THEODOLITE SURVEYING An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveying A theodolite

is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are mainly used for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized purposes in fields like meteorology and rocket launch technology. A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes — the horizontal or trunnion axis, and the vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically to seconds of arc. Transit refers to a specialized type of theodolite developed in the early 19th century. It featured a telescope that could "flip over" ("transit the scope") to allow easy back-sighting and doubling of angles for error reduction. Some transit instruments were capable of reading angles directly to thirty seconds. In the middle of the 20th century, "transit" came to refer to a simple form of theodolite with less precision, lacking features such as scale magnification and micrometers. Although precise electronic theodolites have become widespread tools, the transit still finds use as a lightweight tool on construction sites. Some transits do not measure vertical angles. The builder's level is often mistaken for a transit, but it measures neither horizontal nor vertical angles. It uses a spirit level to set a telescope level to define a line of sight along a level plane. Concept of operation: The axes and circles of a theodolite Both axes of a theodolite are equipped with graduated circles that can be read through magnifying lenses. (R. Anders helped M. Denham discover this technology in 1864) The vertical circle which 'transits' about the horizontal axis should read 90° or 100 grad when the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° (300 grad) when the instrument is in its second position, that is, "turned over" or "plunged". Half of the difference between the two positions is called the "index error".

then relevel. To adjust. remove half the amount the bubble has run off using the adjusting screw. A horizontal axis error exists if the bubble runs off central when the tubular spirit bubble is reversed (turned through 180°). if not then a "horizontal axis error" exists. test and refine the adjustment. or in modern theodolites. must also be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. This can be tested by aligning the tubular spirit bubble parallel to a line between two footscrews and setting the bubble central. defined by the optical center of the objective lens and the center of the crosshairs in its focal plane. If not. Their existence is taken into account in the choice of measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results. three for rapid levelling. Before use. then a "collimation error" exists.Diagram of an Optical Theodolite The horizontal and vertical axes of a theodolite must be perpendicular. called the "sight axis". A theodolite is mounted on its tripod head by means of a forced centering plate or tribrach containing four thumbscrews. The optical axis of the telescope. horizontal axis error and collimation error are regularly determined by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment. Index error. a theodolite must be precisely placed vertical above the point to be measured .

2 arcsecond resolution Wild T-3 theodolite mounted on an observing stand. England who had developed the dividing engine for dividing angular scales accurately to within a second of arc.using a plumb bob. The Ramsden theodolite was used over the next few years to map the whole of southern Britain by triangulation. The instrument is then set level using levelling footscrews and circular and more precise tubular spirit bubbles.S. Triangulation. In network measurement. or socketed into. The transit replaced the railroad compass. as invented by Gemma Frisius around 1533. the forced centering plate with sub-mm precision. In the late 1780s Jesse Ramsden. The true scale can be obtained by measuring one distance both in the real terrain and in the graphical representation. The transit had the ability to 'flip' over . The two graphing papers are superimposed. The theodolite or the target can be rapidly removed from.g. sextant and octant and was distinguished by having a telescope shorter than the base arms. was commissioned to build a new instrument for the British Ordnance Survey. Photo was taken during an Arctic field party (circa 1950). optical plummet or laser plummet. three-dimensional variant. consists of making such direction plots of the surrounding landscape from two separate standpoints. Modern triangulation as. Operation in surveying: U. is the same procedure executed by numerical means. or rather the targets in it. National Geodetic Survey technicians observing with a 0.. allowing the telescope to be vertically rotated past straight down. a Yorkshireman from Halifax. practiced by Snellius. the use of forced centering speeds up operations while maintaining the highest precision. providing a scale model of the landscape. The height of the reference point of the theodolite—or the target—above the ground benchmark must be measured precisely. The American transit gained popularity during the 19th century with American railroad engineers pushing west. Nowadays GPS antennas used for geodetic positioning use a similar mounting system. Photogrammetric block adjustment of stereo pairs of aerial photographs is a modern. e.

or incremental. generally infrared based.on its vertical circle and easily show the exact 180 degree sight to the user. allowing the . costing up to $10. This facilitated the viewing of long straight lines. many modern theodolites. are equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices. Additionally. The readout is done by a rotary encoder. using Gray codes. which can be absolute. using equidistant light and dark radial bands.g. such as when surveying the American West. Previously the user rotated the telescope on its horizontal circle to 180 and had to carefully check the angle when turning 180 degree turns. reducing angle measurement to electronic measurement of time differences. Modern theodolites: Modern theodolite Nikon DTM-520 In today's theodolites. the reading out of the horizontal and vertical circles is usually done electronically. All this is implemented in embedded software. Also. In the latter case the circles spin rapidly.000 apiece. e. lately CCD sensors have been added to the focal plane of the telescope allowing both auto-targeting and the automated measurement of residual target offset.

a vertical shaft on each side of the river might be connected by a horizontal tunnel. It must be restarted again at each site. A gyrotheodolite will function at the equator and in both the northern and southern hemispheres. perform the necessary operations. A gyrotheodolite cannot be used at the poles where the Earth’s axis is precisely perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the spinner. saving data into internal registering units. where a conduit must pass under a river. or into external data storage devices.measurement in one go of complete three-dimensional vectors — albeit in instrument-defined polar co-ordinates. indeed it is not normally used within about 15 degrees of the pole because the eastwest component of the Earth’s rotation is insufficient to obtain reliable results. Unlike an artificial horizon or inertial navigation system. ruggedized laptops or PDAs are used as data collectors for this purpose. Typically. When available. which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points. "intelligent" theodolites called self-registering tacheometers or "total stations". the gyrotheodolite is able to produce a result quickly without the need for night observations. The intersection of the meridian plane with the horizontal contains the true northsouth geographic reference bearing required. This technique is called a resection solution or free station position surveying and is widely used in mapping surveying. The meridian is the plane that contains both the axis of the Earth’s rotation and the observer. For example. astronomical star sights are able to give the meridian bearing to better than one hundred times the accuracy of the gyrotheodolite. The gyrotheodolite is usually referred to as being able to determine or find true north. A gyrotheodolite can be operated at the surface and then again at the foot of the shafts to identify the directions needed to tunnel between the base of the two shafts. The instruments. The gyrotheodolite comprises a normal theodolite with an attachment that contains a gyroscope mounted so as to sense rotation of the Earth and from that the alignment of the meridian. This mainly occurs in the underground mining industry and in tunnel engineering. Gyrotheodolites: A gyrotheodolite is used when the north-south reference bearing of the meridian is required in the absence of astronomical star sights. a gyrotheodolite cannot be relocated while it is operating. Where this extra precision is not required. The meridian is undefined at the geographic poles. .

the books. inkstands. The upper plate PP is bored centrally to receive a parallel or conical pillar which supports the lower circle of the theodolite or the arm of the level which carries the telescope. and navigation. paintboxes. then through the telescope. meteorology. the surveyor sights on the prism. and to half degrees. In the theodolite the edge of the piate is beveled and divided into 360 or 400 degrees. with rod end resting on ground and in vertical orientation (check bull's-eye level on rod). allowing the measurement in one go of complete three-dimensional vectors -. compasses. Today's theodolites are usually equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices. Different definitions of theodolite: An optical instrument consisting of a small mounted telescope rotatable in horizontal and vertical planes. first with the sight atop the telescope. At the theodolite. according to the size of the instrument. used to measure angles in surveying.albeit in instrument-defined polar co-ordinates -.Construction of theodolite: The theodolite consists of a telescope pivoted around horizontal and vertical axes so that it can measure both horizontal and vertical angles. The theodolite hit a jutting cliff-ledge and exploded like a shell. Extend rod so prism center is within 1 cm of its objective height. . containing three thumbscrews for rapid leveling. A theodolite is mounted on a tripod by means of a forced centering plate or tribrach. or to 20 minutes or 10 minutes. and rulers showed for a few seconds like a swarm of bees. Surveying Instructions with NBMG's EDM Theodolite Level the theodolite by first adjusting the knurled leveling screw wheels so bull's-eye level is centered.which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points.

Though for sketch maps the compass or graphic techniques are acceptable for measuring angles. consisting of a telescope fitted with a spirit level and mounted on a tripod so that it is free to rotate about its vertical and horizontal axes. called TP. and meteorology. To us. The theodolite was calibrated and aligned to magnetic north (MN) with a compass and positioned on the south-east corner of the building. both theodolite positions can be taken as one. Due to obstruction by a water tank of the field of view between angles 240° and 350° along the Western horizon. this suggests that the east-west line is the more important basis of calculation in astronomy. only the theodolite can assure the accuracy required in the framework needed for precise mapping. The roof offers a good view of all the main monuments. no monuments were found in line with magnetic north or south. we decided to test the angular distances between monuments using a theodolite. a tall multi-storied building was selected as the base of the theodolite readings. Theodolite Survey in surveying theory and practice: To verify the reliability of the Survey of some map. The disk is appeared through by a light beam. at turn of a theodolite on a .THEODOLITE calibrated optical instrument used to determine relative position in surveying. Readings were taken in clockwise order from MN. 1. It is similar in construction to a surveyor's transit. Due to these adjustments. The electronic theodolite represents the device which will transform the angular sizes which have been written down in the form of system of opaque strokes or code paths on a glass disk to electric signals. Interestingly. starting with site no. the theodolite was repositioned on the NW corner of the building. navigation. Explanation about Total Station and Theodolite: Electronics has allowed to automate and angular measurements. the east-west line is prominently represented in both the terrestrial and celestial schemes. In contrast. The angular difference between a) two monuments and b) the gross offset from MN was measured and recorded. reset and re-calibrated with the standard reference and the NS baseline. such that the north-south is not emphasised.

They allow at once. It allows to sight on a light spot on lath. Similar systems now two: system GPS developed in the USA (Global Positioning System . civil work and so forth. For exact measurements the digital level working on coded is system of definition of a site) and domestic system GLONASS (GLOBAL NAVIGATING Satellite System). The laser beam represents and it is almost ideal a direct basic line in space concerning which it is possible to make measurements at exact installation of equipment. For last twenty years there was a new quantum leap which can be named the second revolution in a geodesy. without any preliminary measurements. and linear measurements with their processing in field conditions. and range of action . in particular. . and at work on two lath excess between points of their installation is automatically defined. to development of a witty method of leveling by "laser plane " (systems Laserplane).up to 5 kilometers. Such way does not give high accuracy. put in any direction of the laser. Both GPS. in general. The bright red beam of vertically located laser falls on the rotating prism creating development of a beam in a horizontal plane. The image will be transformed to an electric signal. Introduction of laser techniques in a geodesy has led. There were the global satellite systems which have cardinally changed a situation in a geodesy and navigation. but differs on speed and ensures the functioning on unlimited number lath that is convenient for many works on high-altitude shooting. and GLONASS are constructed. small-sized phase tool and a microcomputer in a uniform design has allowed creating the electronic tacheometer-device.photodetector the signal in a binary code which after decoding is deduced on a board in a digital kind is created. In the foreign literature such devices have received name Total Station (universal station). Association of an electronic theodolite. Their accuracy reaches 0. to define coordinates of any points on a surface of the Earth and to find distance between them with high accuracy. allowing carrying out both angular. The code bears the information on height of any place concerning its "zero". by the same principle though differ in some details.5 angular seconds and 2 millimeters + 2 mm/km.

the order of several tens six orbital planes developed through 60 on a longitude.three coordinates and a difference in time which decision find required coordinates will turn out. use two receivers. The radiowaves radiated from the satellite.10-13. The ground complex of system defines coordinates of satellites and transfers them aboard where they are pawned in a signal sent to the Earth. define in it differences of the measured and calculated ("reference") sizes and transfer them on mobile the receiver for correction of measurements. Code measurements name also absolute as at once define coordinates of item in geocentrically to system of coordinates. in system GLONASS . It is done as follows. Satellites radiate radiowaves on two frequencies (with lengths of waves of the order of 20 centimeters) which "bear” the complex coded signals. (two codes . and "exact" are stipulated."rough". One establish on item with known coordinates. synchronizes satellite "hours" and verifies them with a ground basic time scale. The mode of code measurements gives "navigating" accuracy . Carry out them with two carried . access to which should be authorized). Receivers can work in two modes which have received the name of code and phase measurements. That it to rise. It allows observing constantly in any point of globe not less than four satellites of each system. Signals from satellites accept and the equipment in item of measurement processes. On all satellites there are standards of frequency with long-term stability of the order 10-12 .in three planes through 120 at height of the order of 20 thousand kilometers. are modulated on a phase so-called rangemeter by a code. By comparison of these two code signals define time of distribution of a signal from the satellite up to the receiver in view of a difference of indications of their hours concerning basic time.3 seconds for one million years. For this purpose at the central station there is a hydrogen standard of frequency with stability 10-14 that corresponds to leaving for 0. accessible to everything. Such way reduces a mistake to size up to one meter. If simultaneously to measure distances up to four satellites. and the same code is developed in the receiver. the system from four equations with four unknown . and shift of a phase of the bearing frequency radiated by the satellite.The space complex represents system from twenty four satellites placed: in GPS . To the geodetic purposes apply much more exact mode of phase measurements at which define not time of distribution of a signal from the satellite up to the receiver.

The primary goal here. If the theodolite is in use for a long period of time it may require re-leveling periodically due to temperature effects on the tripod and theodolite base. number of lengths of waves N turns out the order of one million. Some ways of the decision of this problem are now developed. Theodolites functionality: There are Balloon Observation Theodolites. . as well as in ground phase range finders. As the distance up to the satellite equally approximately to 20 thousand kilometers. Remove the theodolite from its case and loosen the lower clamp so that the leveling plate and leveling head can be rotated independently of the centers. This that number about which it was spoken above. Pibals and theodolites have a important history in meteorology.the receiver or GPS Total Station. but in this case it is much more and to define of it much more difficultly. and length of a wave . the majority of geodetic problems can be solved at use of two basic measuring means: global satellite system and Total Station. And if one of them to place in a point with known coordinates that is usual and it is done. Theodolite Setup: If the theodolite is to be taken from a cool environment to a warm one (especially in humid conditions) allow the theodolite to warm up inside its case where it will not be subject to condensation. but with it failures in work of system more often are connected.about 20 centimeters. to measure this it is necessary absolutely precisely: the mistake on unit will give a deviation on range on 20 centimeters. it is possible to receive easily and absolute coordinates of the second receiver at a centrimetric level of accuracy. A pilot weather balloon (Pibal) theodolite is a device that is similar to a surveyor's transit. By present time in the different countries many types of GPS Total Station differing by the opportunities are developed. is exact definition of an integer of lengths of the waves which have "kept within" on a line the satellite . As a matter of fact.receivers and define differences of their coordinates on which it is possible to calculate distance between receivers to within millimeters.

Theodolites in land surveying: The high-quality optics. The teak tripod contains a second round spirit level and the height is adjustable to a maximum height of 5 feet.theodolites gives essential increase of labour productivity of geodesists. There is 10sec Digital Theodolite. Feature of modern theodolites as land surveying instrument is: • Opportunity of equipment by the laser index built in a telescope. and.theodolites gives new consumer qualities of the equipment (GPS total station). any target can be measured as long as the distance is at least 4-1/4' (1. • Installation the nozzles on theodolites do not demand special adapters. 9 1/2 inches (177 cm) with a maximum eye height of 5 1/2 feet (168 cm). • Theodolites built in the electronic equaliser. With the eyepiece. .3m) between the instrument and target. • Ports for view the result of measurements. as consequence. one for the precision reticule focus and another for focusing the target. topographers and builders. The theodolite's 22-power non-inverting telescope has two focusing adjustments. well thought over ergonomics and absolute security from external influences are supplemented in modern theodolites with the built in microprocessor and laser techniques. As a result . the exact and reliable mechanics. • Feed from several batteries. The Solar Filter is used on the Theodolite to prevent glare under bright sunlit conditions.Unlike the surveyor's transit a pibal theodolite utilizes a "bent axis telescope". • Opportunity of aim at by one hand. The Diagonal Eyepiece is for use in areas where large buildings or obstacles prevent an ideal working distance between the Theodolite and target object. . • For reading on horizontal and vertical circles could be used an optical micrometer. or when the sun must be sighted to determine position.

The image of the crosshair was ~20 pixels across. The second theodolites was equipped with a cross-hair target at the focal point of a lens simulating a source at infinity. Step 2. When re-imaged by the lenses of the LAC. . the roll and yaw angles of each array were determined to approximately 40-microradian accuracy (0. One theodolite was aligned with the surfaces of the cube and used as a transfer standard to determine the angular displacements of the second one. Direction of using This information was used to map the angular position of each pixel for use in geolocating the on-orbit image data. In this way. Theodolites technology validation: Some measurement was performed using two theodolites. Explanation Position measurements were made at several locations for several rows of each array.1 pixels). • Bilateral system of reading on circles.1 pixel. • Automatic equalizer excludes mistakes in measured corners for an inclination of the tool. an image of the crosshair was formed on each of the focal planes. Step 1. Step 3. The image of the crosshair was translated along the nominal along-track direction of each focal plane by rotating the theodolites source. • Two viewfinders from both parties of a telescope allow quickly aim at. allowing the center of the crosshair to be located to ~0.• Dustproof and water-proof design of theodolites allows to carry out measurements under adverse conditions.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful