 1*2 )/. 7)/ )9)1 7/*: )41 6*94 */ 3-61 +-<86(. P/.>.46 3*472(-*4 51
)66.:;6-4< 6* 2(. 5*68 68. B-< D-;;./ )4, C)((-*;.-) 6*<.68./. T8. B-<
D-;;./ )4, C)((-*;.-) )/. <.4./)++1 *;;*(-6. .)38 *68./ )4, /*6)6. 3*246./
3+*3A9-(. )/*24, P*+)/-(0 9-68 P*+)/-( -4 68. 3.46./. T8. B-< D-;;./ -( )
(.>.4 (6)/ 3*4(6.++)6-*4 -4 68. (8);. *7 ) ,-;;./. T8. 69* (6)/( 7*/:-4< 68.
*26./ +-; *7 68-( ,-;;./ )/. 68. J;*-46./ (6)/(K 5.3)2(. 68.1 ;*-46 6* 68. N*/68
S6)/. M.46)++1 ,/)9 ) +-4. 7/*: 68. *26./ 5*66*: (6)/ 6* 68. *26./ 6*; (6)/ *7
68. B-< D-;;./H( 523A.6. E=6.4, 68-( +-4. )5*26 7->. 6-:.( 68. ,-(6)43.
5.69..4 68. ;*-46./ (6)/(. Y*2 9-++ 7-4, 68. N*/68 S6)/ )+*4< 68-( +-4.. Y*2
:)1 )+(* 4*6. 68)6 68. N*/68 S6)/ 3)4 )+9)1( 5. 7*24, )6 68. ():.
);;/*=-:)6. >./6-3)+ )4<+. )5*>. 68. 8*/-G*4 )( 68. 4*/68./4 +-4. *7 +)6-62,.
1*2 )/. +*3)6., *4. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 1*2 )/. )6 % ,.</..( 4*/68 +)6-62,.0
P*+)/-( 9-++ 5. .)(-./ 6* 7-4, -7 1*2 (3)4 68. (A1 )6 % ,.</..( *77 68. 8*/-G*4.
T8-( 9-++ 8.+; 6* +.((.4 68. )/.) *7 68. (A1 -4 98-38 6* +*3)6. 68. B-< D-;;./0
C)((-*;.-)0 )4, 68. N*/68 S6)/.
223
F493*+ 1C3. T8+ B49 D477+* -/2 C-::417+4-
1$B12. C)((-*;.-) */ 68. L)G1 ! 8)( 7->. (6)/( 68)6 7*/: ) (8);. +-A. ) J!.K
O4. (-,. *7 68. J!K );;.)/( 7+)66.4., */ J+)G1.K T8. N*/68 S6)/ 3)4 5. 7*24,
51 5-(.36-4< 68. )4<+. 7*/:., *4 68. +)G1 (-,.. E=6.4, 68-( +-4. )5*26 7->.
6-:.( 68. ,-(6)43. 5.69..4 68. 5*66*: *7 68. J!K )4, 68. 6*;. T8. N*/68
S6)/ -( +*3)6., 5.69..4 C)((-*;.-) )4, 68. U/() M)F*/ CB-< D-;;./D.
1$B1. A76./ +*3)6-4< 68. N*/68 S6)/0 +*3)6. 68. N*/68 P*+. */ 6/2. 4*/68 51
,/)9-4< )4 -:)<-4)/1 +-4. ,-/.36+1 6* 68. .)/68.
THE SOUTHERN SKY
1$B14. B.3)2(. 68./. -( 4* (-4<+. (6)/ 5/-<86 .4*2<8 6* 5. .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G.,
4.)/ 68. (*268 3.+.(6-)+ ;*+.0 1*2 3)4 2(. ) 3*4(6.++)6-*4 A4*94 )( 68.
S*268./4 C/*((. Y*2 3)4 2(. -6 )( ) (-<4;*(6 6* 68. S*268 CF-<2/. 1$B4D. T8.
S*268./4 C/*(( */ C/2= 8)( 7->. (6)/(. I6( 7*2/ 5/-<86.(6 (6)/( 7*/: ) 3/*((.
T8. 69* (6)/( 68)6 :)A. 2; 68. C/*((H( +*4< )=-( )/. 2(., )( ) <2-,.+-4.. T*
,.6./:-4. (*2680 -:)<-4. ) ,-(6)43. 7*2/B)4,191 *4.B8)+7 6* 7->. 6-:.( 68.
,-(6)43. 5.69..4 68.(. (6)/( )4, 68. 8*/-G*4. T8. ;*-46./ (6)/( 6* 68. +.76 *7
68. S*268./4 C/*(( (./>. 69* ;2/;*(.(. F-/(60 68.1 ;/*>-,. )4 ),,-6-*4)+ 32.
6*9)/, (*268 51 -:)<-4-4< ) +-4. 7/*: 68. (6)/( 6*9)/, 68. </*24,. S.3*4,0
68. ;*-46./ (6)/( 8.+; )332/)6.+1 -,.46-71 68. 6/2. S*268./4 C/*(( 7/*: 68.
F)+(. C/*((. T8. -46./(.36-*4 *7 68. S*268./4 C/*(( )4, 68. 69* ;*-46./ (6)/(
-( >./1 ,)/A )4, ,.>*-, *7 (6)/(. T8-( )/.) -( 3)++., 68. 3*)+ ()3. L**A ,*94
6* 68. 8*/-G*4 7/*: 68-( -:)<-4)/1 ;*-46 )4, (.+.36 ) +)4,:)/A 6* (6../ 51. I4
) (6)6-3 (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 3)4 7-= 68-( +*3)6-*4 -4 ,)1+-<86 -7 1*2 ,/->.
(6)A.( -4 68. </*24, )6 4-<86 6* ;*-46 68. 9)1.
224
F493*+ 1C!. S1308+*/ C*1::
MAKING IMPROVISED COMPASSES
1$B1%. Y*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 -:;/*>-(., 3*:;)((.( 2(-4< ) ;-.3. *7 7.//*2(
:.6)+ 68)6 3)4 5. 4..,+. (8);., */ ) 7+)6 ,*25+.B.,<., /)G*/ 5+),. )4, )
;-.3. *7 68/.), */ +*4< 8)-/ 7/*: 98-38 6* (2(;.4, -6. Y*2 3)4 :)<4.6-G. */
;*+)/-G. 68. :.6)+ 51 (+*9+1 (6/*A-4< -6 -4 *4. ,-/.36-*4 *4 ) ;-.3. *7 (-+A */
3)/.72++1 68/*2<8 1*2/ 8)-/ 2(-4< ,.+-5./)6. (6/*A.(. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;*+)/-G.
:.6)+ 51 (6/*A-4< -6 /.;.)6.,+1 )6 *4. .4, 9-68 ) :)<4.6. A+9)1( (6/*A. -4
*4. ,-/.36-*4 *4+1. I7 1*2 8)>. ) 5)66./1 )4, (*:. .+.36/-3 9-/.0 1*2 3)4
;*+)/-G. 68. :.6)+ .+.36/-3)++1. T8. 9-/. (8*2+, 5. -4(2+)6.,. I7 -6 -( 4*6
-4(2+)6.,0 9/); 68. :.6)+ *5F.36 -4 ) (-4<+.0 68-4 (6/-; *7 ;);./ */ ) +.)7 6*
;/.>.46 3*46)36. T8. 5)66./1 :2(6 5. ) :-4-:2: *7 2 >*+6(. F*/: ) 3*-+ 9-68
68. .+.36/-3 9-/. )4, 6*238 -6( .4,( 6* 68. 5)66./1H( 6./:-4)+(. R.;.)6.,+1
-4(./6 *4. .4, *7 68. :.6)+ *5F.36 -4 )4, *26 *7 68. 3*-+. T8. 4..,+. 9-++
5.3*:. )4 .+.36/*:)<4.6. !8.4 (2(;.4,., 7/*: ) ;-.3. *7 4*4B:.6)++-3
(6/-4<0 */ 7+*)6., *4 ) (:)++ ;-.3. *7 9**,0 3*/A */ ) +.)7 -4 9)6./0 -6 9-++ )+-<4
-6(.+7 9-68 ) 4*/68B(*268 +-4..
1$B16. Y*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 ) :*/. .+)5*/)6. -:;/*>-(., 3*:;)(( 2(-4< )
(.9-4< 4..,+. */ 68-4 :.6)++-3 *5F.360 ) 4*4B:.6)++-3 3*46)-4./ C7*/ .=):;+.0
68. 326B*77 5*66*: *7 ) ;+)(6-3 3*46)-4./ */ (*76 ,/-4A 5*66+.D0 )4, 68. (-+>./ 6-;
7/*: ) ;.4. T* 3*4(6/236 68-( 3*:;)((0 6)A. )4 */,-4)/1 (.9-4< 4..,+. )4,
5/.)A -4 8)+7. O4. 8)+7 9-++ 7*/: 1*2/ ,-/.36-*4 ;*-46./ )4, 68. *68./ 9-++ )36 )(
68. ;->*6 ;*-46. P2(8 68. ;*/6-*4 2(., )( 68. ;->*6 ;*-46 68/*2<8 68. 5*66*:
3.46./ *7 1*2/ 3*46)-4./M 68-( ;*/6-*4 (8*2+, 5. 7+2(8 *4 68. 5*66*: )4, 4*6
-46./7./. 9-68 68. +-,. A66)38 68. 3.46./ *7 68. *68./ ;*/6-*4 C68. ;*-46./D *7 68.
4..,+. *4 68. ;.4H( (-+>./ 6-; 2(-4< <+2.0 6/.. ();0 */ :.+6., ;+)(6-3.
M)<4.6-G. *4. .4, *7 68. ;*-46./ )4, /.(6 -6 *4 68. ;->*6 ;*-46.
OTHER MEANS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION
1$B17. T8. *+, ()1-4< )5*26 2(-4< :*(( *4 ) 6/.. 6* -4,-3)6. 4*/68 -( 4*6
3*4(-,./., )332/)6. 5.3)2(. :*(( </*9( 3*:;+.6.+1 )/*24, (*:. 6/..(.
225
A362)++10 </*968 -( :*/. +2(8 *4 68. (-,. *7 68. 6/.. 7)3-4< 68. (*268 -4 68.
N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./. )4, >-3. >./() -4 68. (*268./4 8.:-(;8./.. I7 68./. )/.
(.>./)+ 7.++., 6/..( )/*24, 7*/ 3*:;)/-(*40 +**A )6 68. (62:;(. G/*968 -(
:*/. >-<*/*2( *4 68. (-,. 6*9)/, 68. .?2)6*/ )4, 68. 6/.. </*968 /-4<( 9-++ 5.
:*/. 9-,.+1 (;)3.,. O4 68. *68./ 8)4,0 68. 6/.. </*968 /-4<( 9-++ 5. 3+*(./
6*<.68./ *4 68. (-,. 6*9)/, 68. ;*+.(.
1$B1$. !-4, ,-/.36-*4 :)1 5. 8.+;72+ -4 (*:. -4(6)43.( 98./. 68./. )/.
;/.>)-+-4< ,-/.36-*4( )4, 1*2 A4*9 98)6 68.1 )/..
1$B19. R.3*<4-G-4< 68. ,-77./.43.( 5.69..4 >.<.6)6-*4 )4, :*-(62/.
;)66./4( *4 4*/68B )4, (*268B7)3-4< (+*;.( 3)4 )-, -4 ,.6./:-4-4< ,-/.36-*4. I4
68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./.0 4*/68B7)3-4< (+*;.( /.3.->. +.(( (24 68)4 (*268B
7)3-4< (+*;.( )4, )/. 68./.7*/. 3**+./ )4, ,):;./. I4 68. (2::./0 4*/68B
7)3-4< (+*;.( /.6)-4 ;)638.( *7 (4*9. I4 68. 9-46./0 6/..( )4, *;.4 )/.)( *4
(*268B7)3-4< (+*;.( )4, 68. (*268./4 (-,. *7 5*2+,./( )4, +)/<. /*3A( )/. 68.
7-/(6 6* +*(. 68.-/ (4*9. T8. </*24, (4*9 ;)3A -( )+(* (8)++*9./ ,2. 6* 68.
9)/:-4< .77.36( *7 68. (24. I4 68. S*268./4 H.:-(;8./.0 )++ *7 68.(. .77.36(
9-++ 5. 68. *;;*(-6..
CHAPTER 1%.
S49/-<4/9 T+.8/4=3+:.
O4. *7 1*2/ 7-/(6 3*43./4( 98.4 1*2 7-4, 1*2/(.+7 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4 -( 6*
3*::24-3)6. 9-68 1*2/ 7/-.4,( */ )++-.(. G.4./)++10 3*::24-3)6-*4 -( 68.
<->-4< )4, /.3.->-4< *7 -47*/:)6-*4. I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 :2(6 7-/(6 <.6
1*2/ /.(32./H( )66.46-*40 68.4 (.3*4,0 (.4, ) :.(()<. 1*2/ /.(32./
24,./(6)4,(. S*:. )66.46-*4B<.66./( )/. :)4B:),. <.*:.6/-3 ;)66./4( (238
)( (6/)-<86 +-4.(0 3-/3+.(0 6/-)4<+.(0 */ '( ,-(;+)1., -4 24-48)5-6., )/.)(M )
+)/<. 7-/. */ 7+)(8 *7 +-<86M ) +)/<.0 5/-<86 *5F.36 :*>-4< (+*9+1M */ 3*46/)(60
98.68./ 7/*: 3*+*/ */ (8),*9(. T8. 61;. *7 (-<4)+ 2(., 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 1*2/
.4>-/*4:.46 )4, 68. .4.:1 (-62)6-*4.
APPLICATION
19B1. I7 -4 ) 4*4B3*:5)6)46 (-62)6-*40 1*2 4.., 6* 7-4, 68. +)/<.(6 )>)-+)5+.
3+.)/ )4, 7+)6 )/.) on the highest possi%le terrain. U(. )( *5>-*2( ) (-<4)+ )(
1*2 3)4 3/.)6.. O4 68. *68./ 8)4,0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 5. :*/. ,-(3/..6 -4
3*:5)6 (-62)6-*4(. Y*2 ,* 4*6 9)46 6* (-<4)+ )4, )66/)36 68. .4.:1. P-3A )4
)/.) 68)6 -( >-(-5+. 7/*: 68. )-/0 526 .4(2/. 68./. )/. 8-,-4< ;+)3.( 4.)/51.
T/1 6* 8)>. ) 8-++ */ *68./ *5F.36 5.69..4 68. (-<4)+ (-6. )4, 68. .4.:1 6*
:)(A 1*2/ (-<4)+ 7/*: 68. .4.:1. P./7*/: ) 68*/*2<8 /.3*44)-(()43. *7 68.
)/.) 6* .4(2/. 68./. )/. 4* .4.:1 7*/3.( 4.)/51.
19B2. !8)6.>./ (-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2. */ ,.>-3. 1*2 ;+)4 6* 2(.0 A4*9 8*9 6*
2(. -6 )4, 5. /.),1 6* ;26 -6 -46* *;./)6-*4 *4 (8*/6 4*6-3.. I7 ;*((-5+.0 )>*-,
226
2(-4< (-<4)+( */ (-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2.( 68)6 3)4 ;81(-3)++1 .4,)4<./ 1*2. K..;
-4 :-4, 68)6 (-<4)+( 6* 1*2/ 2riends :)1 )+./6 68. .4.:1 *7 1*2/ ;/.(.43. )4,
+*3)6-*4. B.7*/. (-<4)+-4<0 3)/.72++1 9.-<8 1*2/ /.(32. 38)43.( 51 2riends
)<)-4(6 68. ,)4<./ *7 3);62/. 51 68. .4.:1.
19B. A /),-* -( ;/*5)5+1 68. (2/.(6 )4, ?2-3A.(6 9)1 6* +.6 *68./( A4*9
98./. 1*2 )/. )4, 6* +.6 1*2 /.3.->. 68.-/ :.(()<.(. B.3*:. 7):-+-)/ 9-68
68. /),-*( -4 1*2/ 24-6. L.)/4 8*9 6* *;./)6. 68.: )4, 8*9 6* (.4, )4,
/.3.->. :.(()<.(.
19B4. Y*2 9-++ 7-4, ,.(3/-;6-*4( *7 *68./ (-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2.(0 ,.>-3.(0 )4,
)/6-3+.( 1*2 3)4 2(.. L.)/4 8*9 6* 2(. 68.:. T8-4A *7 9)1( -4 98-38 1*2 3)4
),);6 */ 38)4<. 68.: 7*/ ,-77./.46 .4>-/*4:.46(. P/)36-3. 2(-4< 68.(.
(-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2.(0 ,.>-3.(0 )4, )/6-3+.( 5.7*/. 1*2 4.., 68.:. P+)44.,0
;/.)//)4<., (-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2.( :)1 -:;/*>. 1*2/ 38)43. *7 /.(32..
MEANS FOR SIGNALING
19B%. T8./. )/. 69* :)-4 9)1( 6* <.6 )66.46-*4 */ 6* 3*::24-3)6.@>-(2)+
)4, )2,-*. T8. :.)4( 1*2 2(. 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 1*2/ (-62)6-*4 )4, 68. :)6./-)+
1*2 8)>. )>)-+)5+.. !8)6.>./ 68. :.)4(0 )+9)1( 8)>. >-(2)+ )4, )2,-*
(-<4)+( /.),1 7*/ 2(.. T8/*2<8*26 68-( 38);6./ 1*2 9-++ (.. /.7./.43.( 6*
J</*2;( *7 68/..(.K T8-( -( 5.3)2(. 4)62/. ,*.( 4*6 4*/:)++1 /.;+-3)6.
)4168-4< -4 </*2;( *7 68/... JT8-4<( -4 68/..(K 6.4, :*/. *76.4 6* 5.
:)4:),. (*24,( */ >-(2)+ (-<4)+(.
VISUAL SIGNALS
19B6. T8.(. (-<4)+( )/. :)6./-)+( */ .?2-;:.46 1*2 2(. 6* :)A. 1*2/
;/.(.43. A4*94 6* /.(32./(. V-(2)+ (-<4)+( 3)4 -43+2,. 7-/.0 (:*A.0 7+)/.(0
)4, :)41 *68./ :.)4( *7 (-<4)+-4<.
F4*+
19B7. D2/-4< ,)/A4.((0 7-/. -( )4 .77.36->. >-(2)+ :.)4( 7*/ (-<4)+-4<. B2-+,
68/.. 7-/.( -4 ) 6/-)4<+. C68. -46./4)6-*4)+ ,-(6/.(( (-<4)+D */ -4 ) (6/)-<86 +-4.
9-68 )5*26 2% :.6./( C$ 7..6D 5.69..4 68. 7-/.(. B2-+, 68.: )( (**4 )( 6-:.
)4, 68. (-62)6-*4 ;./:-6 )4, ;/*6.36 68.: 7/*: 68. .+.:.46( 246-+ 1*2 4..,
68.:. I7 1*2 )/. )+*4.0 :)-46)-4-4< 68/.. 7-/.( :)1 5. ,-77-32+6. I7 (*0 :)-46)-4
*4. (-<4)+ 7-/.. T8. 8*6 3*)+ 5., +.76 51 ) 7-/. )+(* :)1 5. (..4 51 )./-)+
;+)67*/:( 68)6 )/. .?2-;;., 6* ,.6.36 -47/)/., */ 68./:)+ (-<4)62/.(.
19B$. !8.4 3*4(6/236-4< (-<4)+ 7-/.(0 3*4(-,./ 1*2/ <.*</);8-3 +*3)6-*4. I7 -4
) F24<+.0 7-4, ) 4)62/)+ 3+.)/-4< */ 68. .,<. *7 ) (6/.): 98./. 1*2 3)4 52-+,
7-/.( 68)6 68. F24<+. 7*+-)<. 9-++ 4*6 8-,.. Y*2 :)1 .>.4 8)>. 6* 3+.)/ )4 )/.).
I7 -4 ) (4*9B3*>./., )/.)0 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6* 3+.)/ 68. </*24, *7 (4*9 */ :)A.
) ;+)67*/: *4 98-38 6* 52-+, 68. 7-/. (* 68)6 :.+6-4< (4*9 9-++ 4*6 .=6-4<2-(8 -6.
19B9. A 52/4-4< 6/.. C6/.. 6*/38D -( )4*68./ 9)1 6* )66/)36 )66.46-*4 CF-<2/. 19B
1D. Y*2 3)4 (.6 ;-638 5.)/-4< 6/..( )7-/.0 .>.4 98.4 </..4. Y*2 3)4 <.6
227
*68./ 61;.( *7 6/..( 6* 52/4 51 ;+)3-4< ,/1 9**, -4 68. +*9./ 5/)438.( )4,
-<4-6-4< -6 (* 68)6 68. 7+):.( 7+)/. 2; )4, -<4-6. 68. 7*+-)<.. B.7*/. 68. ;/-:)/1
6/.. -( 3*4(2:.,0 326 )4, ),, :*/. (:)++ </..4 6/..( 6* 68. 7-/. 6* ;/*,23.
:*/. (:*A.. A+9)1( (.+.36 )4 -(*+)6., 6/.. (* 68)6 1*2 ,* 4*6 (6)/6 ) 7*/.(6
7-/. )4, .4,)4<./ 1*2/(.+7.
F493*+ 1%C1. T*++ T1*.8
S>1?+
19B1". D2/-4< ,)1+-<860 52-+, ) (:*A. <.4./)6*/ )4, 2(. (:*A. 6* <)-4
)66.46-*4 CF-<2/. 19B2D. T8. -46./4)6-*4)+ ,-(6/.(( (-<4)+ -( 68/.. 3*+2:4( *7
(:*A.. T/1 6* 3/.)6. ) 3*+*/ *7 (:*A. 68)6 3*46/)(6( 9-68 68. 5)3A</*24,M
,)/A (:*A. )<)-4(6 ) +-<86 5)3A</*24, )4, >-3. >./(). I7 1*2 ;/)36-3)++1
(:*68./ ) +)/<. 7-/. 9-68 </..4 +.)>.(0 :*((0 */ ) +-66+. 9)6./0 68. 7-/. 9-++
;/*,23. 98-6. (:*A.. I7 1*2 ),, /255./ */ *-+ (*)A., /)<( 6* ) 7-/.0 1*2 9-++
<.6 5+)3A (:*A..
228
F493*+ 1%C2. S>1?+ G+/+*-01*5G*13/2
19B11. I4 ) ,.(./6 .4>-/*4:.460 (:*A. 8)4<( 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24,0 526 ) ;-+*6
3)4 (;*6 -6 -4 *;.4 ,.(./6 6.//)-4.
19B12. S:*A. (-<4)+( )/. .77.36->. *4+1 *4 3*:;)/)6->.+1 3)+:0 3+.)/ ,)1(.
H-<8 9-4,(0 /)-40 */ (4*9 ,-(;./(. (:*A.0 +.((.4-4< -6( 38)43.( *7 5.-4<
(..4.
S>1?+ G*+/-2+:
19B1. I7 1*2 8)>. (:*A. </.4),.( 9-68 1*20 2(. 68.: -4 68. ():. ;)66./4
)( ,.(3/-5., 7*/ 7-/.(. K..; 68.: ,/1 (* 68)6 68.1 9-++ 9*/A 98.4 1*2 4..,
68.:. T)A. 3)/. 4*6 6* -<4-6. 68. >.<.6)6-*4 -4 68. )/.) 98.4 1*2 2(. 68.:.
R., -( )4 -46./4)6-*4)++1 /.3*<4-G., 3*+*/ *7 ,-(6/.((0 526 )41 3*+*/ (:*A.0 -7
;/*;./+1 2(.,0 9-++ )66/)36 )66.46-*4.
P+/ F<-*+:
19B14. T8. M1$% (-<4)+ ,.>-3. -( ;)/6 *7 )4 )>-)6*/H( (2/>->)+ >.(6. T8.
,.>-3. 3*4(-(6( *7 ) ;.4B(8);., <24 9-68 ) 7+)/. )66)38., 51 ) 41+*4 3*/,.
!8.4 7-/.,0 68. ;.4 7+)/. (*24,( +-A. ) ;-(6*+ (8*6 )4, 7-/.( 68. 7+)/. )5*26 1%"
:.6./( C49% 7..6D 8-<8. I6 -( )5*26 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D -4 ,-):.6./.
19B1%. T* 8)>. 68. ;.4 7+)/. /.),1 7*/ -::.,-)6. 2(.0 6)A. -6 *26 *7 -6(
9/);;./0 ;)/6-)++1 (3/.9 *4 68. 7+)/.0 +.)>. 68. <24 243*3A.,0 )4, ,/);. 68.
3*/, )/*24, 1*2/ 4.3A. B. /.),1 6* 7-/. -6 9.++ -4 7/*46 *7 (.)/38 )-/3/)76 -4 )
4*4 68/.)6.4-4< ,-/.36-*4 )4, 5. /.),1 9-68 ) (.3*4,)/1 (-<4)+. A+(*0 5.
229
/.),1 6* 6)A. 3*>./ -4 3)(. 68. ;-+*6 :-(6)A.( 68. 7+)/. 7*/ .4.:1 7-/.. I6 -(
-:;*/6)46 6* 4*6. 68)6 ;.4 7+)/.( :)1 ,.7+.36 *77 6/.. +-:5( )4, 6/.. 3)4*;-.(.
T8-( :)1 3)2(. 68. 7+)/. 6* ,.7+.36 */ (8**6 5)3A 6* 68. </*24,0 3)2(-4< )
7*/.(6 7-/. 8)G)/,. E4(2/. 1*2 8)>. ;/*;./ *>./8.), 3+.)/)43. )4, )4
*5(6)3+.B7/.. ;)68 6* (8**6 68/*2<8.
G;*1CJ+0:
19B16. T8.(. ,.>-3.( )/. 68. 4.9./ >./(-*4 *7 68. ;.4 7+)/.. T8.1 ,-77./ -4
68)6 68.1 )/. F.6B;*9./., /)68./ 68)4 5)++-(6-3 +-A. 68. ;.4 7+)/.(. T8.1 9-++
/.)38 ) 8.-<86 *7 2; 6* "" :.6./( C99" 7..6D. T* ;/.;)/. 68.: 7*/ 7-/-4<0 68.
7+)/.( )/. ;2(8., 246-+ 7-/:+1 (.)6., -46* ) 3/-:;., 3*++)/ /)68./ 68)4 )
68/.),., (3/.9B*4 61;. )((.:5+1. T8.1 )/. ,.(-<4., 6* 5.66./ ;.4.6/)6. 6/..
3)4*;-.(0 526 ,* 4*6 /.+1 *4 68-( 6* )+9)1( 8);;.4. A+9)1( .4(2/. 1*2 8)>.
) 3+.)/ ;)68 -4 98-38 6* )-: )4, 7-/. )++ *>./8.), ;1/*6.384-3(. A<)-40 </*2;(
*7 68/..( )/. -46./4)6-*4)++1 /.3*<4-G., (1:5*+( *7 ,-(6/.((.
T*-.+* A>>3/4041/
19B17. Y*2 :)1 2(. /-7+. */ ;-(6*+ 6/)3./ )::24-6-*4 6* (-<4)+ (.)/38 )-/3/)76.
D1 /10 7-/. 68. )::24-6-*4 -4 7/*46 *7 68. )-/3/)76. A( 9-68 ;.4 7+)/.(0 5. /.),1
6* 6)A. 3*>./ -7 68. ;-+*6 :-(6)A.( 1*2/ 6/)3./( 7*/ .4.:1 7-/.. A<)-40 </*2;( *7
68/..( )/. -46./4)6-*4)++1 /.3*<4-G., (1:5*+( *7 ,-(6/.((.
S0-* C<3:0+*:
19B1$. R., -( 68. -46./4)6-*4)+ ,-(6/.(( 3*+*/M 68./.7*/.0 2(. ) /., (6)/ 3+2(6./
98.4.>./ ;*((-5+.. H*9.>./0 )41 3*+*/ 9-++ +.6 1*2/ /.(32./( A4*9 98./. 1*2
)/.. S6)/ 3+2(6./( /.)38 ) 8.-<86 *7 2"" 6* 21% :.6./( C66" 6* 71" 7..6D0 52/4
)4 )>./)<. *7 6 6* 1" (.3*4,(0 )4, ,.(3.4, )6 ) /)6. *7 14 :.6./( C46 7..6D
;./ (.3*4,.
S0-* P-*-.830+ F<-*+:
19B19. T8.(. 7+)/.( /.)38 ) 8.-<86 *7 2"" 6* 21% :.6./( C66" 6* 71" 7..6D )4,
,.(3.4, )6 ) /)6. *7 2.1 :.6./( C7 7..6D ;./ (.3*4,. T8. M126 C/.,D 52/4(
)5*26 %" (.3*4,( )4, 68. M127 C98-6.D )5*26 2% (.3*4,(. A6 4-<86 1*2 3)4
(.. 68.(. 7+)/.( )6 4$ 6* %6 A-+*:.6./( C" 6* 4 :-+.(D.
MKC13 -/2 MKC12!
19B2". T8.(. (-<4)+( )/. 4*/:)++1 7*24, *4 )-/3/)76 )4, +-76 /)76(. T8.1
;/*,23. )4 */)4<. (:*A. *4 *4. .4, 7*/ ,)1 (-<4)+-4< )4, ) 7+)/. *4 68.
*68./ .4, 7*/ 4-<86 6-:. 2(.. T8. (:*A. +)(6( 7*/ );;/*=-:)6.+1 1% (.3*4,(
)4, 68. 7+)/. +)(6( 2" 6* 2% (.3*4,(. T8*2<8 68. (-<4)+ -( ,.(-<4., 7*/ 2(.
*4 ) +-7. /)760 68.1 ,* 4*6 7+*)6. T8.1 )/. ,.(-<4., 6* 5. 8)4,8.+,0 526 8*+,
68. ,.>-3. 51 68. 7)/ .4, 68)6 -( 4*6 5.-4< 2(., 6* ;/.>.46 52/4(. N*6. 68)6
)76./ .=;.4,-4< .-68./ (-<4)+ 68. *68./ .4, -( (6-++ )>)-+)5+. 7*/ 2(.0 (* ,* 4*6
,-(3)/, -6 246-+ 5*68 .4,( 8)>. 5..4 2(.,. T8./. )/. 42:./*2( /.,24,)46
:)/A-4<( *4 .)38 (-,. *7 68. 7+)/. 6* .4(2/. 68)6 1*2 )36->)6. 68. 3*//.36
230
(-<4)+0 ,)1 */ 4-<86. T8. .4, 3);( )/. 3*+*/.,0 /)-(., ;/*6/2(-*4( */ 4-;;+.(
)/. ;/.(.460 )4, ) 9)(8./ -( *4 68. ;2++ /-4< 6* ,-77./.46-)6. 4-<86 )4, ,)1.
M4**1*: 1* S84/; O@D+.0:
19B21. O4 ) (2441 ,)10 ) :-//*/ -( 1*2/ 5.(6 (-<4)+-4< ,.>-3.. I7 1*2 ,*4H6
8)>. ) :-//*/0 ;*+-(8 1*2/ 3)46..4 32;0 1*2/ 5.+6 523A+.0 */ ) (-:-+)/ *5F.36
68)6 9-++ /.7+.36 68. (24H( /)1(. D-/.36 68. 7+)(8.( -4 *4. )/.) (* 68)6 68.1 )/.
(.32/. 7/*: .4.:1 *5(./>)6-*4. P/)36-3. 2(-4< ) :-//*/ */ (8-41 *5F.36 7*/
(-<4)++-4< /1AM ,* 4*6 9)-6 246-+ 1*2 4.., -6. I7 1*2 8)>. )4 MKB (-<4)+
:-//*/0 7*++*9 68. -4(6/236-*4( *4 -6( 5)3A CF-<2/. 19BD. A4 )+6./4)6.0 .)(-./
:.68*, *7 )-:-4< 68. (-<4)+ :-//*/ -( 6* 3)638 68. /.7+.36-*4 *4 68. ;)+: *7
1*2/ 8)4, */ -4 5.69..4 69* 7-4<./( 8.+, 2; -4 ) JVK */ J;.)3. (-<4.K N*9
(+*9+1 :*>. 1*2/ 8)4, (* 68)6 -6 -( F2(6 5.+*9 1*2/ )-: ;*-46 */ 246-+ 68.
)-/3/)76 -( 5.69..4 68. JVK -4 1*2/ 7-4<./(0 A..;-4< 68. <+)/. *4 1*2/ ;)+:.
T8.4 :*>. 68. :-//*/ (+*9+1 )4, /8168:-3)++1 2; )4, ,*94 *77 1*2/ 8)4, )4,
*46* 68. )-: ;*-46 )( -4 F-<2/.( 19B4 )4, 19B%.
F493*+ 1%C3. MKC3 S49/-< M4**1*
231
F493*+ 1%C!. A4>4/9 -/ I>7*1B4:+2 S49/-< M4**1*
F493*+ 1%C". A4>4/9 -/ I>7*1B4:+2 S49/-< M4**1* U:4/9 - S0-041/-*;
O@D+.0
19B22. !.)/ 68. (-<4)+ :-//*/ *4 ) 3*/, */ 38)-4 )/*24, 1*2/ 4.3A (* 68)6 -6 -(
/.),1 7*/ -::.,-)6. 2(.. H*9.>./0 5. (2/. 68. <+)(( (-,. -( )<)-4(6 1*2/
5*,1 (* 68)6 -6 9-++ 4*6 7+)(8M 68. .4.:1 3)4 (.. 68. 7+)(8.
19B2. H)G.0 </*24, 7*<0 )4, :-/)<.( :)1 :)A. -6 8)/, 7*/ ) ;-+*6 6* (;*6
(-<4)+( 7/*: ) 7+)(8-4< *5F.36. S*0 -7 ;*((-5+.0 <.6 6* 68. 8-<8.(6 ;*-46 -4 1*2/
)/.) 98.4 (-<4)+-4<. I7 1*2 3)4H6 ,.6./:-4. 68. )-/3/)76H( +*3)6-*40 7+)(8 1*2/
(-<4)+ -4 68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 68. )-/3/)76 4*-(..
NOTE: P-+*6( 8)>. /.;*/6., (..-4< :-//*/ 7+)(8.( 2; 6* 16" A-+*:.6./( C96
:-+.(D )9)1 24,./ -,.)+ 3*4,-6-*4(.
F<-:8<4980 1* S0*1@+ L4980
19B24. A6 4-<86 1*2 3)4 2(. ) 7+)(8+-<86 */ ) (6/*5. +-<86 6* (.4, )4 SOS 6* )4
)-/3/)76. !8.4 2(-4< ) (6/*5. +-<860 6)A. 3)/. 6* ;/.>.46 68. ;-+*6 7/*:
:-(6)A-4< -6 7*/ -43*:-4< </*24, 7-/.. T8. (6/*5. +-<86 7+)(8.( 6" 6-:.( ;./
:-426.. S*:. (6/*5. +-<86( 8)>. -47/)/., 3*>./( )4, +.4(.(. B+2. 7+)(8
3*++-:)6*/( )/. )+(* )>)-+)5+. 7*/ (6/*5. +-<86( 68)6 )-, -4 ,-(6-4<2-(8-4< 68.
7+)(8-4< *7 68. (6/*5. +-<86 7/*: ) :2GG+. 7+)(80 )4, )+(* :)A. 68. (6/*5. +-<86
,-/.36-*4)+.
L-:+* D+B4.+:
19B2%. L)(./ )-:-4< ,.>-3.( *4 9.);*4( (1(6.:( )/. 8-<8+1 >-(-5+.. S* )/.
6)/<.6-4< ;*-46./( )4, :)41 3*::./3-)+ 61;.( *7 +)(./ ;/.(.46)6-*4 ;*-46./(.
F4*+,<; L4980:
19B26. T8.(. (:)++ +-<86(0 )5*26 3.46-:.6./( C1 1R4 -438.(D (?2)/. )4, 1
3.46-:.6./ C1R$ -438D 68-3A0 (4); *46* 9B>*+6 5)66./-.(. T8.1 )/. )>)-+)5+. -4 )
>)/-.61 *7 >-(-5+. )4, -47/)/.,0 5+-4A-4< )4, (6.),1 +-<86 >./(-*4(. T8. >-(-5+.
/)4<. )4, 5)66./1 ,2/)6-*4 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 68. -46.4(-61 *7 68. 52+5 )4, 68.
:*,. .)38 +-<86 2(.(. O68./ :*,.+( -43*/;*/)6. ) 4B(.3*4, ;/*</)::)5+.
:.:*/1 68)6 )++*9( 2(./( 6* -4;26 )41 ;)/6-32+)/ 3*,. 68.1 9-(8.
232
VSC1# P-/+<
19B27. D2/-4< ,)1+-<86 1*2 3)4 2(. ) VSB17 ;)4.+ 6* (-<4)+. P+)3. 68.
*/)4<. (-,. 2; )( -6 -( .)(-./ 6* (.. 7/*: 68. )-/ 68)4 68. >-*+.6 (-,.. F+)(8-4<
68. ;)4.+ 9-++ :)A. -6 .)(-./ 7*/ 68. )-/3/.9 6* (;*6. Y*2 3)4 2(. )41 5/-<86
*/)4<. */ >-*+.6 3+*68 )( ) (25(6-626. 7*/ 68. VSB17.
C<1084/9
19B2$. S;/.),-4< 3+*68-4< *4 68. </*24, */ -4 68. 6*; *7 ) 6/.. -( )4*68./ 9)1
6* (-<4)+. S.+.36 )/6-3+.( 98*(. 3*+*/ 9-++ 3*46/)(6 9-68 68. 4)62/)+
(2//*24,-4<(. A//)4<. 68.: -4 ) +)/<. <.*:.6/-3 ;)66./4 6* :)A. 68.: :*/.
+-A.+1 6* )66/)36 )66.46-*4.
N-03*-< M-0+*4-<
19B29. I7 1*2 +)3A *68./ :.)4(0 1*2 3)4 2(. 4)62/)+ :)6./-)+( 6* 7*/: )
(1:5*+ */ :.(()<. 68)6 3)4 5. (..4 7/*: 68. )-/. B2-+, :*24,( 68)6 3)(6
(8),*9(M 1*2 3)4 2(. 5/2(80 7*+-)<. *7 )41 61;.0 /*3A(0 */ (4*9 5+*3A(.
19B". I4 (4*9B3*>./., )/.)(0 6/):; 68. (4*9 6* 7*/: +.66./( */ (1:5*+( )4,
7-++ 68. ,.;/.((-*4 9-68 3*46/)(6-4< :)6./-)+ C69-<( */ 5/)438.(D. I4 ()4,0 2(.
5*2+,./(0 >.<.6)6-*40 */ (.)9.., 6* 7*/: ) (1:5*+ */ :.(()<.. I4 5/2(8B
3*>./., )/.)(0 326 *26 ;)66./4( -4 68. >.<.6)6-*4 */ (.)/ 68. </*24,. I4
624,/)0 ,-< 6/.438.( */ 62/4 68. (*, 2;(-,. ,*94.
19B1. I4 )41 6.//)-40 2(. 3*46/)(6-4< :)6./-)+( 68)6 9-++ :)A. 68. (1:5*+(
>-(-5+. 6* 68. )-/3/.9(. O/-.46 68. (-<4)+ -4 ) 4*/68B(*268 7)(8-*4 6* )66)-4 68.
:)=-:2: 5.4.7-6 *7 68. (24H( (8),*9 7*/ 3*46/)(6 )4, /.3*<4-6-*4.
S+- D;+ M-*?+*:
19B2. A++ )-/3/)76 -4>*+>., -4 *;./)6-*4( 4.)/ */ *>./ 9)6./ 9-++ 4*/:)++1 3)//1
) 9)6./ (2/>->)+ A-6 68)6 3*46)-4( (.) ,1. :)/A./(. I7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 9)6./
(2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 2(. (.) ,1. :)/A./( ,2/-4< ,)1+-<86 6* -4,-3)6. 1*2/
+*3)6-*4. T8.(. (;*6( *7 ,1. (6)1 3*4(;-32*2( 7*/ )5*26 8*2/(0 .=3.;6 -4
>./1 /*2<8 (.)(. U(. 68.: *4+1 -7 1*2 )/. -4 ) 7/-.4,+1 )/.). K..; 68.
:)/A./( 9/);;., 246-+ 1*2 )/. /.),1 6* 2(. 68.:. T8. (.) ,1. -( >-(-5+. )6 )
,-(6)43. *7 :*/. 68)4 11 A-+*:.6./( C7 :-+.(D 7/*: )4 )-/3/)76 )6 20""" 7..60 (*
1*2 (8*2+, 2(. 68.: *4+1 98.4 1*2 8.)/ */ (-<86 )4 )-/3/)76. T* 72/68./
3*4(./>. 68.: ,* 4*6 2(. 68.: )++ )6 *43.. D-; 68. :)/A./ 5)< -4 68. 9)6./
246-+ ) (+-3A )5*26 " :.6./( C1"" 7..6D );;.)/(. S.) ,1. :)/A./( )/. )+(*
>./1 .77.36->. *4 (4*9B3*>./., </*24,M 2(. 68.: 6* 9/-6. ,-(6/.(( 3*,.
+.66./(.
NOTE: R2:*/( 8)>. ;./(-(6., )5*26 8*9 (.) ,1. )66/)36( (8)/A(. T8. U.S.
N)>1 8)( 3*4,236., /.(.)/380 )4, 4* (3-.46-7-3 ,)6) 8)( 5..4 7*24, 6*
(2;;*/6 68-( /2:*/. S8)/A( )/. 4)62/)++1 32/-*2( )4, )/. ,/)94 6* (6/)4<.
*5F.36( -4 68.-/ )/.). T8./.7*/.0 ) (8)/A :)1 -4>.(6-<)6. ) ;./(*40 9-68 */
233
9-68*26 (.) ,1.0 )( ) ;*((-5+. 7**, (*2/3.. D* 4*6 5. )7/)-, 6* 2(. (.) ,1.
:)/A./(M -6 :)1 5. 1*2/ +)(6 */ *4+1 38)43. 6* (-<4)+ ) /.(32. )-/3/)76.
AUDIO SIGNALS
19B. Y*2/ *68./ :.)4( *7 (-<4)+-4< ) /.(32./ 3)4 5. )2,-* (-<4)+(.
R),-*(0 98-(6+.(0 )4, <24(8*6( )/. (*:. *7 68. :.68*,( 1*2 3)4 2(. 6*
(-<4)+ 1*2/ +*3)6-*4.
R-241 E=347>+/0
19B4. T8. ANRPRCB9" (2/>->)+ /),-* -( ) ;)/6 *7 68. A/:1 )>-)6*/H( (2/>->)+
>.(6. T8. ANRPRCB112 9-++ .>.462)++1 /.;+)3. 68. ANRPRCB9". B*68 /),-*(
3)4 6/)4(:-6 .-68./ 6*4. */ >*-3.. A41 *68./ 61;. *7 A/:1 /),-* 3)4 ,* 68.
():.. T8. /)4<.( *7 68. ,-77./.46 /),-*( >)/1 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. )+6-62,. *7 68.
/.3.->-4< )-/3/)760 6.//)-40 >.<.6)6-*4 ,.4(-610 9.)68./0 5)66./1 (6/.4<680 61;. *7
/),-*0 )4, -46./7./.43.. T* *56)-4 :)=-:2: ;./7*/:)43. 7/*: /),-*(0 2(.
68. 7*++*9-4< ;/*3.,2/.(E
I T/1 6* 6/)4(:-6 *4+1 -4 3+.)/0 24*5(6/236., 6.//)-4. S-43. /),-*( )/. +-4.B*7B
(-<86 3*::24-3)6-*4( ,.>-3.(0 )41 6.//)-4 5.69..4 68. /),-* )4, 68. /.3.->./
9-++ 5+*3A 68. (-<4)+.
I K..; 68. )46.44) )6 /-<86 )4<+.( 6* 68. /.(32-4< )-/3/)76. T8./. -( +-66+. */ 4*
(-<4)+ (6/.4<68 .:)4)6-4< 7/*: 68. 6-; *7 68. )46.44).
I I7 68. /),-* 8)( 6*4. 3);)5-+-610 ;+)3. -6 2;/-<86 *4 ) 7+)60 .+.>)6., (2/7)3. (*
68)6 1*2 3)4 ;./7*/: *68./ (2/>->)+ 6)(A(.
I N.>./ +.6 )41 ;)/6 *7 68. )46.44) */ -6( :*246-4< +2< 6*238 1*2/ 3+*68-4<0
5*,10 7*+-)<.0 */ 68. </*24,. S238 3*46)36 </.)6+1 /.,23.( 68. /)4<. *7 68.
(-<4)+.
I C*4(./>. 5)66./1 ;*9./. T2/4 68. /),-* *77 98.4 1*2 )/. 4*6 2(-4< -6. D*
4*6 6/)4(:-6 */ /.3.->. 3*4(6)46+1. I4 8*(6-+. 6.//-6*/10 A..; 6/)4(:-((-*4(
(8*/6 6* )>*-, .4.:1 /),-* ,-/.36-*4 7-4,-4<.
I I4 3*+, 9.)68./0 A..; 68. 5)66./1 -4(-,. 1*2/ 3+*68-4< 98.4 4*6 2(-4< 68.
/),-*. C*+, ?2-3A+1 ,/)-4( 68. 5)66./1H( ;*9./. D* 4*6 .=;*(. 68. 5)66./1 6*
.=6/.:. 8.)6 (238 )( ,.(./6 (24. H-<8 8.)6 :)1 3)2(. 68. 5)66./1 6*
.=;+*,.. T8. /),-* -( ,.(-<4., 6* 5. 9)6./;/**70 526 )+9)1( 6/1 6* A..; 68.
/),-* )4, 5)66./1 )( ,/1 )( ;*((-5+.0 )( 9)6./ :)1 ,.(6/*1 68. 3-/32-6/1.
I A 9*/+,9-,. ()6.++-6. :*4-6*/-4< (1(6.: 8)( 5..4 ,.>.+*;., 51 -46./4)6-*4)+
(.)/38 )4, /.(32. )<.43-.( 6* )((-(6 -4 +*3)6-4< (2/>->*/(. T* )36->)6. 68-(
(.)/38 )4, /.(32. ()6.++-6.B)-,., 6/)3A-4< CSARSATD (1(6.: -4 ;.)3.6-:.0
A.1 68. 6/)4(:-66./ 7*/ ) :-4-:2: *7 " (.3*4,(.
$84:0<+:
19B%. !8-(6+.( ;/*>-,. )4 .=3.++.46 9)1 7*/ 3+*(.B2; (-<4)+-4<. I4 (*:.
,*32:.46., 3)(.(0 68.1 8)>. 5..4 8.)/, 2; 6* 1.6 A-+*:.6./( CR4 :-+.D
)9)1. M)427)362/., 98-(6+.( 8)>. :*/. /)4<. 68)4 ) 82:)4 98-(6+..
G3/:810:
234
19B6. I4 (*:. (-62)6-*4( 1*2 3)4 2(. 7-/.)/:( 7*/ (-<4)+-4<. T8/.. (8*6(
7-/., )6 ,-(6-436 -46./>)+( 2(2)++1 -4,-3)6. ) ,-(6/.(( (-<4)+. D* 4*6 2(. 68-(
6.384-?2. -4 .4.:1 6.//-6*/1. T8. .4.:1 9-++ (2/.+1 3*:. 6* -4>.(6-<)6.
(8*6(.
CODES AND SIGNALS
19B7. N*9 68)6 1*2 A4*9 8*9 6* +.6 ;.*;+. A4*9 98./. 1*2 )/.0 1*2 4..,
6* A4*9 8*9 6* <->. 68.: :*/. -47*/:)6-*4. I6 -( .)(-./ 6* 7*/: *4. (1:5*+
68)4 6* (;.++ *26 )4 .46-/. :.(()<.. T8./.7*/.0 +.)/4 68. 3*,.( )4, (1:5*+(
68)6 )++ )-/3/)76 ;-+*6( 24,./(6)4,.
SOS
19B$. Y*2 3)4 2(. +-<86( */ 7+)<( 6* (.4, )4 SOS@68/.. ,*6(0 68/.. ,)(8.(0
68/.. ,*6(. T8. SOS -( 68. -46./4)6-*4)++1 /.3*<4-G., ,-(6/.(( (-<4)+ -4 /),-*
M*/(. 3*,.. A ,*6 -( ) (8*/60 (8)/; ;2+(.M ) ,)(8 -( ) +*4<./ ;2+(.. K..;
/.;.)6-4< 68. (-<4)+. !8.4 2(-4< 7+)<(0 8*+, 7+)<( *4 68. +.76 (-,. 7*/ ,)(8.(
)4, *4 68. /-<86 (-,. 7*/ ,*6(.
GROUNDCTOCAIR EMERGENCY CODE
19B9. T8-( 3*,. CF-<2/. 19B6D -( )362)++1 7->. ,.7-4-6.0 :.)4-4<72+ (1:5*+(.
M)A. 68.(. (1:5*+( ) :-4-:2: *7 4 :.6./( C1 7..6D 9-,. )4, 6 :.6./( C2"
7..6D +*4<. I7 1*2 :)A. 68.: +)/<./0 A..; 68. ():. 2E /)6-*. T8. (-<4)+ )/:(
*/ +.<( (8*2+, 5. 1 :.6./ C 7..6D 9-,. )4, 1 :.6./ C 7..6D 8-<8 6* .4(2/.
:)=-:2: >-(-5-+-61 7/*: 8-<8 )+6-62,.(. E4(2/. 68. (-<4)+ 3*46/)(6( </.)6+1
9-68 68. </*24, -6 -( *4. T8. (-<4)+ :)1 5. 3*4(6/236., 7/*: )41 )>)-+)5+.
:)6./-)+(M 7*/ .=):;+.0 )-/3/)76 ;)/6(0 +*<(0 */ +.)>.(. R.:.:5./ (-G.0 /)6-*0
)4<2+)/-610 (6/)-<86 +-4.(0 )4, (?2)/. 3*/4./( )/. 4*6 7*24, -4 4)62/.. Y*2
:2(6 3*4(-,./ 8*9 68. (-<4)+ 9-++ 3*46/)(6 9-68 68. 4)62/)+ 5)3A</*24,. T8.
(-<4)+ :)1 5. :),. 51 5/.)A-4< )4, 5.4,-4< *>./ 3/*;( */ 6)++ </)(( -4 ) 7-.+,
*/ 6/):;+., ,*94 -46* (4*9 */ ()4,1 (*-+. P+)3. -6 -4 )4 *;.4 )/.) .)(-+1
(;*66., 7/*: 68. )-/. I7 .>),-4<0 68. (-<4)+ 3*2+, )+(* 5. ,2< -46* 68. </*24,
6* /.,23. -6( (-<4)62/. 7/*: </*24, 7*/3.(.
N3>@+*. M+::-9+. C12+ S;>@1<.
1 R.?2-/. )((-(6)43. V
2 R.?2-/. :.,-3)+
)((-(6)43.
X
N* */ N.<)6->. N
4 Y.( */ A77-/:)6->. Y
% P/*3.., -4 68-( ,-/.36-*4

F493*+ 1%C6. G*13/2C01CA4* E>+*9+/.; C12+ KP-00+*/ S49/-<:L
BODY SIGNALS
235
19B4". !8.4 )4 )-/3/)76 -( 3+*(. .4*2<8 7*/ 68. ;-+*6 6* (.. 1*2 3+.)/+10 2(.
5*,1 :*>.:.46( */ ;*(-6-*4( CF-<2/. 19B7D 6* 3*4>.1 ) :.(()<..
F493*+ 1%C#. B12; S49/-<:
PANEL SIGNALS
19B41. I7 1*2 8)>. ) +-7. /)76 3*>./ */ ()-+0 */ ) (2-6)5+. (25(6-626. (238 )( )
(;)3. 5+)4A.6 */ 3*:5)6 3)(2)+61 5+)4A.60 2(. 68. (1:5*+( (8*94 -4 F-<2/.
19B$ 6* 3*4>.1 ) :.(()<..
236
F493*+ 1%C. P-/+< S49/-<:
AIRCRAFT ACKNO$LEDGMENTS
19B42. O43. 68. ;-+*6 *7 ) 7-=.,B9-4< )-/3/)76 8)( (-<86., 1*20 8. 9-++ 4*/:)++1
-4,-3)6. 8. 8)( (..4 1*2 51 7+1-4< +*90 :*>-4< 68. ;+)4.0 )4, 7+)(8-4< +-<86(
)( (8*94 -4 F-<2/. 19B9. B. /.),1 6* /.+)1 *68./ :.(()<.( 6* 68. ;-+*6 *43.
8. )3A4*9+.,<.( 68)6 8. /.3.->., )4, 24,./(6**, 1*2/ 7-/(6 :.(()<.. U(. )
/),-*0 -7 ;*((-5+.0 6* /.+)1 72/68./ :.(()<.(. I7 4* /),-* -( )>)-+)5+.0 2(. 68.
3*,.( 3*>./., -4 68. ;/.>-*2( ;)/)</);8(.
237
F493*+ 1%C%. A4*.*-,0 A.?/1A<+29>+/0:
AIRCRAFT VECTORING PROCEDURES
19B4. T* .(6)5+-(8 -4-6-)+ 3*46)360 2(. 5.)3*4 7*/ 1% (.3*4,(0 2(. >*-3. 7*/
1% (.3*4,( CM)1,)10 M)1,)10 M)1,)1@68-( -( 3)++ (-<4D0 68.4 +-(6.4 7*/ 1%
(.3*4,(. !8.4 1*2 3*46)36 ) 7/-.4,+1 )-/3/)76 9-68 ) /),-*0 <2-,. 68. ;-+*6 6*
1*2/ +*3)6-*4. U(. 68. 7*++*9-4< <.4./)+ 7*/:)6 6* <2-,. 68. ;-+*6E
I C)++ (-<4 C-7 )41D.
I N):..
I L*3)6-*4 C3+*3A ,-/.36-*4 )4, ,-(6)43. 7/*: )-/3/)76 6* 1*2/ +*3)6-*4D.
I E4.:1 ,-(;*(-6-*4 )4, +*3)6-*4.
I N2:5./ *7 ;.*;+. 4..,-4< 6* 5. /.(32.,.
I A>)-+)5+. +)4,-4< (-6.(.
I A41 /.:)/A( (238 )( :.,-3)+ )-, */ *68./ (;.3-7-3 61;.( *7 8.+; 4..,.,
-::.,-)6.+1.
I G->. )41 <2-,)43. */ (6../-4< 3*//.36-*4( 6* 68. ;-+*6 7/*: 68.-/ ;./(;.36->.
6* /.:*>. )41 38)43. *7 .//*/. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 68. )-/3/)76 4..,( 6* 62/4 +.76
6* ;)(( *>./ 1*2/ ;*(-6-*40 6.++ 68. ;-+*6 6* (6../ +.76. A( 8. 5.<-4( 6* 3*:.
3+*(. 6* 68. 3*//.36 8.),-4<0 6.++ 8-: 6* J/*++ *26.K C*46-42. 6* :)A.
3*//.36-*4( )( 4.3.(()/1 6* )+-<4 68. )-/3/)76 9-68 1*2. G->. 68. ;-+*6
.(6-:)6.( *7 ,-(6)43. 7/*: 1*2 )( 9.++0 )4, 5. ;/.;)/., 6* <->. ) 3*246,*94
6* 1*2/ ;*(-6-*4. E=):;+.E JY*2 )/. *4. :-+. *26... *4.B8)+7 :-+. *26... 1*2H++
5. *>./ :1 ;*(-6-*4 -4 6.4 (.3*4,(0 4-4.0 .-<860 (.>.40 (-=0 7->.0 7*2/0 68/..0
238
69*0 *4.0 :)/A.K T8-( 9-++ )-, 68. ;-+*6 -4 .(6-:)6-4< 1*2/ /)4<. *>./ 68.
;+)4.H( 4*(.. R.:.:5./ 68)6 ;-+*6( :)1 4*6 5. )5+. 6* (.. (6/)-<86 ,*940
*4+1 *26 -4 7/*46 *7 68.: )6 )4 )4<+. ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. )-/3/)76 ,.(-<4.
19B44. S-:;+1 5.3)2(. 1*2 8)>. :),. 3*46)36 9-68 /.(32./( ,*.( 4*6 :.)4
1*2 )/. ()7.. F*++*9 -4(6/236-*4( )4, 3*46-42. 6* 2(. (*24, (2/>->)+ )4,
.>)(-*4 6.384-?2.( 246-+ 1*2 )/. )362)++1 /.(32.,.
CHAPTER 20.
S3*B4B-< M1B+>+/0 I/ H1:04<+ A*+-:.
T8. J/.(32. )6 )41 3*(6K ;8-+*(*;81 *7 ;/.>-*2( 3*47+-36( -( 4*6 +-A.+1 6* 5.
;*((-5+. -4 7262/. 3*47+-36(. O2/ ;*6.46-)+ ),>./()/-.( 8)>. :),. </.)6
;/*</.(( -4 )-/ ,.7.4(. :.)(2/.( )4, /),-* ,-/.36-*4 7-4,./ CRDFD 6.384-?2.(.
!. :2(6 )((2:. 68)6 U.S. :-+-6)/1 7*/3.( 6/);;., 5.8-4, .4.:1 +-4.( -4
7262/. 3*47+-36( :)1 4*6 .=;./-.43. ?2-3A /.3*>./1 51 7/-.4,+1 .+.:.46(.
S*+,-./( :)1 8)>. 6* :*>. 7*/ .=6.4,., 6-:.( )4, ,-(6)43.( 6* ;+)3.( +.((
68/.)6.4-4< 6* 68. /.3*>./1 7*/3.(. T8. (*+,-./ 9-++ 4*6 +-A.+1 A4*9 68. 61;. *7
/.3*>./1 6* .=;.36. E)38 (-62)6-*4 )4, 68. )>)-+)5+. /.(*2/3.( ,.6./:-4. 68.
61;. *7 /.3*>./1 ;*((-5+.. S-43. 4* *4. 3)4 5. )5(*+26.+1 (2/. 246-+ 68.
/.3*>./1 .77*/6 5.<-4(0 (*+,-./( 7)3-4< ) ;*6.46-)+ 326 *77 7/*: 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.(
(8*2+, 5. 7):-+-)/ 9-68 )++ 68. ;*((-5+. 61;.( *7 /.3*>./10 68.-/ /.+)6.,
;/*5+.:(0 )4, 68.-/ /.(;*4(-5-+-6-.( 6* 68. /.3*>./1 .77*/6. P/.;)/)6-*4 )4,
6/)-4-4< 3)4 -:;/*>. 68. 38)43.( *7 (233.((.
PHASES OF PLANNING
2"B1. P/.;)/)6-*4 -( ) /.?2-/.:.46 7*/ )++ :-((-*4(. !8.4 ;+)44-4<0 1*2 :2(6
3*4(-,./ 8*9 6* )>*-, 3);62/. )4, /.62/4 6* 1*2/ 24-6. E>)(-*4 ;+)4( :2(6 5.
;/.;)/., -4 3*4F2436-*4 9-68 24-6 (6)4,-4< *;./)6-4< ;/*3.,2/.( CSOP(D )4,
32//.46 F*-46 ,*36/-4.. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* 3*4(-,./ )41 3*2/(.( *7 )36-*4 CCOA(D
68)6 1*2 */ 1*2/ 24-6 9-++ 6)A..
EVASION PLAN OF ACTION
2"B2. S233.((72+ .>)(-*4 -( ,.;.4,.46 *4 .77.36->. ;/-*/ ;+)44-4<. T8.
/.(;*4(-5-+-61 2+6-:)6.+1 /.(6( *4 68. -4,->-,2)+ 3*43./4.,. S*24, .>)(-*4
;+)44-4< (8*2+, -43*/;*/)6. -46.++-<.43. 5/-.7-4<(@(.+.36., )/.)( 7*/ .>)(-*4M
)/.) -46.++-<.43. ,.(3/-;6-*4(M EOR )/.) (62,-.(M (2/>->)+0 .>)(-*40 /.(-(6)43.0
)4, .(3);. CSERED <2-,.( )4, 52++.6-4(M -(*+)6., ;./(*44.+ /.;*/6(M )4, )4
.>)(-*4 ;+)4 *7 )36-*4 CEPAD
2"B. T8. (62,1 )4, /.(.)/38 4..,., 6* ,.>.+*; 68. EPA 9-++ :)A. 1*2
)9)/. *7 68. 32//.46 (-62)6-*4 -4 1*2/ :-((-*4 )/.). Y*2/ EPA 9-++ +.6 /.3*>./1
7*/3.( A4*9 1*2/ ;/*5)5+. )36-*4( (8*2+, 1*2 8)>. 6* :*>. 6* )>*-, 3);62/..
239
2"B4. Y*2 (8*2+, (6)/6 ;/.;)/-4< .>.4 5.7*/. ;/.:-((-*4 ;+)44-4<. P*/6-*4(
*7 68. EPA )/. 68. 24-6 SOP. I43+2,. 68. EPA -4 1*2/ 6/)-4-4<. P+)44-4<
(6)/6( -4 1*2/ ,)-+1 6/)-4-4<.
2"B%. T8. EPA -( 1*2/ .46-/. ;+)4 7*/ 1*2/ /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+. I6
3*4(-(6( *7 7->. ;)/)</);8( 9/-66.4 -4 68. *;./)6-*4 */,./ 7*/:)6. Y*2 3)4
6)A. :*(6 *7 P)/)</);8 I@S-62)6-*40 9-68 1*2 *4 68. :-((-*4. A;;.4,-= I
3*46)-4( 68. EPA 7*/:)6 )4, -4,-3)6.( 98)6 ;*/6-*4 *7 68. EPA 1*2 3)4 6)A.
*4 68. :-((-*4.
2"B6. A 3*:;/.8.4(->. EPA -( ) >)+2)5+. )((.6 6* 68. (*+,-./ 6/);;., 5.8-4,
.4.:1 +-4.( )66.:;6-4< 6* )>*-, 3);62/.. T* 3*:;+.6. P)/)</);8 I0 A4*9
1*2/ 24-6H( )((-<4., )/.) */ 3*43.46/)6. *4 ;*6.46-)+ :-((-*4 )/.)( *7 68.
9*/+,. M)41 *;.4 */ 3+*(., (*2/3.( 3*46)-4 68. -47*/:)6-*4 1*2 4.., 6*
3*:;+.6. )4 EPA. O;.4 (*2/3.( :)1 -43+2,. 4.9(;);./(0 :)<)G-4.(0
3*246/1 */ )/.) 8)4,5**A(0 )/.) (62,-.(0 6.+.>-(-*40 /),-*0 -46./4.60 ;./(*4(
7):-+-)/ 9-68 68. )/.)0 )4, +-5/)/-.(. U(. 3)26-*4 9-68 *;.4 (*2/3.
-47*/:)6-*4M -6 :)1 5. 24/.+-)5+.. C+*(., (*2/3.( :)1 -43+2,. )/.) (62,-.(0
)/.) )((.((:.46(0 SERE 3*46-4<.431 <2-,.(0 SECRET I46./4.6 P/*6*3*+
R*26./ N.69*/A0 >)/-*2( 3+)((-7-., 7-.+, :)42)+(0 )4, -46.++-<.43. /.;*/6(.
2"B7. P/.;)/. 1*2/ EPA -4 68/.. ;8)(.(. D2/-4< 1*2/ 4*/:)+ 6/)-4-4<0
;/.;)/. P)/)</);8 I@S-62)6-*4. P/.;)/. P)/)</);8( II0 III0 IV0 )4, V ,2/-4<
1*2/ ;/.:-((-*4 ;+)44-4<. A76./ ,.;+*1:.46 -46* )4 )/.)0 3*46-42)++1 2;,)6.
1*2/ EPA 5)(., *4 (-62)6-*4 */ :-((-*4 38)4<.( )4, -46.++-<.43. 2;,)6.(.
2"B$. T8. EPA -( ) <2-,.. Y*2 :)1 ),, */ ,.+.6. 3./6)-4 ;*/6-*4( 5)(., *4
68. :-((-*4. T8. EPA :)1 5. ) /.3*>./1 7*/3.H( *4+1 :.)4( *7 ,.6./:-4-4<
1*2/ +*3)6-*4 )4, -46.46-*4( )76./ 1*2 (6)/6 6* .>),.. I6 -( )4 .((.46-)+ 6**+ 7*/
1*2/ (2/>->)+ )4, /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+.
STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES
2"B9. Y*2/ 24-6 SOP( )/. >)+2)5+. 6**+( 68)6 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 ;+)4 1*2/ EPA.
!8.4 7)3., 9-68 ) ,)4<./*2( (-62)6-*4 /.?2-/-4< -::.,-)6. )36-*40 -6 -( 4*6
68. 6-:. 6* ,-(32(( *;6-*4(M -6 -( 68. 6-:. 6* )36. M)41 *7 68. 6.384-?2.( 2(.,
,2/-4< (:)++ 24-6 :*>.:.46 3)4 5. 3)//-., *>./ 6* 7-6 /.?2-/.:.46( 7*/ :*>-4<
)4, /.62/4-4< 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+. I6.:( 7/*: 68. SOP (8*2+, -43+2,.0 526 )/.
4*6 +-:-6., 6*@
I M*>.:.46 6.): (-G. C68/.. 6* 7*2/ ;./(*4( ;./ 6.):D.
I T.): 3*::24-3)6-*4( C6.384-3)+ )4, 4*46.384-3)+D.
I E((.46-)+ .?2-;:.46.
I A36-*4( )6 ,)4<./ )/.)(.
I S-<4)+-4< 6.384-?2.(.
I I::.,-)6. )36-*4 ,/-++(.
I L-4A2; ;/*3.,2/.(.
I H.+-3*;6./ /.3*>./1 ,.>-3.( )4, ;/*3.,2/.(.
I S.32/-61 ;/*3.,2/.( ,2/-4< :*>.:.46 )4, )6 8-,. (-6.(.
I R)++1 ;*-46(.
240
2"B1". R.8.)/()+( 9*/A .77.36->.+1 7*/ /.-47*/3-4< 68.(. SOP (A-++( )4, )+(*
;/*>-,. *;;*/624-6-.( 7*/ .>)+2)6-*4 )4, -:;/*>.:.46.
NOTIFICATION TO MOVE AND AVOID CAPTURE
2"B11. A4 -(*+)6., 24-6 8)( (.>./)+ <.4./)+ COA( -6 3)4 6)A. 6* )>*-, 68.
3);62/. *7 68. </*2; */ -4,->-,2)+(. T8.(. COA( )/. 4*6 3*2/(.( 68.
3*::)4,./ 3)4 38**(. -4(6.), *7 8-( */-<-4)+ :-((-*4. H. 3)44*6 )/5-6/)/-+1
)5)4,*4 68. )((-<4., :-((-*4. R)68./0 8. :)1 ),*;6 68.(. COA( )76./
3*:;+.6-4< 8-( :-((-*4 98.4 8-( 24-6 3)44*6 3*:;+.6. -6( )((-<4., :-((-*4
C5.3)2(. *7 3*:5)6 ;*9./ +*((.(D */ 98.4 8. /.3.->.( */,./( 6* .=6/)36 8-(
24-6 7/*: -6( 32//.46 ;*(-6-*4. I7 (238 )36-*4( )/. 4*6 ;*((-5+.0 68. 3*::)4,./
:)1 ,.3-,. 6* 8)>. 68. 24-6 6/1 6* :*>. 6* )>*-, 3);62/. )4, /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1
3*46/*+. I4 .-68./ 3)(.0 )( +*4< )( 68./. -( 3*::24-3)6-*4 9-68 8-<8./
8.),?2)/6./(0 68)6 8.),?2)/6./( 9-++ :)A. 68. ,.3-(-*4.
2"B12. I7 68. 24-6 3*::)4,./ +*(.( 3*46)36 9-68 8-<8./ 8.),?2)/6./(0 8. :2(6
:)A. 68. ,.3-(-*4 6* :*>. */ 9)-6. H. 5)(.( 8-( ,.3-(-*4 *4 :)41 7)36*/(0
-43+2,-4< 68. :-((-*40 /)6-*4( )4, )::24-6-*4 *4 8)4,0 3)(2)+6-.(0 68. 38)43.
*7 /.+-.7 51 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.(0 )4, 68. 6)36-3)+ (-62)6-*4. T8. 3*::)4,./ *7 )4
-(*+)6., 24-6 7)3.( *68./ ?2.(6-*4(. !8)6 COA 9-++ -47+-36 :)=-:2: ,):)<.
*4 68. .4.:1L !8)6 COA 9-++ )((-(6 -4 3*:;+.6-4< 68. 8-<8./ 8.),?2)/6./(H
*>./)++ :-((-*4L
2"B1. M*>.:.46 6.):( 3*4,236 68. .=.326-*4 ;*/6-*4 *7 68. ;+)4 98.4
4*6-7-., 51 8-<8./ 8.),?2)/6./( */0 -7 68./. -( 4* 3*46)36 9-68 8-<8./
8.),?2)/6./(0 98.4 68. 8-<8.(6 /)4A-4< ;./(*4 ,.3-,.( 68)6 68. (-62)6-*4
/.?2-/.( 68. 24-6 6* 6/1 6* .(3);. 3);62/. */ ,.(6/236-*4. M*>.:.46 6.):
+.),./( /.3.->. 68.-/ 4*6-7-3)6-*4 68/*2<8 ;/.5/-.7., (-<4)+(. O43. 68. (-<4)+
6* 6/1 6* )>*-, 3);62/. -( <->.40 -6 :2(6 5. ;)((., /);-,+1 6* )++ ;./(*44.+.
N*6-71 8-<8./ 8.),?2)/6./(0 -7 ;*((-5+.. I7 24)5+. 6* 3*::24-3)6. 9-68 8-<8./
8.),?2)/6./(0 +.),./( :2(6 /.3*<4-G. 68)6 */<)4-G., /.(-(6)43. 8)( .4,.,0
)4, 68)6 */<)4-G)6-*4)+ 3*46/*+ 8)( 3.)(.,. C*::)4, )4, 3*46/*+ -( 4*9 )6
68. :*>.:.46 6.): */ -4,->-,2)+ +.>.+ )4, -( /.62/4., 6* 8-<8./ */<)4-G)6-*4)+
3*46/*+ *4+1 )76./ /.)38-4< 7/-.4,+1 +-4.(.
EXECUTION
2"B14. U;*4 4*6-7-3)6-*4 6* )>*-, 3);62/.0 )++ :*>.:.46 6.): :.:5./( 9-++
6/1 6* +-4A 2; )6 68. -4-6-)+ .>)(-*4 ;*-46 CIEPD. T8-( ;*-46 -( 98./. 6.):
:.:5./( /)++1 )4, )362)++1 5.<-4 68.-/ .>)(-*4. T.46)6->.+1 (.+.36 68. IEP
,2/-4< 1*2/ ;+)44-4< ;8)(. 68/*2<8 ) :); /.3*44)-(()43.. O43. *4 68.
</*24,0 68. 6.): >./-7-.( 68-( +*3)6-*4 */ (.+.36( ) 5.66./ *4.. A++ 6.):
:.:5./( :2(6 A4*9 -6( +*3)6-*4. T8. IEP (8*2+, 5. .)(1 6* +*3)6. )4,
*332;1 7*/ ) :-4-:2: ):*246 *7 6-:.. 2"B1%. O43. 68. 6.): 8)( /)++-., )6
68. IEP0 -6 :2(6@
I G->. 7-/(6 )-,.
I I4>.46*/1 -6( .?2-;:.46 C,.3-,. 98)6 6* )5)4,*40 ,.(6/*10 */ 6)A. )+*4<D.
I A;;+1 3):*27+)<..
241
I M)A. (2/. .>./1*4. A4*9( 68. 6.46)6->. 8-,. +*3)6-*4(.
I E4(2/. .>./1*4. A4*9( 68. ;/-:)/1 )4, )+6./4)6. /*26.( )4, /)++1 ;*-46( .4
/*26. 6* 68. 8-,. +*3)6-*4(.
I A+9)1( :)-46)-4 (.32/-61.
I S;+-6 68. 6.): -46* (:)++./ .+.:.46(. T8. -,.)+ .+.:.46 (8*2+, 8)>. 69* 6*
68/.. :.:5./(M 8*9.>./0 -6 3*2+, -43+2,. :*/. ,.;.4,-4< *4 6.): .?2-;:.46
)4, .=;./-.43..
2"B16. T8. :*>.:.46 ;*/6-*4 *7 /.62/4-4< 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+ -( 68. :*(6
,)4<./*2( )( 1*2 )/. 4*9 :*(6 >2+4./)5+.. I6 -( 2(2)++1 5.66./ 6* :*>. )6
4-<86 5.3)2(. *7 68. 3*43.)+:.46 ,)/A4.(( *77./(. E=3.;6-*4( 6* (238
:*>.:.46 9*2+, 5. 98.4 :*>-4< 68/*2<8 8)G)/,*2( 6.//)-4 */ ,.4(.
>.<.6)6-*4 C7*/ .=):;+.0 F24<+. */ :*246)-4*2( 6.//)-4D. !8.4 :*>-4<0 )>*-,
68. 7*++*9-4< .>.4 -7 -6 6)A.( :*/. 6-:. )4, .4./<1 6* 51;)((E
I O5(6)3+.( )4, 5)//-./(.
I R*),( )4, 6/)-+(.
I I48)5-6., )/.)(.
I !)6./9)1( )4, 5/-,<.(.
I N)62/)+ +-4.( *7 ,/-76.
I M)4B:),. (6/2362/.(.
I A++ 3->-+-)4 )4, :-+-6)/1 ;./(*44.+.
2"B17. M*>.:.46 -4 .4.:1B8.+, 6.//-6*/1 -( ) >./1 (+*9 )4, ,.+-5./)6.
;/*3.((. T8. (+*9./ 1*2 :*>. )4, 68. :*/. 3)/.72+ 1*2 )/.0 68. 5.66./.
Y*2/ 5.(6 (.32/-61 9-++ 5. 2(-4< 1*2/ (.4(.(. U(. 1*2/ .1.( )4, .)/( 6*
,.6.36 ;.*;+. 5.7*/. 68.1 ,.6.36 1*2. M)A. 7/.?2.46 +-(6.4-4< 8)+6(. I4
,)1+-<860 *5(./>. ) (.36-*4 *7 1*2/ /*26. 5.7*/. 1*2 :*>. )+*4< -6. T8.
,-(6)43. 1*2 6/)>.+ 5.7*/. 1*2 8-,. 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 68. .4.:1 (-62)6-*40 1*2/
8.)+680 68. 6.//)-40 68. )>)-+)5-+-61 *7 3*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.46 7*/ 8-,-4<0 )4,
68. ):*246 *7 ,)/A4.(( +.76. S.. C8);6./ 22 7*/ :*/. :*>.:.46 )4, 3*246./
6/)3A-4< 6.384-?2.(.
2"B1$. O43. 1*2 8)>. :*>., -46* 68. )/.) -4 98-38 1*2 9)46 6* 8-,. C8-,.
)/.)D0 (.+.36 ) 8-,. (-6.. K..; 68. 9*/, BLISS -4 :-4, 98.4 (.+.36-4< ) 8-,.
(-6.E
I BBB+.4,( -4 9-68 68. (2//*24,-4<(.
I LBL*9 -4 (-+8*2.66..
I IBI//.<2+)/ -4 (8);..
I SBS:)++ -4 (-G..
I SBS.3+2,.,.
2"B19. A>*-, 68. 2(. *7 .=-(6-4< 52-+,-4<( */ (8.+6./(. U(2)++10 1*2/ 5.(6
*;6-*4 9-++ 5. 6* 3/)9+ -46* 68. 68-3A.(6 >.<.6)6-*4 1*2 3)4 7-4,. C*4(6/236 )41
61;. *7 (8.+6./ 9-68-4 68. 8-,. )/.) *4+1 -4 3*+, 9.)68./ )4, ,.(./6
.4>-/*4:.46(. I7 1*2 52-+, ) (8.+6./0 7*++*9 68. BLISS 7*/:2+).
HIDE SITE ACTIVITIES
242
2"B2". A76./ 1*2 8)>. +*3)6., 1*2/ 8-,. (-6.0 ,* 4*6 :*>. (6/)-<86 -46* -6. U(.
) 5266*48**A */ *68./ ,.3.;6->. 6.384-?2. 6* :*>. 6* ) ;*(-6-*4 *26(-,. *7 68.
8-,. (-6.. C*4,236 ) +-(6.4-4< 8)+6 5.7*/. :*>-4< -4,->-,2)++1 -46* 68. 8-,. (-6..
B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* ,-(62/5 */ 326 )41 >.<.6)6-*4. O43. 1*2 8)>. *332;-., 68.
8-,. (-6.0 +-:-6 1*2/ )36->-6-.( 6* :)-46)-4-4< (.32/-610 /.(6-4<0 3):*27+)<-4<0
)4, ;+)44-4< 1*2/ 4.=6 :*>.(.
2"B21. M)-46)-4 1*2/ (.32/-61 68/*2<8 >-(2)+ (3)44-4< )4, +-(6.4-4<. U;*4
,.6.36-*4 *7 68. .4.:10 68. (.32/-61 ;./(*44.+ )+./6 )++ ;./(*44.+0 .>.4 -7 68.
6.):H( ;+)4 -( 6* (6)1 8-,,.4 )4, 4*6 :*>. 2;*4 (-<86-4< 68. .4.:1. T)A.
68-( )36-*4 (* 68)6 .>./1*4. -( )9)/. *7 68. ,)4<./ )4, /.),1 6* /.)36.
2"B22. I7 )41 6.): :.:5./ +.)>.( 68. 6.):0 <->. 8-: ) 7->.B;*-46
3*46-4<.431 ;+)4. I6 (8*2+, -43+2,.@ !8* -( <*-4<L !8./. )/. 68.1 <*-4<L
H*9 +*4< 9-++ 68.1 5. <*4.L !8)6 6* ,* -7 68.1 )/. 8-6 */ ,*4H6 /.62/4 *4 6-:.L
!8./. 6* <* -7 )41*4. -( 8-6L
2"B2. I6 -( .=6/.:.+1 -:;*/6)46 6* (6)1 8.)+681 )4, )+./6 98.4 6/1-4< 6* )>*-,
3);62/.. T)A. .>./1 *;;*/624-61 6* /.(60 526 ,* 4*6 ()3/-7-3. (.32/-61. R*6)6.
(.32/-61 (* 68)6 )++ :.:5./( *7 1*2/ :*>.:.46 6.): 3)4 /.(6. T/.)6 )++
-4F2/-.(0 4* :)66./ 8*9 :-4*/. L*(( *7 1*2/ 8.)+68 9-++ :.)4 +*(( *7 1*2/
)5-+-61 6* 3*46-42. 6* )>*-, 3);62/..
2"B24. C):*27+)<. -( )4 -:;*/6)46 )(;.36 *7 5*68 :*>-4< )4, (.32/-4< )
8-,. (-6.. A+9)1( 2(. ) 52,,1 (1(6.: 6* .4(2/. 68)6 3):*27+)<. -( 3*:;+.6..
E4(2/. 68)6 6.): :.:5./( 5+.4, 9-68 68. 8-,. (-6.. U(. 4)62/)+ */ :)4B
:),. :)6./-)+(. I7 1*2 ),, )41 ),,-6-*4)+ 3):*27+)<. :)6./-)+ 6* 68. 8-,.
(-6.0 ,* 4*6 326 >.<.6)6-*4 -4 68. -::.,-)6. )/.).
2"B2%. P+)4 1*2/ 4.=6 )36-*4( 98-+. )6 68. 8-,. (-6.. S6)/6 1*2/ ;+)44-4<
;/*3.(( -::.,-)6.+1 2;*4 *332;1-4< 68. 8-,. (-6.. I47*/: )++ 6.): :.:5./(
*7 68.-/ 32//.46 +*3)6-*4 )4, ,.(-<4)6. )4 )+6./4)6. 8-,. (-6. +*3)6-*4. O43.
68-( -( ,*4.0 (6)/6 ;+)44-4< 7*/ 68. 6.):H( 4.=6 :*>.:.46.
2"B26. P+)44-4< 68. 6.):H( :*>.:.46 5.<-4( 9-68 ) :); /.3*44)-(()43..
C8**(. 68. 4.=6 8-,. )/.) 7-/(6. T8.4 38**(. ) ;/-:)/1 )4, )4 )+6./4)6.
/*26. 6* 68. 8-,. )/.). I4 38**(-4< 68. /*26.(0 ,* 4*6 2(. (6/)-<86 +-4.(. U(.
*4. */ 69* /),-3)+ 38)4<.( -4 ,-/.36-*4. P-3A 68. /*26.( 68)6 *77./ 68. 5.(6
3*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.460 68. 7.9.(6 *5(6)3+.(0 )4, 68. +.)(6 +-A.+-8**, *7
3*46)36 9-68 82:)4(. T8./. (8*2+, 5. +*3)6-*4( )+*4< 68. /*26. 98./. 68.
6.): 3)4 <.6 9)6./. T* )-, 6.): 4)>-<)6-*40 2(. )G-:268(0 ,-(6)43.(0
38.3A;*-46( */ (6../-4< :)/A(0 )4, 3*//-,*/(. P+)4 /)++1 ;*-46( )4,
/.4,.G>*2( ;*-46( )6 -46./>)+( )+*4< 68. /*26..
2"B27. O68./ ;+)44-4< 3*4(-,./)6-*4( :)1 7)++ 24,./ 98)6 68. 6.): )+/.),1
8)( -4 68. 6.): SOP. E=):;+.( )/. -::.,-)6. )36-*4 ,/-++(0 )36-*4( *4
(-<86-4< 68. .4.:10 )4, 8)4,B)4,B)/: (-<4)+(.
2"B2$. O43. ;+)44-4< -( 3*:;+.6.0 .4(2/. .>./1*4. A4*9( )4, :.:*/-G.(
68. .46-/. ;+)4. T8. 6.): :.:5./( (8*2+, A4*9 68. ,-(6)43.( )4, )G-:268(
243
7*/ 68. .46-/. /*26. 6* 68. 4.=6 8-,. )/.). T8.1 (8*2+, (62,1 68. :); )4,
A4*9 68. >)/-*2( 6.//)-4 68.1 9-++ 5. :*>-4< )3/*(( (* 68)6 68.1 3)4 :*>.
9-68*26 2(-4< 68. :);.
2"B29. D* 4*6 *332;1 ) 8-,. (-6. 7*/ :*/. 68)4 24 8*2/(. I4 :*(6 (-62)6-*4(0
8-,. ,2/-4< 68. ,)1 )4, :*>. )6 4-<86. L-:-6 1*2/ )36-*4( -4 68. 8-,. (-6. 6*
68*(. ,-(32((., )5*>.. O43. -4 68. 8-,. (-6.0 /.(6/-36 )++ :*>.:.46 6* +.((
68)4 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D )5*>. 68. </*24,. D* 4*6 52-+, 7-/.( */
;/.;)/. 7**,. S:*A. )4, 7**, *,*/( 9-++ /.>.)+ 1*2/ +*3)6-*4. B.7*/. +.)>-4<
68. 8-,. (-6.0 (6./-+-G. -6 6* ;/.>.46 6/)3A-4<.
HOLECUP AREAS
2"B". A76./ :*>-4< )4, 8-,-4< 7*/ (.>./)+ ,)1(0 2(2)++1 68/.. */ 7*2/0 1*2 */
68. :*>.:.46 6.): 9-++ 8)>. 6* :*>. -46* ) 8*+.B2; )/.). T8-( -( )4 )/.)
98./. 1*2 3)4 /.(60 /.32;./)6.0 )4, <.6 )4, ;/.;)/. 7**,. C8**(. )4 )/.)
4.)/ ) 9)6./ (*2/3.. Y*2 68.4 8)>. ) ;+)3. 6* <.6 9)6./0 6* ;+)3. 7-(8-4<
,.>-3.(0 )4, 6* 6/); <):.. S-43. 9)6./9)1( )/. ) +-4. *7 3*::24-3)6-*40
+*3)6. 1*2/ 8-,. (-6. 9.++ )9)1 7/*: 68. 9)6./.
2"B1. T8. 8*+.B2; )/.) (8*2+, *77./ ;+.461 *7 3*>./ )4, 3*43.)+:.46 7*/
:*>.:.46 -4 )4, )/*24, 68. )/.). A+9)1( :)-46)-4 (.32/-61 98-+. -4 68. 8*+.B
2; )/.). A+9)1( :)4 68. 8*+.B2; )/.). A36-*4( -4 68. 8*+.B2; )/.) )/. 68.
():. )( -4 68. 8-,. (-6.0 .=3.;6 68)6 1*2 3)4 :*>. )9)1 7/*: 68. 8*+.B2;
)/.) 6* <.6 )4, ;/.;)/. 7**,. !8-+. -4 68. 8*+.B2; )/.)0 1*2 3)4@
I S.+.36 )4, *332;1 68. 4.=6 8-,. (-6. C/.:.:5./ 1*2 )/. (6-++ -4 ) ,)4<./*2(
(-62)6-*4M 68-( -( 4*6 ) 7/-.4,+1 )/.)D.
I R.3*44*-6./ 68. )/.) 7*/ /.(*2/3.( )4, ;*6.46-)+ 3*43.)+., :*>.:.46
/*26.( 6* 68. )+6./4)6. 8-,. (-6..
I G)68./ 7**, C426(0 5.//-.(0 >.<.6)5+.(D. !8.4 :*>-4< )/*24, 68. )/.) 7*/
7**,0 :)-46)-4 (.32/-61 )4, )>*-, +.)>-4< 6/)3A( */ *68./ (-<4(. !8.4 (.66-4<
6/);( )4, (4)/.(0 A..; 68.: 9.++ 3):*27+)<., )4, -4 )/.)( 98./. ;.*;+. )/.
4*6 +-A.+1 6* ,-(3*>./ 68.:. R.:.:5./0 68. +*3)+ ;*;2+)6-*4 (*:.6-:.(
8.)>-+1 6/)>.+( 6/)-+( 4.)/ 9)6./ (*2/3.(.
I G.6 9)6./ 7/*: (*2/3.( 9-68-4 68. 8-,. )/.). B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* +.)>. 6/)3A(
*7 (-<4( )+*4< 68. 5)4A( *7 9)6./ (*2/3.( 98.4 <.66-4< 9)6./. M*>-4< *4
8)/, /*3A( */ +*<( )+*4< 68. 5)4A( 6* <.6 9)6./ 9-++ /.,23. 68. (-<4( 1*2
+.)>..
I S.6 3+)4,.(6-4. 7-(8-4< ,.>-3.(0 (238 )( (6)A.*26(0 5.+*9 68. (2/7)3. *7 68.
9)6./ 6* )>*-, ,.6.36-*4.
I L*3)6. ) 7-/. (-6. 9.++ )9)1 7/*: 68. 8-,. (-6.. U(. 68-( (-6. 6* ;/.;)/. 7**,
*/ 5*-+ 9)6./. C):*27+)<. )4, (6./-+-G. 68. 7-/. (-6. )76./ .)38 2(.. B. 3)/.72+
68)6 (:*A. )4, +-<86 7/*: 68. 7-/. ,*.( 4*6 3*:;/*:-(. 68. 8*+.B2; )/.).
2"B2. !8-+. -4 68. 8*+.B2; )/.)0 (.32/-61 -( (6-++ 1*2/ ;/-:)/1 3*43./4.
D.(-<4)6. 6.): :.:5./( 6* ;./7*/: (;.3-7-3 6)(A(. T* +-:-6 :*>.:.46
)/*24, 68. )/.)0 1*2 :)1 8)>. ) 69*B:)4 6.): ;./7*/: :*/. 68)4 *4. 6)(A.
F*/ .=):;+.0 68. 6.): <.66-4< 9)6./ 3*2+, )+(* (.6 68. 7-(8-4< ,.>-3.(. D*
4*6 *332;1 68. 8*+.B2; )/.) +*4<./ 68)4 72 8*2/(.
244
RETURN TO FRIENDLY CONTROL
2"B. E(6)5+-(8-4< 3*46)36 9-68 7/-.4,+1 +-4.( */ ;)6/*+( -( 68. :*(6 3/23-)+
;)/6 *7 :*>.:.46 )4, /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+. A++ 1*2/ ;)6-.43.0 ;+)44-4<0
)4, 8)/,(8-;( 9-++ 5. -4 >)-4 -7 1*2 ,* 4*6 .=./3-(. 3)26-*4 98.4 3*46)36-4<
7/-.4,+1 7/*46+-4. 7*/3.(. F/-.4,+1 ;)6/*+( 8)>. A-++., ;./(*44.+ *;./)6-4<
5.8-4, .4.:1 +-4.( 5.3)2(. 68.1 ,-, 4*6 :)A. 3*46)36 ;/*;./+1. M*(6 *7 68.
3)(2)+6-.( 3*2+, 8)>. 5..4 )>*-,., -7 3)26-*4 8), 5..4 .=./3-(., )4, ) 7.9
(-:;+. ;/*3.,2/.( 7*++*9.,. T8. 4*/:)+ 6.4,.431 -( 6* 68/*9 3)26-*4 6* 68.
9-4, 98.4 -4 (-<86 *7 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.(. Y*2 :2(6 *>./3*:. 68-( 6.4,.431 )4,
24,./(6)4, 68)6 +-4A2; -( ) >./1 (.4(-6->. (-62)6-*4.
BORDER CROSSINGS
2"B4. I7 1*2 8)>. :),. 1*2/ 9)1 6* ) 7/-.4,+1 */ 4.26/)+ 3*246/10 2(. 68.
7*++*9-4< ;/*3.,2/.( 6* 3/*(( 68. 5*/,./ )4, +-4A 2; 9-68 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.( *4 68.
*68./ (-,.E
I O332;1 ) 8-,. (-6. *4 68. 4.)/ (-,. *7 68. 5*/,./ )4, (.4, ) 6.): *26 6*
/.3*44*-6./ 68. ;*6.46-)+ 3/*((-4< (-6..
I S2/>.-+ 68. 3/*((-4< (-6. 7*/ )6 +.)(6 24 8*2/(0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. .4.:1
(-62)6-*4.
I M)A. ) (A.638 *7 68. (-6.0 6)A-4< 4*6. *7 6.//)-40 *5(6)3+.(0 <2)/, /*26-4.(
)4, /*6)6-*4(0 )4, )41 (.4(*/ ,.>-3.( */ 6/-; 9-/.(. O43. 68. /.3*44)-(()43.
-( 3*:;+.6.0 68. 6.): :*>.( 6* 68. 8-,. (-6.0 5/-.7( 68. /.(6 *7 68. 6.):0 )4,
;+)4( 6* 3/*(( 68. 5*/,./ )6 4-<86.
I A76./ 3/*((-4< 68. 5*/,./0 (.6 2; ) 8-,. (-6. *4 68. 7)/ (-,. *7 68. 5*/,./ )4,
6/1 6* +*3)6. 7/-.4,+1 ;*(-6-*4(. D* 4*6 /.>.)+ 1*2/ ;/.(.43..
I D.;.4,-4< *4 68. (-G. *7 1*2/ :*>.:.46 6.):0 8)>. 69* :.4 (2/>.-+ 68.
;*6.46-)+ +-4A2; (-6. 9-68 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.( 246-+ ()6-(7-., 68)6 68. ;./(*44.+ )/.
-4,.., 7/-.4,+1.
I M)A. 3*46)36 9-68 68. 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.( ,2/-4< ,)1+-<86. P./(*44.+ 38*(.4 6*
:)A. 3*46)36 (8*2+, 5. 24)/:.,0 8)>. 4* .?2-;:.460 )4, 8)>. ;*(-6->.
-,.46-7-3)6-*4 /.),-+1 )>)-+)5+.. T8. ;./(*4 98* )362)++1 :)A.( 68. +-4A2;
(8*2+, 5. (*:.*4. 98* +**A( +.)(6 +-A. 68. .4.:1.
I D2/-4< 68. )362)+ 3*46)360 8)>. *4+1 *4. ;./(*4 :)A. 68. 3*46)36. T8.
*68./ ;./(*4 ;/*>-,.( 68. (.32/-61 )4, *5(./>.( 68. +-4AB2; )/.) 7/*: ) ()7.
,-(6)43.. T8. *5(./>./ (8*2+, 5. 7)/ .4*2<8 )9)1 (* 68)6 8. 3)4 9)/4 68.
/.(6 *7 68. :*>.:.46 6.): -7 (*:.68-4< <*.( 9/*4<.
I !)-6 246-+ 68. ;)/61 8. -( 3*46)36-4< +**A( -4 8-( ,-/.36-*4 (* 68)6 8. ,*.( 4*6
(2/;/-(. 68. 3*46)36. H. (6)4,( 2; 7/*: 5.8-4, 3*>./0 9-68 8)4,( *>./8.),
)4, (6)6.( 68)6 8. -( )4 A:./-3)4. A76./ 68-(0 8. 7*++*9( )41 -4(6/236-*4( <->.4
8-:. H. )>*-,( )4(9./-4< )41 6)36-3)+ ?2.(6-*4( )4, ,*.( 4*6 <->. )41
-4,-3)6-*4 68)6 68./. )/. *68./ 6.): :.:5./(.
I R.>.)+ 68)6 68./. )/. *68./ ;./(*44.+ 9-68 8-: *4+1 )76./ >./-71-4< 8-( -,.46-61
)4, ()6-(71-4< 8-:(.+7 8. 8)( :),. 3*46)36 9-68 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.(.
2"B%. L)4<2)<. ;/*5+.:( */ ,-77-32+6-.( 3*47-/:-4< -,.46-6-.( :)1 )/-(.. T8.
:*>.:.46 6.): (8*2+, :)-46)-4 (.32/-610 5. ;)6-.460 )4, 8)>. ) 3*46-4<.431
;+)4.
245
NOTE: I7 1*2 )/. :*>-4< 6* ) 4.26/)+ 3*246/10 1*2 )/. (2//.4,./-4< 6* 68)6
;*9./ )4, 5.3*:. ) ,.6)-4., ;./(*4.
LINKUP AT THE FOR$ARD EDGE OF THE BATTLE AREA OR
FOR$ARD LINE OF O$N TROOPS
2"B6. I7 3)2<86 5.69..4 7/-.4,+1 )4, .4.:1 7*/3.( )4, 68./. -( 8.)>1
7-<86-4< -4 68. )/.)0 1*2 :)1 38**(. 6* 8-,. )4, +.6 68. 7/-.4,+1 +-4.( ;)((
*>./ 1*2. I7 *>.//24 51 7/-.4,+1 7*/3.(0 1*2 :)1 6/1 6* +-4A 2; 7/*: 68.-/ /.)/
,2/-4< ,)1+-<86 8*2/(. I7 *>.//24 51 .4.:1 7*/3.(0 1*2 :)1 :*>. 72/68./ 6*
68. .4.:1 /.)/0 6/1 6* :*>. 6* 68. 7*/9)/, .,<. *7 68. 5)66+. )/.) */ 7*/9)/,
+-4. *7 *94 6/**;( ,2/-4< ) +2++ -4 68. 7-<86-4<0 */ :*>. 6* )4*68./ )/.) )+*4<
68. 7/*46.
2"B7. T8. )362)+ +-4A2; 9-++ 5. ,*4. )( 7*/ +-4A2; ,2/-4< ) 5*/,./ 3/*((-4<.
T8. *4+1 ,-77./.43. -( 68)6 1*2 :2(6 5. :*/. 3)/.72+ *4 68. -4-6-)+ 3*46)36.
F/*46+-4. ;./(*44.+ )/. :*/. +-A.+1 6* (8**6 7-/(6 )4, )(A ?2.(6-*4( +)6./0
.(;.3-)++1 -4 )/.)( *7 8.)>1 7-<86-4<. Y*2 (8*2+, 5. 4.)/ */ 5.8-4, 3*>./
5.7*/. 6/1-4< 6* :)A. 3*46)36.
LINKUP $ITH FRIENDLY PATROLS
2"B$. I7 7/-.4,+1 +-4.( )/. ) 3-/32+)/ ;./-:.6./ */ )4 -(*+)6., 3):;0 7*/
.=):;+.0 )41 ,-/.36-*4 1*2 );;/*)38 7/*: 9-++ 5. 3*4(-,./., .4.:1 6.//-6*/1.
Y*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. 68. *;6-*4 *7 :*>-4< 5.8-4, 68. +-4.( )4, 6/1-4< 6* +-4A 2;.
T8-( :*>. :)A.( 68. +-4A2; .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2(. O4. *;6-*4 1*2 8)>. -( 6*
;+)3. 68. ;./-:.6./ 24,./ *5(./>)6-*4 )4, 9)-6 7*/ ) 7/-.4,+1 ;)6/*+ 6* :*>.
*26 -4 1*2/ ,-/.36-*40 ;/*>-,-4< ) 38)43. 7*/ ) +-4A2;. Y*2 :)1 )+(* *332;1 )
;*(-6-*4 *26(-,. *7 68. ;./-:.6./ )4, 3)++ *26 6* <.6 68. )66.46-*4 *7 68. 7/-.4,+1
7*/3.(. I,.)++10 ,-(;+)1 )4168-4< 68)6 -( 98-6. 98-+. :)A-4< 3*46)36. I7 4*68-4<
.+(. -( )>)-+)5+.0 2(. )41 )/6-3+. *7 3+*68-4<. T8. -,.) -( 6* ,/)9 )66.46-*4
98-+. (6)1-4< 5.8-4, 3*>./. O43. 1*2 8)>. ,/)94 )66.46-*4 6* 1*2/ (-<4)+ )4,
3)++., *260 7*++*9 -4(6/236-*4( <->.4 6* 1*2.
2"B9. B. 3*4(6)46+1 *4 68. )+./6 7*/ 7/-.4,+1 ;)6/*+( 5.3)2(. 68.(. ;/*>-,. )
:.)4( 7*/ /.62/4 6* 7/-.4,+1 3*46/*+. F-4, ) 3*43.)+., ;*(-6-*4 68)6 )++*9( 1*2
:)=-:2: >-(2)+ 3*>./)<. *7 68. )/.). T/1 6* :.:*/-G. .>./1 6.//)-4 7.)62/.
(* 68)60 -7 4.3.(()/10 1*2 3)4 -47-+6/)6. 6* 7/-.4,+1 ;*(-6-*4( 24,./ 68. 3*>./ *7
,)/A4.((. R.:.:5./0 6/1-4< 6* -47-+6/)6. -4 ,)/A4.(( -( .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2(.
2"B4". B.3)2(. *7 68. :-((-*4( *7 3*:5)6 )4, /.3*44)-(()43. ;)6/*+( )4,
98./. 68.1 )/. *;./)6-4<0 :)A-4< 3*46)36 3)4 5. ,)4<./*2(. I7 1*2 ,.3-,.
4*6 6* :)A. 3*46)360 1*2 3)4 *5(./>. 68.-/ /*26. )4, );;/*)38 7/-.4,+1 +-4.(
)6 )5*26 68. ():. +*3)6-*4. S238 *5(./>)6-*4 9-++ .4)5+. 1*2 6* )>*-, :-4.(
)4, 5**51 6/);(.
2"B41. O43. 1*2 8)>. (;*66., ) ;)6/*+0 /.:)-4 -4 ;*(-6-*4 )4,0 -7 ;*((-5+.0
)++*9 68. ;)6/*+ 6* :*>. 6*9)/, 1*2. !8.4 68. ;)6/*+ -( 2% 6* %" :.6./( C$
6* 16% 7..6D 7/*: 1*2/ ;*(-6-*40 (-<4)+ 68.: )4, 3)++ *26 ) </..6-4< 68)6 -(
3+.)/+1 )4, 24:-(6)A)5+1 *7 A:./-3)4 */-<-4.
246
2"B42. I7 1*2 8)>. 4*68-4< 98-6.0 )4 )/6-3+. *7 3+*68-4< 9-++ (277-3. 6* ,/)9
)66.46-*4. I7 68. ,-(6)43. -( </.)6./ 68)4 %" :.6./( C16% 7..6D0 )
/.3*44)-(()43. ;)6/*+ :)1 )>*-, 3*46)36 )4, 51;)(( 1*2/ ;*(-6-*4. I7 68.
,-(6)43. -( +.(( 68)4 2% :.6./( C$ 7..6D0 ) ;)6/*+ :.:5./ :)1 /.)36 -4(6)46+1
51 7-/-4< ) 7)6)+ (8*6.
2"B4. I6 -( 3/23-)+0 )6 68. 6-:. *7 3*46)360 68)6 68./. -( .4*2<8 +-<86 7*/ 68.
;)6/*+ 6* -,.46-71 1*2 )( )4 A:./-3)4.
2"B44. !8)6.>./ +-4A2; 6.384-?2. 1*2 ,.3-,. 6* 2(.0 2(. .=6/.:. 3)26-*4.
F/*: 68. ;./(;.36->. *7 68. 7/-.4,+1 ;)6/*+ */ 7/-.4,+1 ;./(*44.+ *332;1-4< )
;./-:.6./0 1*2 )/. 8*(6-+. 246-+ 68.1 :)A. ;*(-6->. -,.46-7-3)6-*4.
CHAPTER 21.
C->13,<-9+.
I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 .(;.3-)++1 -4 ) 8*(6-+. .4>-/*4:.460 1*2 :)1 7-4, -6
4.3.(()/1 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/(.+70 1*2/ .?2-;:.460 )4, 1*2/ :*>.:.46.
E77.36->. 3):*27+)<. :)1 :.)4 68. ,-77./.43. 5.69..4 (2/>->)+ )4, 3);62/.
51 68. .4.:1. C):*27+)<. )4, :*>.:.46 6.384-?2.(0 (238 )( (6)+A-4<0 9-++
)+(* 8.+; 1*2 <.6 )4-:)+( */ <):. 7*/ 7**, 2(-4< ;/-:-6->. 9.);*4( )4, (A-++(.
PERSONAL CAMOUFLAGE
21B1. !8.4 3):*27+)<-4< 1*2/(.+70 3*4(-,./ 68)6 3./6)-4 (8);.( )/.
;)/6-32+)/ 6* 82:)4(. T8. .4.:1 9-++ +**A 7*/ 68.(. (8);.(. T8. (8);. *7 )
8)60 8.+:.60 */ 5+)3A 5**6( 3)4 <->. 1*2 )9)1. E>.4 )4-:)+( A4*9 )4, /24
7/*: 68. (8);. *7 ) 82:)4 (-+8*2.66.. B/.)A 2; 1*2/ *26+-4. 51 ;+)3-4< (:)++
):*246( *7 >.<.6)6-*4 7/*: 68. (2//*24,-4< )/.) -4 1*2/ 24-7*/:0 .?2-;:.460
)4, 8.),<.)/. T/1 6* /.,23. )41 (8-4. 7/*: (A-4 */ .?2-;:.46. B+.4, -4 9-68
68. (2//*24,-4< 3*+*/( )4, (-:2+)6. 68. 6.=62/. *7 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<(.
SHAPE AND OUTLINE
21B2. C8)4<. 68. *26+-4. *7 9.);*4( )4, .?2-;:.46 51 61-4< >.<.6)6-*4 */
(6/-;( *7 3+*68 *46* 68.:. M)A. (2/. 68. ),,., 3):*27+)<. ,*.( 4*6 8-4,./
68. .?2-;:.46H( *;./)6-*4. !8.4 8-,-4<0 3*>./ 1*2/(.+7 )4, 1*2/ .?2-;:.46
9-68 +.)>.(0 </)((0 */ *68./ +*3)+ ,.5/-(. C*43.)+ )41 (-<4)+-4< ,.>-3.( 1*2
8)>. ;/.;)/.,0 526 A..; 68.: /.),1 7*/ 2(..
COLOR AND TEXTURE
21B. E)38 )/.) *7 68. 9*/+, )4, .)38 3+-:)6-3 3*4,-6-*4 C)/36-3R9-46./0
6.:;./)6.RF24<+.0 */ (9):;R,.(./6D 8)( 3*+*/ ;)66./4( )4, 6.=62/.( 68)6 )/.
4)62/)+ 7*/ 68)6 )/.). !8-+. 3*+*/ -( (.+7B.=;+)4)6*/10 6.=62/. ,.7-4.( 68.
(2/7)3. 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 (*:.68-4< 98.4 +**A-4< )6 -6. F*/ .=):;+.0 (2/7)3.
247
6.=62/.( :)1 5. (:**680 /*2<80 /*3A10 +.)710 */ :)41 *68./ ;*((-5+.
3*:5-4)6-*4(. U(. 3*+*/ )4, 6.=62/. 6*<.68./ 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/(.+7
.77.36->.+1. I6 :)A.( +-66+. (.4(. 6* 3*>./ 1*2/(.+7 9-68 ,.),0 5/*94 >.<.6)6-*4
-4 68. :-,,+. *7 ) +)/<. </)((1 7-.+,. S-:-+)/+10 -6 9*2+, 5. 2(.+.(( 6*
3):*27+)<. 1*2/(.+7 9-68 </..4 </)(( -4 68. :-,,+. *7 ) ,.(./6 */ /*3A1 )/.).
21B4. T* 8-,. )4, 3):*27+)<. :*>.:.46 -4 )41 (;.3-7-3 )/.) *7 68. 9*/+,0
1*2 :2(6 6)A. *4 68. 3*+*/ )4, 6.=62/. *7 68. -::.,-)6. (2//*24,-4<(. U(.
4)62/)+ */ :)4B:),. :)6./-)+( 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/(.+7. A 7.9 .=):;+.(
-43+2,. 3):*27+)<. ;)-460 38)/3*)+ 7/*: 52/4., ;);./ */ 9**,0 :2,0 </)((0
+.)>.(0 (6/-;( *7 3+*68 */ 52/+);0 ;-4. 5*2<8(0 )4, 3):*27+)<., 24-7*/:(.
21B%. C*>./ )++ )/.)( *7 .=;*(., (A-40 -43+2,-4< 7)3.0 8)4,(0 4.3A0 )4, .)/(.
U(. 3):*27+)<. ;)-460 38)/3*)+0 */ :2, 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/(.+7. C*>./ )/.)(
68)6 (6-3A *26 :*/. )4, 3)638 :*/. +-<86 C7*/.8.),0 4*(.0 38..A5*4.(0 38-40
)4, .)/(D 9-68 ) ,)/A./ 3*+*/. C*>./ *68./ )/.)(0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 /.3.((., */
(8),., )/.)( C)/*24, 68. .1.( )4, 24,./ 68. 38-4D0 9-68 +-<86./ 3*+*/(. B.
(2/. 6* 2(. )4 -//.<2+)/ ;)66./4. A66)38 >.<.6)6-*4 7/*: 68. )/.) */ (6/-;( *7
3+*68 *7 68. ;/*;./ 3*+*/ 6* 3+*68-4< )4, .?2-;:.46. I7 1*2 2(. >.<.6)6-*40
/.;+)3. -6 )( -6 9-+6(. A( 1*2 :*>. 68/*2<8 )4 )/.)0 5. )+./6 6* 68. 3*+*/
38)4<.( )4, :*,-71 1*2/ 3):*27+)<. 3*+*/( )( 4.3.(()/1.
21B6. F-<2/. 21B1 <->.( ) <.4./)+ -,.) *7 8*9 6* );;+1 3):*27+)<. 7*/ >)/-*2(
)/.)( )4, 3+-:)6.(. U(. );;/*;/-)6. 3*+*/( 7*/ 1*2/ (2//*24,-4<(. T8.
5+*638.( */ (+)(8.( 9-++ 8.+; 6* (-:2+)6. 6.=62/..
A*+-. M+0812.
T.:;./)62/. ,.3-,2*2(
7*/.(6
B+*638.(
C*4-7./*2( 7*/.(6 B/*), (+)(8
J24<+. B/*), (+)(8
D.(./6 S+)(8
A/6-3 B+*638.(
G/)(( */ *;.4 )/.) S+)(8
F493*+ 21C1. C->13,<-9+ M+0812: ,1* S7+.4,4. A*+-:
SHINE
21B7. A( (A-4 <.6( *-+10 -6 5.3*:.( (8-41. E?2-;:.46 9-68 9*/4B*77 ;)-46 -(
)+(* (8-41. E>.4 ;)-46., *5F.36(0 -7 (:**680 :)1 (8-4.. G+)(( *5F.36( (238
)( :-//*/(0 <+)((.(0 5-4*32+)/(0 )4, 6.+.(3*;.( (8-4.. Y*2 :2(6 3*>./ 68.(.
<+)(( *5F.36( 98.4 4*6 -4 2(.. A4168-4< 68)6 (8-4.( 9-++ )26*:)6-3)++1 )66/)36
)66.46-*4 )4, 9-++ <->. )9)1 1*2/ +*3)6-*4.
21B$. !8.4.>./ ;*((-5+.0 9)(8 *-+1 (A-4 )4, /.);;+1 3):*27+)<.. SA-4 *-+
9-++ 9)(8 *77 3):*27+)<.0 (* /.);;+1 -6 7/.?2.46+1. I7 1*2 :2(6 9.)/ <+)((.(0
3):*27+)<. 68.: 51 );;+1-4< ) 68-4 +)1./ *7 ,2(6 6* 68. *26(-,. *7 68. +.4(.(.
T8-( +)1./ *7 ,2(6 9-++ /.,23. 68. /.7+.36-*4 *7 +-<86. C*>./ (8-41 (;*6( *4
.?2-;:.46 51 ;)-46-4<0 3*>./-4< 9-68 :2,0 */ 9/);;-4< 9-68 3+*68 */ 6);.. P)1
248
;)/6-32+)/ )66.46-*4 6* 3*>./-4< 5**6 .1.+.6(0 523A+.( *4 .?2-;:.460 9)638.(
)4, F.9.+/10 G-;;./(0 )4, 24-7*/: -4(-<4-). C)//1 ) (-<4)+ :-//*/ -4 -6(
,.(-<4., ;*238 */ -4 ) ;*3A.6 9-68 68. :-//*/ ;*/6-*4 7)3-4< 1*2/ 5*,1.
SHADO$
21B9. !8.4 8-,-4< */ 6/)>.+-4<0 (6)1 -4 68. ,..;.(6 ;)/6 *7 68. (8),*9(. T8.
*26./ .,<.( *7 68. (8),*9( )/. +-<86./ )4, 68. ,..;./ ;)/6( )/. ,)/A./.
R.:.:5./0 -7 1*2 )/. -4 )4 )/.) 98./. 68./. -( ;+.461 *7 >.<.6)6-*40 A..; )(
:238 >.<.6)6-*4 5.69..4 1*2 )4, ) ;*6.46-)+ .4.:1 )( ;*((-5+.. T8-( )36-*4
9-++ :)A. -6 >./1 8)/, 7*/ 68. .4.:1 6* (.. 1*2 )( 68. >.<.6)6-*4 9-++ ;)/6-)++1
:)(A 1*2 7/*: 8-( >-.9. F*/3-4< )4 .4.:1 6* +**A 68/*2<8 :)41 +)1./( *7
:)(A-4< >.<.6)6-*4 9-++ 7)6-<2. 8-( .1.( >./1 ?2-3A+1.
21B1". !8.4 6/)>.+-4<0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 52-+6B2; )/.)( )6 4-<860 5. )9)/. *7
98./. 1*2 3)(6 1*2/ (8),*9. I6 :)1 .=6.4, *26 )/*24, 68. 3*/4./ *7 )
52-+,-4< )4, <->. )9)1 1*2/ ;*(-6-*4. A+(*0 -7 1*2 )/. -4 ) ,)/A (8),*9 )4,
68./. -( ) +-<86 (*2/3. 6* *4. (-,.0 )4 .4.:1 *4 68. *68./ (-,. 3)4 (.. 1*2/
(-+8*2.66. )<)-4(6 68. +-<86.
MOVEMENT
21B11. M*>.:.460 .(;.3-)++1 7)(6 :*>.:.460 )66/)36( )66.46-*4. I7 ;*((-5+.0
)>*-, :*>.:.46 -4 68. ;/.(.43. *7 )4 .4.:1. I7 3);62/. );;.)/( -::-4.46 -4
1*2/ ;/.(.46 +*3)6-*4 )4, 1*2 :2(6 :*>.0 :*>. )9)1 (+*9+10 :)A-4< )( +-66+.
4*-(. )( ;*((-5+.. B1 :*>-4< (+*9+1 -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2 ,.3/.)(. 68.
38)43. *7 ,.6.36-*4 )4, 3*4(./>. .4./<1 68)6 1*2 :)1 4.., 7*/ +*4<B6./:
(2/>->)+ */ +*4<B,-(6)43. .>)(-*4.
21B12. !8.4 :*>-4< ;)(6 *5(6)3+.(0 )>*-, <*-4< *>./ 68.:. I7 1*2 :2(6
3+-:5 *>./ )4 *5(6)3+.0 A..; 1*2/ 5*,1 +.>.+ 9-68 -6( 6*; 6* )>*-, (-+8*2.66-4<
1*2/(.+7. D* 4*6 (-+8*2.66. 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 68. (A1+-4. 98.4 3/*((-4< 8-++( */
/-,<.(. !8.4 1*2 )/. :*>-4<0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. ,-77-32+61 ,.6.36-4< 68. :*>.:.46
*7 *68./(. S6*; 7/.?2.46+10 +-(6.40 )4, +**A )/*24, (+*9+1 6* ,.6.36 (-<4( *7
8*(6-+. :*>.:.46.
NOISE
21B1. N*-(. )66/)36( )66.46-*40 .(;.3-)++1 -7 68./. -( ) (.?2.43. *7 +*2,
4*-(.( (238 )( (.>./)+ (4);;-4< 69-<(. I7 ;*((-5+.0 )>*-, :)A-4< )41 4*-(..
S+*9 1*2/ ;)3. )( :238 )( 4.3.(()/1 6* )>*-, :)A-4< 4*-(. 98.4 :*>-4<
)/*24, */ )9)1 7/*: ;*((-5+. 68/.)6(.
21B14. U(. 5)3A</*24, 4*-(.( 6* 3*>./ 68. 4*-(. *7 1*2/ :*>.:.46. S*24,(
*7 )-/3/)760 6/23A(0 <.4./)6*/(0 (6/*4< 9-4,(0 )4, ;.*;+. 6)+A-4< 9-++ 3*>./
(*:. */ )++ 68. (*24,( ;/*,23., 51 1*2/ :*>.:.46. R)-4 9-++ :)(A ) +*6 *7
:*>.:.46 4*-(.0 526 -6 )+(* /.,23.( 1*2/ )5-+-61 6* ,.6.36 ;*6.46-)+ .4.:1
4*-(..
SCENT
249
21B1%. !8.68./ 8246-4< )4-:)+( */ )>*-,-4< 68. .4.:10 -6 -( )+9)1( 9-(. 6*
3):*27+)<. 68. (3.46 )((*3-)6., 9-68 82:)4(. S6)/6 51 9)(8-4< 1*2/(.+7 )4,
1*2/ 3+*68.( 9-68*26 2(-4< (*);. T8-( 9)(8-4< :.68*, /.:*>.( (*); )4,
5*,1 *,*/(. A>*-,-4< (6/*4< (:.++-4< 7**,(0 (238 )( <)/+-30 8.+;( /.,23.
5*,1 *,*/(. D* 4*6 2(. 6*5)33* ;/*,236(0 3)4,10 <2:0 */ 3*(:.6-3(.
21B16. Y*2 3)4 2(. )/*:)6-3 8./5( */ ;+)46( 6* 9)(8 1*2/(.+7 )4, 1*2/
3+*68-4<0 6* /25 *4 1*2/ 5*,1 )4, 3+*68-4<0 */ 6* 38.9 *4 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/
5/.)68. P-4. 4..,+.(0 :-460 */ )41 (-:-+)/ )/*:)6-3 ;+)46 9-++ 8.+; 3):*27+)<.
1*2/ (3.46 7/*: 5*68 )4-:)+( )4, 82:)4(. S6)4,-4< -4 (:*A. 7/*: ) 7-/. 3)4
8.+; :)(A 1*2/ (3.46 7/*: )4-:)+(. !8-+. )4-:)+( )/. )7/)-, *7 7/.(8 (:*A.
7/*: ) 7-/.0 *+,./ (:*A. (3.46( )/. 4*/:)+ (:.++( )76./ 7*/.(6 7-/.( )4, ,* 4*6
(3)/. 68.:.
21B17. !8-+. 6/)>.+-4<0 2(. 1*2/ (.4(. *7 (:.++ 6* 8.+; 1*2 7-4, */ )>*-,
82:)4(. P)1 )66.46-*4 6* (:.++( )((*3-)6., 9-68 82:)4(0 (238 )( 7-/.0
3-<)/.66.(0 <)(*+-4.0 *-+0 (*);0 )4, 7**,. S238 (:.++( :)1 )+./6 1*2 6* 68.-/
;/.(.43. +*4< 5.7*/. 1*2 3)4 (.. */ 8.)/ 68.:0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 9-4, (;..,
)4, ,-/.36-*4. N*6. 68. 9-4,H( ,-/.36-*4 )4,0 98.4 ;*((-5+.0 );;/*)38 7/*: */
(A-/6 )/*24, *4 68. ,*949-4, (-,. 98.4 4.)/-4< 82:)4( */ )4-:)+(.
METHODS OF STALKING
21B1$. S*:.6-:.( 1*2 4.., 6* :*>.0 24,.6.36.,0 6* */ 7/*: ) +*3)6-*4. Y*2
4.., :*/. 68)4 F2(6 3):*27+)<. 6* :)A. 68.(. :*>.( (233.((72++1. T8.
)5-+-61 6* (6)+A */ :*>. 9-68*26 :)A-4< )41 (2,,.4 ?2-3A :*>.:.46 */ +*2,
4*-(. -( .((.46-)+ 6* )>*-,-4< ,.6.36-*4. A+9)1( ;-3A 1*2/ /*26. 3)/.72++1 6*
A..; 1*2 3*43.)+.,M 2(. 6/.438.(0 (+-<86 /-(.( -4 6.//)-40 68-3A >.<.6)6-*4 7*/
3*43.)+:.46. A>*-, +)6./)+ :*>.:.46 6* 68. *5(./>./ 24+.(( 1*2 8)>. <**,
3*43.)+:.460 *68./9-(. (6)+A (6/)-<86 -4 6*9)/, 68. *5(./>./.
21B19. Y*2 :2(6 ;/)36-3. (6)+A-4< -7 -6 -( 6* 5. .77.36->.. U(. 68. 7*++*9-4<
6.384-?2.( 98.4 ;/)36-3-4<.
UPRIGHT STALKING
21B2". T)A. (6.;( )5*26 8)+7 1*2/ 4*/:)+ (6/-,. 98.4 (6)+A-4< -4 68. 2;/-<86
;*(-6-*4. S238 (6/-,.( 8.+; 1*2 6* :)-46)-4 1*2/ 5)+)43.. Y*2 (8*2+, 5. )5+.
6* (6*; )6 )41 ;*-46 -4 68)6 :*>.:.46 )4, 8*+, 68)6 ;*(-6-*4 )( +*4< )(
4.3.(()/1. C2/+ 68. 6*.( 2; *26 *7 68. 9)1 98.4 (6.;;-4< ,*94 (* 68.
*26(-,. .,<. *7 68. 5)++ *7 68. 7**6 6*238.( 68. </*24,. F..+ 7*/ (6-3A( )4,
69-<( 68)6 :)1 (4); 98.4 1*2 ;+)3. 1*2/ 9.-<86 *4 68.:. I7 1*2 (6)/6 6* (6.;
*4 *4.0 +-76 1*2/ 7**6 )4, :*>. -6. A76./ :)A-4< 3*46)36 9-68 68. *26(-,. .,<.
*7 68. 5)++ *7 1*2/ 7**60 /*++ 6* 68. -4(-,. 5)++ *7 1*2/ 7**60 ;+)3. 1*2/ 8..+ ,*940
7*++*9., 51 1*2/ 6*.(. T8.4 </),2)++1 (8-76 1*2/ 9.-<86 7*/9)/, 6* 68. 7/*46
7**6. L-76 68. 5)3A 7**6 6* )5*26 A4.. 8.-<86 )4, (6)/6 68. ;/*3.(( *>./ )<)-4.
21B21. K..; 1*2/ 8)4,( )4, )/:( 3+*(. 6* 1*2/ 5*,1 )4, )>*-, 9)>-4< 68.:
)5*26 */ 8-66-4< >.<.6)6-*4. !8.4 :*>-4< -4 ) 3/*2380 1*2 <)-4 .=6/) (2;;*/6
250
51 ;+)3-4< 1*2/ 8)4,( *4 1*2/ A4..(. O4. (6.; 2(2)++1 6)A.( 1 :-426. 6*
3*:;+.6.0 526 68. 6-:. -6 6)A.( 9-++ ,.;.4, *4 68. (-62)6-*4.
CRA$LING
21B22. C/)9+ *4 1*2/ 8)4,( )4, A4..( 98.4 68. >.<.6)6-*4 -( 6** +*9 6*
)++*9 1*2 6* 9)+A 2;/-<86 9-68*26 5.-4< (..4. M*>. *4. +-:5 )6 ) 6-:. )4, 5.
(2/. 6* (.6 -6 ,*94 (*76+10 7..+-4< 7*/ )4168-4< 68)6 :)1 (4); )4, :)A. 4*-(..
B. 3)/.72+ 68)6 1*2/ 6*.( )4, 8..+( ,* 4*6 3)638 *4 >.<.6)6-*4.
PRONE STAKING
21B2. T* (6)+A -4 68. ;/*4. ;*(-6-*40 1*2 ,* ) +*90 :*,-7-., ;2(8B2; *4 1*2/
8)4,( )4, 6*.(0 :*>-4< 1*2/(.+7 7*/9)/, (+-<86+10 )4, 68.4 +*9./-4< 1*2/(.+7
)<)-4 (+*9+1. A>*-, ,/)<<-4< )4, (3/);-4< )+*4< 68. </*24, )( 68-( :)A.(
.=3.((->. 4*-(. )4, +.)>.( +)/<. 6/)-+( 7*/ 6/)3A./( 6* 7*++*9.
ANIMAL STALKING
21B24. B.7*/. (6)+A-4< )4 )4-:)+0 (.+.36 68. 5.(6 /*26.. I7 68. )4-:)+ -(
:*>-4<0 1*2 9-++ 4.., )4 -46./3.;6-4< /*26.. P-3A ) /*26. 68)6 ;26( *5F.36(
5.69..4 1*2 )4, 68. )4-:)+ 6* 3*43.)+ 1*2/ :*>.:.46 7/*: -6. B1
;*(-6-*4-4< 1*2/(.+7 -4 68-( 9)10 1*2 9-++ 5. )5+. 6* :*>. 7)(6./0 246-+ 1*2 ;)((
68)6 *5F.36. S*:. *5F.36( (238 )( +)/<. /*3A( )4, 6/..( :)1 6*6)++1 3*43.)+
1*20 )4, *68./( (238 )( (:)++ 52(8.( )4, </)(( :)1 *4+1 ;)/6-)++1 3*43.)+
1*2. P-3A 68. /*26. 68)6 *77./( 68. 5.(6 3*43.)+:.46 )4, /.?2-/.( 68. +.)(6
):*246 *7 .77*/6.
21B2%. K..; 1*2/ .1.( *4 68. )4-:)+ )4, (6*; 98.4 -6 +**A( 1*2/ 9)1 */
62/4( -6( .)/( 1*2/ 9)10 .(;.3-)++1 -7 -6 (2(;.36( 1*2/ ;/.(.43.. A( 1*2 <.6
3+*(.0 (?2-46 1*2/ .1.( (+-<86+1 6* 3*43.)+ 5*68 68. +-<86B,)/A 3*46/)(6 *7 68.
98-6.( *7 68. .1.( )4, )41 (8-4. 7/*: 1*2/ .1.(. K..; 1*2/ :*268 3+*(., (*
68)6 68. )4-:)+ ,*.( 4*6 (.. 68. 98-6.4.(( */ (8-4. *7 1*2/ 6..68.
ANTITRACKING
21B26. A+*4< 9-68 3):*27+)<. *7 1*2/ 5*,10 1*2 4.., 6* 3):*27+)<. 1*2/
:*>.:.46 7/*: >-(2)+ 6/)3A./(. A46-6/)3A-4< 6.384-?2.( (8*2+, 5. 2(.,M
3*246./ 6/)3A-4< 6.384-?2.( )/. *7 +-66+. 2(. 6* 68. .>),./0 )( 68.1 9*2+,
;-4;*-46 8-( +*3)6-*4 */ /*26.. D2/-4< :*>.:.46 68-( 3)4 5. )33*:;+-(8., 51
2(-4< 68. 7*++*9-4< :.68*,(E
I R.(6*/. >.<.6)6-*4@U(. ) (6-3A 6* +-76 68. >.<.6)6-*4 1*2 3/2(8., ,*94
,2/-4< :*>.:.46 68/*2<8 -6. T8-( 3)4 (+*9 1*2 ,*94 )4, -6 -( 8)/, 6* 6.++ -7
1*2 )/. 5.-4< .77.36->..
I B/2(8 *26 6/)3A(@U(. ) 6/.. 5/)438 6* 5/2(8 */ ;)6 *26 6/)3A( -4 *;.4
</*24,. T8-( -( .77.36->. -4 3*43.)+-4< 68. 42:5./ -4 68. ;)/610 526 +.)>.(
*5>-*2( (-<4( -4 -6(.+7.
I U(. 8)/, */ (6*41 </*24,@U(-4< 68-( 61;. *7 6.//)-4 :-4-:-G.( 68. (-<4( 1*2
+.)>. (+*9-4< 68. >-(2)+ 6/)3A./.
251
I M)A. )5/2;6 ,-/.36-*4 38)4<.(@U(-4< 68-( 6.384-?2. 3*:5-4., 9-68 68. 2(.
*7 8)/, */ (6*41 </*24, 3)4 5. >./1 .77.36->. -4 (+*9-4< 68. >-(2)+ 6/)3A./ )( -6
9-++ 5. :238 8)/,./ 6* ,.6.36 68. ,-/.36-*4 38)4<..
I U(. 9.++B2(., ;)68(@A+68*2<8 68. 2(. *7 ;)68( -( 4*6 ),>-()5+.0 68./. :)1
5. 6-:.( 1*2 3)4 2(. 68.: 6* 1*2/ ),>)46)<.. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 1*2 8)>. 5..4
-4 )4 )/.) +*4< .4*2<8 6* (2/>.-+ 68. ;)68 6* ,.6./:-4. 68. 6/)77-3 ;)66./4(0
1*2 3*2+, 2(. 68. ;)68 ;/-*/ 6* ) 7)/:./ :*>-4< ) 8.)/, *7 3*9( ,*94 68.
;)680 .+-:-4)6-4< 1*2/ (-<4.
I U(. 7**6 3*>./-4<(@T8.1 3)4 )((-(6 -4 )<-4< */ >-/62)++1 .+-:-4)6-4< 1*2/
(-<4(. E=):;+.( -43+2,. ()4,5)<(0 /)<(0 *+, (*3A(0 */ 3*::./3-)+ 7**6
3*>./-4<( :),. 7/*: -:-6)6-*4 (8..;(A-4 C68.(. (..: 6* 9*/A 68. 5.(6D.
I C8)4<. 7**6<.)/@U(. 68-( :.68*, -4 )4 )/.) (238 )( 8)/, */ (6*41 </*24,.
V)/1 68. 6/.), ;)66./4.
I U(. 32(6*: 7**6<.)/@M-+-6)/-.( <.4./)++1 8)>. ) (6)4,)/, -((2. 7**6<.)/0
)+68*2<8 9-68 68. 9*/+, .3*4*:10 68-( -( 38)4<-4<. I7 1*2 A4*9 68)6 68. )/.)
1*2 )/. 9*/A-4< -4 8)( ) (6)4,)/, -((2. 7**6<.)/0 1*2 :)1 9)46 6* )3?2-/. )
;)-/ */ 8)>. 68)6 6/.), ;)66./4 ;26 *4 1*2/ 5**6(.
I !)+A 5)3A9)/,(@T8-( 3)4 5. 2(.72+ )6 6-:.( 526 68./. )/. ;-67)++( 6* )>*-,.
A>*-, 62/4-4< 1*2/ 7**6 *26. !8.4 1*2 +**A *>./ 1*2/ +.76 (8*2+,./ 1*2/ +.76
7**6 6.4,( 6* 62/4 *269)/, )4, >-() >./(). A>*-, ,/)<<-4< ,-/6 5)3A9)/,(. T/1
6* ;+)3. 1*2/ 7**67)++( (* 68)6 68. 6*. -4,.46-*4 -( ,..;./ 68)4 1*2/ 8..+
-4,.46-*4 6* <->. 68. );;.)/)43. *7 :*>-4< 7*/9)/,.
I C*472(. 68. (6)/6 ;*-46@!8)6.>./ 68. ;*-46 *4 68. </*24, 1*2 (6)/6 1*2/
.>)(-*40 6/1 6* 3*472(. -6 51 9)+A-4< 42:./*2( 3+*>./+.)7 ;)66./4( *26 *7 )4,
5)3A -46* -6 5.7*/. 1*2 +.)>. *4 1*2/ -4-6-)+ /*26. C68-( 3)4 )((-(6 -4 ,.+)1-4<
,*< 6/)3A./( )+(*D.
I U(. (6/.):(0 +)A.(0 9)6./9)1(@T8-( -( ) F2,<.:.46 3)++ *4 1*2/ ;)/6. A(A
1*2/(.+7E I( 68. (6/.): :*>-4< -4 68. ,-/.36-*4 1*2 4.., 6* <*L I( -6 7)(6 */
(+*9 :*>-4< 9)6./L !-++ -6 ;26 1*2 68)6 :238 7)/68./ )8.), *7 68. 6/)3A./(L
CN*6.E Y*2 9-++ +.)>. :*/. (-<4( 2;*4 .=-6-4< 68. 9)6./.D
I C/*((-4< /*),( */ ;)68( 9-68 68. 6/)77-3 ;)66./4@!8.4 3/*((-4< /*),( */
;)68( 6/1 6* 3/*(( 9-68 68. ,-/.36-*4 *7 6/)>.+0 4*6 ;./;.4,-32+)/0 68-( 9-++ )((-(6
-4 1*2/ 6/)3A( 5+.4,-4< -46* 4*/:)+ 6/)77-3 ;)66./4( )4, :)A-4< 68.: 8)/,./ 6*
7*++*9.
I C)/.72+ ;+)3.:.46 *7 7**67)++( +.)>-4< +-66+. 8..+ */ 6*. ,-<@T/1 6* +.)>. )(
+-66+. (-<4 )( ;*((-5+.. L)(6 526 4*6 +.)(60 )+9)1( >)/1 1*2/ 6.384-?2.( (* )(
4*6 6* .,23)6. 68. 6/)3A./ )( 6* 98)6 6* +**A 7*/ -7 8. +*(.( 68. 6/)3AN
ANTIDOG TRACKING
21B27. !8.4 6/1-4< 6* .+2,. ,*< 6/)3A./( )+9)1( /.:.:5./ 1*2 )/. 6/1-4< 6*
5.)6 68. 8)4,+./ 4*6 68. ,*<N !8)6.>./ 1*2 ,*0 -6 (8*2+, 5. ,*4. 6* .-68./
6-/. 68. 8)4,+./ */ ,.3/.)(. 68. 8)4,+./H( 3*47-,.43. -4 8-( ,*<. S*:.
6.384-?2.( 6* 2(. )<)-4(6 ,*< 6/)3A./ 6.):( )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I O;.4 </*24,@A+68*2<8 68-( -( ) ,)4<./ )/.)0 -7 68. 9-4, -( 8-<8 -6 9-++ 5+*9
68. (3.46 6* >.<.6)6., )/.)(M 682( 68. 6.): 9-++ 4*6 5. ,-/.36+1 *4 1*2/ 6/)3A(
)4, -6 9-++ (+*9 68. 6.):H( ;/*</.((-*4.
I T8-3A 6.//)-4@U(-4< ) G-<G)< ;)66./4 *7 :*>.:.46 9-++ (+*9 )4, 6-/. 68.
8)4,+./ )4, ;*((-5+1 ,.3/.)(. 68. 8)4,+./H( 3*47-,.43..
252
I H)/, */ (6*41 </*24,@I4 8-<8 9-4,( */ 8-<8 6.:;./)62/.( 68.(. )/.)( 9-++
,-((-;)6. 1*2/ (3.46 ?2-3A./0 -43/.)(-4< 68. 38)43. *7 68. ,*< +*(-4< 68.
6/)3A.
I C/*9,., ;+)3.(@I7 68. ,*< -( 4*6 (3.46B(;.3-7-3 6/)-4.,0 )4, 1*2 :*>.
68/*2<8 )4 )/.) 98./. :)41 *68./ ;.*;+. 8)>. /.3.46+1 5..4 8. :)1 +*(.
68. 6/)3A.
I F/.(8+1 ;+*9., */ 7./6-+-G., 7-.+,(@T8. ,*< :)1 +*(. 68. 6/)3A -4 68.(.
)/.)( ,2. 6* 68. *>./;*9./-4< (3.46 *7 7/.(8 ,-/6 )4, 82:)4 */ )4-:)+
:)42/. 2(., )( 7./6-+-G./ C,* 4*6 /.+1 6** :238 *4 68-( 68.*/1D.
I S;..,@T/1 6* :)-46)-4 ) 3*4(6)46 (;..,. T/1 4*6 6* /24. R244-4<
-43/.)(.( 68. (3.460 ,2. 6* :*/. (*-+ )4, >.<.6)6-*4 ,-(62/5)43. )4, :*/.
5*,1 *,*/ 7/*: (9.)6 */ ),/.4)+-4..
I T/)4(;*/6)6-*4@U(-4< ) >.8-3+. 9-++ </.)6+1 -43/.)(. 1*2/ 6-:. )4, ,-(6)43.
526 1*2 3*2+, (6-++ 5. 6/)3A.,M 8*9.>./0 -6 9*2+, 5. )6 ) :238 (+*9./ ;)3..
CHAPTER 22.
S3*B4B-< I/ M-/CM-2+ H-6-*2:.
N23+.)/0 38.:-3)+0 )4, 5-*+*<-3)+ CNBCD 9.);*4( 8)>. 5.3*:. ;*6.46-)+
/.)+-6-.( *4 )41 :*,./4 5)66+. (;)3.. R.3.46 .=;./-.43. -4 A7<8)4-(6)40
C):5*,-)0 )4, *68./ )/.)( *7 3*47+-36 8)( ;/*>., 68. 2(. *7 38.:-3)+ )4,
5-*+*<-3)+ 9.);*4( C(238 )( :13*6*=-4(D. T8. 9)/ 7-<86-4< ,*36/-4. *7 68.
N*/68 A6+)46-3 T/.)61 O/<)4-G)6-*4 )4, 7*/:./ !)/()9 P)36 4)6-*4(
),,/.((.( 68. 2(. *7 5*68 423+.)/ )4, 38.:-3)+ 9.);*4(. T8. ;*6.46-)+ 2(.
*7 68.(. 9.);*4( -46.4(-7-.( 68. ;/*5+.:( *7 (2/>->)+ 5.3)2(. *7 68. (./-*2(
,)4<./( ;*(., 51 .-68./ /),-*)36->. 7)++*26 */ 3*46):-4)6-*4 ;/*,23., 51
;./(-(6.46 5-*+*<-3)+ */ 38.:-3)+ )<.46(.
Y*2 :2(6 2(. (;.3-)+ ;/.3)26-*4( -7 1*2 .=;.36 6* (2/>->. -4 68.(. :)4B:),.
8)G)/,(. I7 1*2 )/. (25F.36., 6* )41 *7 68. .77.36( *7 423+.)/0 38.:-3)+0 */
5-*+*<-3)+ 9)/7)/.0 68. (2/>->)+ ;/*3.,2/.( /.3*::.4,., -4 68-( 38);6./ :)1
()>. 1*2/ +-7.. T8-( 38);6./ ;/.(.46( (*:. 5)3A</*24, -47*/:)6-*4 *4 .)38
61;. *7 8)G)/, (* 1*2 :)1 5.66./ 24,./(6)4, 68. 6/2. 4)62/. *7 68. 8)G)/,.
A9)/.4.(( *7 68. 8)G)/,(0 A4*9+.,<. *7 68-( 38);6./0 )4, );;+-3)6-*4 *7
3*::*4 (.4(. 3)4 A..; 1*2 )+->..
THE NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT
2B1. P/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 6* (2/>->. -4 ) 423+.)/ .4>-/*4:.46. M)A. (2/. 1*2
A4*9 98)6 6* .=;.36 )4, 8*9 6* /.)36 6* ) 423+.)/ 8)G)/,.
EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR $EAPONS
2B2. T8. .77.36( *7 423+.)/ 9.);*4( )/. 3+)((-7-., )( .-68./ -4-6-)+ */
/.(-,2)+. I4-6-)+ .77.36( *332/ -4 68. -::.,-)6. )/.) *7 68. .=;+*(-*4 )4, )/.
8)G)/,*2( -4 68. 7-/(6 :-426. )76./ 68. .=;+*(-*4. R.(-,2)+ .77.36( 3)4 +)(6 7*/
253
,)1( */ 1.)/( )4, 3)2(. ,.)68. T8. ;/-43-;)+ -4-6-)+ .77.36( )/. 5+)(6 )4,
/),-)6-*4.
B<-:0
2B. B+)(6 -( 68. 5/-.7 )4, /);-, :*>.:.46 *7 )-/ )9)1 7/*: 68. .=;+*(-*4H(
3.46./ )4, 68. ;/.((2/. )33*:;)41-4< 68-( :*>.:.46. S6/*4< 9-4,(
)33*:;)41 68. 5+)(6. B+)(6 82/+( ,.5/-( )4, ;./(*44.+0 3*++);(.( +24<(0
/2;62/.( .)/,/2:(0 3*++);(.( (6/2362/.( )4, ;*(-6-*4(0 )4, 3)2(.( -::.,-)6.
,.)68 */ -4F2/1 9-68 -6( 3/2(8-4< .77.36.
T8+*>-< R-24-041/
2B4. T8-( .77.36 -( 68. 8.)6 )4, +-<86 /),-)6-*4 ) 423+.)/ .=;+*(-*4H( 7-/.5)++
.:-6(. L-<86 /),-)6-*4 3*4(-(6( *7 5*68 >-(-5+. +-<86 )4, 2+6/)>-*+.6 )4, -47/)/.,
+-<86. T8./:)+ /),-)6-*4 ;/*,23.( .=6.4(->. 7-/.(0 (A-4 52/4(0 )4, 7+)(8
5+-4,4.((.
N3.<+-* R-24-041/
2B%. N23+.)/ /),-)6-*4 5/.)A( ,*94 -46* 69* 3)6.<*/-.(. T8. .77.36( 3)4 5.
-4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4 )4, /.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4.
2B6. I4-6-)+ 423+.)/ /),-)6-*4 3*4(-(6( *7 -46.4(. <)::) /)1( )4, 4.26/*4(
;/*,23., ,2/-4< 68. 7-/(6 :-426. )76./ 68. .=;+*(-*4. T8-( /),-)6-*4 3)2(.(
.=6.4(->. ,):)<. 6* 3.++( 68/*2<8*26 68. 5*,1. R),-)6-*4 ,):)<. :)1
3)2(. 8.),)38.(0 4)2(.)0 >*:-6-4<0 ,-)//8.)0 )4, .>.4 ,.)680 ,.;.4,-4< *4
68. /),-)6-*4 ,*(. /.3.->.,. T8. :)F*/ ;/*5+.: -4 ;/*6.36-4< 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6
68. -4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4H( .77.36( -( 68)6 1*2 :)1 8)>. /.3.->., ) +.68)+ */
-43);)3-6)6-4< ,*(. 5.7*/. 6)A-4< )41 ;/*6.36->. )36-*4. P./(*44.+ .=;*(., 6*
+.68)+ ):*246( *7 -4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4 :)1 9.++ 8)>. 5..4 A-++., */ 7)6)++1 -4F2/.,
51 5+)(6 */ 68./:)+ /),-)6-*4.
2B7. R.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4 3*4(-(6( *7 )++ /),-)6-*4 ;/*,23., )76./ 1 :-426. 7/*:
68. .=;+*(-*4. I6 8)( :*/. .77.36 *4 1*2 68)4 -4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4. A ,-(32((-*4 *7
/.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4 6)A.( ;+)3. -4 ) (25(.?2.46 ;)/)</);8.
TYPES OF NUCLEAR BURSTS
2B$. T8./. )/. 68/.. 61;.( *7 423+.)/ 52/(6(E (25(2/7)3. 52/(60 )-/52/(60 )4,
(2/7)3. 52/(6. T8. 61;. *7 52/(6 ,-/.36+1 )77.36( 1*2/ 38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+. A
(25(2/7)3. 52/(6 *332/( 3*:;+.6.+1 24,./</*24, */ 24,./9)6./. I6( .77.36(
/.:)-4 5.4.)68 68. (2/7)3. */ -4 68. -::.,-)6. )/.) 98./. 68. (2/7)3.
3*++);(.( -46* ) 3/)6./ *>./ 68. 52/(6H( +*3)6-*4. S25(2/7)3. 52/(6( 3)2(. 1*2
+-66+. */ 4* /),-*)36->. 8)G)/, 24+.(( 1*2 .46./ 68. -::.,-)6. )/.) *7 68.
3/)6./.
2B9. A4 )-/52/(6 *332/( -4 68. )-/ )5*>. -6( -46.4,., 6)/<.6. T8. )-/52/(6
;/*>-,.( 68. :)=-:2: /),-)6-*4 .77.36 *4 68. 6)/<.6 )4, -(0 68./.7*/.0 :*(6
,)4<./*2( 6* 1*2 -4 6./:( *7 4>>+24-0+ 423+.)/ .77.36(.
254
2B1". A (2/7)3. 52/(6 *332/( *4 68. </*24, */ 9)6./ (2/7)3.. L)/<.
):*246( *7 7)++*26 /.(2+60 9-68 (./-*2( +*4<B6./: .77.36( 7*/ 1*2. T8-( 61;. *7
52/(6 -( 1*2/ 9*+-0+:0 423+.)/ 8)G)/,.
NUCLEAR INJURIES
2B11. M*(6 -4F2/-.( -4 68. 423+.)/ .4>-/*4:.46 /.(2+6 7/*: 68. -4-6-)+ 423+.)/
.77.36( *7 68. ,.6*4)6-*4. T8.(. -4F2/-.( )/. 3+)((., )( 5+)(60 68./:)+0 */
/),-)6-*4 -4F2/-.(. F2/68./ /),-)6-*4 -4F2/-.( :)1 *332/ -7 1*2 ,* 4*6 6)A.
;/*;./ ;/.3)26-*4( )<)-4(6 7)++*26. I4,->-,2)+( -4 68. )/.) 4.)/ ) 423+.)/
.=;+*(-*4 9-++ ;/*5)5+1 (277./ ) 3*:5-4)6-*4 *7 )++ 68/.. 61;.( *7 -4F2/-.(.
B<-:0 I/D3*4+:
2B12. B+)(6 -4F2/-.( ;/*,23., 51 423+.)/ 9.);*4( )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 68*(.
3)2(., 51 3*4>.46-*4)+ 8-<8 .=;+*(->. 9.);*4(. B+)(6 *>./;/.((2/. 3)4
3*++);(. +24<( )4, /2;62/. -46./4)+ */<)4(. P/*F.36-+. 9*24,( *332/ )( 68.
.=;+*(-*4H( 7*/3. 82/+( ,.5/-( )6 1*2. L)/<. ;-.3.( *7 ,.5/-( (6/-A-4< 1*2 9-++
3)2(. 7/)362/., +-:5( */ :)((->. -46./4)+ -4F2/-.(. B+)(6 *>./;/.((2/. :)1
68/*9 1*2 +*4< ,-(6)43.(0 )4, 1*2 9-++ (277./ (.>./. -4F2/1 2;*4 -:;)36 9-68
68. </*24, */ *68./ *5F.36(. S25(6)46-)+ 3*>./ )4, ,-(6)43. 7/*: 68.
.=;+*(-*4 )/. 68. 5.(6 ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 5+)(6 -4F2/1. C*>./ 5+)(6 -4F2/1
9*24,( )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+. 6* ;/.>.46 68. .46/1 *7 /),-*)36->. ,2(6 ;)/6-3+.(.
T8+*>-< I/D3*4+:
2B1. T8. 8.)6 )4, +-<86 68. 423+.)/ 7-/.5)++ .:-6( 3)2(. 68./:)+ -4F2/-.(.
F-/(6B0 (.3*4,B0 */ 68-/,B,.</.. 52/4( :)1 /.(2+6. F+)(8 5+-4,4.(( )+(* *332/(.
T8-( 5+-4,4.(( :)1 5. ;./:)4.46 */ 6.:;*/)/1 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. ,.</.. *7
.=;*(2/. *7 68. .1.(. S25(6)46-)+ 3*>./ )4, ,-(6)43. 7/*: 68. .=;+*(-*4 3)4
;/.>.46 68./:)+ -4F2/-.(. C+*68-4< 9-++ ;/*>-,. (-<4-7-3)46 ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6
68./:)+ -4F2/-.(. C*>./ )( :238 .=;*(., (A-4 )( ;*((-5+. 5.7*/. ) 423+.)/
.=;+*(-*4. F-/(6 )-, 7*/ 68./:)+ -4F2/-.( -( 68. ():. )( 7-/(6 )-, 7*/ 52/4(.
C*>./ *;.4 52/4( C(.3*4,B */ 68-/,B,.</..D 6* ;/.>.46 68. .46/1 *7 /),-*)36->.
;)/6-3+.(. !)(8 )++ 52/4( 5.7*/. 3*>./-4<.
R-24-041/ I/D3*4+:
2B14. N.26/*4(0 <)::) /),-)6-*40 )+;8) /),-)6-*40 )4, 5.6) /),-)6-*4 3)2(.
/),-)6-*4 -4F2/-.(. N.26/*4( )/. 8-<8B(;..,0 .=6/.:.+1 ;.4.6/)6-4< ;)/6-3+.(
68)6 )362)++1 (:)(8 3.++( 9-68-4 1*2/ 5*,1. G)::) /),-)6-*4 -( (-:-+)/ 6* '
/)1( )4, -( )+(* 8-<8+1 ;.4.6/)6-4< /),-)6-*4. D2/-4< 68. -4-6-)+ 7-/.5)++ (6)<. *7
) 423+.)/ ,.6*4)6-*40 -4-6-)+ <)::) /),-)6-*4 )4, 4.26/*4( )/. 68. :*(6
(./-*2( 68/.)6. B.6) )4, )+;8) /),-)6-*4 )/. /),-*)36->. ;)/6-3+.( 4*/:)++1
)((*3-)6., 9-68 /),-*)36->. ,2(6 7/*: 7)++*26. T8.1 )/. (8*/6 /)4<. ;)/6-3+.(.
Y*2 3)4 .)(-+1 ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 68.: -7 1*2 6)A. ;/.3)26-*4(. S..
JB*,-+1 R.)36-*4( 6* R),-)6-*40K 5.+*90 7*/ 68. (1:;6*:( *7 /),-)6-*4 -4F2/-.(.
RESIDUAL RADIATION
255
2B1%. R.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4 -( )++ /),-)6-*4 .:-66., )76./ 1 :-426. 7/*: 68.
-4(6)46 *7 68. 423+.)/ .=;+*(-*4. R.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4 3*4(-(6( *7 -4,23.,
/),-)6-*4 )4, 7)++*26.
I/23.+2 R-24-041/
2B16. T8-( 6./: ,.(3/-5.( ) /.+)6->.+1 (:)++0 -46.4(.+1 /),-*)36->. )/.)
,-/.36+1 24,./4.)68 68. 423+.)/ 9.);*4H( 7-/.5)++. T8. -//),-)6., .)/68 -4 68-(
)/.) 9-++ /.:)-4 8-<8+1 /),-*)36->. 7*/ )4 .=6/.:.+1 +*4< 6-:.. Y*2 (8*2+, 4*6
6/)>.+ -46* )4 )/.) *7 -4,23., /),-)6-*4.
F-<<130
2B17. F)++*26 3*4(-(6( *7 /),-*)36->. (*-+ )4, 9)6./ ;)/6-3+.(0 )( 9.++ )(
9.);*4 7/)<:.46(. D2/-4< ) (2/7)3. ,.6*4)6-*40 */ -7 )4 )-/52/(6H( 423+.)/
7-/.5)++ 6*238.( 68. </*24,0 +)/<. ):*246( *7 (*-+ )4, 9)6./ )/. >);*/-G.,
)+*4< 9-68 68. 5*:5H( 7/)<:.46(0 )4, 7*/3., 2;9)/, 6* )+6-62,.( *7 2%0"""
:.6./( C$20""" 7..6D */ :*/.. !8.4 68.(. >);*/-G., 3*46.46( 3**+0 68.1 3)4
7*/: :*/. 68)4 2"" ,-77./.46 /),-*)36->. ;/*,236(. T8. >);*/-G., 5*:5
3*46.46( 3*4,.4(. -46* 6-41 /),-*)36->. ;)/6-3+.( 68)6 68. 9-4, 3)//-.( 246-+
68.1 7)++ 5)3A 6* .)/68 )( /),-*)36->. ,2(6. F)++*26 ;)/6-3+.( .:-6 )+;8)0 5.6)0
)4, <)::) /),-)6-*4. A+;8) )4, 5.6) /),-)6-*4 )/. /.+)6->.+1 .)(1 6*
3*246./)360 )4, /.(-,2)+ <)::) /),-)6-*4 -( :238 +.(( -46.4(. 68)4 68.
<)::) /),-)6-*4 .:-66., ,2/-4< 68. 7-/(6 :-426. )76./ 68. .=;+*(-*4. F)++*26 -(
1*2/ :*(6 (-<4-7-3)46 /),-)6-*4 8)G)/,0 ;/*>-,., 1*2 8)>. 4*6 /.3.->., ) +.68)+
/),-)6-*4 ,*(. 7/*: 68. -4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4.
BODILY REACTIONS TO RADIATION
2B1$. T8. .77.36( *7 /),-)6-*4 *4 68. 82:)4 5*,1 3)4 5. 5/*),+1 3+)((., )(
.-68./ 38/*4-3 */ )326.. C8/*4-3 .77.36( )/. 68*(. 68)6 *332/ (*:. 1.)/( )76./
.=;*(2/. 6* /),-)6-*4. E=):;+.( )/. 3)43./ )4, <.4.6-3 ,.7.36(. C8/*4-3
.77.36( )/. *7 :-4*/ 3*43./4 -4(*7)/ )( 68.1 )77.36 1*2/ -::.,-)6. (2/>->)+ -4 )
/),-*)36->. .4>-/*4:.46. O4 68. *68./ 8)4,0 )326. .77.36( )/. *7 ;/-:)/1
-:;*/6)43. 6* 1*2/ (2/>->)+. S*:. )326. .77.36( *332/ 9-68-4 8*2/( )76./
.=;*(2/. 6* /),-)6-*4. T8.(. .77.36( /.(2+6 7/*: 68. /),-)6-*4H( ,-/.36 ;81(-3)+
,):)<. 6* 6-((2.. R),-)6-*4 (-3A4.(( )4, 5.6) 52/4( )/. .=):;+.( *7 )326.
.77.36(. R),-)6-*4 (-3A4.(( (1:;6*:( -43+2,. 4)2(.)0 ,-)//8.)0 >*:-6-4<0
7)6-<2.0 9.)A4.((0 )4, +*(( *7 8)-/. P.4.6/)6-4< 5.6) /)1( 3)2(. /),-)6-*4
52/4(M 68. 9*24,( )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 7-/. 52/4(.
R+.1B+*; C-7-@4<40;
2B19. T8. .=6.46 *7 5*,1 ,):)<. ,.;.4,( :)-4+1 *4 68. ;)/6 *7 68. 5*,1
.=;*(., 6* /),-)6-*4 )4, 8*9 +*4< -6 9)( .=;*(.,0 )( 9.++ )( -6( )5-+-61 6*
/.3*>./. T8. 5/)-4 )4, A-,4.1( 8)>. +-66+. /.3*>./1 3);)5-+-61. O68./ ;)/6(
C(A-4 )4, 5*4. :)//*9D 8)>. ) </.)6 )5-+-61 6* /.3*>./ 7/*: ,):)<.. U(2)++10
) ,*(. *7 6"" 3.46-</)1( C3G1D 6* 68. .46-/. 5*,1 9-++ /.(2+6 -4 )+:*(6 3./6)-4
,.)68. I7 *4+1 1*2/ 8)4,( /.3.->., 68-( ():. ,*(.0 1*2/ *>./)++ 8.)+68 9*2+,
4*6 (277./ :2380 )+68*2<8 1*2/ 8)4,( 9*2+, (277./ (.>./. ,):)<..
256
EF0+*/-< -/2 I/0+*/-< H-6-*2:
2B2". A4 .=6./4)+ */ -46./4)+ 8)G)/, 3)4 3)2(. 5*,1 ,):)<.. H-<8+1
;.4.6/)6-4< <)::) /),-)6-*4 */ 68. +.(( ;.4.6/)6-4< 5.6) /),-)6-*4 68)6
3)2(.( 52/4( 3)4 3)2(. .=6./4)+ ,):)<.. T8. .46/1 *7 )+;8) */ 5.6)
/),-)6-*4B.:-66-4< ;)/6-3+.( -46* 68. 5*,1 3)4 3)2(. -46./4)+ ,):)<.. T8.
.=6./4)+ 8)G)/, ;/*,23.( *>./)++ -//),-)6-*4 )4, 5.6) 52/4(. T8. -46./4)+
8)G)/, /.(2+6( -4 -//),-)6-*4 *7 3/-6-3)+ */<)4( (238 )( 68. <)(6/*-46.(6-4)+ 6/)360
681/*-, <+)4,0 )4, 5*4.. A >./1 (:)++ ):*246 *7 /),-*)36->. :)6./-)+ 3)4
3)2(. .=6/.:. ,):)<. 6* 68.(. )4, *68./ -46./4)+ */<)4(. T8. -46./4)+
8)G)/, 3)4 .46./ 68. 5*,1 .-68./ 68/*2<8 3*4(2:;6-*4 *7 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./
*/ 7**, */ 51 )5(*/;6-*4 68/*2<8 326( */ )5/)(-*4(. M)6./-)+ 68)6 .46./( 68.
5*,1 68/*2<8 5/.)68-4< ;/.(.46( *4+1 ) :-4*/ 8)G)/,. Y*2 3)4 </.)6+1 /.,23.
68. -46./4)+ /),-)6-*4 8)G)/, 51 2(-4< <**, ;./(*4)+ 81<-.4. )4, 3)/.72++1
,.3*46):-4)6-4< 1*2/ 7**, )4, 9)6./.
S;>701>:
2B21. T8. (1:;6*:( *7 /),-)6-*4 -4F2/-.( -43+2,. 4)2(.)0 ,-)//8.)0 )4,
>*:-6-4<. T8. (.>./-61 *7 68.(. (1:;6*:( -( ,2. 6* 68. .=6/.:. (.4(-6->-61 *7
68. <)(6/*-46.(6-4)+ 6/)36 6* /),-)6-*4. T8. (.>./-61 *7 68. (1:;6*:( )4, 68.
(;.., *7 *4(.6 )76./ .=;*(2/. )/. <**, -4,-3)6*/( *7 68. ,.</.. *7 /),-)6-*4
,):)<.. T8. <)(6/*-46.(6-4)+ ,):)<. 3)4 3*:. 7/*: .-68./ 68. .=6./4)+ */
68. -46./4)+ /),-)6-*4 8)G)/,.
COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST PENETRATING EXTERNAL RADIATION
2B22. K4*9+.,<. *7 68. /),-)6-*4 8)G)/,( ,-(32((., .)/+-./ -( .=6/.:.+1
-:;*/6)46 -4 (2/>->-4< -4 ) 7)++*26 )/.). I6 -( )+(* 3/-6-3)+ 6* A4*9 8*9 6* ;/*6.36
1*2/(.+7 7/*: 68. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( 7*/: *7 /.(-,2)+ /),-)6-*4@;.4.6/)6-4<
.=6./4)+ /),-)6-*4.
2B2. T8. :.)4( 1*2 3)4 2(. 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 7/*: ;.4.6/)6-4< .=6./4)+
/),-)6-*4 )/. 6-:.0 ,-(6)43.0 )4, (8-.+,-4<. Y*2 3)4 /.,23. 68. +.>.+ *7
/),-)6-*4 )4, 8.+; -43/.)(. 1*2/ 38)43. *7 (2/>->)+ 51 3*46/*++-4< 68. ,2/)6-*4
*7 .=;*(2/.. Y*2 3)4 )+(* <.6 )( 7)/ )9)1 7/*: 68. /),-)6-*4 (*2/3. )(
;*((-5+.. F-4)++10 1*2 3)4 ;+)3. (*:. /),-)6-*4B)5(*/5-4< */ (8-.+,-4<
:)6./-)+ 5.69..4 1*2 )4, 68. /),-)6-*4.
T4>+
2B24. T-:. -( -:;*/6)460 -4 69* 9)1(0 98.4 1*2 )/. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*4.
F-/(60 /),-)6-*4 ,*()<.( )/. 32:2+)6->.. T8. +*4<./ 1*2 )/. .=;*(., 6* )
/),-*)36->. (*2/3.0 68. </.)6./ 68. ,*(. 1*2 9-++ /.3.->.. O5>-*2(+10 (;.4, )(
+-66+. 6-:. -4 ) /),-*)36->. )/.) )( ;*((-5+.. S.3*4,0 /),-*)36->-61 ,.3/.)(.(
*/ ,.3)1( *>./ 6-:.. T8-( 3*43.;6 -( A4*94 )( /),-*)36->. hal2<li2e. T82(0 )
/),-*)36->. .+.:.46 ,.3)1( */ +*(.( 8)+7 *7 -6( /),-*)36->-61 9-68-4 ) 3./6)-4
6-:.. T8. /2+. *7 682:5 7*/ /),-*)36->-61 ,.3)1 -( 68)6 -6 ,.3/.)(.( -4 -46.4(-61
51 ) 7)36*/ *7 6.4 7*/ .>./1 (.>.47*+, -43/.)(. -4 6-:. 7*++*9-4< 68. ;.)A
/),-)6-*4 +.>.+. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 ) 423+.)/ 7)++*26 )/.) 8), ) :)=-:2:
257
/),-)6-*4 /)6. *7 2"" 3G1 ;./ 8*2/ 98.4 7)++*26 -( 3*:;+.6.0 68-( /)6. 9*2+, 7)++
6* 2" 3G1 ;./ 8*2/ )76./ 7 8*2/(M -6 9*2+, 7)++ (6-++ 72/68./ 6* 2 3G1 ;./ 8*2/
)76./ 49 8*2/(. E>.4 )4 246/)-4., *5(./>./ 3)4 (.. 68)6 68. </.)6.(6 8)G)/,
7/*: 7)++*26 *332/( -::.,-)6.+1 )76./ ,.6*4)6-*40 )4, 68)6 68. 8)G)/,
,.3/.)(.( ?2-3A+1 *>./ ) /.+)6->.+1 (8*/6 6-:.. Y*2 (8*2+, 6/1 6* )>*-, 7)++*26
)/.)( 246-+ 68. /),-*)36->-61 ,.3)1( 6* ()7. +.>.+(. I7 1*2 3)4 )>*-, 7)++*26
)/.)( +*4< .4*2<8 7*/ :*(6 *7 68. /),-*)36->-61 6* ,.3)10 1*2 .48)43. 1*2/
38)43. *7 (2/>->)+.
D4:0-/.+
2B2%. D-(6)43. ;/*>-,.( >./1 .77.36->. ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 ;.4.6/)6-4< <)::)
/),-)6-*4 5.3)2(. /),-)6-*4 -46.4(-61 ,.3/.)(.( 51 68. (?2)/. *7 68. ,-(6)43.
7/*: 68. (*2/3.. F*/ .=):;+.0 -7 .=;*(., 6* 10""" 3G1 *7 /),-)6-*4 (6)4,-4<
" 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D 7/*: 68. (*2/3.0 )6 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0
1*2 9*2+, *4+1 /.3.->. 2%" 3G1. T82(0 98.4 1*2 ,*25+. 68. ,-(6)43.0
/),-)6-*4 ,.3/.)(.( 6* C".%D2 */ ".2% 68. ):*246. !8-+. 68-( 7*/:2+) -( >)+-,
7*/ 3*43.46/)6., (*2/3.( *7 /),-)6-*4 -4 (:)++ )/.)(0 -6 5.3*:.( :*/.
3*:;+-3)6., 7*/ +)/<. )/.)( *7 /),-)6-*4 (238 )( 7)++*26 )/.)(.
S84+<24/9
2B26. S8-.+,-4< -( 68. :*(6 -:;*/6)46 :.68*, *7 ;/*6.36-*4 7/*: ;.4.6/)6-4<
/),-)6-*4. O7 68. 68/.. 3*246./:.)(2/.( )<)-4(6 ;.4.6/)6-4< /),-)6-*40
(8-.+,-4< ;/*>-,.( 68. </.)6.(6 ;/*6.36-*4 )4, -( 68. .)(-.(6 6* 2(. 24,./
(2/>->)+ 3*4,-6-*4(. T8./.7*/.0 -6 -( 68. :*(6 ,.(-/)5+. :.68*,. I7 (8-.+,-4< -(
4*6 ;*((-5+.0 2(. 68. *68./ 69* :.68*,( 6* 68. :)=-:2: .=6.46 ;/)36-3)+.
2B27. S8-.+,-4< )362)++1 9*/A( 51 )5(*/5-4< */ 9.)A.4-4< 68. ;.4.6/)6-4<
/),-)6-*40 68./.51 /.,23-4< 68. ):*246 *7 /),-)6-*4 /.)38-4< 1*2/ 5*,1. T8.
,.4(./ 68. :)6./-)+0 68. 5.66./ 68. (8-.+,-4< .77.36. L.),0 -/*40 3*43/.6.0 )4,
9)6./ )/. <**, .=):;+.( *7 (8-.+,-4< :)6./-)+(.
S7+.4-< M+24.-< A:7+.0:
2B2$. T8. ;/.(.43. *7 7)++*26 :)6./-)+ -4 1*2/ )/.) /.?2-/.( (+-<86 38)4<.( -4
7-/(6 )-, ;/*3.,2/.(. Y*2 :2(6 3*>./ )++ 9*24,( 6* ;/.>.46 3*46):-4)6-*4 )4,
68. .46/1 *7 /),-*)36->. ;)/6-3+.(. Y*2 :2(6 7-/(6 9)(8 52/4( *7 5.6) /),-)6-*40
68.4 6/.)6 68.: )( */,-4)/1 52/4(. T)A. .=6/) :.)(2/.( 6* ;/.>.46 -47.36-*4.
Y*2/ 5*,1 9-++ 5. .=6/.:.+1 (.4(-6->. 6* -47.36-*4( ,2. 6* 38)4<.( -4 1*2/
5+**, 38.:-(6/1. P)1 3+*(. )66.46-*4 6* 68. ;/.>.46-*4 *7 3*+,( */ /.(;-/)6*/1
-47.36-*4(. R-<*/*2(+1 ;/)36-3. ;./(*4)+ 81<-.4. 6* ;/.>.46 -47.36-*4(. C*>./
1*2/ .1.( 9-68 -:;/*>-(., <*<<+.( 6* ;/.>.46 68. .46/1 *7 ;)/6-3+.(.
SHELTER
2B29. A( (6)6., .)/+-./0 68. (8-.+,-4< :)6./-)+H( .77.36->.4.(( ,.;.4,( *4 -6(
68-3A4.(( )4, ,.4(-61. A4 ):;+. 68-3A4.(( *7 (8-.+,-4< :)6./-)+ 9-++ /.,23.
68. +.>.+ *7 /),-)6-*4 6* 4.<+-<-5+. ):*246(.
258
2B". T8. ;/-:)/1 /.)(*4 7*/ 7-4,-4< )4, 52-+,-4< ) (8.+6./ -( 6* <.6
;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 68. 8-<8B-46.4(-61 /),-)6-*4 +.>.+( *7 .)/+1 <)::) 7)++*26 )(
7)(6 )( ;*((-5+.. F->. :-426.( 6* +*3)6. 68. (8.+6./ -( ) <**, <2-,.. S;.., -4
7-4,-4< (8.+6./ -( )5(*+26.+1 .((.46-)+. !-68*26 (8.+6./0 68. ,*()<. /.3.->., -4
68. 7-/(6 7.9 8*2/( 9-++ .=3.., 68)6 /.3.->., ,2/-4< 68. /.(6 *7 ) 9..A -4 )
3*46):-4)6., )/.). T8. ,*()<. /.3.->., -4 68-( 7-/(6 9..A 9-++ .=3.., 68.
,*()<. )332:2+)6., ,2/-4< 68. /.(6 *7 ) +-7.6-:. (;.46 -4 68. ():.
3*46):-4)6., )/.).
S84+<24/9 M-0+*4-<:
2B1. T8. 68-3A4.(( /.?2-/., 6* 9.)A.4 <)::) /),-)6-*4 7/*: 7)++*26 -( 7)/
+.(( 68)4 68)6 4..,., 6* (8-.+, )<)-4(6 -4-6-)+ <)::) /),-)6-*4. F)++*26
/),-)6-*4 8)( +.(( .4./<1 68)4 ) 423+.)/ ,.6*4)6-*4H( -4-6-)+ /),-)6-*4. F*/
7)++*26 /),-)6-*40 ) /.+)6->.+1 (:)++ ):*246 *7 (8-.+,-4< :)6./-)+ 3)4 ;/*>-,.
),.?2)6. ;/*6.36-*4. F-<2/. 2B1 (8*9( 68. 68-3A4.(( *7 >)/-*2( :)6./-)+(
4..,., 6* /.,23. /.(-,2)+ <)::) /),-)6-*4 6/)4(:-((-*4 51 %" ;./3.46.
F493*+ 23C1. M-0+*4-<: 01 R+23.+ G->>- R-24-041/
2B2. T8. ;/-43-;+. *7 8-<,CB-<3+ <-;+* 084.?/+:: -( 2(.72+ -4 24,./(6)4,-4<
68. )5(*/;6-*4 *7 <)::) /),-)6-*4 51 >)/-*2( :)6./-)+(. A33*/,-4< 6* 68-(
;/-43-;+.0 -7 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D *7 5/-3A /.,23. 68. <)::) /),-)6-*4 +.>.+
51 *4.B8)+70 ),,-4< )4*68./ % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D *7 5/-3A C)4*68./ 8)+7B
>)+2. +)1./D 9-++ /.,23. 68. -46.4(-61 51 )4*68./ 8)+70 4):.+10 6* *4.B7*2/68 68.
*/-<-4)+ ):*246. F-76..4 3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D 9-++ /.,23. <)::) /),-)6-*4
7)++*26 +.>.+( 6* *4.B.-<868 -6( */-<-4)+ ):*2460 2" 3.46-:.6./( C$ -438.(D 6*
*4.B(-=6..4680 )4, (* *4. T82(0 ) (8.+6./ ;/*6.36., 51 1 :.6./ C 7..6D *7 ,-/6
9*2+, /.,23. ) /),-)6-*4 -46.4(-61 *7 10""" 3G1 ;./ 8*2/ *4 68. *26(-,. 6*
)5*26 ".% 3G1 ;./ 8*2/ -4(-,. 68. (8.+6./.
N-03*-< S8+<0+*:
2B. T.//)-4 68)6 ;/*>-,.( 4)62/)+ (8-.+,-4< )4, .)(1 (8.+6./ 3*4(6/236-*4 -(
68. -,.)+ +*3)6-*4 7*/ )4 .:./<.431 (8.+6./. G**, .=):;+.( )/. ,-638.(0
/)>-4.(0 /*3A1 *263/*;;-4<0 8-++(0 )4, /->./5)4A(. I4 +.>.+ )/.)( 9-68*26
4)62/)+ ;/*6.36-*40 ,-< ) 7-<86-4< ;*(-6-*4 */ (+-6 6/.438.
259
T*+/.8+:
2B4. !8.4 ,-<<-4< ) 6/.4380 9*/A 7/*: -4(-,. 68. 6/.438 )( (**4 )( -6 -(
+)/<. .4*2<8 6* 3*>./ ;)/6 *7 1*2/ 5*,1 68./.51 4*6 .=;*(-4< )++ 1*2/ 5*,1 6*
/),-)6-*4. I4 *;.4 3*246/10 6/1 6* ,-< 68. 6/.438 7/*: ) ;/*4. ;*(-6-*40 (6)3A-4<
68. ,-/6 3)/.72++1 )4, .>.4+1 )/*24, 68. 6/.438. O4 +.>.+ </*24,0 ;-+. 68. ,-/6
)/*24, 1*2/ 5*,1 7*/ ),,-6-*4)+ (8-.+,-4<. D.;.4,-4< 2;*4 (*-+ 3*4,-6-*4(0
(8.+6./ 3*4(6/236-*4 6-:. 9-++ >)/1 7/*: ) 7.9 :-426.( 6* ) 7.9 8*2/(. I7 1*2
,-< )( ?2-3A+1 )( ;*((-5+.0 1*2 9-++ /.,23. 68. ,*()<. 1*2 /.3.->..
O08+* S8+<0+*:
2B%. !8-+. )4 24,./</*24, (8.+6./ 3*>./., 51 1 :.6./ C 7..6D */ :*/. *7
.)/68 ;/*>-,.( 68. 5.(6 ;/*6.36-*4 )<)-4(6 7)++*26 /),-)6-*40 68. 7*++*9-4<
24*332;-., (6/2362/.( C-4 */,./ +-(6.,D *77./ 68. 4.=6 5.(6 ;/*6.36-*4E
I C)>.( )4, 6244.+( 3*>./., 51 :*/. 68)4 1 :.6./ C 7..6D *7 .)/68.
I S6*/: */ (6*/)<. 3.++)/(.
I C2+>./6(.
I B)(.:.46( */ 3.++)/( *7 )5)4,*4., 52-+,-4<(.
I A5)4,*4., 52-+,-4<( :),. *7 (6*4. */ :2,.
R11,:
2B6. I6 -( 4*6 :)4,)6*/1 68)6 1*2 52-+, ) /**7 *4 1*2/ (8.+6./. B2-+, *4.
*4+1 -7 68. :)6./-)+( )/. /.),-+1 )>)-+)5+. 9-68 *4+1 ) 5/-.7 .=;*(2/. 6* *26(-,.
3*46):-4)6-*4. I7 52-+,-4< ) /**7 9*2+, /.?2-/. .=6.4,., .=;*(2/. 6*
;.4.6/)6-4< /),-)6-*40 -6 9*2+, 5. 9-(./ 6* +.)>. 68. (8.+6./ /**7+.((. A /**7H(
(*+. 72436-*4 -( 6* /.,23. /),-)6-*4 7/*: 68. 7)++*26 (*2/3. 6* 1*2/ 5*,1.
U4+.(( 1*2 2(. ) 68-3A /**70 ) /**7 ;/*>-,.( >./1 +-66+. (8-.+,-4<.
2B7. Y*2 3)4 3*4(6/236 ) (-:;+. /**7 7/*: ) ;*438* )438*/., ,*94 9-68
,-/60 /*3A(0 */ *68./ /.72(. 7/*: 1*2/ (8.+6./. Y*2 3)4 /.:*>. +)/<. ;)/6-3+.(
*7 ,-/6 )4, ,.5/-( 7/*: 68. 6*; *7 68. ;*438* 51 5.)6-4< -6 *77 7/*: 68. -4(-,. )6
7/.?2.46 -46./>)+(. T8-( 3*>./ 9-++ 4*6 *77./ (8-.+,-4< 7/*: 68. /),-*)36->.
;)/6-3+.( ,.;*(-6., *4 68. (2/7)3.0 526 -6 9-++ -43/.)(. 68. ,-(6)43. 7/*: 68.
7)++*26 (*2/3. )4, A..; 68. (8.+6./ )/.) 7/*: 72/68./ 3*46):-4)6-*4.
S8+<0+* S40+ S+<+.041/ -/2 P*+7-*-041/
2B$. T* /.,23. 1*2/ .=;*(2/. 6-:. )4, 68./.51 /.,23. 68. ,*()<.
/.3.->.,0 /.:.:5./ 68. 7*++*9-4< 7)36*/( 98.4 (.+.36-4< )4, (.66-4< 2; )
(8.+6./E
I !8./. ;*((-5+.0 (..A ) 3/2,.0 .=-(6-4< (8.+6./ 68)6 1*2 3)4 -:;/*>.. I7 4*4.
-( )>)-+)5+.0 ,-< ) 6/.438.
I D-< 68. (8.+6./ ,..; .4*2<8 6* <.6 <**, ;/*6.36-*40 68.4 .4+)/<. -6 )(
/.?2-/., 7*/ 3*:7*/6.
I C*>./ 68. 6*; *7 68. 7-<86-4< ;*(-6-*4 */ 6/.438 9-68 )41 /.),-+1 )>)-+)5+.
:)6./-)+ )4, ) 68-3A +)1./ *7 .)/680 -7 1*2 3)4 ,* (* 9-68*26 +.)>-4< 68. (8.+6./.
260
!8-+. ) /**7 )4, 3):*27+)<. )/. 5*68 ,.(-/)5+.0 -6 -( ;/*5)5+1 ()7./ 6* ,*
9-68*26 68.: 68)4 6* .=;*(. 1*2/(.+7 6* /),-)6-*4 *26(-,. 1*2/ 7-<86-4<
;*(-6-*4.
I !8-+. 52-+,-4< 1*2/ (8.+6./0 A..; )++ ;)/6( *7 1*2/ 5*,1 3*>./., 9-68 3+*68-4<
6* ;/*6.36 -6 )<)-4(6 5.6) 52/4(.
I C+.)4 68. (8.+6./ (-6. *7 )41 (2/7)3. ,.;*(-6 2(-4< ) 5/)438 */ *68./ *5F.36
68)6 1*2 3)4 ,-(3)/,. D* 68-( 3+.)4-4< 6* /.:*>. 3*46):-4)6., :)6./-)+( 7/*:
68. )/.) 1*2 9-++ *332;1. T8. 3+.)4., )/.) (8*2+, .=6.4, )6 +.)(6 1.% :.6./(
C% 7..6D 5.1*4, 1*2/ (8.+6./H( )/.).
I D.3*46):-4)6. )41 :)6./-)+( 1*2 5/-4< -46* 68. (8.+6./. T8.(. :)6./-)+(
-43+2,. </)(( */ 7*+-)<. 68)6 1*2 2(. )( -4(2+)6-*4 */ 5.,,-4<0 )4, 1*2/ *26./
3+*68-4< C.(;.3-)++1 7**6<.)/D. I7 68. 9.)68./ ;./:-6( )4, 1*2 8)>. 8.)>-+1
3*46):-4)6., *26./ 3+*68-4<0 1*2 :)1 9)46 6* /.:*>. -6 )4, 52/1 -6 24,./ )
7**6 *7 .)/68 )6 68. .4, *7 1*2/ (8.+6./. Y*2 :)1 /.6/-.>. -6 +)6./ C)76./ 68.
/),-*)36->-61 ,.3)1(D 98.4 +.)>-4< 68. (8.+6./. I7 68. 3+*68-4< -( ,/10 1*2 :)1
,.3*46):-4)6. -6 51 5.)6-4< */ (8)A-4< -6 *26(-,. 68. (8.+6./H( .46/)43. 6*
/.:*>. 68. /),-*)36->. ,2(6. Y*2 :)1 2(. )41 5*,1 *7 9)6./0 .>.4 68*2<8
3*46):-4)6.,0 6* /-, :)6./-)+( *7 .=3.(( 7)++*26 ;)/6-3+.(. S-:;+1 ,-; 68.
:)6./-)+ -46* 68. 9)6./ )4, (8)A. -6 6* <.6 /-, *7 68. .=3.(( 9)6./. D* 4*6
9/-4< -6 *260 68-( )36-*4 9-++ 6/); 68. ;)/6-3+.(.
I I7 ;*((-5+. )4, 9-68*26 +.)>-4< 68. (8.+6./0 9)(8 1*2/ 5*,1 68*/*2<8+1 9-68
(*); )4, 9)6./0 .>.4 -7 68. 9)6./ *4 8)4, :)1 5. 3*46):-4)6.,. T8-(
9)(8-4< 9-++ /.:*>. :*(6 *7 68. 8)/:72+ /),-*)36->. ;)/6-3+.( 68)6 )/. +-A.+1 6*
3)2(. 5.6) 52/4( */ *68./ ,):)<.. I7 9)6./ -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 9-;. 1*2/ 7)3.
)4, )41 *68./ .=;*(., (A-4 (2/7)3. 6* /.:*>. 3*46):-4)6., ,2(6 )4, ,-/6.
Y*2 :)1 9-;. 1*2/ 7)3. 9-68 ) 3+.)4 ;-.3. *7 3+*68 */ ) 8)4,72+ *7
243*46):-4)6., ,-/6. Y*2 <.6 68-( 243*46):-4)6., ,-/6 51 (3/);-4< *77 68. 6*;
7.9 -438.( *7 (*-+ )4, 2(-4< 68. J3+.)4K ,-/6. I U;*4 3*:;+.6-4< 68. (8.+6./0 +-.
,*940 A..; 9)/:0 )4, (+..; )4, /.(6 )( :238 )( ;*((-5+. 98-+. -4 68.
(8.+6./.
I !8.4 4*6 /.(6-4<0 A..; 52(1 51 ;+)44-4< 7262/. )36-*4(0 (62,1-4< 1*2/ :);(0
*/ :)A-4< 68. (8.+6./ :*/. 3*:7*/6)5+. )4, .77.36->..
I D*4H6 ;)4-3 -7 1*2 .=;./-.43. 4)2(.) )4, (1:;6*:( *7 /),-)6-*4 (-3A4.((.
Y*2/ :)-4 ,)4<./ 7/*: /),-)6-*4 (-3A4.(( -( -47.36-*4. T8./. -( 4* 7-/(6 )-, 7*/
68-( (-3A4.((. R.(6-4<0 ,/-4A-4< 7+2-,(0 6)A-4< )41 :.,-3-4. 68)6 ;/.>.46(
>*:-6-4<0 :)-46)-4-4< 1*2/ 7**, -46)A.0 )4, ;/.>.46-4< ),,-6-*4)+ .=;*(2/. 9-++
8.+; )>*-, -47.36-*4 )4, )-, /.3*>./1. E>.4 (:)++ ,*(.( *7 /),-)6-*4 3)4
3)2(. 68.(. (1:;6*:(0 98-38 :)1 ,-();;.)/ -4 ) (8*/6 6-:..
EF71:3*+ T4>+0-@<+
2B9. T8. 7*++*9-4< 6-:.6)5+. ;/*>-,.( 1*2 9-68 68. -47*/:)6-*4 4..,., 6*
)>*-, /.3.->-4< ) (./-*2( ,*()<. )4, (6-++ +.6 1*2 3*;. 9-68 (2/>->)+ ;/*5+.:(E
I C*:;+.6. -(*+)6-*4 7/*: 4 6* 6 ,)1( 7*++*9-4< ,.+->./1 *7 68. +)(6 9.);*4.
I A >./1 5/-.7 .=;*(2/. 6* <.6 9)6./ *4 68. 68-/, ,)1 -( ;./:-((-5+.0 526
.=;*(2/. (8*2+, 4*6 .=3.., " :-426.(.
I O4. .=;*(2/. *7 4*6 :*/. 68)4 " :-426.( *4 68. (.>.468 ,)1.
I O4. .=;*(2/. *7 4*6 :*/. 68)4 1 8*2/ *4 68. .-<868 ,)1.
I E=;*(2/. *7 2 6* 4 8*2/( 7/*: 68. 4-468 ,)1 68/*2<8 68. 69.+768 ,)1.
261
I N*/:)+ *;./)6-*40 7*++*9., 51 /.(6 -4 ) ;/*6.36., (8.+6./0 7/*: 68. 68-/6..468
,)1 *4.
I I4 )++ -4(6)43.(0 :)A. 1*2/ .=;*(2/.( )( 5/-.7 )( ;*((-5+.. C*4(-,./ *4+1
:)4,)6*/1 /.?2-/.:.46( )( >)+-, /.)(*4( 7*/ .=;*(2/.. D.3*46):-4)6. )6
.>./1 (6*;.
2B4". T8. 6-:.( <->.4 )5*>. )/. 3*4(./>)6->.. I7 7*/3., 6* :*>. )76./ 68.
7-/(6 */ (.3*4, ,)10 1*2 :)1 ,* (*. M)A. (2/. 68)6 68. .=;*(2/. -( 4* +*4<./
68)4 )5(*+26.+1 4.3.(()/1.
$ATER PROCUREMENT
2B41. I4 ) 7)++*26B3*46):-4)6., )/.)0 )>)-+)5+. 9)6./ (*2/3.( :)1 5.
3*46):-4)6.,. I7 1*2 9)-6 )6 +.)(6 4$ 8*2/( 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4< )41 9)6./ 6* )++*9
/),-*)36->. ,.3)1 6* 6)A. ;+)3. )4, (.+.36 68. ()7.(6 ;*((-5+. 9)6./ (*2/3.0
1*2 9-++ </.)6+1 /.,23. 68. ,)4<./ *7 -4<.(6-4< 8)/:72+ ):*246( *7
/),-*)36->-61.
2B42. A+68*2<8 :)41 7)36*/( C9-4, ,-/.36-*40 /)-47)++0 (.,-:.46D 9-++ -47+2.43.
1*2/ 38*-3. -4 (.+.36-4< 9)6./ (*2/3.(0 3*4(-,./ 68. 7*++*9-4< <2-,.+-4.(.
S-,+:0 $-0+* S13*.+:
22$
2B4. !)6./ 7/*: (;/-4<(0 9.++(0 */ *68./ 24,./</*24, (*2/3.( 68)6 24,./<*
4)62/)+ 7-+6/)6-*4 9-++ 5. 1*2/ ()7.(6 (*2/3.(. A41 9)6./ 7*24, -4 68. ;-;.( */
3*46)-4./( *7 )5)4,*4., 8*2(.( */ (6*/.( 9-++ )+(* 5. 7/.. 7/*: /),-*)36->.
;)/6-3+.(. T8-( 9)6./ 9-++ 5. ()7. 6* ,/-4A0 )+68*2<8 1*2 9-++ 8)>. 6* 6)A.
;/.3)26-*4( )<)-4(6 5)36./-) -4 68. 9)6./.
2B44. S4*9 6)A.4 7/*: 1% 3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D */ :*/. 5.+*9 68. (2/7)3.
,2/-4< 68. 7)++*26 -( )+(* ) ()7. (*2/3. *7 9)6./.
S0*+->: -/2 R4B+*:
2B4%. !)6./ 7/*: (6/.):( )4, /->./( 9-++ 5. /.+)6->.+1 7/.. 7/*: 7)++*26 9-68-4
(.>./)+ ,)1( )76./ 68. +)(6 423+.)/ .=;+*(-*4 5.3)2(. *7 ,-+26-*4. I7 ;*((-5+.0
7-+6./ (238 9)6./ 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4< 6* <.6 /-, *7 /),-*)36->. ;)/6-3+.(. T8. 5.(6
7-+6/)6-*4 :.68*, -( 6* ,-< (.,-:.46 8*+.( */ (..;)<. 5)(-4( )+*4< 68. (-,. *7
) 9)6./ (*2/3.. T8. 9)6./ 9-++ (..; +)6./)++1 -46* 68. 8*+. 68/*2<8 68.
-46./>.4-4< (*-+ 68)6 )36( )( ) 7-+6./-4< )<.46 )4, /.:*>.( 68. 3*46):-4)6.,
7)++*26 ;)/6-3+.( 68)6 (.66+., *4 68. */-<-4)+ 5*,1 *7 9)6./. T8-( :.68*, 3)4
/.:*>. 2; 6* 99 ;./3.46 *7 68. /),-*)36->-61 -4 9)6./. Y*2 :2(6 3*>./ 68. 8*+.
-4 (*:. 9)1 6* ;/.>.46 72/68./ 3*46):-4)6-*4. S.. F-<2/. 6B9 7*/ )4 .=):;+.
*7 ) 9)6./ 7-+6./.
S0-/24/9 $-0+*
262
2B46. !)6./ 7/*: +)A.(0 ;**+(0 ;*4,(0 )4, *68./ (6)4,-4< (*2/3.( -( +-A.+1 6*
5. 8.)>-+1 3*46):-4)6.,M 68*2<8 :*(6 *7 68. 8.)>-./0 +*4<B+->., /),-*)36->.
-(*6*;.( 9-++ (.66+. 6* 68. 5*66*:. U(. 68. (.66+-4< 6.384-?2. 6* ;2/-71 68-(
9)6./. F-/(60 7-++ ) 523A.6 */ *68./ ,..; 3*46)-4./ 68/..B7*2/68( 72++ 9-68
3*46):-4)6., 9)6./. T8.4 6)A. ,-/6 7/*: ) ,.;68 *7 1" 3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D
*/ :*/. 5.+*9 68. </*24, (2/7)3. )4, (6-/ -6 -46* 68. 9)6./. U(. )5*26 2.%
3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D *7 ,-/6 7*/ .>./1 1" 3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D *7 9)6./. S6-/
68. 9)6./ 246-+ 1*2 (.. :*(6 ,-/6 ;)/6-3+.( (2(;.4,., -4 68. 9)6./. L.6 68.
:-=62/. (.66+. 7*/ )6 +.)(6 6 8*2/(. T8. (.66+-4< ,-/6 ;)/6-3+.( 9-++ 3)//1 :*(6 *7
68. (2(;.4,., 7)++*26 ;)/6-3+.( 6* 68. 5*66*: )4, 3*>./ 68.:. Y*2 3)4 68.4
,-; *26 68. 3+.)/ 9)6./. P2/-71 68-( 9)6./ 2(-4< ) 7-+6/)6-*4 ,.>-3..
A224041/-< P*+.-3041/:
2B47. A( )4 ),,-6-*4)+ ;/.3)26-*4 )<)-4(6 ,-(.)(.0 6/.)6 )++ 9)6./ 9-68 9)6./
;2/-7-3)6-*4 6)5+.6( 7/*: 1*2/ (2/>->)+ A-6 */ 5*-+ -6.
FOOD PROCUREMENT
2B4$. O56)-4-4< .,-5+. 7**, -4 ) /),-)6-*4B3*46):-4)6., )/.) -( ) (./-*2( 526
4*6 -4(2/:*246)5+. ;/*5+.:. Y*2 4.., 6* 7*++*9 ) 7.9 (;.3-)+ ;/*3.,2/.( -4
(.+.36-4< )4, ;/.;)/-4< /)6-*4( )4, +*3)+ 7**,( 7*/ 2(.. S-43. (.32/.
;)3A)<-4< ;/*6.36( 1*2/ 3*:5)6 /)6-*4(0 68.1 9-++ 5. ;./7.36+1 ()7. 7*/ 2(..
S2;;+.:.46 1*2/ /)6-*4( 9-68 )41 7**, 1*2 3)4 7-4, *4 6/-;( *26(-,. 1*2/
(8.+6./. A5)4,*4., 52-+,-4<( :)1 8)>. (6*/.( *7 ;/*3.((., 7**,(. T8.1 )/.
()7. 7*/ 2(. )76./ ,.3*46):-4)6-4< 68.:. C)44., )4, ;)3A)<., 7**,( (8*2+,
8)>. 3*46)-4./( */ 9/);;./( /.:*>., */ 9)(8., 7/.. *7 7)++*26 ;)/6-3+.(.
T8.(. ;/*3.((., 7**,( )+(* -43+2,. 7**, (6*/., -4 )41 3+*(., 3*46)-4./ )4,
7**, (6*/., -4 ;/*6.36., )/.)( C(238 )( 3.++)/(D. A++ (238 7**,( :2(6 5.
9)(8., 5.7*/. .)6-4< */ 8)4,+-4< 68.:.
2B49. I7 +-66+. */ 4* ;/*3.((., 7**, -( )>)-+)5+. -4 1*2/ )/.)0 1*2 :)1 8)>. 6*
(2;;+.:.46 1*2/ ,-.6 9-68 +*3)+ 7**, (*2/3.(. A4-:)+( )4, ;+)46( )/. +*3)+
7**, (*2/3.(.
A/4>-<:5A F112 S13*.+
2B%". A((2:. 68)6 )++ )4-:)+(0 /.<)/,+.(( *7 68.-/ 8)5-6)6 */ +->-4< 3*4,-6-*4(0
9./. .=;*(., 6* /),-)6-*4. T8. .77.36( *7 /),-)6-*4 *4 )4-:)+( )/. (-:-+)/ 6*
68*(. *4 82:)4(. T82(0 :*(6 *7 68. 9-+, )4-:)+( +->-4< -4 ) 7)++*26 )/.) )/.
+-A.+1 6* 5.3*:. (-3A */ ,-. 7/*: /),-)6-*4 ,2/-4< 68. 7-/(6 :*468 )76./ 68.
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:)6./-)+(0 1*2 3)4 )4, :2(6 2(. 68.: -4 (2/>->)+ 3*4,-6-*4( )( ) 7**, (*2/3.
-7 *68./ 7**,( )/. 4*6 )>)-+)5+.. !-68 3)/.72+ ;/.;)/)6-*4 )4, 51 7*++*9-4<
(.>./)+ -:;*/6)46 ;/-43-;+.(0 )4-:)+( 3)4 5. ()7. 7**, (*2/3.(.
2B%1. F-/(60 ,* 4*6 .)6 )4 )4-:)+ 68)6 );;.)/( 6* 5. (-3A. I6 :)1 8)>.
,.>.+*;., ) 5)36./-)+ -47.36-*4 5.3)2(. *7 /),-)6-*4 ;*-(*4-4<. C*46):-4)6.,
:.)60 .>.4 -7 68*/*2<8+1 3**A.,0 3*2+, 3)2(. (.>./. -++4.(( */ ,.)68 -7 .)6.4.
263
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(A-4 */ 72/ 7/*: .46./-4< 68. 5*,1. D* 4*6 .)6 :.)6 3+*(. 6* 68. 5*4.( )4,
F*-46( )( )4 )4-:)+H( (A.+.6*4 3*46)-4( *>./ 9" ;./3.46 *7 68. /),-*)36->-61.
H*9.>./0 68. /.:)-4-4< )4-:)+ :2(3+. 6-((2. 9-++ 5. ()7. 6* .)6. B.7*/.
3**A-4< -60 326 68. :.)6 )9)1 7/*: 68. 5*4.0 +.)>-4< )6 +.)(6 ) B:-++-:.6./
C1R$B-438D 68-3A4.(( *7 :.)6 *4 68. 5*4.. D-(3)/, )++ -46./4)+ */<)4( C8.)/60
+->./0 )4, A-,4.1(D (-43. 68.1 6.4, 6* 3*43.46/)6. 5.6) )4, <)::)
/),-*)36->-61.
2B%. C**A )++ :.)6 246-+ -6 -( >./1 9.++ ,*4.. T* 5. (2/. 68. :.)6 -( 9.++
,*4.0 326 -6 -46* +.(( 68)4 1B :-++-:.6./B68-3A C4 1R2B-438B68-3AD ;-.3.( 5.7*/.
3**A-4<. S238 326( 9-++ )+(* /.,23. 3**A-4< 6-:. )4, ()>. 72.+.
2B%4. T8. .=6.46 *7 3*46):-4)6-*4 -4 7-(8 )4, )?2)6-3 )4-:)+( 9-++ 5. :238
</.)6./ 68)4 68)6 *7 +)4, )4-:)+(. T8-( -( )+(* 6/2. 7*/ 9)6./ ;+)46(0 .(;.3-)++1
-4 3*)(6)+ )/.)(. U(. )?2)6-3 7**, (*2/3.( *4+1 -4 3*4,-6-*4( *7 .=6/.:.
.:./<.431.
2B%%. A++ .<<(0 .>.4 -7 +)-, ,2/-4< 68. ;./-*, *7 7)++*260 9-++ 5. ()7. 6* .)6.
C*:;+.6.+1 )>*-, :-+A 7/*: )41 )4-:)+( -4 ) 7)++*26 )/.) 5.3)2(. )4-:)+(
)5(*/5 +)/<. ):*246( *7 /),-*)36->-61 7/*: 68. ;+)46( 68.1 .)6.
P<-/0:5A F112 S13*.+
2B%6. P+)46 3*46):-4)6-*4 *332/( 51 68. )332:2+)6-*4 *7 7)++*26 *4 68.-/
*26./ (2/7)3.( */ 51 )5(*/;6-*4 *7 /),-*)36->. .+.:.46( 68/*2<8 68.-/ /**6(.
Y*2/ 7-/(6 38*-3. *7 ;+)46 7**, (8*2+, 5. >.<.6)5+.( (238 )( ;*6)6*.(0 62/4-;(0
3)//*6(0 )4, *68./ ;+)46( 98*(. .,-5+. ;*/6-*4 </*9( 24,./</*24,. T8.(. )/.
68. ()7.(6 6* .)6 *43. 1*2 (3/25 68.: )4, /.:*>. 68.-/ (A-4(.
2B%7. S.3*4,0 -4 */,./ *7 ;/.7./.43.0 )/. 68*(. ;+)46( 9-68 .,-5+. ;)/6( 68)6
1*2 3)4 ,.3*46):-4)6. 51 9)(8-4< )4, ;..+-4< 68.-/ *26./ (2/7)3.(.
E=):;+.( )/. 5)4)4)(0 );;+.(0 6*:)6*.(0 ;/-3A+1 ;.)/(0 )4, *68./ (238 7/2-6(
)4, >.<.6)5+.(.
2B%$. A41 (:**68B(A-44., >.<.6)5+.0 7/2-60 */ ;+)46 68)6 1*2 3)44*6 .)(-+1
;..+ */ .77.36->.+1 ,.3*46):-4)6. 51 9)(8-4< 9-++ 5. 1*2/ 68-/, 38*-3. *7
.:./<.431 7**,.
2B%9. T8. .77.36->.4.(( *7 ,.3*46):-4)6-*4 51 (3/255-4< -( -4>./(.+1
;/*;*/6-*4)+ 6* 68. /*2<84.(( *7 68. 7/2-6H( (2/7)3.. S:**68B(2/7)3., 7/2-6( 9-++
+*(. 9" ;./3.46 *7 68.-/ 3*46):-4)6-*4 )76./ 9)(8-4<0 526 /*2<8B(2/7)3.,
;+)46( 9-++ +*(. *4+1 )5*26 %" ;./3.46.
2B6". E)6 /*2<8B(2/7)3., ;+)46( C(238 )( +.6623.D *4+1 )( ) +)(6 /.(*/6
5.3)2(. 1*2 3)44*6 .77.36->.+1 ,.3*46):-4)6. 68.: 51 ;..+-4< */ 9)(8-4<.
O68./ ,-77-32+6 7**,( 6* ,.3*46):-4)6. 51 9)(8-4< 9-68 9)6./ -43+2,. ,/-.,
7/2-6( C7-<(0 ;/24.(0 ;.)38.(0 );/-3*6(0 ;.)/(D )4, (*15.)4(.
264
2B61. I4 <.4./)+0 1*2 3)4 2(. )41 ;+)46 7**, 68)6 -( /.),1 7*/ 8)/>.(6 -7 1*2
3)4 .77.36->.+1 ,.3*46):-4)6. -6. H*9.>./0 </*9-4< ;+)46( 3)4 )5(*/5 (*:.
/),-*)36->. :)6./-)+( 68/*2<8 68.-/ +.)>.( )( 9.++ )( 7/*: 68. (*-+0 .(;.3-)++1 -7
/)-4( 8)>. *332//., ,2/-4< */ )76./ 68. 7)++*26 ;./-*,. A>*-, 2(-4< 68.(.
;+)46( 7*/ 7**, .=3.;6 -4 )4 .:./<.431.
BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS
2B62. T8. 2(. *7 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( -( /.)+. P/.;)/. 1*2/(.+7 7*/ (2/>->)+ 51
5.-4< ;/*7-3-.46 -4 68. 6)(A( -,.46-7-., -4 1*2/ (*+,-./H( :)42)+( *7 3*::*4
6)(A( CSMCT(D. K4*9 98)6 6* ,* 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 68.(. )<.46(.
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND EFFECTS
2B6. B-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( )/. :-3/* */<)4-(:( 68)6 3)4 3)2(. ,-(.)(. ):*4<
;./(*44.+0 )4-:)+(0 */ ;+)46(. T8.1 3)4 )+(* 3)2(. 68. ,.6./-*/)6-*4 *7
:)6./-)+. T8.(. )<.46( 7)++ -46* 69* 5/*), 3)6.<*/-.(@;)68*<.4( C2(2)++1
3)++., <./:(D )4, 6*=-4(. P)68*<.4( )/. +->-4< :-3/* */<)4-(:( 68)6 3)2(.
+.68)+ */ -43);)3-6)6-4< ,-(.)(.(. B)36./-)0 /-3A.66(-).0 724<-0 )4, >-/2(.( )/.
-43+2,., -4 68. ;)68*<.4(. T*=-4( )/. ;*-(*4( 68)6 ;+)46(0 )4-:)+(0 */ :-3/*
*/<)4-(:( ;/*,23. 4)62/)++1. P*((-5+. 5-*+*<-3)+ 9)/7)/. 6*=-4( -43+2,. )
>)/-.61 *7 4.2/*6*=-3 C)77.36-4< 68. 3.46/)+ 4./>*2( (1(6.:D )4, 316*6*=-3
C3)2(-4< 3.++ ,.)68D 3*:;*24,(.
G+*>:
2B64. G./:( )/. +->-4< */<)4-(:(. S*:. 4)6-*4( 8)>. 2(., 68.: -4 68.
;)(6 )( 9.);*4(. O4+1 ) 7.9 <./:( 3)4 (6)/6 )4 -47.36-*40 .(;.3-)++1 -7
-48)+., -46* 68. +24<(. B.3)2(. <./:( )/. (* (:)++ )4, 9.-<8 (* +-66+.0 68.
9-4, 3)4 (;/.), 68.: *>./ </.)6 ,-(6)43.(M 68.1 3)4 )+(* .46./ 247-+6./., */
4*4 )-/6-<86 ;+)3.(. B2-+,-4<( )4, 524A./( 3)4 6/); 68.:0 3)2(-4< ) 8-<8./
3*43.46/)6-*4. G./:( ,* 4*6 )77.36 68. 5*,1 -::.,-)6.+1. T8.1 :2(6 :2+6-;+1
-4(-,. 68. 5*,1 )4, *>./3*:. 68. 5*,1H( ,.7.4(.(@) ;/*3.(( 3)++., 68.
-4325)6-*4 ;./-*,. I4325)6-*4 ;./-*,( >)/1 7/*: (.>./)+ 8*2/( 6* (.>./)+
:*468(0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. <./:. M*(6 <./:( :2(6 +->. 9-68-4 )4*68./ +->-4<
*/<)4-(: C8*(6D0 (238 )( 1*2/ 5*,10 6* (2/>->. )4, </*9. !.)68./ 3*4,-6-*4(
(238 )( 9-4,0 /)-40 3*+,0 )4, (24+-<86 /);-,+1 A-++ <./:(.
2B6%. S*:. <./:( 3)4 7*/: ;/*6.36->. (8.++(0 */ (;*/.(0 6* )++*9 (2/>->)+
*26(-,. 68. 8*(6. S;*/. ;/*,23-4< )<.46( )/. ) +*4<B6./: 8)G)/, 1*2 :2(6
4.26/)+-G. 51 ,.3*46):-4)6-4< -47.36., )/.)( */ ;./(*44.+. F*/624)6.+10 :*(6
+->. )<.46( )/. 4*6 (;*/. ;/*,23-4<. T8.(. )<.46( :2(6 7-4, ) 8*(6 9-68-4
/*2<8+1 ) ,)1 *7 68.-/ ,.+->./1 */ 68.1 ,-.. G./:( 8)>. 68/.. 5)(-3 /*26.( *7
.46/1 -46* 1*2/ 5*,1@ 68/*2<8 68. /.(;-/)6*/1 6/)360 68/*2<8 ) 5/.)A -4 68.
(A-40 )4, 68/*2<8 68. ,-<.(6->. 6/)36. S1:;6*:( *7 -47.36-*4 >)/1 )33*/,-4< 6*
68. ,-(.)(..
T1F4/:
265
2B66. T*=-4( )/. (25(6)43.( 68)6 ;+)46(0 )4-:)+(0 */ <./:( ;/*,23.
4)62/)++1. T8.(. 6*=-4( )/. 98)6 )362)++1 8)/: :)40 4*6 5)36./-). A4
.=):;+. -( 5*62+-40 98-38 ;/*,23.( 5*62+-(:. M*,./4 (3-.43. 8)( )++*9.,
+)/<.B(3)+. ;/*,236-*4 *7 68.(. 6*=-4( 9-68*26 68. 2(. *7 68. <./: 68)6
;/*,23.( 68. 6*=-4. T*=-4( :)1 ;/*,23. .77.36( (-:-+)/ 6* 68*(. *7 38.:-3)+
)<.46(. H*9.>./0 6*=-3 >-36-:( :)1 4*6 /.(;*4, 6* 7-/(6 )-, :.)(2/.( 2(.,
)<)-4(6 38.:-3)+ )<.46(. T*=-4( .46./ 68. 5*,1 -4 68. ():. :)44./ )(
<./:(. H*9.>./0 (*:. 6*=-4(0 24+-A. <./:(0 3)4 ;.4.6/)6. 245/*A.4 (A-4.
S1:;6*:( );;.)/ )+:*(6 -::.,-)6.+10 (-43. 68./. -( 4* -4325)6-*4 ;./-*,.
M)41 6*=-4( )/. .=6/.:.+1 +.68)+0 .>.4 -4 >./1 (:)++ ,*(.(. S1:;6*:( :)1
-43+2,. )41 *7 68. 7*++*9-4<E
I D-GG-4.((.
I M.46)+ 3*472(-*4.
I B+2//., */ ,*25+. >-(-*4.
I N2:54.(( */ 6-4<+-4< *7 (A-4.
I P)/)+1(-(.
I C*4>2+(-*4(.
I R)(8.( */ 5+-(6./(.
I C*2<8-4<.
I F.>./.
I A38-4< :2(3+.(.
I T-/.,4.((.
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I B+..,-4< 7/*: 5*,1 *;.4-4<(.
I B+**, -4 2/-4.0 (6**+0 */ ()+->).
I S8*3A.
I D.)68.
DETECTION OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
2B67. B-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( )/.0 51 4)62/.0 ,-77-32+6 6* ,.6.36. Y*2 3)44*6 ,.6.36
68.: 51 )41 *7 68. 7->. ;81(-3)+ (.4(.(. O76.40 68. 7-/(6 (-<4 *7 ) 5-*+*<-3)+
)<.46 9-++ 5. (1:;6*:( *7 68. >-36-:( .=;*(., 6* 68. )<.46. Y*2/ 5.(6
38)43. *7 ,.6.36-4< 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( 5.7*/. 68.1 3)4 )77.36 1*2 -( 6*
/.3*<4-G. 68.-/ :.)4( *7 ,.+->./1. T8. 68/.. :)-4 :.)4( *7 ,.+->./1 )/.@
I *&rsting<type m&nitions. T8.(. :)1 5. 5*:5( */ ;/*F.36-+.( 98*(. 52/(6
3)2(.( >./1 +-66+. ,):)<.. T8. 52/(6 9-++ ;/*,23. ) (:)++ 3+*2, *7 +-?2-, */
;*9,./ -4 68. -::.,-)6. -:;)36 )/.). T8-( 3+*2, 9-++ ,-(;./(. .>.462)++1M 68.
/)6. *7 ,-(;./(-*4 ,.;.4,( *4 6.//)-4 )4, 9.)68./ 3*4,-6-*4(.
I Spray tanks or generators. A-/3/)760 >.8-3+. (;/)1 6)4A(0 */ </*24,B+.>.+
)./*(*+ <.4./)6*/( ;/*,23. )4 )./*(*+ 3+*2, *7 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(.
I 'ectors. I4(.36( (238 )( :*(?2-6*.(0 7+.)(0 +-3.0 )4, 6-3A( ,.+->./
;)68*<.4(. L)/<. -47.(6)6-*4( *7 68.(. -4(.36( :)1 -4,-3)6. 68. 2(. *7
5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(.
2B6$. S-<4 *7 ) ;*((-5+. 5-*+*<-3)+ )66)3A )/. 68. ;/.(.43. *7 242(2)+
(25(6)43.( *4 68. </*24, */ >.<.6)6-*40 */ (-3AB+**A-4< ;+)46(0 3/*;(0 */
)4-:)+(.
266
INFLUENCE OF $EATHER AND TERRAIN
2B69. Y*2/ A4*9+.,<. *7 8*9 9.)68./ )4, 6.//)-4 )77.36 68. )<.46( 3)4 8.+;
1*2 )>*-, 3*46):-4)6-*4 51 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(. M)F*/ 9.)68./ 7)36*/( 68)6
)77.36 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( )/. (24+-<860 9-4,0 )4, ;/.3-;-6)6-*4. A./*(*+ (;/)1(
9-++ 6.4, 6* 3*43.46/)6. -4 +*9 )/.)( *7 6.//)-40 (-:-+)/ 6* .)/+1 :*/4-4< :-(6.
2B7". S24+-<86 3*46)-4( >-(-5+. )4, 2+6/)>-*+.6 (*+)/ /),-)6-*4 68)6 /);-,+1 A-++(
:*(6 <./:( 2(., )( 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(. H*9.>./0 4)62/)+ */ :)4B:),. 3*>./
:)1 ;/*6.36 (*:. )<.46( 7/*: (24+-<86. O68./ :)4B:),. :26)46 (6/)-4( *7
<./:( :)1 5. /.(-(6)46 6* (24+-<86.
2B71. H-<8 9-4, (;..,( -43/.)(. 68. ,-(;./(-*4 *7 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(0 ,-+26.
68.-/ 3*43.46/)6-*40 )4, ,.81,/)6. 68.:. T8. 72/68./ ,*949-4, 68. )<.46
6/)>.+(0 68. +.(( .77.36->. -6 5.3*:.( ,2. 6* ,-+26-*4 )4, ,.)68 *7 68.
;)68*<.4(. H*9.>./0 68. ,*949-4, 8)G)/, )/.) *7 68. 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46 -(
(-<4-7-3)46 )4, 1*2 3)44*6 -<4*/. -6.
2B72. P/.3-;-6)6-*4 -4 68. 7*/: *7 :*,./)6. 6* 8.)>1 /)-4 6.4,( 6* 9)(8
5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46( *26 *7 68. )-/0 /.,23-4< ,*949-4, 8)G)/, )/.)(. H*9.>./0
68. )<.46( :)1 (6-++ 5. >./1 .77.36->. 98./. 68.1 9./. ,.;*(-6., *4 68.
</*24,.
PROTECTION AGAINST BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
2B7. !8-+. 1*2 :2(6 :)-46)-4 ) 8.)+681 /.(;.36 7*/ 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(0 68./.
-( 4* /.)(*4 7*/ 1*2 6* ;)4-3. Y*2 3)4 /.,23. 1*2/ (2(3.;6-5-+-61 6* 5-*+*<-3)+
)<.46( 51 :)-46)-4-4< 32//.46 -::24-G)6-*4(0 )>*-,-4< 3*46):-4)6., )/.)(0
)4, 3*46/*++-4< /*,.46( )4, ;.(6(. Y*2 :2(6 )+(* 2(. ;/*;./ 7-/(6 )-,
:.)(2/.( -4 68. 6/.)6:.46 *7 9*24,(0 )4, *4+1 ()7. */ ;/*;./+1
,.3*46):-4)6., (*2/3.( *7 7**, )4, 9)6./. Y*2 :2(6 .4(2/. 68)6 1*2 <.6
.4*2<8 (+..; 6* ;/.>.46 ) /24B,*94 3*4,-6-*4. Y*2 :2(6 )+9)1( 2(. ;/*;./
7-.+, ()4-6)6-*4 ;/*3.,2/.(.
2B74. A((2:-4< 1*2 ,* 4*6 8)>. ) ;/*6.36->. :)(A0 )+9)1( 6/1 6* A..; 1*2/
7)3. 3*>./., 9-68 (*:. 61;. *7 3+*68 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 5-*+*<-3)+
)<.46 )./*(*+(. D2(6 :)1 3*46)-4 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(M 9.)/ (*:. 61;. *7 :)(A
98.4 ,2(6 -( -4 68. )-/.
2B7%. Y*2/ 24-7*/: )4, <+*>.( 9-++ ;/*6.36 1*2 )<)-4(6 5-6.( 7/*: >.36*/(
C:*(?2-6*.( )4, 6-3A(D 68)6 3)//1 ,-(.)(.(. C*:;+.6.+1 5266*4 1*2/ 3+*68-4<
)4, 623A 1*2/ 6/*2(./( 6-<86+1 -46* 1*2/ 5**6(. !.)/ ) 38.:-3)+ ;/*6.36->.
*>./ <)/:.460 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 )( -6 ;/*>-,.( 5.66./ ;/*6.36-*4 68)4 4*/:)+
3+*68-4<. C*>./-4< 1*2/ (A-4 9-++ )+(* /.,23. 68. 38)43. *7 68. )<.46 .46./-4<
1*2/ 5*,1 68/*2<8 326( */ (3/)638.(. A+9)1( ;/)36-3. 8-<8 (6)4,)/,( *7
;./(*4)+ 81<-.4. )4, ()4-6)6-*4 6* 8.+; ;/.>.46 68. (;/.), *7 >.36*/(.
2B76. B)68. 9-68 (*); )4, 9)6./ 98.4.>./ ;*((-5+.. U(. <./:-3-,)+ (*);0
-7 )>)-+)5+.. !)(8 1*2/ 8)-/ )4, 5*,1 68*/*2<8+1. C+.)4 24,./ 1*2/
7-4<./4)-+(. C+.)4 6..680 <2:(0 6*4<2.0 )4, 68. /**7 *7 1*2/ :*268 7/.?2.46+1.
267
!)(8 1*2/ 3+*68-4< -4 8*60 (*);1 9)6./ -7 1*2 3)4. I7 1*2 3)44*6 9)(8 1*2/
3+*68-4<0 +)1 -6 *26 -4 )4 )/.) *7 5/-<86 (24+-<86 )4, )++*9 68. +-<86 6* A-++ 68.
:-3/* */<)4-(:(. A76./ ) 6*=-4 )66)3A0 ,.3*46):-4)6. 1*2/(.+7 )( -7 7*/ )
38.:-3)+ )66)3A 2(-4< 68. M2%$A2 A-6 C-7 )>)-+)5+.D */ 51 9)(8-4< 9-68 (*);
)4, 9)6./.
SHELTER
2B77. Y*2 3)4 52-+, .=;.,-.46 (8.+6./( 24,./ 5-*+*<-3)+ 3*46):-4)6-*4
3*4,-6-*4( 2(-4< 68. ():. 6.384-?2.( ,.(3/-5., -4 C8);6./ %. H*9.>./0 1*2
:2(6 :)A. (+-<86 38)4<.( 6* /.,23. 68. 38)43. *7 5-*+*<-3)+ 3*46):-4)6-*4.
D* 4*6 52-+, 1*2/ (8.+6./ -4 ,.;/.((-*4( -4 68. </*24,. A./*(*+ (;/)1( 6.4, 6*
3*43.46/)6. -4 68.(. ,.;/.((-*4(. A>*-, 52-+,-4< 1*2/ (8.+6./ -4 )/.)( *7
>.<.6)6-*40 )( >.<.6)6-*4 ;/*>-,.( (8),. )4, (*:. ,.</.. *7 ;/*6.36-*4 6*
5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(. A>*-, 2(-4< >.<.6)6-*4 -4 3*4(6/236-4< 1*2/ (8.+6./. P+)3.
1*2/ (8.+6./H( .46/)43. )6 ) 9"B,.</.. )4<+. 6* 68. ;/.>)-+-4< 9-4,(. S238
;+)3.:.46 9-++ +-:-6 68. .46/1 *7 )-/5*/4. )<.46( )4, ;/.>.46 )-/ (6)<4)6-*4 -4
1*2/ (8.+6./. A+9)1( A..; 1*2/ (8.+6./ 3+.)4.
$ATER PROCUREMENT
2B7$. !)6./ ;/*32/.:.46 24,./ 5-*+*<-3)+ 3*4,-6-*4( -( ,-77-32+6 526 4*6
-:;*((-5+.. !8.4.>./ ;*((-5+.0 6/1 6* 2(. 9)6./ 68)6 8)( 5..4 -4 ) (.)+.,
3*46)-4./. Y*2 3)4 )((2:. 68)6 68. 9)6./ -4(-,. 68. (.)+., 3*46)-4./ -( 4*6
3*46):-4)6.,. !)(8 68. 9)6./ 3*46)-4./ 68*/*2<8+1 9-68 (*); )4, 9)6./ */
5*-+ -6 7*/ )6 +.)(6 1" :-426.( 5.7*/. 5/.)A-4< 68. (.)+.
2B79. I7 9)6./ -4 (.)+., 3*46)-4./( -( 4*6 )>)-+)5+.0 1*2/ 4.=6 38*-3.0 1/<;
3/2+* +>+*9+/.; .1/24041/:0 -( 9)6./ 7/*: (;/-4<(. A<)-40 5*-+ 68. 9)6./
7*/ )6 +.)(6 1" :-426.( 5.7*/. ,/-4A-4<. K..; 68. 9)6./ 3*>./., 98-+. 5*-+-4<
6* ;/.>.46 3*46):-4)6-*4 51 )-/5*/4. ;)68*<.4(. Y*2/ +)(6 38*-3.0 1/<; 4/ -/
+F0*+>+ +>+*9+/.;0 -( 6* 2(. (6)4,-4< 9)6./. V.36*/( )4, <./:( 3)4
(2/>->. .)(-+1 -4 (6)<4)46 9)6./. B*-+ 68-( 9)6./ )( +*4< )( ;/)36-3)5+. 6* A-++
)++ */<)4-(:(. F-+6./ 68-( 9)6./ 68/*2<8 ) 3+*68 6* /.:*>. 68. ,.), >.36*/(.
U(. 9)6./ ;2/-7-3)6-*4 6)5+.6( -4 )++ 3)(.(.
FOOD PROCUREMENT
2B$". F**, ;/*32/.:.460 +-A. 9)6./ ;/*32/.:.460 -( 4*6 -:;*((-5+.0 526 1*2
:2(6 6)A. (;.3-)+ ;/.3)26-*4(. Y*2/ 3*:5)6 /)6-*4( )/. (.)+.,0 )4, 1*2 3)4
)((2:. 68.1 )/. 4*6 3*46):-4)6.,. Y*2 3)4 )+(* )((2:. 68)6 (.)+.,
3*46)-4./( */ ;)3A)<.( *7 ;/*3.((., 7**, )/. ()7.. T* .4(2/. ()7.610
,.3*46):-4)6. )++ 7**, 3*46)-4./( 51 9)(8-4< 9-68 (*); )4, 9)6./ */ 51
5*-+-4< 68. 3*46)-4./ -4 9)6./ 7*/ 1" :-426.(.
2B$1. Y*2 (8*2+, 3*4(-,./ (2;;+.:.46-4< 1*2/ /)6-*4( 9-68 +*3)+ ;+)46( */
)4-:)+( *4+1 -4 +F0*+>+ .:./<.43-.(. N* :)66./ 98)6 1*2 ,* 6* ;/.;)/. 68.
7**,0 68./. -( 4* <2)/)46.. 68)6 3**A-4< 9-++ A-++ )++ 68. 5-*+*<-3)+ )<.46(. U(.
+*3)+ 7**, *4+1 -4 +-7.B*/B,.)68 (-62)6-*4(. R.:.:5./0 1*2 3)4 (2/>->. 7*/ )
+*4< 6-:. 9-68*26 7**,0 .(;.3-)++1 -7 68. 7**, 1*2 .)6 :)1 A-++ 1*2N
268
2B$2. I7 1*2 :2(6 2(. +*3)+ 7**,0 (.+.36 *4+1 8.)+681B+**A-4< ;+)46( )4,
)4-:)+(. D* 4*6 (.+.36 A4*94 3)//-./( *7 >.36*/( (238 )( /)6( */ *68./ >./:-4.
S.+.36 )4, ;/.;)/. ;+)46( )( 1*2 9*2+, -4 /),-*)36->. )/.)(. P/.;)/. )4-:)+(
)( 1*2 ,* ;+)46(. A+9)1( 2(. <+*>.( )4, ;/*6.36->. 3+*68-4< 98.4 8)4,+-4<
)4-:)+( */ ;+)46(. C**A )++ ;+)46 )4, )4-:)+ 7**, 51 5*-+-4< *4+1. B*-+ )++ 7**,
7*/ )6 +.)(6 1" :-426.( 6* A-++ )++ ;)68*<.4(. D* 4*6 6/1 6* 7/10 5)A.0 */ /*)(6
+*3)+ 7**,. T8./. -( 4* <2)/)46.. 68)6 )++ -47.36., ;*/6-*4( 8)>. /.)38., 68.
/.?2-/., 6.:;./)62/. 6* A-++ )++ ;)68*<.4(. D* 4*6 .)6 /)9 7**,.
CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS
2B$. C8.:-3)+ )<.46 9)/7)/. -( /.)+. I6 3)4 3/.)6. .=6/.:. ;/*5+.:( -4 )
(2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 526 1*2 3)4 *>./3*:. 68. ;/*5+.:( 9-68 68. ;/*;./
.?2-;:.460 A4*9+.,<.0 )4, 6/)-4-4<. I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 1*2/ 7-/(6 +-4. *7
,.7.4(. )<)-4(6 38.:-3)+ )<.46( -( 1*2/ ;/*7-3-.431 -4 -4,->-,2)+ NBC 6/)-4-4<0
6* -43+2,. ,*44-4< )4, 9.)/-4< 68. ;/*6.36->. :)(A )4, *>./ <)/:.460
;./(*4)+ ,.3*46):-4)6-*40 /.3*<4-6-*4 *7 38.:-3)+ )<.46 (1:;6*:(0 )4,
-4,->-,2)+ 7-/(6 )-, 7*/ 38.:-3)+ )<.46 3*46):-4)6-*4. T8. SMCT( 3*>./ 68.(.
(25F.36(. I7 1*2 )/. 4*6 ;/*7-3-.46 -4 68.(. (A-++(0 1*2 9-++ 8)>. +-66+. 38)43. *7
(2/>->-4< ) 38.:-3)+ .4>-/*4:.46.
2B$4. T8. (25F.36 :)66./ 3*>./., 5.+*9 -( 4*6 ) (25(6-626. 7*/ )41 *7 68.
-4,->-,2)+ 6)(A( -4 98-38 1*2 :2(6 5. ;/*7-3-.46. T8. SMCT( ),,/.(( 68.
>)/-*2( 38.:-3)+ )<.46(0 68.-/ .77.36(0 )4, 7-/(6 )-, 7*/ 68.(. )<.46(. T8.
7*++*9-4< -47*/:)6-*4 -( ;/*>-,., 24,./ 68. )((2:;6-*4 68)6 1*2 )/. ;/*7-3-.46
-4 68. 2(. *7 38.:-3)+ ;/*6.36->. .?2-;:.46 )4, A4*9 68. (1:;6*:( *7
>)/-*2( 38.:-3)+ )<.46(.
DETECTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS
2B$%. T8. 5.(6 :.68*, 7*/ ,.6.36-4< 38.:-3)+ )<.46( -( 68. 2(. *7 )
38.:-3)+ )<.46 ,.6.36*/. I7 1*2 8)>. *4.0 2(. -6. H*9.>./0 -4 ) (2/>->)+
(-62)6-*40 1*2 9-++ :*(6 +-A.+1 8)>. 6* /.+1 (*+.+1 *4 68. 2(. *7 )++ *7 1*2/
;81(-3)+ (.4(.(. Y*2 :2(6 5. )+./6 )4, )5+. 6* ,.6.36 )41 3+2.( -4,-3)6-4<
68. 2(. *7 38.:-3)+ 9)/7)/.. G.4./)+ -4,-3)6*/( *7 68. ;/.(.43. *7 38.:-3)+
)<.46( )/. 6.)/(0 ,-77-32+6 5/.)68-4<0 38*A-4<0 -638-4<0 3*2<8-4<0 )4, ,-GG-4.((.
!-68 )<.46( 68)6 )/. >./1 8)/, 6* ,.6.360 1*2 :2(6 9)638 7*/ (1:;6*:( -4
*68./ ;./(*44.+. Y*2/ (2//*24,-4<( 9-++ ;/*>-,. >)+2)5+. 3+2.( 6* 68.
;/.(.43. *7 38.:-3)+ )<.46(M 7*/ .=):;+.0 ,.), )4-:)+(0 (-3A ;.*;+.0 */
;.*;+. )4, )4-:)+( ,-(;+)1-4< )54*/:)+ 5.8)>-*/.
2B$6. Y*2/ (.4(. *7 (:.++ :)1 )+./6 1*2 6* (*:. 38.:-3)+ )<.46(0 526 :*(6
9-++ 5. *,*/+.((. T8. *,*/ *7 4.9+1 326 </)(( */ 8)1 :)1 -4,-3)6. 68.
;/.(.43. *7 38*A-4< )<.46(. A (:.++ *7 )+:*4,( :)1 -4,-3)6. 5+**, )<.46(.
2B$7. S-<86 9-++ 8.+; 1*2 ,.6.36 38.:-3)+ )<.46(. M*(6 38.:-3)+ )<.46( -4
68. (*+-, */ +-?2-, (6)6. 8)>. (*:. 3*+*/. I4 68. >);*/ (6)6.0 1*2 3)4 (..
(*:. 38.:-3)+ )<.46( )( ) :-(6 */ 68-4 7*< -::.,-)6.+1 )76./ 68. 5*:5 */
(8.++ 52/(6(. B1 *5(./>-4< 7*/ (1:;6*:( -4 *68./( )4, 51 *5(./>-4< ,.+->./1
269
:.)4(0 1*2 :)1 5. )5+. 6* 8)>. (*:. 9)/4-4< *7 38.:-3)+ )<.46(. M2(6)/,
<)( -4 68. +-?2-, (6)6. 9-++ );;.)/ )( *-+1 ;)638.( *4 +.)>.( */ *4 52-+,-4<(.
2B$$. T8. (*24, *7 .4.:1 :24-6-*4( 9-++ <->. (*:. 3+2. 6* 68. ;/.(.43. *7
38.:-3)+ 9.);*4(. M277+., (8.++ */ 5*:5 ,.6*4)6-*4( )/. ) <**, -4,-3)6*/.
2B$9. I//-6)6-*4 -4 68. 4*(. */ .1.( */ *4 68. (A-4 -( )4 2/<.46 9)/4-4< 6*
;/*6.36 1*2/ 5*,1 7/*: 38.:-3)+ )<.46(. A,,-6-*4)++10 ) (6/)4<. 6)(6. -4 7**,0
9)6./0 */ 3-<)/.66.( :)1 (./>. )( ) 9)/4-4< 68)6 68.1 8)>. 5..4
3*46):-4)6.,.
PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL AGENTS
2B9". I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 )+9)1( ;./7*/: 68. 7*++*9-4< (6.;(0 -4 68. */,./
+-(6.,0 6* ;/*6.36 1*2/(.+7 7/*: ) 38.:-3)+ )66)3AE
I U(. ;/*6.36->. .?2-;:.46.
I G->. ?2-3A )4, 3*//.36 (.+7B)-, 98.4 3*46):-4)6.,.
I A>*-, )/.)( 98./. 38.:-3)+ )<.46( .=-(6.
I D.3*46):-4)6. 1*2/ .?2-;:.46 )4, 5*,1 )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+..
2B91. Y*2/ ;/*6.36->. :)(A )4, *>./ <)/:.46 )/. 68. A.1 6* 1*2/ (2/>->)+.
!-68*26 68.(.0 1*2 (6)4, >./1 +-66+. 38)43. *7 (2/>->)+. Y*2 :2(6 6)A. 3)/. *7
68.(. -6.:( )4, ;/*6.36 68.: 7/*: ,):)<.. Y*2 :2(6 ;/)36-3. )4, A4*9
3*//.36 (.+7B)-, ;/*3.,2/.( 5.7*/. .=;*(2/. 6* 38.:-3)+ )<.46(. T8.
,.6.36-*4 *7 38.:-3)+ )<.46( )4, 68. )>*-,)43. *7 3*46):-4)6., )/.)( )/.
.=6/.:.+1 -:;*/6)46 6* 1*2/ (2/>->)+. U(. 98)6.>./ ,.6.36-*4 A-6( :)1 5.
)>)-+)5+. 6* 8.+; -4 ,.6.36-*4. S-43. 1*2 )/. -4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 )>*-,
3*46):-4)6., )/.)( )6 )++ 3*(6(. Y*2 3)4 .=;.36 4* 8.+; (8*2+, 1*2 5.3*:.
3*46):-4)6.,. I7 1*2 ,* 5.3*:. 3*46):-4)6.,0 ,.3*46):-4)6. 1*2/(.+7 )(
(**4 )( ;*((-5+. 2(-4< ;/*;./ ;/*3.,2/.(.
SHELTER
2B92. I7 1*2 7-4, 1*2/(.+7 -4 ) 3*46):-4)6., )/.)0 6/1 6* :*>. *26 *7 68. )/.)
)( 7)(6 )( ;*((-5+.. T/)>.+ 3/*((9-4, */ 2;9-4, 6* /.,23. 68. 6-:. (;.46 -4
68. ,*949-4, 8)G)/, )/.). I7 1*2 3)44*6 +.)>. 68. )/.) -::.,-)6.+1 )4,
8)>. 6* 52-+, ) (8.+6./0 2(. 4*/:)+ (8.+6./ 3*4(6/236-*4 6.384-?2.(0 9-68 ) 7.9
38)4<.(. B2-+, 68. (8.+6./ -4 ) 3+.)/-4<0 )9)1 7/*: )++ >.<.6)6-*4. R.:*>.
)++ 6*;(*-+ -4 68. )/.) *7 68. (8.+6./ 6* ,.3*46):-4)6. 68. )/.). K..; 68.
(8.+6./H( .46/)43. 3+*(., )4, */-.46., )6 ) 9"B,.</.. )4<+. 6* 68. ;/.>)-+-4<
9-4,. D* 4*6 52-+, ) 7-/. 2(-4< 3*46):-4)6., 9**,M 68. (:*A. 9-++ 5. 6*=-3.
U(. .=6/.:. 3)26-*4 98.4 .46./-4< 1*2/ (8.+6./ (* 68)6 1*2 9-++ 4*6 5/-4<
3*46):-4)6-*4 -4(-,..
$ATER PROCUREMENT
2B9. A( 9-68 5-*+*<-3)+ )4, 423+.)/ .4>-/*4:.46(0 <.66-4< 9)6./ -4 )
38.:-3)+ .4>-/*4:.46 -( ,-77-32+6. O5>-*2(+10 9)6./ -4 (.)+., 3*46)-4./( -(
270
1*2/ 5.(6 )4, ()7.(6 (*2/3.. Y*2 :2(6 ;/*6.36 68-( 9)6./ )( :238 )(
;*((-5+.. B. (2/. 6* ,.3*46):-4)6. 68. 3*46)-4./( 5.7*/. *;.4-4<.
2B94. I7 1*2 3)44*6 <.6 9)6./ -4 (.)+., 3*46)-4./(0 6/1 6* <.6 -6 7/*: ) 3+*(.,
(*2/3. (238 )( 24,./</*24, 9)6./ ;-;.(. Y*2 :)1 2(. /)-49)6./ */ (4*9 -7
68./. -( 4* .>-,.43. *7 3*46):-4)6-*4. U(. 9)6./ 7/*: (+*9B:*>-4< (6/.):(0
-7 4.3.(()/10 526 )+9)1( 38.3A 7-/(6 7*/ (-<4( *7 3*46):-4)6-*40 )4, )+9)1(
7-+6./ 68. 9)6./ )( ,.(3/-5., 24,./ 423+.)/ 3*4,-6-*4(. S-<4( *7 9)6./ (*2/3.
3*46):-4)6-*4 )/. 7*/.-<4 *,*/( (238 )( <)/+-30 :2(6)/,0 <./)4-2:0 */ 5-66./
)+:*4,(M *-+1 (;*6( *4 68. (2/7)3. *7 68. 9)6./ */ 4.)/51M )4, 68. ;/.(.43. *7
,.), 7-(8 */ )4-:)+(. I7 68.(. (-<4( )/. ;/.(.460 ,* 4*6 2(. 68. 9)6./.
A+9)1( 5*-+ */ ;2/-71 68. 9)6./ 6* ;/.>.46 5)36./-*+*<-3)+ -47.36-*4.
FOOD PROCUREMENT
2B9%. I6 -( .=6/.:.+1 ,-77-32+6 6* .)6 98-+. -4 ) 3*46):-4)6., )/.). Y*2 9-++
8)>. 6* 5/.)A 68. (.)+ *4 1*2/ ;/*6.36->. :)(A 6* .)6. I7 1*2 .)60 7-4, )4 )/.)
-4 98-38 1*2 3)4 ()7.+1 24:)(A. T8. ()7.(6 (*2/3. *7 7**, -( 1*2/ (.)+.,
3*:5)6 /)6-*4(. F**, -4 (.)+., 3)4( */ 5*66+.( 9-++ )+(* 5. ()7..
D.3*46):-4)6. )++ (.)+., 7**, 3*46)-4./( 5.7*/. *;.4-4<0 *68./9-(. 1*2 9-++
3*46):-4)6. 68. 7**,.
2B96. I7 1*2 :2(6 (2;;+.:.46 1*2/ 3*:5)6 /)6-*4( 9-68 +*3)+ ;+)46( */
)4-:)+(0 21 /10 2(. ;+)46( 7/*: 3*46):-4)6., )/.)( */ )4-:)+( 68)6 );;.)/ 6*
5. (-3A. !8.4 8)4,+-4< ;+)46( */ )4-:)+(0 )+9)1( 2(. ;/*6.36->. <+*>.( )4,
3+*68-4<.
A77+/24F A.
S3*B4B-< K40:.
T8. A/:1 8)( (.>./)+ 5)(-3 (2/>->)+ A-6(0 ;/-:)/-+1 7*/ -((2. 6* )>-)6*/(. T8./.
)/. A-6( 7*/ 3*+, 3+-:)6.(0 8*6 3+-:)6.(0 )4, *>./ 9)6./. T8./. -( )+(* )4
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8*60 )4, *>./ 9)6./ A-6( )/. -4 3)4>)( 3)//1-4< 5)<(. T8.(. A-6( )/. 4*/:)++1
(6*9., -4 68. 8.+-3*;6./H( 3)/<* )4, ;)((.4<./ )/.).
A4 )>-)6*/H( (2/>->)+ >.(6 CSRUB21PD0 9*/4 51 8.+-3*;6./ 3/.9(0 )+(* 3*46)-4(
(2/>->)+ -6.:(.
U.S. A/:1 )>-)6*/( 7+1-4< 7-=.,B9-4< )-/3/)76 .?2-;;., 9-68 .F.36-*4 (.)6( 2(.
68. SRFUB1RP (2/>->)+ >.(6. T8. -4,->-,2)+ (2/>->)+ A-6( )/. (6*9., -4 68.
(.)6 ;)4. L-A. )++ *68./ A-6(0 68. /-<-, (.)6 (2/>->)+ A-6 CRSSKD 1*2 2(.
,.;.4,( *4 68. .4>-/*4:.46.
I6.:( 3*46)-4., -4 68. A-6( :)1 5. */,./., (.;)/)6.+1 68/*2<8 (2;;+1
38)44.+(. A++ (2/>->)+ A-6( )4, >.(6( )/. C*::*4 T)5+. *7 A++*9)43.( %"B
271
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72.+.
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64B%D.
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272
F493*+ AC!. I/24B423-< S3*B4B-< K40 $408 G+/+*-< -/2 M+24.-< P-.?+0:
273
F493*+ AC!. I/24B423-< S3*B4B-< K40 $408 G+/+*-< -/2 M+24.-< P-.?+0:
KC1/04/3+2L
274
F493*+ AC!. I/24B423-< S3*B4B-< K40 $408 G+/+*-< -/2 M+24.-< P-.?+0:
KC1/04/3+2L
F493*+ AC". SRUC21P AB4-01*I: S3*B4B-< K40
275
F493*+ AC6. OVC1 R4942 S+-0 S3*B4B-< K40:
A77+/24F B.
E24@<+ -/2 M+24.4/-< P<-/0:.
I4 ) (2/>->)+ (-62)6-*40 ;+)46( 3)4 ;/*>-,. 7**, )4, :.,-3-4.. T8.-/ ()7. 2(.
/.?2-/.( )5(*+26.+1 ;*(-6->. -,.46-7-3)6-*40 A4*9-4< 8*9 6* ;/.;)/. 68.: 7*/
.)6-4<0 )4, A4*9-4< )41 ,)4<./*2( ;/*;./6-.( 68.1 :-<86 8)>.. F):-+-)/-61
9-68 5*6)4-3)+ (6/2362/.( *7 ;+)46( )4, -47*/:)6-*4 *4 98./. 68.1 </*9 9-++
:)A. 68.: .)(-./ 6* +*3)6. )4, -,.46-71. T8-( );;.4,-= ;/*>-,.( ;-362/.(0
,.(3/-;6-*4(0 8)5-6)6( )4, ,-(6/-526-*40 )4, .,-5+. ;)/6( *7 68. :*(6 3*::*4
;+)46( 68)6 1*2 :-<86 .43*246./.
276
A@-<
Calligon&m comos&m
D+:.*47041/: T8. )5)+ -( *4. *7 68. 7.9 (8/2551 ;+)46( 68)6 .=-(6 -4 68. (8),1
,.(./6(. T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 6* )5*26 1.2 :.6./( C4 7..6D0 )4, -6( 5/)438.( +**A
+-A. 9-(;( 7/*: ) 5/**:. T8. (6-770 </..4 5/)438.( ;/*,23. )4 )524,)43. *7
7+*9./( -4 M)/38 )4, A;/-+.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 ,.(./6 (3/25 )4, 9)(6. -4
)41 3+-:)6-3 G*4.. I6 -48)5-6( :238 *7 68. N*/68 A7/-3)4 ,.(./6. I6 :)1 )+(* 5.
7*24, *4 68. ,.(./6 ()4,( *7 68. M-,,+. E)(6 )4, )( 7)/ .)(69)/, )( 68.
R)F;26)4) ,.(./6 *7 9.(6./4 I4,-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8-( ;+)46H( <.4./)+ );;.)/)43. 9*2+, 4*6 -4,-3)6. -6(
2(.72+4.(( 6* 1*20 526 98-+. 68-( ;+)46 -( 7+*9./-4< -4 68. (;/-4<0 -6( 7/.(8
7+*9./( 3)4 5. .)6.4. I6 -( 3*::*4 -4 68. )/.)( 98./. -6 -( 7*24,. A4
)4)+1(-( *7 68. )5)+H( 7**, >)+2. 8)( (8*94 -6 6* 5. 8-<8 -4 (2<)/ )4,
4-6/*<.4*2( 3*:;*4.46(.
A.-.4-
Acacia 2arnesiana
D+:.*47041/: A3)3-) -( ) (;/.),-4<0 2(2)++1 (8*/6 6/.. 9-68 (;-4.( )4,
)+6./4)6. 3*:;*24, +.)>.(. I6( -4,->-,2)+ +.)7+.6( )/. (:)++. I6( 7+*9./( )/.
5)++B(8);.,0 5/-<86 1.++*90 )4, >./1 7/)</)46. I6( 5)/A -( ) 98-6-(8B</)1 3*+*/.
I6( 7/2-6( )/. ,)/A 5/*94 )4, ;*, +-A..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A3)3-) </*9( -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)(. I6 -( 7*24,
68/*2<8*26 )++ 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
NOTE: T8./. )/. )5*26 %"" (;.3-.( *7 )3)3-). T8.(. ;+)46( )/. .(;.3-)++1
277
;/.>)+.46 -4 A7/-3)0 (*268./4 A(-)0 )4, A2(6/)+-)0 526 :)41 (;.3-.( )/. 7*24,
-4 68. 9)/:./ )4, ,/-./ ;)/6( *7 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 1*24< +.)>.(0 7+*9./(0 )4, ;*,( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,.
A9-B+
Agave (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( 8)>. +)/<. 3+2(6./( *7 68-3A0 7+.(81 +.)>.( 5*/4.
3+*(. 6* 68. </*24, )4, (2//*24,-4< ) 3.46/)+ (6)+A. T8. ;+)46( 7+*9./ *4+1
*43.0 68.4 ,-.. T8.1 ;/*,23. ) :)((->. 7+*9./ (6)+A.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A<)>.( ;/.7./ ,/10 *;.4 )/.)(. T8.1 )/. 7*24,
68/*2<8*26 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 68. C)/-55.)40 )4, ;)/6( *7 68. 9.(6./4 ,.(./6(
*7 68. U4-6., S6)6.( )4, M.=-3*.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 7+*9./( )4, 7+*9./ 52,( )/. .,-5+.. B*-+ 68.: 5.7*/. .)6-4<.
CAUTION
T8. F2-3. *7 (*:. (;.3-.( 3)2(.( ,./:)6-6-( -4 (*:. -4,->-,2)+(.
O08+* U:+:: C26 68. 82<. 7+*9./ (6)+A )4, 3*++.36 68. F2-3. 7*/ ,/-4A-4<.
S*:. (;.3-.( 8)>. >./1 7-5/*2( +.)>.(. P*24, 68. +.)>.( )4, /.:*>. 68.
7-5./( 7*/ 9.)>-4< )4, :)A-4< /*;.(. M*(6 (;.3-.( 8)>. 68-3A0 (8)/; 4..,+.(
)6 68. 6-;( *7 68. +.)>.(. U(. 68.: 7*/ (.9-4< */ :)A-4< 8)3A(. T8. (); *7
278
(*:. (;.3-.( 3*46)-4( ) 38.:-3)+ 68)6 :)A.( 68. (); (2-6)5+. 7*/ 2(. )( )
(*);.
A<>1/2
"r&n&s amygdal&s
D+:.*47041/: T8. )+:*4, 6/..0 98-38 (*:.6-:.( </*9( 6* 12.2 :.6./( C4"
7..6D0 +**A( +-A. ) ;.)38 6/... T8. 7/.(8 )+:*4, 7/2-6 /.(.:5+.( ) <4)/+.,0
24/-;. ;.)38 )4, </*9( -4 3+2(6./(. T8. (6*4. C68. )+:*4, -6(.+7D -( 3*>./.,
9-68 ) 68-3A0 ,/10 9**++1 (A-4.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A+:*4,( )/. 7*24, -4 68. (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6(
*7 68. 6/*;-3(0 68. .>./</..4 (3/25 7*/.(6( *7 6.:;./)6. )/.)(0 )4, -4 ,.(./6
(3/25 )4, 9)(6. -4 )++ 3+-:)6-3 G*4.(. T8. )+:*4, 6/.. -( )+(* 7*24, -4 68.
(.:- ,.(./6 )/.)( *7 68. O+, !*/+, -4 (*268./4 E2/*;.0 68. .)(6./4
M.,-6.//)4.)40 I/)40 68. M-,,+. E)(60 C8-4)0 M),.-/)0 68. AG*/.(0 )4, 68.
C)4)/1 I(+)4,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. :)62/. )+:*4, 7/2-6 (;+-6( *;.4 +.4<689-(. ,*94 68. (-,.0
.=;*(-4< 68. /-;. )+:*4, 426. Y*2 3)4 .)(-+1 <.6 68. ,/1 A./4.+ 51 (-:;+1
3/)3A-4< *;.4 68. (6*4.. A+:*4, :.)6( )/. /-38 -4 7**, >)+2.0 +-A. )++ 426(.
G)68./ 68.: -4 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( )4, (8.++ 68.: 7*/ 72/68./ 2(. )( (2/>->)+ 7**,.
Y*2 3*2+, +->. (*+.+1 *4 )+:*4,( 7*/ /)68./ +*4< ;./-*,(. !8.4 1*2 5*-+ 68.:0
68. A./4.+H( *26./ 3*>./-4< 3*:.( *77 )4, *4+1 68. 98-6. :.)6 /.:)-4(.
279
A>-*-/08
Amaranth&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46(0 98-38 </*9 9" 6* 1%" 3.46-:.6./( C% 6* 6"
-438.(D 6)++0 )/. )524,)46 9..,( -4 :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,. A++ ):)/)468
8)>. )+6./4)6. (-:;+. +.)>.(. T8.1 :)1 8)>. (*:. /., 3*+*/ ;/.(.46 *4 68.
(6.:(. T8.1 5.)/ :-426.0 </..4-(8 7+*9./( -4 ,.4(. 3+2(6./( )6 68. 6*; *7 68.
;+)46(. T8.-/ (..,( :)1 5. 5/*94 */ 5+)3A -4 9..,1 (;.3-.( )4, +-<86B3*+*/.,
-4 ,*:.(6-3 (;.3-.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ ):)/)468 )+*4< /*),(-,.(0 -4 ,-(62/5.,
9)(6. )/.)(0 */ )( 9..,( -4 3/*;( 68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+,. S*:. ):)/)468
(;.3-.( 8)>. 5..4 </*94 )( ) </)-4 3/*; )4, ) <)/,.4 >.<.6)5+. -4 >)/-*2(
;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 S*268 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+.0 526 (*:. :)1 8)>. (8)/; (;-4.( 1*2
(8*2+, /.:*>. 5.7*/. .)6-4<. T8. 1*24< ;+)46( */ 68. </*9-4< 6-;( *7 *+,./
;+)46( )/. )4 .=3.++.46 >.<.6)5+.. S-:;+1 5*-+ 68. 1*24< ;+)46( */ .)6 68.:
/)9. T8.-/ (..,( )/. >./1 426/-6-*2(. S8)A. 68. 6*;( *7 *+,./ ;+)46( 6* <.6 68.
(..,(. E)6 68. (..,( /)90 5*-+.,0 </*24, -46* 7+*2/0 */ ;*;;., +-A. ;*;3*/4.
280
A*.04. A4<<1A
Sali3 arctica
D+:.*47041/: T8. )/36-3 9-++*9 -( ) (8/25 68)6 4.>./ .=3..,( :*/. 68)4 6"
3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D -4 8.-<86 )4, </*9( -4 3+2:;( 68)6 7*/: ,.4(. :)6(
*4 68. 624,/).
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. )/36-3 9-++*9 -( 3*::*4 *4 624,/)( -4 N*/68
A:./-3)0 E2/*;.0 )4, A(-). Y*2 3)4 )+(* 7-4, -6 -4 (*:. :*246)-4*2( )/.)(
-4 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*2 3)4 3*++.36 68. (2332+.460 6.4,./ 1*24< (8**6( *7 68. )/36-3
9-++*9 -4 .)/+1 (;/-4<. S6/-; *77 68. *26./ 5)/A *7 68. 4.9 (8**6( )4, .)6 68.
-44./ ;*/6-*4 /)9. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ;..+ )4, .)6 /)9 68. 1*24< 24,./</*24,
(8**6( *7 )41 *7 68. >)/-*2( A-4,( *7 )/36-3 9-++*9. Y*24< 9-++*9 +.)>.( )/.
*4. *7 68. /-38.(6 (*2/3.( *7 >-6):-4 C0 3*46)-4-4< 7 6* 1" 6-:.( :*/. 68)4 )4
*/)4<..
281
A**1A*110
7aranta and Sagittaria (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. )//*9/**6 -( )4 )?2)6-3 ;+)46 9-68 )//*9B(8);., +.)>.( )4,
;*6)6* +-A. 625./( -4 68. :2,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A//*9/**6 -( 7*24, 9*/+,9-,. -4 6.:;./)6. G*4.(
)4, 68. 6/*;-3(. I6 -( 7*24, -4 :*-(6 6* 9.6 8)5-6)6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /**6(6*3A -( ) /-38 (*2/3. *7 8-<8 ?2)+-61 (6)/38. B*-+ 68.
/**6(6*3A )4, .)6 -6 )( ) >.<.6)5+..
A:7-*-93:
Asparag&s o22icinalis
D+:.*47041/: T8. (;/-4< </*968 *7 68-( ;+)46 /.(.:5+.( ) 3+2(6./ *7 </..4
7-4<./(. T8. :)62/. ;+)46 8)( 7./4+-A.0 9-(;1 7*+-)<. )4, /., 5.//-.(. I6(
282
7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4, </..4-(8 -4 3*+*/. S.>./)+ (;.3-.( 8)>. (8)/;0 68*/4
+-A. (6/2362/.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A(;)/)<2( -( 7*24, 9*/+,9-,. -4 6.:;./)6. )/.)(.
L**A 7*/ -6 -4 7-.+,(0 *+, 8*:. (-6.(0 )4, 7.43./*9(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: E)6 68. 1*24< (6.:( 5.7*/. +.)>.( 7*/:. S6.): */ 5*-+ 68.:
7*/ 1" 6* 1% :-426.( 5.7*/. .)6-4<. R)9 )(;)/)<2( :)1 3)2(. 4)2(.) */
,-)//8.). T8. 7+.(81 /**6( )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 (6)/38.
$ARNING
D* 4*6 .)6 68. 7/2-6( *7 )41 (-43. (*:. )/. 6*=-3.
B-+< ,*340
Aegle marmelos
D+:.*47041/: T8-( -( ) 6/.. 68)6 </*9( 7/*: 2.4 6* 4.6 :.6./( C$ 6* 1% 7..6D 6)++0
9-68 ) ,.4(. (;-41 </*968. T8. 7/2-6 -( % 6* 1" 3.46-:.6./( C2 6* 4 -438.(D -4
,-):.6./0 </)1 */ 1.++*9-(80 )4, 72++ *7 (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: B).+ 7/2-6 -( 7*24, -4 /)-4 7*/.(6( )4, (.:-
.>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6( *7 68. 6/*;-3(. I6 </*9( 9-+, -4 I4,-) )4, B2/:).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-60 98-38 /-;.4( -4 D.3.:5./0 -( )6 -6( 5.(6 98.4 F2(6
62/4-4< /-;.. T8. F2-3. *7 68. /-;. 7/2-60 ,-+26., 9-68 9)6./ )4, :-=., 9-68 )
(:)++ ):*246 *7 6):)/-4, )4, (2<)/ */ 8*4.10 -( (*2/ 526 /.7/.(8-4<. L-A.
*68./ 3-6/2( 7/2-6(0 -6 -( /-38 -4 >-6):-4 C.
283
B->@11
V)/-*2( (;.3-.( -43+2,-4< *am%&sa, /endrocalam&s, "hyllostachys
D+:.*47041/: B):5**( )/. 9**,1 </)((.( 68)6 </*9 2; 6* 1% :.6./( C%" 7..6D
6)++. T8. +.)>.( )/. </)(( +-A. )4, 68. (6.:( )/. 68. 7):-+-)/ 5):5**( 2(., -4
72/4-62/. )4, 7-(8-4< ;*+.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 5):5** -4 9)/:0 :*-(6 /.<-*4( -4 *;.4 */
F24<+. 3*246/10 -4 +*9+)4,0 */ *4 :*246)-4(. B):5**( )/. 4)6->. 6* 68. F)/
E)(6 C6.:;./)6. )4, 6/*;-3)+ G*4.(D 526 8)>. 5..4 9-,.+1 ;+)46., )/*24, 68.
9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< (8**6( *7 )+:*(6 )++ (;.3-.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */
3**A.,. R)9 (8**6( 8)>. ) (+-<86+1 5-66./ 6)(6. 68)6 -( /.:*>., 51 5*-+-4<. T*
;/.;)/.0 /.:*>. 68. 6*2<8 ;/*6.36->. (8.)68 68)6 -( 3*)6., 9-68 6)941 */ /.,
8)-/(. T8. (.., </)-4 *7 68. 7+*9./-4< 5):5** -( )+(* .,-5+.. B*-+ 68. (..,(
+-A. /-3. */ ;2+>./-G. 68.:0 :-= 9-68 9)6./0 )4, :)A. -46* 3)A.(.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. :)62/. 5):5** 6* 52-+, (6/2362/.( */ 6* :)A.
3*46)-4./(0 +),+.(0 (;**4(0 )4, >)/-*2( *68./ 3**A-4< 26.4(-+(. A+(*0 2(.
5):5** 6* :)A. 6**+( )4, 9.);*4(. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) (6/*4< 5*9 51 (;+-66-4<
68. 5):5** )4, ;266-4< (.>./)+ ;-.3.( 6*<.68./.
284
CAUTION
G/..4 5):5** :)1 .=;+*,. -4 ) 7-/.. G/..4 5):5** 8)( )4 -46./4)+
:.:5/)4. 1*2 :2(6 /.:*>. 5.7*/. 2(-4< -6 )( ) 7**, */ 9)6./ 3*46)-4./.
B-/-/- -/2 7<-/0-4/
7&sa (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. )/. 6/..+-A. ;+)46( 9-68 (.>./)+ +)/<. +.)>.( )6 68. 6*;.
T8.-/ 7+*9./( )/. 5*/4. -4 ,.4(. 8)4<-4< 3+2(6./(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 5)4)4)( )4, ;+)46)-4( -4 *;.4 7-.+,( */
:)/<-4( *7 7*/.(6( 98./. 68.1 )/. </*94 )( ) 3/*;. T8.1 </*9 -4 68. 82:-,
6/*;-3(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8.-/ 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. T8.1 :)1 5. 5*-+., */
5)A.,. Y*2 3)4 5*-+ 68.-/ 7+*9./( )4, .)6 68.: +-A. ) >.<.6)5+.. Y*2 3)4
3**A )4, .)6 68. /**6(6*3A( )4, +.)7 (8.)68( *7 :)41 (;.3-.(. T8. 3.46./ */
J8.)/6K *7 68. ;+)46 -( .,-5+. 1.)/B/*24,0 3**A., */ /)9.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. +)1./( *7 68. +*9./ 68-/, *7 68. ;+)46( 6* 3*>./
3*)+( 6* /*)(6 7**,. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 68.-/ (62:;( 6* <.6 9)6./ C(.. C8);6./
6D. Y*2 3)4 2(. 68.-/ +.)>.( 6* 9/); *68./ 7**,( 7*/ 3**A-4< */ (6*/)<..
285
B-1@-@
Adansonia digitata
D+:.*47041/: T8. 5)*5)5 6/.. :)1 </*9 )( 8-<8 )( 1$ :.6./( C6" 7..6D )4,
:)1 8)>. ) 6/24A 9 :.6./( C" 7..6D -4 ,-):.6./. T8. 6/.. 8)( (8*/60 (62551
5/)438.( )4, ) </)10 68-3A 5)/A. I6( +.)>.( )/. 3*:;*24, )4, 68.-/ (.<:.46(
)/. )//)4<., +-A. 68. ;)+: *7 ) 8)4,. I6( 7+*9./(0 98-38 )/. 98-6. )4, (.>./)+
3.46-:.6./( )3/*((0 8)4< 7/*: 68. 8-<8./ 5/)438.(. I6( 7/2-6 -( (8);., +-A. )
7**65)++0 :.)(2/.( 2; 6* 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D +*4<0 )4, -( 3*>./., 9-68
(8*/6 ,.4(. 8)-/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. 6/..( </*9 -4 ()>)44)(. T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4
A7/-3)0 -4 ;)/6( *7 A2(6/)+-)0 )4, *4 68. -(+)4, *7 M),)<)(3)/.
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. 1*24< +.)>.( )( ) (*2; >.<.6)5+.. T8.
6.4,./ /**6 *7 68. 1*24< 5)*5)5 6/.. -( .,-5+.. T8. ;2+; )4, (..,( *7 68. 7/2-6
)/. )+(* .,-5+.. U(. *4. 8)4,72+ *7 ;2+; 6* )5*26 *4. 32; *7 9)6./ 7*/ )
/.7/.(8-4< ,/-4A. T* *56)-4 7+*2/0 /*)(6 68. (..,(0 )4, 68.4 </-4, 68.:.
O08+* U:+:: D/-4A-4< ) :-=62/. *7 ;2+; )4, 9)6./ 9-++ 8.+; 32/. ,-)//8.).
O76.4 68. 8*++*9 6/24A( )/. <**, (*2/3.( *7 7/.(8 9)6./. T8. 5)/A 3)4 5. 326
-46* (6/-;( )4, ;*24,., 6* *56)-4 ) (6/*4< 7-5./ 7*/ :)A-4< /*;..
286
B-01?1 7<3>
#laco&rtia inermis
D+:.*47041/: T8-( (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/.. 8)( ,)/A </..40 )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+.
+.)>.(. I6( 7/2-6( )/. 5/-<86 /., )4, 3*46)-4 (-= */ :*/. (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( ) 4)6->. *7 68. P8-+-;;-4.( 526 -(
9-,.+1 32+6->)6., 7*/ -6( 7/2-6 -4 *68./ )/.)(. I6 3)4 5. 7*24, -4 3+.)/-4<( )4, )6
68. .,<.( *7 68. 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6( *7 A7/-3) )4, A(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: E)6 68. 7/2-6 /)9 */ 3**A.,.
287
B+-*@+**; 1* ?4//4?4//4.?
Arctostaphylos &va&rsi
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( ) 3*::*4 .>./</..4 (8/25 9-68 /.,,-(80 (3)+1 5)/A
)4, 68-3A0 +.)68./1 +.)>.( 4 3.46-:.6./( C1 1R2 -438.(D +*4< )4, 1 3.46-:.6./
C1R2 -438D 9-,.. I6 8)( 98-6. 7+*9./( )4, 5/-<86 /., 7/2-6(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 )/36-30 (25 )/36-30 )4,
6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(0 :*(6 *76.4 -4 ()4,1 */ /*3A1 (*-+.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 5.//-.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. Y*2 3)4 :)A. )
/.7/.(8-4< 6.) 7/*: -6( 1*24< +.)>.(.
B++.8
#ag&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: B..38 6/..( )/. +)/<. C9 6* 24 :.6./( P" 6* $" 7..6QD0
(1::.6/-3)+ 7*/.(6 6/..( 68)6 8)>. (:**680 +-<86B</)1 5)/A )4, ,)/A </..4
288
7*+-)<.. T8. 38)/)36./ *7 -6( 5)/A0 ;+2( -6( 3+2(6./( *7 ;/-3A+1 (..,;*,(0 3+.)/+1
,-(6-4<2-(8 68. 5..38 6/.. -4 68. 7-.+,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. -( 7*24, -4 68. 6.:;./)6. G*4.. I6 </*9(
9-+, -4 68. .)(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.(0 E2/*;.0 A(-)0 )4, N*/68 A7/-3). I6 -( 7*24, -4
:*-(6 )/.)(0 :)-4+1 -4 68. 7*/.(6(. T8-( 6/.. -( 3*::*4 68/*2<8*26 (*268B
.)(6./4 E2/*;. )4, )3/*(( 6.:;./)6. A(-). B..38 /.+)6->.( )/. )+(* 7*24, -4
C8-+.0 N.9 G2-4.)0 )4, N.9 &.)+)4,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. :)62/. 5..38426( /.),-+1 7)++ *26 *7 68. 82(A +-A.
(..,;*,(. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.(. ,)/AB5/*940 6/-)4<2+)/ 426( 51 5/.)A-4< 68. 68-4
(8.++ 9-68 1*2/ 7-4<./4)-+ )4, /.:*>-4< 68. 98-6.0 (9..6 A./4.+ -4(-,..
B..38426( )/. *4. *7 68. :*(6 ,.+-3-*2( *7 )++ 9-+, 426(. T8.1 )/. ) :*(6
2(.72+ (2/>->)+ 7**, 5.3)2(. *7 68. A./4.+H( 8-<8 *-+ 3*46.46. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(.
68. 5..38426( )( ) 3*77.. (25(6-626.. R*)(6 68.: (* 68)6 68. A./4.+ 5.3*:.(
<*+,.4 5/*94 )4, ?2-6. 8)/,. T8.4 ;2+>./-G. 68. A./4.+ )4,0 )76./ 5*-+-4< */
(6..;-4< -4 8*6 9)6./0 1*2 8)>. ) ;)(()5+. 3*77.. (25(6-626..
B49/-;
Antidesma %&ni&s
D+:.*47041/: B-<4)1 -( ) (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/..0 6* 12 :.6./( C1" 6* 4" 7..6D
6)++0 9-68 (8-410 ;*-46., +.)>.( )5*26 1% 3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D +*4<. I6(
7+*9./( )/. (:)++0 3+2(6./.,0 )4, </..4. I6 8)( 7+.(810 ,)/A /., */ 5+)3A 7/2-6
)4, ) (-4<+. (..,. T8. 7/2-6 -( )5*26 1 3.46-:.6./ C1R2 -438D -4 ,-):.6./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 /)-4 7*/.(6( )4, (.:-
.>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6( -4 68. 6/*;-3(. I6 -( 7*24, -4 *;.4 ;+)3.( )4, -4
(.3*4,)/1 7*/.(6(. I6 </*9( 9-+, 7/*: 68. H-:)+)1)( 6* S/- L)4A) )4,
.)(69)/, 68/*2<8 I4,*4.(-) 6* 4*/68./4 A2(6/)+-). H*9.>./0 -6 :)1 5. 7*24,
289
)4198./. -4 68. 6/*;-3( -4 32+6->)6., 7*/:(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 -( .,-5+. /)9. D* 4*6 .)6 )41 *68./ ;)/6( *7 68. 6/...
I4 A7/-3)0 68. /**6( )/. 6*=-3. O68./ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 :)1 5. ;*-(*4*2(.
CAUTION
E)6.4 -4 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.(0 68. 7/2-6 :)1 8)>. ) +)=)6->. .77.36.
B<-.?@+**;& *-:7@+**;& -/2 2+A@+**;
R&%&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( 8)>. ;/-3A+1 (6.:( C3)4.(D 68)6 </*9 2;9)/,0
)/38-4< 5)3A 6*9)/, 68. </*24,. T8.1 8)>. )+6./4)6.0 2(2)++1 3*:;*24,
+.)>.(. T8.-/ 7/2-6( :)1 5. /.,0 5+)3A0 1.++*90 */ */)4<.. T8-( ;+)46 -( *76.4
3*472(., 9-68 ;*-(*4 ->1 ,2/-4< (*:. (.)(*4( 526 68.(. (6.:( 8)>. 68*/4(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. ;+)46( </*9 -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)( )6 68.
:)/<-4 *7 9**,(0 +)A.(0 (6/.):(0 )4, /*),( 68/*2<8*26 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(.
T8./. -( )+(* )4 )/36-3 /)(;5.//1.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )4, ;..+., 1*24< (8**6( )/. .,-5+.. F+)>*/ >)/-.(
</.)6+1.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. +.)>.( 6* :)A. 6.). T* 6/.)6 ,-)//8.)0 ,/-4A ) 6.) :),.
51 5/.9-4< 68. ,/-., /**6 5)/A *7 68. 5+)3A5.//1 52(8.
290
B<3+@+**; -/2 83.?<+@+**;
'accini&m )4, )ayl&ssacia (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. (8/25( >)/1 -4 (-G. 7/*: " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D 6* .7
:.6./( C12 7..6D 6)++. A++ 8)>. )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+. +.)>.(. T8.-/ 7/2-6( :)1 5.
,)/A 5+2.0 5+)3A0 */ /., )4, 8)>. :)41 (:)++ (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. ;+)46( ;/.7./ *;.40 (2441 )/.)(. T8.1 )/.
7*24, 68/*2<8*26 :238 *7 68. 4*/68 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4( )4, )6 8-<8./
.+.>)6-*4( -4 C.46/)+ A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8.-/ 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. /)9.
B*+-2,*340
Artocarp&s incisa
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. :)1 </*9 2; 6* 9 :.6./( C" 7..6D 6)++. I6 8)( ,)/A
291
</..40 ,..;+1 ,->-,., +.)>.( 68)6 )/. 7% 3.46-:.6./( C29 -438.(D +*4< )4, "
3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D 9-,.. I6( 7/2-6( )/. +)/<.0 </..40 5)++B+-A. (6/2362/.( 2;
6* " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D )3/*(( 98.4 :)62/..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( 6/.. )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 7*/.(6( )4,
8*:. (-6.( -4 68. 82:-, 6/*;-3(. I6 -( 4)6->. 6* 68. S*268 P)3-7-3 /.<-*4 526 8)(
5..4 9-,.+1 ;+)46., -4 68. !.(6 I4,-.( )4, ;)/6( *7 P*+14.(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 ;2+; -( .,-5+. /)9. T8. 7/2-6 3)4 5. (+-3.,0 ,/-.,0 )4,
</*24, -46* 7+*2/ 7*/ +)6./ 2(.. T8. (..,( )/. .,-5+. 3**A.,.
O08+* U:+:: T8. 68-3A (); 3)4 (./>. )( <+2. )4, 3)2+A-4< :)6./-)+. Y*2 3)4
)+(* 2(. -6 )( 5-/,+-:. C6* .46/); (:)++ 5-/,( 51 (:.)/-4< 68. (); *4 69-<(
98./. 68.1 2(2)++1 ;./38D.
B3*21.?
Arcti&m lappa
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( 9)>1B.,<.,0 )//*9B(8);., +.)>.( )4, 7+*9./
8.),( -4 52// +-A. 3+2(6./(. I6 </*9( 2; 6* 2 :.6./( C7 7..6D 6)++0 9-68 ;2/;+. */
;-4A 7+*9./( )4, ) +)/<.0 7+.(81 /**6.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: B2/,*3A -( 7*24, 9*/+,9-,. -4 68. 4*/68 6.:;./)6.
G*4.. L**A 7*/ -6 -4 *;.4 9)(6. )/.)( ,2/-4< 68. (;/-4< )4, (2::./.
E24@<+ P-*0:: P..+ 68. 6.4,./ +.)7 (6)+A( )4, .)6 68.: /)9 */ 3**A 68.: +-A.
</..4(. T8. /**6( )/. )+(* .,-5+. 5*-+., */ 5)A.,.
CAUTION
D* 4*6 3*472(. 52/,*3A 9-68 /825)/5 68)6 8)( ;*-(*4*2( +.)>.(.
O08+* U:+:: A +-?2-, :),. 7/*: 68. /**6( 9-++ 8.+; 6* ;/*,23. (9.)6-4< )4,
292
-43/.)(. 2/-4)6-*4. D/1 68. /**60 (-::./ -6 -4 9)6./0 (6/)-4 68. +-?2-,0 )4, 68.4
,/-4A 68. (6/)-4., +-?2-,. U(. 68. 7-5./ 7/*: 68. ,/-., (6)+A 6* 9.)>. 3*/,)<..
B3*< P-<>
Corypha elata
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. :)1 /.)38 1$ :.6./( C6" 7..6D -4 8.-<86. I6 8)( +)/<.0
7)4B(8);., +.)>.( 2; 6* :.6./( C1" 7..6D +*4< )4, (;+-6 -46* )5*26 1""
4)//*9 (.<:.46(. I6 5.)/( 7+*9./( -4 82<. ,2(6./( )6 68. 6*; *7 68. 6/... T8.
6/.. ,-.( )76./ 7+*9./-4<.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( -4 3*)(6)+ )/.)( *7 68. E)(6 I4,-.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 6/24A 3*46)-4( (6)/38 68)6 -( .,-5+. /)9. T8. >./1 6-; *7 68.
6/24A -( )+(* .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. Y*2 3)4 <.6 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 +-?2-, 51
5/2-(-4< 68. 7+*9./-4< (6)+A. T8. A./4.+( *7 68. 426( )/. .,-5+..
CAUTION
T8. (.., 3*>./-4< :)1 3)2(. ,./:)6-6-( -4 (*:. -4,->-,2)+(.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. +.)>.( )( 9.)>-4< :)6./-)+.
293
C-//- <4<;
Canna indica
D+:.*47041/: T8. 3)44) +-+1 -( ) 3*)/(. ;./.44-)+ 8./50 9" 3.46-:.6./( C6
-438.(D 6* :.6./( C1" 7..6D 6)++. T8. ;+)46 </*9( 7/*: ) +)/<.0 68-3A0
24,./</*24, /**6(6*3A 68)6 -( .,-5+.. I6( +)/<. +.)>.( /.(.:5+. 68*(. *7 68.
5)4)4) ;+)46 526 )/. 4*6 (* +)/<.. T8. 7+*9./( *7 9-+, 3)44) +-+1 )/. 2(2)++1
(:)++0 /.+)6->.+1 -43*4(;-32*2(0 )4, 5/-<86+1 3*+*/., /.,(0 */)4<.(0 */ 1.++*9(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A( ) 9-+, ;+)460 68. 3)44) +-+1 -( 7*24, -4 )++ 6/*;-3)+
)/.)(0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 :*-(6 ;+)3.( )+*4< (6/.):(0 (;/-4<(0 ,-638.(0 )4, 68.
:)/<-4( *7 9**,(. I6 :)1 )+(* 5. 7*24, -4 9.6 6.:;./)6.0 :*246)-4*2(
/.<-*4(. I6 -( .)(1 6* /.3*<4-G. 5.3)2(. -6 -( 3*::*4+1 32+6->)6., -4 7+*9./
<)/,.4( -4 68. U4-6., S6)6.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. +)/<. )4, :238B5/)438., /**6(6*3A( )/. 72++ *7 .,-5+.
(6)/38. T8. 1*24<./ ;)/6( :)1 5. 7-4.+1 38*;;., )4, 68.4 5*-+., */
;2+>./-G., -46* ) :.)+. M-= -4 68. 1*24< (8**6( *7 ;)+: 3)55)<. 7*/ 7+)>*/-4<.
294
C-*1@ 0*++
Ceratonia sili=&a
D+:.*47041/: T8-( +)/<. 6/.. 8)( ) (;/.),-4< 3/*94. I6( +.)>.( )/. 3*:;*24,
)4, )+6./4)6.. I6( (..,;*,(0 )+(* A4*94 )( S)-46 J*84H( 5/.),0 )/. 2; 6* 4%
3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D +*4< )4, )/. 7-++., 9-68 /*24,0 8)/, (..,( )4, ) 68-3A
;2+;.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. -( 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. M.,-6.//)4.)40
68. M-,,+. E)(60 )4, ;)/6( *7 N*/68 A7/-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24<0 6.4,./ ;*,( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 5*-+.,. Y*2 3)4
;2+>./-G. 68. (..,( -4 :)62/. ;*,( )4, 3**A )( ;*//-,<..
C-:8+A /30
Anacardi&m occidentale
D+:.*47041/: T8. 3)(8.9 -( ) (;/.),-4< .>./</..4 6/.. </*9-4< 6* ) 8.-<86 *7
12 :.6./( C4" 7..6D0 9-68 +.)>.( 2; 6* 2" 3.46-:.6./( C$ -438.(D +*4< )4, 1"
295
3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D 9-,.. I6( 7+*9./( )/. 1.++*9-(8B;-4A. I6( 7/2-6 -( >./1
.)(1 6* /.3*<4-G. 5.3)2(. *7 -6( ;.32+-)/ (6/2362/.. T8. 7/2-6 -( 68-3A )4, ;.)/B
(8);.,0 ;2+;1 )4, /., */ 1.++*9 98.4 /-;.. T8-( 7/2-6 5.)/( ) 8)/,0 </..40
A-,4.1B(8);., 426 )6 -6( 6-;. T8-( 426 -( (:**680 (8-410 )4, </..4 */ 5/*94
)33*/,-4< 6* -6( :)62/-61.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 3)(8.9 -( 4)6->. 6* 68. !.(6 I4,-.( )4,
4*/68./4 S*268 A:./-3)0 526 6/)4(;+)46)6-*4 8)( (;/.), -6 6* )++ 6/*;-3)+
3+-:)6.(. I4 68. O+, !*/+,0 -6 8)( .(3);., 7/*: 32+6->)6-*4 )4, );;.)/( 6* 5.
9-+, )6 +.)(6 -4 ;)/6( *7 A7/-3) )4, I4,-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 426 .43+*(.( *4. (..,. T8. (.., -( .,-5+. 98.4 /*)(6.,.
T8. ;.)/B(8);., 7/2-6 -( F2-310 (9..6 )3-,0 )4, )(6/-4<.46. I6 -( ?2-6. ()7. )4,
3*4(-,./., ,.+-3-*2( 51 :*(6 ;.*;+. 98* .)6 -6.
CAUTION
T8. </..4 82++ (2//*24,-4< 68. 426 3*46)-4( ) /.(-4*2( -//-6)46 ;*-(*4 68)6 9-++
5+-(6./ 68. +-;( )4, 6*4<2. +-A. ;*-(*4 ->1. H.)6 ,.(6/*1( 68-( ;*-(*4 98.4 68.
426( )/. /*)(6.,.
C-00-4<
$ypha lati2olia
D+:.*47041/: C)66)-+( )/. </)(( +-A. ;+)46( 9-68 (6/);B(8);., +.)>.( 1 6* %
3.46-:.6./( C1R4 6* 2 -438.(D 9-,. )4, </*9-4< 2; 6* 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 6)++.
T8. :)+. 7+*9./( )/. 5*/4. -4 ) ,.4(. :)(( )5*>. 68. 7.:)+. 7+*9./(. T8.
:)+. 7+*9./( +)(6 *4+1 ) (8*/6 6-:.0 +.)>-4< 68. 7.:)+. 7+*9./(0 98-38 ,.>.+*;
-46* 68. 5/*94 3)66)-+. P*++.4 7/*: 68. :)+. 7+*9./( -( *76.4 )524,)46 )4,
5/-<86 1.++*9.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: C)66)-+( )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 :*(6 *7 68. 9*/+,.
296
L**A 7*/ 68.: -4 72++ (24 )/.)( )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 +)A.(0 (6/.):(0 3)4)+(0 /->./(0
)4, 5/)3A-(8 9)6./.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< 6.4,./ (8**6( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. T8.
/8-G*:. -( *76.4 >./1 6*2<8 526 -( ) /-38 (*2/3. *7 (6)/38. P*24, 68. /8-G*:.
6* /.:*>. 68. (6)/38 )4, 2(. )( ) 7+*2/. T8. ;*++.4 -( )+(* )4 .=3.;6-*4)+
(*2/3. *7 (6)/38. !8.4 68. 3)66)-+ -( -::)62/. )4, (6-++ </..40 1*2 3)4 5*-+ 68.
7.:)+. ;*/6-*4 )4, .)6 -6 +-A. 3*/4 *4 68. 3*5.
O08+* U:+:: T8. ,/-., +.)>.( )/. )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 9.)>-4< :)6./-)+
1*2 3)4 2(. 6* :)A. 7+*)6( )4, /)76(. T8. 3*66*41 (..,( :)A. <**, ;-++*9
(6277-4< )4, -4(2+)6-*4. T8. 7+277 :)A.( .=3.++.46 6-4,./. D/-., 3)66)-+( )/.
.77.36->. -4(.36 /.;.++.46( 98.4 52/4.,.
C+*+3: .-.03:
Cere&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. 3)36- )/. 6)++ )4, 4)//*9 9-68 )4<+., (6.:( )4,
42:./*2( (;-4.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.1 :)1 5. 7*24, -4 6/2. ,.(./6( )4, *68./ ,/10
*;.40 (2441 )/.)( 68/*2<8*26 68. C)/-55.)4 /.<-*40 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 )4, 68.
9.(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+.0 526 (*:. :)1 8)>. ) +)=)6->. .77.36.
O08+* U:+:: T8. ;2+; *7 68. 3)362( -( ) <**, (*2/3. *7 9)6./. B/.)A *;.4
68. (6.: )4, (3**; *26 68. ;2+;.
297
C8+:0/30
Castanea sativa
D+:.*47041/: T8. E2/*;.)4 38.(6426 -( 2(2)++1 ) +)/<. 6/..0 2; 6* 1$ :.6./(
C6" 7..6D -4 8.-<86.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: I4 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(0 68. 38.(6426 -( 7*24, -4 5*68
8)/,9**, )4, 3*4-7./*2( 7*/.(6(. I4 68. 6/*;-3(0 -6 -( 7*24, -4 (.:- .>./</..4
(.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6(. T8.1 )/. 7*24, *>./ )++ *7 :-,,+. )4, (*268 E2/*;. )4,
)3/*(( :-,,+. A(-) 6* C8-4) )4, J);)4. T8.1 )/. /.+)6->.+1 )524,)46 )+*4<
68. .,<. *7 :.),*9( )4, )( ) 7*/.(6 6/... T8. E2/*;.)4 38.(6426 -( *4. *7
68. :*(6 3*::*4 >)/-.6-.(. !-+, 38.(6426( -4 A(-) 5.+*4< 6* 68. /.+)6.,
38.(6426 (;.3-.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: C8.(6426( )/. 8-<8+1 2(.72+ )( (2/>->)+ 7**,. R-;. 426( )/.
2(2)++1 ;-3A., -4 )262:40 )+68*2<8 24/-;. 426( ;-3A., 98-+. </..4 :)1 )+(*
5. 2(., 7*/ 7**,. P./8);( 68. .)(-.(6 9)1 6* ;/.;)/. 68.: -( 6* /*)(6 68. /-;.
426( -4 .:5./(. C**A., 68-( 9)10 68.1 )/. ?2-6. 6)(610 )4, 1*2 3)4 .)6 +)/<.
?2)46-6-.(. A4*68./ 9)1 -( 6* 5*-+ 68. A./4.+( )76./ /.:*>-4< 68. *26./ (8.++.
A76./ 5*-+-4< 68. 426( 246-+ 7)-/+1 (*760 1*2 3)4 :)(8 68.: +-A. ;*6)6*.(.
298
C84.1*;
Cichori&m inty%&s
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 2; 6* 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 6)++. I6 8)( +.)>.(
3+2(6./., )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. (6.: )4, (*:. +.)>.( *4 68. (6.:. T8. 5)(.
+.)>.( /.(.:5+. 68*(. *7 68. ,)4,.+-*4. T8. 7+*9./( )/. (A1 5+2. )4, (6)1
*;.4 *4+1 *4 (2441 ,)1(. C8-3*/1 8)( ) :-+A1 F2-3..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 38-3*/1 -4 *+, 7-.+,(0 9)(6. )/.)(0 9..,1
+*6(0 )4, )+*4< /*),(. I6 -( ) 4)6->. *7 E2/*;. )4, A(-)0 526 -( )+(* 7*24, -4
A7/-3) )4, :*(6 *7 N*/68 A:./-3)0 98./. -6 </*9( )( ) 9..,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+.. E)6 68. 1*24< +.)>.( )( ) ()+), */ 5*-+ 6*
.)6 )( ) >.<.6)5+.. C**A 68. /**6( )( ) >.<.6)5+.. F*/ 2(. )( ) 3*77..
(25(6-626.0 /*)(6 68. /**6( 246-+ 68.1 )/. ,)/A 5/*94 )4, 68.4 ;2+>./-G. 68.:.
C83,-
Cyper&s esc&lent&s
D+:.*47041/: T8-( >./1 3*::*4 ;+)46 8)( ) 6/-)4<2+)/ (6.: )4, </)(( +-A.
+.)>.(. I6 </*9( 6* ) 8.-<86 *7 2" 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C$ 6* 24 -438.(D. T8.
:)62/. ;+)46 8)( ) (*760 72/ +-A. 5+**: 68)6 .=6.4,( 7/*: ) 98*/+ *7 +.)>.(.
T25./( 1 6* 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1R2 6* 1 -438D -4,-):.6./ </*9 )6 68. .4,( *7 68.
/**6(.
299
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: C827) </*9( -4 :*-(6 ()4,1 )/.)( 68/*2<8*26 68.
9*/+,. I6 -( *76.4 )4 )524,)46 9.., -4 32+6->)6., 7-.+,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 625./( )/. .,-5+. /)90 5*-+.,0 */ 5)A.,. Y*2 3)4 )+(* </-4,
68.: )4, 2(. 68.: )( ) 3*77.. (25(6-626..
C1.1/30
Cocos n&ci2era
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. 8)( ) (-4<+.0 4)//*90 6)++ 6/24A 9-68 ) 3+2(6./ *7 >./1
+)/<. +.)>.( )6 68. 6*;. E)38 +.)7 :)1 5. *>./ 6 :.6./( C2" 7..6D +*4< 9-68
*>./ 1"" ;)-/( *7 +.)7+.6(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: C*3*426 ;)+:( )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3(.
T8.1 )/. :*(6 )524,)46 4.)/ 3*)(6)+ /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 426 -( ) >)+2)5+. (*2/3. *7 7**,. T8. :-+A *7 68. 1*24<
3*3*426 -( /-38 -4 (2<)/ )4, >-6):-4( )4, -( )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 +-?2-,. T8.
426 :.)6 -( )+(* 426/-6-*2( 526 -( /-38 -4 *-+. T* ;/.(./>. 68. :.)60 (;/.), -6 -4
68. (24 246-+ -6 -( 3*:;+.6.+1 ,/1.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 3*3*426 *-+ 6* 3**A )4, 6* ;/*6.36 :.6)+ *5F.36( 7/*:
3*//*(-*4. A+(*0 2(. 68. *-+ 6* 6/.)6 ()+69)6./ (*/.(0 (2452/40 )4, ,/1 (A-4.
U(. 68. *-+ -4 -:;/*>-(., 6*/38.(. U(. 68. 6/.. 6/24A )( 52-+,-4< :)6./-)+ )4,
68. +.)>.( )( 68)638. H*++*9 *26 68. +)/<. (62:; 7*/ 2(. )( ) 7**, 3*46)-4./.
T8. 3*3*426 82(A( )/. <**, 7+*6)6-*4 ,.>-3.( )4, 68. 82(AH( 7-5./( )/. 2(.,
6* 9.)>. /*;.( )4, *68./ -6.:(. U(. 68. <)2G.+-A. 7-5./( )6 68. +.)7 5)(.( )(
(6/)-4./( */ 2(. 68.: 6* 9.)>. ) 52< 4.6 */ 6* :)A. ) ;), 6* 2(. *4 9*24,(.
T8. 82(A :)A.( ) <**, )5/)(->.. D/-., 82(A 7-5./ -( )4 .=3.++.46 6-4,./. A
(:*+,./-4< 82(A 8.+;( 6* /.;.+ :*(?2-6*.(. S:*A. 3)2(., 51 ,/-;;-4<
3*3*426 *-+ -4 ) 7-/. )+(* /.;.+( :*(?2-6*.(. T* /.4,./ 3*3*426 *-+0 ;26 68.
3*3*426 :.)6 -4 68. (240 8.)6 -6 *>./ ) (+*9 7-/.0 */ 5*-+ -6 -4 ) ;*6 *7 9)6./.
C*3*426( 9)(8., *26 6* (.) )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 7/.(8 +-?2-, 7*/ 68. (.)
(2/>->*/.
300
C1>>1/ D3D3@+
>iziph&s 9&9&%a
D+:.*47041/: T8. 3*::*4 F2F25. -( .-68./ ) ,.3-,2*2( 6/.. </*9-4< 6* )
8.-<86 *7 12 :.6./( C4" 7..6D */ ) +)/<. (8/250 ,.;.4,-4< 2;*4 98./. -6 </*9(
)4, 8*9 :238 9)6./ -( )>)-+)5+. 7*/ </*968. I6( 5/)438.( )/. 2(2)++1 (;-41.
I6( /.,,-(8B5/*94 6* 1.++*9-(8B</..4 7/2-6 -( *5+*4< 6* *>*-,0 3.46-:.6./( C1
-438D */ +.(( -4 ,-):.6./0 (:**680 )4, (9..6 -4 7+)>*/0 526 9-68 ) /)68./ ,/1
;2+; )/*24, ) 3*:;)/)6->.+1 +)/<. (6*4.. I6( 7+*9./( )/. </..4.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. F2F25. -( 7*24, -4 7*/.(6., )/.)( *7 6.:;./)6.
/.<-*4( )4, -4 ,.(./6 (3/25 )4, 9)(6. )/.)( 9*/+,9-,.. I6 -( 3*::*4 -4
:)41 *7 68. 6/*;-3)+ )4, (256/*;-3)+ )/.)( *7 68. O+, !*/+,. I4 A7/-3)0 -6 -(
7*24, :)-4+1 5*/,./-4< 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4. I4 A(-)0 -6 -( .(;.3-)++1 3*::*4 -4
68. ,/-./ ;)/6( *7 I4,-) )4, C8-4). T8. F2F25. -( )+(* 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68.
E)(6 I4,-.(. I6 3)4 5. 7*24, 5*/,./-4< (*:. ,.(./6 )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. ;2+;0 3/2(8., -4 9)6./0 :)A.( ) /.7/.(8-4< 5.>./)<.. I7
6-:. ;./:-6(0 1*2 3)4 ,/1 68. /-;. 7/2-6 -4 68. (24 +-A. ,)6.(. I6( 7/2-6 -( 8-<8 -4
>-6):-4( A )4, C.
301
C*-/@+**;
'accini&m macrocarpon
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( 6-41 +.)>.( )//)4<., )+6./4)6.+1. I6( (6.: 3/..;(
)+*4< 68. </*24,. I6( 7/2-6( )/. /., 5.//-.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: I6 *4+1 </*9( -4 *;.40 (24410 9.6 )/.)( -4 68.
3*+,./ /.<-*4( *7 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./..
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 5.//-.( )/. >./1 6)/6 98.4 .)6.4 /)9. C**A -4 ) (:)++
):*246 *7 9)6./ )4, ),, (2<)/0 -7 )>)-+)5+.0 6* :)A. ) F.++1.
O08+* U:+:: C/)45.//-.( :)1 )36 )( ) ,-2/.6-3. T8.1 )/. 2(.72+ 7*/ 6/.)6-4<
2/-4)/1 6/)36 -47.36-*4(.
C*1A@+**;
8mpetr&m nigr&m
D+:.*47041/: T8-( -( ) ,9)/7 .>./</..4 (8/25 9-68 (8*/6 4..,+. +-A. +.)>.(. I6
8)( (:)++0 (8-410 5+)3A 5.//-.( 68)6 /.:)-4 *4 68. 52(8 68/*2<8*26 68. 9-46./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( ;+)46 -4 624,/) 68/*2<8*26 )/36-3
/.<-*4( *7 N*/68 A:./-3) )4, E2/)(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. 7/.(8 */ 3)4 5. ,/-., 7*/ +)6./ 2(..
302
C3471 0*++
Cavanillesia platani2olia
D+:.*47041/: T8-( -( ) >./1 ,*:-4)46 )4, .)(-+1 ,.6.36., 6/.. 5.3)2(. -6
.=6.4,( )5*>. 68. *68./ 6/..(. I6( 8.-<86 /)4<.( 7/*: 4% 6* 6" :.6./( C149 6*
19$ 7..6D. I6 8)( +.)>.( *4+1 )6 68. 6*; )4, -( 5)/. 11 :*468( *26 *7 68. 1.)/.
I6 8)( /-4<( *4 -6( 5)/A 68)6 .=6.4, 6* 68. 6*; 6* :)A. -6 .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G)5+..
I6( 5)/A -( /.,,-(8 */ </)1 -4 3*+*/. I6( /**6( )/. +-<86 /.,,-(8B5/*94 */
1.++*9-(8B5/*94.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 32-;* 6/.. -( +*3)6., ;/-:)/-+1 -4 C.46/)+
A:./-3)4 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6( -4 :*246)-4*2( )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T* <.6 9)6./ 7/*: 68-( 6/..0 326 ) ;-.3. *7 68. /**6 )4, 3+.)4 68.
,-/6 )4, 5)/A *77 *4. .4,0 A..;-4< 68. /**6 8*/-G*46)+. P26 68. 3+.)4 .4, 6*
1*2/ :*268 */ 3)46..4 )4, /)-(. 68. *68./. T8. 9)6./ 7/*: 68-( 6/.. 6)(6.(
+-A. ;*6)6* 9)6./.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 1*24< ();+-4<( )4, 68. 5/)438.(H -44./ 5)/A 6* :)A. /*;..
303
D-/2+<41/
$ara3ac&m o22icinale
D+:.*47041/: D)4,.+-*4 +.)>.( 8)>. ) F)<<., .,<.0 </*9 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24,0
)4, )/. (.+,*: :*/. 68)4 2" 3.46-:.6./( C$ -438.(D +*4<. T8. 7+*9./( )/.
5/-<86 1.++*9. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ ,)4,.+-*4 (;.3-.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: D)4,.+-*4( </*9 -4 *;.40 (2441 +*3)6-*4(
68/*2<8*26 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./..
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+.. E)6 68. +.)>.( /)9 */ 3**A.,. B*-+ 68.
/**6( )( ) >.<.6)5+.. R**6( /*)(6., )4, </*24, )/. ) <**, 3*77.. (25(6-626..
D)4,.+-*4( )/. 8-<8 -4 >-6):-4( A )4, C )4, -4 3)+3-2:.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. 98-6. F2-3. -4 68. 7+*9./ (6.:( )( <+2..
D-0+ 7-<>
"hoeni3 dactyli2era
D+:.*47041/: T8. ,)6. ;)+: -( ) 6)++0 245/)438., 6/.. 9-68 ) 3/*94 *7 82<.0
3*:;*24, +.)>.(. I6( 7/2-6 -( 1.++*9 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( -4 )/-, (.:-6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(. I6 -(
4)6->. 6* N*/68 A7/-3) )4, 68. M-,,+. E)(6 526 8)( 5..4 ;+)46., -4 68. )/-,
(.:- 6/*;-3( -4 *68./ ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 7/2-6 -( .,-5+. 7/.(8 526 -( >./1 5-66./ -7 .)6.4 5.7*/. -6 -( /-;..
Y*2 3)4 ,/1 68. 7/2-6( -4 68. (24 )4, ;/.(./>. 68.: 7*/ ) +*4< 6-:..
304
O08+* U:+:: T8. 6/24A( ;/*>-,. >)+2)5+. 52-+,-4< :)6./-)+ -4 ,.(./6 /.<-*4(
98./. 7.9 *68./ 6/..+-A. ;+)46( )/. 7*24,. T8. +.)>.( )/. ,2/)5+.0 )4, 1*2
3)4 2(. 68.: 7*/ 68)638-4< )4, )( 9.)>-4< :)6./-)+. T8. 5)(. *7 68. +.)>.(
/.(.:5+.( 3*)/(. 3+*68 68)6 1*2 3)4 2(. 7*/ (3/255-4< )4, 3+.)4-4<.
D-;<4<;
,emerocallis 2&lva
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( 24(;*66.,0 6)941 5+*((*:( 68)6 *;.4 7*/ 1 ,)1
*4+1. I6 8)( +*4<0 (9*/, +-A.0 </..4 5)()+ +.)>.(. I6( /**6 -( ) :)(( *7 (9*++.4
)4, .+*4<)6., 625./(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: D)1+-+-.( )/. 7*24, 9*/+,9-,. -4 6/*;-3 )4,
6.:;./)6. G*4.(. T8.1 )/. </*94 )( ) >.<.6)5+. -4 68. O/-.46 )4, )( )4
*/4):.46)+ ;+)46 .+(.98./..
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< </..4 +.)>.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. T25./( )/.
)+(* .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. Y*2 3)4 .)6 -6( 7+*9./( /)90 526 68.1 6)(6. 5.66./
3**A.,. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 7/1 68. 7+*9./( 7*/ (6*/)<..
CAUTION
E)6-4< .=3.((->. ):*246( *7 /)9 7+*9./( :)1 3)2(. ,-)//8.).
305
D3.8+:/+- 1* I/24-/ :0*-A@+**;
/&chesnea indica
D+:.*47041/: T8. ,238.(4.) -( ) (:)++ ;+)46 68)6 8)( /244./( )4, 68/..B
;)/6., +.)>.(. I6( 7+*9./( )/. 1.++*9 )4, -6( 7/2-6 /.(.:5+.( ) (6/)95.//1.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: I6 -( 4)6->. 6* (*268./4 A(-) 526 -( ) 3*::*4 9..,
-4 9)/:./ 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(. L**A 7*/ -6 -4 +)94(0 <)/,.4(0 )4, )+*4< /*),(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 7/2-6 -( .,-5+.. E)6 -6 7/.(8.
E<2+*@+**;
Sam%&c&s canadensis
D+:.*47041/: E+,./5.//1 -( ) :)41B(6.::., (8/25 9-68 *;;*(-6.0 3*:;*24,
+.)>.(. I6 </*9( 6* ) 8.-<86 *7 6 :.6./( C2" 7..6D. I6( 7+*9./( )/. 7/)</)460
98-6.0 )4, 5*/4. -4 +)/<. 7+)6B6*;;., 3+2(6./( 2; 6* " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D
)3/*((. I6( 5.//1+-A. 7/2-6( )/. ,)/A 5+2. */ 5+)3A 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 *;.40 2(2)++1 9.6 )/.)( )6
68. :)/<-4( *7 :)/(8.(0 /->./(0 ,-638.(0 )4, +)A.(. I6 </*9( 68/*2<8*26 :238
*7 .)(6./4 N*/68 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7+*9./( )4, 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+.. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) ,/-4A 51
(*)A-4< 68. 7+*9./ 8.),( 7*/ $ 8*2/(0 ,-(3)/,-4< 68. 7+*9./(0 )4, ,/-4A-4< 68.
+-?2-,.
CAUTION
A++ *68./ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. ;*-(*4*2( )4, ,)4<./*2( -7 .)6.4.
306
F4*+A++2
8pilo%i&m ang&sti2oli&m
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 2; 6* 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 6)++. I6 8)( +)/<.0
(8*910 ;-4A 7+*9./( )4, +)43.B(8);., +.)>.(. I6( /.+)6->.0 68. ,9)/7 7-/.9..,
C8pilo%i&m lati2oli&mD0 </*9( " 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C12 6* 24 -438.(D 6)++.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T)++ 7-/.9.., -( 7*24, -4 *;.4 9**,(0 *4 8-++(-,.(0
*4 (6/.): 5)4A(0 )4, 4.)/ (.)(8*/.( -4 )/36-3 /.<-*4(. I6 -( .(;.3-)++1
)524,)46 -4 52/4.,B*>./ )/.)(. D9)/7 7-/.9.., -( 7*24, )+*4< (6/.):(0
()4,5)/(0 )4, +)A.(8*/.( )4, *4 )+;-4. )4, )/36-3 (+*;.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. +.)>.(0 (6.:(0 )4, 7+*9./( )/. .,-5+. -4 68. (;/-4< 526
5.3*:. 6*2<8 -4 (2::./. Y*2 3)4 (;+-6 *;.4 68. (6.:( *7 *+, ;+)46( )4, .)6
68. ;-68 /)9.
F4:80-4< 7-<>
Caryota &rens
D+:.*47041/: F-(86)-+ ;)+:( )/. +)/<. 6/..(0 )6 +.)(6 1$ :.6./( C6" 7..6D 6)++.
T8.-/ +.)>.( )/. 24+-A. 68*(. *7 )41 *68./ ;)+:M 68. +.)7+.6( )/. -//.<2+)/ )4,
6**68., *4 68. 2;;./ :)/<-4(. A++ *68./ ;)+:( 8)>. .-68./ 7)4B(8);., */
7.)68./+-A. +.)>.(. I6( :)((->. 7+*9./-4< (8**6 -( 5*/4. )6 68. 6*; *7 68. 6/..
)4, 8)4<( ,*949)/,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 7-(86)-+ ;)+: -( 4)6->. 6* 68. 6/*;-3( *7 I4,-)0
A(():0 )4, M1)4:)/. S.>./)+ /.+)6., (;.3-.( )+(* .=-(6 -4 S*268.)(6 A(-)
307
)4, 68. P8-+-;;-4.(. T8.(. ;)+:( )/. 7*24, -4 *;.4 8-++ 3*246/1 )4, F24<+.
)/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 38-.7 7**, -4 68-( ;)+: -( 68. (6)/38 (6*/., -4 +)/<.
?2)46-6-.( -4 -6( 6/24A. T8. F2-3. 7/*: 68. 7-(86)-+ ;)+: -( >./1 4*2/-(8-4< )4,
1*2 8)>. 6* ,/-4A -6 (8*/6+1 )76./ <.66-4< -6 7/*: 68. ;)+: 7+*9./ (8**6. B*-+ 68.
F2-3. ,*94 6* <.6 ) /-38 (2<)/ (1/2;. U(. 68. ():. :.68*, )( 7*/ 68. (2<)/
;)+: 6* <.6 68. F2-3.. T8. ;)+: 3)55)<. :)1 5. .)6.4 /)9 */ 3**A.,.
F1F0-4< 9*-::
Setaria (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 9..,1 </)(( -( /.),-+1 /.3*<4-G., 51 68. 4)//*90 31+-4,/-3)+
8.), 3*46)-4-4< +*4< 8)-/(. I6( </)-4( )/. (:)++0 +.(( 68)4 6 :-++-:.6./( C1R4
-438D +*4<. T8. ,.4(. 8.),( *7 </)-4 *76.4 ,/**; 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 7*=6)-+ </)((.( -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)(0
)+*4< /*),(0 )4, )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 7-.+,(. S*:. (;.3-.( *332/ -4 9.60 :)/(81
)/.)(. S;.3-.( *7 Setaria )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. U4-6., S6)6.(0 E2/*;.0
9.(6./4 A(-)0 )4, 6/*;-3)+ A7/-3). I4 (*:. ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,0 7*=6)-+ </)((.(
)/. </*94 )( ) 7**, 3/*;.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. </)-4( )/. .,-5+. /)9 526 )/. >./1 8)/, )4, (*:.6-:.(
5-66./. B*-+-4< /.:*>.( (*:. *7 68. 5-66./4.(( )4, :)A.( 68.: .)(-./ 6* .)6.
308
G1- @+-/
"sophocarp&s tetragonolo%&s
D+:.*47041/: T8. <*) 5.)4 -( ) 3+-:5-4< ;+)46 68)6 :)1 3*>./ (:)++ (8/25(
)4, 6/..(. I6( 5.)4 ;*,( )/. 22 3.46-:.6./( C9 -438.(D +*4<0 -6( +.)>.( 1%
3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D +*4<0 )4, -6( 7+*9./( )/. 5/-<86 5+2.. T8. :)62/. ;*,(
)/. 4B)4<+.,0 9-68 F)<<., 9-4<( *4 68. ;*,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( -4 6/*;-3)+ A7/-3)0 A(-)0 68. E)(6
I4,-.(0 68. P8-+-;;-4.(0 )4, T)-9)4. T8-( :.:5./ *7 68. 5.)4 C+.<2:.D 7):-+1
(./>.( 6* -++2(6/)6. ) A-4, *7 .,-5+. 5.)4 3*::*4 -4 68. 6/*;-3( *7 68. O+,
!*/+,. !-+, .,-5+. 5.)4( *7 68-( (*/6 )/. :*(6 7/.?2.46+1 7*24, -4 3+.)/-4<(
)4, )/*24, )5)4,*4., <)/,.4 (-6.(. T8.1 )/. :*/. /)/. -4 7*/.(6., )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*2 3)4 .)6 68. 1*24< ;*,( +-A. (6/-4< 5.)4(. T8. :)62/.
(..,( )/. ) >)+2)5+. (*2/3. *7 ;/*6.-4 )76./ ;)/38-4< */ /*)(6-4< 68.: *>./
8*6 3*)+(. Y*2 3)4 <./:-4)6. 68. (..,( C)( 1*2 3)4 :)41 A-4,( *7 5.)4(D -4
,):; :*(( )4, .)6 68. /.(2+6)46 (;/*26(. T8. 68-3A.4., /**6( )/. .,-5+. /)9.
T8.1 )/. (+-<86+1 (9..60 9-68 68. 7-/:4.(( *7 )4 );;+.. Y*2 3)4 )+(* .)6 68.
1*24< +.)>.( )( ) >.<.6)5+.0 /)9 */ (6.):.,.
H-.?@+**;
Celtis (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: H)3A5.//1 6/..( 8)>. (:**680 </)1 5)/A 68)6 *76.4 8)( 3*/A1
309
9)/6( */ /-,<.(. T8. 6/.. :)1 /.)38 9 :.6./( C129 7..6D -4 8.-<86.
H)3A5.//1 6/..( 8)>. +*4<B;*-46., +.)>.( 68)6 </*9 -4 69* /*9(. T8-( 6/..
5.)/( (:)++0 /*24, 5.//-.( 68)6 3)4 5. .)6.4 98.4 68.1 )/. /-;. )4, 7)++ 7/*:
68. 6/... T8. 9**, *7 68. 8)3A5.//1 -( 1.++*9-(8.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 9-,.(;/.), -4 68. U4-6., S6)6.(0
.(;.3-)++1 -4 )4, 4.)/ ;*4,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( 5.//-.( )/. .,-5+. 98.4 68.1 )/. /-;. )4, 7)++ 7/*: 68. 6/...
H-6+</30 1* A4<2 ,4<@+*0
Coryl&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: H)G.+426( </*9 *4 52(8.( 1.$ 6* .6 :.6./( C6 6* 12 7..6D 8-<8.
O4. (;.3-.( -4 T2/A.1 )4, )4*68./ -4 C8-4) )/. +)/<. 6/..(. T8. 426 -6(.+7
</*9( -4 ) >./1 5/-(6+1 82(A 68)6 3*4(;-32*2(+1 3*46/)36( )5*>. 68. 426 -46* )
+*4< 4.3A. T8. ,-77./.46 (;.3-.( >)/1 -4 68-( /.(;.36 )( 6* (-G. )4, (8);..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: H)G.+426( )/. 7*24, *>./ 9-,. )/.)( -4 68. U4-6.,
S6)6.(0 .(;.3-)++1 68. .)(6./4 8)+7 *7 68. 3*246/1 )4, )+*4< 68. P)3-7-3 3*)(6.
T8.(. 426( )/. )+(* 7*24, -4 E2/*;. 98./. 68.1 )/. A4*94 )( 7-+5./6(. T8.
8)G.+426 -( 3*::*4 -4 A(-)0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 .)(6./4 A(-) 7/*: 68. H-:)+)1)( 6*
C8-4) )4, J);)4. T8. 8)G.+426 2(2)++1 </*9( -4 68. ,.4(. 68-3A.6( )+*4<
(6/.): 5)4A( )4, *;.4 ;+)3.(. T8.1 )/. 4*6 ;+)46( *7 68. ,.4(. 7*/.(6.
E24@<+ P-*0:: H)G.+426( /-;.4 -4 68. )262:40 98.4 1*2 3)4 3/)3A 68.: *;.4
)4, .)6 68. A./4.+. T8. ,/-., 426 -( .=6/.:.+1 ,.+-3-*2(. T8. 426H( 8-<8 *-+
3*46.46 :)A.( -6 ) <**, (2/>->)+ 7**,. !8.4 68.1 )/. 24/-;.0 1*2 3)4 3/)3A
68.: *;.4 )4, .)6 68. 7/.(8 A./4.+.
310
H1*:+*-24:8 0*++
7oringa pterygosperma
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( 7/*: 4.% 6* 14 :.6./( C1% 6* 46 7..6D 6)++. I6(
+.)>.( 8)>. ) 7./4+-A. );;.)/)43.. I6( 7+*9./( )4, +*4<0 ;.4,2+*2( 7/2-6(
</*9 *4 68. .4,( *7 68. 5/)438.(. I6( 7/2-6 C;*,D +**A( +-A. ) <-)46 5.)4. I6(
2%B 6* 6"B3.46-:.6./B+*4< ;*,( )/. 6/-)4<2+)/ -4 3/*(( (.36-*40 9-68 (6/*4< /-5(.
I6( /**6( 8)>. ) ;24<.46 *,*/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. -( 7*24, -4 68. /)-4 7*/.(6( )4, (.:-
.>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6( *7 68. 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(. I6 -( 9-,.(;/.), -4 I4,-)0
S*268.)(6 A(-)0 A7/-3)0 )4, C.46/)+ A:./-3). L**A 7*/ -6 -4 )5)4,*4., 7-.+,(
)4, <)/,.4( )4, )6 68. .,<.( *7 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. +.)>.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,0 ,.;.4,-4< *4 68.-/
8)/,4.((. C26 68. 1*24< (..,;*,( -46* (8*/6 +.4<68( )4, 3**A 68.: +-A.
(6/-4< 5.)4( */ 7/1 68.:. Y*2 3)4 <.6 *-+ 7*/ 7/1-4< 51 5*-+-4< 68. 1*24< 7/2-6(
*7 ;)+:( )4, (A-::-4< 68. *-+ *77 68. (2/7)3. *7 68. 9)6./. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.
7+*9./( )( ;)/6 *7 ) ()+),. Y*2 3)4 38.9 7/.(80 1*24< (..,;*,( 6* .)6 68.
;2+;1 )4, (*76 (..,(. T8. /**6( :)1 5. </*24, )( ) (25(6-626. 7*/ (.)(*4-4<
(-:-+)/ 6* 8*/(./),-(8.
311
I.+<-/2 >1::
Cetraria islandica
D+:.*47041/: T8-( :*(( </*9( *4+1 ) 7.9 -438.( 8-<8. I6( 3*+*/ :)1 5. </)10
98-6.0 */ .>.4 /.,,-(8.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ -6 -4 *;.4 )/.)(. I6 -( 7*24, *4+1 -4 68.
)/36-3.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. I3.+)4, :*(( )/. .,-5+.. D2/-4< 68. 9-46./ */
,/1 (.)(*40 -6 -( ,/1 )4, 3/24381 526 (*76.4( 98.4 (*)A.,. B*-+ 68. :*(( 6*
/.:*>. 68. 5-66./4.((. A76./ 5*-+-4<0 .)6 51 -6(.+7 */ ),, 6* :-+A */ </)-4( )( )
68-3A.4-4< )<.46. D/-., ;+)46( (6*/. 9.++.
312
I/24-/ 710-01 1* E:?4>1 710-01
Claytonia (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: A++ C+)16*4-) (;.3-.( )/. (*:.98)6 7+.(81 ;+)46( *4+1 ) 7.9
3.46-:.6./( 6)++0 9-68 (8*91 7+*9./( )5*26 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D )3/*((.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: S*:. (;.3-.( )/. 7*24, -4 /-38 7*/.(6(0 98./. 68.1
)/. 3*4(;-32*2( 5.7*/. 68. +.)>.( ,.>.+*;. !.(6./4 (;.3-.( )/. 7*24,
68/*2<8*26 :*(6 *7 68. 4*/68./4 U4-6., S6)6.( )4, -4 C)4),).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 625./( )/. .,-5+. 526 1*2 (8*2+, 5*-+ 68.: 5.7*/. .)6-4<.
J3/47+*
?&niper&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: J24-;./(0 (*:.6-:.( 3)++., 3.,)/(0 )/. 6/..( */ (8/25( 9-68 >./1
(:)++0 (3)+. +-A. +.)>.( ,.4(.+1 3/*9,., )/*24, 68. 5/)438.(. E)38 +.)7 -(
+.(( 68)4 1.2 3.46-:.6./( C1R -438D +*4<. A++ (;.3-.( 8)>. ) ,-(6-436 )/*:)
/.(.:5+-4< 68. 9.++BA4*94 3.,)/. T8. 5.//1+-A. 3*4.( )/. 2(2)++1 5+2. )4,
3*>./., 9-68 ) 98-6-(8 9)=.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ F24-;./( -4 *;.40 ,/10 (2441 )/.)(
68/*2<8*26 N*/68 A:./-3) )4, 4*/68./4 E2/*;.. S*:. (;.3-.( )/. 7*24, -4
(*268B.)(6./4 E2/*;.0 )3/*(( A(-) 6* J);)40 )4, -4 68. :*246)-4( *7 N*/68
A7/-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 5.//-.( )4, 69-<( )/. .,-5+.. E)6 68. 5.//-.( /)9 */ /*)(6
68. (..,( 6* 2(. )( ) 3*77.. (25(6-626.. U(. ,/-., )4, 3/2(8., 5.//-.( )( )
313
(.)(*4-4< 7*/ :.)6. G)68./ 1*24< 69-<( 6* :)A. ) 6.).
CAUTION
M)41 ;+)46( :)1 5. 3)++., 3.,)/( 526 )/. 4*6 /.+)6., 6* F24-;./( )4, :)1 5.
8)/:72+. A+9)1( +**A 7*/ 68. 5.//1+-A. (6/2362/.(0 4..,+. +.)>.(0 )4, /.(-4*2(0
7/)</)46 (); 6* 5. (2/. 68. ;+)46 1*2 8)>. -( ) F24-;./.
L103:
1el&m%o (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8./. )/. 69* (;.3-.( *7 +*62(E *4. 8)( 1.++*9 7+*9./( )4, 68.
*68./ ;-4A 7+*9./(. T8. 7+*9./( )/. +)/<. )4, (8*91. T8. +.)>.(0 98-38 :)1
7+*)6 *4 */ /-(. )5*>. 68. (2/7)3. *7 68. 9)6./0 *76.4 /.)38 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D
-4 /),-2(. T8. 7/2-6 8)( ) ,-(6-436->. 7+)66.4., (8);. )4, 3*46)-4( 2; 6* 2"
8)/, (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 1.++*9B7+*9./., +*62( -( 4)6->. 6* N*/68
A:./-3). T8. ;-4AB7+*9./., (;.3-.(0 98-38 -( 9-,.(;/.), -4 68. O/-.460 -(
;+)46., -4 :)41 *68./ )/.)( *7 68. 9*/+,. L*62(.( )/. 7*24, -4 ?2-.6
7/.(89)6./.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. T8. 24,./9)6./
;)/6( 3*46)-4 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 (6)/38. D-< 68. 7+.(81 ;*/6-*4( 7/*: 68. :2,
)4, 5)A. */ 5*-+ 68.:. B*-+ 68. 1*24< +.)>.( )4, .)6 68.: )( ) >.<.6)5+..
T8. (..,( 8)>. ) ;+.)()46 7+)>*/ )4, )/. 426/-6-*2(. E)6 68.: /)90 */ ;)/38
)4, </-4, 68.: -46* 7+*2/.
314
M-<-/9-
@anthosoma carac&
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( (*760 )//*9B(8);., +.)>.( 2; 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./(
C24 -438.(D +*4<. T8. +.)>.( 8)>. 4* )5*>.</*24, (6.:(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 9-,.+1 -4 68. C)/-55.)4 /.<-*4.
L**A 7*/ -6 -4 *;.40 (2441 7-.+,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 625./( )/. /-38 -4 (6)/38. C**A 68.: 5.7*/. .)6-4< 6*
,.(6/*1 ) ;*-(*4 3*46)-4., -4 )++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46.
$ARNING
A+9)1( 3**A 5.7*/. .)6-4<.
M-/91
7angi2era indica
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. :)1 /.)38 " :.6./( C9" 7..6D -4 8.-<86. I6 8)(
)+6./4)6.0 (-:;+.0 (8-410 ,)/A </..4 +.)>.(. I6( 7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4,
-43*4(;-32*2(. I6( 7/2-6( 8)>. ) +)/<. (-4<+. (..,. T8./. )/. :)41 32+6->)6.,
>)/-.6-.( *7 :)4<*. S*:. 8)>. /., 7+.(80 *68./( 1.++*9 */ */)4<.0 *76.4 9-68
:)41 7-5./( )4, ) A./*(.4. 6)(6..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( -4 9)/:0 :*-(6 /.<-*4(. I6 -( 4)6->.
6* 4*/68./4 I4,-)0 M1)4:)/0 )4, 9.(6./4 M)+)1(-). I6 -( 4*9 </*94
68/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. ) 426/-6-*2( 7**, (*2/3.. T8. 24/-;. 7/2-6 3)4 5.
315
;..+., )4, -6( 7+.(8 .)6.4 51 (8/.,,-4< -6 )4, .)6-4< -6 +-A. ) ()+),. T8. /-;.
7/2-6 3)4 5. ;..+., )4, .)6.4 /)9. R*)(6., (.., A./4.+( )/. .,-5+..
CAUTION
I7 1*2 )/. (.4(-6->. 6* ;*-(*4 ->10 )>*-, .)6-4< :)4<*.(0 )( 68.1 3)2(. )
(.>./. /.)36-*4 -4 (.4(-6->. -4,->-,2)+(.
M-/41.
7anihot &tillissima
D+:.*47041/: M)4-*3 -( ) ;./.44-)+ (8/2551 ;+)460 1 6* :.6./( C 6* 9 7..6D
6)++0 9-68 F*-46., (6.:( )4, ,..; </..40 7-4<./ +-A. +.)>.(. I6 8)( +)/<.0 7+.(81
/**6(6*3A(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: M)4-*3 -( 9-,.(;/.), -4 )++ 6/*;-3)+ 3+-:)6.(0
;)/6-32+)/+1 -4 :*-(6 )/.)(. A+68*2<8 32+6->)6., .=6.4(->.+10 -6 :)1 5. 7*24, -4
)5)4,*4., <)/,.4( )4, </*9-4< 9-+, -4 :)41 )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /**6(6*3A( )/. 72++ *7 (6)/38 )4, 8-<8 -4 7**, >)+2.. T9*
A-4,( *7 :)4-*3 )/. A4*94E 5-66./ )4, (9..6. B*68 )/. .,-5+.. T8. 5-66./ 61;.
3*46)-4( ;*-(*4*2( 81,/*31)4-3 )3-,. T* ;/.;)/. :)4-*30 7-/(6 </-4, 68. 7/.(8
:)4-*3 /**6 -46* ) ;2+;0 68.4 3**A -6 7*/ )6 +.)(6 1 8*2/ 6* /.:*>. 68. 5-66./
;*-(*4 7/*: 68. /**6(. T8.4 7+)66.4 68. ;2+; -46* 3)A.( )4, 5)A. )( 5/.),.
M)4-*3 3)A.( */ 7+*2/ 9-++ A..; )+:*(6 -4,.7-4-6.+1 -7 ;/*6.36., )<)-4(6 -4(.36(
)4, ,):;4.((. !/); :)4-*3 -4 5)4)4) +.)>.( 7*/ ;/*6.36-*4.
CAUTION
F*/ ()7.610 )+9)1( 3**A 68. /**6( *7 .-68./ 61;..
316
M-*:8 >-*491<2
Caltha pal&stris
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( /*24,.,0 ,)/A </..4 +.)>.( )/-(-4< 7/*: ) (8*/6
(6.:. I6 8)( 5/-<86 1.++*9 7+*9./(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 5*<(0 +)A.(0 )4, (+*9B:*>-4<
(6/.):(. I6 -( )524,)46 -4 )/36-3 )4, (25 )/36-3 /.<-*4(0 )4, -4 :238 *7 68.
.)(6./4 /.<-*4 *7 68. 4*/68./4 U4-6., S6)6.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+. -7 5*-+.,.
CAUTION
A( 9-68 )++ 9)6./ ;+)46(0 ,* 4*6 .)6 68-( ;+)46 /)9. R)9 9)6./ ;+)46( :)1 3)//1
,)4<./*2( */<)4-(:( 68)6 )/. /.:*>., *4+1 51 3**A-4<.
317
M3<@+**;
7or&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. 8)( )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+.0 *76.4 +*5., +.)>.( 9-68 /*2<8
(2/7)3.(. I6( 7/2-6( )/. 5+2. */ 5+)3A )4, :)41B(..,.,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: M2+5.//1 6/..( )/. 7*24, -4 7*/.(6(0 )+*4<
/*),(-,.(0 )4, -4 )5)4,*4., 7-.+,( -4 6.:;./)6. )4, 6/*;-3)+ G*4.( *7 N*/68
A:./-3)0 S*268 A:./-3)0 E2/*;.0 A(-)0 )4, A7/-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 -( .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. I6 3)4 5. ,/-., 7*/ .)6-4<
+)6./.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 (8/., 68. -44./ 5)/A *7 68. 6/.. )4, 2(. -6 6* :)A. 69-4.
*/ 3*/,.
318
N+00<+
.rtica )4, 0aportea (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( </*9 (.>./)+ 7..6 8-<8. T8.1 8)>. (:)++0
-43*4(;-32*2( 7+*9./(. F-4.0 8)-/ +-A. 5/-(6+.( 3*>./ 68. (6.:(0 +.)7(6)+A(0 )4,
24,./(-,.( *7 +.)>.(. T8. 5/-(6+.( 3)2(. ) (6-4<-4< (.4()6-*4 98.4 68.1
6*238 68. (A-4.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: N.66+.( ;/.7./ :*-(6 )/.)( )+*4< (6/.):( */ )6 68.
:)/<-4( *7 7*/.(6(. T8.1 )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 N*/68 A:./-3)0 C.46/)+
A:./-3)0 68. C)/-55.)40 )4, 4*/68./4 E2/*;..
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*24< (8**6( )4, +.)>.( )/. .,-5+.. B*-+-4< 68. ;+)46 7*/ 1" 6*
1% :-426.( ,.(6/*1( 68. (6-4<-4< .+.:.46 *7 68. 5/-(6+.(. T8-( ;+)46 -( >./1
426/-6-*2(.
O08+* U:+:: M)62/. (6.:( 8)>. ) 7-5/*2( +)1./ 68)6 1*2 3)4 ,->-,. -46*
-4,->-,2)+ 7-5./( )4, 2(. 6* 9.)>. (6/-4< */ 69-4..
N47- 7-<>
N-;) 7/26-3)4(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;)+: 8)( ) (8*/60 :)-4+1 24,./</*24, 6/24A )4, >./1 +)/<.0
./.36 +.)>.( 2; 6* 6 :.6./( C2" 7..6D 6)++. T8. +.)>.( )/. ,->-,., -46* +.)7+.6(.
A 7+*9./-4< 8.), 7*/:( *4 ) (8*/6 ./.36 (6./4 68)6 /-(.( ):*4< 68. ;)+:
+.)>.(. T8. 7/2-6-4< C(..,D 8.), -( ,)/A 5/*94 )4, :)1 5. " 3.46-:.6./( C12
319
-438.(D -4 ,-):.6./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;)+: -( 3*::*4 *4 :2,,1 (8*/.( -4 3*)(6)+
/.<-*4( 68/*2<8*26 .)(6./4 A(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< 7+*9./ (6)+A )4, 68. (..,( ;/*>-,. ) <**, (*2/3. *7
9)6./ )4, 7**,. C26 68. 7+*9./ (6)+A )4, 3*++.36 68. F2-3.. T8. F2-3. -( /-38 -4
(2<)/. T8. (..,( )/. 8)/, 526 .,-5+..
O08+* U:+:: T8. +.)>.( )/. .=3.++.46 )( 68)638 )4, 3*)/(. 9.)>-4< :)6./-)+.
O-?
5&erc&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: O)A 6/..( 8)>. )+6./4)6. +.)>.( )4, )3*/4 7/2-6(. T8./. )/. 69*
:)-4 </*2;( *7 *)A(E /., )4, 98-6.. T8. /., *)A </*2; 8)( +.)>.( 9-68
5/-(6+.( )4, (:**68 5)/A -4 68. 2;;./ ;)/6 *7 68. 6/... R., *)A )3*/4( 6)A. 2
1.)/( 6* :)62/.. T8. 98-6. *)A </*2; 8)( +.)>.( 9-68*26 5/-(6+.( )4, ) /*2<8
5)/A -4 68. 2;;./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. 6/... !8-6. *)A )3*/4( :)62/. -4 1 1.)/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: O)A 6/..( )/. 7*24, -4 :)41 8)5-6)6( 68/*2<8*26
N*/68 A:./-3)0 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 )4, ;)/6( *7 E2/*;. )4, A(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+.0 526 *76.4 3*46)-4 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 5-66./
(25(6)43.(. !8-6. *)A )3*/4( 2(2)++1 8)>. ) 5.66./ 7+)>*/ 68)4 /., *)A
)3*/4(. G)68./ )4, (8.++ 68. )3*/4(. S*)A /., *)A )3*/4( -4 9)6./ 7*/ 1 6* 2
,)1( 6* /.:*>. 68. 5-66./ (25(6)43.. Y*2 3)4 (;.., 2; 68-( ;/*3.(( 51
;266-4< 9**, )(8.( -4 68. 9)6./ -4 98-38 1*2 (*)A 68. )3*/4(. B*-+ 68. )3*/4(
*/ </-4, 68.: -46* 7+*2/ )4, 2(. 68. 7+*2/ 7*/ 5)A-4<. Y*2 3)4 2(. )3*/4( 68)6
1*2 5)A., 246-+ >./1 ,)/A )( ) 3*77.. (25(6-626..
CAUTION
320
T)44-3 )3-, <->.( 68. )3*/4( 68.-/ 5-66./ 6)(6.. E)6-4< )4 .=3.((->. ):*246 *7
)3*/4( 8-<8 -4 6)44-3 )3-, 3)4 +.), 6* A-,4.1 7)-+2/.. B.7*/. .)6-4< )3*/4(0
+.)38 *26 68-( 38.:-3)+.
O08+* U:+:: O)A 9**, -( .=3.++.46 7*/ 52-+,-4< */ 52/4-4<. S:)++ *)A( 3)4 5.
(;+-6 )4, 326 -46* +*4< 68-4 (6/-;( C 6* 6 :-++-:.6./( P1R$ 6* 1R4 -438Q 68-3A )4,
1.2 3.46-:.6./( P1R -438Q 9-,.D 2(., 6* 9.)>. :)6(0 5)(A.6(0 */ 7/):.9*/A(
7*/ ;)3A(0 (+.,(0 72/4-62/.0 .63. O)A 5)/A (*)A., -4 9)6./ ;/*,23.( ) 6)44-4<
(*+26-*4 2(., 6* ;/.(./>. +.)68./.
O*-.8
Atriple3 (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( >-4. +-A. -4 </*968 )4, 8)( )//*98.),B(8);.,0
)+6./4)6. +.)>.( 2; 6* % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D +*4<. Y*24< +.)>.( :)15.
(-+>./B3*+*/.,. I6( 7+*9./( )4, 7/2-6( )/. (:)++ )4, -43*4(;-32*2(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: O/)38 (;.3-.( )/. .46-/.61 /.(6/-36., 6* ()+61 (*-+(.
T8.1 )/. 7*24, )+*4< N*/68 A:./-3)H( 3*)(6( )4, *4 68. (8*/.( *7 )+A)+-4.
+)A.( -4+)4,. T8.1 )/. )+(* 7*24, )+*4< (.)(8*/.( 7/*: 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4
3*246/-.( 6* -4+)4, )/.)( -4 N*/68 A7/-3) )4, .)(69)/, 6* T2/A.1 )4, 3.46/)+
S-5./-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. .46-/. ;+)46 -( .,-5+. /)9 */ 5*-+.,.
321
P-<>+001 7-<>
Sa%al palmetto
D+:.*47041/: T8. ;)+:.66* ;)+: -( ) 6)++0 245/)438., 6/.. 9-68 ;./(-(6.46 +.)7
5)(.( *4 :*(6 *7 68. 6/24A. T8. +.)>.( )/. +)/<.0 (-:;+.0 )4, ;)+:)6.+1
+*5.,. I6( 7/2-6( )/. ,)/A 5+2. */ 5+)3A 9-68 ) 8)/, (..,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. ;)+:.66* ;)+: -( 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. 3*)(6)+
/.<-*4( *7 68. (*268B.)(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. /)9. T8. 8)/, (..,( :)1 5. </*24, -46*
7+*2/. T8. 8.)/6 *7 68. ;)+: -( ) 426/-6-*2( 7**, (*2/3. )6 )41 6-:.. C26 *77 68.
6*; *7 68. 6/.. 6* *56)-4 68. ;)+: 8.)/6.
P-7-;- 1* 7-A7-A
Carica papaya
D+:.*47041/: T8. ;);)1) -( ) (:)++ 6/.. 1.$ 6* 6 :.6./( C6 6* 2" 7..6D 6)++0 9-68
) (*760 8*++*9 6/24A. !8.4 3260 68. .46-/. ;+)46 .=2,.( ) :-+A1 F2-3.. T8.
6/24A -( /*2<8 )4, 68. +.)>.( )/. 3/*9,., )6 68. 6/24AH( );.=. T8. 7/2-6 </*9(
,-/.36+1 7/*: 68. 6/24A0 ):*4< )4, 5.+*9 68. +.)>.(. T8. 7/2-6 -( </..4 5.7*/.
/-;.4-4<. !8.4 /-;.0 -6 62/4( 1.++*9 */ /.:)-4( </..4-(8 9-68 ) (?2)(8 +-A.
);;.)/)43..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P);)1) -( 7*24, -4 /)-4 7*/.(6( )4, (.:- .>./</..4
(.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6( -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4( )4, -4 (*:. 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4( )( 9.++.
322
L**A 7*/ -6 -4 :*-(6 )/.)( 4.)/ 3+.)/-4<( )4, 7*/:./ 8)5-6)6-*4(. I6 -( )+(*
7*24, -4 *;.40 (2441 ;+)3.( -4 24-48)5-6., F24<+. )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /-;. 7/2-6 -( 8-<8 -4 >-6):-4 C. E)6 -6 /)9 */ 3**A -6 +-A.
(?2)(8. P+)3. </..4 7/2-6 -4 68. (24 6* :)A. -6 /-;.4 ?2-3A+1. C**A 68. 1*24<
;);)1) +.)>.(0 7+*9./(0 )4, (6.:( 3)/.72++10 38)4<-4< 68. 9)6./ )( 7*/ 6)/*.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. :-+A1 F2-3. *7 68. 24/-;. 7/2-6 6* 6.4,./-G. 6*2<8 :.)6.
R25 68. F2-3. *4 68. :.)6.
CAUTION
B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* <.6 68. :-+A1 (); 7/*: 68. 24/-;. 7/2-6 -46* 1*2/ .1.(. I6 9-++
3)2(. -46.4(. ;)-4 )4, 6.:;*/)/1@ (*:.6-:.( .>.4 ;./:)4.46@5+-4,4.((.
P+*:4>>1/
/iospyros virginiana )4, *68./ (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. 6/..( 8)>. )+6./4)6.0 ,)/A </..40 .++-;6-3 +.)>.( 9-68
.46-/. :)/<-4(. T8. 7+*9./( )/. -43*4(;-32*2(. T8. 7/2-6( )/. */)4<.0 8)>. )
(6-3A1 3*4(-(6.4310 )4, 8)>. (.>./)+ (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. ;./(-::*4 -( ) 3*::*4 7*/.(6 :)/<-4 6/... I6
-( 9-,. (;/.), -4 A7/-3)0 .)(6./4 N*/68 A:./-3)0 )4, 68. F)/ E)(6.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. +.)>.( )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 >-6):-4 C. T8. 7/2-6( )/.
.,-5+. /)9 */ 5)A.,. T* :)A. 6.)0 ,/1 68. +.)>.( )4, (*)A 68.: -4 8*6 9)6./.
Y*2 3)4 .)6 68. /*)(6., (..,(.
CAUTION
S*:. ;./(*4( )/. 24)5+. 6* ,-<.(6 ;./(-::*4 ;2+;. U4/-;. ;./(-::*4( )/.
8-<8+1 )(6/-4<.46 )4, -4.,-5+..
323
P4/.3:841/ .-.03:
7ammilaria (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: M.:5./( *7 68-( 3)362( </*2; )/. /*24,0 (8*/60 5)//.+B(8);.,0
)4, 9-68*26 +.)>.(. S8)/; (;-4.( 3*>./ 68. .46-/. ;+)46.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. 3)36- )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 :238 *7 68.
,.(./6 /.<-*4( *7 68. 9.(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.( )4, ;)/6( *7 C.46/)+ A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8.1 )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 9)6./ -4 68. ,.(./6.
P4/+
"in&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: P-4. 6/..( )/. .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G., 51 68.-/ 4..,+. +-A. +.)>.(
</*2;., -4 524,+.(. E)38 524,+. :)1 3*46)-4 *4. 6* 7->. 4..,+.(0 68.
42:5./ >)/1-4< ):*4< (;.3-.(. T8. 6/..H( *,*/ )4, (6-3A1 (); ;/*>-,. )
(-:;+. 9)1 6* ,-(6-4<2-(8 ;-4.( 7/*: (-:-+)/ +**A-4< 6/..( 9-68 4..,+. +-A.
+.)>.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P-4.( ;/.7./ *;.40 (2441 )/.)(. T8.1 )/. 7*24,
68/*2<8*26 N*/68 A:./-3)0 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 :238 *7 68. C)/-55.)4 /.<-*40
N*/68 A7/-3)0 68. M-,,+. E)(60 E2/*;.0 )4, (*:. ;+)3.( -4 A(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. (..,( *7 )++ (;.3-.( )/. .,-5+.. Y*2 3)4 3*++.36 68. 1*24<
:)+. 3*4.(0 98-38 </*9 *4+1 -4 68. (;/-4<0 )( ) (2/>->)+ 7**,. B*-+ */ 5)A. 68.
1*24< 3*4.(. T8. 5)/A *7 1*24< 69-<( -( .,-5+.. P..+ *77 68. 5)/A *7 68-4
324
69-<(. Y*2 3)4 38.9 68. F2-31 -44./ 5)/AM -6 -( /-38 -4 (2<)/ )4, >-6):-4(. E)6
68. (..,( /)9 */ 3**A.,. G/..4 ;-4. 4..,+. 6.) -( 8-<8 -4 >-6):-4 C.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. /.(-4 6* 9)6./;/**7 )/6-3+.(. A+(*0 2(. -6 )( <+2.. C*++.36
68. /.(-4 7/*: 68. 6/... I7 68./. -( 4*6 .4*2<8 /.(-4 *4 68. 6/..0 326 ) 4*638 -4
68. 5)/A (* :*/. (); 9-++ (..; *26. P26 68. /.(-4 -4 ) 3*46)-4./ )4, 8.)6 -6.
T8. 8*6 /.(-4 -( 1*2/ <+2.. U(. -6 )( -( */ ),, ) (:)++ ):*246 *7 )(8 ,2(6 6*
(6/.4<68.4 -6. U(. -6 -::.,-)6.+1. Y*2 3)4 2(. 8)/,.4., ;-4. /.(-4 )( )4
.:./<.431 ,.46)+ 7-++-4<.
P<-/0-4/& @*1-2 -/2 /-**1A <+-,
"lantago (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. 5/*), +.)7 ;+)46)-4 8)( +.)>.( *>./ 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D
)3/*(( 68)6 </*9 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24,. T8. 7+*9./( )/. *4 ) (;-A. 68)6 /-(.(
7/*: 68. :-,,+. *7 68. 3+2(6./ *7 +.)>.(. T8. 4)//*9 +.)7 ;+)46)-4 8)( +.)>.(
2; 6* 12 3.46-:.6./( C% -438.(D +*4< )4, 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D 9-,.0
3*>./., 9-68 8)-/(. T8. +.)>.( 7*/: ) /*(.66.. T8. 7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4,
-43*4(;-32*2(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68.(. ;+)46( -4 +)94( )4, )+*4< /*),( -4
68. 4*/68 6.:;./)6. G*4.. T8-( ;+)46 -( ) 3*::*4 9.., 68/*2<8*26 :238 *7
68. 9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< 6.4,./ +.)>.( )/. .,-5+. /)9. O+,./ +.)>.( (8*2+,
5. 3**A.,. S..,( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ /*)(6.,.
O08+* U:+:: T* /.+-.>. ;)-4 7/*: 9*24,( )4, (*/.(0 9)(8 )4, (*)A 68.
.46-/. ;+)46 7*/ ) (8*/6 6-:. )4, );;+1 -6 6* 68. -4F2/., )/.). T* 6/.)6 ,-)//8.)0
,/-4A 6.) :),. 7/*: 2$ </):( C1 *243.D *7 68. ;+)46 +.)>.( 5*-+., -4 ".% +-6./
*7 9)6./. T8. (..,( )4, (.., 82(A( )36 )( +)=)6->.(.
325
P1?+A++2
"hytolacca americana
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 :)1 </*9 )( 8-<8 )( :.6./( C9 7..6D. I6( +.)>.( )/.
.++-;6-3 )4, 2; 6* 1 :.6./ C 7..6D -4 +.4<68. I6 ;/*,23.( :)41 +)/<. 3+2(6./( *7
;2/;+. 7/2-6( -4 +)6. (;/-4<.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( ;+)46 -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)( -4 7*/.(6
3+.)/-4<(0 -4 7-.+,(0 )4, )+*4< /*),(-,.( -4 .)(6./4 N*/68 A:./-3)0 C.46/)+
A:./-3)0 )4, 68. C)/-55.)4.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< +.)>.( )4, (6.:( )/. .,-5+. 3**A.,. B*-+ 68.:
69-3.0 ,-(3)/,-4< 68. 9)6./ 7/*: 68. 7-/(6 5*-+-4<. T8. 5.//-.( )/. 3*4(-,./.,
;*-(*4*2(0 .>.4 -7 3**A.,.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68-( ;+)46 )/. ;*-(*4*2( -7 .)6.4 /)9. N.>./ .)6 68. 24,./</*24,
;*/6-*4( *7 68. ;+)46 )( 68.(. 3*46)-4 68. 8-<8.(6 3*43.46/)6-*4( *7 68.
;*-(*4(. D* 4*6 .)6 )41 ;+)46 *>./ 2% 3.46-:.6./( C1" -438.(D 6)++ */ 98.4 /.,
-( (8*9-4< -4 68. ;+)46.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. F2-3. *7 7/.(8 5.//-.( )( ) ,1..
P*4.?<; 7+-* .-.03:
6p&ntia (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 3)362( 8)( 7+)60 ;), +-A. (6.:( 68)6 )/. </..4. M)41 /*24,0
326
72//1 ,*6( 68)6 3*46)-4 (8)/;B;*-46., 8)-/( 3*>./ 68.(. (6.:(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 3)362( -( 7*24, -4 )/-, )4, (.:-)/-, /.<-*4(
)4, -4 ,/10 ()4,1 )/.)( *7 9.66./ /.<-*4( 68/*2<8*26 :*(6 *7 68. U4-6., S6)6.(
)4, C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3). S*:. (;.3-.( )/. ;+)46., -4 )/-, )4,
(.:-)/-, /.<-*4( *7 *68./ ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. .,-5+.. P..+ 68. 7/2-6( )4, .)6 68.:
7/.(8 */ 3/2(8 68.: 6* ;/.;)/. ) /.7/.(8-4< ,/-4A. A>*-, 68. 6-410 ;*-46.,
8)-/(. R*)(6 68. (..,( )4, </-4, 68.: 6* ) 7+*2/.
CAUTION
A>*-, )41 ;+)46 68)6 /.(.:5+.( 68. ;/-3A+1 ;.)/ 3)362( )4, 8)( :-+A1 ();.
O08+* U:+:: T8. ;), -( ) <**, (*2/3. *7 9)6./. P..+ -6 3)/.72++1 6* /.:*>.
)++ (8)/; 8)-/( 5.7*/. ;266-4< -6 -4 1*2/ :*268. Y*2 3)4 )+(* 2(. 68. ;),( 6*
;/*:*6. 8.)+-4<. S;+-6 68.: )4, );;+1 68. ;2+; 6* 9*24,(.
P3*:<-/+
"ort&laca oleracea
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 3+*(. 6* 68. </*24,. I6 -( (.+,*: :*/. 68)4 )
7.9 3.46-:.6./( 6)++. I6( (6.:( )4, +.)>.( )/. 7+.(81 )4, *76.4 6-4<., 9-68 /.,.
I6 8)( ;),,+. (8);., +.)>.(0 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D */ +.(( +*4<0 3+2(6./., )6
68. 6-;( *7 68. (6.:(. I6( 7+*9./( )/. 1.++*9 */ ;-4A. I6( (..,( )/. 6-41 )4,
5+)3A.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: I6 </*9( -4 72++ (24 -4 32+6->)6., 7-.+,(0 7-.+, :)/<-4(0
)4, *68./ 9..,1 )/.)( 68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( )/. .,-5+.. !)(8 )4, 5*-+ 68. ;+)46( 7*/ ) 6)(61
>.<.6)5+. */ .)6 68.: /)9. U(. 68. (..,( )( ) 7+*2/ (25(6-626. */ .)6 68.:
/)9.
327
R-00-/ 7-<>
Calam&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. /)66)4 ;)+: -( ) (6*260 /*52(6 3+-:5./. I6 8)( 8**A( *4 68.
:-,/-5 *7 -6( +.)>.( 68)6 -6 2(.( 6* /.:)-4 )66)38., 6* 68. 6/..( *4 98-38 -6
</*9(. S*:.6-:.(0 :)62/. (6.:( </*9 6* 9" :.6./( C"" 7..6D. I6 8)(
)+6./4)6.0 3*:;*24, +.)>.( )4, ) 98-6-(8 7+*9./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. /)66)4 ;)+: -( 7*24, 7/*: 6/*;-3)+ A7/-3)
68/*2<8 A(-) 6* 68. E)(6 I4,-.( )4, A2(6/)+-). I6 </*9( :)-4+1 -4 /)-4 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: R)66)4 ;)+:( 8*+, ) 3*4(-,./)5+. ):*246 *7 (6)/38 -4 68.-/
1*24< (6.: 6-;(. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.: /*)(6., */ /)9. I4 *68./ A-4,(0 )
<.+)6-4*2( ;2+;0 .-68./ (9..6 */ (*2/0 (2//*24,( 68. (..,(. Y*2 3)4 (23A *26
68-( ;2+;. T8. ;)+: 8.)/6 -( )+(* .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 *56)-4 +)/<. ):*246( *7 ;*6)5+. 9)6./ 51 3266-4< 68.
.4,( *7 68. +*4< (6.:( C(.. C8);6./ 6D. T8. (6.:( 3)4 5. 2(., 6* :)A.
5)(A.6( )4, 7-(8 6/);(.
328
R++2
"hragmites a&stralis
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6)++0 3*)/(. </)(( </*9( 6* .% :.6./( C12 7..6D 6)++ )4, 8)(
</)1B</..4 +.)>.( )5*26 4 3.46-:.6./( C1 1R2 -438D 9-,.. I6 8)( +)/<. :)((.(
*7 5/*94 7+*9./ 5/)438.( -4 .)/+1 (2::./. T8.(. /)/.+1 ;/*,23. </)-4 )4,
5.3*:. 7+27710 </)1 :)((.( +)6. -4 68. (.)(*4.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ /.., -4 )41 *;.40 9.6 )/.)0 .(;.3-)++1 *4.
68)6 8)( 5..4 ,-(62/5., 68/*2<8 ,/.,<-4<. R.., -( 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68.
6.:;./)6. /.<-*4( *7 5*68 68. N*/68./4 )4, S*268./4 H.:-(;8./.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A., -4 )41 (.)(*4.
H)/>.(6 68. (6.:( )( 68.1 .:./<. 7/*: 68. (*-+ )4, 5*-+ 68.:. Y*2 3)4 )+(*
8)/>.(6 68.: F2(6 5.7*/. 68.1 ;/*,23. 7+*9./(0 68.4 ,/1 )4, 5.)6 68.: -46*
7+*2/. Y*2 3)4 )+(* ,-< 2; )4, 5*-+ 68. 24,./</*24, (6.:(0 526 68.1 )/. *76.4
6*2<8. S..,( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 5*-+.,0 526 68.1 )/. /)/.+1 7*24,.
R+4/2++* >1::
Cladonia rangi2erina
D+:.*47041/: R.-4,../ :*(( -( ) +*9B</*9-4< ;+)46 *4+1 ) 7.9 3.46-:.6./(
6)++. I6 ,*.( 4*6 7+*9./ 526 ,*.( ;/*,23. 5/-<86 /., /.;/*,236->. (6/2362/.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( +-38.4 -4 *;.40 ,/1 )/.)(. I6 -( >./1
3*::*4 -4 :238 *7 N*/68 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. .46-/. ;+)46 -( .,-5+. 526 8)( ) 3/243810 5/-66+. 6.=62/..
329
S*)A 68. ;+)46 -4 9)6./ 9-68 (*:. 9**, )(8.( 6* /.:*>. 68. 5-66./4.((M 68.4
,/10 3/2(80 )4, ),, -6 6* :-+A */ 6* *68./ 7**,.
R1.? 0*47+
.m%ilicaria (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 7*/:( +)/<. ;)638.( 9-68 32/+-4< .,<.(. T8. 6*; *7
68. ;+)46 -( 2(2)++1 5+)3A. T8. 24,./(-,. -( +-<86./ -4 3*+*/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A *4 /*3A( )4, 5*2+,./( 7*/ 68-( ;+)46. I6 -(
3*::*4 68/*2<8*26 N*/68 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. .46-/. ;+)46 -( .,-5+.. S3/);. -6 *77 68. /*3A )4, 9)(8 -6 6*
/.:*>. </-6. T8. ;+)46 :)1 5. ,/1 )4, 3/24381M (*)A -6 -4 9)6./ 246-+ -6
5.3*:.( (*76. R*3A 6/-;.( :)1 3*46)-4 +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 5-66./ (25(6)43.(M
(*)A-4< */ 5*-+-4< 68. ;+)46 -4 (.>./)+ 38)4<.( *7 9)6./ 9-++ /.:*>. 68.
5-66./4.((.
CAUTION
T8./. )/. (*:. /.;*/6( *7 ;*-(*4-4< 7/*: /*3A 6/-;.0 (* );;+1 68. U4->./()+
E,-5-+-61 T.(6.
330
R1:+ -77<+
8&genia 9am%os
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( 6* 9 :.6./( C9 6* 27 7..6D 8-<8. I6 8)(
*;;*(-6.0 (-:;+.0 ,)/A </..40 (8-41 +.)>.(. !8.4 7/.(80 -6 8)( 7+27710
1.++*9-(8B</..4 7+*9./( )4, /., 6* ;2/;+. .<<B(8);., 7/2-6.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. -( 9-,.+1 ;+)46., -4 )++ *7 68. 6/*;-3(. I6
3)4 )+(* 5. 7*24, -4 ) (.:- 9-+, (6)6. -4 68-3A.6(0 9)(6. ;+)3.(0 )4,
(.3*4,)/1 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. .46-/. 7/2-6 -( .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,.
S-91 7-<>
7etro3ylon sag&
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;)+:( )/. +*9 6/..(0 /)/.+1 *>./ 9 :.6./( C27 7..6D 6)++0
331
9-68 ) (6*260 (;-41 6/24A. T8. *26./ /-4, -( )5*26 % 3.46-:.6./( C2 -438.(D 68-3A
)4, 8)/, )( 5):5**. T8. /-4, .43+*(.( ) (;*4<1 -44./ ;-68 3*46)-4-4< ) 8-<8
;/*;*/6-*4 *7 (6)/38. I6 8)( 61;-3)+ ;)+: +-A. +.)>.( 3+2(6./., )6 68. 6-;.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. ()<* ;)+: -( 7*24, -4 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6(. I6
7+*2/-(8.( -4 ,):; +*9+)4,( -4 68. M)+)1 P.4-4(2+)0 N.9 G2-4.)0 I4,*4.(-)0
68. P8-+-;;-4.(0 )4, ),F)3.46 -(+)4,(. I6 -( 7*24, :)-4+1 -4 (9):;( )4, )+*4<
(6/.):(0 +)A.(0 )4, /->./(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8.(. ;)+:(0 98.4 )>)-+)5+.0 )/. *7 </.)6 2(. 6* 68. (2/>->*/.
O4. 6/24A0 326 F2(6 5.7*/. -6 7+*9./(0 9-++ 1-.+, .4*2<8 ()<* 6* 7.., ) ;./(*4
7*/ 1 1.)/. O56)-4 ()<* (6)/38 7/*: 4*4 7+*9./-4< ;)+:(. T* .=6/)36 68.
.,-5+. ()<.0 326 )9)1 68. 5)/A +.4<689-(. 7/*: *4. 8)+7 *7 68. 6/24A )4,
;*24, 68. (*760 98-6-(8 -44./ ;)/6 C;-68D )( 7-4. )( ;*((-5+.. K4.), 68. ;-68 -4
9)6./ )4, (6/)-4 -6 68/*2<8 ) 3*)/(. 3+*68 -46* ) 3*46)-4./. T8. 7-4.0 98-6.
()<* 9-++ (.66+. -4 68. 3*46)-4./. O43. 68. ()<* (.66+.(0 -6 -( /.),1 7*/ 2(..
S?2..G. *77 68. .=3.(( 9)6./ )4, +.6 -6 ,/1. C**A -6 )( ;)43)A.( */ *)6:.)+.
T9* A-+*</):( *7 ()<* -( 68. 426/-6-*4)+ .?2->)+.46 *7 1.% A-+*</):( *7 /-3..
T8. 2;;./ ;)/6 *7 68. 6/24AH( 3*/. ,*.( 4*6 1-.+, ()<*0 526 1*2 3)4 /*)(6 -6 -4
+2:;( *>./ ) 7-/.. Y*2 3)4 )+(* .)6 68. 1*24< ()<* 426( )4, 68. </*9-4<
(8**6( */ ;)+: 3)55)<..
S-::-,*-:
Sassa2ras al%id&m
D+:.*47041/: T8-( (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/.. 5.)/( ,-77./.46 +.)>.( *4 68. ():.
;+)46. S*:. +.)>.( 9-++ 8)>. *4. +*5.0 (*:. 69* +*5.(0 )4, (*:. 4* +*5.(.
T8. 7+*9./(0 98-38 );;.)/ -4 .)/+1 (;/-4<0 )/. (:)++ )4, 1.++*9. T8. 7/2-6( )/.
,)/A 5+2.. T8. ;+)46 ;)/6( 8)>. ) 38)/)36./-(6-3 /**6 5../ (:.++.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: S)(()7/)( </*9( )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 /*),( )4,
7*/.(6(0 2(2)++1 -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)(. I6 -( ) 3*::*4 6/.. 68/*2<8*26 .)(6./4
N*/68 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< 69-<( )4, +.)>.( )/. .,-5+. 7/.(8 */ ,/-.,. Y*2 3)4
),, ,/-., 1*24< 69-<( )4, +.)>.( 6* (*2;(. D-< 68. 24,./</*24, ;*/6-*40 ;..+
*77 68. 5)/A0 )4, +.6 -6 ,/1. T8.4 5*-+ -6 -4 9)6./ 6* ;/.;)/. ()(()7/)( 6.).
O08+* U:+:: S8/., 68. 6.4,./ 69-<( 7*/ 2(. )( ) 6**685/2(8.
332
S-F-3<
,alo3ylon ammondendron
D+:.*47041/: T8. ()=)2+ -( 7*24, .-68./ )( ) (:)++ 6/.. */ )( ) +)/<. (8/25
9-68 8.)>10 3*)/(. 9**, )4, (;*4<10 9)6./B(*)A., 5)/A. T8. 5/)438.( *7
68. 1*24< 6/..( )/. >->-, </..4 )4, ;.4,2+*2(. T8. 7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4,
1.++*9.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. ()=)2+ -( 7*24, -4 ,.(./6 )4, )/-, )/.)(. I6 -(
7*24, *4 68. )/-, ()+6 ,.(./6( *7 C.46/)+ A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 -4 68. T2/A.(6)4
/.<-*4 )4, .)(6 *7 68. C)(;-)4 S.).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 68-3A 5)/A )36( )( ) 9)6./ (6*/)<. */<)4. Y*2 3)4 <.6
,/-4A-4< 9)6./ 51 ;/.((-4< ?2)46-6-.( *7 68. 5)/A. T8-( ;+)46 -( )4 -:;*/6)46
(*2/3. *7 9)6./ -4 68. )/-, /.<-*4( -4 98-38 -6 </*9(.
333
S.*+A 74/+
"andan&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. (3/.9 ;-4. -( ) (6/)4<. ;+)46 *4 (6-+6(0 */ ;/*; /**6(0 68)6
(2;;*/6 68. ;+)46 )5*>. </*24, (* 68)6 -6 );;.)/( (2(;.4,., -4 :-,)-/. T8.(.
;+)46( )/. .-68./ (8/2551 */ 6/..+-A.0 6* 9 :.6./( C9 6* 27 7..6D 6)++0 9-68 (6-77
+.)>.( 8)>-4< ()9 +-A. .,<.(. T8. 7/2-6( )/. +)/<.0 /*2<8.4., 5)++(
/.(.:5+-4< ;-4.);;+.( 526 9-68*26 68. 6276 *7 +.)>.( )6 68. .4,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. (3/.9 ;-4. -( ) 6/*;-3)+ ;+)46 68)6 </*9( -4 /)-4
7*/.(6( )4, (.:- .>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6(. I6 -( 7*24, :)-4+1 )+*4<
(.)(8*/.(0 )+68*2<8 3./6)-4 A-4,( *332/ -4+)4, 7*/ (*:. ,-(6)43.0 7/*:
M),)<)(3)/ 6* (*268./4 A(-) )4, 68. -(+)4,( *7 68. (*268B9.(6./4 P)3-7-3.
T8./. )/. )5*26 1$" 61;.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: K4*3A 68. /-;. 7/2-6 6* 68. </*24, 6* (.;)/)6. 68. 7/2-6 (.<:.46(
7/*: 68. 8)/, *26./ 3*>./-4<. C8.9 68. -44./ 7+.(81 ;)/6. C**A -4 )4 .)/68
*>.4 7/2-6 68)6 -( 4*6 72++1 /-;.. B.7*/. 3**A-4<0 9/); 68. 98*+. 7/2-6 -4 5)4)4)
+.)>.(0 5/.),7/2-6 +.)>.(0 */ )41 *68./ (2-6)5+. 68-3A0 +.)68./1 +.)>.(. A76./
3**A-4< 7*/ )5*26 2 8*2/(0 1*2 3)4 38.9 7/2-6 (.<:.46( +-A. /-;. 7/2-6. G/..4
7/2-6 -( -4.,-5+..
334

S+- 1*-.8
Atriple3 halim&s
D+:.*47041/: T8. (.) */)38 -( ) (;)/-4<+1 5/)438., 8./5)3.*2( ;+)46 9-68
(:)++0 </)1 3*+*/., +.)>.( 2; 6* 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D +*4<. S.) */)38
/.(.:5+.( +):5H( ?2)/6./0 ) 3*::*4 9.., -4 :*(6 <)/,.4( -4 68. U4-6.,
S6)6.(. I6 ;/*,23.( -6( 7+*9./( -4 4)//*90 ,.4(.+1 3*:;)36., (;-A.( )6 68. 6-;(
*7 -6( 5/)438.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. (.) */)38 -( 7*24, -4 8-<8+1 )+A)+-4. )4, ()+61
)/.)( )+*4< (.)(8*/.( 7/*: 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4 3*246/-.( 6* -4+)4, )/.)( -4
N*/68 A7/-3) )4, .)(69)/, 6* T2/A.1 )4, 3.46/)+ S-5./-). G.4./)++10 -6 3)4 5.
7*24, -4 6/*;-3)+ (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6(0
(6.;;.( -4 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(0 )4, :*(6 ,.(./6 (3/25 )4, 9)(6. )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: I6( +.)>.( )/. .,-5+.. I4 68. )/.)( 98./. -6 </*9(0 -6 8)( 68.
8.)+681 /.;26)6-*4 *7 5.-4< *4. *7 68. 7.9 4)6->. ;+)46( 68)6 3)4 (2(6)-4 :)4
-4 6-:.( *7 9)46.
S8++7 :1**+<
R&me3 acerosella
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( )/. (.+,*: :*/. 68)4 " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D
6)++. T8.1 8)>. )+6./4)6. +.)>.(0 *76.4 9-68 )//*9 +-A. 5)(.(0 >./1 (:)++
7+*9./(0 )4, 7/.?2.46+1 /.,,-(8 (6.:(.
335
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68.(. ;+)46( -4 *+, 7-.+,( )4, *68./
,-(62/5., )/.)( -4 N*/68 A:./-3) )4, E2/*;..
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. ;+)46( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,.
CAUTION
T8.(. ;+)46( 3*46)-4 *=)+-3 )3-, 68)6 3)4 5. ,):)<-4< -7 6** :)41 ;+)46( )/.
.)6.4 /)9. C**A-4< (..:( 6* ,.(6/*1 68. 38.:-3)+.
S1*983>
Sorgh&m (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8./. )/. :)41 ,-77./.46 A-4,( *7 (*/<82:0 )++ *7 98-38 5.)/
</)-4( -4 8.),( )6 68. 6*; *7 68. ;+)46(. T8. </)-4( )/. 5/*940 98-6.0 /.,0 */
5+)3A. S*/<82: -( 68. :)-4 7**, 3/*; -4 :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: S*/<82: -( 7*24, 9*/+,9-,.0 2(2)++1 -4 9)/:./
3+-:)6.(. A++ (;.3-.( )/. 7*24, -4 *;.40 (2441 )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. </)-4( )/. .,-5+. )6 )41 (6)<. *7 ,.>.+*;:.46. !8.4
1*24<0 68. </)-4( )/. :-+A1 )4, .,-5+. /)9. B*-+ 68. *+,./ </)-4(. S*/<82: -(
) 426/-6-*2( 7**,.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. (6.:( *7 6)++ (*/<82: )( 52-+,-4< :)6./-)+(.
336
S7-00+*21.? 1* ;+<<1A A-0+* <4<;
1&phar (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( +.)>.( 2; 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D +*4< 9-68
) 6/-)4<2+)/ 4*638 )6 68. 5)(.. T8. (8);. *7 68. +.)>.( -( (*:.98)6 >)/-)5+..
T8. ;+)46H( 1.++*9 7+*9./( )/. 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D )3/*(( )4, ,.>.+*;
-46* 5*66+.B(8);., 7/2-6(. T8. 7/2-6( )/. </..4 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. ;+)46( </*9 68/*2<8*26 :*(6 *7 N*/68
A:./-3). T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4 ?2-.60 (8)++*9 C4.>./ ,..;./ 68)4 1.$ :.6./( P6
7..6QD 7/.(89)6./.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. .,-5+.. T8. 7/2-6( 3*46)-4 (.>./)+ ,)/A
5/*94 (..,( 1*2 3)4 ;)/38 */ /*)(6 )4, 68.4 </-4, -46* 7+*2/. T8. +)/<.
/**6(6*3A 3*46)-4( (6)/38. D-< -6 *26 *7 68. :2,0 ;..+ *77 68. *26(-,.0 )4, 5*-+
68. 7+.(8. S*:.6-:.( 68. /**6(6*3A 3*46)-4( +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 ) >./1 5-66./
3*:;*24,. B*-+-4< 68. ;+)46 -4 (.>./)+ 38)4<.( *7 9)6./ :)1 /.:*>. 68.
5-66./4.((.
S0+*.3<4-
Sterc&lia 2oetida
D+:.*47041/: S6./32+-)( )/. 6)++ 6/..(0 /-(-4< -4 (*:. -4(6)43.( 6* " :.6./(
C9" 7..6D. T8.-/ +.)>.( )/. .-68./ 24,->-,., */ ;)+:)6.+1 +*5.,. T8.-/ 7+*9./(
)/. /., */ ;2/;+.. T8. 7/2-6 *7 )++ (6./32+-)( -( (-:-+)/ -4 )(;.360 9-68 ) /.,0
(.<:.46., (..,;*, 3*46)-4-4< :)41 .,-5+. 5+)3A (..,(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8./. )/. *>./ 1"" (;.3-.( *7 (6./32+-)( ,-(6/-526.,
68/*2<8 )++ 9)/: */ 6/*;-3)+ 3+-:)6.(. T8.1 )/. :)-4+1 7*/.(6 6/..(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. +)/<.0 /., ;*,( ;/*,23. ) 42:5./ *7 .,-5+. (..,(. T8.
(..,( *7 )++ (6./32+-)( )/. .,-5+. )4, 8)>. ) ;+.)()46 6)(6. (-:-+)/ 6* 3*3*).
Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.: +-A. 426(0 .-68./ /)9 */ /*)(6.,.
CAUTION
A>*-, .)6-4< +)/<. ?2)46-6-.(. T8. (..,( :)1 8)>. ) +)=)6->. .77.36.
337
S0*-A@+**;
#ragaria (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: S6/)95.//1 -( ) (:)++ ;+)46 9-68 ) 68/..B+.)>., </*968 ;)66./4. I6
8)( (:)++0 98-6. 7+*9./( 2(2)++1 ;/*,23., ,2/-4< 68. (;/-4<. I6( 7/2-6 -( /., )4,
7+.(81.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: S6/)95.//-.( )/. 7*24, -4 68. 4*/68 6.:;./)6. G*4.
)4, )+(* -4 68. 8-<8 :*246)-4( *7 68. (*268./4 !.(6./4 H.:-(;8./..
S6/)95.//-.( ;/.7./ *;.40 (2441 )/.)(. T8.1 )/. 3*::*4+1 ;+)46.,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 -( .,-5+. 7/.(80 3**A.,0 */ ,/-.,. S6/)95.//-.( )/. )
<**, (*2/3. *7 >-6):-4 C. Y*2 3)4 )+(* .)6 68. ;+)46H( +.)>.( */ ,/1 68.: 6*
:)A. ) 6.). C)/. (8*2+, 5. 6)A.4 9-68 (6/)95.//-.( )4, *68./ 7)/: 7**,( 68)6
8)>. (-:-+)/0 ;-66., (A-4(. I4 )/.)( 98./. 82:)4 7./6-+-G./ -( 2(.,0 .>.4
5+.)38 9-++ 4*6 5. )5+. 6* .77.36->.+1 /.:*>. )++ 5)36./-).
$ARNING
E)6 *4+1 98-6.B7+*9./-4< 6/2. (6/)95.//-.(. O68./ (-:-+)/ ;+)46( 9-68*26 98-6.
7+*9./( 3)4 5. ;*-(*4*2(.
S39-*.-/+
Sacchar&m o22icinar&m
338
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 </*9( 2; 6* 4.% :.6./( C1% 7..6D 6)++. I6 -( ) </)(( )4,
8)( </)(( +-A. +.)>.(. I6( </..4 */ /.,,-(8 (6.:( )/. (9*++.4 98./. 68.
+.)>.( </*9. C2+6->)6., (2<)/3)4. (.+,*: 7+*9./(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ (2<)/3)4. -4 7-.+,(. I6 </*9( *4+1 -4 68.
6/*;-3( C68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+,D. B.3)2(. -6 -( ) 3/*;0 -6 -( *76.4 7*24, -4 +)/<.
42:5./(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. (6.: -( )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 (2<)/ )4, -( >./1 426/-6-*2(.
P..+ 68. *26./ ;*/6-*4 *77 9-68 1*2/ 6..68 )4, .)6 68. (2<)/3)4. /)9. Y*2 3)4
)+(* (?2..G. F2-3. *26 *7 68. (2<)/3)4..
S39-* 7-<>
Arenga pinnata
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( )5*26 1% :.6./( C4% 7..6D 8-<8 )4, 8)( 82<.
+.)>.( 2; 6* 6 :.6./( C1$ 7..6D +*4<. N..,+. +-A. (6/2362/.( (6-3A *26 *7 68.
5)(.( *7 68. +.)>.(. F+*9./( </*9 5.+*9 68. +.)>.( )4, 7*/: +)/<.
3*4(;-32*2( ,2(6./( 7/*: 98-38 68. 7/2-6( </*9.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;)+: -( 4)6->. 6* 68. E)(6 I4,-.( 526 8)( 5..4
;+)46., -4 :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. 6/*;-3(. I6 3)4 5. 7*24, )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 38-.7 2(. *7 68-( ;)+: -( 7*/ (2<)/. H*9.>./0 -6( (..,( )4,
68. 6-; *7 -6( (6.:( )/. ) (2/>->)+ 7**,. B/2-(. ) 1*24< 7+*9./ (6)+A 9-68 )
(6*4. */ (-:-+)/ *5F.36 )4, 3*++.36 68. F2-3. )( -6 3*:.( *26. I6 -( )4 .=3.++.46
(*2/3. *7 (2<)/. B*-+ 68. (..,(. U(. 68. 6-; *7 68. (6.:( )( ) >.<.6)5+..
O08+* U:+:: T8. (8)<<1 :)6./-)+ )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. +.)>.( :)A.( )4
.=3.++.46 /*;.0 )( -6 -( (6/*4< )4, /.(-(6( ,.3)1.
CAUTION
T8. 7+.(8 3*>./-4< 68. (..,( :)1 3)2(. ,./:)6-6-(.
339
SA++0:17
Annona s=&amosa
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. -( (:)++0 (.+,*: :*/. 68)4 6 :.6./( C1$ 7..6D 6)++0 )4,
:2+6-B5/)438.,. I6 8)( )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+.0 .+*4<)6.0 ,)/A </..4 +.)>.(. I6( 7/2-6
-( </..4 98.4 /-;.0 /*24,0 )4, 3*>./., 9-68 ;/*6/2,-4< 52:;( *4 -6( (2/7)3..
T8. 7/2-6H( 7+.(8 -( 98-6. )4, 3/.):1.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ (9..6(*; )6 :)/<-4( *7 7-.+,(0 4.)/
>-++)<.(0 )4, )/*24, 8*:. (-6.( -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 7+.(8 -( .,-5+. /)9.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 2(. 68. 7-4.+1 </*24, (..,( )( )4 -4(.36-3-,..
CAUTION
T8. </*24, (..,( )/. .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2( 6* 68. .1.(.
T->-*4/2
$amarind&s indica
D+:.*47041/: T8. 6):)/-4, -( ) +)/<.0 ,.4(.+1 5/)438., 6/... I6 </*9( 2; 6*
2% :.6./( C7% 7..6D 6)++. I6( 8)( ;-44)6. +.)>.( C,->-,., +-A. ) 7.)68./D 9-68 1"
6* 1% ;)-/( *7 +.)7+.6(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 6):)/-4, </*9( -4 68. ,/-./ ;)/6( *7 A7/-3)0
A(-)0 )4, 68. P8-+-;;-4.(. A+68*2<8 -6 -( 68*2<86 6* 5. ) 4)6->. *7 A7/-3)0 -6 8)(
5..4 32+6->)6., -4 I4,-) 7*/ (* +*4< 68)6 -6 +**A( +-A. ) 4)6->. 6/... I6 -( )+(*
7*24, -4 68. A:./-3)4 6/*;-3(0 68. !.(6 I4,-.(0 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 )4, 6/*;-3)+
340
S*268 A:./-3).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. ;2+; (2//*24,-4< 68. (..,( -( /-38 -4 >-6):-4 C )4, -( )4
-:;*/6)46 (2/>->)+ 7**,. Y*2 3)4 :)A. ) ;+.)()46+1 )3-, ,/-4A 51 :-=-4< 68.
;2+; 9-68 9)6./ )4, (2<)/ */ 8*4.1 )4, +.66-4< 68. :-=62/. :)62/. 7*/ (.>./)+
,)1(. S23A 68. ;2+; 6* /.+-.>. 68-/(6. C**A 68. 1*24<0 24/-;. 7/2-6( */
(..,;*,( 9-68 :.)6. U(. 68. 1*24< +.)>.( -4 (*2;. Y*2 :2(6 3**A 68.
(..,(. R*)(6 68.: )5*>. ) 7-/. */ -4 )(8.(. A4*68./ 9)1 -( 6* /.:*>. 68.
(.., 3*)6 )4, (*)A 68. (..,( -4 ()+6., 9)6./ )4, </)6., 3*3*426 7*/ 24
8*2/(0 68.4 3**A 68.:. Y*2 3)4 ;..+ 68. 6):)/-4, 5)/A )4, 38.9 -6.
T-*1& .1.1;->& +<+78-/0 +-*:& +221& 2-:8++/
Colocasia )4, Alocasia (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: A++ ;+)46( -4 68.(. </*2;( 8)>. +)/<. +.)>.(0 (*:.6-:.( 2; 6*
1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 6)++0 68)6 </*9 7/*: ) >./1 (8*/6 (6.:. T8. /**6(6*3A -(
68-3A0 7+.(810 )4, 7-++., 9-68 (6)/38.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. ;+)46( </*9 -4 68. 82:-, 6/*;-3(. L**A 7*/
68.: -4 7-.+,( )4, 4.)/ 8*:. (-6.( )4, >-++)<.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. .,-5+. 98.4 5*-+., */ /*)(6.,. !8.4
5*-+-4<0 38)4<. 68. 9)6./ *43. 6* <.6 /-, *7 )41 ;*-(*4.
CAUTION
I7 .)6.4 /)90 68.(. ;+)46( 9-++ 3)2(. ) (./-*2( -47+)::)6-*4 *7 68. :*268 )4,
68/*)6.
341
T84:0<+
Cirsi&m (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 :)1 </*9 )( 8-<8 )( 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D. I6( +.)>.(
)/. +*4< ;*-46.,0 ,..;+1 +*5.,0 )4, ;/-3A+1.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-(6+.( </*9 9*/+,9-,. -4 ,/1 9**,( )4, 7-.+,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: P..+ 68. (6)+A(0 326 68.: -46* (8*/6 (.36-*4(0 )4, 5*-+ 68.:
5.7*/. .)6-4<. T8. /**6( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,.
CAUTION
S*:. 68-(6+. (;.3-.( )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
O08+* U:+:: T9-(6 68. 6*2<8 7-5./( *7 68. (6.:( 6* :)A. ) (6/*4< 69-4..
T4
Cordyline terminalis
D+:.*47041/: T8. 6- 8)( 245/)438., (6.:( 9-68 (6/); +-A. +.)>.( *76.4
3+2(6./., )6 68. 6-; *7 68. (6.:. T8. +.)>.( >)/1 -4 3*+*/ )4, :)1 5. </..4 */
/.,,-(8. T8. 7+*9./( </*9 )6 68. ;+)46H( 6*; -4 +)/<.0 ;+2:. +-A. 3+2(6./(. T8.
6- :)1 </*9 2; 6* 4.% :.6./( C1% 7..6D 6)++.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( ;+)46 )6 68. :)/<-4( *7 7*/.(6( */ 4.)/
8*:. (-6.( -4 6/*;-3)+ )/.)(. I6 -( 4)6->. 6* 68. F)/ E)(6 526 -( 4*9 9-,.+1
;+)46., -4 6/*;-3)+ )/.)( 9*/+,9-,..
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /**6( )4, >./1 6.4,./ 1*24< +.)>.( )/. <**, (2/>->)+
342
7**,(. B*-+ */ 5)A. 68. (8*/60 (6*26 /**6( 7*24, )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. ;+)46. T8.1
)/. ) >)+2)5+. (*2/3. *7 (6)/38. B*-+ 68. >./1 1*24< +.)>.( 6* .)6. Y*2 3)4
2(. 68. +.)>.( 6* 9/); *68./ 7**, 6* 3**A *>./ 3*)+( */ 6* (6.):.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. +.)>.( 6* 3*>./ (8.+6./( */ 6* :)A. ) /)-4 3+*)A. C26 68.
+.)>.( -46* +-4./( 7*/ (8*.(M 68-( 9*/A( .(;.3-)++1 9.++ -7 1*2 8)>. ) 5+-(6./.
F)(8-*4 6.:;*/)/1 ()4,)+( 7/*: 68. +.)>.(. T8. 6./:-4)+ +.)70 -7 4*6
3*:;+.6.+1 2472/+.,0 3)4 5. 2(., )( ) (6./-+. 5)4,)<.. C26 68. +.)>.( -46*
(6/-;(0 68.4 5/)-, 68. (6/-;( -46* /*;..
T*++ ,+*/
V)/-*2( <.4./)
D+:.*47041/: T/.. 7./4( )/. 6)++ 6/..( 9-68 +*4<0 (+.4,./ 6/24A( 68)6 *76.4 8)>.
) >./1 /*2<80 5)/A +-A. 3*>./-4<. L)/<.0 +)31 +.)>.( 243*-+ 7/*: 68. 6*; *7 68.
6/24A.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T/.. 7./4( )/. 7*24, -4 9.60 6/*;-3)+ 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 1*24< +.)>.( )4, 68. (*76 -44./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. 6/24A )/.
.,-5+.. B*-+ 68. 1*24< +.)>.( )4, .)6 )( </..4(. E)6 68. -44./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68.
6/24A /)9 */ 5)A. -6.
343
T*174.-< -<>1/2
$erminalia catappa
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. </*9( 2; 6* 9 :.6./( C27 7..6D 6)++. I6( +.)>.( )/.
.>./</..40 +.)68./10 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D +*4<0 1% 3.46-:.6./( C6
-438.(D 9-,.0 )4, >./1 (8-41. I6 8)( (:)++0 1.++*9-(8B</..4 7+*9./(. I6( 7/2-6 -(
7+)60 1" 3.46-:.6./( C4 -438.(D +*4<0 )4, 4*6 ?2-6. )( 9-,.. T8. 7/2-6 -( </..4
98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 6/.. -( 2(2)++1 7*24, </*9-4< 4.)/ 68. *3.)4.
I6 -( ) 3*::*4 )4, *76.4 )524,)46 6/.. -4 68. C)/-55.)4 )4, C.46/)+ )4,
S*268 A:./-3). I6 -( )+(* 7*24, -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ /)-4 7*/.(6( *7 (*268 .)(6./4
A(-)0 4*/68./4 A2(6/)+-)0 )4, P*+14.(-).
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. (.., -( ) <**, (*2/3. *7 7**,. R.:*>. 68. 7+.(810 </..4
3*>./-4< )4, .)6 68. (.., /)9 */ 3**A.,.
$-</30
?&glans (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: !)+426( </*9 *4 >./1 +)/<. 6/..(0 *76.4 /.)38-4< 1$ :.6./( C%4
7..6D 6)++. T8. ,->-,., +.)>.( 38)/)36./-G. )++ 9)+426 (;),.(. T8. 9)+426 -6(.+7
8)( ) 68-3A *26./ 82(A 68)6 :2(6 5. /.:*>., 6* /.)38 68. 8)/, -44./ (8.++ *7
68. 426.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. E4<+-(8 9)+4260 -4 68. 9-+, (6)6.0 -( 7*24, 7/*:
(*268B.)(6./4 E2/*;. )3/*(( A(-) 6* C8-4) )4, -( )524,)46 -4 68. H-:)+)1)(.
S.>./)+ *68./ (;.3-.( *7 9)+426 )/. 7*24, -4 C8-4) )4, J);)4. T8. 5+)3A
9)+426 -( 3*::*4 -4 68. .)(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 426 A./4.+ /-;.4( -4 68. )262:4. Y*2 <.6 68. 9)+426 :.)6
51 3/)3A-4< 68. (8.++. !)+426 :.)6( )/. 8-<8+1 426/-6-*2( 5.3)2(. *7 68.-/
;/*6.-4 )4, *-+ 3*46.46.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 5*-+ 9)+426( )4, 2(. 68. F2-3. )( )4 )46-724<)+ )<.46.
T8. 82(A( *7 J</..4K 9)+426( ;/*,23. ) ,)/A 5/*94 ,1. 7*/ 3+*68-4< */
3):*27+)<.. C/2(8 68. 82(A( *7 J</..4K 5+)3A 9)+426( )4, (;/-4A+. 68.: -46*
(+2<<-(8 9)6./ */ ;*4,( 7*/ 2(. )( 7-(8 ;*-(*4.
344
$-0+* .8+:0/30
$rapa natans
D+:.*47041/: T8. 9)6./ 38.(6426 -( )4 )?2)6-3 ;+)46 68)6 /**6( -4 68. :2, )4,
8)( 7-4.+1 ,->-,., +.)>.( 68)6 </*9 24,./9)6./. I6( 7+*)6-4< +.)>.( )/. :238
+)/<./ )4, 3*)/(.+1 6**68.,. T8. 7/2-6(0 5*/4. 24,./9)6./0 8)>. 7*2/ (8)/;
(;-4.( *4 68.:.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 9)6./ 38.(6426 -( ) 7/.(89)6./ ;+)46 *4+1. I6 -(
) 4)6->. *7 A(-) 526 8)( (;/.), 6* :)41 ;)/6( *7 68. 9*/+, -4 5*68 6.:;./)6.
)4, 6/*;-3)+ )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. /)9 )4, 3**A.,. T8. (..,( )/. )+(* )
(*2/3. *7 7**,.
$-0+* <+003.+
Ceratopteris (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. +.)>.( *7 9)6./ +.6623. )/. :238 +-A. +.6623. )4, )/. >./1
6.4,./ )4, (2332+.46. O4. *7 68. .)(-.(6 9)1( *7 ,-(6-4<2-(8-4< 9)6./ +.6623.
-( 51 68. +-66+. ;+)46+.6( 68)6 </*9 7/*: 68. :)/<-4( *7 68. +.)>.(. T8.(. +-66+.
;+)46+.6( </*9 -4 68. (8);. *7 ) /*(.66.. !)6./ +.6623. ;+)46( *76.4 3*>./ +)/<.
)/.)( -4 68. /.<-*4( 98./. 68.1 )/. 7*24,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: F*24, -4 68. 6/*;-3( 68/*2<8*26 68. O+, !*/+, -4
5*68 A7/-3) )4, A(-). A4*68./ A-4, -( 7*24, -4 68. N.9 !*/+, 6/*;-3( 7/*:
F+*/-,) 6* S*268 A:./-3). !)6./ +.6623. </*9( *4+1 -4 >./1 9.6 ;+)3.( )4,
345
*76.4 )( ) 7+*)6-4< 9)6./ ;+)46. L**A 7*/ 9)6./ +.6623. -4 (6-++ +)A.(0 ;*4,(0 )4,
68. 5)3A9)6./( *7 /->./(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: E)6 68. 7/.(8 +.)>.( +-A. +.6623.. B. 3)/.72+ 4*6 6* ,-; 68.
+.)>.( -4 68. 3*46):-4)6., 9)6./ -4 98-38 68.1 )/. </*9-4<. E)6 *4+1 68.
+.)>.( 68)6 )/. 9.++ *26 *7 68. 9)6./.
CAUTION
T8-( ;+)46 8)( 3)/3-4*<.4-3 ;/*;./6-.( )4, (8*2+, *4+1 5. 2(., )( ) +)(6
/.(*/6.
$-0+* <4<;
1ymphaea odorata
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( 8)>. +)/<.0 6/-)4<2+)/ +.)>.( 68)6 7+*)6 *4 68.
9)6./H( (2/7)3.0 +)/<.0 7/)</)46 7+*9./( 68)6 )/. 2(2)++1 98-6.0 */ /.,0 )4, 68-3A0
7+.(81 /8-G*:.( 68)6 </*9 -4 68. :2,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !)6./ +-+-.( )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 :238 *7 68.
6.:;./)6. )4, (256/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7+*9./(0 (..,(0 )4, /8-G*:.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. T*
;/.;)/. /8-G*:.( 7*/ .)6-4<0 ;..+ *77 68. 3*/A1 /-4,. E)6 /)90 */ (+-3. 68-4+10
)++*9 6* ,/10 )4, 68.4 </-4, -46* 7+*2/. D/10 ;)/380 )4, </-4, 68. (..,( -46*
7+*2/.
O08+* U:+:: U(. 68. +-?2-, /.(2+6-4< 7/*: 5*-+-4< 68. 68-3A.4., /**6 -4 9)6./
)( ) :.,-3-4. 7*/ ,-)//8.) )4, )( ) <)/<+. 7*/ (*/. 68/*)6(.
346
$-0+* 7<-/0-4/
Alisma plantago<a=&atica
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 8)( (:)++0 98-6. 7+*9./( )4, 8.)/6B(8);., +.)>.( 9-68
;*-46., 6-;(. T8. +.)>.( )/. 3+2(6./., )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. ;+)46.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 68-( ;+)46 -4 7/.(89)6./ )4, -4 9.60 72++ (24
)/.)( -4 6.:;./)6. )4, 6/*;-3)+ G*4.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /**6(6*3A( )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7 (6)/38. B*-+ */ (*)A 68.:
-4 9)6./ 6* /.:*>. 68. 5-66./ 6)(6..
CAUTION
T* )>*-, ;)/)(-6.(0 )+9)1( 3**A )?2)6-3 ;+)46(.
$4<2 .-7+*
Capparis aphylla
D+:.*47041/: T8-( -( ) 68*/41 (8/25 68)6 +*(.( -6( +.)>.( ,2/-4< 68. ,/1
(.)(*4. I6( (6.:( )/. </)1B</..4 )4, -6( 7+*9./( ;-4A.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. (8/25( 7*/: +)/<. (6)4,( -4 (3/25 )4, 68*/4
7*/.(6( )4, -4 ,.(./6 (3/25 )4, 9)(6.. T8.1 )/. 3*::*4 68/*2<8*26 N*/68
A7/-3) )4, 68. M-,,+. E)(6.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6 )4, 68. 52,( *7 1*24< (8**6( )/. .,-5+. /)9.
347
$4<2 .*-@ -77<+ 1* A4<2 -77<+
7al&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: M*(6 9-+, );;+.( +**A .4*2<8 +-A. ,*:.(6-3 );;+.( 68)6 68.
(2/>->*/ 3)4 .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G. 68.:. !-+, );;+. >)/-.6-.( )/. :238 (:)++./
68)4 32+6->)6., A-4,(M 68. +)/<.(6 A-4,( 2(2)++1 ,* 4*6 .=3.., % 6* 7.%
3.46-:.6./( C2 6* -438.(D -4 ,-):.6./0 )4, :*(6 *76.4 )/. (:)++./. T8.1
8)>. (:)++0 )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+. +.)>.( )4, *76.4 8)>. 68*/4(. T8.-/ 7+*9./( )/.
98-6. */ ;-4A )4, 68.-/ 7/2-6( /.,,-(8 */ 1.++*9-(8.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4 68. ()>)44) /.<-*4( *7 68.
6/*;-3(. I4 6.:;./)6. )/.)(0 9-+, );;+. >)/-.6-.( )/. 7*24, :)-4+1 -4 7*/.(6.,
)/.)(. M*(6 7/.?2.46+10 68.1 )/. 7*24, *4 68. .,<. *7 9**,( */ -4 7-.+,(.
T8.1 )/. 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./..
E24@<+ P-*0:: P/.;)/. 9-+, );;+.( 7*/ .)6-4< -4 68. ():. :)44./ )( 32+6->)6.,
A-4,(. E)6 68.: 7/.(80 98.4 /-;.0 */ 3**A.,. S8*2+, 1*2 4.., 6* (6*/. 7**,0
326 68. );;+.( -46* 68-4 (+-3.( )4, ,/1 68.:. T8.1 )/. ) <**, (*2/3. *7
>-6):-4(.
CAUTION
A;;+. (..,( 3*46)-4 31)4-,. 3*:;*24,(. D* 4*6 .)6.
$4<2 2+:+*0 913*2 1* .1<1.;/08
Citr&ll&s colocynthis
348
D+:.*47041/: T8. 9-+, ,.(./6 <*2/,0 ) :.:5./ *7 68. 9)6./:.+*4 7):-+10
;/*,23.( ) 2.4B 6* B:.6./B+*4< C7 1R2B 6* 9B7**6B+*4<D </*24,B6/)-+-4< >-4..
T8. ;./7.36+1 /*24, <*2/,( )/. )( +)/<. )( )4 */)4<.. T8.1 )/. 1.++*9 98.4
/-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 3/..;-4< ;+)46 3)4 5. 7*24, -4 )41 3+-:)6-3
G*4.0 <.4./)++1 -4 ,.(./6 (3/25 )4, 9)(6. )/.)(. I6 </*9( )524,)46+1 -4 68.
S)8)/)0 -4 :)41 A/)5 3*246/-.(0 *4 68. (*268B.)(6./4 3*)(6 *7 I4,-)0 )4, *4
(*:. *7 68. -(+)4,( *7 68. A.<.)4 S.). T8. 9-+, ,.(./6 <*2/, 9-++ </*9 -4 68.
8*66.(6 +*3)+-6-.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. (..,( -4(-,. 68. /-;. <*2/, )/. .,-5+. )76./ 68.1 )/.
3*:;+.6.+1 (.;)/)6., 7/*: 68. >./1 5-66./ ;2+;. R*)(6 */ 5*-+ 68. (..,(@68.-/
A./4.+( )/. /-38 -4 *-+. T8. 7+*9./( )/. .,-5+.. T8. (2332+.46 (6.: 6-;( 3)4 5.
38.9., 6* *56)-4 9)6./.
$4<2 21.? -/2 A4<2 :1**+<
R&me3 crisp&s )4, R&me3 acetosella
D+:.*47041/: !-+, ,*3A -( ) (6*26 ;+)46 9-68 :*(6 *7 -6( +.)>.( )6 68. 5)(. *7
-6( (6.: 68)6 -( 3*::*4+1 1% 6* " 3.46-:.6./( C6 6* 12 -438.(D +*4<. T8.
;+)46( 2(2)++1 ,.>.+*; 7/*: ) (6/*4<0 7+.(810 3)//*6 +-A. 6);/**6. I6( 7+*9./( )/.
2(2)++1 >./1 (:)++0 </*9-4< -4 </..4 6* ;2/;+-(8 ;+2:. +-A. 3+2(6./(. !-+,
(*//.+ -( (-:-+)/ 6* 9-+, ,*3A 526 (:)++./. M)41 *7 68. 5)()+ +.)>.( )/. )//*9B
(8);.,. T8.1 )/. (:)++./ 68)4 68*(. *7 ,*3A )4, 3*46)-4 (*2/ F2-3..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8.(. ;+)46( 3)4 5. 7*24, -4 )+:*(6 )++ 3+-:)6-3
G*4.( *7 68. 9*/+,. T8.1 3)4 </*9 -4 )/.)( *7 8-<8 */ +*9 /)-47)++. M)41
A-4,( )/. 7*24, )( 9..,( -4 7-.+,(0 )+*4< /*),(-,.(0 )4, -4 9)(6. ;+)3.(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: B.3)2(. *7 68. 6.4,./ 4)62/. *7 68.-/ 7*+-)<.0 (*//.+ )4, ,*3A
)/. 2(.72+ ;+)46(0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 ,.(./6 )/.)(. Y*2 3)4 .)6 68.-/ (2332+.46
+.)>.( 7/.(8 */ (+-<86+1 3**A.,. T* 6)A. )9)1 68. (6/*4< 6)(6.0 38)4<. 68.
9)6./ *43. */ 69-3. ,2/-4< 3**A-4<@) 2(.72+ 8-46 -4 ;/.;)/-4< :)41 A-4,( *7
9-+, </..4(.
349
$4<2 ,49
#ic&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. 6/..( 8)>. )+6./4)6.0 (-:;+. +.)>.( 9-68 .46-/. :)/<-4(.
O76.40 68. +.)>.( )/. ,)/A </..4 )4, (8-41. A++ 7-<( 8)>. ) :-+A10 (6-3A1 F2-3..
T8. 7/2-6( >)/1 -4 (-G. ,.;.4,-4< *4 68. (;.3-.(0 526 )/. 2(2)++1 1.++*9B5/*94
98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: F-<( )/. ;+)46( *7 68. 6/*;-3( )4, (.:- 6/*;-3(.
T8.1 </*9 -4 (.>./)+ ,-77./.46 8)5-6)6(0 -43+2,-4< ,.4(. 7*/.(6(0 :)/<-4( *7
7*/.(6(0 )4, )/*24, 82:)4 (.66+.:.46(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7/2-6( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. S*:. 7-<( 8)>. +-66+. 7+)>*/.
350
$4<2 913*2 1* <3,,- :71/9+
0&22a cylindrica
D+:.*47041/: T8. +277) (;*4<. -( 9-,.+1 ,-(6/-526., )4, 7)-/+1 61;-3)+ *7 ) 9-+,
(?2)(8. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ ,*G.4 A-4,( *7 9-+, (?2)(8.( -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
L-A. :*(6 (?2)(8.(0 68. +277) -( ) >-4. 9-68 +.)>.( 7.% 6* 2" 3.46-:.6./( C 6*
$ -438.(D )3/*(( 8)>-4< +*5.(. S*:. (?2)(8.( 8)>. +.)>.( 69-3. 68-( (-G..
L277) 7/2-6( )/. *5+*4< */ 31+-4,/-3)+0 (:**680 )4, :)41B(..,.,. L277) 7+*9./(
)/. 5/-<86 1.++*9. T8. +277) 7/2-60 98.4 :)62/.0 -( 5/*94 )4, /.(.:5+.( 68.
3232:5./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A :.:5./ *7 68. (?2)(8 7):-+10 98-38 )+(*
-43+2,.( 68. 9)6./:.+*40 3)46)+*2;.0 )4, 3232:5./0 68. +277) (;*4<. -(
9-,.+1 32+6->)6., 68/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3)+ G*4.. I6 :)1 5. 7*24, -4 ) (.:- 9-+,
(6)6. -4 *+, 3+.)/-4<( )4, )5)4,*4., <)/,.4( -4 /)-4 7*/.(6( )4, (.:-
.>./</..4 (.)(*4)+ 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*2 3)4 5*-+ 68. 1*24< </..4 C8)+7B/-;.D 7/2-6 )4, .)6 68.: )( )
>.<.6)5+.. A,,-4< 3*3*426 :-+A 9-++ -:;/*>. 68. 7+)>*/. A76./ /-;.4-4<0 68.
+277) (;*4<. ,.>.+*;( )4 -4.,-5+. (;*4<. +-A. 6.=62/. -4 68. -46./-*/ *7 68. 7/2-6.
Y*2 3)4 )+(* .)6 68. 6.4,./ (8**6(0 7+*9./(0 )4, 1*24< +.)>.( )76./ 3**A-4<
68.:. R*)(6 68. :)62/. (..,( ) +-66+. )4, .)6 68.: +-A. ;.)426(.
$4<2 9*-7+ B4/+
'itis (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8. 9-+, </);.>-4. 3+-:5( 9-68 68. )-, *7 6.4,/-+(. M*(6
</);.>-4.( ;/*,23. ,..;+1 +*5., +.)>.( (-:-+)/ 6* 68. 32+6->)6., </);.. !-+,
</);.( </*9 -4 ;1/):-,)+0 8)4<-4< 52438.( )4, )/. 5+)3AB5+2. 6* ):5./0 */
98-6. 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !-+, </);.( )/. ,-(6/-526., 9*/+,9-,.. S*:. A-4,(
)/. 7*24, -4 ,.(./6(0 *68./( -4 6.:;./)6. 7*/.(6(0 )4, *68./( -4 6/*;-3)+ )/.)(.
!-+, </);.( )/. 3*::*4+1 7*24, 68/*2<8*26 68. .)(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.( )( 9.++
)( -4 68. (*268B9.(6./4 ,.(./6 )/.)(. M*(6 A-4,( )/. /):;)46 3+-:5./( *>./
*68./ >.<.6)6-*4. T8. 5.(6 ;+)3. 6* +**A 7*/ 9-+, </);.( -( *4 68. .,<.( *7
7*/.(6., )/.)(. !-+, </);.( )/. )+(* 7*24, -4 M.=-3*. I4 68. O+, !*/+,0 9-+,
</);.( )/. 7*24, 7/*: 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4 /.<-*4 .)(69)/, 68/*2<8 A(-)0 68.
E)(6 I4,-.(0 )4, 6* A2(6/)+-). A7/-3) )+(* 8)( (.>./)+ A-4,( *7 9-+, </);.(.
351
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. /-;. </);. -( 68. ;*/6-*4 .)6.4. G/);.( )/. /-38 -4 4)62/)+
(2<)/( )4,0 7*/ 68-( /.)(*40 )/. :238 (*2<86 )76./ )( ) (*2/3. *7 .4./<1B
<->-4< 9-+, 7**,. N*4. )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
O08+* U:+:: Y*2 3)4 *56)-4 9)6./ 7/*: (.>./., </);.>-4. (6.:(. C26 *77 68.
>-4. )6 68. 5*66*: )4, ;+)3. 68. 326 .4, -4 ) 3*46)-4./. M)A. ) (+)46B9-(. 326
-46* 68. >-4. )5*26 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 2; *4 68. 8)4<-4< ;)/6. T8-( 326 9-++
)++*9 9)6./ 6* 7+*9 7/*: 68. 5*66*: .4,. A( 9)6./ ,-:-4-(8.( -4 >*+2:.0
:)A. ),,-6-*4)+ 326( 7)/68./ ,*94 68. >-4..
CAUTION
T* )>*-, ;*-(*4-4<0 ,* 4*6 .)6 </);.+-A. 7/2-6( 9-68 *4+1 ) (-4<+. (..,
C:**4(..,D.
$4<2 1/41/ -/2 9-*<4.
Alli&m (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: Alli&m cern&&m -( )4 .=):;+. *7 68. :)41 (;.3-.( *7 9-+,
*4-*4( )4, <)/+-3(0 )++ .)(-+1 /.3*<4-G., 51 68.-/ ,-(6-436->. *,*/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !-+, *4-*4( )4, <)/+-3( )/. 7*24, -4 *;.40 (2441
)/.)( 68/*2<8*26 68. 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(. C2+6->)6., >)/-.6-.( )/. 7*24,
)4198./. -4 68. 9*/+,.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 52+5( )4, 1*24< +.)>.( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 3**A.,. U(. -4
(*2; */ 6* 7+)>*/ :.)6.
CAUTION
T8./. )/. (.>./)+ ;+)46( 9-68 *4-*4 +-A. 52+5( 68)6 )/. .=6/.:.+1 ;*-(*4*2(.
B. 3./6)-4 68)6 68. ;+)46 1*2 )/. 2(-4< -( ) 6/2. *4-*4 */ <)/+-3. D* 4*6 .)6
52+5( 9-68 4* *4-*4 (:.++.
O08+* U:+:: E)6-4< +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 *4-*4( 9-++ <->. 1*2/ 5*,1 )4 *,*/ 68)6
9-++ 8.+; 6* /.;.+ -4(.36(. G)/+-3 F2-3. 9*/A( )( )4 )46-5-*6-3 *4 9*24,(.
352
$4<2 74:0-.841
"istacia (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: S*:. A-4,( *7 ;-(6)38-* 6/..( )/. .>./</..4M *68./( +*(. 68.-/
+.)>.( ,2/-4< 68. ,/1 (.)(*4. T8. +.)>.( )+6./4)6. *4 68. (6.: )4, 8)>.
.-68./ 68/.. +)/<. +.)>.( */ ) 42:5./ *7 +.)7+.6(. T8. 7/2-6( */ 426( )/. 2(2)++1
8)/, )4, ,/1 )6 :)62/-61.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A5*26 (.>.4 A-4,( *7 9-+, ;-(6)38-* 426( )/. 7*24,
-4 ,.(./6 */ (.:- ,.(./6 )/.)( (2//*24,-4< 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4 S.) 6* T2/A.1
)4, A7<8)4-(6)4. T8. ;-(6)38-* -( <.4./)++1 7*24, -4 .>./</..4 (3/25 7*/.(6(
*/ (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: Y*2 3)4 .)6 68. *-+ 426 A./4.+( )76./ ;)/38-4< 68.: *>./ 3*)+(.
$4<2 *4.+
>izania a=&atica
D+:.*47041/: !-+, /-3. -( ) 6)++ </)(( 68)6 61;-3)++1 -( 1 6* 1.% :.6./( C 6* 4
7..6D -4 8.-<860 526 :)1 /.)38 4.% :.6./( C1% 7..6D. I6( </)-4 </*9( -4 >./1
+**(. 8.),( )6 68. 6*; *7 68. ;+)46 )4, -( ,)/A 5/*94 */ 5+)3A-(8 98.4 /-;..
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !-+, /-3. </*9( *4+1 -4 >./1 9.6 )/.)( -4 6/*;-3)+
)4, 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: D2/-4< 68. (;/-4< )4, (2::./0 68. 3.46/)+ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. +*9./
(6.:( )4, /**6 (8**6( )/. .,-5+.. R.:*>. 68. 6*2<8 3*>./-4< 5.7*/. .)6-4<.
353
D2/-4< 68. +)6. (2::./ )4, 7)++0 3*++.36 68. (6/)9B3*>./., 82(A(. D/1 )4,
;)/38 68. 82(A(0 5/.)A 68.:0 )4, /.:*>. 68. /-3.. B*-+ */ /*)(6 68. /-3. )4,
68.4 5.)6 -6 -46* 7+*2/.
$4<2 *1:+
Rosa (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8-( (8/25 </*9( 6" 3.46-:.6./( 6* 2.% :.6./( C24 -438.( 6* $
7..6D 8-<8. I6 8)( )+6./4)6. +.)>.( )4, (8)/; ;/-3A+.(. I6( 7+*9./( :)1 5. /.,0
;-4A0 */ 1.++*9. I6( 7/2-60 3)++., /*(. 8-;0 (6)1( *4 68. (8/25 1.)/B/*24,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L**A 7*/ 9-+, /*(.( -4 ,/1 7-.+,( )4, *;.4 9**,(
68/*2<8*26 68. N*/68./4 H.:-(;8./..
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 7+*9./( )4, 52,( )/. .,-5+. /)9 */ 5*-+.,. I4 )4
.:./<.4310 1*2 3)4 ;..+ )4, .)6 68. 1*24< (8**6(. Y*2 3)4 5*-+ 7/.(80
1*24< +.)>.( -4 9)6./ 6* :)A. ) 6.). A76./ 68. 7+*9./ ;.6)+( 7)++0 .)6 68. /*(.
8-;(M 68. ;2+; -( 8-<8+1 426/-6-*2( )4, )4 .=3.++.46 (*2/3. *7 >-6):-4 C. C/2(8
*/ </-4, ,/-., /*(. 8-;( 6* :)A. 7+*2/.
CAUTION
E)6 *4+1 68. *26./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. 7/2-6 )( 68. (..,( *7 (*:. (;.3-.( )/. ?2-6.
;/-3A+1 )4, 3)4 3)2(. -46./4)+ ,-(6/.((.
354
$112 :1**+<
63alis (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: !**, (*//.+ /.(.:5+.( (8):/*3A */ 7*2/B+.)7 3+*>./0 9-68 ) 5.++B
(8);., ;-4A0 1.++*90 */ 98-6. 7+*9./.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !**, (*//.+ -( 7*24, -4 6.:;./)6. G*4.(
9*/+,9-,.0 -4 +)94(0 *;.4 )/.)(0 )4, (2441 9**,(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: C**A 68. .46-/. ;+)46.
CAUTION
E)6 *4+1 (:)++ ):*246( *7 68-( ;+)46 )( -6 3*46)-4( ) 7)-/+1 8-<8 3*43.46/)6-*4 *7
*=)+-3 )3-, 68)6 3)4 5. 8)/:72+.
Y->
/ioscorea (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. ;+)46( )/. >-4.( 68)6 3/..; )+*4< 68. </*24,. T8.1 8)>.
)+6./4)6.0 8.)/6B */ )//*9B(8);., +.)>.(. T8.-/ /**6(6*3A :)1 5. >./1 +)/<.
)4, 9.-<8 :)41 A-+*</):(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T/2. 1):( )/. /.(6/-36., 6* 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4( 98./.
68.1 )/. )4 -:;*/6)46 7**, 3/*;. L**A 7*/ 1):( -4 7-.+,(0 3+.)/-4<(0 )4,
)5)4,*4., <)/,.4(. T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4 /)-4 7*/.(6(0 (.:- .>./</..4 (.)(*4)+
7*/.(6(0 )4, (3/25 )4, 68*/4 7*/.(6( -4 68. 6/*;-3(. I4 9)/: 6.:;./)6. )/.)(0
68.1 )/. 7*24, -4 (.)(*4)+ 8)/,9**, */ :-=., 8)/,9**, 3*4-7./*2( 7*/.(6(0
355
)( 9.++ )( (*:. :*246)-4*2( )/.)(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: B*-+ 68. /**6(6*3A )4, .)6 -6 )( ) >.<.6)5+..
Y-> @+-/
"achyrhiz&s eros&s
D+:.*47041/: T8. 1): 5.)4 -( ) 3+-:5-4< ;+)46 *7 68. 5.)4 7):-+10 9-68
)+6./4)6.0 68/.. ;)/6., +.)>.( )4, ) 62/4-; +-A. /**6. T8. 5+2-(8 */ ;2/;+-(8
7+*9./( )/. ;.) +-A. -4 (8);.. T8. ;+)46( )/. *76.4 (* /):;)46 68)6 68.1 3*>./
68. >.<.6)6-*4 2;*4 98-38 68.1 )/. </*9-4<.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 1): 5.)4 -( 4)6->. 6* 68. A:./-3)4 6/*;-3(0
526 -6 9)( 3)//-., 51 :)4 1.)/( )<* 6* A(-) )4, 68. P)3-7-3 -(+)4,(. N*9 -6 -(
3*::*4+1 32+6->)6., -4 68.(. ;+)3.(0 )4, -( )+(* 7*24, </*9-4< 9-+, -4
7*/.(6., )/.)(. T8-( ;+)46 </*9( -4 9.6 )/.)( *7 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
E24@<+ P-*0:: T8. 625./( )/. )5*26 68. (-G. *7 ) 62/4-; )4, 68.1 )/. 3/-(;0
(9..60 )4, F2-31 9-68 ) 42661 7+)>*/. T8.1 )/. 4*2/-(8-4< )4, 68-/(6 ?2.438-4<.
E)6 68.: /)9 */ 5*-+.,. T* :)A. 7+*2/0 (+-3. 68. /)9 625./(0 +.6 68.: ,/1 -4 68.
(240 )4, </-4, -46* ) 7+*2/ 68)6 -( 8-<8 -4 (6)/38 )4, :)1 5. 2(., 6* 68-3A.4
356
(*2;.
CAUTION
T8. /)9 (..,( )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
A77+/24F C.
P14:1/13: P<-/0:.
P+)46( 5)(-3)++1 ;*-(*4 *4 3*46)360 68/*2<8 -4<.(6-*40 51 )5(*/;6-*40 */ 51
-48)+)6-*4. T8.1 3)2(. ;)-472+ (A-4 -//-6)6-*4( 2;*4 3*46)360 68.1 3)2(.
-46./4)+ ;*-(*4-4< 98.4 .)6.40 )4, 68.1 ;*-(*4 68/*2<8 (A-4 )5(*/;6-*4 */
-48)+)6-*4 -4 6* 68. /.(;-/)6*/1 (1(6.:. M)41 .,-5+. ;+)46( 8)>. ,.),+1
/.+)6->.( )4, +**AB)+-A.(. P/.;)/)6-*4 7*/ :-+-6)/1 :-((-*4( -43+2,.( +.)/4-4<
6* -,.46-71 68*(. 8)/:72+ ;+)46( -4 68. 6)/<.6 )/.). P*(-6->. -,.46-7-3)6-*4 *7
.,-5+. ;+)46( 9-++ .+-:-4)6. 68. ,)4<./ *7 )33-,.46)+ ;*-(*4-4<. T8./. -( 4*
/**: 7*/ .=;./-:.46)6-*4 98./. ;+)46( )/. 3*43./4.,0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 247):-+-)/
6.//-6*/1.
C-:01* @+-/& .-:01*C14< 7<-/0& 7-<>- C8*4:04
Ricin&s comm&nis
S;2/<. C8&phor%iaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8. 3)(6*/ 5.)4 -( ) (.:- 9**,1 ;+)46 9-68 +)/<.0 )+6./4)6.0 (6)/
+-A. +.)>.( 68)6 </*9( )( ) 6/.. -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4( )4, )( )4 )442)+ -4
6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(. I6( 7+*9./( )/. >./1 (:)++ )4, -43*4(;-32*2(. I6( 7/2-6(
</*9 -4 3+2(6./( )6 68. 6*;( *7 68. ;+)46(.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. >./1 ;*-(*4*2( 6* .)6. T8. (..,( )/. +)/<. )4, :)1
5. :-(6)A.4 7*/ ) 5.)4+-A. 7**,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( 7*24, -4 )++ 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4( )4, 8)(
5..4 -46/*,23., 6* 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(.
357
C84/-@+**;
7elia azedarach
M)8*<)41 C7eliaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/.. 8)( ) (;/.),-4< 3/*94 )4, </*9( 2; 6* 14 :.6./( C42
7..6D 6)++. I6 8)( )+6./4)6.0 3*:;*24, +.)>.( 9-68 6**68., +.)7+.6(. I6( 7+*9./(
)/. +-<86 ;2/;+. 9-68 ) ,)/A 3.46./ )4, </*9 -4 5)++B+-A. :)((.(. I6 8)( :)/5+.B
(-G., 7/2-6( 68)6 )/. +-<86 */)4<. 98.4 7-/(6 7*/:., 526 62/4 +-<86./ )( 68.1
5.3*:. *+,./.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68. 6/.. (8*2+, 5. 3*4(-,./., ,)4<./*2( -7 .)6.4. I6( +.)>.( )/. )
4)62/)+ -4(.36-3-,. )4, 9-++ /.;.+ -4(.36( 7/*: (6*/., 7/2-6( )4, </)-4(. T)A.
3)/. 4*6 6* .)6 +.)>.( :-=., 9-68 68. (6*/., 7**,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: C8-4)5.//1 -( 4)6->. 6* 68. H-:)+)1)( )4, .)(6./4
A(-) 526 -( 4*9 ;+)46., )( )4 */4):.46)+ 6/.. 68/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3)+ )4,
(256/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(. I6 8)( 5..4 -46/*,23., 6* 68. (*268./4 U4-6., S6)6.( )4,
8)( .(3);., 6* 68-3A.6(0 *+, 7-.+,(0 )4, ,-(62/5., )/.)(.
C1A8-9+& .1A-9+& .1A40.8
358
7&c&na pr&rit&m
L.<2:-4*(). C#a%aceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: A >-4. +-A. ;+)46 68)6 8)( *>)+ +.)7+.6( -4 </*2;( *7 68/.. )4,
8)-/1 (;-A.( 9-68 ,2++ ;2/;+-(8 7+*9./(. T8. (..,( )/. 5/*940 8)-/1 ;*,(.
CAUTION
C*46)36 9-68 68. ;*,( )4, 7+*9./( 3)2(.( -//-6)6-*4 )4, 5+-4,4.(( -7 -4 68.
.1.(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T/*;-3)+ )/.)( )4, 68. U4-6., S6)6.(.
D+-08 .->-:& 2+-08 <4<;
>igaden&s (;.3-.(
L-+1 C0iliaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 )/-(.( 7/*: ) 52+5 )4, :)1 5. :-(6)A.4 7*/ )4 *4-*4
+-A. ;+)46. I6( +.)>.( )/. </)(( +-A.. I6( 7+*9./( )/. (-=B;)/6., )4, 68. ;.6)+(
8)>. ) </..40 8.)/6B(8);., (6/2362/. *4 68.:. T8. 7+*9./( </*9 *4 (8*91
(6)+A( )5*>. 68. +.)>.(.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68-( ;+)46 )/. >./1 ;*-(*4*2(. D.)68 3):)( ,*.( 4*6 8)>. 68.
*4-*4 (:.++.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: D.)68 3):)( -( 7*24, -4 9.60 *;.40 (2441 8)5-6)6(0
)+68*2<8 (*:. (;.3-.( 7)>*/ ,/10 /*3A1 (+*;.(. T8.1 )/. 3*::*4 -4 ;)/6( *7
68. 9.(6./4 U4-6., S6)6.(. S*:. (;.3-.( )/. 7*24, -4 68. .)(6./4 U4-6.,
S6)6.( )4, -4 ;)/6( *7 68. N*/68 A:./-3)4 9.(6./4 (25 )/36-3 )4, .)(6./4
S-5./-).
359
L-/0-/-
0antana camara
V./>)-4 C'er%enaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: L)46)4) -( ) (8/25 +-A. ;+)46 68)6 :)1 </*9 2; 6* 4% 3.46-:.6./(
C1$ -438.(D 8-<8. I6 8)( *;;*(-6.0 /*24, +.)>.( )4, 7+*9./( 5*/4. -4 7+)6B
6*;;., 3+2(6./(. T8. 7+*9./ 3*+*/ C98-38 >)/-.( -4 ,-77./.46 )/.)(D :)1 5.
98-6.0 1.++*90 */)4<.0 ;-4A0 */ /.,. I6 8)( ) ,)/A 5+2. */ 5+)3A 5.//1+-A. 7/2-6.
A ,-(6-436->. 7.)62/. *7 )++ ;)/6( *7 68-( ;+)46 -( -6( (6/*4< (3.46.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68-( ;+)46 )/. ;*-(*4*2( -7 .)6.4 )4, 3)4 5. 7)6)+. T8-( ;+)46
3)2(.( ,./:)6-6-( -4 (*:. -4,->-,2)+(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: L)46)4) -( </*94 )( )4 */4):.46)+ -4 6/*;-3)+ )4,
6.:;./)6. )/.)( )4, 8)( .(3);., 32+6->)6-*4 )( ) 9.., )+*4< /*),( )4, *+,
7-.+,(.
M-/.84/++<
,ippomane mancinella
S;2/<. C8&phor%iaceaeD F):-+1
360
D+:.*47041/: M)438-4..+ -( ) 6/.. /.)38-4< 2; 6* 1% :.6./( C4% 7..6D 8-<8 9-68
)+6./4)6.0 (8-41 </..4 +.)>.( )4, (;-A.( *7 (:)++ </..4-(8 7+*9./(. I6( 7/2-6(
)/. </..4 */ </..4-(8 1.++*9 98.4 /-;..
CAUTION
T8-( 6/.. -( .=6/.:.+1 6*=-3. I6 3)2(.( (.>./. ,./:)6-6-( -4 :*(6 -4,->-,2)+(
)76./ *4+1 ".% 8*2/. E>.4 9)6./ ,/-;;-4< 7/*: 68. +.)>.( :)1 3)2(.
,./:)6-6-(. T8. (:*A. 7/*: 52/4-4< -6 -//-6)6.( 68. .1.(. N* ;)/6 *7 68-( ;+)46
(8*2+, 5. 3*4(-,./., ) 7**,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8. 6/.. ;/.7./( 3*)(6)+ /.<-*4(. I6 -( 7*24, -4
(*268 F+*/-,)0 68. C)/-55.)40 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 )4, 4*/68./4 S*268 A:./-3).
O<+-/2+*
1eri&m oleander
D*<5)4. CApocynaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/.. </*9( 6* )5*26 9 :.6./( C27 7..6D0 9-68
)+6./4)6.0 >./1 (6/)-<860 ,)/A </..4 +.)>.(. I6( 7+*9./( :)1 5. 98-6.0 1.++*90
/.,0 ;-4A0 */ -46./:.,-)6. 3*+*/(. I6( 7/2-6 -( ) 5/*940 ;*, +-A. (6/2362/. 9-68
:)41 (:)++ (..,(.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. >./1 ;*-(*4*2(. D* 4*6 2(. 68. 9**, 7*/ 3**A-4<M -6
<->.( *77 ;*-(*4*2( 72:.( 68)6 3)4 ;*-(*4 7**,.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( 4)6->. *7 68. M.,-6.//)4.)4 )/.) -( 4*9
</*94 )( )4 */4):.46)+ -4 6/*;-3)+ )4, 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(.
361
"angi&m ed&le
P)4<- F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 6/..0 9-68 8.)/6B(8);., +.)>.( -4 (;-/)+(0 /.)38.( ) 8.-<86
*7 1$ :.6./( C%4 7..6D. I6( 7+*9./( </*9 -4 (;-A.( )4, )/. </..4 -4 3*+*/. I6(
+)/<.0 5/*94-(80 ;.)/B(8);., 7/2-6( </*9 -4 3+2(6./(.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( )/. ;*-(*4*2(0 .(;.3-)++1 68. 7/2-6.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P)4<- 6/..( </*9 -4 (*268.)(6 A(-).
P8;:4. /30
?atropha c&rcas
S;2/<. C8&phoriaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( (8/25 */ (:)++ 6/.. 8)( +)/<.0 B 6* %B;)/6., )+6./4)6.
+.)>.(. I6 8)( (:)++0 </..4-(8B1.++*9 7+*9./( )4, -6( 1.++*90 );;+.B(-G., 7/2-6(
3*46)-4 68/.. +)/<. (..,(.
CAUTION
T8. (..,( 6)(6. (9..6 526 68.-/ *-+ -( >-*+.46+1 ;2/<)6->.. A++ ;)/6( *7 68.
362
;81(-3 426 )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8/*2<8*26 68. 6/*;-3( )4, (*268./4 U4-6., S6)6.(.
P14:1/ 8+><1.?& ,11<I: 7-*:<+;
Coni&m mac&lat&m
P)/(+.1 CApiaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 5-.44-)+ 8./5 :)1 </*9 6* 2.% :.6./( C$ 7..6D 8-<8. T8.
(:**680 8*++*9 (6.: :)1 */ :)1 4*6 5. ;2/;+. */ /., (6/-;., */ :*66+.,. I6(
98-6. 7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4, </*9 -4 (:)++ </*2;( 68)6 6.4, 6* 7*/: 7+)6 2:5.+(.
I6( +*4<0 62/4-; +-A. 6);/**6 -( (*+-,.
CAUTION
T8-( ;+)46 -( >./1 ;*-(*4*2(0 )4, .>.4 ) >./1 (:)++ ):*246 :)1 3)2(. ,.)68.
T8-( ;+)46 -( .)(1 6* 3*472(. 9-68 9-+, 3)//*6 */ Q2..4 A44.H( +)3.0 .(;.3-)++1
-4 -6( 7-/(6 (6)<. *7 </*968. !-+, 3)//*6 */ Q2..4 A44.H( +)3. 8)( 8)-/1 +.)>.(
)4, (6.:( )4, (:.++( +-A. 3)//*6. P*-(*4 8.:+*3A ,*.( 4*6.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P*-(*4 8.:+*3A </*9( -4 9.6 */ :*-(6 </*24, +-A.
(9):;(0 9.6 :.),*9(0 (6/.): 5)4A(0 )4, ,-638.(. N)6->. 6* E2/)(-)0 -6 8)(
5..4 -46/*,23., 6* 68. U4-6., S6)6.( )4, C)4),).
363
P14:1/ 4B; -/2 714:1/ 1-?
T1F4.12+/2*1/ *-24.-/: )4, T1F4.12+/2*1/ 24B+*:4@@-
C)(8.9 CAnacardiaceseD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8.(. 69* ;+)46( )/. ?2-6. (-:-+)/ -4 );;.)/)43. )4, 9-++ *76.4
3/*((5/.., 6* :)A. ) 815/-,. B*68 8)>. )+6./4)6.0 3*:;*24, +.)>.( 9-68
68/.. +.)7+.6(. T8. +.)>.( *7 ;*-(*4 ->1 )/. (:**68 */ (.//)6.,. P*-(*4 *)AH(
+.)>.( )/. +*5., )4, /.(.:5+. *)A +.)>.(. P*-(*4 ->1 </*9( )( ) >-4. )+*4<
68. </*24, */ 3+-:5( 51 /., 7..,./ /**6(. P*-(*4 *)A </*9( +-A. ) 52(8. T8.
</..4-(8B98-6. 7+*9./( )/. (:)++ )4, -43*4(;-32*2( )4, )/.
7*++*9., 51 9)=1 </..4 5.//-.( 68)6 62/4 9)=1 98-6. */ 1.++*90 68.4 </)1.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6(0 )6 )++ 6-:.( *7 68. 1.)/0 3)4 3)2(. (./-*2( 3*46)36 ,./:)6-6-(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P*-(*4 ->1 )4, *)A 3)4 5. 7*24, -4 )+:*(6 )41
8)5-6)6 -4 N*/68 A:./-3).
P14:1/ :3>-.
$o3icodendron verni3
C)(8.9 CAnacardiaceseD F):-+1
364
D+:.*47041/: P*-(*4 (2:)3 -( ) (8/25 68)6 </*9( 6* $.% :.6./( C2$ 7..6D 6)++.
I6 8)( )+6./4)6.0 ;-44)6.+1 3*:;*24, +.)7(6)+A( 9-68 7 6* 1 +.)7+.6(. F+*9./(
)/. </..4-(8B1.++*9 )4, -43*4(;-32*2( )4, )/. 7*++*9., 51 98-6. */ ;)+.
1.++*9 5.//-.(.
CAUTION
A++ ;)/6( 3)4 3)2(. (./-*2( 3*46)36 ,./:)6-6-( )6 )++ 6-:.( *7 68. 1.)/.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: P*-(*4 (2:)3 </*9( *4+1 -4 9.60 )3-, (9):;( -4
N*/68 A:./-3).
R1:-*; 7+- 1* .*-@I: +;+:
A%r&s precatori&s
L.<2:-4*(). C#a%aceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;+)46 -( ) >-4. 9-68 )+6./4)6. 3*:;*24, +.)>.(0 +-<86 ;2/;+.
7+*9./(0 )4, 5.)26-72+ (..,( 68)6 )/. /., )4, 5+)3A.
CAUTION
T8-( ;+)46 -( *4. *7 68. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( ;+)46(. O4. (.., :)1 3*46)-4
.4*2<8 ;*-(*4 6* A-++ )4 ),2+6.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( -( ) 3*::*4 9.., -4 ;)/6( *7 A7/-3)0 (*268./4
F+*/-,)0 H)9)--0 G2):0 68. C)/-55.)40 )4, C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3).
365
S0*;.8/4/+ 0*++
1&3 vomica
L*<)4-) C0oganiaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8. (6/1384-4. 6/.. -( ) :.,-2:B(-G., .>./</..40 /.)38-4< )
8.-<86 *7 )5*26 12 :.6./( C6 7..6D0 9-68 ) 68-3A0 7/.?2.46+1 3/**A., 6/24A. I6(
,..;+1 >.-4., *>)+ +.)>.( </*9 -4 )+6./4)6. ;)-/(. S:)++0 +**(. 3+2(6./( *7
</..4-(8 7+*9./( );;.)/ )6 68. .4,( *7 5/)438.( )4, )/. 7*++*9., 51 7+.(810
*/)4<.B/., 5.//-.( )5*26 4 3.46-:.6./( C1 1R2 -438.(D -4 ,-):.6./.
CAUTION
T8. 5.//-.( 3*46)-4 68. ,-(A +-A. (..,( 68)6 1-.+, 68. ;*-(*4*2( (25(6)43.
(6/1384-4.. A++ ;)/6( *7 68. ;+)46 )/. ;*-(*4*2(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: A 4)6->. *7 68. 6/*;-3( )4, (256/*;-3( *7 (*268B
.)(6./4 A(-) )4, A2(6/)+-).
366
T*3>7+0 B4/+ 1* 0*3>7+0 .*++7+*
Campsis radicans
T/2:;.6 3/..;./ C*ignoniaceaeD F):-+1
D+:.*47041/: T8-( 9**,1 >-4. :)1 3+-:5 6* 1% :.6./( C4% 7..6D 8-<8. I6 8)(
;.) +-A. 7/2-6 3);(2+.(. T8. +.)>.( )/. ;-44)6.+1 3*:;*24,0 7 6* 11 6**68.,
+.)>.( ;./ +.)7 (6*3A. T8. 6/2:;.6B(8);., 7+*9./( )/. */)4<. 6* (3)/+.6 -4
3*+*/.
CAUTION
T8-( ;+)46 3)2(.( 3*46)36 ,./:)6-6-(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: T8-( >-4. -( 7*24, -4 9.6 9**,( )4, 68-3A.6(
68/*2<8*26 .)(6./4 )4, 3.46/)+ N*/68 A:./-3).
$-0+* 8+><1.? 1* :7100+2 .1A@-/+
Cic&ta mac&lata
P)/(+.1 CApiaceaeD F):-+1
367
D+:.*47041/: T8-( ;./.44-)+ 8./5 :)1 </*9 6* 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D 8-<8. T8.
(6.: -( 8*++*9 )4, (.36-*4., *77 +-A. 5):5**. I6 :)1 */ :)1 4*6 5. ;2/;+. */
/., (6/-;., */ :*66+.,. I6( 7+*9./( )/. (:)++0 98-6.0 )4, </*9 -4 </*2;( 68)6
6.4, 6* 7*/: 7+)6 2:5.+(. I6( /**6( :)1 8)>. 8*++*9 )-/ 38):5./( )4,0 98.4
3260 :)1 ;/*,23. ,/*;( *7 1.++*9 *-+.
CAUTION
T8-( ;+)46 -( >./1 ;*-(*4*2( )4, .>.4 ) >./1 (:)++ ):*246 *7 68-( ;+)46 :)1
3)2(. ,.)68. I6( /**6( 8)>. 5..4 :-(6)A.4 7*/ ;)/(4-;(.
H-@40-0 -/2 D4:0*4@3041/: !)6./ 8.:+*3A </*9( -4 9.6 */ :*-(6 </*24, +-A.
(9):;(0 9.6 :.),*9(0 (6/.): 5)4A(0 )4, ,-638.( 68/*2<8*26 68. U4-6.(
S6)6.( )4, C)4),).
A77+/24F D.
D-/9+*13: I/:+.0: -/2 A*-.8/42:.
I4(.36( )/. *76.4 *>./+**A., )( ) ,)4<./ 6* 68. (2/>->*/. M*/. ;.*;+. -4 68.
U4-6., S6)6.( ,-. .)38 1.)/ 7/*: 5.. (6-4<(0 )4, /.(2+6-4< )4);81+)36-3
(8*3A0 68)4 7/*: (4)A. 5-6.(. A 7.9 *68./ -4(.36( )/. >.4*:*2( .4*2<8 6*
A-++0 526 *76.4 68. </.)6.(6 ,)4<./ -( 68. 6/)4(:-((-*4 *7 ,-(.)(..
S.1*741/
Scorpionidae */,./
D+:.*47041/: D2++ 5/*940 1.++*90 */ 5+)3A. H)>. 7.%B 6* 2"B3.46-:.6./ +*4< CB
6* $B-438 +*4<D +*5(6./ +-A. ;-43./( )4, F*-46., 6)-+ 2(2)++1 8.+, *>./ 68. 5)3A.
T8./. )/. $"" (;.3-.( *7 (3*/;-*4(.
H-@40-0: D.3)1-4< :)66./0 24,./ ,.5/-(0 +*<(0 )4, /*3A(. F..,( )6 4-<86.
S*:.6-:.( 8-,.( -4 5**6(.
D4:0*4@3041/: !*/+,9-,. -4 6.:;./)6.0 )/-,0 )4, 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(.
CAUTION
S3*/;-*4( (6-4< 9-68 68.-/ 6)-+(0 3)2(-4< +*3)+ ;)-40 (9.++-4<0 ;*((-5+.
-43);)3-6)6-*40 )4, ,.)68.
368
B*1A/ 813:+ :742+* 1* @*1A/ *+.<3:+ :742+*
0a3osceles recl&sa
D+:.*47041/: B/*94 6* 5+)3A 9-68 *5>-*2( J7-,,+.K *4 5)3A *7 8.), )4,
68*/)=. C824A1 5*,1 9-68 +*4<0 (+-: +.<( 2.% 6* 4 3.46-:.6./( C1 6* 1 1R2
-438.(D +*4<.
H-@40-0: U4,./ ,.5/-(0 /*3A(0 )4, +*<(. I4 3)>.( )4, ,)/A ;+)3.(.
D4:0*4@3041/: N*/68 A:./-3).
F3//+<A+@ :742+*
Atra3 (;.3-.( CA. ro%&st&s, A. 2ormida%lisD
D+:.*47041/: L)/<.0 5/*940 52+A1 (;-,./(. A<</.((->. 98.4 ,-(62/5.,.
H-@40-0: !**,(0 F24<+.(0 )4, 5/2(81 )/.)(. !.5 8)( ) 7244.+B+-A. *;.4-4<.
D4:0*4@3041/: A2(6/)+-). CO68./ 4*4>.4*:*2( (;.3-.( 9*/+,9-,..D
T-*-/03<-
$heraphosidae )4, 0ycosa (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: V./1 +)/<.0 5/*940 5+)3A0 /.,,-(80 8)-/1 (;-,./(. L)/<. 7)4<(
-47+-36 ;)-472+ 5-6..
H-@40-0: D.(./6 )/.)(0 6/*;-3(.
D4:0*4@3041/: A:./-3)(0 (*268./4 E2/*;..
369
$421A :742+*
0atrodect&s (;.3-.(
D+:.*47041/: D)/A (;-,./( 9-68 +-<86 /., */ */)4<. :)/A-4<( *4 7.:)+.H(
)5,*:.4.
H-@40-0: U4,./ +*<(0 /*3A(0 )4, ,.5/-(. I4 (8),., ;+)3.(.
D4:0*4@3041/: V)/-., (;.3-.( 9*/+,9-,.. B+)3A 9-,*9 -4 U4-6., S6)6.(0 /.,
9-,*9 -4 M-,,+. E)(60 )4, 5/*94 9-,*9 -4 A2(6/)+-).
NOTE: F.:)+.( )/. 68. ;*-(*4*2( <.4,./. R., 9-,*9 -4 68. M-,,+. E)(6 -(
68. *4+1 (;-,./ A4*94 6* 5. ,.),+1 6* :)4.
C+/047+2+
D+:.*47041/: M2+6-BF*-4., 5*,1 6* " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D +*4<. D2++
*/)4<. 6* 5/*940 9-68 5+)3A ;*-46 .1.( )6 68. 5)(. *7 68. )46.44). T8./. )/.
20$"" (;.3-.( 9*/+,9-,..
H-@40-0: U4,./ 5)/A )4, (6*4.( 51 ,)1. A36->. )6 4-<86.
D4:0*4@3041/: !*/+,9-,..
B++
D+:.*47041/: I4(.36 9-68 5/*94 */ 5+)3A0 8)-/1 5*,-.(. G.4./)++1 7*24, -4
370
3*+*4-.(. M)41 52-+, 9)= 3*:5(.
H-@40-0: H*++*9 6/..(0 3)>.(0 ,9.++-4<(. N.)/ 9)6./ -4 ,.(./6 )/.)(.
D4:0*4@3041/: !*/+,9-,..
NOTE: B..( 8)>. 5)/5., (6-4<./( )4, ,-. )76./ (6-4<-4< 5.3)2(. 68.-/ >.4*:
()3 )4, -46./4)+ */<)4( )/. ;2++., *26 ,2/-4< 68. )66)3A.
$-:7: -/2 81*/+0:
D+:.*47041/: G.4./)++1 (:**68B5*,-.,0 (+.4,./ (6-4<-4< -4(.36(. M)41 4.(6
-4,->-,2)++1 -4 :2, 4.(6( */ -4 ;);./ 4.(6 3*+*4-.(. S:**68 (6-4<./ ;./:-6(
:2+6-;+. )66)3A(. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 824,/., (;.3-.( 9*/+,9-,..
H-@40-0: M)1 5. 7*24, )4198./. -4 >)/-*2( (;.3-.(.
D4:0*4@3041/: !*/+,9-,..
NOTE: A4 .=3.;6-*4 6* <.4./)+ );;.)/)43. -( 68. >.+>.6 )46 *7 68. (*268./4
U4-6., S6)6.(. I6 -( ) 7+-<86+.(( 9)(; 9-68 /., )4, 5+)3A )+6./4)6-4< >.+>.61
5)4,(.
T4.?
D+:.*47041/: R*24, 5*,1 7/*: (-G. *7 ;-48.), 6* 2.% 3.46-:.6./(. H)( $ +.<(
)4, (23A-4< :*268 ;)/6(. T8./. )/. $%" (;.3-.( 9*/+,9-,..
H-@40-0: M)-4+1 -4 7*/.(6( )4, </)((+)4,(. A+(* -4 2/5)4 )/.)( )4, 7)/:+)4,(.
D4:0*4@3041/: !*/+,9-,..
A77+/24F E.
V+/1>13: S/-?+: -/2 L46-*2:.
371
I7 1*2 7.)/ (4)A.(0 -6 -( ;/*5)5+1 5.3)2(. 1*2 )/. 247):-+-)/ 9-68 68.: */ 1*2
8)>. 9/*4< -47*/:)6-*4 )5*26 68.:. T8./. -( 4* 4.., 7*/ 1*2 6* 7.)/ (4)A.(
-7 1*2 A4*9@
I T8.-/ 8)5-6(.
I H*9 6* -,.46-71 68. ,)4<./*2( A-4,(.
I P/.3)26-*4( 6* 6)A. 6* ;/.>.46 (4)A.5-6..
I !8)6 )36-*4( 6* 6)A. -4 3)(. *7 (4)A.5-6. CC8);6./ D.
F*/ ) :)4 9.)/-4< (8*.( )4, 6/*2(./( )4, +->-4< -4 ) 3):;0 68. ,)4<./ *7
5.-4< 5-66.4 51 ) >.4*:*2( (4)A. -( (:)++ 3*:;)/., 6* 68. 8)G)/,( *7
:)+)/-)0 38*+./)0 ,1(.46./10 */ *68./ ,-(.)(.(.
N.)/+1 )++ (4)A.( )>*-, :)4 -7 ;*((-5+.. A 7.9@68. A-4< 3*5/) *7 S*268.)(6
A(-)0 68. 52(8:)(6./ )4, 6/*;-3)+ /)66+.(4)A. *7 S*268 A:./-3)0 )4, 68.
:):5) *7 A7/-3)@:)1 )<</.((->.+1 )66)3A :)40 526 .>.4 68.(. (4)A.( ,* (*
*4+1 *33)(-*4)++1. M*(6 (4)A.( <.6 *26 *7 68. 9)1 )4, )/. (.+,*: (..4.
$AYS TO AVOID SNAKEBITE
EB1. S4)A.( )/. 9-,.+1 ,-(6/-526.,. T8.1 )/. 7*24, -4 )++ 6/*;-3)+0 (256/*;-3)+0
)4, :*(6 6.:;./)6. /.<-*4(. S*:. (;.3-.( *7 (4)A.( 8)>. (;.3-)+-G.,
<+)4,( 68)6 3*46)-4 ) 6*=-3 >.4*:0 )4, +*4<0 8*++*9 7)4<( 6* -4F.36 68.-/
>.4*:.
EB2. A+68*2<8 >.4*:*2( (4)A.( 2(. 68.-/ >.4*: 6* (.32/. 7**,0 68.1 )+(*
2(. -6 7*/ (.+7B,.7.4(.. H2:)4 )33-,.46( *332/ 98.4 1*2 ,*4H6 (.. */ 8.)/
68. (4)A.0 98.4 1*2 (6.; *4 68.:0 */ 98.4 1*2 9)+A 6** 3+*(. 6* 68.:.
EB. F*++*9 68.(. (-:;+. /2+.( 6* /.,23. 68. 38)43. *7 )33-,.46)+ (4)A.5-6.E
I D*4H6 (+..; 4.=6 6* 5/2(80 6)++ </)((0 +)/<. 5*2+,./(0 */ 6/..(. T8.1 ;/*>-,.
8-,-4< ;+)3.( 7*/ (4)A.(. P+)3. 1*2/ (+..;-4< 5)< -4 ) 3+.)/-4<. U(.
:*(?2-6* 4.66-4< 623A., 9.++ 24,./ 68. 5)<. T8-( 4.66-4< (8*2+, ;/*>-,. )
<**, 5)//-./.
I D*4H6 ;26 1*2/ 8)4,( -46* ,)/A ;+)3.(0 (238 )( /*3A 3/.>-3.(0 8.)>1 5/2(80 */
8*++*9 +*<(0 9-68*26 7-/(6 -4>.(6-<)6-4<.
I D*4H6 (6.; *>./ ) 7)++.4 6/... S6.; *4 68. +*< )4, +**A 6* (.. -7 68./. -( )
(4)A. /.(6-4< *4 68. *68./ (-,..
I D*4H6 9)+A 68/*2<8 8.)>1 5/2(8 */ 6)++ </)(( 9-68*26 +**A-4< ,*94. L**A
98./. 1*2 )/. 9)+A-4<.
I D*4H6 ;-3A 2; )41 (4)A. 24+.(( 1*2 )/. )5(*+26.+1 ;*(-6->. -6 -( 4*6
>.4*:*2(.
I D*4H6 ;-3A 2; 7/.(8+1 A-++., (4)A.( 9-68*26 7-/(6 (.>./-4< 68. 8.),. T8.
4./>*2( (1(6.: :)1 (6-++ 5. )36->. )4, ) ,.), (4)A. 3)4 ,.+->./ ) 5-6..
SNAKE GROUPS
372
EB4. S4)A.( ,)4<./*2( 6* :)4 2(2)++1 7)++ -46* 69* </*2;(E ;/*6./*<+1;8)
)4, (*+.4*<+1;8). T8.-/ 7)4<( )4, 68.-/ >.4*: 5.(6 ,.(3/-5. 68.(. 69*
</*2;( CF-<2/. EB1D.
F493*+ EC1. S/-?+ G*137 C8-*-.0+*4:04.:
FANGS
EB%. T8. ;/*6./*<+1;8) 8)>.0 -4 7/*46 *7 68. 2;;./ F)9 )4, ;/.3.,-4< 68.
*/,-4)/1 6..680 ;./:)4.46+1 ./.36 7)4<(. T8.(. 7)4<( )/. 3)++., 7-=., 7)4<(.
EB6. T8. (*+.4*<+1;8) 8)>. ./.36-+. 7)4<(M 68)6 -(0 7)4<( 68.1 3)4 /)-(. 6* )4
./.36 ;*(-6-*4. T8.(. 7)4<( )/. 3)++., 7*+,., 7)4<(.
VENOM
EB7. T8. 7-=.,B7)4< (4)A.( C;/*6./*<+1;8)D 2(2)++1 8)>. 4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*:(.
T8.(. >.4*:( )77.36 68. 4./>*2( (1(6.:0 :)A-4< 68. >-36-: 24)5+. 6*
5/.)68..
EB$. T8. 7*+,.,B7)4< (4)A.( C(*+.4*<+1;8)D 2(2)++1 8)>. 8.:*6*=-3 >.4*:(.
T8.(. >.4*:( )77.36 68. 3-/32+)6*/1 (1(6.:0 ,.(6/*1-4< 5+**, 3.++(0 ,):)<-4<
(A-4 6-((2.(0 )4, 3)2(-4< -46./4)+ 8.:*//8)<-4<.
EB9. R.:.:5./0 8*9.>./0 68)6 :*(6 >.4*:*2( (4)A.( 8)>. 5*68 4.2/*6*=-3
)4, 8.:*6*=-3 >.4*:. U(2)++1 *4. 61;. *7 >.4*: -4 68. (4)A. -( ,*:-4)46
)4, 68. *68./ -( 9.)A.
VENOMOUS VERSUS NONVENOMOUS SNAKES
EB1". N* (-4<+. 38)/)36./-(6-3 ,-(6-4<2-(8.( ) >.4*:*2( (4)A. 7/*: )
8)/:+.(( *4. .=3.;6 68. ;/.(.43. *7 ;*-(*4 7)4<( )4, <+)4,(. O4+1 -4 ,.),
(;.3-:.4( 3)4 1*2 ,.6./:-4. 68. ;/.(.43. *7 68.(. 7)4<( )4, <+)4,( 9-68*26
,)4<./.
DESCRIPTIONS OF VENOMOUS SNAKES
EB11. T8./. )/. :)41 ,-77./.46 >.4*:*2( (4)A.( 68/*2<8*26 68. 9*/+,. I6 -(
24+-A.+1 1*2 9-++ (.. :)41 .=3.;6 -4 ) G**. T8-( :)42)+ ,.(3/-5.( *4+1 ) 7.9
>.4*:*2( (4)A.(. H*9.>./0 1*2 (8*2+, 5. )5+. 6* (;*6 ) >.4*:*2( (4)A. -7
1*2@
I L.)/4 )5*26 68. 69* </*2;( *7 (4)A.( )4, 68. 7):-+-.( -4 98-38 68.1 7)++
CF-<2/.( EB2D.
I E=):-4. 68. ;-362/.( )4, /.), 68. ,.(3/-;6-*4( *7 (4)A.( -4 68-( );;.4,-=.
373
F493*+ EC2. C<4/4.-< E,,+.0: 1, S/-?+@40+:
F493*+ EC2. C<4/4.-< E,,+.0: 1, S/-?+@40+: KC1/04/3+2L
F493*+ EC3. S/-?+ F->4<4+:
374
F493*+ EC3. S/-?+ F->4<4+: KC1/04/3+2L
VIPERIDAE
EB12. T8. >-;./-,).0 */ 6/2. >-;./(0 2(2)++1 8)>. 68-3A 5*,-.( )4, 8.),( 68)6
)/. :238 9-,./ 68)4 68.-/ 4.3A( CF-<2/. EB4D. H*9.>./0 68./. )/. :)41
,-77./.46 (-G.(0 :)/A-4<(0 )4, 3*+*/)6-*4(.
F493*+ EC!. P1:404B+ I2+/04,4.-041/ 1, V47+*:
EB1. T8-( (4)A. </*2; 8)( ,.>.+*;., ) 8-<8+1 (*;8-(6-3)6., :.)4( 7*/
,.+->./-4< >.4*:. T8.1 8)>. +*4<0 8*++*9 7)4<( 68)6 ;./7*/: +-A. 81;*,./:-3
4..,+.(. T8.1 ,.+->./ 68.-/ >.4*: ,..; -46* 68. 9*24,.
EB14. T8. 7)4<( *7 68-( </*2; *7 (4)A.( )/. :*>)5+.. T8.(. (4)A.( 7*+,
68.-/ 7)4<( -46* 68. /**7 *7 68.-/ :*268(. !8.4 68.1 (6/-A.0 68.-/ 7)4<( 3*:.
7*/9)/,0 (6)55-4< 68. >-36-:. T8. (4)A. 3*46/*+( 68. :*>.:.46 *7 -6( 7)4<(M
7)4< :*>.:.46 -( 4*6 )26*:)6-3. T8. >.4*: -( 2(2)++1 8.:*6*=-3. H*9.>./0
68./. )/. (.>./)+ (;.3-.( 68)6 8)>. +)/<. ?2)46-6-.( *7 4.2/*6*=-3 .+.:.46(0
682( :)A-4< 68.: .>.4 :*/. ,)4<./*2(. T8. >-;./( )/. /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/
:)41 82:)4 7)6)+-6-.( )/*24, 68. 9*/+,.
CROTALIDAE
375
EB1%. T8. 3/*6)+-,(0 */ ;-6 >-;./( CF-<2/. EB%D0 :)1 5. .-68./ (+.4,./ */ 68-3AB
5*,-.,. T8.-/ 8.),( )/. 2(2)++1 :238 9-,./ 68)4 68.-/ 4.3A(. T8.(. (4)A.(
6)A. 68.-/ 4):. 7/*: 68. ,..; ;-6 +*3)6., 5.69..4 68. .1. )4, 68. 4*(6/-+.
T8.1 )/. 2(2)++1 5/*94 9-68 ,)/A 5+*638.( 526 (*:. A-4,( )/. </..4.
F493*+ EC" P1:404B+ I2+/04,4.-041/ 1, P40 V47+*:
EB16. R)66+.(4)A.(0 3*;;./8.),(0 3*66*4:*268(0 )4, (.>./)+ (;.3-.( *7
,)4<./*2( (4)A.( 7/*: C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3)0 A(-)0 C8-4)0 )4, I4,-)
7)++ -46* 68. ;-6 >-;./ </*2;. T8. ;-6 -( ) 8-<8+1 (.4(-6->. */<)4 3);)5+. *7
;-3A-4< 2; 68. (+-<86.(6 6.:;./)62/. >)/-)43.. M*(6 ;-6 >-;./( )/. 4*362/4)+.
T8.1 8246 7*/ 7**, )6 4-<86 9-68 68. )-, *7 68.(. (;.3-)+-G., ;-6( 68)6 +.6 68.:
+*3)6. ;/.1 -4 6*6)+ ,)/A4.((. R)66+.(4)A.( )/. 68. *4+1 ;-6 >-;./( 68)6
;*((.(( ) /)66+. )6 68. 6-; *7 68. 6)-+.
EB17. I4,-) 8)( )5*26 69.+>. (;.3-.( *7 68.(. (4)A.(. Y*2 7-4, 68.: -4 6/..(
*/ *4 68. </*24, -4 )++ 61;.( *7 6.//)-4. T8. 6/.. (4)A.( )/. (+.4,./M 68.
</*24, (4)A.( )/. 8.)>1B5*,-.,. A++ )/. ,)4<./*2(.
EB1$. C8-4) 8)( ) ;-6 >-;./ (-:-+)/ 6* 68. 3*66*4:*268 7*24, -4 N*/68 A:./-3).
Y*2 7-4, -6 -4 68. /*3A1 )/.)( *7 68. /.:*6. :*246)-4( *7 S*268 C8-4). I6
/.)38.( ) +.4<68 *7 1.4 :.6./( C% 7..6D 526 -( 4*6 >-3-*2( 24+.(( -//-6)6.,. Y*2
3)4 )+(* 7-4, ) (:)++ ;-6 >-;./0 )5*26 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D +*4<0 *4 68.
;+)-4( *7 .)(6./4 C8-4). I6 -( 6** (:)++ 6* 5. ,)4<./*2( 6* ) :)4 9.)/-4<
(8*.(.
EB19. T8./. )/. )5*26 69.461B(.>.4 (;.3-.( *7 /)66+.(4)A.( -4 68. U4-6.,
S6)6.( )4, M.=-3*. T8.1 >)/1 -4 3*+*/ )4, :)1 */ :)1 4*6 8)>. (;*6( */
5+*638.(. S*:. )/. (:)++ 526 *68./(0 (238 )( 68. ,-):*4,5)3A(0 :)1 </*9
6* 2.% :.6./( C$ 7..6D +*4<.
EB2". T8./. )/. 7->. A-4,( *7 /)66+.(4)A.( -4 C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3)0 526
*4+1 68. 6/*;-3)+ /)66+.(4)A. -( 9-,.+1 ,-(6/-526.,. T8. /)66+. *4 68. 6-; *7 68.
6)-+ -( (277-3-.46 -,.46-7-3)6-*4 7*/ ) /)66+.(4)A..
EB21. M*(6 9-++ 6/1 6* .(3);. 9-68*26 ) 7-<86 98.4 );;/*)38.,0 526 68./. -(
)+9)1( ) 38)43. *4. 9-++ (6/-A. )6 ) ;)((./B51. T8.1 ,* 4*6 )+9)1( <->. )
9)/4-4<M 68.1 :)1 (6/-A. 7-/(6 )4, /)66+. )76./9)/,( */ 4*6 )6 )++.
376
EB22. T8. <.42( $rimeres&r&s -( ) (25</*2; *7 68. 3/*6)+-,).. T8.(. )/.
A(-)4 ;-6 >-;./(. T8.1 )/. 4*/:)++1 6/..B+*>-4< (4)A.(0 526 (*:. +->. *4 68.
</*24,. T8.1 5)(-3)++1 8)>. 68. ():. 38)/)36./-(6-3( *7 68. 3/*6)+-,).@
(+.4,./ 52-+, )4, >./1 ,)4<./*2(. T8.-/ 5-6.( 2(2)++1 )/. *4 68. 2;;./
.=6/.:-6-.(@8.),0 4.3A0 )4, (8*2+,./(. T8.-/ >.4*: -( +)/<.+1 8.:*6*=-3.
ELAPIDAE
EB2. E+);-,). )/. ) </*2; *7 8-<8+1 ,)4<./*2( (4)A.( 9-68 ) ;*9./72+
4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*: 68)6 )77.36( 68. 4./>*2( (1(6.:0 3)2(-4< /.(;-/)6*/1
;)/)+1(-(. I43+2,., -4 68-( 7):-+1 )/. 3*/)+ (4)A.(0 3*5/)(0 :):5)(0 )4, )++
68. A2(6/)+-)4 >.4*:*2( (4)A.(. T8. 3*/)+ (4)A. -( (:)++ )4, 8)( 3)2(.,
82:)4 7)6)+-6-.(. T8. A2(6/)+-)4 ,.)68 ),,./0 6-<./0 6)-;)40 )4, A-4< 5/*94
(4)A.( )/. ):*4< 68. :*(6 >.4*:*2( -4 68. 9*/+,0 3)2(-4< :)41 82:)4
7)6)+-6-.(.
EB24. O4+1 51 .=):-4-4< ) ,.), (4)A. 3)4 1*2 ;*(-6->.+1 ,.6./:-4. -7 -6 -( )
3*5/) */ ) 4.)/ /.+)6->. CF-<2/. EB6D. O4 3*5/)(0 A/)-6(0 )4, 3*/)+ (4)A.(0 68.
68-/, (3)+. *4 68. 2;;./ +-; 6*238.( 5*68 68. 4*(6/-+ (3)+. )4, 68. .1.. T8.
A/)-6 )+(* 8)( ) /*9 *7 .4+)/<., (3)+.( ,*94 -6( /-,<., 5)3A.
F493*+ EC6. P1:404B+ I2+/04,4.-041/ 1, C1@*-:& K*-40:& -/2 C1*-< S/-?+:
EB2%. Y*2 3)4 7-4, 68. 3*5/)( *7 A7/-3) )4, 68. N.)/ E)(6 -4 )+:*(6 )41
8)5-6)6. O4. A-4, :)1 +->. -4 */ 4.)/ 9)6./0 )4*68./ -4 6/..(. S*:. )/.
)<</.((->. )4, ()>)<.. T8. ,-(6)43. ) 3*5/) 3)4 (6/-A. -4 ) 7*/9)/, ,-/.36-*4
-( .?2)+ 6* 68. ,-(6)43. -6( 8.), -( /)-(., )5*>. 68. </*24,. S*:. 3*5/)(0
8*9.>./0 3)4 (;-6 >.4*: ) ,-(6)43. *7 6* .% :.6./( C1" 6* 12 7..6D. T8-(
>.4*: -( 8)/:+.(( 24+.(( -6 <.6( -46* 1*2/ .1.(M 68.4 -6 :)1 3)2(. 5+-4,4.((
-7 4*6 9)(8., *26 -::.,-)6.+1. P*A-4< )/*24, -4 8*+.( )4, /*3A ;-+.( -(
,)4<./*2( 5.3)2(. *7 68. 38)43. *7 .43*246./-4< ) (;-66-4< 3*5/).
LATICAUDIDAE AND HYDROPHIDAE
EB26. A (257):-+1 *7 .+);-,).0 68.(. (4)A.( )/. (;.3-)+-G., -4 68)6 68.1
7*24, ) 5.66./ .4>-/*4:.46 -4 68. *3.)4(. !81 68.1 )/. -4 68. *3.)4( -( 4*6
3+.)/ 6* (3-.46-(6(.
377
EB27. S.) (4)A.( ,-77./ -4 );;.)/)43. 7/*: *68./ (4)A.( -4 68)6 68.1 8)>. )4
*)/ +-A. 6)-+ 6* )-, -4 (9-::-4<. S*:. (;.3-.( *7 (.) (4)A.( 8)>. >.4*:
(.>./)+ 6-:.( :*/. 6*=-3 68)4 68. 3*5/)H(. B.3)2(. *7 68.-/ :)/-4.
.4>-/*4:.460 (.) (4)A.( (.+,*: 3*:. -4 3*46)36 9-68 82:)4(. T8.
.=3.;6-*4( )/. 7-(8./:)4 98* 3);62/. 68.(. ,)4<./*2( (4)A.( -4 7-(84.6(
)4, (325) ,->./( 98* (9-: -4 9)6./( 98./. (.) (4)A.( )/. 7*24,.
EB2$. T8./. )/. :)41 (;.3-.( *7 (.) (4)A.(. T8.1 >)/1 </.)6+1 -4 3*+*/ )4,
(8);.. T8.-/ (3)+.( ,-(6-4<2-(8 68.: 7/*: ..+( 68)6 8)>. 4* (3)+.(.
EB29. S.) (4)A.( *332/ -4 ()+6 9)6./ )+*4< 68. 3*)(6( 68/*2<8*26 68. P)3-7-3.
T8./. )/. )+(* (.) (4)A.( *4 68. .)(6 3*)(6 *7 A7/-3) )4, -4 68. P./(-)4 G2+7.
T8./. )/. 4* (.) (4)A.( -4 68. A6+)46-3 O3.)4.
EB". T8./. -( 4* 4.., 6* 7.)/ (.) (4)A.(. T8.1 8)>. 4*6 5..4 A4*94 6*
)66)3A ) :)4 (9-::-4<. F-(8./:.4 *33)(-*4)++1 <.6 5-66.4 51 ) (.) (4)A.
3)2<86 -4 ) 4.6. T8. 5-6. -( ,)4<./*2(.
COLUBRIDAE
EB1. T8. 3*+25/-,). -( 68. +)/<.(6 </*2; *7 (4)A.( 9*/+,9-,.. I4 68-( 7):-+1
68./. )/. (;.3-.( 68)6 )/. /.)/B7)4<.,M 8*9.>./0 :*(6 )/. 3*:;+.6.+1
8)/:+.(( 6* :)4. T8.1 8)>. ) >.4*:B;/*,23-4< <+)4, )4, .4+)/<.,0
</**>., /.)/ 7)4<( 68)6 )++*9 >.4*: 6* 7+*9 -46* 68. 9*24,. T8. -4.77-3-.46
>.4*: );;)/)62( )4, 68. (;.3-)+-G., >.4*: -( .77.36->. *4 3*+,B5+**,.,
)4-:)+( C(238 )( 7/*<( )4, +-G)/,(D 526 4*6 3*4(-,./., ) 68/.)6 6* 82:)4 +-7..
H*9.>./0 68. 5**:(+)4< )4, 68. 69-< (4)A. *7 A7/-3) 8)>. 3)2(., 82:)4
,.)68(.
LI(ARDS
EB2. T8./. -( +-66+. 6* 7.)/ 7/*: +-G)/,( )( +*4< )( 1*2 7*++*9 68. ():.
;/.3)26-*4( )( 7*/ )>*-,-4< (4)A.5-6.. T8./. )/. *4+1 69* ;*-(*4*2( +-G)/,(E
68. G-+) :*4(6./ )4, 68. M.=-3)4 5.),., +-G)/,. T8. >.4*: *7 5*68 68.(.
+-G)/,( -( 4.2/*6*=-3. T8. 69* +-G)/,( )/. -4 68. ():. 7):-+10 )4, 5*68 )/.
(+*9 :*>-4< 9-68 ) ,*3-+. 4)62/..
EB. T8. A*:*,* ,/)<*4 :'aran&s komodoensis4, )+68*2<8 4*6 ;*-(*4*2(0
3)4 5. ,)4<./*2( ,2. 6* -6( +)/<. (-G.. T8.(. +-G)/,( 3)4 /.)38 +.4<68( *7
:.6./( C1" 7..6D )4, 9.-<8 *>./ 11% A-+*</):( C2% ;*24,(D. D* 4*6 6/1 6*
3);62/. 68-( +-G)/,.
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF THE AMERICAS.
378
A>+*4.-/ .177+*8+-2
Agkistrodon contortri3
D+:.*47041/: C8.(6426 3*+*/ ,*:-4)6.( *>./)++0 9-68 ,)/A./ 3/*(( 5)4,( *7
/-38 5/*94( 68)6 5.3*:. 4)//*9./ *4 6*; )4, 9-,.4 )6 68. 5*66*:. T8. 6*; *7
68. 8.), -( ) 3*;;./1 3*+*/.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: V./1 3*::*4 *>./ :238 *7 -6( /)4<.0 9-68 ) 4)62/)+
3):*27+)<. )5-+-61 6* 5+.4, -4 68. .4>-/*4:.46. C*;;./8.),( )/. /)68./ ?2-.6
)4, -4*77.4(->. -4 ,-(;*(-6-*4 526 9-++ ,.7.4, 68.:(.+>.( >-<*/*2(+1. B-6.(
*332/ 98.4 68. (4)A.( )/. (6.;;., *4 */ 98.4 ) >-36-: -( +1-4< 4.=6 6* *4..
A 3*;;./8.), +1-4< *4 ) 5., *7 ,.), +.)>.( 5.3*:.( -4>-(-5+.. I6( >.4*: -(
8.:*6*=-3.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 9**,., )4, /*3A1 )/.)( )4, :*246)-4*2( /.<-*4(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: C47 -438.(D 12"
3.46-:.6./(.
D4:0*4@3041/: T.=)(0 OA+)8*:)0 I++-4*-(0 K)4()(0 O8-*0 :*(6 *7 68. (*268.)(6
U4-6., S6)6.(0 )4, )+*4< 68. A6+)46-3 3*)(6 7/*: 4*/68 F+*/-,) 6*
M)(()382(.66( CF-<2/. EB7D.
379
F493*+ EC#. A>+*4.-/ C177+*8+-2 H-@40-0
B3:8>-:0+*
380
0achesis m&ta
D+:.*47041/: T8. 5*,1 82. -( /)68./ ;)+. 5/*94 */ ;-4A-(80 9-68 ) (./-.( *7
+)/<. 5*+, ,)/A 5/*94 */5+)3A 5+*638.( .=6.4,-4< )+*4< 68. 5*,1. I6( (3)+.(
)/. .=6/.:.+1 /*2<8.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8. 9*/+,H( +)/<.(6 ;-6 >-;./ 8)( ) 5), /.;26)6-*4. T8-( 82<.
>.4*:*2( (4)A. -( 4*6 3*::*4 )4198./. -4 -6( /)4<.. I6 +->.( -4 /.:*6. )4,
-(*+)6., 8)5-6)6( )4, -( +)/<.+1 4*362/4)+ -4 -6( 7..,-4< 8)5-6(. I6 (.+,*: 5-6.(
)41*4.0 (* 7.9 5-6.( )/. /.3*/,.,. A 5-6. 7/*: *4. 9*2+, -4,.., 5. >./1
(./-*2( )4, 7)6)+ -7 :.,-3)+ )-, 9)( 4*6 -::.,-)6.+1 )>)-+)5+.. U(2)++10 68.
5-6.( *332/ -4 /.:*6.0 ,.4(. F24<+.(0 :)41 A-+*:.6./( )4, (.>./)+ 8*2/( */
.>.4 ,)1( )9)1 7/*: :.,-3)+ 8.+;. B2(8:)(6./ 7)4<( )/. +*4<. I4 +)/<.
52(8:)(6./(0 68.1 3)4 :.)(2/. .$ 3.46-:.6./( C1 R4 -438.(D. I6( >.4*: -(
) ;*9./72+ 8.:*6*=-4.
H-@40-0: F*24, 38-.7+1 -4 6/*;-3)+ 7*/.(6( -4 68.-/ /)4<..
L+/908: A>./)<. 2.1 :.6./( C7 7..6D0 :)=-:2: .7 :.6./( C12 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: N*/68./4 S*268 A:./-3) )4, ;)/6( *7 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 -43+2,-4<
N-3)/)<2)0 C*(6) R-3)0 P)4):)0 T/-4-,),0 )4, B/)G-+ CF-<2/. EB$D.
381
F493*+ EC. B3:8>-:0+* H-@40-0
C1*-< :/-?+
382
7icr&r&s 2&lvi&s
D+:.*47041/: B.)26-72++1 :)/A., 9-68 5/-<86 5+)3A(0 /.,(0 )4, 1.++*9(. T*
-,.46-71 68. (;.3-.(0 /.:.:5./ 68)6 98.4 /., 6*238.( 1.++*9 -6 -( ) 3*/)+
(4)A..
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: C*::*4 *>./ /)4<.0 526 (.3/.6->. -4 -6( 8)5-6(0 68./.7*/.
(.+,*: (..4. I6 8)( (8*/6 7)4<( 68)6 )/. 7-=., -4 )4 ./.36 ;*(-6-*4. I6 *76.4
38.9( 6* /.+.)(. -6( >.4*: -46* ) 9*24,. I6( >.4*: -( >./1 ;*9./72+. T8.
>.4*: -( 4.2/*6*=-30 3)2(-4< /.(;-/)6*/1 ;)/)+1(-( -4 68. >-36-:0 98*
(2332:5( 6* (277*3)6-*4.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 ) >)/-.61 *7 8)5-6)6( -43+2,-4< 9**,., )/.)(0 (9):;(0
;)+:.66* )4, (3/25 )/.)(. C*/)+ (4)A.( *76.4 >.462/. -46* /.(-,.46-)+
+*3)6-*4(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 11% 3.46-:.6./( C4%
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: S*268.)(6 U4-6., S6)6.( )4, 9.(6 6* T.=)(. A4*68./ <.42( *7
3*/)+ (4)A. -( 7*24, -4 A/-G*4). C*/)+ (4)A.( )/. )+(* 7*24, 68/*2<8*26
C.46/)+ )4, :*(6 *7 S*268 A:./-3) CF-<2/. EB9D.
383
F493*+ EC%. C1*-< S/-?+ H-@40-0
C1001/>1308
384
Agkistrodon piscivor&s
D+:.*47041/: C*+*/( )/. >)/-)5+.. A,2+6( )/. 24-7*/:+1 *+->. 5/*94 */ 5+)3A.
T8. 1*24< )4, (25 ),2+6( )/. (6/*4<+1 3/*(( 5)4,., 9-68 ,)/A 5/*94.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8.(. ,)4<./*2( (.:-)?2)6-3 (4)A.( 3+*(.+1 /.(.:5+.
8)/:+.(( 9)6./ (4)A.( 68)6 8)>. 68. ():. 8)5-6)6. T8./.7*/.0 -6 -( 5.(6 6*
+.)>. )++ 9)6./ (4)A.( )+*4.. C*66*4:*268( *76.4 (6)4, 68.-/ </*24,. A4
)/*2(., 3*66*4:*268 9-++ ,/)9 -6( 8.), 3+*(. 6* -6( 5*,1 )4, *;.4 -6( :*2680
(8*9-4< -6( 98-6. -46./-*/. C*66*4:*268 >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-3 )4, ;*6.46. B-6.(
)/. ;/*4. 6* <)4</.4..
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 (9):;(0 +)A.(0 /->./(0 )4, ,-638.(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 9" 3.46-:.6./( C% -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M*(6 *7 (*268.)(6 U4-6., S6)6.(0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 (*268.)(6 V-/<-4-)0
9.(6 3.46/)+ A+)5):)0 (*268 G.*/<-)0 I++-4*-(0 .)(6 3.46/)+ K.4623A10 (*268
3.46/)+ OA+)8*:)0 T.=)(0 N*/68 )4, S*268 C)/*+-4)0 )4, F+*/-,) C-43+2,-4<
68. F+*/-,) K.1(D CF-<2/. EB1"D.
385
F493*+ EC10. C1001/>1308 H-@40-0
E-:0+*/ 24->1/2@-.? *-00<+:/-?+
386
Crotal&s adamante&s
D+:.*47041/: D)/A 5/*94 */ 5+)3A0 *26+-4., 51 ) /*9 *7 3/.): */ 1.++*9-(8
(3)+.(. G/*24, 3*+*/ -( *+->. 6* 5/*94.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8. +)/<.(6 >.4*:*2( (4)A. -4 68. U4-6., S6)6.(. L)/<.
(4)A.( 3)4 8)>. 7)4<( 68)6 :.)(2/. 2.% 3.46-:.6./( C1 -438D -4 ) (6/)-<86 +-4..
T8-( (;.3-.( 8)( ) (2++.4 ,-(;*(-6-*40 /.),1 6* ,.7.4, -6(.+7 98.4 68/.)6.4.,.
I6( >.4*: -( ;*6.46 )4, 8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< </.)6 ;)-4 )4, ,):)<. 6* 6-((2..
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 ;)+:.66*( )4, (3/25(0 (9):;(0 ;-4. 9**,(0 )4, 7+)6
9**,(. I6 8)( 5..4 *5(./>., (9-::-4< :)41 :-+.( *26 -4 68. G2+7 *7 M.=-3*0
/.)38-4< (*:. *7 68. -(+)4,( *77 68. F+*/-,) 3*)(6.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1.4 :.6./( C% 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 2.4 :.6./( C$ 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: C*)(6)+ )/.)( *7 N*/68 C)/*+-4)0 S*268 C)/*+-4)0 L*2-(-)4)0 )4,
F+*/-,) C-43+2,-4< 68. F+*/-,) K.1(D CF-<2/. EB11D.
387
F493*+ EC11. E-:0+*/ D4->1/2@-.? R-00<+:/-?+ H-@40-0
E;+<-:8 740 B47+*
*othrops schlegeli
D+:.*47041/: I,.46-7-., 51 (.>./)+ (;-41 (3)+.( *>./ .)38 .1.. C*+*/ -( 8-<8+1
>)/-)5+.0 7/*: 5/-<86 1.++*9 *>./ -6( .46-/. 5*,1 6* /.,,-(8B1.++*9 (;*6(
68/*2<8*26 68. 5*,1.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A/5*/.)+ (4)A. 68)6 (.+,*: 3*:.( 6* 68. </*24,. I6 7..+(
:*/. (.32/. -4 +*9B8)4<-4< 6/..( 98./. -6 +**A( 7*/ 6/.. 7/*<( )4, 5-/,(. I6 -(
) ,)4<./*2( (;.3-.( 5.3)2(. :*(6 *7 -6( 5-6.( *332/ *4 68. 2;;./ .=6/.:-6-.(.
I6 8)( )4 -//-6)5+. ,-(;*(-6-*4. I6 9-++ (6/-A. 9-68 +-66+. ;/*>*3)6-*4. I6( >.4*: -(
8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< (.>./. 6-((2. ,):)<.. D.)68( 8)>. *332//., 7/*: 68.
5-6.( *7 68.(. (4)A.(.
H-@40-0: T/..B+*>-4< (;.3-.( 7*24, -4 /)-4 7*/.(6(M 3*::*4 *4 ;+)46)6-*4( )4,
-4 ;)+: 6/..(. L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 7%
3.46-:.6./( C" -438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: S*268./4 M.=-3*0 68/*2<8*26 C.46/)+ A:./-3)0 C*+2:5-)0
E32),*/0 )4, V.4.G2.+) CF-<2/. EB12D.
388
F493*+ EC12. E;+<-:8 P40 V47+* H-@40-0
F+*C2+C<-/.+
389
*othrops atro3
T8./. )/. (.>./)+ 3+*(.+1 /.+)6., (;.3-.( -4 68-( </*2;. A++ )/. >./1
,)4<./*2( 6* :)4.
D+:.*47041/: V)/-)5+. 3*+*/)6-*40 7/*: </)1 6* *+->.0 5/*940 */ /.,,-(80 9-68
,)/A 6/-)4<+.( .,<., 9-68 +-<86 (3)+.(. T/-)4<+.( )/. 4)//*9 )6 68. 6*; )4,
9-,. )6 68. 5*66*:.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( 8-<8+1 ,)4<./*2( (4)A. -( /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ ) 8-<8
:*/6)+-61 /)6.. I6 8)( )4 -//-6)5+. ,-(;*(-6-*40 /.),1 6* (6/-A. 9-68 +-66+.
;/*>*3)6-*4. T8. 7.:)+. 7./B,.B+)43. -( 8-<8+1 ;/*+-7-30 ;/*,23-4< 2; 6* 6"
1*24<0 )++ 9-68 ) ,)4<./*2( 5-6.. T8. >.4*: *7 68-( (;.3-.( -( 8.:*6*=-30
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390
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391
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392
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393
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395
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397
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VENOMOUS SNAKES OF EUROPE.
398
C1>>1/ -22+*
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399
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L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 9" 3.46-:.6./( C%
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401
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JOHN H. TASHJIANRBERND VON SCHROEDER
402
P-<<-:I B47+*
Agkistrodon halys
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*7 68. A:./-3)4 3*;;./8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( (4)A. -( 6-:-, )4, /)/.+1 (6/-A.(. I6( >.4*: -(
8.:*6*=-3 526 /)/.+1 7)6)+.
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403
F493*+ EC20. P-<<-:I V47+* H-@40-0
JOHN H. TASHJIANRBUTEJE FLARDH
404
U*:4/4I: B47+*
'ipera &rsinii
D+:.*47041/: T8. 3*::*4 ),,./0 +*4<B4*(., ),,./0 )4, U/(-4-H( >-;./
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405
F493*+ EC21. U*:4/4I: V47+* H-@40-0
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF AFRICA AND ASIA.
406
JOHN H. TASHJIANRCALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
B11>:<-/9
/ispholid&s typ&s
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407
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B3:8 B47+*
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409
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411
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413
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414
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-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M238 *7 (*268 )4, (*268.)(6 A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 I4,-)0 M1)4:)/0
M)+)1)0 T8)-+)4,0 L)*(0 C):5*,-)0 V-.64):0 C8-4)0 I4,*4.(-)0 )4, T)-9)4
CF-<2/. EB2$D.
F493*+ EC2. G*++/ T*++ P40 V47+* H-@40-0
417
F493*+ EC2. G*++/ T*++ P40 V47+* H-@40-0
H-@3 740 B47+*
$rimeres&r&s 2lavoviridis
D+:.*47041/: L-<86 5/*94 */ *+->.B1.++*9 9-68 5+)3A :)/A-4<( )4, ) 1.++*9 */
418
</..4-(8B98-6. 5.++1.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( (4)A. -( /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ 5-6-4< :)41 82:)4(0 )4, -6(
5-6. 3*2+, 5. 7)6)+. I6 -( )4 -//-6)5+. (;.3-.( /.),1 6* ,.7.4, -6(.+7. I6( >.4*: -(
8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< ;)-4 )4, 3*4(-,./)5+. 6-((2. ,):)<..
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 ) >)/-.61 *7 8)5-6)6(0 /)4<-4< 7/*: +*9+)4,( 6* :*246)-4*2(
/.<-*4(. O76.4 .43*246./., -4 *+, 8*2(.( )4, /*3A 9)++( (2//*24,-4<
52-+,-4<(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1 :.6./ C 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: OA-4)9) )4, 4.-<85*/-4< -(+)4,( )4, K12(82 CF-<2/. EB29D.
F493*+ EC2%. H-@3 P40 V47+* H-@40-0
419
H1*/+2 2+:+*0 B47+*
Cerastes cerastes
D+:.*47041/: P)+. 5277 3*+*/ 9-68 *5(32/. :)/A-4<( )4, ) (8)/; (;-4. C(3)+.D
*>./ .)38 .1..
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A( 9-68 )++ 6/2. >-;./( 68)6 +->. -4 68. ,.(./60 -6 7-4,( /.72<.
51 52//*9-4< -4 68. 8.)6 *7 68. ,)10 3*:-4< *26 )6 4-<86 6* 7..,. I6 -( ,-77-32+6 6*
,.6.36 98.4 52/-.,M 68./.7*/.0 :)41 5-6.( /.(2+6 7/*: 68. (4)A. 5.-4<
)33-,.46)++1 (6.;;., *4. I6( >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< (.>./. ,):)<. 6*
5+**, 3.++( )4, 6-((2..
H-@40-0: O4+1 7*24, -4 >./1 )/-, ;+)3.( 9-68-4 -6( /)4<..
L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 7% 3.46-:.6./( C"
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M*(6 *7 4*/68./4 A7/-3) )4, 68. M-,.)(6 CF-<2/. EB"D.
420
F493*+ EC30. H1*/+2 D+:+*0 V47+* H-@40-0
K4/9 .1@*-
6phiophag&s hannah
D+:.*47041/: U4-7*/:+1 *+->.0 5/*940 */ </..4 9-68 /-4< +-A. 3/*(( 5)4,( *7
421
5+)3A.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A+68*2<8 -6 -( 68. +)/<.(6 >.4*:*2( (4)A. -4 68. 9*/+, )4, -6
8)( ) ,-(;*(-6-*4 6* <* 9-68 68-( 8*4*/0 -6 3)2(.( /.+)6->.+1 7.9 5-6.( *4
82:)4(. I6 );;.)/( 6* 8)>. ) ,.</.. *7 -46.++-<.43.. I6 )>*-,( )66)3A-4<
)4*68./ >.4*:*2( (4)A. 7*/ 7.)/ *7 5.-4< 5-66.4. I6 7..,( .=3+2(->.+1 *4
8)/:+.(( (;.3-.(. T8. 7.:)+. 52-+,( ) 4.(6 68.4 ,.;*(-6( 8./ .<<(. L1-4<
3+*(. 510 (8. <2)/,( 68. 4.(6 )4, -( 8-<8+1 )<</.((->. 6*9)/, )4168-4< 68)6
3+*(.+1 );;/*)38.( 68. 4.(6. T8. >.4*: -( ) ;*9./72+ 4.2/*6*=-4. !-68*26
:.,-3)+ )-,0 ,.)68 -( 3./6)-4 7*/ -6( >-36-:(.
H-@40-0: D.4(. F24<+. )4, 32+6->)6., 7-.+,(.
L+/908: A>./)<. .% :.6./( C12 7..6D0 :)=-:2: %.% :.6./( C1$ 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: S*268 )4, (*268.)(6 A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 T8)-+)4,0 (*268./4
C8-4)0 M)+)1(-) P.4-4(2+)0 )4, 68. P8-+-;;-4.( CF-<2/. EB1D.
F493*+ EC31. K4/9 C1@*- H-@40-0
422
K*-40
*&ngar&s caer&le&s
D+:.*47041/: B+)3A */ 5+2-(8B5+)3A 9-68 98-6. 4)//*9 3/*(( 5)4,( )4, )
4)//*9 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: K/)-6( )/. 7*24, *4+1 -4 A(-). T8-( (4)A. -( *7 (;.3-)+
3*43./4 6* :)4. I6 -( ,.),+1@ )5*26 1% 6-:.( :*/. ,.),+1 68)4 68. 3*::*4
3*5/). I6 -( )36->. )6 4-<86 )4, /.+)6->.+1 ;)((->. ,2/-4< 68. ,)1. T8. 4)6->.
;.*;+. *76.4 (6.; *4 A/)-6( 98-+. 9)+A-4< 68/*2<8 68.-/ 8)5-6)6(. T8. A/)-6 8)(
) 6.4,.431 6* (..A (8.+6./ -4 (+..;-4< 5)<(0 5**6(0 )4, 6.46(. I6( >.4*: -( )
;*9./72+ 4.2/*6*=-4 68)6 3)2(.( /.(;-/)6*/1 7)-+2/..
H-@40-0: O;.4 7-.+,(0 82:)4 (.66+.:.46(0 )4, ,.4(. F24<+..
L+/908: A>./)<. 9" 3.46-:.6./( C% -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M238 *7 (*268 )4, (*268.)(6 A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 I4,-)0 S/- L)4A)0
)4, P)A-(6)4 CF-<2/. EB 2D.
423
F493*+ EC32. K*-40 H-@40-0
L+B-/0 B47+*
'ipera le%etina
D+:.*47041/: G/)1 6* ;)+. 5/*94 9-68 +)/<. ,)/A 5/*94 (;*6( *4 68. 6*; *7 68.
424
5+)3A )4, ) 38)/)36./-(6-3 :)/A *4 6*; *7 68. 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( >-;./ 5.+*4<( 6* ) +)/<. </*2; *7 6/2. >-;./(. L-A. -6(
3*2(-4(0 -6 -( +)/<. )4, ,)4<./*2(. I6( >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-3. M)41 ,.)68(
8)>. 5..4 /.;*/6., 7/*: 5-6.( *7 68-( (;.3-.(. I6 -( ) (6/*4< (4)A. 9-68 )4
-//-6)5+. ,-(;*(-6-*4M -6 8-((.( +*2,+1 98.4 /.),1 6* (6/-A..
H-@40-0: V)/-.( </.)6+10 7/*: 7)/:+)4,( 6* :*246)-4*2( )/.)(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1 :.6./ C 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M238 *7 A(-) M-4*/ )4, (*2689.(6 A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 G/..3.0
I/)?0 S1/-)0 L.5)4*40 T2/A.10 A7<8)4-(6)40 +*9./ ;*/6-*4 *7 68. 7*/:./ USSR0
)4, S)2,- A/)5-) CF-<2/. EBD.
F493*+ EC33. L+B-/0 V47+* H-@40-0
425
M-<-;-/ 740 B47+*
Callaselasma rhodostoma
D+:.*47041/: R.,,-(8 /244-4< -46* ;-4A 6-4<. 6*9)/, 68. 5.++1 9-68 6/-)4<2+)/B
(8);.,0 5/*94 :)/A-4<( 5*/,./., 9-68 +-<86B3*+*/., (3)+.(. T8. 5)(. *7 68.
6/-)4<2+)/B(8);., :)/A-4<( .4, )6 68. :-,+-4.. I6 8)( ,)/A 5/*940 )//*9B
(8);., :)/A-4<( *4 68. 6*; )4, .)38 (-,. *7 -6( 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( (4)A. 8)( +*4< 7)4<(0 -( -++B6.:;./.,0 )4, -(
/.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ :)41 5-6.(. I6( >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-30 ,.(6/*1-4< 5+**, 3.++(
)4, 6-((2.0 526 ) >-36-:H( 38)43.( *7 (2/>->)+ )/. <**, 9-68 :.,-3)+ )-,. T8-(
>-;./ -( ) </*24, ,9.++./ 68)6 :*>.( -46* :)41 )/.)( -4 (.)/38 *7 7**,. T8.
</.)6.(6 ,)4<./ -( -4 (6.;;-4< *4 68. (4)A. 9-68 5)/. 7..6.
H-@40-0: R255./ ;+)46)6-*4(0 7)/:(0 /2/)+ >-++)<.(0 )4, /)-4 7*/.(6(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1 :.6./ C 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: T8)-+)4,0 L)*(0 C):5*,-)0 J)>)0 S2:)6/)0 M)+)1(-)0 V-.64):0
M1)4:)/0 )4, C8-4) CF-<2/. EB4D.
426
F493*+ EC3!. M-<-;-/ P40 V47+* H-@40-0
M.M-81/I: B47+*
8risticophis macmahonii
D+:.*47041/: S)4,1 5277 3*+*/ ,*:-4)6.( 68. 5*,10 9-68 ,)/A./ 5/*94 (;*6(
427
*4 68. (-,. *7 68. 5*,1. T8. 4*(. (8-.+, -( 5/*),0 )-,-4< -4 52//*9-4<.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: V./1 +-66+. -( A4*94 )5*26 68-( (;.3-.(. I6 );;)/.46+1 -( /)/.
*/ (.+,*: (..4. T8-( >-;./ -( >./1 -//-6)5+.M -6 8-((.(0 3*-+(0 )4, (6/-A.( )6 )41
-46/2,./ 68)6 >.462/.( 6** 3+*(.. I6( >.4*: -( 8-<8+1 8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< </.)6
;)-4 )4, 6-((2. ,):)<..
H-@40-0: A/-, */ (.:- ,.(./6. I6 8-,.( ,2/-4< 68. ,)1H( (240 3*:-4< *26 *4+1 )6
4-<86 6* 7.., *4 /*,.46(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1 :.6./ C 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: !.(6 P)A-(6)40 I/)40 )4, A7<8)4-(6)4 CF-<2/. EB%D.
F493*+ EC3". M.M-81/I: V47+* H-@40-0
428
M1<+ B47+* 1* @3**1A4/9 B47+*
Atracaspis microlepidota
D+:.*47041/: U4-7*/:+1 5+)3A */ ,)/A 5/*94 9-68 ) (:)++0 4)//*9 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A >-;./ 68)6 ,*.( 4*6 +**A +-A. *4.. I6 -( (:)++ -4 (-G.0 )4, -6(
(:)++ 8.), ,*.( 4*6 -4,-3)6. 68. ;/.(.43. *7 >.4*: <+)4,(. I6 8)( ) /)68./
-4*77.4(->. ,-(;*(-6-*4M 8*9.>./0 -6 9-++ ?2-3A+1 62/4 )4, 5-6. -7 /.(6/)-4., */
6*238.,. I6( 8.:*6*=-3 >.4*: -( ;*6.46 7*/ (238 ) (:)++ (4)A.. I6( 7)4<( )/.
.=3.;6-*4)++1 +*4<. A 5-6. 3)4 /.(2+6 .>.4 98.4 ;-3A-4< -6 2; 5.8-4, 68. 8.),.
I6 -( 5.(6 6* +.)>. 68-( (4)A.
)+*4..
H-@40-0: A</-32+62/)+ )/.)( )4, )/-, +*3)+-6-.(.
L+/908: A>./)<. %% 3.46-:.6./( C22 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 7% 3.46-:.6./( C$
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M*(6 *7 (25BS)8)/)4 A7/-3) CF-<2/. EB6D.
429
F493*+ EC36. M1<+ V47+* 1* B3**1A4/9 V47+* H-@40-0
P-<+:04/4-/ B47+*
'ipera palaestinae
D+:.*47041/: O+->. 6* /2(61 5/*94 9-68 ) ,)/A VB(8);., :)/A *4 68. 8.), )4,
430
) 5/*940 G-<G)< 5)4, )+*4< 68. 5)3A.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8. P)+.(6-4-)4 >-;./ -( 3+*(.+1 /.+)6., 6* 68. R2((.++H( >-;./
*7 A(-). L-A. -6( 3*2(-40 -6 -( .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2(. I6 -( )36->. )4, )<</.((->.
)6 4-<86 526 7)-/+1 ;+)3-, ,2/-4< 68. ,)1. !8.4 68/.)6.4., */ :*+.(6.,0 -6 9-++
6-<86.4 -6( 3*-+(0 8-(( +*2,+10 )4, (6/-A. ?2-3A+1.
H-@40-0: A/-, /.<-*4(0 526 :)1 5. 7*24, )/*24, 5)/4( )4, (6)5+.(. I6 8)(
5..4 (..4 .46./-4< 8*2(.( -4 (.)/38 *7 /*,.46(.
L+/908: A>./)<. ".$ :.6./ C2 R4 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1. :.6./( C4 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: T2/A.10 S1/-)0 P)+.(6-4.0 I(/).+0 L.5)4*40 )4, J*/,)4 CF-<2/. EB
7D.
F493*+ EC3#. P-<+:04/4-/ V47+* H-@40-0
431
P3,, -22+*
*itis arietans
D+:.*47041/: Y.++*9-(80 +-<86 5/*940 */ */)4<. 9-68 38.>/*4B(8);., ,)/A
5/*94 */ 5+)3A 5)/(.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8. ;277 ),,./ -( 68. (.3*4, +)/<.(6 *7 68. ,)4<./*2(
>-;./(. I6 -( *4. *7 68. :*(6 3*::*4 (4)A.( -4 A7/-3). I6 -( +)/<.+1 4*362/4)+0
8246-4< )6 4-<86 )4, (..A-4< (8.+6./ ,2/-4< 68. ,)1H( 8.)6. I6 -( 4*6 (81 98.4
);;/*)38.,. I6 ,/)9( -6( 8.), 3+*(. 6* -6( 3*-+(0 :)A.( ) +*2, 8-((-4< (*24,0
)4, -( ?2-3A 6* (6/-A. )41 -46/2,./. I6( >.4*: -( (6/*4<+1 8.:*6*=-30 ,.(6/*1-4<
5+**,( 3.++( )4, 3)2(-4< .=6.4(->. 6-((2. ,):)<..
H-@40-0: A/-, /.<-*4( 6* (9):;( )4, ,.4(. 7*/.(6(. C*::*4 )/*24, 82:)4
(.66+.:.46(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1.2 :.6./( C4 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M*(6 *7 A7/-3)0 S)2,- A/)5-)0 )4, 4.-<85*/-4< 3*246/-.( *7
(*2689.(6 A(-) CF-<2/. EB$D.
432
F493*+ EC3. P3,, A22+* H-@40-0
R84/1.+*1: B47+* 1* *4B+* D-.?
*itis nasicornis
D+:.*47041/: B/-<86+1 3*+*/., 9-68 ;2/;+-(8 6* /.,,-(8B5/*94 :)/A-4<( )4,
433
5+)3A )4, +-<86 *+->. :)/A-4<( )+*4< 68. 5)3A. O4 -6( 8.), -6 8)( ) 6/-)4<2+)/
:)/A-4< 68)6 (6)/6( )6 68. 6-; *7 68. 4*(.. I6 8)( ) ;)-/ *7 +*4< 8*/4( C(3)+.(D
*4 68. 6-; *7 -6( 4*(..
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: I6( );;.)/)43. -( )9.(*:.M -6( 8*/4( )4, >./1 /*2<8 (3)+.(
<->. -6 ) (-4-(6./ +**A. I6 8)( )4 -//-6)5+. ,-(;*(-6-*4. I6 -( 4*6 )<</.((->. 526
9-++ (6)4, -6( </*24, /.),1 6* (6/-A. -7 ,-(62/5.,. I6( >.4*: -( 4.2/*6*=-3 )4,
8.:*6*=-3.
H-@40-0: R)-4 7*/.(6(0 )+*4< 9)6./9)1(0 )4, -4 (9):;(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 7% 3.46-:.6./( C" -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1 :.6./ C 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: E?2)6*/-)+ A7/-3) CF-<2/. EB9D.
434
F493*+ EC3%. R84/1.+*1: V47+* 1* R4B+* J-.? H-@40-0
R3::+<<I: B47+*
'ipera r&ssellii
D+:.*47041/: L-<86 5/*94 5*,1 9-68 68/.. /*9( *7 ,)/A 5/*94 */ 5+)3A
435
(;+*638.( 5*/,./., 9-68 98-6. */ 1.++*9 .=6.4,-4< -6( .46-/. +.4<68.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: T8-( ,)4<./*2( (;.3-.( -( )524,)46 *>./ -6( .46-/. /)4<.. I6
-( /.(;*4(-5+. 7*/ :*/. 82:)4 7)6)+-6-.( 68)4 )41 *68./ >.4*:*2( (4)A.. I6 -(
-//-6)5+.. !8.4 68/.)6.4.,0 -6 3*-+( 6-<86+10 8-((.(0 )4, (6/-A.( 9-68 (238 (;..,
68)6 -6( >-36-: 8)( +-66+. 38)43. *7 .(3);-4<. I6( 8.:*6*=-3 >.4*: -( ) ;*9./72+
3*)<2+)460 ,):)<-4< 6-((2. )4, 5+**, 3.++(.
H-@40-0: V)/-)5+.0 7/*: 7)/:+)4,( 6* ,.4(. /)-4 7*/.(6(. I6 -( 3*::*4+1 7*24,
)/*24, 82:)4 (.66+.:.46(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1 :.6./ C 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.% :.6./( C% 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M238 *7 (*268 )4, (*268.)(6 A(-)0 ;)/6-32+)/+1 S/- L)4A)0 (*268
C8-4)0 I4,-)0 M)+)1(-)4 P.4-4(2+)0 J)>)0 S2:)6/)0 B*/4.*0 )4, (2//*24,-4<
-(+)4,( CF-<2/. EB4"D.
F493*+ EC!0. R3::+<<I: V47+* H-@40-0
436
S-/2 B47+*
Cerastes vipera
D+:.*47041/: U(2)++1 24-7*/:+1 >./1 ;)++-,0 9-68 68/.. /*9( *7 ,)/A./ 5/*94
(;*6(.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A >./1 (:)++ ,.(./6 ,9.++./ 68)6 3)4 52/1 -6(.+7 -4 68. ()4,
,2/-4< 68. ,)1H( 8.)6. I6 -( 4*362/4)+0 3*:-4< *26 )6 4-<86 6* 7.., *4 +-G)/,(
)4, (:)++ ,.(./6 /*,.46(. I6 8)( ) (8*/6 6.:;./ )4, 9-++ (6/-A. (.>./)+ 6-:.(.
I6( >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-3.
H-@40-0: R.(6/-36., 6* ,.(./6 )/.)(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M*(6 *7 4*/68./4 A7/-3) )4, (*2689.(6 A(-) CF-<2/. EB41D.
437
F493*+ EC!1. S-/2 V47+* H-@40-0
S-AC:.-<+2 B47+*
8chis carinat&s
D+:.*47041/: C*+*/ -( +-<86 5277 9-68 (8),.( *7 5/*940 ,2++ /.,0 */ </)1. I6(
438
(-,.( 8)>. ) 98-6. */ +-<86B3*+*2/., ;)66./4. I6( 8.), 2(2)++1 8)( 69* ,)/A
(6/-;.( 68)6 (6)/6 5.8-4, 68. .1. )4, .=6.4, 6* 68. /.)/.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A (:)++ 526 .=6/.:.+1 ,)4<./*2( >-;./. I6 <.6( 68. 4):.
()9B(3)+., 7/*: /255-4< 68. (-,.( *7 -6( 5*,1 6*<.68./0 ;/*,23-4< ) /)(;-4<
(*24,. T8-( -++B6.:;./., (4)A. 9-++ )66)3A )41 -46/2,./. I6( >.4*: -( 8-<8+1
8.:*6*=-3 )4, ?2-6. ;*6.46. M)41 ,.)68( )/. )66/-526., 6* 68-( (;.3-.(.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 ) >)/-.61 *7 .4>-/*4:.46(. I6 -( 3*::*4 -4 /2/)+
(.66+.:.46(0 32+6->)6., 7-.+,(0 )/-, /.<-*4(0 5)/4(0 )4, /*3A 9)++(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: A(-) )4, A7/-3)0 -43+2,-4< S1/-)0 I4,-)0 I/)?0 I/)40 S)2,- A/)5-)0
P)A-(6)40 J*/,)40 L.5)4*40 S/- L)4A)0 A+<./-)0 E<1;60 )4, I(/).+ CF-<2/. EB
42D.
439
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$-9<+*I: 740 B47+* 1* 0+>7<+ B47+*
$rimeres&r&s wagleri
D+:.*47041/: G/..4 9-68 98-6. 3/*(( 5)4,( .,<., 9-68 5+2. */ ;2/;+.. I6 8)(
69* ,*/()+ +-4.( *4 5*68 (-,.( *7 -6( 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: I6 -( )+(* A4*94 )( 68. 6.:;+. >-;./ 5.3)2(. 3./6)-4
/.+-<-*2( 32+6( 8)>. ;+)3., >.4*:*2( (4)A.( -4 68.-/ 6.:;+.(. B-6.( )/. 4*6
243*::*4M 7*/624)6.+10 7)6)+-6-.( )/. >./1 /)/.. I6 8)( +*4< 7)4<(. I6( >.4*:
-( 8.:*6*=-30 3)2(-4< 3.++ )4, 6-((2. ,.(6/236-*4. I6 -( )4 )/5*/.)+ (;.3-.(
)4, -6( 5-6.( *76.4 *332/ *4 68. 2;;./ .=6/.:-6-.(.
H-@40-0: D.4(. /)-4 7*/.(6(0 526 *76.4 7*24, 4.)/ 82:)4 (.66+.:.46(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1"" 3.46-:.6./( C4"
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M)+)1(-)4 P.4-4(2+) )4, A/38-;.+)<*0 I4,*4.(-)0 B*/4.*0 68.
P8-+-;;-4.(0 )4, R12A12 I(+)4,( CF-<2/. EB4D.
440
F493*+ EC!3. $-9<+*I: P40 V47+* 1* T+>7<+ V47+* H-@40-0
VENOMOUS SNAKES OF AUSTRALIA.
441
A3:0*-<4-/ .177+*8+-2
/enisonia s&per%a
D+:.*47041/: C*+*/)6-*4 -( /.,,-(8 5/*94 6* ,)/A 5/*94. A 7.9 7/*:
Q2..4(+)4, )/. 5+)3A.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: R)68./ (+2<<-(8 ,-(;*(-6-*4 526 9-++ 5-6. -7 (6.;;., *4. !8.4
)4</10 /.)/( -6( 8.), ) 7.9 -438.( 7/*: 68. </*24, 9-68 -6( 4.3A (+-<86+1
)/38.,. I6( >.4*: -( 4.2/*6*=-3.
H-@40-0: S9):;(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1.2 :.6./( C4 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: T)(:)4-)0 S*268 A2(6/)+-)0 Q2..4(+)4,0 )4, K)4<)/** I(+)4,
CF-<2/. EB44D.
442
F493*+ EC!!. A3:0*-<4-/ C177+*8+-2 H-@40-0
D+-08 -22+*
Acanthophis antarctic&s
D+:.*47041/: R.,,-(80 1.++*9-(80 */ 5/*94 3*+*/ 9-68 ,-(6-436 ,)/A 5/*94 3/*((
443
5)4,(. T8. .4, *7 -6( 6)-+ -( 5+)3A0 .4,-4< -4 ) 8)/, (;-4..
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: !8.4 )/*2(.,0 68-( 8-<8+1 ,)4<./*2( (4)A. 9-++ 7+)66.4 -6(
.46-/. 5*,10 /.),1 6* (6/-A. *>./ ) (8*/6 ,-(6)43.. I6 -( 4*362/4)+0 8-,-4< 51 ,)1
)4, 3*:-4< *26 6* 7.., )6 4-<86. A+68*2<8 -6 8)( 68. );;.)/)43. *7 ) >-;./0 -6
-( /.+)6., 6* 68. 3*5/) 7):-+1. I6( >.4*: -( ) ;*9./72+ 4.2/*6*=-4M -6 3)2(.(
:*/6)+-61 -4 )5*26 %" ;./3.46 *7 -6( >-36-:(0 .>.4 9-68 6/.)6:.46.
H-@40-0: U(2)++1 7*24, -4 )/-, /.<-*4(0 7-.+,(0 )4, 9**,., +)4,(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 4% 3.46-:.6./( C1$ -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 9" 3.46-:.6./( C%
-438.(D. D4:0*4@3041/: A2(6/)+-)0 N.9 G2-4.)0 )4, M*+233)( CF-<2/. EB4%D.
F493*+ EC!". D+-08 A22+* H-@40-0
444
T-47-/
63y&ran&s sc&tellat&s
D+:.*47041/: G.4./)++1 24-7*/:+1 *+->. */ ,)/A 5/*940 9-68 ) (*:.98)6 ,)/A./
5/*94 8.),.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: C*4(-,./., *4. *7 68. :*(6 ,.),+1 (4)A.(. I6 8)( )4
)<</.((->. ,-(;*(-6-*4. !8.4 )/*2(.,0 -6 3)4 ,-(;+)1 ) 7.)/(*:. );;.)/)43.
51 7+)66.4-4< -6( 8.),0 /)-(-4< -6 *77 68. </*24,0 9)>-4< -6 5)3A )4, 7*/680 )4,
(2,,.4+1 (6/-A-4< 9-68 (238 (;.., 68)6 68. >-36-: :)1 /.3.->. (.>./)+ 5-6.(
5.7*/. -6 /.6/.)6(. I6( >.4*: -( ) ;*9./72+ 4.2/*6*=-40 3)2(-4< /.(;-/)6*/1
;)/)+1(-(. I6( >-36-: 8)( +-66+. 38)43. 7*/ /.3*>./1 9-68*26 ;/*:;6 :.,-3)+ )-,.
H-@40-0: A6 8*:. -4 ) >)/-.61 *7 8)5-6)6(0 -6 -( 7*24, 7/*: 68. ()>)44) 7*/.(6(
6* 68. -4+)4, ;+)-4(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D0 :)=-:2: .7 :.6./( C12 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: N*/68./4 A2(6/)+-) )4, (*268./4 N.9 G2-4.) CF-<2/. EB46D.
445
F493*+ EC!6. T-47-/ H-@40-0
T49+* :/-?+
1otechis sc&tat&s
D+:.*47041/: O+->. 6* ,)/A 5/*94 )5*>. 9-68 1.++*9-(8 */ *+->. 5.++1 )4, 3/*((
446
5)4,(. T8. (25(;.3-.( -4 T)(:)4-) )4, V-36*/-) -( 24-7*/:+1 5+)3A.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: I6 -( 68. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( (4)A. -4 A2(6/)+-). I6 -( >./1
3*::*4 )4, 5-6.( :)41 82:)4(. I6 8)( ) >./1 ;*6.46 4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*: 68)6
)66)3A( 68. 4./>*2( (1(6.:. !8.4 )/*2(.,0 -6 -( )<</.((->. )4, )66)3A( )41
-46/2,./. I6 7+)66.4( -6( 4.3A0 :)A-4< ) 4)//*9 5)4,.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 :)41 8)5-6)6( 7/*: )/-, /.<-*4( 6* 82:)4 (.66+.:.46(
)+*4< 9)6./9)1( 6* </)((+)4,(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 1.2 :.6./( C4 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.$ :.6./( C6 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: A2(6/)+-)0 T)(:)4-)0 B)(( S6/)-6 -(+)4,(0 )4, N.9 G2-4.)
CF-<2/. EB47D.
F493*+ EC!#. T49+* S/-?+ H-@40-0
VENOMOUS SEA SNAKES.
447
B-/2+2 :+- :/-?+
0atica&da col&%rina
D+:.*47041/: S:**68B(3)+., (4)A. 68)6 -( ) ;)+. (8),. *7 5+2. 9-68 5+)3A
5)4,(. I6( *)/ +-A. 6)-+ ;/*>-,.( ;/*;2+(-*4 -4 (9-::-4<.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: M*(6 )36->. )6 4-<860 (9-::-4< 3+*(. 6* (8*/. )4, )6 6-:.(
.46./-4< 6-,. ;**+(. I6( >.4*: -( ) >./1 (6/*4< 4.2/*6*=-4. I6( >-36-:( )/.
2(2)++1 7-(8./:.4 98* 246)4<+. 68.(. ,.),+1 (4)A.( 7/*: +)/<. 7-(8 4.6(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 7% 3.46-:.6./( C" -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 1.2 :.6./( C4 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: P)3-7-3 O3.)4 3*)(6)+ 9)6./( *7 A2(6/)+-) )4, (*268.)(6 A(-)M
I4,-)4 O3.)4 3*)(6)+ 9)6./(. CF-<2/. EB4$D.
448
F493*+ EC!. B-/2+2 S+- S/-?+ H-@40-0
Y+<<1AC@+<<4+2 :+- :/-?+
"elamis plat&r&s
D+:.*47041/: U;;./ ;)/6 *7 5*,1 -( 5+)3A */ ,)/A 5/*94 )4, +*9./ ;)/6 -(
449
5/-<86 1.++*9.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: A 8-<8+1 >.4*:*2( (4)A. 5.+*4<-4< 6* 68. 3*5/) 7):-+1.
T8-( (4)A. -( 6/2+1 *7 68. ;.+)<-3 (;.3-.(@-6 4.>./ +.)>.( 68. 9)6./ 6* 3*:.
6* (8*/.. I6 8)( )4 *)/ +-A. 6)-+ 6* )-, -6( (9-::-4<. T8-( (;.3-.( -( ?2-3A 6*
,.7.4, -6(.+7. S.) (4)A.( ,* 4*6 /.)++1 (6/-A.0 526 ,.+-5./)6.+1 62/4 )4, 5-6. -7
:*+.(6.,. A (:)++ ):*246 *7 68.-/ 4.2/*6*=-3 >.4*: 3)4 3)2(. ,.)68.
L+/908: A>./)<. ".7 :.6./ C2 7..6D0 :)=-:2: 1.1 :.6./( C 1R2 7..6D.
D4:0*4@3041/: T8/*2<8*26 68. P)3-7-3 O3.)4 7/*: :)41 *7 68. P)3-7-3 -(+)4,(
6* H)9)-- )4, 6* 68. 3*)(6 *7 C.46/)+ )4, S*268 A:./-3) CF-<2/. EB49D.
F493*+ EC!%. Y+<<1ACB+<<4+2 S+- S/-?+ H-@40-0
450
POISONOUS LI(ARDS.
G4<- >1/:0+*
,eloderma s&spect&m
D+:.*47041/: R*52(60 9-68 ) +)/<. 8.), )4, ) 8.)>1 6)-+. I6( 5*,1 -( 3*>./.,
9-68 5.),+-A. (3)+.(. I6 -( 3);)5+. *7 (6*/-4< 7)6 )<)-4(6 +.)4 6-:.( 98.4 7**,
-( (3)/3.. I6( 3*+*/ -( (6/-A-4< -4 /-38 5+)3A( +)3., 9-68 1.++*9 */ ;-4A-(8 (3)+.(.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: N*6 )4 )<</.((->. +-G)/,0 526 /.),1 6* ,.7.4, -6(.+7 98.4
;/*>*A.,. I7 );;/*)38., 6** 3+*(.+10 -6 9-++ 62/4 6*9)/, 68. -46/2,./ 9-68 -6(
:*268 *;.4. I7 -6 5-6.(0 -6 8)4<( *4 6.4)3-*2(+1 )4, :2(6 5. ;/-., *77. I6(
>.4*: <+)4,( )4, </**>., 6..68 )/. *4 -6( 5*66*: F)9.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 )/-, )/.)(0 3*:-4< *26 )6 4-<86 */ .)/+1 :*/4-4< 8*2/( -4
(.)/38 *7 (:)++ /*,.46( )4, 5-/, .<<(. D2/-4< 68. 8.)6 *7 68. ,)1 -6 (6)1(
24,./ 5/2(8 */ /*3A(.
L+/908: A>./)<. " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: %" 3.46-:.6./( C2"
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: A/-G*4)0 N.9 M.=-3*0 U6)80 N.>),)0 4*/68./4 M.=-3*0 )4,
.=6/.:. 3*/4./ *7 (*268.)(6 C)+-7*/4-) CF-<2/. EB%"D.
451
F493*+ EC"0. G4<- M1/:0+* H-@40-0
JOHN H. TASHJIANRFORT !ORTH &OO
M+F4.-/ @+-2+2 <46-*2
,eloderma horrid&m
452
D+:.*47041/: L.(( 3*+*/72+ 68)4 -6( 3*2(-40 68. <-+) :*4(6./. I6 8)( 5+)3A */
;)+. 1.++*9 5)4,( */ -( .46-/.+1 5+)3A.
C8-*-.0+*4:04.:: V./1 (6/*4< +.<( +.6 68-( +-G)/, 3/)9+ *>./ /*3A( )4, ,-<
52//*9(. I6 -( (8*/6B6.:;./.,. I6 9-++ 62/4 )4, *;.4 -6( :*268 -4 ) 68/.)6.4-4<
:)44./ 98.4 :*+.(6.,. I6( >.4*: -( 8.:*6*=-3 )4, ;*6.46-)++1 ,)4<./*2( 6*
:)4.
H-@40-0: F*24, -4 )/-, */ ,.(./6 )/.)(0 *76.4 -4 /*3A1 8-++(-,.(0 3*:-4< *26
,2/-4< .>.4-4< )4, .)/+1 :*/4-4< 8*2/(.
L+/908: A>./)<. 6" 3.46-:.6./( C24 -438.(D0 :)=-:2: 9" 3.46-:.6./( C%
-438.(D.
D4:0*4@3041/: M.=-3* 68/*2<8 C.46/)+ A:./-3) CF-<2/. EB%1D.
F493*+ EC"1. M+F4.-/ B+-2+2 L46-*2 H-@40-0
A77+/24F F.
453
D-/9+*13: F4:8 -/2 M1<<3:?:.
F-(8 )4, :*++2(A( :)1 5. *4. *7 1*2/ :)F*/ (*2/3.( *7 7**,. T8./.7*/.0 -6 -(
9-(. 6* A4*9 98-38 *4.( )/. ,)4<./*2(0 98)6 68. ,)4<./( *7 68. >)/-*2( 7-(8
)/.0 98)6 ;/.3)26-*4( 6* 6)A.0 )4, 98)6 6* ,* -7 1*2 )/. -4F2/., 51 *4. *7
68.(. 7-(8.
F-(8 )4, :*++2(A( 9-++ ;/.(.46 ) ,)4<./ -4 *4. *7 68/.. 9)1(@51 )66)3A-4<
)4, 5-6-4< 1*20 51 -4F.36-4< 6*=-3 >.4*: -46* 1*2 68/*2<8 >.4*:*2( (;-4.( */
6.46)3+.(0 )4, 68/*2<8 .)6-4< 7-(8 */ :*++2(A( 98*(. 7+.(8 -( 6*=-3.
T8. ,)4<./ *7 )362)++1 .43*246./-4< *4. *7 68.(. ,)4<./*2( 7-(8 -( /.+)6->.+1
(:)++0 526 -6 -( (6-++ (-<4-7-3)46. A41 *4. *7 68.(. 7-(8 3)4 A-++ 1*2. A>*-, 68.: -7
)6 )++ ;*((-5+..
FISH THAT ATTACK MAN
FB1. T8. (8)/A -( 2(2)++1 68. 7-/(6 7-(8 68)6 3*:.( 6* :-4, 98.4 3*4(-,./-4<
7-(8 68)6 )66)3A :)4. O68./ 7-(8 )+(* 7)++ -4 68-( 3)6.<*/10 (238 )( 68.
5)//)32,)0 68. :*/)1 ..+0 )4, 68. ;-/)48).
SHARKS
FB2. S8)/A( )/. ;*6.46-)++1 68. :*(6 ,)4<./*2( 7-(8 68)6 )66)3A ;.*;+.. T8.
*5>-*2( ,)4<./ *7 (8)/A( -( 68)6 68.1 )/. 3);)5+. *7 (./-*2(+1 :)-:-4< */
A-++-4< 1*2 9-68 68.-/ 5-6.. O7 68. :)41 (8)/A (;.3-.(0 *4+1 ) /.+)6->. 7.9 )/.
,)4<./*2(. M*(6 3)(.( *7 (8)/A )66)3A( *4 82:)4( )/. 51 68. 98-6.0 6-<./0
8)::./8.),0 )4, 5+2. (8)/A(. T8./. )/. )+(* /.3*/,( *7 )66)3A( 51 </*24,0
</)1 42/(.0 )4, :)A* (8)/A(. F-<2/. FB10 (8*9( >)/-*2( (8)/A( )4, 68.-/
(-G.(.
454
F493*+ FC1. S8-*?:
FB. A>*-, (8)/A( -7 )6 )++ ;*((-5+.. F*++*9 68. ;/*3.,2/.( ,-(32((., -4
C8);6./ 16 6* ,.7.4, 1*2/(.+7 )<)-4(6 ) (8)/A )66)3A.
FB4. S8)/A( >)/1 -4 (-G.0 526 68./. -( 4* /.+)6-*4(8-; 5.69..4 68. (-G. *7 68.
(8)/A )4, +-A.+-8**, *7 )66)3A. E>.4 68. (:)++./ (8)/A( 3)4 5. ,)4<./*2(0
.(;.3-)++1 98.4 68.1 )/. 6/)>.+-4< -4 (38**+(.
FB%. I7 5-66.4 51 ) (8)/A0 68. :*(6 -:;*/6)46 :.)(2/. 7*/ 1*2 6* 6)A. -( 6* (6*;
68. 5+..,-4< ?2-3A+1. B+**, -4 68. 9)6./ 9-++ )66/)36 :*/. (8)/A(. G.6 1*2/(.+7
*/ 68. >-36-: -46* ) /)76 */ 6* (8*/. )( (**4 )( ;*((-5+.. I7 -4 68. 9)6./0 7*/: )
3-/3+. )/*24, 68. >-36-: C-7 4*6 )+*4.D0 )4, (6*; 68. 5+..,-4< 9-68 ) 6*2/4-?2.6.
OTHER FEROCIOUS FISH
FB6. I4 ()+69)6./0 *68./ 7./*3-*2( 7-(8 -43+2,. 68. 5)//)32,)0 (.) 5)((0 )4,
:*/)1 ..+ CF-<2/. FB2D. T8. (.) 5)(( -( 2(2)++1 )4 *;.4 9)6./ 7-(8. I6 -(
,)4<./*2( ,2. 6* -6( +)/<. (-G.. I6 3)4 /.:*>. +)/<. ;-.3.( *7 7+.(8 7/*: )
82:)4. B)//)32,)( )4, :*/)1 ..+( 8)>. 5..4 A4*94 6* )66)3A :)4 )4,
-47+-36 >-3-*2( 5-6.(. B. 3)/.72+ *7 68.(. 69* (;.3-.( 98.4 4.)/ /..7( )4, -4
(8)++*9 9)6./. M*/)1 ..+( )/. >./1 )<</.((->. 98.4 ,-(62/5.,.
455
F493*+ FC2. F+*1.413: F4:8
FB7. I4 7/.(8 9)6./0 ;-/)48) )/. 68. *4+1 (-<4-7-3)46+1 ,)4<./*2( 7-(8. T8.1
)/. -48)5-6)46( *7 68. 6/*;-3( )4, )/. /.(6/-36., 6* 4*/68./4 S*268 A:./-3).
T8.(. 7-(8 )/. 7)-/+1 (:)++0 )5*26 2% 6* 6" 3.46-:.6./( C1" 6* 24 -438.(D0 526
68.1 8)>. >./1 +)/<. 6..68 )4, 6/)>.+ -4 +)/<. (38**+(. T8.1 3)4 ,.>*2/ ) 72++B
</*94 8*< -4 :-426.(.
VENOMOUS FISH AND INVERTEBRATES
FB$. T8./. )/. (.>./)+ (;.3-.( *7 >.4*:*2( 7-(8 )4, -4>./6.5/)6.(0 )++ *7
98-38 +->. -4 ()+69)6./. A++ *7 68.(. )/. 3);)5+. *7 -4F.36-4< ;*-(*4*2( >.4*:
68/*2<8 (;-4.( +*3)6., -4 68.-/ 7-4(0 6.46)3+.(0 */ 5-6.(. T8.-/ >.4*:( 3)2(.
-46.4(. ;)-4 )4, )/. ;*6.46-)++1 7)6)+. I7 -4F2/., 51 *4. *7 68. 7*++*9-4< 7-(8 */
-4>./6.5/)6.(0 6/.)6 68. -4F2/1 )( 7*/ (4)A.5-6..
S04/9*-;
/asyatidae (;.3-.(
S6-4</)1( -48)5-6 (8)++*9 9)6./0 .(;.3-)++1 -4 68. 6/*;-3(0 526 -4 6.:;./)6.
/.<-*4( )( 9.++. A++ 8)>. ) ,-(6-436->. /)1 (8);.0 526 3*+*/)6-*4 :)1 :)A.
68.: 8)/, 6* (;*6 24+.(( 68.1 )/. (9-::-4<. T8. >.4*:*2(0 5)/5., (;-4.(
456
-4 68.-/ 6)-+( 3)4 3)2(. (.>./. */ 7)6)+ -4F2/1.
R-@@40,4:8
Siganidae (;.3-.(
R)55-67-(8 )/. 7*24, ;/.,*:-4)46+1 *4 68. /..7( -4 68. P)3-7-3 )4, I4,-)4
*3.)4(. T8.1 )>./)<. )5*26 " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D +*4< )4, 8)>. >./1
(8)/; (;-4.( -4 68.-/ 7-4(. T8. (;-4.( )/. >.4*:*2( )4, 3)4 -47+-36 -46.4(.
;)-4.
S.1*741/ ,4:8 1* 6+@*- ,4:8
Scorpaenidae (;.3-.(
S3*/;-*4 7-(8 +->. :)-4+1 -4 68. /..7( -4 68. P)3-7-3 )4, I4,-)4 *3.)4(. T8.1
>)/1 7/*: " 6* 9" 3.46-:.6./( C12 6* % -438.(D +*4<0 )/. 2(2)++1 /.,,-(8 -4
3*+*/)6-*40 )4, 8)>. +*4< 9)>1 7-4( )4, (;-4.(. T8.1 -47+-36 )4 -46.4(.+1
;)-472+ (6-4<.
457
S49-/3: ,4:8
T8. (-<)42( 7-(8 -( (:)++0 )5*26 1" 6* 1% 3.46-:.6./( C4 6* 6 -438.(D +*4<0 )4,
+**A( :238 +-A. ) (:)++ 624). I6 8)( >.4.:*2( (;-4.( -4 -6( ,*/()+ )4, >.46/)+
7-4(. T8.(. (;-4.( 3)4 -47+-36 ;)-472+ (6-4<(.
S01/+,4:8
Synance9a (;.3-.(
S6*4.7-(8 )/. 7*24, -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./( *7 68. P)3-7-3 )4, I4,-)4 *3.)4(.
A>./)<-4< )5*26 " 3.46-:.6./( C12 -438.(D -4 +.4<680 68.-/ (25,2., 3*+*/(
)4, +2:;1 (8);. ;/*>-,. 68.: 9-68 .=3.;6-*4)+ 3):*27+)<.. !8.4 (6.;;.,
*40 68. 7-4( -4 68. ,*/()+ (;-4. -47+-36 )4 .=6/.:.+1 ;)-472+ )4, (*:.6-:.( 7)6)+
9*24,.
T-/9 1* :3*9+1/,4:8
Acanth&ridae (;.3-.(
T)4< */ (2/<.*47-(8 )>./)<. 2" 6* 2% 3.46-:.6./( C$ 6* 1" -438.(D -4 +.4<680
9-68 ) ,..; 5*,10 (:)++ :*2680 )4, 5/-<86 3*+*/)6-*4. T8.1 8)>. 4..,+. +-A.
(;-4.( *4 68. (-,. *7 68. 6)-+ 68)6 3)2(. .=6/.:.+1 ;)-472+ 9*24,(. T8-( 7-(8 -(
7*24, -4 )++ 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./(.
458
T1-2,4:8
*atrachoididae (;.3-.(
T*),7-(8 )/. 7*24, -4 68. 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./( *77 68. 3*)(6( *7 S*268 )4, C.46/)+
A:./-3). T8.1 )/. 5.69..4 17.% )4, 2% 3.46-:.6./( C7 6* 1" -438.(D +*4<
)4, 8)>. ) ,2++ 3*+*/ )4, +)/<. :*268(. T8.1 52/1 68.:(.+>.( -4 68. ()4,
)4, :)1 5. .)(-+1 (6.;;., *4. T8.1 8)>. >./1 (8)/;0 .=6/.:.+1 ;*-(*4*2(
(;-4.( *4 68. ,*/()+ 7-4 C5)3AD.
$++B+* ,4:8
$rachinidae (;.3-.(
T8. 9..>./ 7-(8 -( ) 6/*;-3)+ 7-(8 68)6 -( 7)-/+1 (+-: )4, )5*26 " 3.46-:.6./(
C12 -438.(D +*4<. A++ -6( 7-4( 8)>. >.4*:*2( (;-4.( 68)6 3)2(. ) ;)-472+
9*24,.
B<3+C*4/9+2 1.0173:
,apalochlaena (;.3-.(
459
T8-( (:)++ *36*;2( -( 2(2)++1 7*24, *4 68. G/.)6 B)//-./ R..7 *77 .)(6./4
A2(6/)+-). I6 -( </)1-(8B98-6. 9-68 -/-,.(3.46 5+2. /-4< +-A. :)/A-4<(. T8-(
*36*;2( 2(2)++1 9-++ 4*6 5-6. 24+.(( (6.;;., *4 */ 8)4,+.,. I6( 5-6. -(
.=6/.:.+1 ;*-(*4*2( )4, 7/.?2.46+1 +.68)+.
P1*0393+:+ >-/C1,CA-*
"hysalis (;.3-.(
A+68*2<8 -6 /.(.:5+.( ) F.++17-(80 68. P*/62<2.(. :)4B*7B9)/ -( )362)++1 )
3*+*41 *7 (.) )4-:)+(. M)-4+1 7*24, -4 6/*;-3)+ /.<-*4(M 8*9.>./0 68. G2+7
(6/.): 32//.46 3)4 3)//1 -6 )( 7)/ )( E2/*;.. I6 -( )+(* 7*24, )( 7)/ (*268 )(
A2(6/)+-). T8. 7+*)6-4< ;*/6-*4 *7 68. :)4B*7B9)/ :)1 5. )( (:)++ )( 1%
3.46-:.6./( C6 -438.(D0 526 68. 6.46)3+.( 3)4 /.)38 12 :.6./( C4" 7..6D -4
+.4<68. T8.(. 6.46)3+.( -47+-36 ) ;)-472+ )4, -43);)3-6)6-4< (6-4<0 526 -6 -( /)/.+1
7)6)+.
C1/+ :8+<<:
Conidae (;.3-.(
T8.(. 3*4.B(8);., (8.++( 8)>. (:**680 3*+*/72+ :*66+-4< )4, +*4<0 4)//*9
*;.4-4<( -4 68. 5)(. *7 68. (8.++. T8.1 +->. 24,./ /*3A(0 -4 3/.>-3.( )4, 3*/)+
/..7(0 )4, )+*4< /*3A1 (8*/.( )4, ;/*6.36., 5)1( -4 6/*;-3)+ )/.)(. A++ 8)>.
6-41 6..68 68)6 )/. (-:-+)/ 6* 81;*,./:-3 4..,+.(. T8.1 3)4 -4F.36 )4
.=6/.:.+1 ;*-(*4*2( >.4*: 68)6 )36( >./1 (9-76+10 3)2(-4< )326. ;)-40
(9.++-4<0 ;)/)+1(-(0 5+-4,4.((0 )4, ;*((-5+. ,.)68 9-68-4 8*2/(. A>*-,
8)4,+-4< )++ 3*4. (8.++(.
460
T+*+@*- :8+<<:
$ere%ridae (;.3-.(
T8.(. (8.++( )/. 7*24, -4 5*68 6.:;./)6. )4, 6/*;-3)+ 9)6./(. T8.1 )/.
(-:-+)/ 6* 3*4. (8.++( 526 :238 68-44./ )4, +*4<./. T8.1 ;*-(*4 -4 68. ():.
9)1 )( 3*4. (8.++(0 526 68.-/ >.4*: -( 4*6 )( ;*-(*4*2(.
FISH $ITH TOXIC FLESH.
FB9. T8./. )/. 4* (-:;+. /2+.( 6* 6.++ .,-5+. 7-(8 7/*: 68*(. 9-68 ;*-(*4*2(
7+.(8. F-<2/. $B2 (8*9( 68. :*(6 3*::*4 6*=-3 7-(8. A++ *7 68.(. 7-(8 3*46)-4
>)/-*2( 61;.( *7 ;*-(*4*2( (25(6)43.( */ 6*=-4( -4 68.-/ 7+.(8 )4, )/.
,)4<./*2( 6* .)6. T8.1 8)>. 68. 7*++*9-4< 3*::*4 38)/)36./-(6-3(E
I M*(6 +->. -4 (8)++*9 9)6./ )/*24, /..7( */ +)<**4(.
I M)41 8)>. 5*=1 */ /*24, 5*,-.( 9-68 8)/, (8.++B+-A. (A-4( 3*>./., 9-68 5*41
;+)6.( */ (;-4.(. T8.1 8)>. (:)++ ;)//*6 +-A. :*268(0 (:)++ <-++(0 )4, (:)++ */
)5(.46 5.++1 7-4(. T8.-/ 4):.( (2<<.(6 68.-/ (8);..
FB1". I4 ),,-6-*4 6* 68. )5*>. 7-(8 )4, 68.-/ 38)/)36./-(6-3(0 5)//)32,) )4,
/., (4);;./ 7-(8 :)1 3)//1 3-<2)6./)0 ) 6*=-4 68)6 )332:2+)6.( -4 68. (1(6.:(
*7 7-(8 68)6 7.., *4 6/*;-3)+ :)/-4. /..7(.
FB11. !-68*26 (;.3-7-3 +*3)+ -47*/:)6-*40 6)A. 68. 7*++*9-4< ;/.3)26-*4(E
I B. >./1 3)/.72+ 9-68 7-(8 6)A.4 7/*: 4*/:)++1 (8)++*9 +)<**4( 9-68 ()4,1 */
5/*A.4 3*/)+ 5*66*:(. R..7B7..,-4< (;.3-.( ;/.,*:-4)6. )4, (*:. :)1 5.
;*-(*4*2(.
I A>*-, ;*-(*4*2( 7-(8 *4 68. +..9)/, (-,. *7 )4 -(+)4,. T8-( )/.) *7 (8)++*9
9)6./ 3*4(-(6( *7 ;)638.( *7 +->-4< 3*/)+( :-=., 9-68 *;.4 (;)3.( )4, :)1
.=6.4, (.)9)/, 7*/ (*:. ,-(6)43.. M)41 ,-77./.46 61;.( *7 7-(80 (*:.
;*-(*4*2(0 -48)5-6 68.(. (8)++*9 9)6./(.
I D* 4*6 .)6 7-(8 3)2<86 -4 )41 )/.) 98./. 68. 9)6./ -( 244)62/)++1 ,-(3*+*/.,.
T8. ,-(3*+*/)6-*4 :)1 5. -4,-3)6->. *7 ;+)4A6*4 68)6 3)2(. >)/-*2( 61;.( *7
6*=-3-61 -4 ;+)4A6*4B7..,-4< 7-(8.
I T/1 7-(8-4< *4 68. 9-4,9)/, (-,. */ -4 ,..; ;)(()<.( +.),-4< 7/*: 68. *;.4
(.) 6* 68. +)<**40 526 5. 3)/.72+ *7 32//.46( )4, 9)>.(. L->. 3*/)+ /..7( ,/*;
*77 (8)/;+1 -46* ,..; 9)6./ )4, 7*/: ) ,->-,-4< +-4. 5.69..4 68. s&spected
2ish o2 the shallows )4, 68. desira%le deep<water species. D..;9)6./ 7-(8 )/.
2(2)++1 4*6 ;*-(*4*2(. Y*2 3)4 3)638 68. >)/-*2( 6*=-3 7-(8 .>.4 -4 ,..;
461
9)6./. /iscard all s&spected ree2 2ish, 98.68./ 3)2<86 *4 68. *3.)4 */ 68.
/..7 (-,..
A77+/24F G.
R17+: -/2 K/10:.
TERMINOLOGY
GB1. T* 5. )5+. 6* 3*4(6/236 (8.+6./(0 6/);( )4, (4)/.(0 9.);*4( )4, 6**+(0
)4, *68./ ,.>-3.(M 1*2 (8*2+, 8)>. ) 5)(-3 A4*9+.,<. *7 /*;.( )4, A4*6(
)4, (*:. *7 68. 6./:-4*+*<1 2(., 9-68 68.:. T8. 6./:( )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I *ight. A (-:;+. 5.4, *7 /*;. -4 98-38 68. /*;. ,*.( 4*6 3/*(( -6(.+7.
I /ressing the knot. T8. */-.46)6-*4 *7 )++ A4*6 ;)/6( (* 68)6 68.1 )/. ;/*;./+1
)+-<4.,0 (6/)-<86.4.,0 */ 524,+.,. N.<+.36-4< 68-( 3)4 /.(2+6 -4 )4 ),,-6-*4)+
%" ;./3.46 /.,236-*4 -4 A4*6 (6/.4<68. T8-( 6./: -( (*:.6-:.( 2(., 7*/ (.66-4<
68. A4*6 98-38 -4>*+>.( 6-<86.4-4< )++ ;)/6( *7 68. A4*6 (* 68.1 5-4, *4 *4.
)4*68./ )4, :)A. 68. A4*6 *;./)6-*4)+. A +**(.+1 6-., A4*6 3)4 .)(-+1 ,.7*/:
24,./ (6/)-4 )4, 38)4<.0 5.3*:-4< ) (+-;A4*6 */ 9*/(.0 2461-4<.
I #raps. A :.)4( *7 6-<86.4-4< 68. +)(8-4<( 51 +**;-4< 68. /*;.
;./;.4,-32+)/+1 )/*24, 68. 9/);( 68)6 8*+, 68. (;)/( */ (6-3A( 6*<.68./.
I 0ashings. A :.)4( *7 2(-4< 9/);( )4, 7/);( 6* 6-. 69* */ 68/.. (;)/( */
(6-3A( 6*<.68./ 6* 7*/: (*+-, 3*/4./( */ 6* 3*4(6/236 6/-;*,(. L)(8-4<( 5.<-4
)4, .4, 9-68 3+*>. 8-638.(.
I 0ay. T8. +)1 *7 68. /*;. -( 68. ():. )( 68. 69-(6 *7 68. /*;..
I 0oop. A +**; -( 7*/:., 51 3/*((-4< 68. /244-4< .4, *>./ */ 24,./ 68.
(6)4,-4< .4, 6* 7*/: ) /-4< */ 3-/3+. -4 68. /*;..
I "ig tail. T8)6 ;)/6 *7 68. /244-4< .4, 68)6 -( +.76 )76./ 61-4< 68. A4*6. I6 (8*2+,
5. 4* :*/. 68)4 4 -438.( +*4< 6* 3*4(./>. /*;. )4, ;/.>.46 -46./7./.43..
I R&nning end. T8. 7/.. */ 9*/A-4< .4, *7 ) /*;.. T8-( -( 68. ;)/6 *7 68. /*;.
1*2 )/. )362)++1 2(-4< 6* 6-. 68. A4*6.
I Standing end. T8. (6)6-3 ;)/6 *7 /*;. */ /.(6 *7 68. /*;. 5.(-,.( 68. /244-4<
.4,.
I $&rn. A +**; )/*24, )4 *5F.36 (238 )( ) ;*(60 /)-+0 */ /-4< 9-68 68. /244-4<
.4, 3*46-42-4< -4 68. *;;*(-6. ,-/.36-*4 6* 68. (6)4,-4< .4,. A /*24, 62/4
3*46-42.( 6* 3-/3+. )4, .=-6( -4 68. ():. <.4./)+ ,-/.36-*4 )( 68. (6)4,-4<
.4,.
I ;hipping. A41 :.68*, *7 ;/.>.46-4< 68. .4, *7 ) /*;. 7/*: 2469-(6-4< */
5.3*:-4< 249*24,. I6 -( ,*4. 51 9/);;-4< 68. .4, 6-<86+1 9-68 ) (:)++ 3*/,0
6);. */ *68./ :.)4(. I6 (8*2+, 5. ,*4. *4 5*68 (-,.( *7 )4 )46-3-;)6., 326 -4
) /*;.0 5.7*/. 3266-4< 68. /*;. -4 69*. T8-( ;/.>.46( 68. /*;. 7/*:
-::.,-)6.+1 2469-(6-4<.
I ;raps CF-<2/. GB1D. S-:;+. 9/);( *7 /*;. )/*24, 69* ;*+.( */ (6-3A(
C(?2)/. +)(8-4<D */ 68/.. ;*+.( */ (6-3A( C6/-;*, +)(8-4<D. !/);( 5.<-4 )4,
.4, 9-68 3+*>. 8-638.( )4, <.6 6-<86./ 9-68 7/);(. A++ 6*<.68./0 68.1 7*/: )
+)(8-4<.
462
F493*+ GC1. $*-7:
BASIC KNOTS
GB2. T8. 5)(-3 A4*6( )4, :.68*,( *7 61-4< 68.: 68)6 1*2 (8*2+, A4*9 7*/
1*2/ (2/>->)+ )/. )( 7*++*9(E
I ,al2<hitch. T8-( -( 68. (-:;+.(6 *7 )++ A4*6( )4, 2(., 6* 5. 68. ()7.610 */
7-4-(8-4<0 A4*6 7*/ )++ A/:1 A4*6(. B.3)2(. -6 8), ) 6.4,.431 6* 24,* -6(.+7
9-68*26 +*),0 -6 8)( (-43. 5..4 /.;+)3., 51 68. *>./8)4,.
I 6verhand CF-<2/. GB2D. T8-( -( 68. (-:;+. A4*6 68)6 :*(6 ;.*;+. 6-.
.>./1,)1 )( 68. 7-/(6 8)+7 *7 61-4< 68.-/ (8*.(. I6 3)4 )+(* 5. 2(., 6*
6.:;*/)/-+1 98-; 68. .4, *7 ) /*;.. T8-( A4*6 (8*2+, /.;+)3. 68. 8)+7B8-638 )(
) 7-4-(8-4< A4*6 7*/ *68./ A4*6(. T8-( A4*6 )+*4. 9-++ /.,23. 68. (6/.4<68 *7 )
(6/)-<86 /*;. 51 %% ;./3.46.
F493*+ GC2. OB+*8-/2 K/10
I S=&are CF-<2/. GBD. A <**,0 (-:;+. A4*6 7*/ <.4./)+ ;2/;*(. 2(.. T8-(
A4*6 -( 5)(-3)++1 69* *>./8)4, A4*6( 68)6 )/. /.>./(.,0 )( -4 R-<86 *>./ L.760
L.76 *>./ R-<86. I6 -( 2(., 6* 6-. 68. .4,( *7 69* /*;.( *7 .?2)+ ,-):.6./
6*<.68./ CF2(6 +-A. 1*2/ (8*. +)3.(D )4, :2(6 5. (.32/., 9-68 )4 *>./8)4, *4
5*68 .4,(. I6 -( .)(1 6* -4(;.360 )( -6 7*/:( 69* +**;( )4, -( .)(1 6* 246-. )76./
5.-4< +*),.,.
463
I Ro&nd t&rn and two hal2<hitches CF-<2/. GB4D. T8-( -( 68. :)-4 )438*/ A4*6
7*/ *4.B/*;. 5/-,<.( )4, *68./ );;+-3)6-*4( 98.4 ) <**, )438*/ A4*6 -(
/.?2-/., )4, 98./. 8-<8 +*),( 9*2+, :)A. *68./ A4*6( F): )4, ,-77-32+6 6*
246-.. I6 -( :*(6 2(., 6* )438*/ /*;. 6* ) ;*+. */ 6/...
F493*+ GC3. S=3-*+ K/10 S+.3*+2 @; OB+*8-/2 K/10:
F493*+ GC!. R13/2 T3*/ -/2 TA1 H-<,CH40.8+:
I Clove hitch and end<o2<the<line clove hitch CF-<2/.( GB% )4, GB6D. I6 3)4 5.
2(., 6* 7)(6.4 ) /*;. 6* ) 6/.. */ ;-;. )4, )+(* ;26( +-66+. (6/)-4 *4 68. /*;.. I6
-( )4 .)(1 )438*/ A4*6 526 6.4(-*4 :2(6 /.:)-4 *4 68. A4*6 */ -6 9-++ (+-;. T8-(
3)4 5. /.:.,-., 51 :)A-4< )4*68./ +**; )/*24, 68. *5F.36 )4, 24,./ 68.
3.46./ *7 68. 3+*>. 8-638.
F493*+ GC". C<1B+ H40.8
464
F493*+ GC6. E/2C1,C08+CL4/+ C<1B+ H40.8
I Sheep shank CF-<2/. GB7D. A :.68*, *7 (8*/6.4-4< ) /*;.0 -6 :)1 )+(* 5.
2(., 6* 6)A. 68. +*), *77 *7 ) 9.)A (;*6 -4 68. /*;.. I6 -( ) 6.:;*/)/1 A4*6
24+.(( 68. .1.( )/. 7)(6.4., 6* 68. (6)4,-4< ;)/6 *7 68. /*;. *4 5*68 .4,(.
F493*+ GC#. S8++7 S8-/?
I /o&%le sheet %end CF-<2/. GB$D. T8-( A4*6 -( 2(., 6* 6-. 6*<.68./ 68. .4,( *7
69* /*;.( *7 .?2)+ */ 24.?2)+ ,-):.6./. I6 9-++ )+(* F*-4 9.6 /*;. )4, 4*6 (+-;
*/ ,/)9 6-<86 24,./ +*),. I6 3)4 5. 2(., 6* 6-. 68. .4,( *7 (.>./)+ /*;.( 6* 68.
.4, *7 *4. /*;.. !8.4 ) (-4<+. /*;. -( 6-., 6* :2+6-;+. /*;.(0 68. 5-<86 -(
7*/:., 9-68 68. :2+6-;+. *7 /*;.(.
F493*+ GC. D13@<+ S8++0 B+/2
I "r&sik CF-<2/.( GB9 68/*2<8 GB11D. T8-( A4*6 6-.( ) (8*/6 /*;. )/*24, )
+*4<./ /*;. C7*/ .=):;+.0 ) (+-4< /*;. )/*24, ) 3+-:5-4< /*;.D -4 (238 )
:)44./ 68)6 68. (8*/6 /*;. 9-++ (+-,. *4 68. 3+-:5-4< /*;. -7 4* 6.4(-*4 -(
);;+-.,0 )4, 9-++ 8*+, -7 6.4(-*4 -( );;+-., *4 68. (8*/6 /*;.. T8-( A4*6 3)4 5.
6-., 9-68 )4 .4, *7 /*;. */ 5-<86 *7 /*;.. !8.4 6-., 9-68 )4 .4, *7 /*;.0 68.
A4*6 -( 7-4-(8., *77 9-68 ) 5*9+-4.. T8. 4*4(+-; 4)62/. *7 68. A4*6 *4 )4*68./
/*;. )++*9( 3+-:5-4< *7 /*;.( 9-68 7**6 8*+,(. I6 3)4 )+(* 5. 2(., 6* )438*/
/*;.( */ 68. .4, *7 ) 6/)36-*4 (;+-46 *4 ) 5/)438 */ (A- ;*+..
465
F493*+ GC%. P*3:4?& E/2 1, L4/+
F493*+ GC10. P*3:4?& E/2 1, L4/+ -/2 C+/0+* 1, L4/+
F493*+ GC11. P*3:4?& E/2 1, L4/+ $408 B1A<4/+ ,1* S-,+0;
I *owline and %owline 2inished with an overhand knot CF-<2/. GB12D. A/*24,B
68.B5*,1 5*9+-4. 9)( 68. 5)(-3 A4*6 2(., 7*/ /.(32. 7*/ :)41 1.)/( )( -6
;/*>-,., ) +**;0 98-38 3*2+, 5. ;+)3., )/*24, 68. 5*,10 68)6 9*2+, 4*6 (+-;
4*/ 6-<86.4 2; 24,./ (6/)-4. I6 8)( 5..4 /.;+)3., 51 68. 7-<2/. $ -4 :*(6
);;+-3)6-*4( )( 68. 7-<2/. $ ,*.( 4*6 9.)A.4 68. /*;. )( :238.
F493*+ GC12. B1A<4/+ -/2 B1A<4/+ F4/4:8+2 $408 -/ OB+*8-/2 K/10
466
I #ig&re A and retracea%le 2ig&re A CF-<2/. GB1D. T8-( A4*6 -( 68. :)-4 /.(32.
A4*6 -4 2(. 6*,)1. I6 8)( 68. ),>)46)<. *7 5.-4< (6/*4<./ 68)4 68. 5*9+-4.
)4, -( .)(-./ 6* 6-. )4, 38.3A. I6( *4. ,-(),>)46)<. -( 68)6 98.4 9.60 -6 :)1
5. :*/. ,-77-32+6 6* 246-. 68)4 68. 5*9+-4. )76./ 5.-4< (6/.((.,. T8. 7-<2/. $
C*/ 7-<2/.B*7B.-<86D 3)4 5. 2(., )( )4 )438*/ A4*6 *4 7-=., /*;.(. I6 3)4 )+(*
5. 2(., 6* ;/.>.46 68. .4, *7 ) /*;. 7/*: (+-;;-4< 68/*2<8 ) 7)(6.4-4< */ +**;
-4 )4*68./ /*;. 98.4 ) A4*6 +)/<./ 68)4 )4 *>./8)4, A4*6 -( 4..,.,.
F493*+ GC13. F493*+ -/2 R+0*-.+-@<+ F493*+
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION LASHINGS
GB. T8./. )/. 42:./*2( -6.:( 68)6 /.?2-/. +)(8-4<( 7*/ 3*4(6/236-*4.
F-<2/.( GB14 68/*2<8 GB16 (8*9 61;.( *7 +)(8-4<( 68)6 1*2 3)4 2(. 98.4
3*4(6/236-4< 6/-;*,(0 (8.+6./(0 )4, /)3A(. R.7./ 6* ;)/)</);8( 12B 2% )4, 12B
26 -7 2(-4< 7-.+,B.=;.,-.46 /*;..
F493*+ GC1!. S8+-*: L-:84/9
467
F493*+ GC1". S=3-*+ L-:84/9
F493*+ GC16. T*4712 L-:84/9
A77+/24F H.
C<132:: F1*+0+<<+*: 1, $+-08+*.
A5*26 2"" 1.)/( )<* )4 E4<+-(8:)4 3+)((-7-., 3+*2,( )33*/,-4< 6* 98)6 68.1
+**A., +-A. 6* ) ;./(*4 (..-4< 68.: 7/*: 68. </*24,. H. </*2;., 68.: -46*
68/.. 3+)((.( )4, <)>. 68.: L)6-4 4):.(E 3-//2(0 32:2+2(0 )4, (6/)62(.
T8.(. 68/.. 4):.(0 )+*4. )4, 3*:5-4., 9-68 *68./ L)6-4 9*/,(0 )/. (6-++ 2(.,
6* -,.46-71 ,-77./.46 3+*2, 7*/:)6-*4(. B1 5.-4< 7):-+-)/ 9-68 68. ,-77./.46 3+*2,
468
7*/:)6-*4 )4, 98)6 9.)68./ 68.1 ;*/6.4,0 1*2 3)4 6)A. );;/*;/-)6. )36-*4 7*/
1*2/ ;/*6.36-*4.
C4**3: .<132:
C-//2( 3+*2,( )/. 68. >./1 8-<8 3+*2,( 68)6 +**A +-A. 68-4 (6/.)A( */ 32/+(. T8.1
)/. 2(2)++1 6 A-+*:.6./( C4 :-+.(D */ :*/. )5*>. 68. .)/68 )4, )/. 2(2)++1 )
(-<4 *7 7)-/ 9.)68./. I4 3*+, 3+-:)6.(0 8*9.>./0 3-//2( 3+*2,( 68)6 5.<-4 6*
:2+6-;+1 )4, )/. )33*:;)4-., 51 -43/.)(-4< 9-4,( 5+*9-4< (6.),-+1 7/*: )
4*/68./+1 ,-/.36-*4 -4,-3)6. )4 *43*:-4< 5+-GG)/,.
C3>3<3: .<132:
C2:2+2( 3+*2,( )/. 7+27710 98-6.0 8.);.,B2; 3+*2,(. T8.(. 3+*2,(0 98-38 )/.
:238 +*9./ 68)4 3-//2( 3+*2,(0 )/. *76.4 7)-/ 9.)68./ 3+*2,(. T8.1 )/. );6 6*
);;.)/ )/*24, :-,,)1 *4 ) (2441 ,)10 +**A-4< +-A. +)/<. 3*66*4 5)++( 9-68 7+)6
5*66*:(. A( 68. ,)1 ),>)43.(0 68.1 :)1 5.3*:. 5-<<./ )4, ;2(8 8-<8./ -46*
68. )6:*(;8./.0 ;-+-4< 2; 6* );;.)/ +-A. ) :*246)-4 *7 3+*2,(. T8.(. 3)4 62/4
-46* (6*/: 3+*2,(.
469
S0*-03: .<132:
S6/)62( 3+*2,( )/. >./1 +*90 </)1 3+*2,(0 *76.4 :)A-4< )4 .>.4 </)1 +)1./
*>./ 68. 98*+. (A1. T8.(. 3+*2,( <.4./)++1 :.)4 /)-4.
N4>@3: .<132:
N-:52( 3+*2,( )/. /)-4 3+*2,( *7 24-7*/: </)14.(( 68)6 .=6.4, *>./ 68. .46-/.
(A1.
470
C3>3<1/4>@3: .<132:
C2:2+*4-:52( -( 68. 3+*2, 7*/:)6-*4 /.(2+6-4< 7/*: ) 32:2+2( 3+*2, 52-+,-4<
2;0 .=6.4,-4< 6* </.)6 8.-<86(0 )4, 7*/:-4< -4 68. (8);. *7 )4 )4>-+. Y*2 3)4
.=;.36 ) 6824,./(6*/: -7 68-( 3+*2, -( :*>-4< -4 1*2/ ,-/.36-*4.
C4**1:0*-03: .<132:
C-//*(6/)62( -( ) 7)-/+1 24-7*/: +)1./ *7 8-<8 (6/)62( 3+*2,( 68)6 )/. ,)/A./ 68)4
3-//2( 3+*2,(. C-//*(6/)62(3+*2,( -4,-3)6. <**, 9.)68./.
471
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9.)68./.
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.> 3.46-:.6./
CNS 3.46/)+ 4./>*2( (1(6.:
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472
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MROD :)42)+ /.>./(. *(:*(-( ,.()+-4)6*/
NBC 423+.)/0 5-*+*<-3)+0 )4, 38.:-3)+
POL ;.6/*+.2:0 *-+(0 )4, +25/-3)46(
RDF /),-* ,-/.36-*4 7-4,./
RSSK /-<-, (.)6 (2/>->)+ A-6
SAR (.)/38 )4, /.(32.
SARSAT (.)/38 )4, /.(32. ()6.++-6.B)-,., 6/)3A-4<
SERE :2/>->)+0 .>)(-*40 /.(-(6)43.0 )4, .(3);.
SMCT (*+,-./H( :)42)+ *7 3*::*4 6)(A(
SOP (6)4,-4< *;./)6-4< ;/*3.,2/.
U.S. U4-6., S6)6.(
USAJFKS$CS U.S. A/:1 J*84 F. K.44.,1 S;.3-)+ !)/7)/. C.46./ )4,
S38**+
USSR U4-*4 *7 S*>-.6 S*3-)+-(6 R.;25+-3(
B4@<419*-78;.
AFM 64B4. S&rvival $raining. J2+1 19$%.
AFM 64B%. Aircrew S&rvival. S.;6.:5./ 19$%.
A2oot in the /esert. E4>-/*4:.46)+ I47*/:)6-*4 D->-(-*40 A-/ T/)-4-4<
C*::)4,0 A-/ U4->./(-61 L-5/)/10 M)=9.++ AFB0 AL. O36*5./ 19$".
A4<-./0 B/),7*/,. #easting #ree on ;ild 8di%les. H)//-(52/<0 PAE S6)3A;*+.
C*.0 1972.
A4<-./0 B/),7*/,. #ield )&ide to 8di%le ;ild "lants. H)//-(52/<0 PAE
S6)3A;*+. C*.0 1974.
A4<-./0 B/),7*/,. ,ow to Stay Alive in the ;oods. H)//-(52/<0 PAE S6)3A;*+.
C*.0 19$.
AR 7"B$. Research, /evelopment, $est, and 8val&ation o2 7ateriel 2or
83treme Climatic Conditions. 1 A2<2(6 1979. C8)4<. 10 1% S.;6.:5./ 1979.
Arctic S&rvival "rinciples, "roced&res, and $echni=&es. 6668 C*:5)6 C/.9
T/)-4-4< !-4< CATCD0 F)-/38-+, AFB0 !A. S.;6.:5./ 197$.
473
A/4*+,0 H)//1 L. "oisono&s "lants o2 ,awaii. R26+)4,0 VTE T266+. O C*.0
196$.
A2./5)380 P)2+ S.0 H*9)/, J. D*44./0 )4, E/-3 A. !.-((0 #ield )&ide to
;ilderness 7edicine, S6. L*2-(E M*(510 1999.
*asic S&rvival 7edicine. E4>-/*4:.46)+ I47*/:)6-*4 D->-(-*40 A-/ T/)-4-4<
C*::)4,0 A-/ U4->./(-61 L-5/)/10 M)=9.++ AFB0 AL. J)42)/1 19$1.
B*9,.40 M)/A. *lack ,awk /ownB A Story o2 7odern ;ar. N.9 Y*/AE
A6+)46-3 M*468+1 P/.((0 1999.
B238:)40 D-)4. ,er%al 7edicineB $he 1at&ral ;ay to )et ;ell C Stay ;ell .
N.9 Y*/AE D)>-, M3K)1 C*.0 1979.
C+*2,(+.1BT8*:;(*40 J*84. Spiders, Scorpions, Centipedes, and 7ites.
O=7*/,0 E4<+)4,E P./<):*4 P/.((0 19%$.
C*77..0 H2<8 L. /itch 7edicineB Advanced #ield "roced&res 2or
8mergencies. B*2+,./0 COE P)+),-40 199.
Cold Sea S&rvival. DTIC T.384-3)+ R.;*/6 AD 716$90 AMRLBTRB7"B720
A./*(;)3. M.,-3)+ R.(.)/38 L)5*/)6*/10 !/-<86 P)66./(*4 AFB0 OH.
O36*5./ 197".
JC*+, !)6./ S2/>->)+0 H1;*68./:-) )4, C*+, !)6./ I::./(-*40 C*+, !.)68./
S2/>->)+0K S8R8 1ewsletter0 V*+. 10 N*. 70 FASOTRAGRUPAC0 J)42)/1
19$.
C/)-<8.),0 F/)4A C.0 J/.0 )4, J*84 J. C/)-<8.),. ,ow to S&rvive on 0and
and Sea. A44);*+-(0 MDE N)>)+ I4(6-626. P/.((0 19$4.
D)>-.(0 B)//1. $he SAS 8scape, 8vasion, and S&rvival 7an&al. O(3.*+)0
!IE M*6*/5**A( I46./4)6-*4)+0 1996.
JD..; !)6./ S2/>->)+0K S8R8 1ewsletter0 V*+. 10 N*. $0
FASOTRAGRUPAC0 J)42)/1 19$.
D-3A(*40 M2//)1. ;here $here (s 1o /entist. B./A.+.1E T8. H.(;./-)4
F*24,)6-*40 19$.
D-6:)/(0 R)1:*4, L. Snakes o2 the ;orld. N.9 Y*/AE M)3:-++)4 C*.0 196".
E:5./6(*40 J)4.. "odsB ;ild2lowers and ;eeds in $heir #inal *ea&ty. N.9
Y*/AE C8)/+.( S3/-54./( S*4(0 1979.
$he 8ncyclopedia o2 6rganic )ardening. E::)2(0 PAE R*,)+. P/.((0 197$.
F.6/*90 C8)/+.( !.0 )4, J2)4 R. A>-+). "ro2essional-s ,and%ook o2
Complementary C Alternative 7edicines. S;/-4<8*2(.0 PAE S;/-4<8*2(.0
1999.
FM 1B4"". Aviator-s ,and%ook. 1 M)1 19$.
FM %B12%. Rigging $echni=&es, "roced&res, and Applications. O36*5./
199%.
FM 21B11. #irst Aid 2or Soldiers. 27 O36*5./ 19$$. C8)4<. 20 4 D.3.:5./
1991.
FM 21B76B1. 7&ltiservice "roced&res 2or S&rvival, 8vasion, and Recovery.
29 J24. 1999.
FM 1B7". *asic Cold ;eather 7an&al. 12 A;/-+ 196$. C8)4<. 10 17
D.3.:5./ 196$
FM 1B71. 1orthern 6perations. 21 J24. 1971.
FM 9"B. /esert 6perations. 24 A2<2(6 199.
FM 9"B%. ?&ngle 6perations. 16 A2<2(6 19$2.
FM 9"B6. 7o&ntain 6perations. " J24. 19$".
F*/<.10 !-++-):. ;ilderness 7edicine, 468 E,. M.//-++>-++.0 INE ICS B**A(0
474
1994.
F*(6./0 S6.>.40 )4, J):.( D2A.. A #ield )&ide to 7edicinal "lants, 8astern
and Central 1orth America.
T8. P.6./(*4 F-.+, G2-,. S./-.(. B*(6*4E H*2<86*4 M-77+-40 199".
G-55*4(0 E2.++. Stalking the ;ild Asparag&s. N.9 Y*/AE D)>-, M3K)1 C*.0
197".
G/-::0 !-++-): C. $he (ll&strated *ook o2 $rees. H)//-(52/<0 PAE S6)3A;*+.
C*.0 19$.
G/-::0 !-++-): C. Recognizing #lowering "lants. H)//-(52/<0 PAE S6)3A;*+.
C*.0 196$.
G/-::0 !-++-): C. Recognizing 1ative Shr&%s. H)//-(52/<0 PAE S6)3A;*+.
C*.0 1966.
GTA 21B7B1. S62,1 C)/, S.60 S&rvival "lants0 S*268.)(6 A(-). J)42)/1
1967.
H)++0 A+)4. $he ;ild #ood $rail )&ide. N.9 Y*/AE H*+60 R-4.8)/60 )4,
!-4(6*40 197.
7an and 7ateriel in the Cold Regions :"art (4. U.S. A/:1 C*+, R.<-*4( T.(6
C.46./0 F*/6 G/..+10 AK.
M3N)50 A4,1. *ravo $wo >ero. N.9 Y*/AE I(+)4, B**A(0 199.
M.,(<./0 O+->./ P. 8di%le ;ild "lants. N.9 Y*/AE M)3:-++)4 C*.0 1972.
M./+-40 M)/A D. ,awaiian #orest "lants. H*4*+2+2E O/-.46)+) P25+-(8-4< C*.0
197$.
M-46*40 S8./:)4 A.0 )4, M),<. R. M-46*4. 'enomo&s Reptiles. N.9 Y*/AE
C8)/+.( S3/-54./( S*4(0 19$".
M**/.0 M-38).+. 7edicinal "lants o2 the 7o&ntain ;est. M2(.2: *7 N.9
M.=-3* P/.((0 1979.
$he 1avy S8A0 1&trition )&ide. D.;)/6:.46 *7 M-+-6)/1 )4, E:./<.431
M.,-3-4.0 USUHS. D.3.:5./ 1994.
&ollowin% are the national sto!' numbers for de!'s of re!o%nition
!ards, whi!h were reared by the Naval Trainin% ()uiment *enter,
+rlando, &,"
NSN 2"B691"B""B""4B94%. D.>-3. 9H1$ S62,1 C)/, S.60 N*/68.)(6
A7/-3)RM-,.)(6 CD.3A 10 Recognition ;ildli2eM D.3A 20 Recognition "lantli2eD.
NSN 2"B691"B""B$2"B67"2. D.>-3. 9H%0 S&rvival "lants0 P)3-7-3.
NSN 691"B""B1"6B47R1. D.>-3. 9H1%R10 Aviation S&rvival 8=&ipment.
NSN 6919B""B1"6B4$R2. D.>-3. 9H1%R20 Aviation 0and S&rvival
$echni=&es.
NSN 691"B""B1"6B4%2R. D.>-3. 9H1%R0 Aviation Sea S&rvival $echni=&es.
NSN 691"B""B$2"B67"2 D.>-3. 9H9A S62,1 C)/,(0 S&rvival "lant
Recognition.
P)//-(80 H.4/1 M. "oisono&s Snake%ite in the .nited States. N.9 Y*/AE
V)46)<. P/.((0 19$".
"/R 2or ,er%al 7edicines0 24, E,-6-*4B M*46>)+.0 NJE M.,-3)+ E3*4*:-3(
C*:;)410 2""".
$he "hysiology o2 Cold ;eather S&rvival. DTIC T.384-3)+ R.;*/6 AD
7$426$0 A,>-(*/1 G/*2; 7*/ A./*(;)3. R.(.)/38 )4, D.>.+*;:.46 R.;*/6
N*. 62"0 A./*(;)3. M.,-3)+ R.(.)/38 L)5*/)6*/10 !/-<86 P)66./(*4 AFB0
OH. A;/-+ 197.
475
R2((.++0 F-4,+)1 E. Snake 'enom "oisoning. P8-+),.+;8-)E J.P. L-;;-43*66
C*:;)410 19$.
R1)40 C8/-(. $he 6ne $hat )ot Away. !)(8-4<6*4E B/)((.1H(0 199$
SERE G2-,.0 Soviet #ar 8ast0 F+..6 I46.++-<.43. C.46./BP)3-7-30 B*= %""0 FPO
S)4 F/)43-(3*0 CA 9661". M)/38 1977.
Sharks. I47*/:)6-*4 B2++.6-4 N*. 10 6668 C*:5)6 C/.9 T/)-4-4< !-4<0
ATC0 F)-/38-+, AFB0 !A.
S?2-./0 T8*:)( L. 0iving 622 $he 0and. R26+)4,0 VTE A3),.:1 P/.((0 19$9.
S2::./ M*246)-4 L.),./( S62,.46 H)4,*260 M*246)-4 !)/7)/. T/)-4-4<
C.46./0 B/-,<.;*/60 CA.
TC 21B. Soldier-s ,and%ook 2or (ndivid&al 6perations and S&rvival in Cold
;eather Areas. 17 M)/38 19$6.
TC 9"B6B1. 7ilitary 7o&ntaineering. 26 A;/-+ 19$9.
T*:-A.+0 J*84. 8di%le ;ild "lants o2 "ennsylvania and 1ew Dork. P-66(52/<80
PAE A++.<8.41 P/.((0 197.
$o3ic #ish and 7oll&sks. I47*/:)6-*4 B2++.6-4 N*. 120 E4>-/*4:.46)+
I47*/:)6-*4 D->-(-*40 A-/ T/)-4-4< C*::)4,0 A-/ U4->./(-61 L-5/)/10 M)=9.++
AFB0 AL. A;/-+ 197%.
!./4./0 D)>-,. ;here $here (s 1o /octorB A 'illage ,ealth Care ,and%ook,
Rev. 8d. B./A.+.1E T8. H.(;./-)4 F*24,)6-*40 1992.
;ild 8di%le and "oisono&s "lants o2 Alaska. C**;./)6->. E=6.4(-*4 S./>-3.0
U4->./(-61 *7 A+)(A) )4, U.S.D.A. C**;./)6-4<0 P25+-3)6-*4 N*. 2$0 19$1.
!-+A./(*40 J):.( A. 7edicine 2or 7o&ntaineering C 6ther ;ilderness
Activities, 468 E,. S.)66+.E T8. M*246)-4../(0 1992.
$4:+>-/& J18/. The $A$ $urvival -andboo'" L1/21/: C1<<4/: H-*B4<<&
1%6.
END.
476

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