This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Please read this warning before using this game or allowing children to use it. Some people are susceptible to epileptic seizures or loss of consciousness when exposed to particular flashing lights or light patterns. Such people may have a seizure while watching television images or playing video games. This may happen if the person has no medical history of epilepsy or has never had any epileptic seizures. If you or anyone in your family has ever had symptoms related to epilepsy (seizures or loss of consciousness) when exposed to flashing lights, you should consult your doctor before playing. We recommend that parents monitor the use of computer/video games by their children. If you or your child experience any of the following symptoms while playing a computer/video game, immediately discontinue use and consult your doctor. Dizziness, eye or muscle twitches, loss of consciousness, blurred vision, disorientation or any involuntary movement or convulsion.
PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE DURING USE
- Do not sit or stand to close to the screen. - Sit a good distance away, preferably as far as the length of the cable allows. - Play the game on a small screen if possible. - Avoid playing when tired or suffering from lack of sleep. - Play in a room that is well lit. Rest for 10 to 15 minutes an hour when playing the game.
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Section One: Technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Setup and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 The ReadMe file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Section Two: The Getting Started Guide . . . .12
The Game Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Starting Off . . . . . . Game Controls . . Getting Around . . Warning Red Text Skip Time . . . . . . Accelerate Time . . Crew Management . Returning Home . . . Mission Debriefing . Saving the Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 .21 .23 .24 .26 .26 .27 .29 .30 .30 .31 .31 .32 .32 .33 .35 .36 .36 .36 .36 .36 .37
The Training Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Taxi and Take Off . . . . . . . . . . Approach and Landing . . . . . . Feathering/Restarting an Engine Bombing – Good Conditions . . . Bombing – Poor Conditions . . . Gunnery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limping Home . . . . . . . . . . . Attack of the Axis . . . . . . . . . Where are the ‘Little Friends’? Opportunity for the Axis . . . . . Fighter sweep over France . . . Defence of the Reich . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Quickstart Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Section Three: Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
The Main Menu Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Player Options Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Controls Menu . . . . . . Realism/Difficulty Menu Graphics Menu . . . . . . Sound Menu . . . . . . . Load/Save Menu . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 .41 .43 .44 .44 .45 .45 .45 .46 .46 .46 .46 .46 .48 .48 .48 .48 .48 .49 .50 .50 .51 .51 .51 .52 .52 .53 .53 .53 .53 .54 .54 .55 .55 .55 .56 .56 .56 .56
The Game Options Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
The Campaign Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Bomber Commander Campaign . The Squadron Commander Campaign The Single Mission Game . . . . . . . . . The Quickstart Mission . . . . . . . . . . The Training Mission . . . . . . . . . . . Play a Historical Mission . . . . . . . . Bombardment Division/Group Screen . . Campaign Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customise Bomber Screen . . . . . . . . . New Bomber Name . . . . . . . . . . . . Choose Nose Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bomber Crew Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . Squadron Bomber Names/Nose Art . . . Squadron Crew Screen . . . . . . . . . . .
The HQ Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
The Operations Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Map – Planning the Mission . . . . . Map Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Map Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Map Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting up a Reconnaissance Mission Setting up a Bombing Mission . . . . . Target Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . The Primary Target . . . . . . . . . . . The Secondary Target . . . . . . . . . . Setting Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . Intelligence File – Target Details . . . . . The Blackboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outside – Inspect the Bombers . . . . . . Bomber Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crew Management File . . . . . . . . . . Crew Replacement File . . . . . . . . . . Next Bomber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.63 . . . . . . . . . . . . Action View . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspect the B-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Engineer/Top Turret Gunner . . . . . . . Crew Portrait Panel (pop up menu) . .61 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 . . . . . . . . . . .58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Clipboard – Choose Bombers for the Mission Ordnance – Select Munitions for the Mission Blackboard – View Mission Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Out-tray ‘Read Old Mail’ . . . . . . . . . . Read Mission Briefing . . . . . The Radio Operator . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 . . The Mission Briefing Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Squadron Commander . . . . . . . .59 . . .61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument View . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pilot and Co-Pilot . . . . . The Bombardier . .60 . In-tray ‘Read New Mail’ . . . . . . . Compartment View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bomber Information File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-tray ‘Read New Mail’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 . . . Inspect the Bombers (Window) . . . . . . . . Beginning the Mission . . . . View Route Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 . .69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Gunners (Ball Turret. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crew Information File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . . . Crew Position Panel (pop-up menu) . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . .58 . . . . . Tail) Compartment Selection (pop up menu) . .57 . . . . The Squadron Commander’s Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . . . . . . .61 . . . . . . .60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waist 1 and 2. . . . . .63 . . . . . . . . . Window View . . . . .58 . . The Bomber Commander . . . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 . .59 . . . . . . Out-tray ‘Read Old Mail’ . . .72 Inside the Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Mission Responsibilities . Medical File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . .62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Squadron History Files (The Bookcase) . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . Crew Information File . . . . . Starting Off . . . . . . . . . . . The Bomber Commander’s Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 . . . . .59 . View Reconnaissance Film . . Crew Views Panel (pop-up menu) . . . . . The Navigator . .
. .. . . . . . .91 . . Levelling the B-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 . . . . . . . . . . . Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . Turns . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .79 . . . . . . .90 . .. . . . . . . . . The Initial Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stalls and Spins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 . . . . . . . . .87 .. . . . . . . . Flying a Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . Trimming and Cruising . . . . . . . Engine Fire Extinguishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 . The Traffic Pattern . Lock Out AI Engine Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . The Waypoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . War Emergency Power . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .92 . . . Intervalometer . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .92 . . .88 . . . . . . . . . . . .97 . . . .83 . . . .. . . .95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxi to Hardstand . . .93 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .92 . Pilot Checks . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Rally Point . . . . . . . . . . . .94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilot’s and Co-Pilot’s Instrument Panel The Take Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 . . .. . . . . .86 . . . . . . . . .96 . . . . . . . . . . . Pilot Helper . . . .94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting your Engines . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 . . . The Pilot Helper . . . The Bomb Run . . . . . . . . . . . .88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Forming Up . . .. . . . . . . .92 .95 . Landing the B-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting Lost . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Flying Over the Target . .99 Bombardier School . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Flying School (Pilot and Co-Pilot) . . . . . .74 An Introduction to the Basics of Flight . . .99 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Pre-landing Checks . .94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 . . . . . .95 . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting into the Air . . . . . Salvo Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Control Keys . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 .. . Feathering the Engine(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Bombardier – General Principles Bombing Factors .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Final Approach . . .96 5 .. . . .95 . . . .94 . . . . . . . . . . . .84 . . . Climbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Landing Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section Four: The Training Schools . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 . . . . . . . . . . The Return Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Radio Operator School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Navigator’s Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Baling Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 . . . . . . . . . . . The Clock System of Defence The Zone Firing System . . . . . .104 Fuel Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 . . Unjamming Machine Guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Injured Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Section Five: Crew/Bomber Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 The Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 . . .103 Engineer School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 . . . .107 .100 The Chin Turret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 . . . . . . . . .111 Red Text Warning .105 Gunnery School . . Ammo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Bombing Results . . . . . .105 Messages Inward Log .Searching for the Target . . . .112 Repairing items . .100 Navigator School . . . . . . . . . .113 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Map Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Reckoning . . . . . . . Re-setting Waypoints Navigation Realism . . . . . . .103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sighting and Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Drift Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 . . . . . . Map Controls . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Moving Crew to New Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red Text Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gunsights . . .112 First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Pilotage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 . . The Map Symbols . . . . . . . .102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 . .112 Fighting Fires . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Gunner Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Panic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .105 Messages Outward Log .
. . . .125 P-38 Lightning . . . . . . . . . . . .114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 . . . . . . . . . Formation . . . . . . . Changing Fighters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 . . . . . . . . . .126 P-47 Thunderbolt . . . . . . . Artificial Horizon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Take Offs .122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . .114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Fighter Cockpit Instruments . . . . .114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 . . . . . . . . . .121 .119 Single–engine Aircraft Controls . . . . . Fuel Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Promotions and WIA . . . . Aircraft Select Pop-up Menu . . . . Altimeter . . . . . . .Bomber Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 The Fighter Escort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 . . Airspeed Indicator . . . . Combat . . . . . . . Emergencies . . .128 . . . . .122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fighter Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 . . . . . . Pause Simulation (Pause/Break) Jump to Other Bombers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decelerate Time (End) . . . .121 . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 . . . . .124 . . . . . . . . . . . .122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 . . .127 P-51 Mustang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landings . . . . . . . . . . . . Manifold Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mini-Time Skip . . . . Twin-engine/jet Aircraft Controls Compass . . . . . .123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate of Climb Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flight . Skip Time (Return/Enter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 . . . . . . . . . . . Navigation to Target . .115 . . . . . . . . . Accelerate Time (Home) . . . . . . . . . . . Luftwaffe . . . Red Text Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 . . .124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Section Six: Fighter School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Mission Debriefing . . . . . .113 External Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 . . Escort Fighters . . Engine Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Medals.
. . . . . . . . .131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Infogrames Customer Service Numbers . . . . . .143 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . .129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Me-262 . .129 Attacking the Bombers FW 190 . . . . . . . . . .132 Section Seven: Customer Information . .130 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bf-109 (Me-109) . . . . . .The Luftwaffe . . . . . . . . . . . .
The solution was massive defensive bomber formations that had to fight their way there and fight their way back. release the bombs and watch them hit the target! B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’.Introduction They called it ‘The Mighty Eighth’. B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ recreates that era. you can take on the role of the Luftwaffe and jump into the cockpit of the German interceptors: the Bf-109. You’ll learn to fly the legendary B-17G ‘Flying Fortress’ and feel the power and grace of the massive four-engine bomber. The complete WW2 strategic air war flight simulation 9 . the US Army Air Force 8th Bomber Command. carry out bomb runs. FW-190. The main drawback was that enemy fighters and flak concentrations could clearly see them in daylight. as you become an expert at all ten B-17 crew positions allowing you to take off and land the massive bomber. and the jet powered Me-262! This is the ultimate flight crew simulation. In addition. or the P-47 ‘Thunderbolt’. in a Second World War simulation that gives you total control of every aspect of the strategic air war (including the opposing fighters). the P-51 ‘Mustang’. navigate across a realistically mapped Europe. The force that flew daylight missions over occupied Europe. shoot from all turret positions. send radio messages. striking at specific military targets with pinpoint accuracy. You can also be one of the escort fighter pilots and fly the P-38 ‘Lightning’.
Section One: Technical .
11 . then on the CD-ROM icon. Installation • • • • Insert the B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ CD into your CD-ROM drive. Loading • Select Start > Programs > MicroProse > B-17. Follow all on-screen instructions. B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ will take you to the installation screen.exe’. and then click on ‘Setup. double-click on “Read Me” in the B-17 directory found on your hard drive. The simulation will now install. To view this file.Specification Make sure the specification shown on the B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ box matches that of your machine. then on Programs > MicroProse > B-17 > Read Me file. The Read Me file The B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ CD-ROM has a Read Me file where you can view trouble shooting and updated information about the product. The game will now load. Click on the ‘Install’ button and follow all on-screen directions. If autorun has not been enabled. • Once B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’ is installed it will appear in the Program Group on the START Menu. you’ll have to double-click on the ‘My Computer’ icon on the Windows® Desktop. If autorun is enabled. You may also view the Read Me file by first clicking on the START button on your Win95/98/Millennium taskbar.
Section Two: The Getting Started Guide .
2. • • Click on the Continue switch (lower right). • Click on the Game Option icon (bottom left) .The Game Tutorial Overview Well. • Scroll down the list to Navigation Complexity and make sure this is set at ‘Flawless’. • Click on the Continue button (bottom right). bombing etc). You will be taken to the Game Difficulty/Realism menu screen.a red light will switch on when selected. This tutorial will get you up and running in a Bomber Commander campaign game. 3) and click on the Continue switch (lower right). If it isn’t click on the line and click on Flawless in the lower panel. For that you will need to try the specific Training and Quickstart Missions using the Training School sections later in this manual. For this guide we don’t want you to get lost so you will be flying with Flawless navigation. but it will not teach you the complete simulation (manual flying. Starting Off After the opening animation screens you will see the Main Menu screen. Click on the return to previous screen switch (lower left) to return to the Main Menu screen. Navigation is an important factor in the simulation and the aircraft can fly at three levels of Navigation Complexity: Historical. Easy or Flawless. you’ve successfully installed and loaded the game and you’re itching to get into the air in that big bomber and see some WW2 action. New Game Game Options Before you do anything else you must check the status of the Navigation realism. 13 . • Select the second icon down on the left (marked 1.
• Your next stop is your Crew screen. 14 . • • Select the 401st Bombing Group from the left hand panel. Different Bombing Groups are based at different airfields across England. Flip the Continue switch (lower right). The lower graphic panels will show the insignia of the Bombing Group and the specific Squadron you have chosen. Click on a ‘nose art’ name for your bomber (click and drag the scroll bar to view all options in the left panel). • Click on the icon (a red light will switch on when selected) and then click on the Continue button (bottom right). This shows the current crew for your B-17. • You will now be taken to the 8th Air Force Division screen. • Try to match the name to the nose art you have chosen. You will be taken to the Game Type screen. At the bottom of the screen is a Campaign Start panel (covering the period December 1st 1943 to February 10th 1945). Here you can choose which Bombardment group and which Squadron in that Group you want to join. This is where you choose the campaign length. Select the 612th Squadron from the right hand panel. The picture will be shown on the right hand panel. • • • Click in the panel until it shows the date March 1st 1944. delete the default name with the Backspace key and type in your own choice of name for your bomber and press Return/Enter. Flip the Continue switch (lower right). Select to Play a Single Bomber Commander Campaign (the single aircraft icon – top left) and flip the Continue switch.Now we want to play a New Game (the icon of the B-17 – lower left). You will now be taken to your bomber Name and Nose Art selection screen. Now click on the Bomber Name panel (top). Remember that in a Bomber Commander campaign you are in overall charge of the ten-man crew and the one bomber.
If you were playing the Squadron Commander game you would be able to plan all strategic operations in the Operations Room but as Bomber Commander you will NOT have access to mission planning. N – Navigator etc). The first page will open on the Bombardier details and will show the name you inserted in the Crew screen. Squadron Commander’s Office Bomber Inspection Bomber Commander’s Office Briefing Room Operations Room The HQ Corridor gives access to various mission planning and briefing screens. • Click on the door on the far left of the HQ Corridor and you will enter your office (you must try to be a bit more tidy!). Type in a new name (it could be your own) in the two panels and press Return/Enter. Click inside the name panel and delete the name using the Backspace key. Click on the book on the left of your desk and you will open the Crew Information File. But you do have your own office. Flip the Continue switch (lower right) and you will be taken to the HQ Corridor screen. • 15 . Clicking on the tabs along the side of the book will show details for all ten crew (coded by position: TG – Tail Gunner.• • • • Click on the top left portrait (the Bombardier) and the bombardier’s name will appear in the central panel. Here you will find information about your crew and your bomber.
This shows a summary of the crew’s abilities. you can use the mouse (with the right mouse button pressed in to zoom in/out and the left mouse button pressed in to rotate view). • • Press ESC to return to the jeep bonnet – this contains the Crew Management File. move the view left/right/up/down. Click on the book on the right of the desk and the Bomber Information File will open This shows the details of the bomber you renamed. you’d best get a briefing about your first mission. Click away to close the book and click on the bunch of keys to return to the airbase. • This will take you to the aircraft waiting at its dispersal point (in the 3D world). Click on the Crew Management File. Mouse Alternately. Full camera views are available: Numeric Keypad Plus + and Minus Arrow keys PageUp/PageDown Ins/Delete = = = = Zoom in/Zoom out. Click on the B-17’s name on the clipboard. A cross ‘X’ shows the correct job of each crew member. Click on the windows to go outside to Inspect Bomber and you will be taken to your Jeep. It’s here that you can reassign your crew and manage their abilities as the campaign begins to take its toll and injuries or KIAs accumulate. • Click on the right hand page to turn it over and you will see details of each crewman’s skills. click on the slash and it will become a cross. a slash ‘/’ shows a competence in another job. To change a crewman’s job. These will improve as each man gets more and more mission experience. • Now you have examined all aspects of your crew and bomber. This is a new campaign so there will not be details of any previous missions. A clipboard will show the name of your bomber. 16 .• • Click away from the pages and the book will close. You will be returned to the HQ Corridor. Note: Other crew positions will be automatically adjusted to fit in with your choices. • • Click anywhere away from the book to close the file. Inspection is particularly useful when you have returned from a mission and want to see the damage your bomber has sustained. rotate view left and right. tip view up/down.
In this tutorial guide you’ll be sitting in the Bombardier’s seat during the bomb run so it’ll help if you recognise the target. Film Screen Map Read Mission Briefing The Briefing Room gives you all the current information available about your target (or targets) and the routes there and back. move the map left/right/up/down. you can use the mouse (with the right mouse button pressed in) to move the map in all directions. When the film has finished or when you have pressed ESC. as it will appear to the Bombardier. Tertiary targets (if available) and Rally Points. • Click on the Map on the right of the stage to see bomber route. The Map can be controlled by using the numeric keypad keys: Plus and Minus (+/-) Arrow keys PageUp/PageDown Ins/Delete Alternately. tip map up/down. Secondary. • Place your mouse cursor on a gold pyramid waypoint marker (you might have to tip the map view) and you will see the height the bomber formation should be flying at when it hits that particular waypoint (you might also have to zoom in with numeric keypad + key). Press ESC to leave the map and return to the Briefing Room. Primary. = = = = Zoom in/Zoom out. 17 . The red arrows show the direction of travel along the route. The map shows Waypoints. • You’ve now seen a reconnaissance film and the route to the target but you’ve still to read all the target details. • Click on the film screen and watch the film carefully.• Click on the doorway on the near left to enter the Briefing Room. you will return to the Mission Briefing room. In the centre of the stage there are facilities to see a fly-over film of your target. rotate map left and right. Initial Points. the target and the route back.
PageUp to tip up and PageDown to tip down the view. Fighter Strength and Target Intelligence. • Computer control icon Now you’ve made it to the aircraft dispersal point. • • Click on the line (marked by an X) and a signature will appear.to zoom in and out on the B-17. fuel tanks are full and all the crew are ready for the off. When you have read about the mission targets click on the right hand page again. Or you can move the mouse. Ins and Del will rotate the view left/right. Click on the door on the right of the Mission Briefing hut (Start Mission) to enter the 3D simulation. 18 . Now let’s start the mission. Click away from the book to close the Mission Briefing file and return to the Mission Briefing room. distance to travel and fighter escort details. Use the numeric keypad controls +/. with the right mouse button pressed in for zooming in/out or the left mouse button pressed in to tip or rotate the view. The B-17 has bombs loaded. • Click on the right hand page of the Mission Briefing file and it will turn the page to show the Primary Target details including Flak Strength.• Click on the green Mission Briefing file on the desk in front of you. Click again on the right-hand page to view details of the Secondary Target. type of bomb selected. Note: The default is always computer control whenever a view or crew position is changed. the arrow keys to move left/right/up/down. You will see an outside view of the aircraft and the game will be in computer-controlled mode (a small computer icon will be shown on the lower right of the screen). • • You will now have to sign that you have read and understood the target/ mission details. This opens on the Mission Summary page that includes details on the Primary and Secondary targets.
You now need to go to the Radio Operator’s Instrument View and can do this in one of two ways: move your mouse cursor to the extreme right side of the screen (in the middle) to reveal a bank of five view icons. You are now in control of the Radio Operator. You will now be on the flight deck just behind the Pilot/Co-Pilot seats on the flight deck. The current view is lit with a red light (the figure icon). You will now see the Radio Operator sitting at his station with a highlight around him.Before you can do anything you must give the orders to begin the mission. Look for the Begin Mission order. To give the Begin Mission order you must go to the Radio Operator station. • Press F1 to go inside the aircraft. Click on the fourth icon down (the dial icon). with the Radio Operator selected (highlighted) press key I. Manual control • Press key M and the ‘computer controlled’ icon will disappear and be replaced by the manual control symbol (a ‘hand’ icon). Before you can do anything you must take control away from the computer AI. • • Click on the ‘Outgoing Messages’ book (on the left) and it will open. • Press keyboard key 6 and you will jump to the Radio Operator’s Compartment view. Find the Begin Mission order and click on it. • The order to start engines will be issued and Begin Mission will disappear from the messages list (you will not need to use it again on this mission). you must take manual control. Either Or This will bring up the Radio Operator’s Instrument View (a radio set and two message books). 19 . This is a feature of B-17: everything will work on computer control but if you want to influence a position or character.
It will then speed up and take off. Press F2 to go to an outside view to see the aircraft taxiing to its take off position. 20 . You should hear the engines starting. • • • • Note: If you return to the Radio Operator’s position he will now be back in computer control – this applies to all crew management positions in the simulation. When taking off in manual mode the Pilot Helper key (H) also comes into play here. When you hear the command ‘Join Formation’ press H and you will see a white formation box appear (you might have to look for it with view keys). • Watch this from the outside view (using the mouse or numeric keypad controls). Use the camera keys especially the zoom out feature to see the whole airfield. Press key H to switch off Pilot Helper. Your B-17 will circle until the other bombers in the squadron form up with it. The B-17 will now taxi to the main runway. In take off. Select the second icon down on the View Menu panel and you will return to the Compartment View (or press key C). The landing gear will retract and the other aircraft in the squadron will follow the leader. the B-17 will stop briefly for the final checks to be carried out. Eventually when you get to the take off runway. The simulation also has a Pilot Helper key (H) that can guide you in various aspects of the simulation. This leads you to the main take off runway. The bomber will taxi to the main runway followed by the rest of the squadron and take up a position at the head of the take off runway.• Click away from the book and you will return to the Radio Operator’s Instrument View. This is available in all internal B-17 screens. Press keyboard key 3 to go to the Pilot’s Compartment view. Hover the mouse pointer to the extreme right of the screen (near the centre) to open the View Menu panel. This box is where you should be for all the squadron to form up with you). if you press key H you will see a large green cone take up position in front of the aircraft. followed by the rest of the squadron.
The End key will slow down the simulation (if things are happening too quickly) 2. and try to return home and land. • Skip time (press Return/Enter) as much as you can to speed up the ‘getting there’ procedure. Or. flak firing or enemy fighters engaging you in combat. But the fun of this simulation is that you can jump into any position and take over manual control of that job! Similarly. The Home key will speed up the simulation 2. The Pilot has an Action view (accessed by pressing key A) which drops you into his seat looking out of the front window (and left/right in the cockpit). the B-17 will head for the target. 4 or 8 times. If you want to skip large chunks of time when nothing important is happening. Return to the Pilots’ Compartment view by pressing F1. Now let’s look at the Pilot and Co-Pilot controls. in the B-17 squadron formation. • You should be on the flight deck just behind the Pilot and Co-Pilot. you can jump into the escort and enemy fighter cockpits and dogfight with your enemy. 4. You need not do anything if you don’t want to.) • Select the Pilot (if he’s not already selected) by clicking on the figure on the left. All these views can also be accessed via the View Menu panel by hovering the mouse cursor on the central right edge of the screen. fighter activity etc). All members of the crew have their own set of specific views. you can simply admire the views of the aircraft crossing a fully mapped Northern Europe! In this tutorial guide we’ll jump into a variety of positions. You cannot skip when there is an important game event happening (flak attack. such as escort fighters scrambling. perform the mission to the best of the crew’s current ability/initiative. (If you are not press key 3 and select Compartment View from the right hand pop-up menu. If you are unable to skip time that means that a ‘game event’ is happening. Once in the air and in formation. 8 times. 21 .Game Controls You can ‘pause’ the simulation at any time by pressing the Pause/ Break key (toggle). and an Instrument view (press key I) showing the fully functioning cockpit dials and switches/levers. You should still be in external view. press the Return/Enter key to Time Skip. defend itself against any attack.
If you hover the mouse pointer on a switch or lever a tooltip will show what it does. Press key I to access the Instrument view. 22 . All crew positions in the simulation have a pre-set keyboard key: ` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 • This is where the Bombardier and the Navigator work. switches. The Pilot and Co-Pilot have specific zoomed-in instrument views (F5. • • • Press F5 or F9 to see the Co-Pilot’s instruments. This is a fully functioning B-17 cockpit with dials. Note: Key 1 has also selected and highlighted the Navigator. F7. • Press key 5. some crew positions have additional instrument views that relate to their jobs. levers etc all working. DO NOT OPERATE ANY OF THESE INSTRUMENTS UNTIL YOU UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUT THE B-17 SIMULATION CONTROLS (see the Training Schools later in this manual). Look left/right in the cockpit using the joystick ‘hat’ or Camera view keys.In addition. • • • Press key A to access the Pilot’s Action view. Press F6 to see the close-up engine dials. If you press key ` (to the left of keyboard key 1) the Bombardier will be highlighted. This will take you to the Engineer/Top Turret Gun compartment next to the bomb bay. We’ve already seen the Pilots’ Compartment (see earlier) so let’s continue with the tour. Now let’s have a tour of the different crew positions. Bombardier Navigation Cheek Gun Pilot Co-Pilot Engineer/Top Turret Gun Radio Ball Turret Gun Left Waist Gun Right Waist Gun Tail Gun Press keyboard key 1 and you will jump to the Nose Compartment. F6. F8 and F9). • Return to the Pilot’s Compartment view (key C or use the View Menu panel). Press F7 or F8 to see the close-up Pilot’s dials/switches.
you have jumped immediately into the Ball Turret Gunner’s Action view.Note: Because of his position the Engineer/Top Turret gunner is obscured by the bombs and is not shown fully. Press key M to take over control and try firing the machine guns. Select keyboard key zero 0 and key A to view the Tail Gunner’s action view. and go to his Action view (key A or View Menu panel third icon down). • • • The last compartment is where the Tail Gunner lives. Turret gunner’s position close to the feet of the Right Waist Gunner. • • Press the Action view (key A) and you will see the Top Turret view. Notice the realistic tracer path but do not shoot at your own aircraft! • • You will now see the two waist gunners with an almost obscured highlight of the Ball. Now return to the Compartment view by pressing key C. You will be in position in front of the machine gun. but you can just see his legs highlighted. At the top of the screen is a Crew Portrait pop-up panel that allows you to jump to any member of the crew by clicking on his portrait. You’ve already seen the Radio Operator’s Compartment (key 6) so try pressing key 7 and note that because you were in the Top Turret Gunner’s Action view. 23 . • Now select one of the Waist Gunners (click on one of them or press key 8 or 9). Press key M to take control of the top turret and rotate/fire the guns using your keyboard or joystick. Getting Around There are various ways to navigate around the aircraft positions. Select manual control (key M) and fire the machine gun. Press key C or click on the second icon down on the View Menu panel to see the Compartment view. 1.
The Navigator will be highlighted to show that he is the selected crewman. Flying (as Pilot) etc. if you see red text message ‘Bandits at 6 o’clock. However there will be times when you will be prompted to perform a task (such as during an enemy fighter attack) to man the machine guns etc – in this case Red Text will appear when the message is heard. At the bottom of the screen is a panel that pops-up only in Compartment View that allows you to jump into the six B-17 compartments. This will be shown at the bottom of the screen in ordinary text.). Bomb Aiming/Dropping. level’ and you click on the text. Warning Red Text Throughout the mission you will hear speech from the crew calling out messages to each other. Now let’s look at where the aircraft is headed and jump to the Navigator’s station. You are currently in Compartment view. You have merely to note what is being said. giving headings (Navigator to Pilot) etc. • Return to the Tail Gunner’s compartment view (key 0 and key C). Either watch the Tail Gunner fire his gun at the enemy fighters or press M to take control and fire the gun yourself. 3. so you will jump to the aircraft nose section (where the Bombardier also lives). 24 .2. If you click on the red text (or press SHIFT + H) you will jump immediately to the action station most associated with that message. • Open the top panel and click on the second portrait from the left – this is the Navigator. For example. To the left of the screen is a Crew Position pop-up panel that allows you to jump to any crew task (Navigation. you will jump to the Tail Gunner’s station in Action view.
Look at the topmost icon (at 12 o’clock). Select the Bombardier by clicking on him (the crewman sitting right in the nose of the Compartment) and he will be highlighted. This will show his desk and instruments: the Radio Compass. All map controls are the same as for the map in the Briefing Room (see above). simply click away. If it’s a Chin Turret. The Bombardier is also the Chin Turret operator when he is not busy with the bombsight. For actual details of manual bombing see the Bombardier School later in this manual. The solid line is coloured green when there is ample fuel left. but for now let’s look through the sight.• • Press key I to access the Navigator’s Instrument view. amber if the fuel status is becoming critical and red if the fuel is calculated to run out. 25 . its projected course (a broken blue line) and its actual course across the map (a solid coloured line). Click on the Map (on the left of the screen). the Drift Meter (see later) and the Map. You may have to get him to change from Chin Turret to Bombsight. • • Exit the Map screen by pressing key C to go to the Compartment view. • Press the Action View key A. • Now press the Instrument key I to view the Norden bombsight. but if you were to fly Easy or Historical navigation complexity you would have to adjust position by constantly referring to the map and what you can see outside (see the Navigator School later in this manual for details). or press the Spacebar. In this case right-click on him to open the Icon Rose. This map is very similar to the Mission Briefing map but it also has a track of the plane’s position (a green aircraft icon at the correct height and an aircraft shadow to show its position across the ground). and you will jump to the Map screen. You are flying on Flawless Navigation level so the actual course flown by the aircraft will not differ from the mission briefing. This is a complex piece of equipment that Bombardiers use to locate and lock on to targets as long as the correct data is input properly. You will be looking at the ground (or the sea) through the bombsight. if this is a bombsight left click on it and he will change jobs.
This is the straight line run to the target.In this tutorial you will not drop bombs manually. Check this on the Navigator’s map. Use the mouse with left/right buttons pressed in to view the target from various angles or zoom. When they meet. The view will then switch automatically to the bomb bay where you will see the bombs dropping. the red release light will come on and the bombs will be dropped. Throughout the mission the Navigator will give the Pilot instructions about new turn headings and waypoints and the pilot will respond. You’ll notice two marker blocks on the right of the bombsight that are slowly approaching each other. Now control of the aircraft is passed to the Bombardier. Press F1 to return to the Bomb Bay. You’ve now looked at all the B-17 positions. Why don’t you take a flight in one of the many fighters available in the simulation? 26 . Accelerate Time You can also accelerate time by pressing the Home key (3 levels of speed up) or slow down time by pressing the End key (3 levels of slow down). You may hear him call out “We’re on the bomb run” or “I have the plane”. You need do nothing in this guide but let them get on with it! Eventually you will reach the last turn before the target (the Initial Point). You might have to be patient here depending on the length of the bomb run but watch carefully as the target is sought out by the AI controlled Bombardier. Now make sure the Bombardier is selected and jump into the Bombardier’s Action view (key A). then acquired and locked into position. Skip Time The simulation allows you to skip large chunks of time by pressing the Return/Enter key but you might not be allowed to ‘skip’ if a game event is happening. you will leave the crew Bombardier to do this for you. • • • When this happens press F6 (to see the bombs in the air) and F6 again to view the bombs hitting the target. • Return to Compartment view by pressing key C.
and made to perform certain actions in emergencies (apply first aid. they can be ordered to bail out! Make sure you’re in the nose section in the Compartment view (you can see the figures of the Bombardier and the Navigator). take over in case someone panics etc. Press key M to take control of the fighter and fly around (be careful and check the keyboard/joystick controls on the Reference Card). 27 . • • • • • Press the camera keys to view the virtual cockpit. levers and joystick. Press F1 to go back into your B-17. Press F1 to enter the cockpit of the fighter. click on the icon to jump to an outside view of the fighter. • • • If there are any friendly fighters around. Crew Management You’ve now looked over the basic areas of the bomber simulation. Press key F2 to go to the outside view (you’ll still be in control!) Press key M to return to AI control. Depending on their level of initiative set up. • • Your B-17 will be centred in the middle of the screen.• Press key F2 to get an exterior view of the B-17. hover your mouse pointer on the extreme right side of the mid-screen. In the Squadron Commander game you can select all six bombers. Return to your B-17 by accessing the B-17 icon in the pop-up panel. Take a moment to examine the detailed cockpit and fully functioning dials. your fighters (if there are any on your mission) and the enemy fighters types (if there are any around). If all else fails. only one bomber can be selected out of the six in the squadron. This area will show a pop-up menu with a white icon representing your B-17. In Bomber Commander mode. unjam guns. To access the fighters.). Now let’s look at aspects of crew management that you’ll need to know when things get rough and you experience casualties or emergencies such as fires. crew can be told to takeover other crew positions.
• Place your mouse cursor on a few of the icons and read the pop-up tooltips associated with these icons. Remember to put out fires as soon as you get a warning (or see smoke). Fire is your worst enemy aboard the B-17! The Bombardier also has control of the Chin Turret that’s located just under his bombsight station. • Right click on the Bombardier and open the icon rose. If you select Give First Aid and you see a portrait (or portraits) with a red cross on – that means there is a crewman who requires first aid. Place your mouse cursor on the Bombardier and right click. If you click on the central icon the instruction will change (Give First Aid. The central icon will be the Move To (walking man) order (if it isn’t then right click on it until it is). Icon Rose This will open an ‘Icon Rose’. Use. Now.• • Select the Bombardier by clicking on him and check that he is highlighted. All the icons in the circle are instructions you can issue to individuals. This is useful when he has completed the bomb run and can function as a defensive gunner on the dangerous journey back home. let’s change his ‘job’ to that of a chin turret gunner. 28 . Click on the injured crew portrait and the selected crewman will go to him and help. Repair. • Move your mouse cursor to the top of the ‘rose’ and click on the Chin Turret icon (the pop-up tooltips will confirm this) and left click. The central icon is the instruction you are issuing (such as ‘Move To’ a different position). all 10 crew in the B-17 can be given these types of orders (but they do vary depending on the job). If there is a fire additional icons with pop-up tooltips will show which fire extinguishers can be used in what compartments. Bail Out etc).
• • • Press key A to access the Chin Turret Action view and you will see the chin turret sight. and nine o’clock on the left etc. Here in manual mode you could also use the Pilot Helper key (key H). This is a good opportunity to try out the Gunners’ stations and to get an understanding for the zones around the B-17 that each Gunner can defend.The Bombardier will now move the chin turret controls over the bombsight. with what you’ve already learnt. When the B-17 has landed the green cone will help you taxi back to the hardstanding dispersal point you will be taken to the Mission Debriefing hut. Level means level with the aircraft high and low are relative to the B-17’s level flight. This will show a cone that you should fly towards to get to your base and to the landing runway. Gunners will call out bandits on the Clock System with 12 o’clock in front of the aircraft. you can attempt to unjam them in the following way: • • • Return to compartment view (key C). you may be attacked by fighters or flak. 29 . Press key M to get manual control of the Chin Turret and fire off a few rounds. Right click on the icon in the middle until you see the ‘Repair’ spanner and click on the ‘Unjam’ guns icon that appears above it. if the guns jam. Note: The Norden Bombsight icon will have replaced the chin turret icon in the topmost position of the icon ‘rose’. Again. six o’clock behind. • Double-click on the Mission Debriefing file to view details of your recent mission performance (click on the page to turn it). try to make the Bombardier return to his Bombsight. This is a dangerous time when all gunners have to be alert. except in ‘flawless’ Navigation complexity. Right click on the gunner figure to open his ‘Icon Rose’. Unless something happens to the Pilot. Mission Debriefing At the end of the mission the aircraft will be landed. Here you’ll find all details of the mission analysed and you may be informed of any medals and promotions. your Navigator will need to check the map to the actual geography. Be careful not to shoot at your own aircraft in the formation and note that. Returning Home After releasing their bombs the aircraft will go to the Rally Point and then take the route marked on the mission map home (check this on the Navigator’s map view). the B-17 will be flown back to base and landed. Now.
Click on the right hand button (Save the Current Game). Click on the Load/Save Menu (the floppy disc icon) and flip the continue switch (lower right). Flip the switch (lower left) to resume the game. • • Select New Game. Select <New File> and type in a name for the file in the panel. This will open the Options screen. • • • • Look at the panel at the top of the screen to access a training mission topic (you can scroll down the list by clicking on. Scroll this panel to read full details of what you have to do. The Training Missions If you have completed the tutorial. Select the training topic you want to practice and the mission brief or set of tasks will be shown in the lower panel. holding down and dragging the right hand slider). Flip the Continue switch (lower right) to jump into a Training Mission. press ESC. you will have already been on a complete mission and had a quick taster of action. the game provides a set of Training Missions (use of bombsight etc. to improve these skills.). You will be taken into the 3D world so that you can perform the training exercise without risk to life and limb. The more complex levels of the simulation however depends on your own skills and so.Saving the Game • • • • • • To save the game at this point. Select Choose a Training Mission (the middle panel on the right) and you will go to the mission selection screen. Return to the Options menu (flip switch lower left). 30 . Remember to have the Reference Card to hand when attempting these missions.
Mission 2: Approach and Landing You are on approach to the main runway of the airfield. 1. You will need to follow the correct approach and ease the bomber onto the runway. Unlock your Tailwheel (Shift + T). 2.Insert key). 1. You will not be able to see much of the runway from the pilot’s position (just like the real thing) so you’re advised to stay in outside view when manoeuvring the B-17 to the runway. It’s here that you will learn basic ground handling skills and take off procedures. Locate the main runway where you will land (it should be lined up in front of you). Use the external camera views for maximum visibility. 31 . 7. ease it gently into the air and perform a shallow climb. Use all camera views (especially the zoom in/out functions) to see where the main runway is. 10. Raise flaps (key F). wheel brakes set and flaps fully lowered. Throttle up full using keyboard or joystick controls. 4. 6. lock your tail wheel (T). Drop your landing gear (Shift + Up Arrow). 3. 4. Throttle slowly up (+). Lower flaps (Shift + F). Wheel Brakes Off (Delete key) and as the aircraft speeds up over the runway. All engines are running.right using the Rudder controls (keyboard or joystick).Mission 1: Taxi and Take Off Your aircraft is on a hardstand at an airfield with engines running. Raise all landing gear (Up Arrow). The four engines will start automatically. 5. This is simply an exercise in taxiing the B-17 to the main runway and then carrying out a take off. gear and flaps are fully raised. • Press key M to take control. The mission ends once you’ve landed and brought the aircraft to a complete halt.000 feet pull in your gear and raise your flaps. 2. The mission will end once you get to 1. 9. Stop at the top of the main runway (Wheel Brakes On . 3. • Press key M to take control. You are in the Pilot’s seat behind the controls of the B-17 as it turns onto final approach. Ease up on the all engine throttles. Move very slowly and steer left. 8. 5.
6. Glide in to the runway and land all three wheels. 7. Cut throttle as plane rolls (- minus key). 8. Put Wheel Brakes on (Insert key) to stop aircraft moving.
Mission 3: Feathering/Restarting an Engine
An engine that is not feathered when it has stopped will add severe drag. This could cause a fire or even break the propshaft, so it’s very important to learn how to feather an engine. You are flying above the airfield at an altitude of 5,000 feet and airspeed of 155mph (IAS). The engines are running, gear and flaps are fully raised. You must feather engine number 1 and then restart it, all while maintaining speed and altitude. If you drop below 1,000 feet you will fail this mission. • Press key M to take control. 1. Go to the Pilot’s Instruments view in the cockpit (key I). 2. Click on the large, round red button marked “1”. 3. Find the fuel system switches above the pedestal and turn off the left-most column. 4. Click and move the TurboSupercharger and Throttle to zero for Engine 1. Number One Engine should now be feathered. 5. Locate the fuel system switches above the pedestal and turn on the leftmost column. 6. Click on the large, round red button marked “1”. 7. Set the throttle and Turbo speeds to match the other three engines. At this point the engine should start.
Mission 4: Bombing – Good Conditions
In this mission you must locate the target and release the bombs as accurately as possible. You will be the Bombardier just at the beginning of the bomb run. The Norden bombsight is already configured with altitude and speed correctly. Altitude is 8,000 feet, and airspeed 155mph (IAS). All engines are running well, gear and flaps are fully raised. The weather is good, altitude is low and there is no flak or fighter opposition to worry about.
Press key M to take control.
1. Wait for the Bombardier to indicate he is on the bombrun. Then press key A to go to Bombardier’s Action View (you will be looking through the bombsight). 2. Enter “Search Mode” by using SHIFT + K (a light will come on). 3. Use your joystick to locate the target, place the crosshair over the target and then hit SHIFT + K to ‘lock’ the target. 4. The Sight starts in DRIFT tracking mode. Moving the joystick left adjusts the angle of Drift to the left – the target will begin to drift more to the right of the sight picture. Moving the joystick right will alter the angle of Drift to the right – the target will begin to drift more to the left of the sight picture. 5. Press key N to enter the RATE tracking mode. Moving the joystick up makes the rate track more slowly, so the target will move towards the bottom of the sight picture. Moving the joystick down will make the rate track more quickly, hence the target will appear to move back up towards the top of the sight picture. The objective is to freeze any vertical movement of the target. 6. You should adjust DRIFT and RATE until the sight picture shows no movement at all. This is called SYNCHRONISATION, and means the bombsight is correctly allowing for speed, altitude and wind drift. 7. During your alterations, the target may have slipped out from the crosshairs. If you have time, you can enter SEARCH mode, using the SHIFT + K key combination, and place the target directly under the crosshair again. Provided that you have correctly SYNCHRONISED the sight, as described above, the crosshair will remain where you left it. 8. Watch the two markers close towards each other, when they meet the bombs will be dropped automatically by the bombsight – thus ensuring a drop accurate to the millisecond. 9. Watch bombs release from bay and then press F6 to view down from inside the bomb bay and F6 again to view target from ground level (use mouse left button to zoom in and right hand button to move around target.
Mission 5: Bombing – Poor Conditions
In this mission you must fly a mission to a target and bomb it. The weather is more overcast and more like normal European cloud cover. The altitude is 18,000 feet, which is average for a run on a defended target, but there is no flak or fighter opposition. The bomber mission starts just before the Initial Point of the bomb run so you must carry out the full calibration of the bombsight.
Press key M to take control.
1. Press the spacebar to go to the Bomb Panel. 2. Click Bomb Indicator button ON. 3. Click ON – Bomb Bay Doors, Bomb Arming and Autopilot switches. 4. Press spacebar to return to Norden bombsight view. 5. Wait for the Bombardier to indicate he is on the bomb run. Then press key A to go to Bombardier’s Action View (you will be looking through the bombsight). 6. Enter “Search Mode” by using SHIFT + K (A light will come on). 7. Use your joystick to locate the target, place the crosshair over the target and then hit SHIFT + K to ‘lock’ the target. 8. The Sight starts in DRIFT tracking mode. Moving the joystick left adjusts the angle of Drift to the left – the target will begin to drift more to the right of the sight picture. Moving the joystick right will alter the angle of Drift to the right – the target will begin to drift more to the left of the sight picture. 9. Press key N to enter the RATE tracking mode. Moving the joystick up makes the rate track more slowly, so the target will move towards the bottom of the sight picture. Moving the joystick down will make the rate track more quickly, hence the target will appear to move back up towards the top of the sight picture. The objective is to freeze any vertical movement of the target. 10. You should adjust DRIFT and RATE until the sight picture shows no movement at all. This is called SYNCHRONISATION, and means the bombsight is correctly allowing for speed, altitude and wind drift. 11. During your alterations, the target may have slipped out from the crosshairs. If you have time, you can enter SEARCH mode, using the SHIFT + K key combination, and place the target directly under the crosshair again. Provided that you have correctly SYNCHRONISED the sight, as described above, the crosshair will remain where you left it. 12. Watch the two markers close towards each other. When they meet, the bombs will be dropped automatically by the bombsight, thus ensuring a drop accurate to the millisecond. 13. Watch bombs release from bay and then press F6 to view down from inside the bomb bay and F6 again to view target from ground level (use mouse left button to zoom in and right hand button to move around target.
You will begin in the Top Turret position. 2. Right Waist Gun and Tail Gun. Press [ to select your B-17 and press F1 to return to Chin Turret station. Top Turret. Repeat the above for all gun positions in this order: Chin Turret.000 feet and an airspeed of 150mph IAS. Cheek Gun. • • Select New Game. The Quickstart Missions These Quickstart missions all have limited objectives and are specially designed for a ‘quick blast’ of realistic flight combat action when time is short. Select Choose a Quickstart Mission (the top panel on the right) and flip the Continue switch. You must shoot at a target B-17. Left Waist Gun. When you have succeeded in hitting the B-17 with all guns the mission will end. 3. You will be told in the Debriefing File if you have achieved the required competence. 1. 6. You should experiment with ‘leading a target’ and the effects of range on bullet arcs. All Training Missions will be debriefed. You will be shown a list of missions in the panel at the top of the screen. Scroll down the list (by clicking and dragging the slider on the right) to review all the missions available. When 50 hits are recorded you will not be able to fire anymore and have to move on. It will come up alongside you in various positions to cover all gun positions. Press [ to select the target B-17 and use the Camera keys to look at the colourful ‘damage’. Wait for the target B-17 to appear. Press F2 to get an outside view of the B-17. • Press key M to take control (of Bombardier). You must hit the bomber with 50 rounds from each position but don’t worry about doing any damage – all guns are loaded with special ‘paint’ rounds. Ball Turret.Mission 6: Gunnery You are in the air above the airbase at an altitude of 12. 35 . 4. Aim and fire. 7. 5. The Navigator is in his alternative position on the Cheek gun.
A full formation of B-17’s. Limping home you were savaged by a group of Bf-109’s who were driven away by your faithful fighter escort. bad weather or navigational errors led to the fighters and bombers missing each other. but they will be outnumbered and in many cases the only thing between you and the long drop will be the guns of your formation. Your orders are to sweep the area clean of German fighters. 36 . US losses dropped sharply as the German fighters turned from the hunters to the hunted. A formation of P-51’s is riding ‘shotgun’. A full formation of B-17’s. less one bomber that has been shot down. They have just arrived and none have been engaged so they have their drop tanks and full ammo loads. accompanies your bomber. making them easy meat for you! This is your chance to inflict heavy losses on the bombers and win a battle for the Luftwaffe. Two bombers are already missing from the formation. minus one that has been shot down. damaging you quite badly. in their usual position about 1. accompanies your aircraft. exactly this has happened and the bomber formation must rely on its own guns to drive off the German fighters.000 feet higher than the bombers. however. A passing flight of P-51s reports a formation of Bf-109s to the northeast that they did not engage because of lack of fuel. Mission 4: Opportunity for the Axis (Luftwaffe) The American fighters have been making your job very difficult of late. Over the target you were hit by flak. Finally your fighters have found a formation of B-17 bombers that are unaccompanied by their escorts. In this mission. Mission 5: Fighter sweep over France In this mission you have finished an uneventful escort mission in a flight of P-47s and are now performing a sweep of northern France. This being the only action in the area you turn to engage. From time to time. Luckily you have ‘little friends’ along for the ride.Mission 1: Limping home You are flying a B-17 as part of the low element of your squadron on a mission to Berlin. Mission 3: Where are the ‘Little Friends’? As the war progressed the ‘little friends’ cut a safe path through German airspace for the bomber formations. Mission 2: Attack of the Axis In this mission you must endure a savage attack by German fighters against your formation. You made it home to your airbase and are just performing the flight checks for landing when you realise that your undercarriage has been badly shot up! You now have to plan and execute an emergency landing.
Mission 6: Defence of the Reich (Luftwaffe) The B-17 bombers are coming again and. • Get ready for action! 37 . Formations of Luftwaffe fighters are waiting to savage the bomber stream if you can knock down this advance wave. You will be thrown into the 3D world. You are part of a full formation of Fw-190s. Flip the Continue switch (lower right) to jump into the mission. ready to scramble. • To select a mission click on the name and study the mission briefing (scroll down by clicking and dragging on the slider to the right of the panel). You should be able to do the job with your Fw-190s. already in the air and closing. There is a formation of three Me-262s on the ground. as usual the 8th Air Force is trying to clear the Luftwaffe defenders with an advance sweep of P-51s just before the bombers arrive. but a small formation of flight instructors in jet powered Me-262s is standing by in case you need the help.
Section Three: Reference .
Player Options Click on the icon to get access to Controls. 39 . load in previously saved games and watch the opening sequences again. A red warning light will be lit to show your selection. Continue Switch Once you have made your selection flip the Continue Switch (lower right) to carry on with the game set up. You can also select the icons by clicking and dragging on the on-screen central dial.The Main Menu Screen After the opening sequences you will enter the Main Menu screen. You can also access this Options screen by pressing ESC at any time. This allows you to select Game Options. After the animations are over you will return to this menu. Sound. A red warning light will be lit to show your selection. Graphics and Save Menus. Load Game Click on the icon to load a previously saved game. Difficulty. Quit Switch Click on the Quit switch (lower left) to exit the game. Realism. the type of game you want to play. New Game Click on the icon to play a new game. Replay Intro Click on the icon to view the initial screen sequences.
Some joysticks have extra controls (R-axis or throttle) if these exist on your joystick they will be in force. highlight ‘Activate: (Not Assigned)’ and click. Assigning Joystick Axis If you want to assign a control that’s based on the joystick axis movement. highlight the control (for example Pitch (Nose Up/Down) and. Control Keys Assigned The panel on the left shows a complete list of simulation controls. 40 . Assigning Joystick Buttons To assign a joystick button. Controls Graphics Sound Realism/Difficulty Load/Save The Controls Menu The simulation will automatically detect if you have a joystick attached to your PC and will make this the intelligent default. The software will scan for a control input. If other types of controls are possible (such as Joystick Buttons or Joystick Axis) then these are shown. You can of course re-assign most controls to suit your style of play. Parking Brake On) the panel on the right shows the key or key combination required to activate that item. Sound. in the right hand panel click on the line below ‘Axis’. Press the joystick button you want to use and this will be detected and shown. If you select one of the items (for example. Graphics and Save menus.PLAYER OPTIONS MENU The Player Options menu gives you access to Controls. Difficulty. Realism.
‘Enemy’ Fighter Skill The general opposition fighter pilot skill from Rookie. Customising Control Keys You can also customise the B-17 keys in UNSHIFTED/SHIFT/CTRL/ SHIFT+CTRL combinations in the same way as above. The top panel shows the current state (scroll to view full details). Note: The right hand main panel also allows you to assign other types of controls for appropriate items. Choose from Rookie. Allied fighters etc) from Historical. Fuel Quantity Choose the quantity of fuel on board your aircraft from Historical. Click on an option to select. Click on the line to toggle through the options. Double the historical amount or Unlimited. Click on the lower left hand switch to cancel all control changes. Double the historical amount or Unlimited. Veteran or Elite. • • Click on an item and various options will appear in the lower panel. Realism/Difficulty Menu Click to select levels of Realism/Difficulty throughout the game. Flak Accuracy The general level of German flak concentration against the bomber formation. Move the Joystick forward and back and the central dial should react moving to the extreme left for Down and the extreme right for Up. 41 . The use of other Controllers B-17 should accept any controller supported by Direct Input under DirectX. • • Click on the lower right hand switch to accept the changes and return to the Options Screen. Veteran or Elite. Check the operation of any Axes or Buttons carefully to ensure the game is accepting input in the correct way. Let go of the joystick and this control will be assigned. Ammunition Quantity Choose a quantity of ammo held by your side (B-17 machine guns. Veteran or Elite.Notice that the software is ‘scanning’ for a control input and that the two small panels in the lower left/right of the screen are showing Down and Up. For example Yaw (Rudder Left/Right) has Slow/Medium/Fast Non-Centring or Centring options. Friendly Fighter Skill The general friendly fighter pilot skill from Rookie. Remember you can opt to reverse axes or change how controls handle such issues as speed of movement and centring.
Collision Damage Set parameters for any collision damage your aircraft may suffer. Crew Autonomy Set how much initiative you want your crew to have when not directly in your control from: None Limited Normal Superior – – – – they they they they will will will will show no initiative without your prompting. Weather Severity Set a level for bad weather encountered from Light. Friendly Bullet Strength How effective do you want your machine gun bullets to be? Choose from Historical. Duds are damaged or defective bombs that hit the target but do not explode. General Difficulty Choose an overall difficulty level for the simulation from Low. Norden (Bombsight) Complexity Set how realistic you want your bombsight to react and function from Full Complexity or Simplified. Note: The crews of aircraft not currently possessed by the player in Squadron Commander mode will always count as being on Superior Autonomy. 42 . Easy or Flawless. Moderate or Severe. show initiative in only essential tasks. show above average initiative. G-Force Effects on Pilot Set what level of G-force effects you want acting on the pilots (this applies more to fighter pilots when they are in tight turns) from Accurate. Increased or Double strength. Choose from Ground/Other Aircraft. Historical without Duds/Double the damage without Duds. This setting covers the autonomy of a player-occupied bomber only. Navigation Complexity Set how realistic you want Navigation to be from Historical. Reduced or None. Enhanced or Invulnerable. Ground Only or No Collision Damage. behave like an average crew.Bomb Damage Select the amount of damage your B-17 bombs can inflict on a target from Historical. B-17 Durability How tough do you want your bomber(s) to be? Choose from Historical. Medium or High.
The Graphics Menu The Graphics options allow you to select a suitable set-up for your machine: a ‘Speed’ setting will give you the lowest and less ‘high spec’ machine settings. Balanced or Detail. Environmental Effect This gives a level for items such as Particles. Landscape Textures Choose the landscape texture detail that suit your machine spec from Speed. the bullet pattern will spread again. Click to select the option in the lower panel. This may be useful if you are intending to “spray” the aircraft. • • Click on the lower right hand switch to accept the changes and return to the Options Screen. Special Effects Select a level for in-game special effects such as explosions from Speed. Balanced or Detail. Interior Shadows Interior shadows make the flying experience more realistic. The top panel shows the current settings. 43 . Object Complexity How detailed do you want your 3D game objects? Choose from Speed (the fastest but less detailed level). Balanced or Detail. Click on the lower left hand switch to cancel all control changes. Non-Player B-17s How detailed and numerous do you want the non-player B-17s to appear in-game? Choose from Speed. any damage inflicted will still affect the flight model. Choose from Speed (the fastest but less detailed level).Fighter Gun Convergence Range Select a convergence range for your fighter plane guns between 150 (rookie shot) to 600 yards (good shot). • • Click on an option and details will appear in the lower panel. Choose from Speed. Note: Beyond the convergence range. Balanced or Detail. a ‘Detail’ setting will give you the highest graphic quality and a Balanced setting will give you a cross between the two. Damage Modelling What grade of damage and ancillary damage do you want? Choose from Speed. Note: This controls only the visibility of the damage. Balanced or Detail. Clouds and Smoke effects. Balanced or Detail. Balanced or Detail.
Level 1 to Level 5. Balanced or Detail. Bird Song. Level 1 to Level 5. Ambient Detail What level of ambient sound (Wind. The saved game name will appear in the lower panel. Overall Volume A general setting for all volume levels in the game from Off. Click on the lower left hand switch to cancel all control changes. Speech Volume Select a Speech volume setting from Off. Engine Volume Select an engine volume setting from Off. Click to select in the lower panel. • • Click on the lower right hand switch to accept the changes and return to the Options Screen. Level 1 to Level 5. Saving the Current Game • Type in a name for your current game. Level 1 to Level 5. Bomb and Flak Volume Select Bomb and Flak volume setting from Off. The Load/Save Menu This allows you to Save the current game state or Load in any previously saved games. Foghorns. 44 . The higher panel shows the current state. The Sound Menu Click to select a number of in-game sound options. etc. Mechanical Volume Select a Mechanical objects volume setting from Off. Level 1 to Level 5. • • Click on an option and details will appear in the lower panel. Gun Volume Select a Gun volume setting from Off. • • Click on the lower right hand switch to accept the changes and return to the Options Screen.) do you want Choose from Low. • Click on the right-hand button at the bottom of the screen. Click on the lower left hand switch to cancel all control changes. Level 1 to Level 5. Medium or High.General Quality Set a general overriding level for game 3D graphics from Speed.
45 . The Game Options screen allows you to select what sort of mission or campaign you want to take part in. • • Click to select and it will appear on the top panel. Plan your own missions to fulfil a long-term strategy and use reconnaissance opportunities to strike at key enemy installations as they are developed. The Game Options Screen Quickstart Missions Single bomber commander campaign Squadron commander campaign Training Missions Historical Missions • Click on New Game in the Main Menu screen. meaning that you will have to complete the 25 missions for the scenario time period you are flying: The Bomber Commander Campaign Click on the top left icon (one aircraft) to participate in a full tour campaign in command of just one bomber and its ten-man crew. Command the bomber and crew throughout the entire period of the tour.Loading Games The lower panel shows a list of saved games. Your ultimate goal is to get everyone to complete their tour of duty and back to the US as quickly and safely as possible! The Squadron Commander Campaign Click on the lower left icon (multi-aircraft) to participate in a full tour campaign as the Commander in charge of a squadron of B-17s. each one with a complete ten-man crew. Define your crew’s success with medals/promotions. and nurture your ten ‘flyboys’ to get the best out of everyone from rookies to veterans. Click on the Load a Saved Game button (on the left). As in the previous menu screens you can either click on the icon or on the dial. A red warning light indicates your selection and you must click on the Continue switch to implement your choice. The Campaign Game Playing a Campaign Game will give you a complete tour of duty.
flip the Continue switch and you will go to the Quickstart mission screen. The left hand switch will return you to the Game Options screen. The Training Mission Click on the middle icon on the right of the Game Options screen if you want to carry out a Training mission. Click on the lowest icon on the right to play a choice of historical missions. The red light will confirm your choice. You are a career officer in this campaign – your ultimate goal is progression up the chain of command. Now. Flip the Continue switch (bottom right) to go to the Historical Mission screen. The top panel on this screen shows a scrollable list of six ‘real’ historical missions. Play a Historical Mission Historical Missions are actual missions flown during the real bomber campaign. These allow you to jump into the simulation for specific and limited single missions. You will be taken into the 3D world so that you can perform the training exercise without risk to life and limb. Flip the Continue switch on the right to go into the mission. Quickstart missions represent definite areas of experience within the broader scope of a mission. See earlier in the manual for full details. This is achieved by managing your Squadron as effectively as possible. 46 . Training Missions or specific Historical Missions. The Quickstart Mission Click on the top right icon to launch a Quickstart mission. The left hand switch will return you to the Game Options screen. click on its name and read the briefing (scroll down by clicking and dragging on the slider to the right of the panel). You can choose between Quickstart Missions. you will be debriefed on your performance. Now flip the Continue switch (on the lower right of the screen) to access the Training mission screen. The red light will indicate your choice. as no further briefing will be given! When the situation has passed. (See earlier in this manual for full mission details).Manage your bombers and their crew using all your available resources to best effect. The Single Mission Games There are three single mission options available on this menu. You will have to be ready for the situation described in your text. To select a mission. Flip the right hand Continue switch to jump into the selected training mission.
three of the Group’s Fortresses failed to return. As it was. On this mission flak wasn’t so troublesome. Mission Four: Frankfurt on 29/01/44 On the 29th of January 1944 the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) targeted the industrial centre of Frankfurt. thanks to the escort provided and. Mission Two: Osnabruck on 22/12/43 On the 22nd of December 1943 the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) set off for Osnabruck to attack its vital industrial centre. but the 381st had more than its fair share of fighter attention.Mission One: Bremen on 20/12/43 On the 20th of December 1943. but one bomber fell to flak before the group got back home. The target was largely obscured by cloud. the 381st managed not to lose a single bomber. Through bad weather the fortresses dropped their bombs on target and turned for home. 47 . The target was Bremen. the flak was very intense. the 381st made it back home with no losses. but this time it was to be a rather different story. Due to excellent escort fighters. even with the heavy flak. a feared target due to its numerous flak batteries. and the result of the bombing was believed to be good. Mission Six: Hamburg on 18/06/44 On the 18th of June 1944 the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) broke from its pattern of hitting ‘invasion priority’ targets and was sent to bomb Germany’s oil industry centre in Hamburg. Mission Three: Ludwigshafen on 07/01/44 On the 7th of January 1944 the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) set off to the vital industrial centre of Ludwigshafen on the bank of the Rhine River. victims of the punishing flak. the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) had a tough assignment. The German defence was described as ‘frequent but not persistent’ with fighter attacks and intense but inaccurate flak. Mission Five: Brunswick on 30/01/44 On the 30th of January 1944 the 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) was sent on a mission to bomb Brunswick. The escorting fighters drove off heavy fighter attacks. but the Group found a hole and achieved success. The group had been there on the previous day and made it back with no losses. Despite this. The Group took off at 08:15 and by the time they made it back to Ridgewell they had lost four bombers. The target was bombed through heavy cloud for the loss of two Fortresses and all agreed that losses would have been higher had the fighter escort not performed so valiantly. The enemy fighters didn’t prove to be too much of a problem.
Delete the existing name with the Backspace key. you can customise each one of your squadron’s aircraft. type in your own choice of name and press Return/Enter. Note: The specific insignia will be shown. When you have made your selection. Click on the Continue switch (lower right) to go to the Bomber Crew Screen. Start between December 1st 1943 and February 10th 1945. you will see a list of ‘nose art’ names. 48 . You will be debriefed on your return from the mission. Bombardment Group/Squadron Screen If you have chosen to play a Single Bomber Campaign you will be taken to this screen to choose your Bombardment Group (left panel) based at different airfields and Squadron (right panel). Your B-17 will now be painted with your choice of nose art. New Bomber Name The top panel shows a default B-17 name. The game will play as if you had been assigned this mission as part of a regular campaign. Choose Nose Art On the left-hand side of the two central panels. Use the scroll button to view the rest (if necessary) and click on your choice. click on the Continue Switch (lower right) to go to the Customise Bomber screen. click on it to access a text cursor. If it’s a mission you want to undertake. Click on one of the names and you will see the nose art in the right hand panel. Select the Group/Squadron you want from the list. Campaign Start The lowest panel on this screen shows when the campaign will begin. flip the Continue switch to go to the Mission Briefing room (see Mission Briefing below). Customise Bomber Screen It’s here where you can personalise your B-17 by giving it your choice of name and nose art. Click on the date to alter the start date of the campaign. If you are playing the Squadron Commander game. To change a name.Click on a mission name and study the mission details in the lower panel.
All portraits will change but any crew already named by you will retain their identities – gaining new faces. Return to Previous Screen Switch Flip the Return to Previous Screen switch (left) if you want to change any previous selection. Click on the name in the two display panels. delete it using the Backspace key and re-type your choice of name (first name and surname) then press Return/Enter. Your choice of crew names will be used throughout the campaign.Bomber Crew Screen If you have chosen to play a Single Bomber Commander Campaign you will be taken to the Bomber Crew screen. Continue Switch When you have made your choice flip the Continue Switch (lower right) to enter the HQ Corridor. This shows portraits of all 10 crew that are now your responsibility. Renaming the Crew You can rename any or all members of your crew. clicking and dragging the Selector Dial Indicator will also perform crew selection. Replace Entire Crew In the middle of the screen you will see a red button that allows you to replace the entire crew line up. The crew from top left to top right are: Bombardier Navigator Pilot Co-Pilot Engineer/Top Turret Gunner The crew from bottom left to bottom right are: Radio Operator Ball Turret Gunner Left Waist Gunner Right Waist Gunner Tail Gunner By clicking on each portrait you see his name in the display panel. Selector Dial As in most B-17 Flying Fortress menu screens. 49 .
The Squadron Commander’s Office – the furthest door on the right (for the Squadron Commander only).the windows. The Bomber Commander’s Office – the furthest door on the left (for the Bomber Commander only). By clicking on the individual bombers (or the dial). you will enter the HQ Corridor. Squadron Crew Screen The Squadron Crew screen is similar to the Bomber Crew screen (see above) but it also has an extra panel that shows all of the aircraft in your squadron formation.Squadron Bomber Names/Nose Art If you are playing the Squadron Commander Campaign you will be able to name and customise each bomber in your squadron. When you have made your choice flip the Continue Switch to enter the HQ Corridor. This is the planning hub of the airbase. When you have made your choice flip the Continue Switch to enter the Squadron Crew screen. The Briefing Room – the nearest door on the left. or generate entirely new crews. The HQ Corridor Bomber Inspection Bomber Commander’s Office Briefing Room Operations Room Squadron Commander’s Office Once you have made all your game selections. 50 . rename them. which will allow you access to the following areas: Bomber Inspection . The Operations Room – the nearest door on the right (for the Squadron Commander only). you can access the entire 10-man crew for each bomber.
select strategic targets. Map Controls You can scroll around the map by using either the mouse and/or the keyboard. 51 . The Map – Planning the Mission First. • Tilt and rotate the map by holding down the Shift key plus the right mouse button and moving the mouse. where you can send out reconnaissance missions.The Operations Room The Operations Room will only be available when you have chosen to play the Squadron Commander campaign game. • Left click the map on the Ops room table to open the Operations Map screen. This will give you an idea of the area in which the Squadron will be operating and the number of strategic targets you currently have information about. let’s have a look at the operations map. Here you can also set mission altitude and the type of bombs to be dropped (for best target effectiveness). check what S2 (Intelligence) has to say about them and plan your bombing route using waypoints to avoid as much flak and enemy fighters as possible. This is the where all mission planning takes place. Mouse Control: • Move around the map by holding down the right mouse button and moving the mouse.
Purple Aircraft – these three icons allow you to set up Reconnaissance Missions. Fine-tune all the above map control movement by holding down CTRL as you press the keys. Yellow Bomb – this will designate a Tertiary Target for the mission (if appropriate). Red Bomb – this will designate the Primary Target for the mission. The Map Icons At the top of the map screen are a number of icons that will allow you to assign targets. Orange Bomb – this will designate a Secondary Target for the mission (if appropriate).Numeric Keypad Controls: Use numeric keypad ‘Ins’ and ‘Del’ to rotate the map horizontally left and right. The Map Symbols The map shows standard features such as: Urban Areas Lakes Rivers Forests Minor and Major Roads Railways 52 . All 3D buildings shown on the map represent the targets currently available. Use numeric keypad 9 and 3 to rotate the map vertically (from 0° to 90° degrees). Use numeric keypad 8 and 2 to move the map forward and backwards. Use numeric keypad 4 and 6 to move the map left and right. Gold Pyramid – this will set the vertical heights of any Waypoint. set waypoints and reconnaissance missions. Use numeric keypad + and – to Zoom In/Out. Red Arrow – (once a target is assigned) will set a waypoint horizontal position.
Factory Icon – Target location. • Setting up a Bombing Mission Target Intelligence: • Study the map and the targets carefully. Setting up a Reconnaissance Mission Reconnaissance missions will provide you with more accurate information about a potential target so it’s important (if you are the Squadron Commander) to request recon missions of the next set of potential targets before sending the whole squadron on a full mission. you will have access to film footage of it in the Briefing Room.It is also marked with Allied fighter (White Star) and bomber (Grey-out Star) Airbases. hold down the left mouse button and drag it above a potential target. 53 . hold down the left mouse button and drag the bomb on to the target icon and release. Note: If you are playing the Bomber Commander recon footage will be shown to you automatically for the current mission primary target. A recon mission will provide target details for the next mission and if one of those targets is chosen as the Primary. Dark Red Circles (or arcs) – areas of heavy flak concentrations. Luftwaffe airbases (Blue filled circle) The following is important mission information: Light Red Circles (or arcs) – areas of light flak concentrations. Check all available details in the Target Intelligence File (see below). and then decide where you think your Squadron would be most effective. Blue Circles (or arcs) – areas that have strong enemy fighter concentrations. Press ESC to exit the Map screen. You could also set a Tertiary Target (if a third target is also close). Recon missions will also give you black and white film of the target for the Mission Briefing (see below). click on the red bomb at the top of the map screen. The map also shows the shifting front line (thick red line) throughout the years of the campaign. The Primary Target: • To assign a Primary Target. • Decide on the Primary Target and choose a Secondary Target close by (in case the Primary is unavailable or obscured). • Click on the purple aircraft icon. make sure it is shown on the map. Red Circles (or arcs) – areas of medium flak concentrations.
The route will be a blue broken line route from your airbase. The Secondary Target: To assign a Secondary repeat the above procedure using the orange bomb icon on your choice of Secondary Target. Setting Waypoints: Apart from your home airbase and the assigned targets. To add a target to this file. Periodic reconnaissance flights are needed to keep target information current. the target will be included for as long as the information you have remains current. Remember that. including ground location and waypoint/bombing height. click on the bomb icon and drag it up away from the ground until it disappears. you can adjust all other aspects of waypoints. press ESC to exit the Map screen and return to the Operations Room. make sure it is assigned to a reconnaissance flight (see above) and fly your next mission. the initial point and rally point. via several waypoints (red arrows) at appropriate heights (gold pyramids) to the Initial Point (the last turn before the bomb run). click on the red arrow. • • To move a waypoint. To de-select a target. When you return. hold down the left mouse button and drag it to its new position. Note: Intelligence is only provided for targets that have current reconnaissance information.The target will now have a small red bomb above it and the suggested mission route will be clearly shown. Easy or Flawless) you might choose to place waypoints on recognisable geographical features so that visual sightings can be made by the Navigator to confirm aircraft position. the Rally Point (the first waypoint and forming up point after the bomb run) and then back home. depending on what Navigation complexity you are playing (Historical. This map is very similar to the Mission Briefing Map and the Navigator’s map on the B-17 (see Navigation below). 54 . you should check all intelligence about the target(s). Tooltips on the waypoint gold pyramid markers will indicate the altitude for any particular waypoint. When you have finished setting waypoints. the target. Intelligence File – Target Details Now you’ve decided on the target(s) for the bombing mission.
The Blackboard If you’ve forgotten which targets you selected in the Map screen. Strategic Priority and Damage Already Inflicted. • So in order to check each of your bombers. When the file opens flip through the targets (if appropriate) by clicking on the right hand page. You will be taken into the 3D world with the selected bomber on its hardstand. Now press ESC to go to the jeep bonnet. Bomber Clipboard The clipboard shows your squadron bomber strength. The page will turn and show the next target. Outside – Inspect the Bombers Before you send your entire squadron on a bombing mission you must first check the status of each bomber and their crew. Each B-17 has the following files associated with it: 55 . Use the camera keys to look around the bomber.• • • Click on the Intelligence File on the right of the desk. • Point to one of the bomber names and left click. • Click on the files to go to read the specific reports. This will give you full details. If this is your first mission it will have no visible damage. Locate your chosen target(s) in the book and check details on: Flak Strength. Click away from the blackboard to get back to the room and continue to study the Target Intelligence File. It would be foolish to send out a badly damaged aircraft or one that did not have a complete crew. click on the office window to get into the jeep to take you on your tour of inspection. Fighter Strength. click away from the File and click on the blackboard at the back of the Ops Room.
You can also assign a crewmember to Ground Duties (for example. • Crew Replacement File • Click on the file cover to open. This file only contains ex-flight crew that you have put there – rookie replacements will always be provided to fill in any gaps but will leave when crew member is recovered. You must click on the signature line at the bottom of the page. If the B-17 is in a bad state of repair you will have to sign it off and ask for a replacement. First Aid and Technical. Navigation. click on the Keys/Hat/Gloves to return to the Clipboard and inspect the other bombers in the Squadron in the same way. • Click on the right hand page to turn the page and you will see more details of the first member of the crew. you might think his morale is too low). • Click on the bonnet to close the file. On the front page is a summary of crew names and their specific positions (marked as Xs) with an indication of other specialist crew positions they could be assigned to successfully. Next Bomber When you have finished inspecting the first bomber. • Click on the bonnet to close the file. Get to know your crew and understand their strengths and weaknesses.Mechanical File • Click on the file to open it. including ‘morale’ and skill levels for the key emergency tasks Gunnery. Click on the bonnet to close the file. Piloting. If you click on the right hand page you will see a form that allows you to order the aircraft to be scrapped for parts and to replace it with a new aircraft. 56 . particularly who would be useful to double up on a crew position and who is good at Technical or First Aid. • Click on the Ground Duties box to make the slash into a cross. Here you will see bomber details including summaries of essential/ recommended repairs and maintenance. Crew Management File • Click on the file to open the file. Bomb Aiming. A rookie will take his place and he will be shown in the Crew Replacement File. This will give you all details about that bomber’s crew.
Both these types of bombs devote more of their weight to heavy casing. From the HQ corridor. • Click on the ‘selected’ column for the B-17s you want to go on that mission (the slash/symbol will become a cross). but your secondary target is not. This will determine what type of bomb load the B-17s will be carrying on this mission. your Primary target is armoured. General Purpose bombs are the most commonly carried ordnance on 8th Airforce missions. sacrificing explosive charge for the ability to penetrate far more steel and concrete. Roughly between General Purpose and Armour Piercing. Semi-Armour Piercing bombs represent a halfway house. Much of their explosive weight has been converted to steel penetrator. return to the Operations room to continue planning the mission. such as Submarine Pens or the largest factories. As a target becomes more armoured. soon the size of bomb required to damage a target becomes prohibitive. Most of the targets can be hit with General Purpose Bombs but some will need Incendiary. so although they inflict massive damage to armoured targets. • Click away from the clipboard to return to the Ops Room. they are used to break open multi-storey buildings and destroy other structures. You will see be shown a list of the bombers available. they represent a good compromise solution if.Select Munitions for the Mission Now you’ll need to select the type of bombs to drop on the selected target(s). click away from the Clipboard to return to the HQ Corridor. Armour Piercing bombs should be saved for heavily armoured targets. Clipboard . for example. This is when Armour Piercing and Semi-Armour Piercing bombs come into play. The other bombers not chosen will have crews who are being rested or are too badly damaged to take part (after a number of missions). Ordnance . • Click on the Ordnance File (the book in the middle of the desk) to open the Mission Ordnance Selection.Choose Bombers for the Mission • Click on the left-hand clipboard to assign the 6 aircraft for the bombing mission. GP bombs come in a variety of sizes – in general harder targets require larger bombs.• When you have finished inspecting all the B-17s. Armour Piercing or Anti-Personnel ordnance. Also known as “Demolition” bombs. they have little explosive radius in relation to their overall weight. 57 . General Purpose bombs achieve less and less. and you wish to hedge your bets.
targets. aircraft shot down. Crew Information File • Click the book on the left to see a complete dossier of all crews in the Squadron. before you leave the Ops Room check the Blackboard on the back wall of the Ops Room to remind yourself of the basic mission details. injuries incurred and medals awarded. • • Click away from the blackboard to return to the Ops Room. • Click on a tab to open at the marked point. where they cause casualties amongst vital personnel and can hinder the clean up process.As well as the explosive bombs. Bombers are ‘tabbed’ along the edge of the file. • Click away to shut the book.) If you have chosen to play the Squadron Commander campaign game. mechanical status. • Click away to shut the book. there are other types that the 8th Airforce uses to good effect in its campaigns. bomb damage inflicted. where flammable objects can burn for many hours after a raid. Anti Personnel cluster bombs are especially useful against airbases and troop concentrations. 58 . In-tray ‘Read New Mail’ The ‘in-tray’ is where you will read all new mail that relates to the latest mission flown by your bombers and crew. • Click away from the file to return to the Ops Room Blackboard – View Mission Summary Finally. All information is contained in files arranged on the desk or on the bookshelves. The Squadron Commander’s Office (The furthest door on the right. Out-tray ‘Read Old Mail’ • Click on the ‘out-tray’ to examine old mail about previously completed missions. Incendiary bombs are especially useful in areas such as Oil Refineries or Factories. this is where you come to for complete information about your bomber squadron. enemy aircraft ‘kills’. • Click on the sheets of paper to view details of missions flown. • Click on a tab to open at the marked point. Click on the left hand door to return to the HQ Corridor. Bomber Information File • Click the book in the middle to open the bomber dossier for all B-17s in the Squadron. Different bombers are ‘tabbed’ along the edge of the file.
• Click away to shut the book.Medical File The Medical File (on the right of the desk) shows the list of personnel wounded in action and details of when they can return to the aircraft or be given a possible discharge. This office is where you keep all information about your specific bomber.you do not have a high enough rank. • Click on the left hand door to return to the HQ Corridor. Inspect the B-17 • Click on your office window to take the jeep to inspect your bomber and access the Bomber Crew Management Files where you can assign personnel in correct or different positions. you will have access to the Bomber Commander’s Office (the furthest door on the left). bomb damage inflicted. Crew positions are ‘tabbed’ along the edge of the file. 59 . • Click the Keys/Hat/Gloves on the jeep bonnet to exit the screen and return to the HQ Corridor. your crew. In-tray ‘Read New Mail’ The in-tray is the place where you read your new mail that’s relevant to the latest mission flown by your bomber and crew. you will not be able to go to the Operations Room or the Squadron Commander’s Office . Out-tray ‘Read Old Mail’ • Click on the out-tray to read details of previously completed missions. It deals specifically with your bomber but in most other respects is similar to the Squadron Commander’s Office. mechanical status. The Bomber Commander’s Office If you have selected the Bomber Commander Campaign game. he will be moved from this file and be made available for air duties. • Click on the top sheet to flick through details of missions flown. Remember. read any mail (old and new) and where you can go to inspect your B-17. aircraft shot down. When a crew member is fully recovered from being wounded in action. targets. Crew Information File • Click to open complete personnel dossiers for all members of your crew. Details are similar to the Inspect Bombers section from the Operations Room (above). injuries incurred and medals awarded (if applicable). Inspect the Bombers (Window) Click on the window to carry out a full inspection of all your bombers. enemy aircraft ‘kills’.
If you are not playing the Squadron Commander this will be the first time that you will see details of the mission. In a Bomber Commander campaign. Press ESC to return to the Mission Briefing Room. This is where all the details of the mission are revealed to the crews and all the formalities are completed before a mission is undertaken. If the Secondary target has none. The controls are the same as those in the Operations Room. View Route Map Click on the Map on the right of the stage to look at the route to and from the targets. then the Tertiary target will be shown.The Mission Briefing Room Film Reconnaissance View Map Begin the Mission When all preparations have been made (and whether you are playing Squadron or Bomber Commander) you will have to go to the Mission Briefing Room. 60 . then no film will be shown. View Reconnaissance Film Click on the Movie Screen at the centre of the stage to view any reconnaissance film of the target gathered by your Intelligence Section and pay particular attention if you are planning to ‘act’ as bombardier. Reconnaissance film will be shown only for the highest priority target that has current reconnaissance information. • Click on the nearest door on the left of the HQ Corridor to enter the Mission Briefing Room. If the Primary target has no reconnaissance then the Secondary target will be shown. This will show you what the target looks like from the air. Group HQ will ensure you ALWAYS have reconnaissance information for your Primary target. If no targets have reconnaissance information.
then click away from the file and you will return to the Briefing Room. Inside the Aircraft Your Mission Responsibilities The Squadron Commander Taking the role of the Squadron Commander in the simulation is the ultimate test of your abilities. On the final page of the summary you must sign that you have read and understood the briefing. not just when you are flying a mission but at all times. This gives you a full written Mission Summary including: Date of Mission Primary Target Details Secondary Target Details Ordnance Selected Distance to Farthest Target Fighter Escort • Click the page to turn over. • Click on the line to sign. In short. Beginning the Mission Now all preparations are completed you’re ready to get set off on your mission. Engineer. not only to command but also to set in place operations and missions that will have a positive effect on the war effort. Your crew is made up of specialists: Pilot. Each must play a part in an effective combat team who reflect your ability as commander. you are in charge of a B-17 with all the duties and responsibilities that come with a ten-man bomber crew.Read Mission Briefing At the desk in front of you is the Mission Briefing File. You are responsible for the aircraft and the crew. Click on the cover to open it. Click on the door on the far right of the room to leave the Briefing and be taken to the aircraft to start the mission. Navigator. Radio Operator and four Gunners. Bombardier. But all this doesn’t mean you can’t fly the complete mission as the tail gunner (if you so wish) and let the computer control the rest. their safety and efficiency. you must fly the same mission as the Bomber Commander. but also bear the responsibility for 5 other aircraft and 50 other aircrew – in addition to having planned the whole show in the first place! The Bomber Commander In the Bomber Commander game. It’s not just one crew and one bomber you are nurturing but the whole squadron. Co-Pilot. 61 .
You will see your B-17 (or lead B-17) in external view positioned at its dispersal point awaiting orders. If you are playing Squadron Commander the game will centre on an outside view of the lead bomber in the squadron or. 62 . Be aware of their morale. The Crew Let’s take a tour of the B-17 crew positions and compartments. Your crew should be trained to work as a team. you will begin all campaign missions with all your crew inside the bomber in their assigned positions ready for take off. Starting Off Once you have left the Mission Briefing room. On most internal screens you will be able to access the following: Crew Portrait Panel (pop up menu) Hover the mouse pointer at the top of the screen and the Crew Portrait Panel will pop up. If you hover the mouse pointer over a picture you will see a name. To succeed. it will centre on ‘your’ B-17 – the lead bomber. You will begin in the Pilot’s compartment view looking at the Pilot and Co-Pilot. you must have a thorough knowledge of each job and the likely problems that will be encountered. This shows the portraits of the ten crew positioned in the B-17. Take an interest in their problems. if you are playing the Bomber Commander game. • Press F1 to move from exterior view to the B-17 interior view. and need for extra training. their character. • Click on a portrait to select and jump to that crewman. There are several different ways to select your crew and their specific views. ambitions.You must get to know members of your crew. Get to know each one’s duties and any difficulties experienced. capabilities and shortcomings.
Radio Operator. Cheek Gun. Right Waist Gun. Note: Some crew will not have all of these views available to them. the views will refer to the selected crew member (highlighted by a white border). 9. If there are two or more crew shown in the compartment. These are accessible through the Crew Views pop-up menu and keyboard shortcuts. Note: Positions filled by wounded crewmen will also vanish from this panel – making it an excellent way to judge the gaps in your gun coverage. • • Hover the mouse pointer to the left of the screen and the Crew Position Panel will appear showing icons of all ten jobs on board. 4. Click on one of these jobs to jump to the action view for this crew position. 10. 63 . 8. there’s no one manning the Cheek Gun) you will not be able to access it. Aircraft Crew Sight Dial Window Crew Views Panel (pop-up menu) All crew positions in B-17 have a number of different ‘views’ available. This is very useful if you want to jump to different action stations quickly (for example in air combat). Co-Pilot. Note: These positions (plus an eleventh Cheek Gun action position) are also accessible from the keyboard keys: `. 2. • Hover the mouse pointer on the extreme right side of the screen (about mid-screen) and a panel of icons will pop-up that allow you to access those views for a specific crewmember. Ball Turret Gun. Left Waist Gun. Bombardier. 1. 7.Crew Position Panel (pop-up menu) This is another pop-up menu but this time it accesses the B-17 station not the man but if the position is not filled (for example. Navigation. Pilot. 6. 3. Top Turret Gun/Engineer. 5. Tail Gun.
This view is also important when taxiing from the dispersal point to the runway because the pilot’s normal view (Action View) on the ground is extremely limited (as in the real thing!). and instrument work. 64 . They are the senior officers on board and are also responsible for flying the aircraft. The B-17 is a big plane. This is how the Pilot/Co-Pilot can make effective use of their specific Crew views: Aircraft Icon – External View (key F2) The external aircraft view allows you to look around your bomber. Press F1 to return to the internal crew position. The Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) Clicking on the crew icon (or pressing key C) will show the Compartment View. The Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) This will show any ‘instrument’ view and will vary depending on the crewman selected. Note: Additional Instrument Views also exist for some crew that can be accessed by pressing the spacebar. take-offs. Do not allow one pilot to increase in skill to the detriment of the other. effectively allowing you to fly the aircraft from the outside view. For example.it will be controlled by the AI in Computer Mode. landings. for the Gunners it will be the sight/machine gun view etc. The Sight Icon – Action View (key A) By clicking on the sight icon you will enter the Action View for that crewman. more than any one Pilot can handle. Window Icon – Window View (key W) This shows a view of the external world seen by the crewman through the nearest window. This is a general view of the section of the B-17 that your selected crewman is located in. for the pilot this will be looking through the front windshield. The Pilot and Co-Pilot The Pilot and Co-Pilot must be able to take off and land equally well. the Bombardier will have a general view of his Norden bombsight with adjustable dials. There may be another crewman shown but the one selected will be highlighted with a white border. That pilot may get injured or be re-assigned to another position and you may have to rely on the skills of an inferior pilot to get the plane safely back to base. When you jump to external view you need not fly the aircraft . you must make sure the Pilot and Co-Pilot do an equal share of flying. but by pressing key M you will toggle Manual Mode. For example.The Aircraft Icon – External View (key F2) By clicking on the top icon (or pressing key F2) you will jump to the external view of the aircraft and be able to access all the 3D camera controls (see Reference Card).
The compartment view will also show any damage inflicted on that part of the aircraft. The Icon Rose By clicking on any of the position icons shown (in the circle) you can make the Pilot/ Co-Pilot exchange positions with any other crewman. This view also allows you to carry out full crew management. Note: The plane is flown jointly by the Pilot and Co-Pilot and the instruments in front of each are different. In the centre of the menu you can left click on a number of other icons that allow the Pilot/ Co-Pilot to perform other functions: Use Item. All further actions will then concern only the selected crew member. Fire Extinguish. Repair. First Aid. for instance. 65 . if the Pilot is injured and you want him to change places with the Co-Pilot (or any other crew member who can fly the aircraft). the Icon Rose. right click on the figure and you will open the main crew management device. They can see out of their own side of the windshield but can also look left and right using Camera keys.Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) This is the general compartment view and allows you to select whether you want to control the Pilot (left seat) or the Co-Pilot (right seat). or Bale Out. Sight Icon – Action View (key A) The Pilot’s and Co-Pilot’s Action View is the view they have out the front of the aircraft. Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) The Pilot’s and Co-Pilot’s Instrument View shows the complete Pilot’s instrument panel with fully working dials and switches (enabling you to fly the aircraft manually if you want to). The flight instrument/dials panel is not seen from this view. Click once on the figure you want to select with the left mouse button (or press the relevant crew key 3 or 4) and he will be highlighted.
Window Icon – Window View (key W) The Pilot/Co-Pilot do not have a separate Window View (see Action View above).So. 66 . F9 – Close Up Co-Pilot’s Engine Start Up and Cooling Instruments. F7 – Close Up Pilot’s Directional Instruments. you may be the Pilot but you will need to ‘become’ the Co-Pilot to fire up the engines because they are on the Co-Pilot’s side. F6 – Close Up Engine Instruments. F5 – Co-Pilot’s Instrument View (general). The Navigator The Navigator must direct your airplane from take off to the target and back again. Even though his work requires accuracy and concentration he must be able to use the . Press key F1 to return. F8 – Close Up Pilot’s Fuel and Electrics Instruments. Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) Shows the nose compartment view of the Navigator (left) and Bombardier (right). Like all compartment views this allows you to perform various tasks by right clicking on the figure and accessing the crew management icons. Once in Instrument View the following additional instrument views come into play: F4 – Pilot’s Instrument View (general). From within the aircraft the Pilot can be accessed with key 3 and the Co-Pilot by pressing key 4. Aircraft Icon – External View (key F2) Jump to the external aircraft view. for example. and must be familiar with bomber systems and learn how to operate turrets and radio equipment. Click once on either figure to select. He must know the precise position of the airplane at every moment that it is in the air.50 calibre cheek-mounted machine gun sited close to his station.
The map is obviously a very important tool for you to use – it’s where you get your information of where you are and how you are progressing on the mission. 270 = West. You must try to align the dotted scale lines (using joystick left and right) so that a fixed ground point will travel along one of them for a period of time. If you correct the drift scale for the Navigator you will be helping to improve the navigator’s skills for future missions. the Navigator’s Map and the Drift Meter.Note: This compartment has two additional positions available: Chin Turret Gunner (usually controlled by the Bombardier) and a Cheek Gun (usually controlled by the Navigator). The Radio Compass has a needle that shows the compass heading of the aircraft: 0/360 = North. The Navigator’s Map All controls and icons are the same as the Operation Room map but with the addition of a third type of target bomb icon (a green one). Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) The Navigator’s Instrument View shows the Radio Compass dial. On his table is the Navigator’s map. This means looking at the terrain and checking where you think you are on the map (for more information check out the Navigation School section). Unless you select Flawless navigation. A course will be plotted to the target. 90 = East. This is accessible by clicking on it and is controlled in much the same way as the as Mission Planning and Mission Briefing maps. Note: When in computer control. Secondary and Tertiary targets being unavailable. and waypoints set up for the bomb run. the Navigator will set the wind drift as best he can. It also details areas of flak concentration and areas of fighter concentration. 180 = South. You can also select this map by pressing the Spacebar from the Navigator’s Instruments view. Sight Icon – Action View (key A) The Navigator’s Action View accesses the Drift Meter that must be used to calculate wind drift. 67 . Then you can read off the wind drift value (in degrees) from the scale to the right. This allows the setting up of ‘opportunity targets’ in the event of Primary. In the Action View you will be looking through the meter. • Click on the bomb icon and drag it over a suitable target on the map. as with every other alternate instrument view. You can use the drift scale value as the initial wind drift value in the bombsight. you will have to concentrate to keep the aircraft on track to and from the target.
2). The Norden bombsight channels data directly into the autopilot and the bomb aimer effectively flies the plane by fine adjustment of the sighting telescope. The base of the sight is gyrostabilised and. The bombardier inputs bomb load and altitude data. The Bombardier The ultimate aim of any mission is effective and accurate bombing of a strategic target. finetuning flying and bomb release is controlled. Sight Icon – Action View (key A) The Bombardier’s Action View is that of the Norden sighting telescope. the sight telescope is almost vertical and the computer calculates that the release angle has been reached. The computer produces course correction signals that are channelled into the pilot’s panel. Press key F1 to return. When the angle is exactly right. and must be thoroughly trained in target identification. During a bomb run the Bombardier looks through a sighting telescope to locate the target. search/release indicators and scales (for details see the section on Bombardier School). the bombs will be dropped automatically. 68 . Mission success depends on the Bombardier and what he achieves in a short space of time over the target. by keeping the telescope on the target. It’s from this view that the search for target.Window Icon – Window View (key W) The Navigator’s Window view is a simple view of the 3D world looking out over the port engines (1. Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) The Bombardier’s Compartment View is the same as the Navigator’s (see above). Aircraft Icon – External View (F2 key) Jump to the external aircraft view. Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) This is a view of the complete Norden bombsight allowing you to input the wind drift details (from the Navigator) and the mission altitude. then sets the telescope sight over the target. a series of electronic contacts are closed and the drop bombs signal lights automatically. aircraft movement information is fed into the sighting computer. When he takes over control of the aircraft on the bombing run he is the ‘commander’ and remains so until he signals ‘bombs away’. all his bombing equipment and instruments. When the bomber is close to the target. The Bombardier must understand his bombsight. The main disadvantage of this sight is that it needs at least 20 seconds of non-deviational flight and loses accuracy if fire and smoke obscure the target.
Hover your mouse pointer over the boxes to see how much ammo remains. He must also be an outstanding gunner. Note: Cheek Gun and the Chin Turret – In the nose section there are also two extra (and key) gun positions. auto pilot and the way the bombs are released (trail or salvo). Click key M to take manual control. Window Icon – Window View (key W) The Bombardier has a clear view from the front of the aircraft through the plexi-glass dome. A good combat Engineer knows his aircraft. The Engineer’s compartment view also allows a view of the bombs and if you’re watching from here when they’re dropped you’ll see them drop off their mountings. traverse left right up down using your controller option (joystick recommended) and fire using your primary button.Bombing Panel (Spacebar) The Instrument View has an additional screen that shows the Bombing Panel accessed by pressing the Spacebar. 69 . Aircraft Icon – External View (key F2) Jump to the external aircraft view. Press key F1 to return. Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) The Engineer is only partially visible in the top left of the screen (it’s easier to see when he’s highlighted in this view). bomb arming. The Cheek gun is to the right side of the nose and is usually operated by the Navigator (where appropriate) and the Chin Turret sits under the plexiglass nose and is usually operated by the Bombardier (where appropriate). He is responsible for all equipment and therefore the lives of all the crew flying in the airplane. Sight Icon – Action View (key A) Selecting the Engineer’s/Top Turret Action View will access full control of the Top Turret twin machine guns. Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) Selecting the Instrument View will access a screen showing the ammo boxes. The Bombing Panel gives you full control over the bomb bay doors. engines and armaments like the back of his hand. The Engineer/Top Turret Gunner Located just behind the flight deck in front of the Bomb Bay is the Engineer/Top Turret station. if one engine seizes up he can direct fuel to the other engines). Press the Spacebar again to return to Instrument View. The Engineer also can regulate the flow of fuel between the four engines (for example.
Window Icon – Window View (key W) The Radio Operator has no Window view. Window Icon – Window View (key W) The Engineer has no Window View. 2) to select and the control switch to carry out the transfer. 70 . 2) and (port engines 1. It’s also advisable for him to gain experience of guns and turrets. This allows the Engineer to move fuel from engine tank to engine tank by clicking on the red levers (starboard engine 1. • Press Spacebar again to return to Instrument View. Note: You can only see the effects of the transfer in the Co-Pilot’s close up Instrument View (key F8). Aircraft Icon – External View (key F3) Jump to the external aircraft view. The Radio Operator The Radio Operator must know everything about his radio equipment. When in manual mode (key M) click on the message to implement it and it will disappear. He must provide position reports. upkeep the tuning of the radio sets and maintain a comprehensive log of Messages Outward and Inward.Fuel Control Panel (Spacebar) The Instrument View has an additional screen accessed by pressing the Spacebar. • Click on the book covers to open the logs. He is the source of all orders transmitted to the crew. Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) A view of the Radio Compartment showing the Radio Operator at work Sight Icon – Action View (key A) A view through the Radio Operator’s window located on the left side of the aircraft Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) A view of the radio set plus the Outgoing Messages log and the Mission Messages log.
Left & Right Waist and Tail) The B-17 is designed to be a defensive gun platform. aim.) Gunners also have an Unjam Guns icon option when a gun is jammed. They must be able to use sights correctly and to fire accurately from all the other gun positions on the aircraft. Gunners should be experts in aircraft identification and familiar with the operation of their machine guns. All Gunners must understand the ‘zones’ covered by their guns and be able to bring the armaments to bear quickly and accurately. As well as the standard Icon Rose orders system (Move To. 71 . Press key M to take manual control of the guns.The Gunners (Ball Turret. move and fire using your controller option. Crew Icon – Compartment View (key C) The Waist and Ball Turret gunners share a Compartment view looking towards the front of the aircraft. Dial Icon – Instrument View (key I) Selecting the Instrument View will access the Ammo screen. the Right Waist gunner on the right. The Left Waist gunner is on the left. First Aid. Aircraft Icon – External View (key F2) Jump to the external aircraft view. Fire Extinguish etc. Leave the mouse pointer over the ammo box and a pop-up message will show how many rounds of ammo remain in the boxes. The way your Gunners perform establishes the effectiveness of the Flying Fortress. The Tail Gunner has his own Compartment View. the Ball Turret gunner is tucked in on the floor between the two (inside his Sperry turret). Sight Icon – Action View (key A) Action View will access full control of the machine gun or guns. Window Icon – Window View (key W) Gunners do not have a separate window view.
Compartment Selection (pop-up menu) When you are in any Compartment view (see above) you can easily jump to any of the other six B-17 compartment views. • Click on the section you want. a red indicator light will confirm your selection and you will jump to that Compartment view. Click on a figure to select. This will open the Compartment Selection pop-up menu showing an outline of the aircraft divided up into the six different compartments. • Hover the mouse pointer at the bottom of the screen. 72 .
Section Four: The Training Schools .
When the lift force on both wings is high enough. The shape of the wing makes the air move faster going over the top of the wing than it does going under the wing. Lift This is what keeps your aircraft in the air. if the realism settings are too high you may never get to the target! An Introduction to the Basics of Flight The Forces The only way to really be in control of your aircraft is to understand the forces acting on it and the way that the control surfaces manipulate those forces. Drag Drag is the resistance that the air puts up to anything that is travelling through it. The amount of lift produced is governed by the angle at which the wings meet the airflow (known as the ‘angle of attack’). There are five basic physical forces that are important to you when flying an aircraft that you must understand in order to be in full command of your aircraft. Faster moving air has a lower pressure than the slower air and the difference in pressure between the bottom surface and the top surface of the wing lifts it up. If there were no other forces acting on your aircraft it would simply stay on the ground. In combination with Thrust this makes the aircraft fly. The design of the wings uses a side effect of the law of conservation of energy. Or. provides forward motion on the entire aircraft. the aircraft is held up in the air. the greater the attraction. Gravity Your airplane and everything in it are attracted to the surface of the Earth. Remember that. The jet engine provides much more thrust than the propeller because the air is taken in through the front intake and the oxygen is burned with fuel creating an exhaust which leaves the engine at great speed.The Training Schools are here to give you detailed instruction on performing the basic functions for each of the ten man crew positions manually. Thrust Thrust provided by the engine (jet or propeller) pushes the air backwards which. Without thrust a moving aircraft will slow down and stop because of the drag of the air around it. The more weight (or mass) on your craft. through an equal and opposite reaction. 75 . if you wish to let the AI control these functions the mission will still be carried out but it may not be as successful without your input.
do not affect all parts of the aircraft equally and this permits the introduction of ‘control surfaces’ that enable you to control those two forces’ effect on the plane. If you push the stick forward the elevators drop down creating an imbalance in the Drag the nose tilts down and this makes the plane dive (lessening the angle of attack). If you pull the stick back. Drag and Lift however. Note: The P-38 has two props which counter rotate (they rotate in different directions) cancelling out each others torque. Thrust is provided by the engine and you can control its level by slowing it down or speeding it up. Roll Roll is the rotation of the aircraft around its length (tipping the aircraft left or right). Yaw Yaw is the rotation of the aircraft around its middle (so if you were looking from above the nose would move left/right and the tail right/left). The Control Surfaces You control the movement of your plane by manipulating the basic forces (see above). The Three Axes Although an aircraft can move in an unlimited number of directions. the elevators go up and have the affect of tilting the nose up making the plane climb (increasing the angle of attack). Elevators These are vertically tilting sections of the horizontal part of the tail. so as the engine turns it transfers some of the torque to the body of the aircraft making the plane try to rotate in the opposite direction as the engine (usually counter-clockwise) making the left wing drop. there are three axes of motion that you can control. Pitch Pitch is the rotation of the aircraft around the line of its wings (tilting the nose up or down). 76 . At low speeds and during landings the pilot must counter this force or it could prove very dangerous. Through Drag they affect the pitch of the plane and the pilot controls them with the forward/back movement of the stick (or column). This coincides with the roll axis of the plane. Gravity always pulls at the aircraft and you cannot affect this.Torque In prop driven aircraft the engine rotates in only one direction.
Use the elevators to increase the plane’s angle of attack and the airflow over the wings changes giving more lift (up to a point) as long as airspeed is high enough. reducing the AoA creates less lift. The faster your plane is moving. resisting a change to its state of motion.Ailerons These are located on the wings and act in the same way as the elevators. When the rudder is moved left/right. so on landing you can approach more slowly or dive to a landing more steeply (because you are moving at a slower speed). Rudder The rudder is located in the back of the vertical part of the tail and through its action on drag affects the yaw of the aircraft. ‘Flaps up’ means retracting the flaps making the plane faster but losing some lift (the plane will drop a little. Beware that too big an AoA without a corresponding increase in airspeed will create turbulence. They can be extended or retracted and are particularly useful when landing. If it is moving in a particular direction at a particular speed. The rudder is used to smooth out turns. lining up an accurate position for firing (in a fighter) and landing or recovering from a spin. In flight. ‘Partial flaps’ are sometimes used on take off to provide extra lift. Generally this lowers the speed at which the aircraft will stall. ‘Flaps down’ means extending the flaps resulting in extra lift (the plane rises). The aircraft will roll as it banks in the direction you moved the stick. Similarly. Wings Your aircraft wings can also be used indirectly as control surfaces to manipulate lift. it ‘wants’ to retain that speed and heading. stall and spin. Inertia If your aircraft is sitting still it wants to stay that way. Moving the stick/column to either side makes one aileron go up and the other go down which means one wing gains extra lift (rises) and the other gets more Drag (drops). Flaps Flaps are located in the backs of the wings. the more inertia it has in the direction of movement and so the engine and control surfaces have to do more work to get the plane to change direction. 77 . inertia tends to make manoeuvres more difficult at higher speeds. the nose ‘yaws’ left/right. increased drag (the plane slows down).
Note: Positive G’s can cause blackouts and negative G’s can cause redouts. To lose altitude (without diving and gaining speed). upward turns cause positive G’s pushing you into your seat. reducing speed and creating less lift making the plane descend gradually. Keep to cruising speed until you need to go into combat. Do not fly at full throttle all the time. you will use up fuel and overheat your engines. Banking To carry out a simple turn. push the stick to either side and the aircraft will roll in that direction redirecting the wings’ lift. Side turns cause transverse G’s pushing you sideways in the opposite direction. So to begin a level climb. the steeper the dive will be (and the faster your airspeed gain). When you change direction you are subject to G’s. 78 . inertia tries to keep you moving in your original direction. To dive. push forward on the stick.G forces are the most obvious problem caused by inertia. By trimming you calibrate the elevators to compensate for lift and the ailerons and rudder to compensate for roll. Level Flight Level flight is achieved when all the forces are in balance and the aircraft moves at a constant speed without changing altitude. Pilots make level flight easier by setting the trim of the aircraft (this is akin to calibrating a joystick). G is the acceleration due to gravity (any acceleration experienced by the plane and pilot). Climbs and Dives To climb. the farther you pull. making the plane bank to that side and turn in that direction. the steeper the climb you get although this depends on the capabilities of your aircraft and your airspeed. downward turns cause negative G’s making you feel lighter. You must add throttle and pull back on the stick. simply cut back on the throttle. Level Climb and Level Descent To gain or lose altitude without changing the pitch of the aircraft is done by changing the amount of lift generated by the wings. By pulling back on the stick you can tighten the turn you are making but you will also lose speed as you turn (nose dips and altitude drops). The most efficient full throttle angle of climb is about 20 degrees above the horizon. Speed will increase and add more lift making the aircraft climb gradually. the farther you push. increase the throttle. pull back on the stick.
Control Keys Flight Controls Pitch (Nose Up) Pitch (Nose Down) Roll (Bank Left) Roll (Bank Right) Yaw (Rudder Left) Yaw (Rudder Right) Flaps Up Flaps Down Steering/Brake Controls Left Steering Brake Right Steering Brake Parking Brake On Parking Brake Off Wheel Brakes On Wheel Brakes Off Tailwheel Lock On Tailwheel Lock Off Landing Gear Controls Landing Gear (All) Raise Landing Gear (All) Lower Landing Gear (Left Main) Raise Landing Gear (Left Main) Lower Landing Gear (Right Main) Raise Landing Gear (Right Main) Lower Landing Gear (Tail/Nose) Raise Landing Gear (Tail/Nose) Lower In-Flight Trim Controls Trim Positive Elevator – Fine Trim Negative Elevator – Fine Trim Left Aileron – Fine Trim Right Aileron – Fine Trim Left Rudder – Fine Key(s) . Most of the flight deck controls are fully functioning and can be clicked.FLYING SCHOOL (PILOT AND CO-PILOT) Note: You can fly/control the aircraft with a combination of keyboard. switched on and operated like the real thing. mouse and joystick. . dragged. Z X B N F SHIFT + F B N P SHIFT + P INSERT DELETE T SHIFT + T Up Arrow SHIFT + Up Arrow Left Arrow SHIFT + Left Arrow Right Arrow SHIFT + Right Arrow Down Arrow SHIFT + Down Arrow CTRL CTRL CTRL CTRL CTRL + + + + + END HOME DELETE PAGE DOWN INSERT 79 . You can also reconfigure most controls for both controllers in the Controls section of the Player Options Menu (see earlier).
8x (Cycle Through) Decelerate Time 2x. 4x. 4x.(or Engine key + -) CTRL + = CTRL + SHIFT + = SHIFT + L (or Engine key + L) K (or Engine key + K) J (or Engine key + J) M Home End Pause Return CTRL + Return ] [ Backspace 80 . 8x (Cycle Through) Pause (Toggle) Time Skip Mini-Time Skip Jump to Next Plane (in sequence) Jump to Previous Plane (in sequence) Jump to Own B-17 Q W E R A (or Engine key + A) S (or Engine key + S) D (or Engine key + D) No Default No Default No Default No Default No Default No Default = (or Engine key + =) .Trim Trim Trim Trim Trim Trim Trim Trim Right Rudder – Fine Positive Elevator – Coarse Negative Elevator – Coarse Left Aileron – Coarse Right Aileron – Coarse Left Rudder – Coarse Right Rudder – Coarse – Neutral CTRL + PAGE UP SHIFT + END SHIFT + HOME SHIFT + DELETE SHIFT + PAGE DOWN SHIFT + INSERT SHIFT + PAGE UP CTRL + Backspace Engine Controls Select Engine 1 Select Engine 2 Select Engine 3 Select Engine 4 Start Engine Stop Engine Feather Engine Engine 1 Throttle (Up/Down) Engine 2 Throttle (Up/Down) Engine 3 Throttle (Up/Down) Engine 4 Throttle (Up/Down) Port Engines Throttles (Up/Down) Starboard Engines Throttles (Up/Down) Throttle Step Up Throttle Step Down Throttle Step Up – Fine Throttle Step Down – Fine Throttle Maximum Throttle Minimum Lock Out AI Engine Control War Emergency Power (WEP) Enable Engine Fire Extinguisher Game Controls Computer/Manual Control (Toggle) Accelerate Time 2x.
B-17 Controls Pilot Helper (Toggle) Switch to Action Start Mission Instruments View Action View Window (Miscellaneous) View Compartment View Bombardier’s station (if occupied) Navigator’s station (if occupied) Cheek Gunner’s station (if occupied) Pilot’s station (if occupied) Co-Pilot’s station (if occupied) Top Turret Gunner’s station. (if occupied) Radio Operator’s station (if occupied) Ball Turret Gunner (if occupied) Left Waist Gunner (if occupied) Right Waist Gunner (if occupied) Tail Gunners Station (if occupied) Any Alternative View Flight Instruments Pilot Instruments (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Co-Pilot Instruments (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Engine Instruments Zoom (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Directional Instruments Zoom (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Fuel & Electrics Instruments Zoom (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Startup & Cooling Instruments Zoom (Pilot/Co-Pilot Instrument View) Bombsight Controls Bombsight Fine Correction Adjuster Bombsight Search/Track Mode Bombsight Rate Correction Adjuster Weapon Controls Machine Guns Cannons Eject Drop Tanks H SHIFT + H CTRL + B I A W C ` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Spacebar F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 B SHIFT + K N ’ ’ CTRL + D 81 .
Padlock Targeting Controls Padlock Nearest Enemy Padlock Nearest B-17 Padlock Nearest Airfield Padlock Target Nearest Centre of View Clear/Restore Padlock View Cockpit Views Instrument Snap Snap View (Toggle) Other Views Internal View External View Chase View Bomb Release and Target View Camera Controls Zoom In (Coarse) Zoom Out (Coarse) Zoom In (Fine) Zoom Out (Fine) Reset Camera Camera Up (Coarse) Camera Down (Coarse) Camera Left (Coarse) Camera Right (Coarse) Camera Forward (Coarse) Camera Backward (Coarse) Camera Pan Left (Coarse) Camera Pan Right (Coarse) Camera Pan Up (Coarse) Camera Pan Down (Coarse) Camera Up (Fine) Camera Down (Fine) Camera Left (Fine) Camera Right (Fine) Camera Forward (Fine) Camera Backward (Fine) Camera Pan Up (Fine) Camera Pan Down (Fine) Camera Pan Left (Fine) Camera Pan Right (Fine) Y CTRL + Y SHIFT + Y U SHIFT + U CTRL + I CTRL + P F1 F2 Spacebar (from External view) F6 Numpad + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad Numpad 5 Numpad 7 Numpad 1 Numpad 4 Numpad 6 Numpad 8 Numpad 2 Numpad 0 Numpad . Numpad 9 Numpad 3 CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad CTRL + Numpad + - 7 1 4 6 8 2 3 9 0 . 82 .
83 . The Rate of Climb Indicator This is a visual indication of your climb/dive angle shown as hundreds of feet per minute. The most important dials are: The Altimeter This shows the height of the aircraft above sea level. flaps give the aircraft extra lift at take off and slow it down for landings. Landing Gear Indicator A visual indicator that the Landing Gear has been raised (Up Arrow) or lowered (SHIFT + Up Arrow). 90° is East. A heading of 0° (or 360°) is North. Flaps Indicator Shows the position of the Flaps (Up = key F. The Directional Gyro This dial shows your heading. The long needle shows hundreds of feet and the shorter needle shows thousands of feet. Down = SHIFT + F). The Airspeed Indicator This shows the speed of the aircraft through the air in mph (from 0 to 500mph). 180° is South and 270° is West. If you are new to the simulation keep your Reference Card in front of you. When the indicator points to 0 this means you have achieved level flight. Always be aware of your flying height by keeping an eye on this dial.Miscellaneous Controls Console Mode Bail Out Quit Mission Quit to Desktop ESC CTRL + SHIFT + B CTRL + SHIFT + Q ALT + F4 The Pilot’s and Co-Pilot’s Instrument Panel (see separate Reference Card) • Select the Pilot and begin your mission in the Pilot’s seat (on the left of the flight deck). When lowered. In this simulation this is controlled by a joystick or the keyboard. Before you begin flying. The Yoke Wheel/Control Column The Yoke Wheel/Control column is the Pilot’s and Co-Pilot’s method of controlling the aircraft direction in flight. study the instrument panel and make sure you are familiar with the location of all dials and switches.
You are the lead bomber in a squadron formation and will be taking off first. fire extinguishers and feathering the props. Diving and Climbing Elevators are horizontal portions of the tail and these are moved up/down by pushing/pulling the control column. Turning the wheel/control column left/right will raise/lower these flaps making the aircraft bank left/right. If you are in AI mode you will hear the pre-flight checks taking place. The squadron will then form up before heading out to the target. F7. Co-Pilot’s Instrument View F5. If you are the Pilot you will have to perform the checks yourself from the list shown: For take off you will also need to access all the other Instrument views in this mode: • Pilot’s Instrument View F4. The Four Engines The B-17 is a large four-engine bomber and this simulation gives you full control of all four engines including setting individual throttle levels. The Take Off You will begin the mission in the Pilot’s seat under AI control (the icon in the lower right will show the computer symbol). The Rudder Pressing the rudder controls left (key B) or right (key N) will swing the nose of the plane left/right (Yaw) by moving the trailing edge of the vertical segment of the tail left/right. Engine number 1 is the left outer from the Pilot’s position followed by 2. This makes the plane climb or dive. Once you have taken off you will climb and circle waiting for the other aircraft in your squadron to join you. Make sure you are in the Pilot’s Compartment. Instrument Close Up Views [F6. Engines can also be boosted with War Emergency Power (key K) for a short space of time to get you out of tricky situations. 3 and 4 in sequence. 84 .Turning Left/Right Ailerons are lateral control flaps at the rear of the airplane’s main wing tips. F9]. The rudder will centre automatically or manually depending on the keyboard/Joystick options in Player set up. F8. Perform all pre-flight checks. • • Select the Pilot (on the left).
Turbos – Turbos are always off (Up) during engine starting. Check that Intercoolers are in the Cold position. 4. Propeller Controls in High RPM – Puts Prop Pitch controls to ‘High RPM’. Intercoolers – These are visible from the B-17 Instrument Panel (press F9). The Master switch (the big red bar next to the Magneto’s) must be in the “On” (forward) position. then looking left and right from the cockpit). Fuel transfer valves and switch – These switches (the alternate instrument view for the Top Turret gunner) must be off or else they will waste fuel and pump one engine tank dry. 6. 11. Make sure these are open (Up) at all times except in emergencies. 7. under the Fuel Shut off switches) are in the “ON” (Up) position. Ensure the four Fuel Booster pumps (the lower bank of Four switches. 2. Throttles – Move them up to 1000rpm setting (approx 1/3 the way up from the bottom). Fuel Mixture – AUTO RICH – Fuel mixture controls (M1-M4) must be in the AUTO-RICH position (as far down as possible).Checklist before starting the engines 1. 10. Set the Parking Brakes using the P key (or press F9 and pull out the brake lock stalk). They must be must be open before starting the engines in the Locked position (check visually by pressing “A”. 9. 8. 3. above the throttle quadrant. Fuel shut off switches – These are the upper bank of four switches. 12. 85 . Landing Gear Switch – Make sure this is in the neutral position (unless you left or right click on the switch – it will always be neutral). 5. Cowl Flaps (Open) – These are four wingnut type switches above the throttles.
Judge by ear when the engine has successfully started. Judge by ear when the engine has successfully started. Locate the Starter Panel above the Intercoolers (and the Fire Extinguisher control panel). by RIGHT clicking on it. holding it down for about 6 seconds. holding it down for about 6 seconds. and left click on it. Engine 2 (left inner). Press F4 to return to the Pilot’s Instrument View. • • • Place the leftmost START switch in its downward position. 86 . 1. a neutral (central) position. Return both the Starter and the Mesh switches to their Neutral positions by left clicking. • • Engine Two • Turn the Magneto for Engine 2 ON. and RIGHT click on it. an up and a down position. Count for 10 seconds. Engine 3 (right inner). Engine One 1. • Move to the next switch (the leftmost Mesh switch). and Engine 4 (right outer).Starting Your Engines You must start your engines in the correct sequence: Engine 1 (left outer). • Place the leftmost START switch in its up position. Press F9 to go to the Co-pilot’s Auxiliary Panel. by left clicking on it. These switches each have three positions. • Press F9 to go to the Co-pilot’s Auxiliary Panel. • Count for 10 seconds. The Starter Panel has four switches: two Starter and two Mesh switches. Move to the next switch (the leftmost Mesh switch). 2. Turn the Ignition Switch (Magneto) for Engine 1 ON.
the rightmost Mesh switch. • Place the centre right START switch of the Panel in its upward position. • Place the centre right switch of the Starter Panel in its downward position. holding it down for about 6 seconds. • Press F4 to return to the Pilot’s Instrument view.• • Return both the Starter and the Mesh switches to their Neutral positions by left clicking. 87 . Judge by ear when the engine has successfully started. by right clicking. Press F4 to return to the Pilots Instrument view. If you fail to do this. and right click on it. Taxiing Taxiing must be carried out very slowly (about the speed of a running man). • Press F9 to go to the Co-pilot’s Auxiliary Panel. and the engines will not respond to your joystick’s throttle. You must be able to stop easily without heavy use of the brakes. Engine Three • Turn the Magneto for Engine 3 ON. by left clicking. All four engines should now have started! Note: You MUST right click on the throttle lever for each of the four engines to allow the AI access to the engines again. Engine Four • Turn the Magneto for Engine 4 ON. • Count 10 seconds. • Return both the Starter and the Mesh switch to their neutral positions. You can use Left/Right Brakes for steering (keys B + N). • Count 10 seconds. • Return both the Starter and the Mesh switches to their neutral positions. or you can use the Pilot Helper (key H) to guide you in Action view. Judge by ear when the engine has successfully started. • Move to the next switch to the right. • Press F9 to go to the Co-pilot’s Auxiliary Panel. As in the real thing the cockpit view of the airfield is very limited on the B-17 and as Pilot you cannot crane your head out of one side of the window so you will have to taxi so you can either use an External (F2)/ Chase View (Spacebar) to see the B-17 from outside. and left click on it. holding it down for about 6 seconds. • Move to the next switch to the right (the rightmost Mesh switch). the pilot AI will not be able to fly the plane. • Press F4 to return to the Pilots Instrument view.
a gentle pulling back on the control column (joystick or keyboard controller) will enable the B-17 to lift itself off the ground. key N – right). Stay on the correct path and DO NOT stray onto the grass. • Lock the tail wheel (key T). • When you reach an airspeed of 110 to 115mph. The takeoff must be from a 2-point ‘tail low’ attitude (the tail wheel should be off the ground). Do not try to pull the plane into the air. When taxiing the tail wheel must be unlocked (SHIFT + T). Check which runway you are heading for by using appropriate outside camera views and zoom up (Numeric keypad . If you have a joystick with an R-Axis (such as a Sidewinder™) you can use the twist control to turn the rudder.The Pilot Helper (H) When you are in Pilot’s Action view. This will set up a cone (red when you are parked and green when you start to move) that you can see through the small windshield. press H to activate the Pilot Helper. Release the Parking Brake (SHIFT + P) and the B-17 will begin to move. From the outside Chase View (Spacebar) steer the B-17 carefully to the edge of the take off runway and try to line up its nose with the white dotted line and stop (Insert key). Temperature and Pressure gauges. • Use the Steering Brakes (keys B + N or Joystick R-axis) and throttles to give you directional control. • Advance the throttles (key +). • Apply power gradually to the throttles and you will begin to move forward. Getting into the Air • Make sure flaps are down (SHIFT + F). RPM. You can turn the aircraft using the Rudder control (key B – left. If you are in the Co-Pilot’s seat you will be watching crucial engine instruments such as Manifold Pressure. • • Note: As you become more proficient in taxiing and can gauge the turns to get to the runway you may prefer to steer the B-17 from the Pilot’s Action view (to increase the realism). • • Increase the throttle slightly for all four engines (using the Plus + key) or by clicking on and dragging up the throttles for all four engines. This cone will direct you to the main runway.minus key). Make sure you are still in Pilot’s Instrument View (F4). 88 . Do not use the Ailerons but keep them in a ‘neutral’ position.
but remember that decreasing atmospheric pressure as you climb causes the Airspeed Indicator to show an airspeed lower than your true airspeed.g. • • Oil temperature can be reduced quickly by decreasing the engine RPM and Manifold Pressure. raise the landing gear (Up Arrow) and check that this has happened. 2. • Open the Cowl Flaps to keep the engine cylinder head temperatures at about 205 degrees. 4. • Make you climb at between 130 and 150mph. reduce power (minus key -) so that you stay at that airspeed as you climb and obtain a normal climb attitude by reducing the throttles to a Manifold Pressure of 35 and an RPM of 2300. These remain on until you drop below this altitude.000 feet.000 feet. Click on Cowl Flaps switches 1. The Airspeed Indicator will show an airspeed lower than the true airspeed (e. Climbing • Make sure the Rate of Climb indicator is at 200 to 300 feet per minute and check that the Altimeter is rising gently. As you climb you will notice the engines will get hotter (increasing cylinder head and oil temperatures). while the actual airspeed is 207mph). Cowl flaps should now be closed. When an airspeed of 140mph is reached.• • • After the aircraft has left the ground and you are sure you have sufficient flying speed to continue your climb. 3. Manifold pressure will now decrease and full throttles cannot keep the required level so you must use the turbo-superchargers to boost this level. 89 . This is the ‘reserve power’ available for climbing. Note: Cowl Flaps will affect your climb rate by adding ‘drag’ and upsetting the airflow – so use the minimum settings you can get away with. at 20. • Note: As you climb your fuel pump may be subject to ‘vapour lock’ so you must use the booster pumps above 10. The rate at which an aircraft will climb is obtained directly from the difference between the power required for level flight and the power available from the engines. 150mph is indicated.
Increase Throttles (up). Your Co-Pilot will carry out propeller synchronisation and now you will be able to trim the aircraft. Levelling the B-17 Once you have climbed to the correct height. Watch the Directional Gyro to see if the aircraft is turning. Set Mixture Controls to ‘Auto Rich’ (down). Return Superchargers one at a time (down). you must reverse this sequence: 1. If you want to decrease power. you must level off to achieve your cruising altitude. • • • Make sure you have equal Manifold Pressure on all 4 engines to balance the power. more efficient fuel use. the Flight Indicator and Rate of Climb Indicator are correctly showing level flight. Reduce power to desired levels (2400 rpm and 42" max) and slowly descend to the correct altitude. 2. 3. Set Mixture Controls to ‘Auto Lean’ (up). • • • • After achieving the correct cruising altitude. Trimming and Cruising Correct trim will give you a better airspeed. Advance Superchargers one at a time (up). It can be hard work trying to control a ‘poorly trimmed’ heavy bomber. Correct any turn with the rudder until it shows a steady course. making it easier to keep in formation. 4. 4. 3.Sequence of power panel changes if you want to increase power: 1. Check the Altimeter. 2. If you change immediately from climb to level flight and reduce power the aircraft will have a high angle of attack (AoA) and hence high ‘drag’ and will be flying inefficiently. Set Propellers to desired RPM (down). and will increase the efficiency of the aircraft. Level the B-17 and drop the nose a little to pick up speed. Levelling off properly builds up full momentum for cruising. Decrease Throttles (down). Set Propellers to desired RPM (up). continue to climb for another 300 feet. 90 .
Explanation of Terms: Elevator Positive – you want the nose of the aircraft to stay up. – you want the right wing to level out. this could cause structural failure. Once you are in cruise mode you can set the Mixture Controls to Auto–Lean (move all four levers up). 91 .0 and. Left Aileron Right Aileron Left Rudder Right Rudder • – you want the left wing to level out. in a heavily laden aircraft. – you want the aircraft to stop right ‘yaw’.Trim Controls The aim of trim controls is to achieve level flight without having to fight the controls. You should be able to take your hands off the controls for a moment and the aircraft should continue on a level flight. Turns and Load Factors When making shallow turns. SHIFT + END SHIFT + HOME SHIFT + DELETE SHIFT + PAGE DOWN SHIFT + INSERT SHIFT + PAGE UP CTRL + END CTRL + HOME CTRL + DELETE CTRL + PAGE DOWN CTRL + INSERT CTRL + PAGE UP In-Flight Trim Controls Trim Positive Elevator – Coarse Trim Negative Elevator – Coarse Trim Left Aileron – Coarse Trim Right Aileron – Coarse Trim Left Rudder – Coarse Trim Right Rudder – Coarse Trim Positive Elevator – Fine Trim Negative Elevator – Fine Trim Left Aileron – Fine Trim Right Aileron – Fine Trim Left Rudder – Fine Trim Right Rudder – Fine • • When you have finished trimming. Carry out ‘Coarse’ trim first and then ‘Fine’ trim. but banking at 70 degrees will make this 3. so just by dropping one wing (joystick/yoke left or right) you will get an effective turn. the aircraft should not need any heavy handed control and be ‘flying itself’.5. Elevator Negative – you want the nose of the aircraft to drop down. Banking at 10 degrees produces a ‘load factor’ of 1. try going to an outside view (F2) and taking your hands (and feet. – you want the aircraft to stop left ‘yaw’. Turns The B-17 has good directional stability. if appropriate) off all controls for a moment. ‘load factors’ will be small but will increase as the turn gets steeper.
If you miss any radio messages. • After you have heard the command ‘Join Formation’ press the Pilot Helper key H and a large white box will appear in the sky at the place where you should be in formation (you may have to look around you with outside views to find it).e. Each mission will have a different number of waypoints depending on operational factors and the target (i. You may have to climb or drop in height to achieve the correct position. 92 . Forming Up When you have got sufficient height you should begin to form up with the other aircraft in the squadron. dive smoothly at about 30 degrees and regain airspeed for normal flight. Manoeuvre the aircraft as gently as possible close to the white box. He will open the bomb bay doors. After the ‘Bombs Away’ signal the aircraft will return to your control. the individual waypoints and the return leg. Flying a Mission The Waypoints Check the Map in the Navigator’s station to remind you of the route selected to the target. The Navigator will tell you when you have reached specific waypoints and a turn is coming up.Stalls and Spins The B-17 has good stall characteristics with the large vertical tail reducing the tendency to roll. To recover from a stall. then look for the target and effectively be ‘flying’ the aircraft. This is never an easy task but for the purposes of this simulation we have provided a Pilot Helper function for forming up (key H). go to the Radio Operator’s compartment and consult his Messages log. He will also give you compass headings and may also warn you that he’s hopelessly lost! The Radio Operator will log the key messages. if you want to avoid heavy flak or enemy fighter concentrations). Flying Over the Target The Bombardier will be in control of the aircraft during the bomb run. When you reach the Initial Point you must line up the aircraft on the bomb run and fly without deviation or change of height (no matter what’s been thrown at you!) to give the Bombardier a good chance of finding or lining up the target. The Initial Point This is the last waypoint before the bomb run. When he locks the bombsight on the target the aircraft will be flying on autopilot towards the correctly computed release point. • The other B-17s of the squadron will form up on you. It’s extremely difficult to make the B-17 go into a spin because of its superior directional stability.
At this point the engine should start. • Click on the large. The flight home will require you to fly to a series of defined waypoints. The engine is Feathered. W – 2. 93 . Feathering will turn the blades at 90° and stop the propeller from turning. • Click and move the Turbo-Supercharger and Throttle to zero for Engine 1. if you want to use the cockpit controls: Engine Feathering (Example Engine 1) • Go to the Pilot’s Instruments view in the cockpit. • Find the fuel system switches above the pedestal and turn off the leftmost column. The easiest way to feather an engine is to select the engine (Q – 1. or if the power is erratic. • Click on the large. You might need to set the Throttle and Turbo speeds to match the other three engines manually. round red button marked “1”. However. When the squadron have all released their bombs they will head for the designated Rally Point where they will reform for the journey back to base. Repairs etc. Your Navigator will be keeping track of your geographical/map position. Note: Failing to drop the bombs on the Primary may need you to ‘go around again’ to repeat the bomb run or going to a Secondary.). Press D again to unfeather.Now you can take any evasive action you see fit. The Rally Point The Rally Point is the waypoint after the target. but if you’re not developing power from that engine. round red button marked “1”. Engine Un-Feathering (Example Engine 1) • Locate the fuel system switches above the pedestal and turn on the leftmost column. Tertiary or Opportunity target. The Return Home Take note of any damage to the aircraft and perform all necessary crew management tasks (First Aid. you should run through the startup sequence on the starter panel (see earlier). E – 3 or R – 4) press key D. Feathering the Engine(s) The propellers on the B-17 can be feathered in case of emergency when it’s necessary to continue with 2 or 3 engines. reducing drag and eliminating vibration that might weaken the aircraft structure.
outboard at the bottom). W. The Pilot checks all the crew and makes sure they are in their correct positions for landing. If you notice an engine on fire: • • Select the Engine (Q. • • The Radio Operator will call the airbase control tower to get the altimeter setting for the landing field. turn the dial to point to the engine that needs extinguishing (inboard engines at the top. Lock Out AI Engine Control (L) There may be occasions when you need to adjust Engine settings without the AI cutting in. W. Head to the Co-Pilot’s Instrument View (key 4 and then key I). Note: If the gear is totally unusable you will have to attempt a belly landing (You can try this out in Quickstart Mission 1). Pull one of the red handles to fire one of the two extinguisher charges fitted. Press key K and this will give the engines a short power boost to get out dangerous situations. 94 .Engine Fire Extinguishers (J) Each of the four engines on the B-17 has a built in fire extinguishing system. Remember. Landing the B-17 Pre-Landing Checks Note: All pre-landing checks are performed automatically. The Fire Extinguisher panel is located above the Intercoolers. E. Pilot Checks • Put the Landing Gear in the down position (SHIFT + Up Arrow) and make sure that this has happened with a visual check either from the Ball Turret gunner or an external view (F2). if you want to use the cockpit controls: 1. however. you can issue an order using the Icon Rose (ask the Engineer to help). 3. If all is well the landing gear warning light on the Instrument Panel should be On. or R) and press key L. Alternatively. E. or R). • If gear is not responding and you need to use manual gear controls. Note: The B-17 does not include WEP – most fighters. War Emergency Power (K) You have at your disposal a limited amount of WEP. Select the engine first (Q. have some form of it. 4. that your gear may have been damaged on the mission. 2. Press key J. Select the Co-Pilot’s Engine Startup and Cooling panel by pressing F9.
Taxi to Hardstand (Using Pilot Helper H) – If you still have the Pilot Helper key on you will see a large green inverted cone close to the static aircraft. • • • • • • Fly a large rectangular path over the airfield at an altitude of about 800 to 1000 feet. Press key H and you will see a marker to help you line up your final approach. Keep airspeed between 110 to 120mph. If this is necessary. The marker will respond to all turns and waypoints called out by the Navigator. The Final Approach Important points to bear in mind when making your final approach. You can use it from the Pilot’s Action View or from an outside view. Decrease Manifold Pressure to 23". Pilot Helper (H) The Pilot Helper is also available to help you on the correct approach to the airfield. You may have to go around again if there are aircraft that are in trouble ahead of you. If the B-17 is not on the ground within the first third of the runway you might decide to go around again. Fly the pattern at 130 to 150mph IAS. make sure you use the entire runway for the landing roll. the tower will inform you. • • • • • • Maintain a constant altitude on the base leg turn. Maintain constant airspeed and angle of glide.The Traffic Pattern On most B-17 airfields the traffic pattern (the flight path to line up for final approach) is rectangular in shape. Put the flaps fully down (SHIFT + F). • Do not apply brakes too early but try to time them when you feel the aircraft is slowing down from its roll then apply the brakes (Insert key). Increase RPM to 2100. Glide in to the runway at a speed of 120mph. 95 . Make a 3-point landing. The Landing Roll • When you have landed. This is your guide to take you to your B-17 hardstanding. Keep this marker lined up in pilot’s Action view (through the windshield) or in external view (F2) or Chase view (Spacebar). Lower your flaps (SHIFT + F) when you turn on the base leg (the last turn before final approach). Reduce power to all engines gradually (Minus .key).
You must be sure of your target identification and you must set the sight correctly to hit that target. However. You will then be taken to the Mission Debriefing. If all three mission targets are unavailable to you (for whatever reason) then you may set an Opportunity target from the Navigator’s Map station.General Principles If you want to be the Bombardier give yourself plenty of time to get into position from whatever view or location you are in and re-familiarise yourself with the bombing controls. Click on a green bomb icon and drag it to a likely target on the map.• Taxi in the same way as for take off using throttle/steering brake and try to keep the cone in the centre of your windshield view and edge slowly towards it. The Pilot will fly a new heading set by the Navigator. there will be no penalty imposed by Bomber Group. Remember the mission has only one aim: to drop the bombs on the correct target accurately and promptly. Whilst the Norden bombsight is an incredibly flexible and accurate instrument. You may also have another option of a Tertiary target. The Targets The Primary target is your main objective. and are well acquainted with the skills of displacing and synchronising. if bombs are jettisoned to preserve the safety of the crew and the bomber. If you have to switch to secondary you must issue the ‘Select Secondary Target’ message in the radio compartment. it can be brutally punishing to inexperienced users – make sure you have flown both Training Missions. A mission is deemed to be successful by the amount of damage done to the target. • • Slow down and stop (throttle down). The cone will move to another position. If the Primary is impossible or unavailable due to weather or other unhelpful conditions. Apply the Parking Brake (key P). Bombardier School Bombardier . Remember that random. It will then turn red. ill-directed bombing will be penalised. If you fail to drop the bombs on the correct target the mission will be classed as a failure. The waypoints will appear automatically. you must switch to Secondary – this is usually a lower order target that is within close range of the Primary. repeat this process until the cone guides you to your bomber position. Once you have parked the aircraft in its correct position the mission is effectively over. 96 .
Trail This is the horizontal distance the bomb is behind the airplane at the moment of impact and is therefore affected by altitude. True Airspeed True Airspeed is a measure of the speed of the airplane through the air.Bombardier Skills The Bombardier must know his bombsight. Actual Time of Fall This is the length of time the bomb stays in the air from the point of release to impact. Bomb Ballistics This is the size. It’s this speed that gives the bomb its initial forward velocity and thus affects the trail (see below) of the bomb (the distance the bomb lags behind the airplane at the moment of impact). The Bombardier must know how to operate all gun positions on the aircraft. The Bombardier must understand the destructive power of the bombs his aircraft is carrying and the vulnerability of the targets he is seeking. what it does and how it works. This in turn affects the range (the forward travel of the bomb from launch) and deflection (the distance the bomb drifts in a crosswind). Bombing Factors The following bombing factors will come into play when dropping bombs from a heavy bomber: Altitude Altitude determines the length of time the bomb is in flight and therefore the time the bombs can be affected by the atmospheric conditions. The Bombardier must be fully conversant with target and aircraft identification. 97 . He should be mindful of this responsibility. Groundspeed This is the speed of the aircraft in relation to the earth’s surface and has an effect on the range of the bomb. airspeed. A value is obtained from bombing tables and is pre-set into the bombsight. The Bombardier is in effective command of the aircraft on the bomb run. bomb ballistics and air density.factors that give it an air resistance value. shape and density of the bomb . The Bombardier must understand the automatic pilot and how it works in the bomb run. Groundspeed is entered into the bombsight through synchronisation on the target while the pilot maintains constant airspeed and the correct altitude.
Set the Course Drift by clicking on and moving the indicator at the bottom of the sight. The Bombardier will announce ‘We’re on the Bomb Run!’. 2. Below the topmost switch is a bank of three switches. Click on the switch at the top of the panel to activate the BSP.Drift This is the speed and direction of the wind that determines the distance the bomb will travel downwind from the airplane from release point to impact. Access the Bomb Sight action panel by pressing the spacebar. Press key I to view the Bombardier’s Instrument Panel (the Norden Bombsight). Set Mission Altitude on the large dial on the right of the bombsight (a tooltip will give you details of the setting). 98 . The second arms the bomb delivery system. The third enables the autopilot giving the bombardier control of the aircraft. • Click all of these switches to ‘On’. Check that the Mission Altitude is correct on the Bombsight. The first on the left opens the bomb bay doors. The Bomb Run • As the bomber approaches the Initial Point (IP) select the Bombardier position (key ` or click the bombsight icon in the Crew Position pop-up menu). Bombsight Panel On/Off Bomb Bay Doors Autopilot Salvo/Train Mode Rack Selector Arming • • • • • • Arming • • Press key M to assume manual control of the Bomb Sight Panel (BSP). 1. This value is set on the bombsight by the Bombardier and is given to him by the Navigator. 3. By clicking on the autopilot switch you will be sending a message to the pilot that you have control of the aircraft. The Course (or Wind) Drift is calculated at the Navigator’s station (see later).
place the crosshair over the target and then hit SHIFT + K to ‘lock’ the target. 99 . • Switch to the Bombardier ‘Action View’ by pressing key A. This control switches between Salvo Mode (all the bombs drop at once) or Train Mode (bombs drop one at a time with an interval set by an Intervalometer.Below the mid bank switches are another set of four switches that select the bomb racks in the bomb bay. Salvo Switch The first is the ‘Salvo Switch’. The Sight starts in DRIFT Correction mode. Moving the joystick right will alter the angle of Drift to the right – the target will begin to drift more to the left of the sight picture. • Make sure you have manual control set (key M). The objective is to freeze any vertical movement of the target. Press key N to enter RATE Correction mode. hence the target will appear to move back up towards the top of the sight picture. Red lights will confirm all ‘On’ switches. Intervalometer The second control is the Intervalometer. You have now set the bombsight and are ready to release your bombs. Moving the joystick left adjusts the angle of Drift to the left – the target will begin to drift more to the right of the sight picture. • Click to set the interval between bombs dropped in train (by milliseconds) up to 1 second maximum. Use your joystick to locate the target. Moving the joystick up makes the rate track more slowly. Search Mode Crosshairs Bomb Release Indices • • • • Enter “Search Mode” by using SHIFT + K (A light will come on). so the target will move towards the bottom of the sight picture. If you have ordnance on all four racks. Moving the joystick down will make the rate track more quickly. arm all four by flicking the switches. On the left of the BSP are two controls that affect the bomb release mechanism.
You should adjust DRIFT and RATE until the sight picture shows no movement at all. This is called SYNCHRONISATION, and means the bombsight is correctly allowing for speed, altitude and wind drift. During your alterations, the target may have slipped out from the crosshairs. If you have time, you can enter SEARCH mode, using the SHIFT + K key combination, and place the target directly under the crosshair again. Provided that you have correctly SYNCHRONISED the sight, as described above, the crosshair will remain where you left it. Watch the two markers close towards each other. When they meet, the bombs will be dropped automatically by the bombsight, thus ensuring a drop accurate to the millisecond. Watch bombs release from bay and then press F6 to view down from inside the bomb bay and F6 again to view target from ground level (use mouse left button to zoom in and right hand button to move around target.
Bombing Results Full details of your bomb drop pattern and reconnaissance film of the damage to the target will be shown when you are in the Mission Debriefing. Chin Turret It’s highly likely that enemy fighters will attack you on your journey back to your home base. Before and after the Bombardier has completed his bombing tasks he should man the powered Chin Turret (unless otherwise assigned by the Commander), to fend off any attacks from the front of the B-17.
It’s the job of the Navigator to direct your flight from the moment of take off to landing back at base (or any other airfield). Navigation is the skill of knowing where your bomber is geographically by means of either pilotage or ‘dead reckoning’. The skilled Navigator will use a combination of these methods.
This is the method of working out the aircraft’s position by visual reference to the ground. This requires accuracy to within 400 metres. The Navigator performs this by referring constantly to groundspeeds and ETAs for points ahead, on the ground, and on maps and charts. As long as a Navigator can keep visual contact with the ground he can work out pinpoint positions and plot the exact track of the airplane.
This is the basis of all other types of navigation and, essentially, is the way the Navigator works out the position of the aircraft at any given time by keeping track of the distance flown from the take off point or the last known position. DR can be sub-divided into: DR using a series of known positions – the Navigator uses pilotage (see above) until the airplane goes into cloud and loses contact with the ground. Then he uses Dead Reckoning from the last pilotage point to determine the position of the airplane; using wind speed prevalent at that altitude and the track and groundspeed being made. By working out track and distance from the last known point he can always tell his position and if the airplane comes out of cloud he’ll be able to search for and pick up pilotage points quickly.
The Navigator’s Map
• • • Select the Navigator position. Press key I to access Navigation instruments. Click on the map on the desk, or press the Spacebar, to open the Map screen. The map is similar to the Operations Room and Briefing Room maps and is controlled in a similar fashion.
Map Controls You can scroll around the map by using either the mouse and/or the keyboard. Mouse Control: • Move around the map by holding down the right mouse button and moving the mouse. • Tilt and rotate the map by holding down the Shift key plus the right mouse button and moving the mouse. Numeric Keypad Controls: Use numeric keypad ‘Ins’ and ‘Del’ to rotate the map horizontally left and right. Use numeric keypad 9 and 3 to rotate the map vertically (from 0° to 90° degrees).
Use numeric keypad 4 and 6 to move the map left and right. Use numeric keypad 8 and 2 to move the map forward and backwards. Use numeric keypad + and – to Zoom In/Out. Fine-tune all the above map control movement by holding down CTRL as you press the keys. The Map Icons All 3D buildings shown on the map represent the targets currently available. Blue broken line Green Line Aircraft Aircraft Shadow Green Bomb Icon – – – – – projected route. actual route. your B-17 estimated position. B-17 ground position. this can be used to designate any Opportunity Target for the mission. Click and drag to a bona fide target on the map and waypoints will be set up. – click and drag to adjust vertical heights of any Waypoint. – click and drag to adjust a Waypoint horizontal position.
Gold Pyramid Red Arrow
The Map Symbols The map shows standard features such as: Urban Areas Lakes Rivers Forests Minor and Major Roads Railways It is also marked with Allied fighter (white US star) and bomber (grey-out US star) Airbases, and Luftwaffe airbases (Blue filled circle). The following is important mission information: Light Red Circles (or arcs) Red Circles (or arcs) Dark Red Circles (or arcs) Factory Icon Blue Circles (or arcs) – – – – – areas of light flak concentrations. areas of medium flak concentrations. areas of heavy flak concentrations. Target location. areas that have strong enemy fighter concentrations.
The map also shows the shifting front line (thick red line) throughout the years of the campaign.
Re-setting Waypoints Apart from the starting off airbase and the assigned targets you can adjust all other aspects of the waypoints, initial point and rally point, including ground location and waypoint/bombing height. Tooltips on the waypoint Brown Pyramid markers will indicate the altitude for that particular waypoint. Note: You must be in Manual mode to achieve these changes! • • To move a waypoint, simply click on it, hold down the left mouse button and drag it to its new position. To de-select a target, click on the bomb icon and drag it up away from the ground until it disappears.
Navigation Realism Navigation has three modes of realism in the simulation: Historical, Easy and Flawless. Flawless will follow the route to and from the target without deviation but the other two modes will enable ‘getting lost’. The Navigator must always be tracking the aircraft position. He can adjust waypoints to distinctive geographical features (river mouths, islands, peninsulas etc) that leave no doubt about position. • • From take off you must flip from Map View to external camera views. Look all around for features – rivers, main roads, and cities. Take control from the AI (key M), click on the green aircraft on the map and drag it to its ‘correct’ position. Press key M to return to AI control.
If you don’t constantly update your position on the map with visual reference you may get a message from your Navigator that he is completely lost – this will be more difficult to sort out.
The Drift Meter
• Press key A to access the Navigator’s Action view. Here you will see the Drift Meter screen.
Drift in Degrees Tracking lines
It’s important that you can calculate the Wind Drift for the Bombardier, without this crucial information the bombs cannot be dropped precisely on the target.
In the Action View you will be looking through the Drift Meter. Align the dial on the right (using the mouse click and drag) so that a fixed ground point travels along one of them. When this is fairly stable, read off the wind drift from the scale on the top. Use the drift scale reading as the initial wind drift value to be input into the Norden bombsight.
The Engineer should know more about the B-17 than any other member of the crew. He has been specially trained in Air Force technical schools and will know his aircraft, his engines and his armament equipment thoroughly. He works closely with the Co-Pilot to check engine operation, fuel consumption and equipment operation. He must also work with the Bombardier and understand how to cock, lock and load the bomb racks. He must be familiar with the guns and related equipment and be able to strip, clean and reassemble them. He must know how to tune radio transmitters and receivers. The Engineer can operate the fuel transfer equipment and can crank down the landing gear if normal operation methods are unavailable.
The two valves direct fuel from any fuel tank on one side of the aircraft to any fuel tank on the other side’
• • •
Select the Engineer station. Select Instrument View (key I). Press the alternate Instrument View (spacebar). This shows the fuel transfer system left side (Engine Tank 1, 2 and Off) and the right side (Engine Tank 3, 4 and Off).
Above the right hand switch is the transfer control switch. Simply set the main red switches to the relevant tanks and set the control switch by right or left clicking on it. The central position is ‘Off’. However you will not be able to see the fuel transfer in this position. This is shown in the Co-Pilot’s Instrument View (F8).
Messages Outward Log The Messages Outward Log shows a list of messages that can be issued by various members of the crew and can be for internal use for the individual bomber crew or for squadron use. If the message is a ‘one off’ – such as ‘Return to Base’ it will from that point be unavailable. and maintain a log of inward and outward messages.Click on the switch and it will rotate through the four positions. 105 . • • • • Make sure you are in Manual Mode (key M). RADIO OPERATOR SCHOOL A B-17 bomber holds a lot of radio equipment and the Radio Operator is the man who should know all about it. He is expected to send positional reports. Review the messages received (with the timing shown). Click on the page to turn it over. The dial above it will show the amount of fuel in each engine tank. Click on the Messages Inward Log cover to open the book. ground control and other aircraft. The Radio Operator must also be a competent Gunner and the photographer in reconnaissance missions. Select the message you want by clicking on it. Click on the Message Log cover to open the book. Messages Inward Log The Messages Inward Log shows all messages received (from whatever source) written down. The Engineer also doubles as the Top Turret Gunner (see below). For example. help the Navigator to take radio fixes. To send a message: • • • Make sure you are in Manual Mode (key M). he can ask for the route to be changed to the Secondary Target. maintain the radio sets. Or. The Radio Communicates with crew. if the Primary Target is unavailable. the Bombardier may not have released his bombs over the target in which case he can request the Pilot to ‘Go Around Again’.
GUNNERY SCHOOL Essentially. the B-17 is a moving gun platform that can be very effective in defending the airplane from enemy fighter attacks. Power turret gunners need some of the qualities required from good pilots because operating a power turret is much like that of controlling an airplane in flight. but the effectiveness will always depend upon the skill and application of the Gunners. Flexible gunners do not need to have the same ‘touch’ as turret gunners but must have a good sense of timing and an understanding of the basics of exterior ballistics. 106 . Top Turret Chin Turret Ball Turret Right Waist Gun Cheek Gun Tail Gun Left Waist Gun Gunner Skills Gunners can be categorised into two types: the flexible gun operators and the turret operators.
They should understand the Browning aircraft machine gun.Machine Guns Originally. The next development was to give the gunner a rotating mounting so that he could pivot towards the enemy. These sights were eventually succeeded by the reflector type. gunners should always be operating their turrets and tracking with the flexible guns by sighting on various objects. ‘low’ means in the 90-degree arc below the aircraft. The Clock System of Defence All gunners should be on the look out for enemy fighters. In the ‘clock system’. Gunsights At the beginning of the war. For training purposes. including how to clear jams and using the sights to best effect. he should call out on the intercom giving a clock reading and a level. The main disadvantage being that it was difficult to turn the gun into a 200mph slipstream and so the field of fire was severely limited. other aircraft. leaving the gunner free to control movement in azimuth and elevation by hand. The slipstream problem was overcome by installing powered gun turrets that traversed the turret and gun-mounting ring. If any member of the crew spots an enemy. Accuracy depended on the gunner’s skill in calculating deflection (the predicted path the target is travelling along) but it was still extremely difficult to hit a moving object. an optical sight that left the gunner free to move his head without creating an error in deflection – the gunner only has the target to watch with the reticule in the optical viewer superimposed on it. 107 . they should all be able to fire each other’s guns efficiently in case of emergency. most bombers’ defensive armaments were single hand operated machine guns pivoting on a mounting attached to the structure of the craft. All gunners should understand the ‘zones of fire’ for all gun positions on the B-17 and be expert aircraft identifiers. the nose of the plane is pointing to 12 o’clock. the right-hand (starboard) wing to 3 o’clock and the left-hand (port) wing to 9 o’clock. Gunners should be competitive and keen to be the best gunner on board. the tail is pointing to 6 o’clock. vehicles etc. no mention of level implies on the same plane as the aircraft. B-17 machine guns are electrically fired and electrically fed with ammo. gunsights were the simple ‘ring and bead’ type in which a gunner had to maintain a constant eye base. ‘High’ means in the 90-degree arc above the aircraft.
with luck. incur damage. By clicking directly on the text you will be able to jump immediately to the source of the message and be able to take over manual control of the action area. Sighting and Firing • Select any Gunner and press key A to access the guns. This will flare and show up the path of your bullets giving you a visual guide to the path your bullets are describing. this will give you the freedom of movement you require. If you are getting low on ammo you will see red tracer appearing. the fact that both the gun platform and the target were moving in different directions and speeds made accurate aiming extremely difficult. Press the trigger to fire. Every 5th round in your ammo is a tracer round. Red Text Warning All messages you hear will be shown on the screen in black text but in combat when a member of the crew spots enemy fighters. 108 . this text will be in red. For best control of the machine guns make sure you have a joystick fitted. Make sure that you are in manual control (key M). • • Sight on the enemy aircraft. The US 8th Air Force implements the Zone System of firing in air combat: pointing the machine guns in the direction of the target and filling the sky with bullets so that a passing enemy fighter would have to fly through several streams of bullets and. For an average gunner it’s a matter of luck if an enemy aircraft was hit.The Zone Firing System Hand held weapons in the B-17 are not always as effective as is hoped.
Select Instrument View (key I) or the Dial icon in the Crew Views pop-up panel to access the gunner’s ammunition box. you will have a limited number of rounds available to you in any mission so do not fire needlessly. select the gunner by clicking on him (he will be highlighted) and right-click to access the crew management Icon Rose. If this happens. 109 . Note: Space is limited on a B-17 and once you have used up all your ammunition there is no more available to you. You can watch the gunner try to unjam the gun(s). Ammo If you are playing a historical scenario. • • Left click on the icon to unjam the gun(s). This will also maximise your efficiency as regards ammunition. The simplest way of dealing with jams is to keep your bursts short and on target. return to Compartment view (C).Unjamming Machine Guns Guns will overheat and/or jam. Hover the pointer over the box to see how many rounds are left. Apart from the initial test firing (usually over the Channel) save your ammo for the fighter attacks. Right click on the centre icon until you see the Unjam icon.
Section Five: Crew/Bomber Management .
so if you choose to relocate the Bombardier as. A white highlight will appear around the selected figure. Command Icon Position Icons • To move your selected crewman to another position click on the appropriate positional icon (making sure the Move To icon order is in the middle of the display). At the start of any mission.MOVING CREW TO NEW POSITIONS All the B-17 crew can be re-allocated to other positions on board. 111 . You can view them in their compartments by pressing the keyboard keys ` to 0. You must send a man to takeover before you can assume manual control. Note: If a crew station is not manned that station is unavailable to you to jump to. The selected crewmember will leave his position and make his way to the nominated location. he will have to make his way to the end of the airplane (and you can follow him through all the compartments using the Compartment view pop-up menu if you so wish). the crew member who is still occupying the position will stand aside and let his replacement take over then await orders from you. suffer injury (or panic) and are short of a key crew (such as the Navigator). the 10-man crew will be in their correct compartments. You must be able to manage the crew and re-allocate them to other positions in any emergency. The crew of the B-17 are specialists in their particular skill but have to be prepared to do each other’s jobs in the event of injury. If you have moved the crew member to a position that’s still occupied. This is crucial if you are attacked. If you know your crew well enough you will be able to assign a substitute who has some level of skill in that key task. Remember that the move will take place in real time. • Right click on a highlighted figure to open the Crew Management Icon Rose: a circular display of all other crew positions with a command icon in the centre. say a Tail Gunner.
A gunner will call out ‘Guns jammed!’ and may try to un-jam them (depending on the level of autonomy set). crew injury. Their portrait in the pop-up panel at the top of the screen will show a red cross and you may hear a message telling you that someone is hit. if that position is important to the success of the mission. First Aid Wounded crew will react realistically when they are injured. The man you have selected will make his way to the wounded man’s station and do the best he can. Panic In the event of extreme stress caused by fire. you will have to find someone else to take over.Red Text Warning All messages you hear will be shown on the screen as text but if there is an emergency such as a fire. bullet strikes or fighter attacks some crew members may panic and not be able to carry out their tasks at their usual efficiency. Remember to consult all available files in your office so that you know the strengths and weaknesses of each crew member. If a crewman is unconscious you cannot ‘jump’ into his shoes and. You can overcome the worst effects of this by jumping into their seat and doing their job for them. In this case: • • Click on the crewman then right click to open the Icon Rose. INJURED CREW It always pays to keep your crew healthy. The injured man will not heal ‘automatically’ but can be stabilised or even after a period of time helped back to man his station at a reduced level of skill. You may find that guns will jam if they get too hot (or too cold). Select the First Aid icon and click on the portrait of the wounded crewman. By clicking directly on the text you will jump immediately to the source of the message and be able to deal with the problem more quickly. 112 . After a period of time they may calm down and be able to perform their job at a normal level of skill. jammed guns this text will appear in red. REPAIRING ITEMS Things can go wrong on a large complex bomber (depending on the reality levels you have chosen) and you may have to order crew members to fix things. You must select a crewman to administer First Aid.
BOMBER MANAGEMENT This section deals with aspects of the simulation when you are up in the air in external camera views and heading for your target. Crew will make attempts to put the fire out. once all crew have left the aircraft you will not be able to go back inside – it will be out of your control. you can press CTRL + SHIFT + B to order everyone to bail out. you must order your crew to ‘bail out’. Alternately. External Views The simulation has a wealth of external camera views that you can use to look all around your bomber and at the stunning 3D. right click on the figure to open the Icon Rose and click on the Unjam Guns icon. Select the crew member and right click to open the icon rose then click on the Bail Out Icon. 113 . If nothing much is happening and you can spare the time from your flying or navigating tasks why not have a good look around. Remember. but you can also order crew members to lend a hand using the Icon Rose system.• If you are in control of the gunner. BAILING OUT If all else fails and you know that the aircraft is going to crash. FIGHTING FIRES If there is a fire onboard. You may also find that the bombs are jammed on their racks and may require freeing by a member of the crew – the sequence is similar to ‘unjam guns’ (above). you will either see it immediately in the compartment or hear a message from one of the crew (red text). It’s better to try and save the crew to return home to fight another day rather than let them die in a crash. • Press F2 from any interior position and you will go to external view and then use Camera Controls in the Reference Card.
In this case you can use the accelerate time feature (Home key). • Press key M and the AI control symbol (Computer) on the lower right of the screen will change to the manual control symbol (Hand). If you lose formation find this box with the outside views and try to fly close to it. Note: You can also skip time from within the bomber. Decelerate Time (End) There may be times when you actually want to slow down the action. Skip Time (Return/Enter) If you want to cut out large chunks of time and want to get on with the action. you might be itching to get to a target or a particular waypoint or airfield. quarter or eighth. You may receive a message that the Skip Time feature is halted and be given a reason such as Fighters are scrambling. Bomber on Bomb Run etc. things may be happening too fast for you to see them (such as in air combat or a tricky landing).Flight You can take over control of flying the aircraft from the external view. Use the camera keys to best effect and if you find that’s too difficult use the Pilot Helper key (H). press the Return/Enter key and the simulation will skip to the next time period. This gives you more control over the time skip period (if you are approaching a vital waypoint etc. In this case you can choose to decelerate time by pressing the End key (cycle through) this will give you three speeds – half. 114 . Accelerate Time (Home) There will be periods in the simulation when you will need to speed things up. Formation The bombers must fly in squadron formation to the target for greater safety so when you are controlling the aircraft in manual mode you must try to stay in formation. You can accelerate time 2x. Mini-Time Skip You can also Time Skip short periods of time by holding down the CTRL key and pressing Return/Enter. Press End to return to previous time. You will immediately be in control of the aircraft. This will create a white box to show you where you should be flying to stay in formation. So that you don’t miss any of the action when you skip time the feature will not work when there is something important happening in the game world. 4x and 8x by pressing the Home key (cycle through). This is often a good way to get a ‘feel’ for the large bomber and appreciate the flight dynamics.
From here on that is your selected aircraft. The other symbols below it are the accessible fighters with the US planes first then the Luftwaffe. Aircraft Select Pop-up Menu When you are in external aircraft view you can also choose to jump into the fighters (both US and German) in the 3D world. • • • Press the Close Square Bracket key ] to jump to the next plane in the sequence. The top symbol is always the B-17 you are watching. Click on the aircraft symbol to jump to an external view of that aircraft. This pop-up menu will vary depending on what is being used for escort or interception in a particular mission. A Pause icon will appear on the lower left of the screen and all action will be frozen until you press the Pause/Break key again. Press the Open Square Bracket key [ to jump to the previous plane in the sequence. Jump to Other Bombers ([/]) When you are in external view you can also choose to view the other bombers in the squadron. Press Backspace to jump back to your B-17 (or lead B-17). switches and levers will function under manual control. • Hover your mouse pointer on the extreme right of the screen (around the middle of the screen and the white pop-up menu will appear showing various icons and symbols. • • Hover the mouse pointer over the icon to see pop-up help text to confirm the type of aircraft. You will not however be allowed on board to manage the crew unless you are playing the Squadron Commander game. 115 .Pause Simulation (Pause/Break) There may be times when you just need to call a break and stop the action in this case press the Pause/Break key. You can use all the standard control keys (see earlier) to enter the fighter (F1) and fly it from within the cockpit. All dials.
E – 3. or R – 4. when you are back in your office you will be able to read about the effect your mission has had on the progress of the war plus all other general war news for that time period. • • • • Take Manual control (M). Select the Engine Q – 1. 3. Press key J. You may hear that a crew member is injured and needs attention. Look to see if the fire extinguisher has any effect. You will be able to access all details of the mission and an indication of your success in the Debriefing File. outboard at the bottom). W – 2. In addition. if you want to use the cockpit controls: 1. 2. Mission Debriefing At the end of the mission you will be taken to the Briefing Hut where you will be fully debriefed. Select the Co-Pilot’s Engine Startup and Cooling panel by pressing F9. Head to the Co-Pilot’s Instrument View (key 4 and then key I). 116 . Engine Fire Extinguisher (J) When you are in external view you may see one of the B-17 engines on fire. However. This is one of the few emergencies that you can deal with from external view. • To return to your B-17 go to an external view (F2) and open the Aircraft Select Pop-Up menu and click on the B-17 symbol.The [ and ] keys will allow you to cycle through other aircraft in a particular flight. 4. The Fire Extinguisher panel is located above the Intercoolers. Pull one of the red handles to fire one of the two extinguisher charges fitted. Emergencies Red Text Warnings All red text warnings will appear in external 3D views. Red Text works in exactly the same way – click on the text and you will jump to the compartment the message came from. turn the dial to point to the engine that needs extinguishing (inboard engines at the top.
bomb damage assessments and the safe return of the crew to the home airbase. remaining at a station whilst wounded and how the crewmember dealt with panic: in addition to the more traditional metrics of aircraft kills. PROMOTIONS AND WIA After the debriefing. awarding medals and promotions on a point based system. This system takes into account things like giving first aid. When a mission is over you will return to your office. certain crew members will be recommended for Medals or Promotions. 117 .MEDALS. If the crew member has been wounded in action he will receive the Purple Heart. The game tracks the actions of crewmembers across the course of the mission.
Section Six: Fighter School .
Magnetos to M1+2 3. Click and hold engage switch ‘till engine starts Engine should start. Left click and hold Starter 6. Note: The instruments do not vary hugely for each airplane but the performance is based on the real physics model for each one. Fuel Mixture to one third 5. Throttle to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. The location of these instruments can be found on the separate Reference Card. Mainline Switch to ON 2. Magnetos to BOTH (3 Clicks) 3. Throttle to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. Single–engine Aircraft Controls P-51 Startup Sequence 1. Fuel Mixture to Full 5. Master Battery Switch to ON 2. Note: Most of these instruments are located below the cockpit ‘head up view’ so you will have to tilt down your view to look at them using the joystick ‘hat’ button (on Sidewinder-types) or the Instrument Snap view (CTRL + I) if playing on keyboard control. Wait 6 seconds whilst still holding Starter 7. how to fly them and the instruments on the cockpit. Each fighter has all the necessary instruments although they might not be located in the same place position. Left Click and Hold Starter 119 . P-47 Startup Sequence 1.) while German aircraft are marked in metric (metres). Magnetos to BOTH (3 Clicks) 3. Fuel Mixture to Full Bf-109 Startup Sequence 1. 8. Lift the Starter Cover 6. Throttle to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. Left click Starter Engine starts automatically. Battery Switch to ON 2. Each fighter cockpit is reproduced with all of the most important instruments but only the basic set of gauges and dials are shown here. FIGHTER COCKPIT INSTRUMENTS American aircraft dials are calibrated to imperial units (feet/inches etc. Fuel Cock to Full 5.The following section looks at the fighter aircraft in B-17 Flying Fortress ‘The Mighty Eighth’.
Left click and hold Engine Engage switch until left engine starts Left engine should start. Watch RPM. Wait 6 seconds 7. Watch RPM. Click Right Engine Starter Switch 12. Both Magnetos to BOTH (3 Clicks) 3. Whilst holding Starter wait 6 seconds 8. 8. Throttles to ZERO 10. Left click starter switch and wait ‘till engine starts Engine starts automatically. Throttles to 10% 8. Twin-engine/jet Aircraft Controls P-38 Startup Sequence 1. Depress Left and Right RPM Scale indicator buttons 3. Throttles to 10% 14. Mainline Switch to ON 2. 7.7. Mainline Switch to ON 2. Left click Engine Starter 6. Magnetos to M1+2 3. Wait 6 seconds 10. Lift Right Starter Cover 11. Right click and hold Engine Engage switch until right engine starts Right engine should start. Click Left Engine Starter Switch 6. Right Fuel Cock to Full 120 . 9. 11. FW-190 Startup Sequence 1. Mainline switch to ON 2. Throttles to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. Fuel Mixture levers to one third 5. Left Fuel Cock to Full Left engine should start. When Revs hit 800 hit Left Engine Starter button. Throttle to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. Throttles to ZERO (Use Controller or Keys) 4. When Revs hit 800 hit Right Engine Starter button. Whilst STILL holding Starter right click and hold to start engine Engine should start. Right click Engine Starter 9. Fuel Mixture levers to Full Me-262 Startup Sequence 1. Lift Left Starter cover 5. Lift Starter cover 5. 13.
the needle shows the direction the nose of your aircraft is flying in. the dark part will show more. South is 180 and West is 270.500 feet above sea level. Airspeed Indicator This registers the speed of the airplane in relation to the air around it shown in miles or kilometres per hour. German aircraft dials are calibrated in metres. Engine rpm is useful when you want to perform a manoeuvre that requires a certain amount of engine power such as climbing or pulling out of a steep dive. Altimeter This shows you how far above sea level you are. the long needle hundreds of feet. 121 . a lower airspeed gives you better control of horizontal movement but less power for climbing. or attitude indicator. So if the short needle in on 3 and the long needle on 5 you will be 3.Right engine should start. Generally. Airspeed must stay above a specific minimum for each aircraft to keep it in the air. This engine power indicator is relative to the amount of throttle and in level flight can give you a rough guide on how much throttle you have on but this is not exact. over land the height of land is not adjusted so if you are flying over a 1000 foot mountain at an altitude of 1500 feet you will actually only be 500 feet from the ground. If you are banking or rolling it will be at an angle. the light part will cover more of the gauge. Headings are numbered 0 to 360 with the indicator moving clockwise. in a dive. This is not an absolute altitude so it’s only correct if flying over the ocean. Throttles to Zero 16. The short needle registers thousands of feet. magnetic direction indicator. East is 90. Tachometer The tachometer measures the rpm of the aircraft engine. This is important in poor visibility when you can’t see the actual horizon. Due North is either 0 or 360. is a floating ball that shows your airplane’s relation to the surface of the Earth. Bear in mind that this dial represents the natural horizon but will NOT take into account irregularities on the surface such as mountains. Artificial Horizon The artificial horizon. In a climb. In level flight the indicator will be centred and flat. Click on Left and Right RPM Scale Indicator buttons Compass A simple. 15.
Note: A drop in manifold pressure is an indicator of engine damage. Fuel Gauge This shows how much fuel is left in the tanks. When all the oil has leaked out the engine will seize up completely and stop working. A loss of oil pressure will mean that you have developed a fault or your engine(s) or have been damaged by enemy fire. you are climbing. When the engine is warm the indicator should hover around the centre of the dial. 122 . Fighter Controls Cockpit Views Instrument Snap Snap View (Toggle) CTRL + I CTRL + P The Snap View Toggle goes through three states. If the needle is above the centreline. or staying aloft with a damaged engine can cause temperature to rise. Eject Drop Tanks – CTRL + D Manifold Pressure Gauge This is an approximate measure of the air pressure inside the engine and is used in conjunction with the tachometer to give you an idea of how much horsepower you have available to you. In the first state the look-around keys snap to Quarter views around the cockpit. Performing combat manoeuvres. Engine Temperature Gauge The engine temperature gauge shows the operating temperature of the aircraft engine. If an engine temperature reaches dangerous levels it will cease to function. Manifold pressure will lower as you climb reflecting the decrease in ambient air pressure. Rate of Climb Indicator This lets you know how quickly your altitude is changing. if it’s below you are diving (or falling). The level in your ‘main’ tank is shown by the needle on the dial. In the second state the look-around keys pan around the virtual cockpit. Though you can get this information from the altimeter.Oil Pressure Gauge This shows the pumping pressure of the oil that lubricates the aircraft engine. the ROC will give you an at-a-glance indication. so at higher altitudes you will tend to get a little less power for the same amount of throttle. allowing the player to use the mouse pointer to interact with the cockpit controls. running the engines without oil. If external drop tanks are fitted there may also be a secondary reserve needle. Scales will vary but the marks on the dial show the number of feet (or metres) per minute.
General Control Keys Remember that most B-17 control keys will also control the fighters. At some point in your B-17 mission you will receive a message that fighters have scrambled. For example.In the third state the mouse pointer disappears and you can look around the cockpit using the mouse. Pilot Helper (toggle) Select Engine (s) Start Selected Engine Parking Brake Off Wheel Brakes Off Rudder Left Rudder Right Throttle Open H Q (W) A Shift + P Delete B N = 123 . Select Engine key Q (for one engine craft) and Q/W for two engine craft. Sidewinder®-type joysticks will have button equivalents for all flight controls (see Player Options – Controls – for details) and if you have a joystick fitted the simulation will default to that method of control. US fighters German fighters You can choose to jump to the fighters at any point but for this brief guide we will jump into the fighter pilot seat when the aircraft is still on the ground and the pilot has just received instructions. Appropriate view keys all still apply (F2 external camera views etc). Fighters are located in their own airfields and will be asked to perform escort duties when a mission is set up or if Luftwaffe will be scrambled to intercept the bomber force. Check with the external pop-up menu to see which aircraft groups are currently accessible to you. This means that there are fighters accessible to you to fly. Take Offs The same basic principles to B-17 bomber take off apply for take off (see earlier Flying School) and here is a list of the most useful keyboard keys.
Luftwaffe Your main aim is to slow down (or stop) the bombing force by shooting down as many bombers as possible. Padlock Targeting Controls Padlock Nearest Enemy Padlock Nearest B-17 Padlock Nearest Airfield Padlock Target Nearest Centre of View Clear/Restore Padlock View Y CTRL + Y SHIFT + Y U SHIFT + U Combat Your armaments will vary depending on the fighter you are flying but the controls are very simple: look through the sight and FIRE! 124 . You must try to avoid early air combat because you will have to eject your drop tanks to manoeuvre effectively.[ Navigation to Target Escort Fighters Your main task is to find your B-17 squadron and stay close to them throughout the mission. Changing Fighters You can jump in to fly other fighters in the squadron by simply selecting them. The bomber will be much slower than you so you must learn to zig-zag or circle above the formation so that they can stay with you. You can also achieve your aims by attacking the escort fighters and diverting them from their defensive job so that other Luftwaffe fighters can attack the bombing formation.] Jump to previous fighter (in sequence) – Open Square Bracket . Jump to next fighter (in sequence) – Close Square Bracket .Throttle Close Left Steering Brake Right Steering Brake Tail Wheel Lock On Flaps Up External View Cockpit View Landing Gear Up Cockpit View Instrument Snap Snap View B N T F F2 F1 Up Arrow CTRL + I CTRL + P All Trim Controls still apply (see Flight School).
your engine will be quickly starved of fuel. Each fighter squadron has three or four flights stepped down behind the lead flight so that all can keep an eye on the leader. This means that the fighters have to stay with the bombing force as long as possible. Flights are kept 150 feet apart with individual aircraft 40 feet from each other. fuel mixtures.Machine Guns Cannons Eject Drop Tanks ’ ’ CTRL + D Note: If you drop the Drop Tanks whilst your aircraft is using them. Landings are conducted in the same way as shown in the Flying School (above). Landings Escort Fighters You must return with the bombers and then access Padlock View of the Nearest Airfield (SHIFT + Y). The quickest way to resolve this is to quickly transfer to automatic control – the AI will switch to the appropriate tank. Pilot Helper (toggle) Landing Gear (lower) Flaps Down Throttle Open Throttle Close Left Steering Brake Right Steering Brake Tail Wheel Lock Off Wheel Brakes On Parking Brake On H SHIFT + Up Arrow SHIFT + F = B N SHIFT + T Insert P THE FIGHTER ESCORT The task of the fighter escort squadrons is to give the heavy bombers maximum protection to and from their target. This follows for any manual changes to the controls. This is most useful if you manually set the throttle. due to the added complexity of that aircraft’s systems. etc on a fighter and want everything controlled from the throttle again. Switching quickly between Manual and Auto assigns the controls back to the AI. Note: This only applies to Fighters. Luftwaffe Press SHIFT + Y to get a padlock view of the nearest airfield and follow this until the airfield is in view. B-17 controls are passed back to the AI by right clicking the mouse. 125 .
000ft* 275 – 350 miles (2.The escort fighters weave or orbit so that they can stay in touch with the slower bombers. P-38 Lightnings and the P-47 Thunderbolts immediately turn on their long distance drop tanks. while the P-51 Mustang uses up about 30 gallons from its main tanks to maintain balance before turning to wing drop tanks.As soon as they achieve formation. another squadron also split and takes up position above and about a mile away on either side of the formation. P-38 Lightning Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engines: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: * Models H to J Lockheed Long range fighter/bomber/single-seater 37’ 10" Length. The last squadron climbs 4000 feet directly above the force and ten miles into the sun. trying to anticipate the standard enemy fighter strategy of diving out of the sun’s glare. Pilots have to avoid any supplementary combat activity because this will mean that the long distance drop tanks have to be jettisoned and the bomber fleet abandoned. the tactics depends on the individual aircraft’s performance. On rendezvous with the bombers three fighter squadrons are allocated to each combat wing. The main fighter combat tactic used by both sides is to use the sun’s glare to achieve surprise in diving attacks. 52’ 0" Span 2 Allison V-1710s-89/91 402 – 414mph* 250 – 320mph* 40 – 44.50 calibre Browning machine guns 1 nose mounted 20mm Hispano cannon 126 . One squadron is divided and positioned ahead and above the bombers. turning into an enemy. tightening a turn to get behind him.260 miles with drop tanks)* 4 nose-mounted . But as in all things. rolling away and diving to escape a dangerous situation.
50 calibre Browning machine guns Often referred to as the ‘Jug’ by its pilots. Single-seater 36’ 1" Length. then head for the clouds.000ft 275 – 315 miles* 8 wing-mounted . due to technical difficulties. the other engine could easily support it. The Lightning was difficult to destroy – if one engine was taken out.000 feet. This fighter is most vulnerable when alone. try to exploit the P-38s manoeuvrability – ditch the bogey with a series of sharp turns. it did not achieve its intended role. P-47 Thunderbolt Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engine: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: * Models C to D Republic Aviation Corporation Fighter/Fighter – bomber. the P-47 was designed around the new Pratt & Witney R-2800 Double Wasp 2000 hp radial engine – the most powerful at the time. so try to avoid one on one dogfights. 40’ 9" Span Pratt & Witney R-2800 Double Wasp 419 – 436mph* 210 – 275mph* 41. However. The P-38 did however perform well when used as a tactical fighter-bomber. it had the range. The P-38 also proved itself competent for long-range escort and reconnaissance missions and was an effective aircraft for ground support. At low altitude the P-38 could manoeuvre well against the best of the German fighters and was often referred to as the ‘Twin-Tailed Devil’ by the German pilots. the heavy armament and could carry a heavy bomb load. If an enemy gets on your tail.The P-38 Lightning was the first American fighter to be designed as a long-range. Try to work with a wingman. It was also equipped with a turbo supercharger that gave full power even at an altitude of 30. using hit and run strategy. 127 . high-altitude interceptor. The P-38 will not perform well in a dive because of severe tail buffeting.
37’ 0" Span Packard Rolls-Royce Merlin V-1650-3/7* 439 – 437mph* 210 – 320mph* 42. Use this feature to regain height rapidly – once you lose momentum from the dive. When threatened in combat. the Mustang began life with an Allison engine as an underpowered. But when it had the Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 engine installed it was transformed into an excellent high altitude escort fighter. Entering service in 1944 this was an aircraft that became the vital lifeline for US bomber crews throughout the rest of the war. With a pair of drop tanks. Flying the Thunderbolt. the Mustang could escort from England to anywhere in Germany. The P-47’s main weakness is its poor rate of climb but this is more than compensated for by its first class diving ability. The aircraft also served as a low altitude fighter-bomber making use of its heavy firepower and its ability to sustain heavy damage. straight ascent. P-51 Mustang Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engine: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: * Models B to D North American Aviation Fighter/Single-seater 32’ 3" Length. 128 . and then drop sharply away.50 calibre Browning machine guns Considered by many to be the best fighter of the war.allowing the P-47 to outperform all German fighters at high altitude. take comfort in the fact that the P-47 can take a lot of punishment before it gives up the ghost. your best defence is to initiate the attack.000ft 450 miles (750 miles on drop tanks) 4 – 6* wing-mounted . if all else fails and you can’t shake off an attacker. low-altitude attack aircraft. climb in gentle turns and not in a steep. Use the plane’s superior speed and the quickness of its dive to make a pass at an enemy.
State of the art innovations such as beacons and radio stations were developed to help night flights and the Spanish Civil War was used as a proving ground to test out the new planes and strategies. Note: B-17s on a bombing run don’t have much room to manoeuvre so take advantage at that point. When the war began Germany was the most advanced power in aviation in the world. The Merlin engine gives you the power for quick. Use your speed advantage to the fullest and never give the pilot a chance to turn on you while you’re in range. Sweep in. The thing to remember is that you can’t approach a bomber like you would a fighter. taking more ‘kills’ than any other plane. slow targets and are easy to gain advantage over. The Germans did not build warplanes in the 1920s but they did organise the personnel and facilities that would slot in when they did. easy to hit and easy to underestimate. the Luftwaffe. now with the advent of the Chin turret. State funded flying and gliding clubs (military aviation was banned under the Treaty of Versailles at the end of WW1) were to be a fertile source of many future pilots and. steep climbs and the Mustang has the firepower to take care of any situation. fire as many rounds as possible into the fuselage and tear off to line up another pass. Civilian aircraft models were designed that could easily be converted into a military function. Beware that the P-51’s guns can jam during tight turns (the ammo belts cause the gun breech to block). Germany entered with a decided edge in technology and aerial combat skills. You do not want to wind up directly behind a B-17 – he’s got a tail gunner waiting for you for that very moment. It’s also very vulnerable to enemy ground fire due to an easily punctured cooling system. plus it’s accurate and stable in a dive.With its vast range. great manoeuvrability and a speed no other fighter can beat. Germany has always been a leader in military aviation technology and during the 1920s and 1930s the country was consumed with a passion for flight. and began full-scale production of warplanes. Before the G appeared the best position was nose on. on the advent of war in 1939. In 1935. Attacking the Bombers Bombers are really big. the P-51 is the shining star of the USAAF. it’s a little more difficult although it can still be a profitable position. The Luftwaffe From the earliest days of combat flight. the German government announced the formation of a new air force. 129 .
it showed marked superiority to its opponents in almost every aspect. it reacts quickly to the slightest command and can climb and dive with ease. giving excellent visibility. FW-190 Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engine: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau Fighter/Single-seater 8.400m – 12. outturn and out climb anything it encountered. with luck. you can sometimes use the bombers’ firepower to your advantage: head towards a bomber.000m (37.372’)* 266km – 282km (165 – 175 miles)* 2 cowling mounted 13mm MG131 cannon 2 wing-mounted (inner) 20mm Mauser MG151 cannon (A8 only) 2 wing-mounted (outer) 20mm Mauser MG151 cannon * Models A8 .5m (34’ 5") Span BMW 801D/Jumo 213A* 654km/h – 685km/h* (408 – 426mph*) 480km/h – 518km/h* (298 – 321mph*) 11. Heavily armed with four 20mm cannons and two machine guns this proved to be the Allied bombers’ most feared adversary. In flight. an unequalled rate of roll and easy take offs and landings.The toughest part about attacking a bomber is getting through the escort – if you run into a heavily escorted formation of bombers while being chased by an enemy fighter. take a few shots and turn away. 130 . some anxious gunners will hit your tailing fighter before identifying it.403’ – 39. The FW 190 could outrun.24m* (29’0" – 33’ 5"*) Length.8m – 10. The FW-190 is a great fighter to fly. When the first version entered service in 1941. However the later models were mainly intended for bomber interception and so carried more firepower and armour making them considerably heavier and less manoeuvrable. 10.D9 The Focke-Wulf 190 is thought to be Germany’s best fighter of the war.
9. 131 . compact shape and superior handling make this an excellent fighter for medium altitudes.The improved turning of the D models.100’ – 41.9m – 9. If you are attacked in a turn you can use your superior rate of roll to flick over into a dive.000’)* 200km – 240km (125 – 150 miles)* 1 engine-mounted 30mm MK108 cannon 2 cowling-mounted 13mm MG131 cannon 2 gondola mounted 20mm Cannon *Models E4 – G6 – K4 The Messerschmitt Bf-109 served as the Luftwaffe’s standard singleseater fighter from 1936 to the end of the war.000m – 12.500m (36.05m* (28’4" – 29’ 8"*) Length.8m – 9. then turning and diving towards the approaching targets and levelling out at the last minute. Against the US heavy bombers you must employ a frontal assault strategy by flying high and fast to gain position ahead and above. Bf-109 (Me-109) Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engine: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: Messerschmitt Fighter/Single-seater 8. Quicker. It was not an easy plane to fly. impressive armament.92m* (32’ 4" – 32’ 7") Span Daimler-Benz DB 601N 570km/h – 727km/h* (354 – 450mph*) 483km/h – 590km/h* (300 – 366mph*) 11. firepower and armour. it had weak landing gear and high wing loading but it benefited from a capacity to take on technological developments to increase engine power. completely outclassing all pre-1935 rivals. lighter and more stable than many of its contemporaries this was a very tough aircraft but was always a nightmare to fly. Timed right you’ll get about 15 seconds to fire before you are forced to dive away. It was the forerunner of all modern combat fighters.
12. When it did appear. Use its speed and renown durability to escape from difficult situations. It could rip through bomber formations and turn well at high speed.560’) 241km (150 miles) 2 fuselage-mounted 30mm MK108 cannon (above nose) 2 fuselage-mounted 30mm MK108 cannon (below nose) The first combat jet aircraft to be actively used in World War 2.and to fire from below hitting the coolant reservoirs. it was a stunning success. requiring a delicate balance between elevators.From take off to landing you have to fight for control as it pulls to the right. the Me-262 was faster than anything the Allies could put into the sky in 1944. the scarcity of fuel and German failure to recognise its full combat potential at an early stage. A useful strategy for a Bf-109 pilot is to take advantage of the negative-g roll that leaves Spitfires and Hurricanes shooting at air. in October 1944. However it’s a plane that is vulnerable to deflection attacks –the armour is 4 feet behind the pilot’s seat . However. 132 . out-performing any pursuing escort fighter. rudder and throttle on take off.448m (37.5m (41’ 0") Span 2 Junkers Jumo 109-004B-4 turbojets 868km/h (540mph) 670km/h (416mph) 11. its development and widespread use was stifled by the lack of competent pilots. Landings are also perilous because the 109 does not respond well to last minute corrections and may crash when approach speed is too low. This is made doubly difficult by a high ground angle that makes visibility in taxiing extremely limited. Me-262 Built by: Aircraft Type: Dimensions: Engine: Max Speed: Cruise Speed: Ceiling: Combat Radius: Fixed Weapons: Messerschmitt Fighter/Single-seater 10.6m (34’9") Length.
then computes the time the shells will take to get there (to help set the fuses). direction and speed.000 feet ceiling. An Optical Director uses a mechanical computer to work out the range of the airplane. if it’s flying level and at a constant speed. The fired shells are detonated by a clockwork time fuse and are lethal within 30 metres and will cause severe damage within 200 metres.Heavy bomber gunners did not have time to aim. Flak Effective flak coverage generally covers an area the size of a dome 75. These ‘domes’ ideally are placed to overlap and combine to form an almost continuous coverage over a target area. Unfortunately.000 feet vertical height around each AAA emplacement. An AAA gunner doesn’t simply shoot shells at random hoping you’ll fly through them.5 miles. the elevation and azimuth of each gun in the firing battery. direction and relative velocity of the target. the Me-262 pilots were also unused to combat at such high speeds and often chose to slow down for the actual attack (and it was then that they were most vulnerable to conventional bomber defences). let alone fire. Beware that the Me-262 is slow to accelerate and not very manoeuvrable. Since these shells aren’t self-propelled they can take quite a while to cover the distance – so every shell that’s flying towards you was aimed several seconds ago based on your current altitude. and even the fastest Allied fighter was left behind.000 feet horizontal radius and 40.000 feet and in that time a B-17 could travel 1. 133 . The main AAA gun was the 88mm Flak 36 with a slant range of 8226 metres and a 20. Every time a round is fired he’s calculated a firing solution based on altitude. A flak shell could take over 25 seconds to reach a height of 25. Allied pilots may try to attack you when you are most vulnerable – during take off and landing.
This trailer contains ten M-43 500 lb general-purpose bombs. They arrive with the bomb loads on service trucks that are positioned under the aircraft. He opens the door to the bomb bay. He switches on the bombardier’s panel and opens the bomb bay doors by moving the first of two levers. then removes the canvas windshield cover as the duty mechanic removes the canvas wraps from the engine cowling.The Bombing Mission 4am. The fuses have a small propeller-like vane that rotates as the bomb drops and arms the bomb. Each plane crew has an auxiliary petrol driven generator called a ‘putt-putt’ giving them the extra power they require to save them draining the aircrafts’ batteries. Now it’s the turn of the ordnance crew. 134 . The tail fins are screwed on and the nose and tail fuses carefully fitted into each bomb. walks along the catwalk and sits in the bomb aimer’s seat in the nose of the craft. He checks that the red warning light has come on. The squadron armaments officer appears and climbs into one of the B-17s. The sound of heavy trucks on the move can be heard across the slowly awakening base. The ordnance crew attach shackles from the B-17’s racks to two lugs on each bomb and the bombs are then winched into the bay and positioned on their correct station. For now the device is made safe by a securing wire that will later be removed after take off. Ordnance crews are in the process of collecting bombs from the ‘dump’. all marked with two yellow bands front and back (showing that they contain TNT. The chief checks the operation of the bomb bay doors from the outside. He sets ‘selective’ then switches on the ‘intervalometer’ to set the bomb drop intervals and tests the bomb shackles and electric firing solenoids by pressing the bomb release located on top of the panel. just below the bomb bay. Test lights flash back at him as he switches the lever from ‘salvo’ (emergency drop of bombs) to ‘lock’. The chief engineer and his ground crew have been awake for several hours and are at work on the aircraft chosen for today’s mission. then moves the second lever to one of three positions.
They are carrying their flight bags and parachute packs. The tanks are self-sealing ‘Tokyo tanks’ constructed from a rubber composite divided up into 18 small cells.50 calibre machine guns are loaded onto the aircraft and installed. The B-17G has a maximum capacity of 2. He starts number one engine. Another truck now appears and begins to unload ten wooden boxes of 0. The ranks and crew positions in this aircraft are: Pilot/Captain Co-Pilot Right Waist Gunner First Lieutenant Flight Officer Staff Sergeant 135 .000 and 30. that enables the 1.50-calibre ammo into the rear fuselage door. The flight crew arrive just as the last major checks are being completed.000 feet. is inspected and the prop pitch controls are checked.Meanwhile the ground crew are ‘pre-flighting’ the B-17. Finally. The 0. The chief performs his own set of checks: he turns on the battery and ignition switches and ensures that the terminals on the voltage connectors are not shorting. each weighing 64 lb sand capable of firing 750 rounds per minute at a maximum range of 3. everything that was reported faulty from the previous day’s mission is checked again.200 hp engines to run at full power between 20. wearing olive coveralls. the pressure checked and the throttle set to 1000 rpm. The fuel booster pump is turned on.780 US gallons with five filling points on each wing between the two engines. The oxygen supplies are now checked: 18 light metal bottles.000 feet. each one allowing five hours supply to a man at a maximum of 30.500 feet. The turbo supercharging system. then the other three in sequence. The fuel tanks are now topped up. The tyres are now inspected and any small oil leaks from the engines are checked for signs of deterioration. heavy brown sheepskin jackets and trousers. The prop blades are pulled and turned through three complete revolutions to remove any excess fuel that may have seeped through the system overnight. Each magazine holds 365 rounds.
the parking brake and the tail wheel lock turned off.Left Waist Gunner Ball Turret Gunner Tail Gunner Bombardier/Togglier Navigator Radio Operator Engineer/Top Turret Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant Second Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Technical Sergeant Technical Sergeant The crew now perform their own set of checks and confirm that they are all in position using their throat microphones. The B-17 begins to taxi and joins the other bombers in a pre-set pattern at the edge of the take off runway. generators and fuel booster pumps as the captain waits for the double flash of green light from the black and white chequered runway control van. The generators are turned on.500 rpm to clear out any muck from the spark plugs and all the while the tail gunner keeps an eye on the plane behind. Final checks are made to gyros. When the aircraft gets to the edge of the 1.25-mile long runway it waits with the other members of the squadron and a ‘take-off check’ is performed. the altimeter is set to the aerodrome height above sea level and the ‘chocks’ that sit in front of the tyres are signalled away. He locks the tail wheel to ‘on’ to keep the B-17 straight during its run. The engines are started up. The captain swings the aircraft into position just after the plane in front begins to take off on the 150-foot wide runway. the turbo-superchargers tested. The pilot has the task of keeping the 30 tons of aircraft on the tarmac whilst not being able to see directly ahead. elevators and rudder trim tabs controls are zeroed. He steers by watching the edge of the tarmac paths through a cockpit side window and tries not to overuse the brakes for fear of burning out the brake linings. 136 . in case it gets closer than the standard 30 yards. Aileron. wing flaps raised and the prop pitch control tested. The engines are revved up to 1.
137 . The captain releases the footbrake and selects the correct manifold pressure and opens the throttles. At 100mph. The aircraft should now be climbing at about 300 feet per minute and flying through any overcast to assemble in formation above the clouds. Lead aircraft fire different coloured flares at 10.The controller looks through the glass roof of the van and signals with an Aldis lamp. packed full of bombs and fuel.000 feet to give a visual check for other pilots. At the ‘indicated air speed’ (IAS) if 150mph. This is an anxious time for most of the crew as the plane.300 by adjusting the propeller pitch controls. The captain’s next task is to assemble in formation with the other aircraft of the squadron (as requested by orders). Squadrons have to be built into Groups. A radio compass is used that works with short range radio beacons in selected location. This is the time when there is the greatest risk of collision with another aircraft in the Group. climbs slowly and builds up speed. The process is slow because everyone has to keep up with everyone else.500 to 2. Above 10. the captain throttles back and reduces the rpm from 2. The two waist gunners wear electrically heated flying suits under their sheepskins but the rest of the crew have warm air ducts that channel heat to their stations. Groups have to be built into Wings and Combat Wings into Divisional Columns.000 feet the crew have to go to oxygen and the heating is fully operational. the aircraft takes off and the pilot eases up on the control column and raises the landing gear. trying to time the take offs at one-minute intervals. A Morse call sign (called a ‘Buncher’ signal) is transmitted and the bomber receives it via a small loop aerial located under the nose section.
The navigator.000 feet the aircraft climbs at 200 feet per minute.000 feet the Ball Turret gunner reports contrails (gases from the hot engine exhaust meeting the frozen air in areas of high humidity producing condensation trails). above 19. The formation levels off at 21. The captain looks at the Airspeed Indicator. even though they are travelling in formation. worn like body armour made of overlapping thin steel plates inside canvas aprons. He knows this is not the true airspeed (about 206mph) because working on atmospheric pressure the AI reading reduces with increased altitude. The gunners in the B-17 look all around their field of fire re-assured by the sight of the zigzagging ‘little friends’ 6. which registers 150mph. They know the German radar and listening posts will have been tracking them for the last hour and the enemy defence controllers will be trying to guess their mission objectives.000 feet. about a minute to get out of the turret and put his ‘chute’ on – a long time in a crashing bomber! At 13. If something happens to the B-17 it would take him. Over the enemy coast. looking down at five miles of sky without the comfort of a parachute (there’s no room for it). at the same time the arming pins are removed from the 10 bombs in the bay. 138 .000 feet above them – P-47s fitted with long distance drop tanks. He has to spend about five hours curled up. The guns are loaded and test fired about 30 miles off the English coast.The ball turret gunner is the last to get into position because the turret is very cramped and always assigned to someone of a small build. the crew put on their cumbersome flak suits. with help. keeps an accurate track of their position using his ‘Gee’ box.
Then the flak begins to burst in little black clouds around the bomber formation. The formation reaches the initial point: the selected point over which the bomber force will begin its turn to make its bomb run on the target. 100 miles from home. The combat wing leader tells his radio operator to send a ‘target bombed’ message to HQ. The bombardier opens the bomb doors and flips open the safety lever on the bomb release. The group hope to bomb a compact area 500 by 250 yards. a red flare is fired and the bombs are released. the cloud cover is too thick (undercast) and the leading aircraft from the Pathfinder Force will mark the target using their H2X ground scanning radar sets. rearmost and therefore most exposed flight in the formation. The immediate weight loss makes the formation speed up to about 160 IAS (224mph) as it heads for the designated rally point. The leading Combat Wing approaches the bombing run. the radio operator switches on IFF (identification friend or foe) to warn friendly bases of the force passing above them. He doesn’t have a bombsight and is waiting for the bomb leader to drop his bombs. The ball-turret gunner confirms that the bombs have been released. the bomb bay is checked to see that all bombs have dropped and the doors are then shut. During the mission the B-17 can identify itself to friendly aircraft by firing coloured flares on a pre-set code or by flashing the correct mission code with an Aldis lamp. Flak intensifies and squadrons of enemy fighters sweep through the formations firing at ‘purple heart corner’ – the lowest. There are fourminute intervals between Wings. 139 . The rally point is a known area out of range of known flak batteries – a place where the squadron can reform into defensive combat wing formations. Flares are fired to give visual confirmation. When the lead bombardier is lined up on the Pathfinders’ smoke markers. Today.
A truck now appears to collect the flight crew and take them directly to the briefing room.000 feet the crew are told they can come off oxygen. After these. ‘Mae Wests’. The pilot fills in form 1A to report any flight problems and damage sustained on the mission. An Ops officer lists any important items of news that has to be acted upon immediately (aircraft in trouble. those with casualties turn off the runway as soon as possible to be intercepted by awaiting ambulances. The other bombers use their two outside engines to taxi directly to their airfield dispersal points. inspect the aircraft and pack their flight bags. The flight crew gets out of the B-17. flying control picks up radio signals from the formation approaching the base. personal equipment is handed in (parachutes. Aircraft land at about 20 second intervals. making them ready for collection by the ammunition crews. they have sorted themselves out into priority landings (with damage and/or casualties). The duty clerk informs the MPs. The Ops officer is already waiting at the tower. oxygen masks. Back at home base. the order of landing is lowest altitude squadrons first. The gunners remove the guns and begin to clean them. As the bombers appear. planes ditching in the sea and important enemy activity. flying suits. ambulance and fire tender crews of the arrival time. Here. 140 . etc) and the crew get something to eat.The aircraft now drops 500 feet per minute and once below 10. stretch their legs. Home base is informed of their estimated time of arrival and all activity at the airfields is governed by these times.
one interrogating officer per crew. will want to sleep. The process takes upwards of one hour forty-five minutes. An assessment of the results of the bombing is analysed at Division HQ and the loss to the enemy is calculated. Pictures taken from strike cameras are studied in the Group Operations and Intelligence rooms as soon as they have been processed. The Group strike pattern on target is plotted and a detailed report sent to Wing and Division. Claims by gunners for the number and type of aircraft shot down are then reviewed and compared in order to avoid doubling up. 141 . Meanwhile. Most. weather over the target. fighter escort. If necessary. Lead bomber crews are interrogated further with more detailed questions. They know that they might be called upon to fly again in a few hours time. the target is put back on a priority list for future attack. Navigators hand in their flight logs and along with bombardiers.When all is ready the crews are interrogated. write up their own specific reports. shattered by the fatigue of combat. lost aircraft and any other observations. He asks a standard set of questions encompassing all aspects of the mission such as enemy fighter numbers. the ground crew is back at work patching up the aircraft and maintaining each bomber ready for another combat mission tomorrow morning. When the crews are dismissed truck take then to the mess hall or back to their barracks. flak locations.
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